Rafael, Benoliel; Sorin, Teich; Eli, Eliav
This article discusses neuropathic pain of traumatic origin affecting the trigeminal nerve. This syndrome has been termed painful traumatic trigeminal neuropathy by the International Headache Society and replaces atypical odontalgia, deafferentation pain, traumatic neuropathy, and phantom toothache. The discussion emphasizes the diagnosis and the early and late management of injuries to the trigeminal nerve and subsequent painful conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nash, T P
Diabetic neuropathy is common in patients with diabetes mellitus, and 7.5% of diabetics experience pain from diabetic neuropathy. Complications of diabetes mellitus are more common where control of the disease is not optimal. By improving the control of the disease, both the neuropathy and the pain it can produce may be improved. The pain of diabetic neuropathy can frequently be controlled using analgesics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, topical capsaicin, and neuromodulation, either alone or in any combination.
Rosenberg, Casandra J; Watson, James C
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. To discuss current treatment recommendations for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Literature review. Systematic review of the literature discussing treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Existing treatment guidelines were studied and compared. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in about one in six people with diabetes. This condition impairs quality of life and increases healthcare costs. Treatment recommendations exist, but individual patient therapy can require a trial-and-error approach. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. Adequate medication titration and a reasonable trial period should be allowed. The treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy can be challenging, but effective management can improve patient's quality of life. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.
Almuhannadi, Hamad; Ponirakis, Georgios; Khan, Adnan; Malik, Rayaz Ahmed
The most common and debilitating microvascular complication of diabetes is diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), affecting 50-90% of people with diabetes. The major manifestations of DPN are painful (pDPN) and painless diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Painful symptoms, occur in the feet and are worse at night and whilst they alert both the patient and physician, are often misdiagnosed and mismanaged. The devastating presentation of painless neuropathy with loss of sensation is foot ulceration and Charcot foot. The explosion of diabetes, especially in the South East Asian (SEA) region will result in an increasing prevalence of both painful and painless diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PubMed, EMBASE, Medline and Google Scholar databases were searched between 1990 and 2017. This highlights the widely varying prevalence of DPN and pDPN in the World Health Organization (WHO) defined SEA countries and the dearth of published studies, especially in pDPN. We believe this will provide new direction for future research on DPN in the SEA region.
Marshall, Andrew G.; Lee-Kubli, Corinne; Azmi, Shazli; Zhang, Michael; Ferdousi, Maryam; Mixcoatl-Zecuatl, Teresa; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Ponirakis, Georgios; Fineman, Mark S.; Fadavi, Hassan; Frizzi, Katie; Tavakoli, Mitra; Jolivalt, Corinne G.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Efron, Nathan; Calcutt, Nigel A.
Impaired rate-dependent depression (RDD) of the Hoffman reflex is associated with reduced dorsal spinal cord potassium chloride cotransporter expression and impaired spinal γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function, indicative of spinal inhibitory dysfunction. We have investigated the pathogenesis of impaired RDD in diabetic rodents exhibiting features of painful neuropathy and the translational potential of this marker of spinal inhibitory dysfunction in human painful diabetic neuropathy. Impaired RDD and allodynia were present in type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats but not in rats with type 1 diabetes receiving insulin supplementation that did not restore normoglycemia. Impaired RDD in diabetic rats was rapidly normalized by spinal delivery of duloxetine acting via 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2A receptors and temporally coincident with the alleviation of allodynia. Deficits in RDD and corneal nerve density were demonstrated in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy compared with healthy control subjects and patients with painless diabetic neuropathy. Spinal inhibitory dysfunction and peripheral small fiber pathology may contribute to the clinical phenotype in painful diabetic neuropathy. Deficits in RDD may help identify patients with spinally mediated painful diabetic neuropathy who may respond optimally to therapies such as duloxetine. PMID:28202580
Liao, Chenlong; Zhang, Wenchuan; Yang, Min; Ma, Qiufeng; Li, Guowei; Zhong, Wenxiang
Objective To investigate the effect of surgical decompression on painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) patients and discuss the role which pain distribution and characterization play in the management of painful DPN as well as the underlying mechanism involved. Methods A total of 306 patients with painful diabetic lower-extremity neuropathy were treated with Dellon surgical nerve decompression in our department. Clinical evaluation including Visual analogue scale (VAS), Brief Pain Inventory Short Form for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (BPI-DPN) questionnaire, two-point discrimination (2-PD), nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and high-resolution ultrasonography (cross-sectional area, CSA) were performed in all cases preoperatively, and at 6 month intervals for 2 years post-decompression. The patients who underwent surgery were retrospectively assigned into two subgroups (focal and diffuse pain) according to the distribution of the diabetic neuropathic pain. The control group included 92 painful DPN patients without surgery. Results The levels of VAS, scores in BPI-DPN, 2-PD, NCV results and CSA were all improved in surgical group when compared to the control group (P<0.05). More improvement of VAS, scores in BPI-DPN and CSA was observed in focal pain group than that in diffuse group (P<0.05). Conclusions Efficacy of decompression of multiple lower-extremity peripheral nerves in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy was confirmed in this study. While both focal and diffuse group could benefit from surgical decompression, pain relief and morphological restoration could be better achieved in focal group. PMID:25290338
Pillay, Prinisha; Wadley, Antonia L; Cherry, Catherine L; Karstaedt, Alan S; Kamerman, Peter R
HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common, and frequently painful complication of HIV, but factors that determine the presence of pain are unresolved. We investigated: (i) if psychological factors associated with painful (n = 125) versus non-painful HIV-SN (n = 72), and (ii) if pain and psychological factors affected quality of life (QoL). We assessed anxiety and depression using the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25. Pain catastrophizing and QoL were assessed using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Euroqol-5D, respectively. Presence of neuropathy was detected using the Brief Neuropathy Screening Tool, and pain was characterised using the Wisconsin Brief Pain Questionnaire. Overall, there was a high burden of pain, depression and anxiety in the cohort. None of the psychological variables associated with having painful HIV-SN. Greater depressive symptoms and presence of pain were independently associated with lower QoL. In those participants with painful HIV-SN, greater depressive symptom scores were associated with increased pain intensity. In conclusion, in a cohort with high background levels of psychological dysfunction, psychological factors do not predict the presence of pain, but both depression and presence of pain are associated with poor quality of life.
Simpson, D. M.; Schifitto, G.; Clifford, D. B.; Murphy, T. K.; Durso-De Cruz, E.; Glue, P.; Whalen, E.; Emir, B.; Scott, G. N.; Freeman, R.
Objective: Pregabalin is effective in several neuropathic pain syndromes. This trial evaluated its efficacy, safety, and tolerability for treatment of painful HIV-associated neuropathy. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial included a 2-week double-blind dose-adjustment (150–600 mg/day BID) phase, a 12-week double-blind maintenance phase, and an optional 3-month open label extension phase. The primary efficacy measure was the mean Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) score, an 11-point numeric rating scale. Secondary measures included Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) and sleep measurements. Results: Baseline mean NPRS score was 6.93 for patients randomized to pregabalin (n = 151) and 6.72 for those to placebo (n = 151). Pregabalin average daily dosage (SD) was 385.7 (160.3) mg/d. At endpoint, pregabalin and placebo showed substantial reductions in mean NPRS score from baseline: −2.88 vs −2.63, p = 0.3941. Pregabalin had greater improvements in NPRS score relative to placebo at weeks 1 (−1.14 vs −0.69, p = 0.0131) and 2 (−1.92 vs −1.43, p = 0.0393), and at weeks 7 (−3.22 vs −2.53 p = 0.0307) and 8 (−3.33 vs −2.53, p = 0.0156). At all other time points, differences between groups were not significant. Sleep measurements and 7-item PGIC did not differ among treatment groups; however, collapsed PGIC scores showed 82.8% of pregabalin and 66.7% of placebo patients rated themselves in 1 of the 3 “improved” categories (p = 0.0077). Somnolence and dizziness were the most common adverse events with pregabalin. Conclusions: Pregabalin was well-tolerated, but not superior to placebo in the treatment of painful HIV neuropathy. Factors predicting analgesic response in HIV neuropathy warrant additional research. Classification of Evidence: This Class II trial showed that pregabalin is not more effective than placebo in treatment of painful HIV neuropathy. GLOSSARY AE = adverse events; ANCOVA = analysis of
Tavakoli, Mitra; Asghar, Omar; Alam, Uazman; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Fadavi, Hassan; Malik, Rayaz A.
Diabetic neuropathy is common, under or misdiagnosed, and causes substantial morbidity with increased mortality. Defining and developing sensitive diagnostic tests for diabetic neuropathy is not only key to implementing earlier interventions but also to ensure that the most appropriate endpoints are employed in clinical intervention trials. This is critical as many potentially effective therapies may never progress to the clinic, not due to a lack of therapeutic effect, but because the endpoints were not sufficiently sensitive or robust to identify benefit. Apart from improving glycaemic control, there is no licensed treatment for diabetic neuropathy, however, a number of pathogenetic pathways remain under active study. Painful diabetic neuropathy is a cause of considerable morbidity and whilst many pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are currently used, only two are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. We address the important issue of the ‘placebo effect’ and also consider potential new pharmacological therapies as well as nonpharmacological interventions in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:23148152
Kim, Joyce H.; Dougherty, Patrick M.; Abdi, Salahadin
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting toxicity of several chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of all the most common malignancies. There are several defined mechanisms of nerve damage that take place along different areas of the peripheral and the central nervous system. Treatment is based on symptom management and there are several classes of medications found to be efficacious in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain that persists despite appropriate pharmacotherapy may respond to interventional procedures that span a range of invasiveness. The purpose of this review article is to examine the basic science of neuropathy and currently available treatment options in the context of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25584767
La Cesa, S; Sammartino, P; Mollica, C; Cascialli, G; Cruccu, G; Truini, A; Framarino-Dei-Malatesta, M
Intercostobrachial neuropathy, often resulting in neuropathic pain, is a common complication of breast cancer surgery. In this 1-year longitudinal study, we aimed at seeking information on the frequency, clinical features, and course of painless and painful intercostobrachial neuropathy. We enrolled 40 women previously undergoing breast cancer surgery. In these patients, we collected, at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery, clinical and quantitative sensory testing (QST) variables to diagnose intercostobrachial neuropathy, DN4 questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory to assess the different neuropathic pain symptoms, the Beck Depression Inventory to assess depressive symptoms, and SF36 to assess quality of life and Patient Global Impression of Change. Clinical and QST examination showed an intercostobrachial neuropathy in 23 patients (57.5%). Out of the 23 patients, five experienced neuropathic pain, as assessed with clinical examination and DN4. Axillary surgery clearance was associated with an increased risk of intercostobrachial neuropathy. Whereas sensory disturbances improved during the 1-year observation, neuropathic pain did not. Nevertheless, Beck Depression Inventory, SF36, and the Patient Global Impression of Change scores significantly improved over time. Our study shows that although intercostobrachial neuropathy is a common complication of breast cancer surgery, neuropathic pain affects only a minor proportion of patients. After 1 year, sensory disturbances partially improve and have only a mild impact on mood and quality of life.
Geber, Christian; Breimhorst, Markus; Burbach, Berenike; Egenolf, Christina; Baier, Bernhard; Fechir, Marcel; Koerber, Juergen; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vogt, Thomas; Birklein, Frank
Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIN) is an adverse effect of chemotherapy. Pain in CIN might comprise neuropathic and nonneuropathic (ie, musculoskeletal) pain components, which might be characterized by pain patterns, electrophysiology, and somatosensory profiling. Included were 146 patients (100 female, 46 male; aged 56 ± 0.8 years) with CIN arising from different chemotherapy regimens. Patients were characterized clinically through nerve conduction studies (NCS) and quantitative sensory testing (QST). Questionnaires for pain (McGill) and anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were supplied. Patients were followed-up after 17 days. Large- (61%) and mixed- (35%) fibre neuropathies were more frequent than small-fibre neuropathy (1.4%). The 5 major chemotherapeutic regimens impacted differently on large- but not on small-fibre function and did not predict painfulness. Chronic pain associated with CIN was reported in 41.7%. Painless and painful CIN did not differ in QST profiles or electrophysiological findings, but different somatosensory patterns were found in CIN subgroups (pain at rest [RestP], n = 25; movement-associated pain [MovP], n = 15; both pain characteristics [MovP+RestP], n = 21; or no pain [NonP], n = 85): small-fibre function (cold-detection threshold, CDT: z score: -1.46 ± 0.21, P < 0.01) was most impaired in RestP; mechanical hyperalgesia was exclusively found in MovP (z score: +0.81 ± 0.30, P < 0.05). "Anxiety" discriminated between painful and painless CIN; "CDT" and "anxiety" discriminated between patients with ongoing (RestP) and movement-associated pain (MovP) or pain components (MovP+RestP). The detrimental effect of chemotherapy on large fibres failed to differentiate painful from painless CIN. Patients stratified for musculoskeletal or neuropathic pain, however, differed in psychological and somatosensory parameters. This stratification might allow for the application of a more specific therapy. Copyright © 2013
Themistocleous, Andreas C.; Ramirez, Juan D.; Shillo, Pallai R.; Lees, Jonathan G.; Selvarajah, Dinesh; Orengo, Christine; Tesfaye, Solomon; Rice, Andrew S.C.; Bennett, David L.H.
Abstract Disabling neuropathic pain (NeuP) is a common sequel of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). We aimed to characterise the sensory phenotype of patients with and without NeuP, assess screening tools for NeuP, and relate DPN severity to NeuP. The Pain in Neuropathy Study (PiNS) is an observational cross-sectional multicentre study. A total of 191 patients with DPN underwent neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsy for intraepidermal nerve fibre density assessment. A set of questionnaires assessed the presence of pain, pain intensity, pain distribution, and the psychological and functional impact of pain. Patients were divided according to the presence of DPN, and thereafter according to the presence and severity of NeuP. The DN4 questionnaire demonstrated excellent sensitivity (88%) and specificity (93%) in screening for NeuP. There was a positive correlation between greater neuropathy severity (r = 0.39, P < 0.01), higher HbA1c (r = 0.21, P < 0.01), and the presence (and severity) of NeuP. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy sensory phenotype is characterised by hyposensitivity to applied stimuli that was more marked in the moderate/severe NeuP group than in the mild NeuP or no NeuP groups. Brush-evoked allodynia was present in only those with NeuP (15%); the paradoxical heat sensation did not discriminate between those with (40%) and without (41.3%) NeuP. The “irritable nociceptor” subgroup could only be applied to a minority of patients (6.3%) with NeuP. This study provides a firm basis to rationalise further phenotyping of painful DPN, for instance, stratification of patients with DPN for analgesic drug trials. PMID:27088890
Penza, Paola; Bricchi, Monica; Scola, Amalia; Campanella, Angela; Lauria, Giuseppe
To investigate the analgesic efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) in patients with chronic painful neuropathy. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain (visual analog scale > 4) for at least 6 months, and stable analgesic medications for at least 3 months. Sixteen patients were randomized into two arms to be treated with EA or pseudo-EA (placebo). The protocol included 6 weeks of treatment, 12 weeks free of treatment, and then further 6 weeks of treatment. EA or pseudo-EA was performed weekly during each treatment period. The primary outcome was the number of patients treated with EA achieving at least 50% of pain relief at the end of each treatment compared with pain intensity at baseline. Secondary outcomes were modification in patient's global impression of change, depression and anxiety, and quality of life. Eleven patients were randomized to EA and five patients to pseudo-EA as the first treatment. Only one patient per group (EA and pseudo-EA) reported 50% of pain relief at the end of each treatment compared with pain intensity at baseline. Pain intensity did not differ between EA (5.7 ± 2.3 at baseline and 4.97 ± 3.23 after treatment) and pseudo-EA (4.9 ± 1.9 at baseline and 4.18 ± 2.69 after treatment). There was no difference between patients who received EA as the first treatment and patients initially treated with placebo. There was no change in the secondary outcomes. Our results do not support the use of EA in this population of painful neuropathy patients. Further studies in larger groups of patients are warranted to confirm our observation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lieber, S; Blankenburg, M; Apel, K; Hirschfeld, G; Hernáiz Driever, P; Reindl, T
Chemotherapy-induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) of large-fibers affects up to 20% of survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We aimed to describe small-fiber toxicity and pain sensitization in this group. In a cross-sectional, bicentric study we assessed 46 survivors of pediatric ALL (Mean age: 5.7 ± 3.5 years at diagnosis, median 2.5 years after therapy; males: 28). ≥6 years of age, ≥3 months after last administration of Vincristine, and cumulative dose of Vincristine 12 mg/m 2 . We used a reduced version of the Pediatric-modified Total Neuropathy Score (Ped-mTNS) as bedside test and Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) for assessment of small- and large-fiber neuropathy as well as pain sensitization. We employed Nerve Conduction Studies (NCS) as the most accurate tool for detecting large-fiber neuropathy. Fifteen survivors (33%) had abnormal rPed-mTNS values (≥4 points) and 5 survivors (11%) reported pain. In QST, the survivor group showed significant (p < 0.001) inferior large-fiber function and pain sensitization when compared to healthy matched peers. We identified deficits of vibration in 33 (72%) and tactile hypoesthesia in 29 (63%), hyperalgesia to blunt pressure in 19 (41%), increased mechanical pain sensitivity in 12 (26%) and allodynia in 16 (35%) of 46 survivors. Only 7 survivors (15%) had pathologic NCS. QST is a sensitive tool that revealed signs of large-fiber neuropathy in two thirds, small-fiber neuropathy and pain sensitization in one third of survivors. Prospective studies using QST in pediatric oncology may help to elucidate the pathophysiology of small-fiber neuropathy and pain sensitization as well as their relevance for quality of survival. Copyright © 2018 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abbott, Caroline A; Malik, Rayaz A; van Ross, Ernest R E; Kulkarni, Jai; Boulton, Andrew J M
To assess, in the general diabetic population, 1) the prevalence of painful neuropathic symptoms; 2) the relationship between symptoms and clinical severity of neuropathy; and 3) the role of diabetes type, sex, and ethnicity in painful neuropathy. Observational study of a large cohort of diabetic patients receiving community-based health care in northwest England (n = 15,692). Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) was assessed using neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and neuropathy disability score (NDS). Prevalence of painful symptoms (NSS ≥5) and PDN (NSS ≥5 and NDS ≥3) was 34 and 21%, respectively. Painful symptoms occurred in 26% of patients without neuropathy (NDS ≤2) and 60% of patients with severe neuropathy (NDS >8). Adjusted risk of painful neuropathic symptoms in type 2 diabetes was double that of type 1 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1 [95% CI 1.7-2.4], P < 0.001) and not affected by severity of neuropathy, insulin use, foot deformities, smoking, or alcohol. Women had 50% increased adjusted risk of painful symptoms compared with men (OR = 1.5 [1.4-1.6], P < 0.0001). Despite less neuropathy in South Asians (14%) than Europeans (22%) and African Caribbeans (21%) (P < 0.0001), painful symptoms were greater in South Asians (38 vs. 34 vs. 32%, P < 0.0001). South Asians without neuropathy maintained a 50% increased risk of painful neuropathy symptoms compared with other ethnic groups (P < 0.0001). One-third of all community-based diabetic patients have painful neuropathy symptoms, regardless of their neuropathic deficit. PDN was more prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes, women, and people of South Asian origin. This highlights a significant morbidity due to painful neuropathy and identifies key groups who warrant screening for PDN.
Yarnitsky, David; Granot, Michal; Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Khamaisi, Mogher; Granovsky, Yelena
This study aims to individualize the selection of drugs for neuropathic pain by examining the potential coupling of a given drug's mechanism of action with the patient's pain modulation pattern. The latter is assessed by the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and temporal summation (TS) protocols. We hypothesized that patients with a malfunctioning pain modulation pattern, such as less efficient CPM, would benefit more from drugs augmenting descending inhibitory pain control than would patients with a normal modulation pattern of efficient CPM. Thirty patients with painful diabetic neuropathy received 1 week of placebo, 1 week of 30 mg/d duloxetine, and 4 weeks of 60 mg/d duloxetine. Pain modulation was assessed psychophysically, both before and at the end of treatment. Patient assessment of drug efficacy, assessed weekly, was the study's primary outcome. Baseline CPM was found to be correlated with duloxetine efficacy (r=0.628, P<.001, efficient CPM is marked negative), such that less efficient CPM predicted efficacious use of duloxetine. Regression analysis (R(2)=0.673; P=.012) showed that drug efficacy was predicted only by CPM (P=.001) and not by pretreatment pain levels, neuropathy severity, depression level, or patient assessment of improvement by placebo. Furthermore, beyond its predictive value, the treatment-induced improvement in CPM was correlated with drug efficacy (r=-0.411, P=.033). However, this improvement occurred only in patients with less efficient CPM (16.8±16.0 to -1.1±15.5, P<.050). No predictive role was found for TS. In conclusion, the coupling of CPM and duloxetine efficacy highlights the importance of pain pathophysiology in the clinical decision-making process. This evaluative approach promotes personalized pain therapy. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lieba-Samal, Doris; van Eijk, Jeroen J J; van Rosmalen, Marieke H J; van Balken, Irene M F; Verrips, Aad; Mostert, Jop; Pillen, Sigrid; van Alfen, Nens
The differential diagnosis of upper extremity mononeuritis multiplex includes neuralgic amyotrophy, vasculitic neuropathy, and Lewis-Sumner syndrome. We describe 3 patients initially suspected of neuralgic amyotrophy, who had an extremely painful, protracted, progressive disease course, not fitting one of these established diagnoses. Nerve ultrasonography showed focal caliber changes of the roots, plexus, and limb nerves. Electromyography showed predominant multifocal axonopathy. Ongoing autoimmune neuropathy was suspected. Steroid treatment provided temporary relief, and intravenous immunoglobulin A sustained pain decrease and functional improvement. These patients appear to have extremely painful axonal inflammatory neuropathy, with a good response to immune-modulating treatment. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Wadhawan, Samir; Pant, Saumya; Golhar, Ryan; Kirov, Stefan; Thompson, John; Jacobsen, Leslie; Qureshi, Irfan; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Freeman, Roy; Simpson, David M.; Smith, A. Gordon; Hoke, Ahmet
Objective: To examine the incidence of nonsynonymous missense variants in SCN9A (NaV1.7), SCN10A (NaV1.8), and SCN11A (NaV1.9) in patients with painful and nonpainful peripheral neuropathy. Methods: Next-generation sequencing was performed on 457 patient DNA samples provided by the Peripheral Neuropathy Research Registry (PNRR). The patient diagnosis was as follows: 278 idiopathic peripheral neuropathy (67% painful and 33% nonpainful) and 179 diabetic distal polyneuropathy (77% painful and 23% nonpainful). Results: We identified 36 (SCN9A), 31 (SCN10A), and 15 (SCN11A) nonsynonymous missense variants, with 47.7% of patients carrying a low-frequency (minor allele frequency <5%) missense variant in at least 1 gene. The incidence of previously reported gain-of-function missense variants was low (≤3%), and these were detected in patients with and without pain. There were no significant differences in missense variant allele frequencies of any gene, or SCN9A haplotype frequencies, between PNRR patients with painful or nonpainful peripheral neuropathy. PNRR patient SCN9A and SCN11A missense variant allele frequencies were not significantly different from the Exome Variant Server, European American (EVS-EA) reference population. For SCN10A, there was a significant increase in the alternate allele frequency of the common variant p.V1073A and low-frequency variant pS509P in PNRR patients compared with EVS-EA and the 1000 Genomes European reference populations. Conclusions: These results suggest that identification of a genetically defined subpopulation for testing of NaV1.7 inhibitors in patients with peripheral neuropathy is unlikely and that additional factors, beyond expression of previously reported disease “mutations,” are more important for the development of painful neuropathy than previously discussed. PMID:29264398
Warner, Nafisseh S; Watson, James C; Bendel, Markus A; Moeschler, Susan M
Systemic amyloidosis is a disease that often involves multiple organ systems, including the peripheral nervous system. Patients may present with severe, refractory neuropathic pain; however, the optimal treatment approach for pain for these patients remains unclear. A man with severe, refractory neuropathic pain in his bilateral upper and lower extremities and the trunk secondary to amyloid neuropathy is presented. Multiple medication trials, including neuropathic and opioid agents, produced considerable adverse effects and minimal relief. Scrambler therapy, a novel electrical stimulation modality, was used and was associated with substantial short-term but nonsustained benefit. Spinal cord stimulation was considered, but given his diffuse symptoms, it was deemed a less-than-optimal approach. Ultimately, an intrathecal drug delivery system was placed with infusion of hydromorphone, resulting in substantial pain reduction in all involved areas and with an improved adverse effect profile. This intervention resulted in immense improvement in the patient's quality of life, despite progression of his systemic amyloidosis. Severe pain in the setting of amyloid neuropathy is often difficult to treat. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of Scrambler therapy or an implanted intrathecal drug delivery system used for a patient with refractory amyloidosis-related neuropathic pain, resulting in substantial analgesic benefit and improved quality of life.
Carlos, Fernando; Espejel, Luis; Novick, Diego; López, Rubén; Flores, Daniel
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy affects 40-50% of patients with diabetic neuropathy, leading to impaired quality of life and substantial costs. Duloxetine and pregabalin have evidence-based support, and are formally approved for controlling painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We used a 12-week decision model for examining painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy first-line therapy with daily doses of duloxetine 60mg or pregabalin 300mg, under the perspective of the Instituto Venezolano de los Seguros Sociales. We gathered model parameters from published literature and expert´s opinion, focusing on the magnitude of pain relief, the presence of adverse events, the possibility of withdrawal owing to intolerable adverse events or due to lack of efficacy, and the quality-adjusted life years expected in each strategy. We analyzed direct medical costs (which are expressed in Bolívares Fuertes, BsF) comprising drug acquisition besides additional care devoted to treatment of adverse events and poor pain relief. We conducted both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Total expected costs per 1000 patients were BsF 1 046 146 (26%) lower with duloxetine than with pregabalin. Most of these savings (91%) corresponds to the difference in the acquisitions cost of each medication. duloxetine also provided 23 more patients achieving good pain relief and a gain of about two quality-adjusted life years per 1000 treated. Model was robust to plausible changes in main parameters. Duloxetine remained the preferred option in 93.9% of the second-order Monte Carlo simulations. This study suggests duloxetine dominates (i.e., is more effective and lead to gains in quality-adjusted life years), remaining less costly than pregabalin for treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
Moretti, Rita; Caruso, Paola; Dal Ben, Matteo; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio
Peripheral neuropathy is one most common, limiting and invalidating neurological symptom in subjects with hepatitis C virus and mixed cryoglobulinemia. Notably, the medical therapy proposed to eradicate HCV, can frequently exacerbate the painful neuropathy. Therefore, neuropathy therapies are insufficient and inadequate, and comprise immunosuppressive drugs, such as steroid or cyclosporine, intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange. These have shown variable success in case reports, with a presumably temporary effect, but with major side effects. We assessed the effects of oxcarbazepine treatment in 67 cases of cryoglobulinemia related neuropathy, who did not respond to either steroid or Gabapentin, or Pregabalin. Oxcarbazepine was chosen based on the promising preliminary results. Patients treated with Oxcarbazepine showed a rapid, discrete and persistent relief of polyneuropathic signs, without consistent side effects, and with a limited interaction with concomitant drugs. These data favor the use of oxcarbazepine as a useful tool in the management of neuropathic pain associated with Hepatitis-C cryoglobulin neuropathy.
Granovsky, Yelena; Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Khamaisi, Mogher; Granot, Michal
Alleviation of pain, by either medical or surgical therapy, is accompanied by transition from less efficient, or pro-nociceptive, to efficient conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Spontaneous decrease or resolution of pain with disease progression is reported for some patients with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). To explore whether CPM changes similarly in parallel to spontaneous resolution of pain in PDN patients. In this cross-sectional study, thirty-three patients with PDN underwent psychophysical assessment of pain modulation on the forearm, remote from the clinical pain. Pain duration was not correlated with neuropathic pain intensity, yet, it correlated with CPM efficiency; patients with longer pain duration had same pain level, but more efficient CPM than those with short-pain duration (ρ = -0.417; P = 0.025, Spearman correlation). Patients with pain more than 2 years (median split) expressed efficient CPM that was not different from that of healthy controls. These patients also had lower temporal summation of pain than the short-pain duration patients group ( P < 0.05). The 2 patient groups did not differ in clinical pain characteristics or use of analgesics. Pro-nociception, expressed by less efficient CPM and high temporal summation that usually accompanies clinical painful conditions, seems to "normalize" with chronicity of the pain syndrome. This is despite continuing pain, suggesting that pro-nociceptivity in pain syndromes is multifactorial. Because the pain modulation profile affects success of therapy, this suggests that different drugs might express different efficacy pending on duration of the pain in patients with PDN.
Granovsky, Yelena; Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Khamaisi, Mogher; Granot, Michal
Abstract Introduction: Alleviation of pain, by either medical or surgical therapy, is accompanied by transition from less efficient, or pro-nociceptive, to efficient conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Spontaneous decrease or resolution of pain with disease progression is reported for some patients with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). Objectives: To explore whether CPM changes similarly in parallel to spontaneous resolution of pain in PDN patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, thirty-three patients with PDN underwent psychophysical assessment of pain modulation on the forearm, remote from the clinical pain. Results: Pain duration was not correlated with neuropathic pain intensity, yet, it correlated with CPM efficiency; patients with longer pain duration had same pain level, but more efficient CPM than those with short-pain duration (ρ = −0.417; P = 0.025, Spearman correlation). Patients with pain more than 2 years (median split) expressed efficient CPM that was not different from that of healthy controls. These patients also had lower temporal summation of pain than the short-pain duration patients group (P < 0.05). The 2 patient groups did not differ in clinical pain characteristics or use of analgesics. Conclusion: Pro-nociception, expressed by less efficient CPM and high temporal summation that usually accompanies clinical painful conditions, seems to “normalize” with chronicity of the pain syndrome. This is despite continuing pain, suggesting that pro-nociceptivity in pain syndromes is multifactorial. Because the pain modulation profile affects success of therapy, this suggests that different drugs might express different efficacy pending on duration of the pain in patients with PDN. PMID:29392208
Pai, Yen-Wei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Lee, I-Te; Chang, Ming-Hong
To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy with or without neuropathic pain in Taiwanese. A cross-sectional, hospital-based observational study was conducted. We enrolled 2837 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy with or without pain were diagnosed using 2 validated screening tools, namely the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument and Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire. In our sample, 2233 participants had no neuropathy, 476 had diabetic peripheral neuropathy without pain, and 128 had diabetic peripheral neuropathy with neuropathic pain, representing an overall diabetic peripheral neuropathy prevalence of 21.3%, and the prevalence of neuropathic pain in diabetic peripheral neuropathy was 21.2%. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age (P<0.001), treatment with insulin (P=0.004), microalbuminuria (P=0.001) or overt proteinuria (P<0.001) were independently associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, whereas older age (P<0.001), elevated glycated haemoglobin (P=0.011), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.033), and overt proteinuria (P<0.001) were independently associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy with neuropathic pain. During clinical visits involving biochemical studies, the risk for diabetic peripheral neuropathy with neuropathic pain should be considered for people with older age, elevated glycated haemoglobin, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and overt proteinuria, with particular attention given to increased levels of albuminuria while concerning neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Musharraf, Muhammad Usman; Ahmad, Zaheer; Yaqub, Zernab
Diabetes Mellitus is a pandemic of the modern era owing to our rapidly deteriorating lifestyle. Painful diabetic neuropathy is one of the costliest and disabling complications of diabetes mellitus. No single treatment exists to prevent or reverse neuropathic changes or to provide total pain relief. Topical Capsaicin and Turpentine Oil are found to be effective in treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Patients of either gender with ages between 18 and 70 years having painful diabetic neuropathy already taking one oral drug for painful neuropathy and treatment for diabetes mellitus and an HbA1C less than 8.5% were included while Pregnant or lactating mothers, patients with chronic liver disease and patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine >3.0 mg/dl) and peripheral arterial disease were excluded from study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups (A & B) using computer generated random number table. Group A was given topical application of capsaicin while Group B was given topical application of commercially available turpentine oil over painful site on feet. 300 patients were equally divided in two groups. The patients in group A had a Visual Analog Pain Score of 7.91±5.10 at baseline and 5.10±1.343 after 3 months of treatment (p-value 0.0001). The patients in group B had a Visual Analog Pain Score of 7.83±1.012 at baseline and 5.20±1.187 after 3 months of treatment (p-value 0.0001). Chi Square test was applied to compare efficacy of both groups. It was noted that 71 (53%) had efficacy in group A and 63 (47%) had efficacy in the group B but the difference was not statistically significant. (p-value=0.399). It has been concluded that turpentine oil is effective in managing diabetic neuropathic pain similar to capsaicin cream.
Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Alam, Uazman; Malik, Rayaz A.
Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a debilitating consequence of diabetes that may be present in as many as one in five patients with diabetes. The objective assessment of PDN is difficult, making it challenging to diagnose and assess in both clinical practice and clinical trials. No single treatment exists to prevent or reverse neuropathic changes or to provide total pain relief. Treatment of PDN is based on three major approaches: intensive glycaemic control and risk factor management, treatments based on pathogenetic mechanisms, and symptomatic pain management. Clinical guidelines recommend pain relief in PDN through the use of antidepressants such as amitriptyline and duloxetine, the γ-aminobutyric acid analogues gabapentin and pregabalin, opioids and topical agents such as capsaicin. Of these medications, duloxetine and pregabalin were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2004 and tapentadol extended release was approved in 2012 for the treatment of PDN. Proposed pathogenetic treatments include α-lipoic acid (stems reactive oxygen species formation), benfotiamine (prevents vascular damage in diabetes) and aldose-reductase inhibitors (reduces flux through the polyol pathway). There is a growing need for studies to evaluate the most potent drugs or combinations for the management of PDN to maximize pain relief and improve quality of life. A number of agents are potential candidates for future use in PDN therapy, including Nav 1.7 antagonists, N-type calcium channel blockers, NGF antibodies and angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonists. PMID:25553239
Chattopadhyay, Munmun; Zhou, Zhigang; Hao, Shuanglin; Mata, Marina; Fink, David J
Painful neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. Previous studies have identified significant increases in the amount of voltage gated sodium channel isoforms Na(V)1.7 and Na(V)1.3 protein in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. We found that gene transfer-mediated release of the inhibitory neurotransmitters enkephalin or gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) from DRG neurons in diabetic animals reduced pain-related behaviors coincident with a reduction in Na(V)1.7 protein levels in DRG in vivo. To further evaluate the role of Na(V)α subunit levels in DRG in the pathogenesis of pain in diabetic neuropathy, we constructed a non-replicating herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based vector expressing a microRNA (miRNA) against Na(V)α subunits. Subcutaneous inoculation of the miRNA-expressing HSV vector into the feet of diabetic rats to transduce DRG resulted in a reduction in Na(V)α subunit levels in DRG neurons, coincident with a reduction in cold allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hyperalgesia. These data support the role of increased Na(V)α protein in DRG in the pathogenesis of pain in diabetic neuropathy, and provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of a novel therapy that could be used to treat intractable pain in patients with diabetic neuropathy.
Ta, Lauren E; Schmelzer, James D; Bieber, Allan J; Loprinzi, Charles L; Sieck, Gary C; Brederson, Jill D; Low, Philip A; Windebank, Anthony J
Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is the principle dose limiting factor requiring discontinuation of many chemotherapeutic agents, including cisplatin and oxaliplatin. About 30 to 40% of patients receiving chemotherapy develop pain and sensory changes. Given that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition has been shown to provide neuroprotection, the current study was developed to test whether the novel PARP inhibitor compound 4a (analog of ABT-888) would attenuate pain in cisplatin and oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in mice. An established chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy model of two weekly cycles of 10 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections separated by 5 days rest was used to examine the therapeutic potential of the PARP inhibitor compound 4a. Behavioral testing using von Frey, paw radiant heat, cold plate, and exploratory behaviors were taken at baseline, and followed by testing at 3, 6, and 8 weeks from the beginning of drug treatment. Cisplatin-treated mice developed heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia while oxaliplatin-treated mice exhibited cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Co-administration of 50 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg compound 4a with platinum regimen, attenuated cisplatin-induced heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in a dose dependent manner. Similarly, co-administration of 50 mg/kg compound 4a attenuated oxaliplatin-induced cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. These data indicate that administration of a novel PARP inhibitor may have important applications as a therapeutic agent for human chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy.
Yoo, Min; D’Silva, Linda; Martin, Katherine; Sharma, Neena; Pasnoor, Mamatha; LeMaster, Joseph
Objective Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes. While the beneficial effect of exercise on diabetes is well established, its effect specifically on painful DPN has not been thoroughly explored. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise on pain in people with DPN. Methods Fourteen sedentary individuals (mean age 57±5.11 years) with painful DPN were enrolled in a 16-week, supervised aerobic exercise program. The Brief Pain Inventory-Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (BPI-DPN) was used to assess pain intensity (worst, least, average, now) and pain interference with daily life (activity, mood, walk, normal work, relationship, sleep, enjoyment of life) pre- and post -intervention. Body mass index (BMI), maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and blood pressure were also measured pre-and post-intervention as secondary outcomes of interest. Results Significant reductions in pain interference were observed with walking (4.93±3.03 pre to 3.29±2.89 post, p=0.016), normal work (5.39±3.32 pre to 3.79±3.04 post, p=0.032), relationship with others (3.96±3.53 pre to 1.29±1.27 post, p=0.006), sleep (5.11±3.04 pre to 3.5±3.03 post, p=0.02), and the overall pain interference (4.65±2.70 pre to 2.97±2.22 post, p=0.013) following the intervention; however, there was no change in pain intensity. VO2max increased significantly post-intervention (16.02±3.84ml/kg/min pre to 17.18±4.19ml/kg/min, p=0.028), while BMI, HbA1c, and blood pressure remained unchanged. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that perceived pain interference may be reduced following an aerobic exercise intervention among people with painful DPN, without a change in pain intensity. Further validation by a RCT is needed. PMID:25800666
Rahman, Md Habibur; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Kim, Jong-Heon; Nam, Youngpyo; Lee, Maan Gee; Go, Younghoon; Harris, Robert A.; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho
The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a highly vulnerable site in diabetic neuropathy. Under diabetic conditions, the DRG is subjected to tissue ischemia or lower ambient oxygen tension that leads to aberrant metabolic functions. Metabolic dysfunctions have been documented to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diverse pain hypersensitivities. However, the contribution of diabetes-induced metabolic dysfunctions in the DRG to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy remains ill-explored. In this study, we report that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK2 and PDK4), key regulatory enzymes in glucose metabolism, mediate glycolytic metabolic shift in the DRG leading to painful diabetic neuropathy. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes substantially enhanced the expression and activity of the PDKs in the DRG, and the genetic ablation of Pdk2 and Pdk4 attenuated the hyperglycemia-induced pain hypersensitivity. Mechanistically, Pdk2/4 deficiency inhibited the diabetes-induced lactate surge, expression of pain-related ion channels, activation of satellite glial cells, and infiltration of macrophages in the DRG, in addition to reducing central sensitization and neuroinflammation hallmarks in the spinal cord, which probably accounts for the attenuated pain hypersensitivity. Pdk2/4-deficient mice were partly resistant to the diabetes-induced loss of peripheral nerve structure and function. Furthermore, in the experiments using DRG neuron cultures, lactic acid treatment enhanced the expression of the ion channels and compromised cell viability. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of DRG PDKs or lactic acid production substantially attenuated diabetes-induced pain hypersensitivity. Taken together, PDK2/4 induction and the subsequent lactate surge induce the metabolic shift in the diabetic DRG, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:26769971
Pieber, Karin; Herceg, Malvina; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana
To review different types of electrotherapy for the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A structured search of the electronic database MEDLINE was performed from the time of its initiation to July 2009. Articles in English and German were selected. The efficacy of different types of electrotherapy for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy has been evaluated in 15 studies; the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation are consistent. The beneficial effects of prolonged use have been reported in three large studies and one small study. The effects of frequency-modulated electromagnetic neural stimulation were assessed in one large study, and a significant reduction in pain was reported. Treatment with pulsed and static electromagnetic fields has been investigated in two small and three large studies, and analgesic benefits have been reported. In one large study focusing on pulsed electromagnetic fields, no beneficial effect on pain was registered. Only small studies were found concerning other types of electrotherapy, such as pulsed-dose electrical stimulation, high-frequency external muscle stimulation or high-tone external muscle stimulation. The conclusions drawn in these articles are diverse. Shortcomings and problems, including a poor study design, were observed in some. Further randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies comprising larger sample sizes, a longer duration of treatment, and longer follow-up assessments are required.
... peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy; Chronic pain - peripheral neuropathy ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...
Amplitudes of Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Are Useful to Detect Small Fiber Involvement in Painful Mixed Fiber Neuropathies in Addition to Quantitative Sensory Testing – An Electrophysiological Study
Hansen, Niels; Kahn, Ann-Kathrin; Zeller, Daniel; Katsarava, Zaza; Sommer, Claudia; Üçeyler, Nurcan
To investigate the usefulness of pain-related evoked potentials (PREP) elicited by electrical stimulation for the identification of small fiber involvement in patients with mixed fiber neuropathy (MFN). Eleven MFN patients with clinical signs of large fiber impairment and neuropathic pain and ten healthy controls underwent clinical and electrophysiological evaluation. Small fiber function, electrical conductivity and morphology were examined by quantitative sensory testing (QST), PREP, and skin punch biopsy. MFN was diagnosed following clinical and electrophysiological examination (chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy: n = 6; vasculitic neuropathy: n = 3; chronic axonal neuropathy: n = 2). The majority of patients with MFN characterized their pain by descriptors that mainly represent C-fiber-mediated pain. In QST, patients displayed elevated cold, warm, mechanical, and vibration detection thresholds and cold pain thresholds indicative of MFN. PREP amplitudes in patients correlated with cold (p < 0.05) and warm detection thresholds (p < 0.05). Burning pain and the presence of par-/dysesthesias correlated negatively with PREP amplitudes (p < 0.05). PREP amplitudes correlating with cold and warm detection thresholds, burning pain, and par-/dysesthesias support employing PREP amplitudes as an additional tool in conjunction with QST for detecting small fiber impairment in patients with MFN. PMID:26696950
Vale, Tom A; Symmonds, Mkael; Polydefkis, Michael; Byrnes, Kelly; Rice, Andrew S C; Themistocleous, Andreas C; Bennett, David L H
Abstract Non-freezing cold injury develops after sustained exposure to cold temperatures, resulting in tissue cooling but not freezing. This can result in persistent sensory disturbance of the hands and feet including numbness, paraesthesia and chronic pain. Both vascular and neurological aetiologies of this pain have been suggested but remain unproven. We prospectively approached patients referred for clinical assessment of chronic pain following non-freezing cold injury between 12 February 2014 and 30 November 2016. Of 47 patients approached, 42 consented to undergo detailed neurological evaluations including: questionnaires to detail pain location and characteristics, structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction studies and skin biopsy for intraepidermal nerve fibre assessment. Of the 42 study participants, all had experienced non-freezing cold injury while serving in the UK armed services and the majority were of African descent (76.2%) and male (95.2%). Many participants reported multiple exposures to cold. The median time between initial injury and referral was 3.72 years. Pain was principally localized to the hands and the feet, neuropathic in nature and in all study participants associated with cold hypersensitivity. Clinical examination and quantitative sensory testing were consistent with a sensory neuropathy. In all cases, large fibre nerve conduction studies were normal. The intraepidermal nerve fibre density was markedly reduced with 90.5% of participants having a count at or below the 0.05 centile of published normative controls. Using the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group of the International Association for the Study of Pain grading for neuropathic pain, 100% had probable and 95.2% definite neuropathic pain. Chronic non-freezing cold injury is a disabling neuropathic pain disorder due to a sensory neuropathy. Why some individuals develop an acute painful sensory neuropathy on sustained cold exposure is
Yoo, Min; D'Silva, Linda J; Martin, Katherine; Sharma, Neena K; Pasnoor, Mamatha; LeMaster, Joseph W; Kluding, Patricia M
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes. While the beneficial effect of exercise on diabetes is well established, its effect specifically on painful DPN has not been thoroughly explored. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise on pain in people with DPN. Fourteen sedentary individuals (mean age 57 ± 5.11 years) with painful DPN were enrolled in a 16-week, supervised aerobic exercise program. The Brief Pain Inventory-Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy was used to assess pain intensity (worst, least, average, now) and pain interference with daily life (activity, mood, walk, normal work, relationship, sleep, enjoyment of life) pre intervention and postintervention. Body mass index (BMI), maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max ), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and blood pressure were also measured preintervention and postintervention as secondary outcomes of interest. Significant reductions in pain interference were observed with walking (4.93 ± 3.03 pre to 3.29 ± 2.89 post, P = 0.016), normal work (5.39 ± 3.32 pre to 3.79 ± 3.04 post, P = 0.032), relationship with others (3.96 ± 3.53 pre to 1.29 ± 1.27 post, P = 0.006), sleep (5.11 ± 3.04 pre to 3.5 ± 3.03 post, P = 0.02), and the overall pain interference (4.65 ± 2.70 pre to 2.97 ± 2.22 post, P = 0.013) following the intervention; however, there was no change in pain intensity. VO2max increased significantly postintervention (16.02 ± 3.84 ml/kg/min pre to 17.18 ± 4.19 ml/kg/min, P = 0.028), while BMI, HbA1c, and blood pressure remained unchanged. These preliminary results suggest that perceived pain interference may be reduced following an aerobic exercise intervention among people with painful DPN, without a change in pain intensity. Further validation by a RCT is needed. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wienemann, Tobias; Chantelau, Ernst A.; Koller, Armin
Introduction and objective Acute injury transiently lowers local mechanical pain thresholds at a limb. To elucidate the impact of painless (diabetic) neuropathy on this post-traumatic hyperalgesia, pressure pain perception thresholds after a skeletal foot trauma were studied in consecutive persons without and with neuropathy (i.e. history of foot ulcer or Charcot arthropathy). Design and methods A case–control study was done on 25 unselected clinical routine patients with acute unilateral foot trauma (cases: elective bone surgery; controls: sprain, toe fracture). Cases were 12 patients (11 diabetic subjects) with severe painless neuropathy and chronic foot pathology. Controls were 13 non-neuropathic persons. Over 1 week after the trauma, cutaneous pressure pain perception threshold (CPPPT) and deep pressure pain perception threshold (DPPPT) were measured repeatedly, adjacent to the injury and at the opposite foot (pinprick stimulators, Algometer II®). Results In the control group, post-traumatic DPPPT (but not CPPPT) at the injured foot was reduced by about 15–25%. In the case group, pre- and post-operative CPPPT and DPPPT were supranormal. Although DPPPT fell post-operatively by about 15–20%, it remained always higher than the post-traumatic DPPPT in the control group: over musculus abductor hallucis 615 kPa (kilopascal) versus 422 kPa, and over metatarsophalangeal joint 518 kPa versus 375 kPa (medians; case vs. control group); CPPPT did not decrease post-operatively. Conclusion Physiological nociception and post-traumatic hyperalgesia to pressure are diminished at the foot with severe painless (diabetic) neuropathy. A degree of post-traumatic hypersensitivity required to ‘pull away’ from any one, even innocuous, mechanical impact in order to avoid additional damage is, therefore, lacking. PMID:25397867
Hong, Hong-Bin; Xu, Rong-Juan
The article reviewed clinical studies on painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN) treated by integrative medicine. PDPN, a common complication of diabetes mellitus, which could severely influence patients' quality of life. The keystone and difficulty of PDPN treatment is to relieve pain. Tricyclic anti-depressants are the firstline agents for neuropathic pain but with obvious adverse reactions. Antiepileptic drugs and capsicin can relieve PDPN with less adverse reactions. In recent years, lots of report of clinical studies on DPN treated by TCM or integrative medicine were issued, but those pertinent to PDPN were seldom. Only the papers with independent statistical analysis on effect of pain relieving were selected to review in this article, and the authors presumed that it is feasible to treat PDPN with integrative medicine.
More than 50% of all patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) have pain, and this pain is often due to diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Using a case study of a dialysis patient who has neuropathic pain, this article examines the assessment and management of this pain. Assessment is the essential first step. Patients' self-report of pain is the most reliable and valid indicator of pain intensity. Pain may be managed through the use of non-opioids, opioids and adjuvants. However, for patients with ESRD on dialysis, certain considerations concerning drugs used to manage pain need to be taken into account. Complementary therapies have also been used in pain management in patients with ESRD, and there is a need for greater research in this area.
Campbell, Claudia M.; Kipnes, Mark S.; Stouch, Bruce C.; Brady, Kerrie L.; Kelly, Margaret; Schmidt, William K.; Petersen, Karin L.; Rowbotham, Michael C.; Campbell, James N.
A length-dependent neuropathy with pain in the feet is a common complication of diabetes (painful diabetic neuropathy, PDN). It was hypothesized that pain may arise from sensitized-hyperactive cutaneous nociceptors, and that this abnormal signaling may be reduced by topical administration of the α2-adrenergic agonist, clonidine, to the painful area. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multi-center trial. Nociceptor function was measured by determining the painfulness of 0.1% topical capsaicin applied to the pre-tibial area of each subject for 30 minutes during screening. Subjects were then randomized to receive 0.1% topical clonidine gel (n=89) or placebo gel (n=90) applied t.i.d. to their feet for 12 weeks. The difference in foot pain at week 12 in relation to baseline, rated on a 0-10 numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), was compared between groups. Baseline NPRS was imputed for missing data for subjects who terminated the study early. The subjects treated with clonidine showed a trend toward decreased foot pain compared to the placebo-treated group (the primary endpoint; p=0.07). In subjects who felt any level of pain to capsaicin, clonidine was superior to placebo (p<0.05). In subjects with a capsaicin pain rating ≥2 (0-10, NPRS), the mean decrease in foot pain was 2.6 for active compared to 1.4 for placebo (p=0.01). Topical clonidine gel significantly reduces the level of foot pain in PDN subjects with functional (and possibly sensitized) nociceptors in the affected skin as revealed by testing with topical capsaicin. Screening for cutaneous nociceptor function may help distinguish candidates for topical therapy for neuropathic pain. PMID:22683276
Antolak, Stanley J; Antolak, Christopher M
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in men is rarely considered to have a neurogenic (neuropathic) basis. Separation of neurogenic from non-neurogenic pain is possible using clinical examination and neurophysiologic tests. A definite diagnosis of neuropathic pain can be made. We aim to demonstrate that definite pudendal neuropathic abnormalities can be supported by a quantitative sensory test (QST) called the warm temperature threshold detection (WDT) test in men with CPP. This is a retrospective review of 25 consecutive, unrecruited men evaluated in a private clinical practice beginning on January 1, 2010. The techniques of examination and neurophysiological testing have been standard since 2003. A private practice that is a referral center because of its focus on CPP of a neuropathic basis. Pinprick sensation was evaluated at 6 sites in the pudendal nerve territory (3 branches on each side). A WDT was performed at each nerve branch using a Physitemp NTE-2C Thermoprobe and Controller. This used a stepping algorithm from a neutral baseline of 31.5°C. Quantitative and subjective "qualitative responses" were recorded. Our preferred symptom score to evaluate pain level at consultation is the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). The results become the benchmark for comparison of responses following future treatments (not discussed). When possible, microscopy was used to evaluate prostate secretions for inflammatory prostatitis except in 2 men with CPP who had undergone previous radical prostatectomy for cancer. Observations were made of the skin in the pudendal territory. Our specific evaluation for neuropathy also sought evidence of multiple additional neuropathic pelvic pain generators. The WDT was abnormal in all men (88% quantitative), and pinprick sensation was abnormal in 92% of the men. The combination of tests provided a diagnosis of pudendal neuropathy in all patients, resulting in an accurate and timely explanation of the
Sato, Junya; Mori, Megumi; Nihei, Satoru; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Kudo, Kenzo
In an evaluation of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), objectivity may be poor because the evaluation is determined by the patient's subjective assessment. In such cases, management of neuropathy may be delayed and CIPN symptoms may become severe. In this pilot study, we attempted an objective evaluation of CIPN using a quantitative pain measurement system (Pain Vision ® ). The subjects were patients with gynecologic cancer who underwent chemotherapy using taxane and platinum drugs. The grade of the peripheral sensory nerve disorder was based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTC-AE) ver. 4.0 and was evaluated before the initiation of therapy and up to six chemotherapy cycles. A symptom scale assessed by the patients using a peripheral neuropathy questionnaire (PNQ) was also evaluated. Simultaneously during these evaluations, graded electric current was applied from the probe to a fingertip and measured both the lowest perceptible current and lowest current perceived as pain by Pain Vision ® . From these values, the pain degree was calculated from the following formula: (pain perception current value - lowest perceptible current value) ÷ lowest perceptible current value × 100. We compared the pain degrees by Pain Vision ® during CIPN development with the value obtained before chemotherapy initiation. Forty-one patients were enrolled. In the evaluation by a medical professional, 28 (64.3%) patients developed CIPN during 2.5 ± 1.1 chemotherapy cycles (mean ± standard deviation). The pain degree by Pain Vision ® at grade 1 and 2 CIPN development according to the evaluation (CTC-AE) was significantly decreased compared to that before chemotherapy initiation (126.0 ± 114.5 vs. 69.8 ± 46.8, p = 0.001, and 126.0 ± 114.5 vs. 32.8 ± 32.6, p = 0.004). Changes in the pain degree by Pain Vision ® were also found during scale B and C, D CIPN development in the patient evaluation (PNQ) (115.9 ± 112.4 vs. 70
Jung, Chae Lim; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Byoung Joon; Lee, Jong-Hyuck; Sung, Ki-Sun; Kim, Jong-Won; Park, Youn-Soo
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe mental retardation and self-mutilation-related complications. Recently, we investigated a 16-year-old Korean boy with normal intelligence. He had preserved pain sensation but was suspected of having hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV because of the recurrent bone fractures and painless joint destruction in the absence of any predisposing medical conditions. Genetic analysis of the NTRK1 gene revealed compound heterozygous mutations including c.851-33T>A and c.2303C>T (p.Pro768Leu) in the NTRK1 gene. The p.Pro768Leu mutation has been identified in 2 Japanese patients with a mild phenotype. Therefore, although it is rare, hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV should be considered in patients with recurrent bone fractures and painless joint destruction who do not have any predisposing conditions even when they do not have typical clinical features such as mental retardation or pain insensitivity.
Memon, M; Kay, J; Ginsberg, L; Simunovic, N; Bak, K; Lapner, P; Ayeni, O R
The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the arthroscopic management of suprascapular neuropathy, including the aetiology, surgical decision-making, clinical outcomes, and complications associated with the procedure. Three databases [PubMed, Ovid (Medline), and Embase] were searched. Systematic literature screening and data abstraction was performed in duplicate to present a review of studies reporting on arthroscopic management of suprascapular neuropathy. The quality of the included studies was assessed using level of evidence and the MINORS (Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies) checklist. In total, 40 studies (17 case reports, 20 case series, 2 retrospective comparative studies, and 1 prospective comparative study) were identified, including 259 patients (261 shoulders) treated arthroscopically for suprascapular neuropathy. The most common aetiology of suprascapular neuropathy was suprascapular nerve compression by a cyst at the spinoglenoid notch (42%), and the decision to pursue arthroscopic surgery was most commonly based on the results of clinical findings and investigations (47%). Overall, 97% of patients reported significant improvement in or complete resolution of their pre-operative symptoms (including pain, strength, and subjective function of the shoulder) over a mean follow-up period of 23.7 months. Further, there was a low overall complication rate (4%) associated with the arthroscopic procedures. While most studies evaluating arthroscopic management of suprascapular neuropathy are uncontrolled studies with lower levels of evidence, results indicate that such management provides patients with significant improvements in pain, strength, and subjective function of the shoulder, and has a low incidence of complications. Patients managed arthroscopically for suprascapular neuropathy may expect significant improvements in pain, strength, and subjective function of the shoulder. Level IV, systematic review of level II to IV
Kan, Hung-Wei; Chang, Chin-Hong; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Yi-Chen; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang; Hsieh, Yu-Lin
The neurochemical effects of adenosine signaling in small-fiber neuropathy leading to neuropathic pain are yet to be explored in a direct manner. This study examined this system at the level of ligand (via the ectonucleotidase activity of prostatic acid phosphatase, PAP) and adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) in resiniferatoxin (RTX) neuropathy, a peripheral neurodegenerative disorder which specifically affects nociceptive nerves expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1). We conducted immunohistochemistry on dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for functional assays, and pharmacological interventions to alter PAP and A1Rs in mice with RTX neuropathy. In DRG of RTX neuropathy, PAP(+) neurons were reduced compared with vehicle-treated mice (P = 0.002) . Functionally, PAP ectonucleotidase activity was consequently reduced (i.e., the content of adenosine in DRG, P = 0.012). PAP(+) neuronal density was correlated with the degree of mechanical allodynia, which was reversed by intrathecal lumbar puncture (i.t.) injection of recombinant PAP with a dose-dependent effect. Furthermore, A1Rs were downregulated (P = 0.002), and this downregulation was colocalized with the TRPV1 receptor (31.0% ± 2.8%). Mechanical allodynia was attenuated in a dose-dependent response by i.t. injection of the A1R ligand, adenosine; however, no analgesia was evident when an exogenous adenosine was blocked by A1R antagonist. This study demonstrated dual mechanisms of neuropathic pain in TRPV1-induced neuropathy, involving a reduced adenosine system at both the ligand (adenosine) and receptor (A1Rs) levels.
Papanas, Nikolaos; Ziegler, Dan
Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) is a common complication of diabetes. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the emerging drugs for DSPN, which aim either at improving alleviation of neuropathic pain or addressing the putative mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathy. Expert Opinion: Current treatment does not address the sensory deficits and pathogenesis underlying DSPN, so there is an unmet need for treatment options targeting the natural history of the condition. Some of these pathogenetic therapies have demonstrated clinically relevant improvements in neuropathic endpoints in recent randomised controlled trials. Since any effective analgesic monotherapy is known to induce a clinically meaningful response in only some 50% of the patients, there remains a substantial unmet need in patients with neuropathic pain. Advanced knowledge in the neurobiology of neuropathic pain and improved phenotypic profiling have led to a burst of research into novel pharmaceutical approaches. An array of promising molecular entities have reached the clinical stage of development, which should improve our therapeutic armamentarium in the fight against DSPN and neuropathic pain in the foreseeable future.
Somers, D L; Somers, M F
Diabetic neuropathy can produce severe pain. The purpose of this case report is to describe the alteration of pain in a patient with severe, painful diabetic neuropathy following application of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to the low back. The patient was a 73-year-old woman with pain in the left lower extremity over the lateral aspect of the hip and the entire leg below the knee. The pain prevented sound sleep. The intensity of pain was assessed with a visual analog scale. The TENS (80 Hz) was delivered 1 to 2 hours a day and during the entire night through electrodes placed on the lumbar area of the back. Following 20 minutes of TENS on the first day of treatment, the patient reported a 38% reduction in intensity of pain. After 17 days, the patient reported no pain following 20 minutes of TENS and that she could sleep through the night. Application of TENS to the skin of the lumbar area may be an effective treatment for the pain of diabetic neuropathy.
Micov, Ana; Tomić, Maja; Pecikoza, Uroš; Ugrešić, Nenad; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica
Painful diabetic neuropathy is difficult to treat. Single analgesics often have insufficient efficacy and poor tolerability. Combination therapy may therefore be of particular benefit, because it might provide optimal analgesia with fewer adverse effects. This study aimed to examine the type of interaction between levetiracetam, a novel anticonvulsant with analgesic properties, and commonly used analgesics (ibuprofen, aspirin and paracetamol) in a mouse model of painful diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6 mice with a single high dose of streptozotocin, applied intraperitoneally (150 mg/kg). Thermal (tail-flick test) and mechanical (electronic von Frey test) nociceptive thresholds were measured before and three weeks after diabetes induction. The antinociceptive effects of orally administered levetiracetam, analgesics, and their combinations were examined in diabetic mice that developed thermal/mechanical hypersensitivity. In combination experiments, the drugs were co-administered in fixed-dose fractions of single drug ED50 and the type of interaction was determined by isobolographic analysis. Levetiracetam (10-100 mg/kg), ibuprofen (2-50 mg/kg), aspirin (5-75 mg/kg), paracetamol (5-100 mg/kg), and levetiracetam-analgesic combinations produced significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in diabetic mice in both tests. In the tail-flick test, isobolographic analysis revealed 15-, and 19-fold reduction of doses of both drugs in the combination of levetiracetam with aspirin/ibuprofen, and paracetamol, respectively. In the von Frey test, approximately 7- and 9-fold reduction of doses of both drugs was detected in levetiracetam-ibuprofen and levetiracetam-aspirin/levetiracetam-paracetamol combinations, respectively. These results show synergism between levetiracetam and ibuprofen/aspirin/paracetamol in a model of painful diabetic neuropathy and might provide a useful approach to the treatment of patients suffering from painful diabetic neuropathy
de Vos, Cecile C; Meier, Kaare; Zaalberg, Paul Brocades; Nijhuis, Harold J A; Duyvendak, Wim; Vesper, Jan; Enggaard, Thomas P; Lenders, Mathieu W P M
Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a peripheral neuropathic pain condition that is often difficult to relieve. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a proven effective therapy for various types of mixed neuropathic conditions, yet effectiveness of SCS treatment for PDN is not well established. To our knowledge, ours is the first multicentre randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of SCS in patients with PDN. Sixty patients with PDN in the lower extremities refractory to conventional medical therapy were enrolled and followed for 6 months. They were randomized 2:1 to best conventional medical practice with (SCS group) or without (control group) additional SCS therapy, and both groups were assessed at regular intervals. At each follow-up visit, the EuroQoL 5D, the short form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and a visual analogue scale (VAS, ranging 0-100) to measure pain intensity were recorded. The average VAS score for pain intensity was 73 in the SCS group and 67 in the control group at baseline. After 6 months of treatment, the average VAS score was significantly reduced to 31 in the SCS group (P<.001) and remained 67 (P=.97) in the control group. The SF-MPQ and EuroQoL 5D questionnaires also showed that patients in the SCS group, unlike those in the control group, experienced reduced pain and improved health and quality of life after 6 months of treatment. In patients with refractory painful diabetic neuropathy, spinal cord stimulation therapy significantly reduced pain and improved quality of life. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kerber, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M.; Banerjee, Mousumi; Rodgers, Ann; McCammon, Ryan; Burke, James; Feldman, Eva
Objective: To evaluate longitudinal patient-oriented outcomes in peripheral neuropathy over a 14-year time period including time before and after diagnosis. Methods: The 1996–2007 Health and Retirement Study (HRS)–Medicare Claims linked database identified incident peripheral neuropathy cases (ICD-9 codes) in patients ≥65 years. Using detailed demographic information from the HRS and Medicare claims, a propensity score method identified a matched control group without neuropathy. Patient-oriented outcomes, with an emphasis on self-reported falls, pain, and self-rated health (HRS interview), were determined before and after neuropathy diagnosis. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess differences in longitudinal outcomes between cases and controls. Results: We identified 953 peripheral neuropathy cases and 953 propensity-matched controls. The mean (SD) age was 77.4 (6.7) years for cases, 76.9 (6.6) years for controls, and 42.1% had diabetes. Differences were detected in falls 3.0 years before neuropathy diagnosis (case vs control; 32% vs 25%, p = 0.008), 5.0 years for pain (36% vs 27%, p = 0.002), and 5.0 years for good to excellent self-rated health (61% vs 74%, p < 0.0001). Over time, the proportion of fallers increased more rapidly in neuropathy cases compared to controls (p = 0.002), but no differences in pain (p = 0.08) or self-rated health (p = 0.9) were observed. Conclusions: In older persons, differences in falls, pain, and self-rated health can be detected 3–5 years prior to peripheral neuropathy diagnosis, but only falls deteriorates more rapidly over time in neuropathy cases compared to controls. Interventions to improve early peripheral neuropathy detection are needed, and future clinical trials should incorporate falls as a key patient-oriented outcome. PMID:26019191
Background Patients with diabetic neuropathy (DPN) and fibromyalgia differ substantially in pathogenetic factors and the spatial distribution of the perceived pain. We questioned whether, despite these obvious differences, similar abnormal sensory complaints and pain qualities exist in both entities. We hypothesized that similar sensory symptoms might be associated with similar mechanisms of pain generation. The aims were (1) to compare epidemiological features and co-morbidities and (2) to identify similarities and differences of sensory symptoms in both entities. Methods The present multi-center study compares epidemiological data and sensory symptoms of a large cohort of 1434 fibromyalgia patients and 1623 patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Data acquisition included standard demographic questions and self-report questionnaires (MOS sleep scale, PHQ-9, PainDETECT). To identify subgroups of patients with characteristic combinations of symptoms (sensory profiles) a cluster analysis was performed using all patients in both cohorts. Results Significant differences in co-morbidities (depression, sleep disturbance) were found between both disorders. Patients of both aetiologies chose very similar descriptors to characterize their sensory perceptions. Burning pain, prickling and touch-evoked allodynia were present in the same frequency. Five subgroups with distinct symptom profiles could be detected. Two of the subgroups were characteristic for fibromyalgia whereas one profile occurred predominantly in DPN patients. Two profiles were found frequently in patients of both entities (20-35%). Conclusions DPN and fibromyalgia patients experience very similar sensory phenomena. The combination of sensory symptoms - the sensory profile - is in most cases distinct and almost unique for each one of the two entities indicating aetiology-specific mechanisms of symptom generation. Beside the unique aetiology-specific sensory profiles an overlap of sensory profiles can be
Pfeifer, M A; Ross, D R; Schrage, J P; Gelber, D A; Schumer, M P; Crain, G M; Markwell, S J; Jung, S
To investigate why, in spite of a vast variety of treatment agents, the alleviation of pain in patients with diabetic neuropathy is difficult. Previous studies have not used a treatment algorithm based on anatomic site and neuropathophysiological source of the neuropathic pain. A model that categorizes the types of pain into three groups (superficial, deep, and muscular) was applied in 75 diabetic patients with chronic (> 12 mo) painful distal symmetrical polyneuropathy in a controlled case series. Twenty-two patients were untreated and 53 patients were treated with imipramine +/- mexiletine for deep pain, capsaicin for superficial pain, and stretching exercises and metaxalone +/- piroxican for muscular pain. Each type of pain was scored separately on a scale of 0 (none) to 19 (worst), and the total of all three types was used as an index of overall pain. Ability to sleep through the night was scored by a scale of 1 (never) to 5 (always). No significant differences were observed in initial pain scores, sleep scores, demographics, biochemistries, or physical findings between the two groups. After 3 mo a significant improvement in scores was noted in the treated but not the untreated patients. In addition, a significant difference was found in the change of scores between the treated and untreated patients: total pain (-18 +/- 2 vs. 0 +/- 2), deep pain (-7 +/- 1 vs. 0 +/- 1), superficial pain (-5 +/- 1 vs. 0 +/- 1), muscular pain (-6 +/- 1 vs. 0 +/- 1), and sleep (1.2 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.2), all P < 0.0001. In treated patients 21% became pain-free (total pain < 2), 66% had improvement (decrease in total pain > 5, but not total elimination of painful symptoms), and 13% were considered treatment failures (a decrease in total pain of < or = 5). This compares with 0 (P < 0.02), 10 (P < 0.0001), and 90% (P < 0.0001), respectively, in the untreated patients. This study presents a new rationale and hypothesis for the successful treatment of chronic painful diabetic
Agathos, Evangelos; Tentolouris, Anastasios; Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Katsaouni, Panagiota; Nemtzas, Ioannis; Petrou, Alexandra; Papanikolaou, Christina; Tentolouris, Nikolaos
Objective To examine the effect of α-lipoic acid on neuropathic symptoms in patients with diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods Patients with painful DN were treated with 600 mg/day α-lipoic acid, orally, for 40 days. Neuropathy Symptom Score (NSS), Subjective Peripheral Neuropathy Screen Questionnaire (SPNSQ) and douleur neuropathique (DN)4 questionnaire scores were assessed at baseline and day 40. Quality-of-life treatment effects were assessed by Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Changes in body weight, arterial blood pressure, fasting serum glucose and lipids were also assessed. Results Out of 72 patients included, significant reductions in neuropathic symptoms were shown by reduced NSS, SPNSQ and DN4 scores at day 40 versus baseline. BPI, NPSI, and SDS in terms of work disability, social life disability, and family life disability scores were also significantly reduced. Moreover, 50% of patients rated their health condition as 'very much better' or 'much better' following α-lipoic acid administration. Fasting triglyceride levels were reduced, but no difference was found in body weight, blood pressure, fasting glucose, or other lipids at day 40 versus baseline. Conclusions A-lipoic acid administration was associated with reduced neuropathic symptoms and triglycerides, and improved quality of life.
Smith, Stacy V; Schuster, Nathaniel M
Recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy (RPON), formerly known as ophthalmoplegic migraine, is an uncommon disorder with repeated episodes of ocular cranial nerve neuropathy associated with ipsilateral headache. This review discusses the clinical presentation, current understanding of the pathophysiology, key differential diagnoses, and evaluation and treatment of RPON. The literature is limited due to the rarity of the disorder. Recent case reports and series continue to suggest the age of first attack is most often during childhood or adolescence as well as a female predominance. Multiple recent case reports and series demonstrate focal enhancement of the affected cranial nerve, as the nerve root exits the brainstem. This finding contributed to the current classification of the disorder as a neuropathy, with the present understanding that it is due to a relapsing-remitting inflammatory or demyelinating process. The link to migraine remains a cause of disagreement in the literature. RPON is a complex disorder with features of inflammatory neuropathy and an unclear association with migraine. Regardless, the overall prognosis is good for individual episodes, but permanent nerve damage may accumulate with repeated attacks. A better understanding of the pathogenesis is needed to clarify whether it truly represents a single disorder and to guide its treatment. Until that time, a combined approach with acute and preventive therapies can mitigate acute symptoms as well as attempt to limit recurrence of this disabling syndrome.
Yilmaz, Ugur; Bird, Thomas T; Carter, Gregory T; Wang, Leo H; Weiss, Michael D
This study characterizes the nature of pain in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP). This retrospective study was performed to assess duration, nature, location, and intensity of pain on initial presentation of subjects with HNPP, including the degree and type of analgesic medication use and electrodiagnostic characteristics. Subjects who met the American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) were also identified. Of 32 HNPP subjects, 24 (75%) had symptoms of pain, and 4 (12%) had pain as an initial symptom. Of subjects who described pain, 9 (28%) reported only musculoskeletal pain, 10 (31%) only neuropathic pain, and 5 (16%) both musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain. All 9 subjects with only musculoskeletal pain met criteria for FMS. Neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain occur commonly in HNPP and may be a presenting symptom. Additionally, HNPP with predominantly musculoskeletal pain may meet criteria for FMS and potentially delay the diagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Griffiths, Lisa A; Flatters, Sarah J L
Paclitaxel is an effective first-line chemotherapeutic with the major dose-limiting side effect of painful neuropathy. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in paclitaxel-induced painful neuropathy. Here we show the effects of pharmacological modulation of mitochondrial sites that produce reactive oxygen species using systemic rotenone (complex I inhibitor) or antimycin A (complex III inhibitor) on the maintenance and development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The maximally tolerated dose (5 mg/kg) of rotenone inhibited established paclitaxel-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. However, some of these inhibitory effects coincided with decreased motor coordination; 3 mg/kg rotenone also significantly attenuated established paclitaxel-induced mechanical hypersensitivity without any motor impairment. The maximally tolerated dose (.6 mg/kg) of antimycin A reversed established paclitaxel-induced mechanical hypersensitivity without any motor impairment. Seven daily doses of systemic rotenone or antimycin A were given either after paclitaxel administration or before and during paclitaxel administration. Rotenone had no significant effect on the development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. However, antimycin A significantly inhibited the development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical hypersensitivity when given before and during paclitaxel administration but had no effect when given after paclitaxel administration. These studies provide further evidence of paclitaxel-evoked mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo, suggesting that complex III activity is instrumental in paclitaxel-induced pain. This study provides further in vivo evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is a key contributor to the development and maintenance of chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy. This work also indicates that selective modulation of the electron transport chain can induce antinociceptive
Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Kluding, Patricia; Barohn, Richard J.
Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy in US and neuropathies are the most common complication of diabetes mellitus affecting up to 50% of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Various types of neuropathies can be associated with diabetes mellitus.1 Symptoms usually include numbness, tingling, pain and weakness. Dizziness with postural changes can be seen with autonomic neuropathy. Metabolic, vascular and immune theories have been proposed for the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Pathologically axonal damage and segmental demyelination can be seen with diabetic neuropathies. Management of diabetic neuropathy should begin at the initial diagnosis of diabetes and mainly requires tight and stable glycemic control. Many medications are available for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:23642717
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is one of the therapies for painful neuropathy. Its analgesic mechanisms probably involve the gate control theory, the physiological block and the endogenous pain inhibitory system. The aim of the study was to determine whether TENS improves small fibre function diminished because of painful…
Doppler, Kathrin; Kunstmann, Erdmute; Krüger, Stefan; Sommer, Claudia
Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT) 2E/1F is caused by mutations in the neurofilament light-chain polypeptide (NEFL) gene. Giant axons are a histological hallmark frequently seen in nerves of patients with CMT2E. We describe the case of a 43-year-old patient with a painful, predominantly sensory neuropathy. The patient's sural nerve biopsy showed multiple giant axons. Genetic sequencing of the NEFL gene revealed that the patient was heterozygous for an altered sequence of the gene, c.816C>G, p.Asn272Lys, which has not yet been described in CMT2E/1F. In contrast to other cases of CMT2E/1F, where motor symptoms are predominant, pain was the most disabling symptom in this patient. Muscle Nerve 55: 752-755, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Slangen, Rachel; Faber, Catharina G; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Joosten, Elbert A; van Dongen, Robert T; Kessels, Alfons G; van Kleef, Maarten; Dirksen, Carmen D
The objective was to perform an economic evaluation comparing spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in combination with best medical treatment (BMT) with BMT in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients. Alongside a prospective 2-center randomized controlled trial, involving 36 painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with severe lower limb pain not responding to conventional therapy, an economic evaluation was performed. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were based on: 1) societal costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and 2) direct health care costs and the number of successfully treated patients, respectively, both with a time horizon of 12 months. Bootstrap and secondary analyses were performed to address uncertainty. Total societal cost amounted to €26,539.18 versus €5,313.45 per patient in the SCS and BMT group, respectively. QALYs were .58 versus .36 and the number of successfully treated patients was 55% versus 7% for the SCS and BMT group, respectively. This resulted in incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of €94,159.56 per QALY and €34,518.85 per successfully treated patient, respectively. Bootstrap analyses showed that the probability of SCS being cost-effective ranges from 0 to 46% with willingness to pay threshold values ranging between €20,000 and €80,000 for a QALY. Secondary analyses showed that cost-effectiveness of SCS became more favorable after correcting for baseline cost imbalance between the 2 groups, extending the depreciation period of SCS material to 4 years, and extrapolation of the data up to 4 years. Although SCS was considerably more effective compared with BMT, the substantial initial investment that is required resulted in SCS not being cost-effective in the short term. Cost-effectiveness results were sensitive to baseline cost imbalances between the groups and the depreciation period of the SCS material. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and the
Background Painful Diabetic Neuropathy (PDN) is a debilitating syndrome present in a quarter of diabetic patients that has a substantial impact on their quality of life. Despite this significant prevalence and impact, current therapies for PDN are only partially effective. Moreover, the cellular mechanisms underlying PDN are not well understood. Neuropathic pain is caused by a variety of phenomena including sustained excitability in sensory neurons that reduces the pain threshold so that pain is produced in the absence of appropriate stimuli. Chemokine signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain in a variety of animal models. We therefore tested the hypothesis that chemokine signaling mediates DRG neuronal hyperexcitability in association with PDN. Results We demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of the specific CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 reversed PDN in two animal models of type II diabetes. Furthermore DRG sensory neurons acutely isolated from diabetic mice displayed enhanced SDF-1 induced calcium responses. Moreover, we demonstrated that CXCR4 receptors are expressed by a subset of DRG sensory neurons. Finally, we observed numerous CXCR4 expressing inflammatory cells infiltrating into the DRG of diabetic mice. Conclusions These data suggest that CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling mediates enhanced calcium influx and excitability in DRG neurons responsible for PDN. Simultaneously, CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling may coordinate inflammation in diabetic DRG that could contribute to the development of pain in diabetes. Therefore, targeting CXCR4 chemokine receptors may represent a novel intervention for treating PDN. PMID:24961298
Yazici Yilmaz, Fatma; Aydogan Mathyk, Begum; Yildiz, Serhat; Yenigul, Nefise Nazli; Saglam, Ceren
The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative pain and neuropathy after primary caesarean sections with either blunt or sharp fascial expansions. A total of 123 women undergoing primary caesarean sections were included in the study. The sharp group had 61 patients, and the blunt group had 62. In the sharp group, the fascia was incised sharply and extended using scissors. In blunt group, the fascia was bluntly opened by lateral finger-pulling. The primary outcome was postoperative pain. The long-term chronic pain scores were significantly lower in the blunt group during mobilisation (p = .012 and p = .022). Neuropathy was significantly more prevalent in the sharp group at both 1 and 3 months postoperatively (p = .043 and p = .016, respectively). The odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI for postoperative neuropathy at 1 and 3 months were as follows; OR 3.71, 95%CI 0.97-14.24 and OR 5.67, 95%CI 1.18-27.08, respectively. The OR for postoperative pain after 3 months was 3.26 (95%CI 1.09-9.73). The prevelance of postsurgical neuropathy and chronic pain at 3 months were significantly lower in the blunt group. Blunt fascial opening reduces the complication rate of postoperative pain and neuropathy after caesarean sections. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? The anatomic relationship of the abdominal fascia and the anterior abdominal wall nerves is a known fact. The fascia during caesarean sections can be opened by either a sharp or blunt extension. Data on the isolated impact of different fascial incisions on postoperative pain is limited. What do the results of this study add? The postoperative pain scores on the incision area are lower in the bluntly opened group compared to the sharp fascial incision group. By extending the fascia bluntly, a decrease in trauma and damage to nerves was observed. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or future research? The lateral extension of the fascia during
Katz, N. K.; Ryals, J. M.; Wright, D. E.
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, and a significant proportion of individuals suffer debilitating pain that significantly affects their quality of life. Unfortunately, symptomatic treatment options have limited efficacy, and often carry significant risk of systemic adverse effects. Activation of the adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) by the analgesic small molecule adenosine has been shown to have antinociceptive benefits in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. The current study used a mouse model of painful diabetic neuropathy to determine the effect of diabetes on endogenous adenosine production, and if central or peripheral delivery of adenosine receptor agonists could alleviate signs of mechanical allodynia in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced using streptozocin in male A/J mice. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds were measured weekly to characterize neuropathy phenotype. Hydrolysis of AMP into adenosine by ectonucleotidases was determined in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord at 8-weeks post-induction of diabetes. AMP, adenosine and the specific A1R agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), were administered both centrally (intrathecal) and peripherally (intraplantar) to determine the effect of activation of adenosine receptors on mechanical allodynia in diabetic mice. Eight weeks post-induction, diabetic mice displayed significantly decreased hydrolysis of extracellular AMP in the DRG; at this same time, diabetic mice displayed significantly decreased mechanical withdrawal thresholds compared to nondiabetic controls. Central delivery AMP, adenosine and CPA significantly improved mechanical withdrawal thresholds in diabetic mice. Surprisingly, peripheral delivery of CPA also improved mechanical allodynia in diabetic mice. This study provides new evidence that diabetes significantly affects endogenous AMP hydrolysis, suggesting that altered adenosine production could contribute to the development of painful
Abd-Elsayed, Alaa; Schiavoni, Nick; Sachdeva, Harsh
Peripheral neuropathy is a common cause of pain, and it is increasing in prevalence. Peripheral neuropathic pain is very hard to treat and can be resistant to multiple pain management modalities. Our series aimed at testing the efficacy of spinal cord stimulators (SCSs) in treating resistant painful peripheral neuropathy. Case 1: A 79-year-old man presented to our clinic with long-standing history of painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy resistant to conservative management. After failure of all possible modalities, we offered the patient an SCS trial that was very successful, and we proceeded with the permanent implant that continued to help with his pain and allowed the patient to wean down his medications. Case 2: A 60-year-old man presented with chronic peripheral neuropathy secondary to HIV, patient failed all conservative and procedural management. Patient then had an SCS trial that relieved his pain significantly. Unfortunately, we did not proceed with the implant due to deterioration of the patient general health. Case 3: A 39-year-old woman presented with painful peripheral neuropathy secondary to chemotherapy for breast cancer. After failure of medication management and procedures, patient had a SCS trial that improved her pain and we then proceeded with performing the permanent implant that controlled her pain. We presented 3 cases with chronic painful peripheral neuropathy secondary to HIV, diabetes mellitus, and chemotherapy that was resistant to conservative pain management and procedures that was successfully treated with neurostimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Edwards, James L.; Vincent, Andrea; Cheng, Thomas; Feldman, Eva L.
Neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes and results in pain, decreased motility, and amputation. Diabetic neuropathy encompasses a variety of forms whose impact ranges from discomfort to death. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in diabetic neurons and results in activation of multiple biochemical pathways. These activated pathways are a major source of damage and are potential therapeutic targets in diabetic neuropathy. Though therapies are available to alleviate the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, few options are available to eliminate the root causes. The immense physical, psychological, and economic cost of diabetic neuropathy underscores the need for causally targeted therapies. This review covers the pathology, epidemiology, biochemical pathways, and prevention of diabetic neuropathy, as well as discusses current symptomatic and causal therapies and novel approaches to identify therapeutic targets. PMID:18616962
... of days, weeks, or years. They can be acute or chronic. In acute neuropathies such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (in which ... that warns of impending heart attack or other acute conditions. Loss of pain sensation is a particularly ...
Levine, Todd D
Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) has a poorly understood pathology, but patients would benefit from determination of clinical phenotypes that allows for better diagnosis and treatment planning. I propose that patients should be classified dependent on whether there is sodium channel dysfunction, classic neurologic symptoms only, widespread neuropathic pain, or autonomic symptoms. Patients with SFN can then be considered in light of their clinical phenotype, allowing for focus on subsets of patients who might have diagnosable conditions or be more prone to responding to a particular type of therapy that may not be efficacious in the broader patient population with SFN. There are several therapies currently available that can address the symptoms of SFN; however, to develop novel therapeutic strategies, it will be imperative to classify patients to understand and target the underlying pathology.
Jayaraj, Nirupa D; Bhattacharyya, Bula J; Belmadani, Abdelhak A; Ren, Dongjun; Rathwell, Craig A; Hackelberg, Sandra; Hopkins, Brittany E; Gupta, Herschel R; Miller, Richard J; Menichella, Daniela M
Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is an intractable complication of diabetes that affects 25% of patients. PDN is characterized by neuropathic pain and small-fiber degeneration, accompanied by dorsal root ganglion (DRG) nociceptor hyperexcitability and loss of their axons within the skin. The molecular mechanisms underlying DRG nociceptor hyperexcitability and small-fiber degeneration in PDN are unknown. We hypothesize that chemokine CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling is central to this mechanism, as we have shown that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling is necessary for the development of mechanical allodynia, a pain hypersensitivity behavior common in PDN. Focusing on DRG neurons expressing the sodium channel Nav1.8, we applied transgenic, electrophysiological, imaging, and chemogenetic techniques to test this hypothesis. In the high-fat diet mouse model of PDN, we were able to prevent and reverse mechanical allodynia and small-fiber degeneration by limiting CXCR4 signaling or neuronal excitability. This study reveals that excitatory CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling in Nav1.8-positive DRG neurons plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of mechanical allodynia and small-fiber degeneration in a mouse model of PDN. Hence, we propose that targeting CXCR4-mediated DRG nociceptor hyperexcitability is a promising therapeutic approach for disease-modifying treatments for this currently intractable and widespread affliction.
Sanna, M D; Quattrone, A; Ghelardini, C; Galeotti, N
Patients treated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) develop painful neuropathies that lead to discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy thus limiting viral suppression strategies. The mechanisms by which NRTIs contribute to the development of neuropathy are not known. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this drug-induced neuropathy, we have characterized cellular events in the central nervous system following antiretroviral treatment. Systemic administration of the antiretroviral agent, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) considerably increased the expression and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) γ and ɛ, enzymes highly involved in pain processes, within periaqueductal grey matter (PAG), and, to a lesser extent, within thalamus and prefrontal cortex. These events appeared in coincidence with thermal and mechanical allodynia, but PKC blockade did not prevent the antiretroviral-induced pain hypersensitivity, ruling out a major involvement of PKC in the ddC-induced nociceptive behaviour. An increased expression of GAP43, a marker of neuroregeneration, and decreased levels of ATF3, a marker of neuroregeneration, were detected in all brain areas. ddC treatment also increased the expression of HuD, a RNA-binding protein target of PKC known to stabilize GAP43 mRNA. Pharmacological blockade of PKC prevented HuD and GAP43 overexpression. Silencing of both PKCγ and HuD reduced GAP43 levels in control mice and prevented the ddC-induced GAP43 enhanced expression. Present findings illustrate the presence of a supraspinal PKC-mediated HuD-GAP43 pathway activated by ddC. Based on our results, we speculate that antiretroviral drugs may recruit the HuD-GAP43 pathway, potentially contributing to a response to the antiretroviral neuronal toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Selvarajah, Dinesh; Gandhi, Rajiv; Emery, Celia J.; Tesfaye, Solomon
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicinal extract, as adjuvant treatment in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this randomized controlled trial, 30 subjects with painful DPN received daily Sativex or placebo. The primary outcome measure was change in mean daily pain scores, and secondary outcome measures included quality-of-life assessments. RESULTS There was significant improvement in pain scores in both groups, but mean change between groups was not significant. There were no significant differences in secondary outcome measures. Patients with depression had significantly greater baseline pain scores that improved regardless of intervention. CONCLUSIONS This first-ever trial assessing the efficacy of cannabis has shown it to be no more efficacious than placebo in painful DPN. Depression was a major confounder and may have important implications for future trials on painful DPN. PMID:19808912
Callaghan, Brian C.; Cheng, Hsinlin; Stables, Catherine L.; Smith, Andrea L.; Feldman, Eva L.
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a prevalent, disabling condition. The most common manifestation is a distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP), but many patterns of nerve injury can occur. Currently, the only effective treatments are glucose control and pain management. While glucose control dramatically decreases the development of neuropathy in those with type 1 diabetes, the effect is likely much smaller in those with type 2 diabetes. High levels of evidence support the use of certain anticonvulsants and antidepressants for pain management in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. However, the lack of disease modifying therapies for diabetic DSP makes the identification of new modifiable risk factors essential. Intriguingly, growing evidence supports an association between metabolic syndrome components, including pre-diabetes, and neuropathy. Future studies are needed to further explore this relationship with implications for new treatments for this common disease. PMID:22608666
DiBonaventura, Marco Dacosta; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Joshi, Ashish V
Research has shown that painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN) is associated with worse health outcomes. However, among pDPN patients, few studies have examined the relationship between the severity of pain and health outcomes. The current project included pDPN patients (N=1506) from the 2006, 2007, and 2008 waves of the National Health and Wellness Survey. Health status (Short Form [SF]-12), work productivity (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire), and health care resource use in the past 6 months were compared among pDPN patients with mild, moderate, and severe pain, adjusting for demographics and clinical characteristics. More than half (51.2%) of the patients reported their pain as severe, 45.2% reported moderate pain, and 3.7% reported mild pain. Those with severe pain reported significantly lower levels of health status, higher levels of work and activity impairment, and higher levels of resource use relative to the other groups. Annual per-patient costs for those with severe pain were $12,856, $3927, and $16,783 for direct, indirect, and total costs, respectively. Both direct and total costs were significantly higher in this group relative to both mild and moderate pain patients. These results suggest that pain severity contributes substantially to the health outcomes of pDPN patients and that greater resources should be allocated to the management of patients with severe pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hobson-Webb, Lisa D; Roach, E Steve; Donofrio, Peter D
Metronidazole is a commonly used antibiotic prescribed for the treatment of anaerobic and protozoal infections of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. It is associated with numerous neurologic complications, including peripheral neuropathy. Neuropathy is typically detected in patients on chronic therapy, although it has been documented in those taking large doses for acute infections. Numerous case reports have been published describing motor and sensory neuropathy, yet autonomic neuropathy has not been described with metronidazole use. A previously healthy 15-year-old girl presented with complaints of burning pain in her feet following a short course of metronidazole for vaginitis. She could obtain pain relief only by submerging her feet in ice water. Examination revealed cold and swollen lower extremities that became erythematous and very warm when removed from the ice water. Temperature perception was reduced to the upper third of the shin bilaterally. Deep tendon reflexes and strength were preserved. Nerve conduction studies demonstrated a peripheral neuropathy manifested by reduced sensory nerve and compound muscle action potentials. Reproducible sympathetic skin potential responses could not be obtained in the hand and foot, providing evidence of a concurrent autonomic neuropathy. A thorough evaluation revealed no other cause for her condition. Repeated nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin potentials returned to normal over the course of 6 months, paralleling the patient's clinical improvement. Metronidazole is a potential cause of reversible autonomic neuropathy.
Watson, James C; Dyck, P James B
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most prevalent neurologic conditions encountered by physicians of all specialties. Physicians are faced with 3 distinct challenges in caring for patients with peripheral neuropathy: (1) how to efficiently and effectively screen (in less than 2 minutes) an asymptomatic patient for peripheral neuropathy when they have a disorder in which peripheral neuropathy is highly prevalent (eg, diabetes mellitus), (2) how to clinically stratify patients presenting with symptoms of neuropathy to determine who would benefit from specialty consultation and what testing is appropriate for those who do not need consultation, and (3) how to treat the symptoms of painful peripheral neuropathy. In this concise review, we address these 3 common clinical scenarios. Easily defined clinical patterns of involvement are used to identify patients in need of neurologic consultation, the yield of laboratory and other diagnostic testing is reviewed for the evaluation of length-dependent, sensorimotor peripheral neuropathies (the most common form of neuropathy), and an algorithmic approach with dosing recommendations is provided for the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thiagarajan, Venkata Rathina Kumar; Shanmugam, Palanichamy; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Muthuraman, Arunachalam
The present study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive potential of Vernonia cinerea (VC) on vincristine-induced painful neuropathy in rats. A chemotherapeutic agent, vincristine (50 μg/kg intraperitoneally for 10 consecutive days), was administered for the induction of neuropathic pain in rats. The painful behavioral changes were assessed using hot plate, acetone drop, paw pressure, Von Frey hair and tail immersion tests to assess the degree of hyperalgesic and allodynic pain sensation in paw and tail. Tissue biomarker changes including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs), reduced glutathione (GSH) and total calcium levels were estimated in sciatic nerve tissue samples to assess the degree of oxidative stress. Histopathological changes were also observed in transverse sections of rat sciatic nerve tissue. Ethanolic extract of VC leaves and pregabalin were administered for 14 consecutive days from day 0 (day of surgery). Pregabalin served as a positive control in the present study. Vincristine administration resulted in a significant reduction in painful behavioral changes along with a rise in the levels of TBARS, total calcium and decrease in GSH levels when compared with the normal control group. Furthermore, significant histopathological changes were also observed. Pretreatment with VC significantly attenuated vincristine-induced development of painful behavioral, biochemical and histological changes in a dose-dependent manner, which is similar to that of pregabalin-pretreated group. The attenuating effect of VC in vincristine-induced nociceptive painful sensation may be due to its potential of antioxidative, neuroprotective and calcium channel inhibitory action. © The Author(s) 2012.
Dubey, Divyanshu; Lennon, Vanda A; Gadoth, Avi; Pittock, Sean J; Flanagan, Eoin P; Schmeling, John E; McKeon, Andrew; Klein, Christopher J
To establish the phenotype and clinical outcomes of collapsin response-mediator protein-5 (CRMP5) autoimmune neuropathy in comparison with anti-neuronal nuclear antibody type 1 (ANNA1)-immunoglobulin G (IgG) neuropathy. Patients with CRMP5-IgG and/or ANNA1-IgGs were identified in our service-line testing, and medical records were reviewed. One hundred five patients with CRMP5-IgG neuropathy (88% smokers; 69% having cancer, most commonly small cell lung cancer [75%]) were identified and compared to 51 patients with ANNA1-IgG neuropathy, 27 with coexisting CRMP5-IgG. Patients with CRMP5 had painful axonal polyradiculoneuropathy (65%), mostly asymmetric onset (84%), with neuropathy predating cancer diagnosis by 185 days (range 60-540 days). Most cases (79%) had moderate to severe neuropathic pain, all on neuropathic medications (median 2, range 1-4), opioids in 39%. Nerve biopsies (n = 2) showed microvascular inflammation with axonal degeneration. Compared to ANNA1 alone, CRMP5 neuropathy has a higher prevalence of pain (79% vs 46%, p = 0.008), asymmetric polyradiculoneuropathy (54% vs 12%, p < 0.001), and inflammatory spinal fluids (elevated CSF protein or nucleated cell count 92% vs 60%, p = 0.022). Cerebellar ataxia (21%), myelopathy (19%), and optic neuritis and/or retinitis (11%) were common neurologic accompaniments. CRMP5 cases had significant pain reduction by immunotherapy ( p < 0.001). Specifically, high-dose corticosteroid administration was associated with improvement/stabilization in neuropathy impairment scores ( p = 0.012) (Class IV). Patients with CRMP5 had better 5-year survival than patients with ANNA1 (67% vs 32%, p = 0.012). Painful axonal asymmetric polyradiculoneuropathy is established as the major CRMP5 autoimmune neuropathy presentation and is distinguishable from other paraneoplastic neuropathies, including by ANNA1 autoimmunity. Patients with this phenotype should be prompted for CRMP5-IgG testing to assist in early cancer diagnosis
Up Noh, Sun; Lee, Won-Young; Kim, Won-Serk; Lee, Yong-Taek; Jae Yoon, Kyung
Background Diabetic neuropathy originating in distal lower extremities is associated with pain early in the disease course, overwhelming in the feet. However, the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy remains unclear. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor has been implicated in the onset of neuropathic pain and the development of diabetes. Objective of this study was to observe pain syndromes elicited in the footpad of diabetic neuropathy rat model and to assess the contributory role of migration inhibitory factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Methods Diabetic neuropathy was made in Sprague Dawley rats by streptozotocin. Pain threshold was evaluated using von Frey monofilaments for 24 weeks. On comparable experiment time after streptozotocin injection, all footpads were prepared for following procedures; glutathione assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling staining, immunohistochemistry staining, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot. Additionally, human HaCaT skin keratinocytes were treated with methylglyoxal, transfected with migration inhibitory factor/control small interfering RNA, and prepared for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results As compared to sham group, pain threshold was significantly reduced in diabetic neuropathy group, and glutathione was decreased in footpad skin, simultaneously, cell death was increased. Over-expression of migration inhibitory factor, accompanied by low expression of glyoxalase-I and intraepidermal nerve fibers, was shown on the footpad skin lesions of diabetic neuropathy. But, there was no significance in expression of neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators such as transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, mas-related G protein coupled receptor D, nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 between diabetic neuropathy group and sham group. Intriguingly
Kamerman, Peter R.; Veliotes, Demetri G. A.; Phillips, Tudor J.; Asboe, David; Boffito, Marta; Rice, Andrew S. C.
HIV-associated sensory peripheral neuropathy (HIV-SN) afflicts approximately 50% of patients on antiretroviral therapy, and is associated with significant neuropathic pain. Simple accurate diagnostic instruments are required for clinical research and daily practice in both high- and low-resource setting. A 4-item clinical tool (CHANT: Clinical HIV-associated Neuropathy Tool) assessing symptoms (pain and numbness) and signs (ankle reflexes and vibration sense) was developed by selecting and combining the most accurate measurands from a deep phenotyping study of HIV positive people (Pain In Neuropathy Study–HIV-PINS). CHANT was alpha-tested in silico against the HIV-PINS dataset and then clinically validated and field-tested in HIV-positive cohorts in London, UK and Johannesburg, South Africa. The Utah Early Neuropathy Score (UENS) was used as the reference standard in both settings. In a second step, neuropathic pain in the presence of HIV-SN was assessed using the Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions (DN4)-interview and a body map. CHANT achieved high accuracy on alpha-testing with sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 90%, respectively. In 30 patients in London, CHANT diagnosed 43.3% (13/30) HIV-SN (66.7% with neuropathic pain); sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 85%, and likelihood ratio = 6.7 versus UENS, internal consistency = 0.88 (Cronbach alpha), average item-total correlation = 0.73 (Spearman’s Rho), and inter-tester concordance > 0.93 (Spearman’s Rho). In 50 patients in Johannesburg, CHANT diagnosed 66% (33/50) HIV-SN (78.8% neuropathic pain); sensitivity = 74.4%, specificity = 85.7%, and likelihood ratio = 5.29 versus UENS. A positive CHANT score markedly increased of pre- to post-test clinical certainty of HIV-SN from 43% to 83% in London, and from 66% to 92% in Johannesburg. In conclusion, a combination of four easily and quickly assessed clinical items can be used to accurately diagnose HIV-SN. DN4-interview used in the context of bilateral feet
Simpson, David M; Brown, Stephen; Tobias, Jeffrey
HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy (HIV-DSP) is a painful condition with limited effective treatment. Capsaicin desensitizes cutaneous nociceptors resulting in reduced pain. We report a placebo-controlled study of a high-concentration capsaicin dermal patch (NGX-4010) for the treatment of painful HIV-DSP. This double-blind multicenter study randomized 307 patients with painful HIV-DSP to receive NGX-4010 or control, a low-concentration capsaicin patch. After application of a topical anesthetic, NGX-4010 or control was applied once for 30, 60, or 90 minutes to painful areas on the feet. The primary efficacy endpoint was percent change in Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) from baseline in mean "average pain for past 24 hours" scores from weeks 2 to 12. A single NGX-4010 application resulted in a mean pain reduction of 22.8% during weeks 2 to 12 as compared to a 10.7% reduction for controls (p = 0.0026). Following a transient treatment-related pain increase, pain was reduced; significant improvement was apparent by week 2 and continued throughout the controlled 12-week observation period. Mean pain reductions in the NGX-4010 30-, 60- and 90-minute groups were 27.7%, 15.9%, and 24.7% (p = 0.0007, 0.287, and 0.0046 vs control). One third of NGX-4010-treated patients reported >or=30% pain decrease from baseline as compared to 18% of controls (p = 0.0092). Self-limited, mild-to-moderate local skin reactions were commonly observed. A single NGX-4010 application was safe and provided at least 12 weeks of pain reduction in patients with HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy. These results suggest that NGX-4010 could provide a promising new treatment for painful HIV neuropathy.
Boucher, Yves; Moreau, Nathan; Mauborgne, Annie; Dieb, Wisam
We explored the molecular and behavioral effects of a perineural Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory priming on the development and maintenance of painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PPTTN) following infra-orbital nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI-IoN) in rats. Rats were pretreated with repetitive perineural injections in the vicinity of the IoN of either LPS or vehicle (Vhcl) before being submitted to CCI-IoN. Orofacial pain-like behaviors (response to Von Frey Filament testing and spontaneous isolated face grooming) were measured during the period of LPS injections (three weeks) and following CCI-IoN surgery (two weeks). Local LPS administration induced an early pain-like behavior (i.e. an increase in spontaneous pain [SP] or mechanical static allodynia [MSA]) in both conditions, and following CCI-IoN, MSA and SP developed earlier and more severely in LPS-pretreated rats than in the control group. Ipsilateral increases of key neuropathic pain mRNA markers in the IoN parenchyma, trigeminal ganglia (TG) and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C) were observed in CCI-IoN injured animals as compared to controls. Although no significant molecular differences could be observed within the IoN parenchyma between LPS and Vhcl-pretreated animals, a significant increase of key inflammatory cytokine Interleukin 1 beta (IL - 1β) could be found in the TG of LPS-pretreated CCI-injured animals versus controls. Finally, a higher increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in ipsilateral Sp5C of LPS-pretreated animals was observed as compared to Sp5C of Vhcl-pretreated animals. These results suggest a key role of inflammatory priming in the development and maintenance of PPTTN implicating IL-1β/iNOS-dependent central sensitization mechanisms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Filipczak-Bryniarska, Iwona; Krzyzewski, Roger M; Kucharz, Jakub; Michalowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna; Kleja, Justyna; Woron, Jarosław; Strzepek, Katarzyna; Kazior, Lucyna; Wordliczek, Jerzy; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof
High-dose capsaicin patch is effective in treatment of neuropathic pain in HIV-associated neuropathy and diabetic neuropathy. There are no studies assessing effectiveness of high-dose capsaicin patch in treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. We sought to determine the effectiveness of treatment of pain associated with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy with high-dose capsaicin patch. Our study group consisted of 18 patients with clinically confirmed oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Baseline characteristic including underling disease, received cumulative dose of neurotoxic agent, neuropathic symptoms, prior treatment and initial pain level were recorded. Pain was evaluated with Numeric Rating Scale prior to treatment with high-dose capsaicin and after 1.8 day and after 8 and 12 weeks after introducing treatment. Patients were divided into two groups accordingly to the amount of neurotoxic agent that caused neuropathy (high sensitivity and low sensitivity group). Most frequent symptoms of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy were: pain (88.89%), paresthesis (100%), sock and gloves sensation (100%) and hypoesthesis (100%). Initial pain level was 7.45 ± 1.14. Mean cumulative dose of oxaliplatin after which patients developed symptoms was 648.07 mg/m 2 . Mean pain level after 12 weeks of treatment was 0.20 ± 0.41. When examined according to high and low sensitivity to neurotoxic agent patients with low sensitivity had higher pain reduction, especially after 8 days after introducing treatment (69.55 ± 12.09 vs. 49.40 ± 20.34%; p = 0.02) and after 12 weeks (96.96 ± 5.56 vs. 83.93 ± 18.59%; p = 0.04). High-dose capsaicin patch is an effective treatment for pain associated with chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in patients treated with oxaliplatin. Patients with lower sensitivity to neurotoxic agents have better response to treatment and pain reduction.
Huffman, Cynthia; Stacey, Brett R; Tuchman, Michael; Burbridge, Claire; Li, Chunming; Parsons, Bruce; Pauer, Lynne; Scavone, Joseph M; Behar, Regina; Yurkewicz, Lorraine
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, 2-period crossover study (two 6-week treatment periods separated by a 2-week washout period) evaluated the efficacy and safety of pregabalin (150 to 300 mg/d) for treatment of pain and pain on walking in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) who experienced pain while walking. Co-primary efficacy endpoints were: (1) mean pain score (last 7 daily pain diary scores, 0 to 10 numeric rating scale at end of each treatment period) and (2) DPN pain on walking (0 to 10 numeric rating scale immediately after walking 50 feet [15.2 m] on flat surface). Secondary endpoints included other pain parameters, patient-reported sleep, health-related quality of life, and safety measures. Two hundred three patients were treated (pregabalin, n=198; placebo, n=186), with no statistically significant treatment difference for pregabalin versus placebo in the co-primary efficacy endpoints, mean DPN pain (P=0.0656) and mean DPN pain on walking (P=0.412). A carryover effect was observed. Analysis of co-primary endpoints for period 1 showed significant treatment difference for DPN pain (P=0.034) and DPN pain on walking (P=0.001). Treatment with pregabalin resulted in significant improvements versus placebo on prespecified patient global impression of change (end of period 1; P=0.002), and sleep interference rating scale (end of period 2; P=0.011). Adverse events were more frequent with pregabalin than with placebo and caused discontinuation in 13 (6.6%) pregabalin patients versus 5 (2.7%) placebo patients. Failure to meet the co-primary objectives may be related to carryover effect from period 1 to period 2, lower pregabalin dose (150 to 300 mg/d), and/or placebo response in painful DPN.
The pain and discomfort caused by peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common reasons that cancer patients stop their treatment early. Researchers are working to improve new screening, treatment, and prevention options for patients.
Paraesthesia reflects an abnormality affecting the sensory pathways anywhere between the peripheral sensory nervous system and the sensory cortex. As with all neurology, the fundamental diagnostic tool is a concise history, devoid of potentially ambiguous jargon, which properly reflects the true nature of what the patient is experiencing, provocateurs, precipitating and relieving factors, concomitant illnesses, such as diabetes, and any treatments that could evoke neuropathies. Some localised neuropathies, such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) or ulnar neuropathy, produce classical features, such as weakness of the 'LOAF' (lateral two lumbricals, opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis and flexor pollicis brevis) median innervated muscles, thereby obviating need for further neurophysiology. Nerve conduction studies may be necessary to diagnose peripheral neuropathy, but they may also be normal with small fibre neuropathy. Even with a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy, definition of the underlying cause may remain elusive in a significant proportion of cases, despite involvement of consultants. Treatment is based on the relevant diagnosis and mechanism to address the cause. This includes better glycaemic control for diabetes, night splint for CTS or elbow padding for ulnar neuropathy, modifying lifestyle with reduced alcohol consumption or replacing dietary deficiencies or changing medications where appropriate and practical. Should such intervention fail to relieve symptoms, consideration of intervention to relieve symptoms of neuropathic pain may be required.
de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Jacobsen Teixeira, Manoel; Galhardoni, Ricardo; Ferreira, Karine S L; Braz Mileno, Paula; Scisci, Nathalia; Zandonai, Alexandra; Teixeira, William G J; Saragiotto, Daniel F; Silva, Valquíria; Raicher, Irina; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Macarenco, Ricardo; Otto Heise, Carlos; Wilson Iervolino Brotto, Mario; Andrade de Mello, Alberto; Zini Megale, Marcelo; Henrique Curti Dourado, Luiz; Mendes Bahia, Luciana; Lilian Rodrigues, Antonia; Parravano, Daniella; Tizue Fukushima, Julia; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Bouhassira, Didier; Sobroza, Evandro; Riechelmann, Rachel P; Hoff, Paulo M; Valério da Silva, Fernanda; Chile, Thais; Dale, Camila S; Nebuloni, Daniela; Senna, Luiz; Brentani, Helena; Pagano, Rosana L; de Souza, Ângela M
Pregabalin is a medication that can decrease neuronal hyperexcitability, relieve neuropathic pain, and reach stable plasma levels after a titration period of only a few days.Its use during oxaliplatin infusions was not able to decrease the incidence of chronic, oxalipaltin-related neuropathic pain, compared with placebo. Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) receiving oxaliplatin (OXA) develop acute and chronic painful oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXAIPN). Acute and chronic OXA-related neuropathies have different pathophysiological bases, but both lead to a common phenomenon: central sensitization (CS) of nociceptive neuronal networks, leading to increased sensitivity (hyperlgesia, allodynia) in the somatosensory system, the common ground of chronic neuropathic pain. Because CS is related to increased risk of painful OXAIPN, we hypothesized that preemptive use of the anti-hyperalgesic drug pregabaline (known to decrease CS) during OXA infusions would decrease the incidence of chronic OXAIPN. Pain-free, chemotherapy-naïve CRC patients receiving at least one cycle of modified-FLOX [5-FU(500 mg/m 2 )+leucovorin(20 mg/m 2 )/week for] 6 weeks+oxaliplatin(85 mg/m 2 ) at weeks 1-3-5 every 8 weeks] were randomized (1:1) into the study. Patients received either pregabalin or placebo for 3 days before and 3 days after each OXA infusion and were followed for up to 6 months. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline, at the end of chemotherapy, and after the follow-up period. The main outcome was average pain at the last visit assessed by the visual analogic scale (0-10) item of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Secondary endpoints were presence of neuropathic pain according to the Douleur Neuropathique-4 (DN-4), pain dimensions (short- form McGill Pain Questionnaire [MPQ]), Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI), and changes in nerve conduction studies (NCS) and side effect profile. One hundred ninety-nine patients (57.0 ± 10.7 years old, 98 female
Jaken, Robby J; van Gorp, Sebastiaan; Joosten, Elbert A; Losen, Mario; Martínez-Martínez, Pilar; De Baets, Marc; Marcus, Marco A; Deumens, Ronald
Structural plasticity within the spinal nociceptive network may be fundamental to the chronic nature of neuropathic pain. In the present study, the spatiotemporal expression of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), a protein which has been traditionally implicated in nerve fiber growth and sprouting, was investigated in relation to mechanical pain hypersensitivity. An L5 spinal nerve transection model was validated by the presence of mechanical pain hypersensitivity and an increase in the early neuronal activation marker cFos within the superficial spinal dorsal horn upon innocuous hindpaw stimulation. Spinal GAP-43 was found to be upregulated in the superficial L5 dorsal horn from 5 up to 10 days after injury. GAP-43 was co-localized with calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), but not vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT-1), IB4, or protein kinase-γ (PKC-γ), suggesting the regulation of GAP-43 in peptidergic nociceptive afferents. These GAP-43/CGRP fibers may be indicative of sprouting peptidergic fibers. Fiber sprouting largely depends on growth factors, which are typically associated with neuro-inflammatory processes. The putative role of neuropathy-induced GAP-43 expression in the development of mechanical pain hypersensitivity was investigated using the immune modulator propentofylline. Propentofylline treatment strongly attenuated the development of mechanical pain hypersensitivity and glial responses to nerve injury as measured by microglial and astroglial markers, but did not affect neuropathy-induced levels of spinal GAP-43 or GAP-43 regulation in CGRP fibers. We conclude that nerve injury induces structural plasticity in fibers expressing CGRP, which is regarded as a main player in central sensitization. Our data do not, however, support a major role of these structural changes in the onset of mechanical pain hypersensitivity.
Chopra, Kanwaljit; Tiwari, Vinod
Chronic alcohol consumption produces painful peripheral neuropathy for which there is no reliable successful therapy, mainly due to lack of understanding of its pathobiology. Alcoholic neuropathy involves coasting caused by damage to nerves that results from long term excessive drinking of alcohol and is characterized by spontaneous burning pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. The mechanism behind alcoholic neuropathy is not well understood, but several explanations have been proposed. These include activation of spinal cord microglia after chronic alcohol consumption, oxidative stress leading to free radical damage to nerves, activation of mGlu5 receptors in the spinal cord and activation of the sympathoadrenal and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Nutritional deficiency (especially thiamine deficiency) and/or the direct toxic effect of alcohol or both have also been implicated in alcohol-induced neuropathic pain. Treatment is directed towards halting further damage to the peripheral nerves and restoring their normal functioning. This can be achieved by alcohol abstinence and a nutritionally balanced diet supplemented by all B vitamins. However, in the setting of ongoing alcohol use, vitamin supplementation alone has not been convincingly shown to be sufficient for improvement in most patients. The present review is focused around the multiple pathways involved in the development of peripheral neuropathy associated with chronic alcohol intake and the different therapeutic agents which may find a place in the therapeutic armamentarium for both prevention and management of alcoholic neuropathy. PMID:21988193
Background Oxaliplatin, the third-generation platinum compound, has evolved as one of the most important therapeutic agents in colorectal cancer chemotherapy. The main limiting factor in oxaliplatin treatment is painful neuropathy that is difficult to treat. This side effect has been studied for several years, but its full mechanism is still inconclusive, and effective treatment does not exist. Data suggest that oxaliplatin’s initial neurotoxic effect is peripheral and oxidative stress-dependent. A spinal target is also suggested in its mechanism of action. The flavonoids rutin and quercetin have been described as cell-protecting agents because of their antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory actions. We proposed a preventive effect of these agents on oxaliplatin-induced painful peripheral neuropathy based on their antioxidant properties. Methods Oxaliplatin (1 mg/kg, i.v.) was injected in male Swiss mice, twice a week (total of nine injections). The development of sensory alterations, such as thermal and mechanical allodynia, was evaluated using the tail immersion test in cold water (10°C) and the von Frey test. Rutin and quercetin (25-100 mg/kg, i.p.) were injected 30 min before each oxaliplatin injection. The animals’ spinal cords were removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation and malondialdehyde assay. Results Oxaliplatin significantly increased thermal and mechanical nociceptive response, effects prevented by quercetin and rutin at all doses. Fos immunostaining in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord confirmed these results. The oxidative stress assays mainly showed that oxaliplatin induced peroxidation in the spinal cord and that rutin and quercetin decreased this effect. The flavonoids also decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine immunostaining in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. These results suggest that nitric oxide and peroxynitrite are also involved in the neurotoxic effect of oxaliplatin
Gossrau, Gudrun; Wähner, Michael; Kuschke, Marion; Konrad, Birgit; Reichmann, Heinz; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Sabatowski, Rainer
Diabetes is a common health care problem in western countries. Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) might be one of the consequences of long ongoing diabetes; it is estimated that approximately 20% of European diabetic patients suffer from PDN. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is often used as additional pain treatment. However, recent studies show inconsistent results. We aimed to assess the effect of micro-TENS in reducing neuropathic pain in patients with PDN in a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, and randomized design. DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENTS/OUTCOME MEASURES: 22 diabetic patients have been treated with a micro-TENS therapy and 19 patients have been treated with a placebo therapy. Treatment duration was 4 weeks with three therapeutical settings per week. Standardized questionnaires (Pain Disability Index [PDI], neuropathic pain score [NPS], Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]) were used to assess pain intensity, pain disability, as well as quality of life at baseline at the end of the treatment period and 4 weeks after treatment termination. Patients with a minimum of 30% reduction in NPS were defined as therapy responders. After 4 weeks of treatment, 6/21 patients in the verum group vs 10/19 patients in the placebo group responded to therapy. The median PDI score after 4 weeks of treatment showed a reduction of 23% in the verum vs 25% in the placebo group. The differences did not reach statistical significance. The pain reduction with the applied transcutaneous electrotherapy regimen is not superior to a placebo treatment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Javed, Saad; Alam, Uazman; Malik, Rayaz A.
Diabetic peripheral neuropathies (DPN) are a heterogeneous group of disorders caused by neuronal dysfunction in patients with diabetes. They have differing clinical courses, distributions, fiber involvement (large or small), and pathophysiology. These complications are associated with increased morbidity, distress, and healthcare costs. Approximately 50% of patients with diabetes develop peripheral neuropathy, and the projected rise in the global burden of diabetes is spurring an increase in neuropathy. Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN) with painful diabetic neuropathy, occurring in around 20% of diabetes patients, and diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) are the most common manifestations of DPN. Optimal glucose control represents the only broadly accepted therapeutic option though evidence of its benefit in type 2 diabetes is unclear. A number of symptomatic treatments are recommended in clinical guidelines for the management of painful DPN, including antidepressants such as amitriptyline and duloxetine, the γ-aminobutyric acid analogues gabapentin and pregabalin, opioids, and topical agents such as capsaicin. However, monotherapy is frequently not effective in achieving complete resolution of pain in DPN. There is a growing need for head-to-head studies of different single-drug and combination pharmacotherapies. Due to the ubiquity of autonomic innervation in the body, DAN causes a plethora of symptoms and signs affecting cardiovascular, urogenital, gastrointestinal, pupillomotor, thermoregulatory, and sudomotor systems. The current treatment of DAN is largely symptomatic, and does not correct the underlying autonomic nerve deficit. A number of novel potential candidates, including erythropoietin analogues, angiotensin II receptor type 2 antagonists, and sodium channel blockers are currently being evaluated in phase II clinical trials. PMID:26676662
Strong, Amy L; Agarwal, Shailesh; Cederna, Paul S; Levi, Benjamin
Peripheral neuropathy and nerve compression syndromes lead to substantial morbidity following burn injury. Patients present with pain, paresthesias, or weakness along a specific nerve distribution or experience generalized peripheral neuropathy. The symptoms manifest at various times from within one week of hospitalization to many months after wound closure. Peripheral neuropathy may be caused by vascular occlusion of vasa nervorum, inflammation, neurotoxin production leading to apoptosis, and direct destruction of nerves from the burn injury. This article discusses the natural history, diagnosis, current treatments, and future directions for potential interventions for peripheral neuropathy and nerve compression syndromes related to burn injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blesneac, Iulia; Themistocleous, Andreas C.; Fratter, Carl; Conrad, Linus J.; Ramirez, Juan D.; Cox, James J.; Tesfaye, Solomon; Shillo, Pallai R.; Rice, Andrew S.C.; Tucker, Stephen J.
Abstract Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common disabling complication of diabetes. Almost half of the patients with DPN develop neuropathic pain (NeuP) for which current analgesic treatments are inadequate. Understanding the role of genetic variability in the development of painful DPN is needed for improved understanding of pain pathogenesis for better patient stratification in clinical trials and to target therapy more appropriately. Here, we examined the relationship between variants in the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 and NeuP in a deeply phenotyped cohort of patients with DPN. Although no rare variants were found in 78 participants with painless DPN, we identified 12 rare NaV1.7 variants in 10 (out of 111) study participants with painful DPN. Five of these variants had previously been described in the context of other NeuP disorders and 7 have not previously been linked to NeuP. Those patients with rare variants reported more severe pain and greater sensitivity to pressure stimuli on quantitative sensory testing. Electrophysiological characterization of 2 of the novel variants (M1852T and T1596I) demonstrated that gain of function changes as a consequence of markedly impaired channel fast inactivation. Using a structural model of NaV1.7, we were also able to provide further insight into the structural mechanisms underlying fast inactivation and the role of the C-terminal domain in this process. Our observations suggest that rare NaV1.7 variants contribute to the development NeuP in patients with DPN. Their identification should aid understanding of sensory phenotype, patient stratification, and help target treatments effectively. PMID:29176367
Brunelli, Brian; Gorson, Kenneth C
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies have become increasingly popular and are used regularly by patients with chronic neurological disorders. The prevalence and characteristics of CAM use by patients with peripheral neuropathy is unknown. We performed a prospective, questionnaire-based study to determine the prevalence and patterns of use of CAM therapies in 180 consecutive outpatients with peripheral neuropathy. The use of CAM was reported by 77 patients (43%) with neuropathy. The most frequent were megavitamins (35%), magnets (30%), acupuncture (30%), herbal remedies (22%), and chiropractic manipulation (21%); 37 (48%) tried more than one form of alternative treatment. Seventeen respondents (27%) thought their neuropathy symptoms improved with these approaches. Those who used CAM were slightly younger (mean age 62 vs. 65 years, p = 0.05) and more often college educated (39% vs. 24%, p = 0.03) compared to CAM nonusers. They also more often reported burning neuropathic pain (62% vs. 44%, p = 0.01). Patients with diabetic neuropathy used CAM more frequently than others (p = 0.03). The most common reason for using CAM was inadequate pain control (32%). Almost half of patients did not consult a physician before starting CAM. We conclude that there is a high prevalence of CAM use in our patients with neuropathy, and one-quarter reported that their symptoms improved. CAM users were better educated than nonusers, but most did not discuss CAM treatments with their physician. Neuropathic pain was substantially more common in CAM users, and lack of pain control was the most common reason for CAM use.
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (HSAN V) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the loss of deep pain perception. The anomalous pain and temperature sensations are due to the absence of nociceptive sensory innervation. The neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), by binding to tropomyosin receptor A (TrkA) and p75NTR receptors, is essential for the development and survival of sensory neurons, and for pain perception during adulthood. Recently a homozygous missense mutation (R100W) in the NGF gene has been identified in HSAN V patients. Interestingly, alterations in NGF signalling, due to mutations in the NGF TRKA gene, have also been involved in another congenital insensitivity to pain, HSAN IV, characterized not only by absence of reaction to painful stimuli, but also anhidrosis and mental retardation. These symptoms are absent in HSAN V patients. Unravelling the mechanisms that underlie the differences between HSAN IV and V could assist in better understanding NGF biology. This review highlights the recent key findings in the understanding of HSAN V, including insights into the molecular mechanisms of the disease, derived from genetic studies of patients with this disorder. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Papapetrou, Peter; Kumar, Aashish J; Muppuri, Rudram; Chakrabortty, Shushovan
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating side effect of chemotherapy, which manifests as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and numbness in the hands and feet. Numerous chemoprotective agents and treatments have been used with limited success to treat chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. We report a case in which a patient presenting with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy received an IV lidocaine infusion over the course of 60 minutes with complete symptomatic pain relief for a prolonged period of 2 weeks.
Solomon, Lawrence R
Treatment of neuropathic pain and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) in patients with malignancy is often unsuccessful. Functional vitamin B12 deficiency, defined by elevated levels of the B12-dependent metabolites, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and/or homocysteine, despite normal B12 values, may cause neuropathy and is associated with disorders linked to increased oxidative stress. Since both cancer and neurotoxic antineoplastic agents increase oxidative stress, a role for functional B12 deficiency in CIPN was considered. A retrospective record review of 241 cancer subjects evaluated by the adult palliative care service for B12 deficiency in a university-based cancer center between October 2008 and September 2012 with measurement of B12, MMA, and/or homocysteine levels was performed. B12 values were elevated (>900 pg/ml) in 30 % and low (≤300 pg/ml) in 17 % of subjects tested. Elevated MMA (>250 nmol/l) and homocysteine (>12.1 μmol/l) levels occurred in 38 and 23 % of subjects respectively and at least one metabolite was increased in 54 % of evaluable subjects. Even when B12 values were ≥1500 pg/ml (n = 36), increased MMA and homocysteine values occurred in 31 and 23 % of subjects, respectively. B12 therapy decreased MMA values in all four subjects studied and improved neurologic findings in the three subjects tested. Functional vitamin B12 deficiency is common in subjects with advanced malignancy. Further studies are needed to determine if this disorder is a risk factor for CIPN and if B12 therapy has a role in the management and/or prevention of neuropathy and neuropathic pain in this population.
Objective The purpose of this paper is to elucidate this little known cause of upper back pain through a narrative review of the literature and to discuss the possible role of the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) in the etiopathology of other similar diagnoses in this area including cervicogenic dorsalgia (CD), notalgia paresthetica (NP), SICK scapula and a posterolateral arm pain pattern. Background Dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) neuropathy has been a rarely thought of differential diagnosis for mid scapular, upper to mid back and costovertebral pain. These are common conditions presenting to chiropractic, physiotherapy, massage therapy and medical offices. Methods The methods used to gather articles for this paper included: searching electronic databases; and hand searching relevant references from journal articles and textbook chapters. Results One hundred-fourteen articles were retrieved. After removing duplicates, there were 57 articles of which 29 were retrieved. There were 26 articles and textbook chapters retrieved by hand searching equaling 55 articles retrieved of which 47 relevant articles were used in this report. Discussion The anatomy, pathway and function of the dorsal scapular nerve can be varied and exceptionally rarely may include a sensory component. The signs and symptoms, therefore, may include pain, atrophy, scapular winging, and dysesthesia. The mechanism of injury to the DSN is also quite varied ranging from postural to overuse in overhead work and sport. Other conditions in this area, including CD, NP, SICK scapula and a posterolateral arm pain pattern bear a striking resemblance to DSN neuropathy. Conclusion DSN neuropathy should be included in the list of common differential diagnoses of upper and mid-thoracic pain, stiffness, dysesthesia and dysfunction. The study also brings forward interesting connections between DSN neuropathy, CD, NP, SICK scapula and a posterolateral arm pain pattern. PMID:28928496
Smith, Thomas J; Auwaerter, Paul; Knowlton, Amy; Saylor, Deanna; McArthur, Justin
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common neurological complications of HIV infection with a 30-60% lifetime prevalence. Newer HIV drugs cause less peripheral neuropathy, but patients are now living long enough to develop concomitant diabetes-related, vascular-related, and chemotherapy-related neuropathy so it continues as a major debilitating issue. Recent national CDC guidelines have stressed the importance of non-opioid therapies, especially in this population that may have had drug abuse problems. We treated a 52-year-old man who had severe disabling classic peripheral neuropathy since 1998 with Scrambler Therapy (Calmare), an FDA-cleared peripheral non-invasive neuromodulation device. His pain rapidly improved, as did his motor and sensory function, with just four 45-min treatments, and he was able to come off opioids for the first time in years. When his pain returned six months later, only two treatments were needed to resolve it. This represents the first published use of this novel, inexpensive, and non-invasive pain modality in HIV peripheral neuropathy, and should engender further trials.
Nawaz, Noor Ul Ain; Saeed, Muhammad; Rauf, Khalid; Usman, Muhammad; Arif, Mehreen; Ullah, Zaki; Raziq, Naila
Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a painful side-effect of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents that profoundly impair the quality of life of patients as the current pharmacotherapeutic strategies are inefficient in providing adequate pain relief. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies are preferred by patients with neuropathic pain as they experience insufficient control of pain with conventional medications. This study describes the antinociceptive effect of Tithonia tubaeformis (Jacq.) Cass. in a vincristine mouse model of established CIPN. Tithonia tubaeformis hydromethanolic extract was tested for preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity test in mice. The antinociceptive effect was investigated using the abdominal constriction (writhing) and tail immersion tests (25-200 mg/kg). The anti-neuropathic effect was determined in the vincristine mouse model, established by daily administration of vincristine (0.1 mg/kg/day, i.p) for consecutive 14 days. Acute treatment with Tithonia tubaeformis (100 and 200 mg/kg) and the positive control, gabapentin (75 mg/kg) was carried out on the 15th day of the last vincrsitine dose and the animals were tested for allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at 30-120 min post extract/drug administration. Vincristine produced significant temporal tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001 on day 7 and 14) and was maintained for the subsequent day (P < 0.001 during 30-120 min). Tithonia tubaeformis was effective in attenuating the vincristine-induced allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at 100 mg/kg (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) and 200 mg/kg (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). Similarly, gabapentin also showed a robust antinociceptive effect in counteracting the vincristine associated behavioral alterations. Tithonia tubaeformis can be an effective CAM therapeutic remedy for established CIPN due to its potential antinociceptive
Griffiths, Claire; Kwon, Nancy; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Paice, Judith A
This case-control study was designed to assess the efficacy of cryotherapy to prevent paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy in women with breast cancer. Participants served as their own paired control, with randomization of the cooled glove/sock to either the dominant or the non-dominant hand/foot, worn for 15 min prior to, during, and 15 min after completion of the paclitaxel infusion. Outcome measures included the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory, the Brief Pain Inventory, and quantitative sensory testing. Data were measured at each of six time points-baseline, post-treatment (approximately 2 weeks after the last paclitaxel infusion), and at the first, fifth, ninth, and final weekly paclitaxel treatments. Of 29 randomized participants, 20 (69%) received at least one cryotherapy treatment, and 11 (38%) received all four cryotherapy treatments. Ten (34%) participants could not tolerate the cryotherapy, and six (21%) declined further participation at some point during the trial. Only seven participants (24%) were available for the final post-chemotherapy QST and questionnaires. There were no significant differences in measures of neuropathy or pain between treated and untreated hands or feet. Strategies to prevent painful peripheral neuropathy are urgently needed. In this current trial, dropout due to discomfort precluded adequate power to fully understand the potential benefits of cryotherapy. Much more research is needed to discover safe and effective preventive strategies that can be easily implemented within busy infusion centers.
Magnowska, Magdalena; Iżycka, Natalia; Kapoła-Czyż, Joanna; Romała, Anna; Lorek, Jakub; Spaczyński, Marek; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common chemotherapy side effect, but its prevention and treatment remains a challenge. Neurotoxicity may lead to dose limitation or even treatment discontinuation, and therefore potentially affect the efficacy of anticancer treatment and long term outcomes. The practice to administer gabapentin for neuropathy may be applicable, but is limited by insufficient studies. The aim of our study was to assess the presence of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in ovarian cancer patients treated with first-line paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy and evaluate the effectiveness of gabapentin in treatment of this condition. 61 ovarian cancer patients treated with first line chemotherapy were included in the study. The first phase of the study was to assess neurological condition of each patient by: neuropathy symptoms scale, McGill's scale, neurological deficit and quality of life, during the chemotherapy. In the second phase of the study we evaluated the response to gabapentin treatment in a group of patients who developed neuropathy. 78.7% of the patients developed chemotherapy related neuropathy. During the course of chemotherapy these patients experienced significant exacerbation of neuropathy symptoms (p < 0.0001), neuropathic pain (p < 0.0001), neurologic deficit (p < 0.0012) and worsening of quality of life (p < 0.0002). Patients who were qualified to undergo the gabapentin treatment observed improvement in symptoms (p < 0.027), pain (p < 0.027) and neurologic deficit (p < 0.019). Quality of life did not change significantly after gabapentin treatment (p < 0.128). Chemotherapy substantially deteriorates the neurologic condition of the patients and the quality of life. Paclitaxel and carboplatin treated patients may benefit from gabapentin therapy in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.
Selvarajah, Dinesh; Gandhi, Rajiv; Emery, Celia J; Tesfaye, Solomon
To assess the efficacy of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicinal extract, as adjuvant treatment in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). In this randomized controlled trial, 30 subjects with painful DPN received daily Sativex or placebo. The primary outcome measure was change in mean daily pain scores, and secondary outcome measures included quality-of-life assessments. There was significant improvement in pain scores in both groups, but mean change between groups was not significant. There were no significant differences in secondary outcome measures. Patients with depression had significantly greater baseline pain scores that improved regardless of intervention. This first-ever trial assessing the efficacy of cannabis has shown it to be no more efficacious than placebo in painful DPN. Depression was a major confounder and may have important implications for future trials on painful DPN.
Marchettini, P; Wilhelm, S; Petto, H; Tesfaye, S; Tölle, T; Bouhassira, D; Freynhagen, R; Cruccu, G; Lledó, A; Choy, E; Kosek, E; Micó, J A; Späth, M; Skljarevski, V; Lenox-Smith, A; Perrot, S
To investigate baseline demographics and disease characteristics as predictors of the analgesic effect of duloxetine and pregabalin on diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP). Based on data from the COMBO-DN study, a multinational clinical trial in DPNP, the potential impact of baseline characteristics on pain relief after 8-week monotherapy with 60 mg/day duloxetine or 300 mg/day pregabalin was assessed using analyses of covariance. Subgroups of interest were characterized regarding their baseline characteristics and efficacy outcomes. A total of 804 patients were evaluated at baseline. A significant interaction with treatment was observed in the mood symptom subgroups with a larger pain reduction in duloxetine-treated patients having no mood symptoms [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) depression or anxiety subscale score <11; -2.33 (duloxetine); -1.52 (pregabalin); p = 0.024]. There were no significant interactions between treatment for subgroups by age (<65 or ≥65 years), gender, baseline pain severity [Brief Pain Inventory Modified Short Form (BPI-MSF) average pain <6 or ≥6], diabetic neuropathy duration (≤2 or >2 years), baseline haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (<8% or ≥8%), presence of comorbidities and concomitant medication use. Our analyses suggest that the efficacy of duloxetine and pregabalin for initial 8-week treatment in DPNP was consistent across examined subgroups based on demographics and disease characteristics at baseline except for the presence of mood symptoms. Duloxetine treatment appeared to be particularly beneficial in DPNP patients having no mood symptoms. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Nicholas, Patrice K; Corless, Inge B; Evans, Linda A
Peripheral neuropathy is a common and vexing symptom for people living with HIV infection (PLWH). Neuropathy occurs in several different syndromes and is identified in the literature as distal sensory polyneuropathy or distal sensory peripheral neuropathy. More recently, the HIV literature has focused on the syndrome as painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, addressing the symptom rather than the underlying pathophysiology. Assessment of neuropathy in PLWH is critical and must be incorporated into nursing practice for each visit. Neuropathy has been attributed to the direct effects of HIV, exposure to antiretroviral medications (particularly the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), advanced immune suppression, and comorbid tuberculosis infection and exposure to antituberculosis medications. Evidence supports the importance of addressing neuropathy in PLWH with pharmacologic treatment regimens and complementary/alternative approaches. This paper examines the pathophysiology, evidence, and approaches to managing peripheral neuropathy. A case study has been included to illustrate a patient's experience with neuropathy symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Indart, Sandrine; Hugon, Jacques; Guillausseau, Pierre Jean; Gilbert, Alice; Dumurgier, Julien; Paquet, Claire; Sène, Damien
Abstract Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by xerophthalmia, xerostomia, and potential peripheral or central neurological involvement. In pSS, the prevalence of cognitive disorders is generally sparse across literature and the impact of pain on cognitive profile is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between pain, cognitive complaint, and impairment in a very homogenous population of 10 pSS patients with painful small fiber neuropathy (PSFN) and spontaneous cognitive complaint. Neurological exam, neuropsychological assessment, clinical evaluation measuring pain level, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and cognitive complaint were performed. Our results showed that 100% of patients had cognitive dysfunction especially in executive domain (80%). The most sensitive test was the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), abnormal in 70% of our population. Moreover, we found clear cut significant correlations between pain levels and 3 measures of WCST: the number of errors (R = –0.768, P = .0062), perseverations (R = 0.831, P = .0042), and categories (R = 0.705, P = .02). In the literature review, the impact of pain is underexplored and results could be discordant. In a homogeneous cohort of pSS patients with PSFN, a cognitive complaint seems to be a valid reflection of cognitive dysfunction marked by a specific executive profile found with the WCST. In this preliminary study, this profile is linked to the level of pain and highlights that an appropriate management of pain control and a cognitive readaptation in patients could improve the quality of life. PMID:28422829
Stino, Amro M; Smith, Albert G
Peripheral neuropathy is a major cause of disability worldwide. Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy, accounting for 50% of cases. Over half of people with diabetes develop neuropathy, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major cause of reduced quality of life due to pain, sensory loss, gait instability, fall-related injury, and foot ulceration and amputation. Most patients with non-diabetic neuropathy have cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). A growing body of literature links prediabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome to the risk of both DPN and CSPN. This association might be particularly strong in type 2 diabetes patients. There are no effective medical treatments for CSPN or DPN, and aggressive glycemic control is an effective approach to neuropathy risk reduction only in type 1 diabetes. Several studies suggest lifestyle-based treatments that integrate dietary counseling with exercise might be a promising therapeutic approach to early DPN in type 2 diabetes and CSPN associated with prediabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Doughty, Christopher T; Seyedsadjadi, Reza
Peripheral neuropathy is commonly encountered in the primary care setting and is associated with significant morbidity, including neuropathic pain, falls, and disability. The clinical presentation of neuropathy is diverse, with possible symptoms including weakness, sensory abnormalities, and autonomic dysfunction. Accordingly, the primary care clinician must be comfortable using the neurologic examination-including the assessment of motor function, multiple sensory modalities, and deep tendon reflexes-to recognize and characterize neuropathy. Although the causes of peripheral neuropathy are numerous and diverse, careful review of the medical and family history coupled with limited, select laboratory testing can often efficiently lead to an etiologic diagnosis. This review offers an approach for evaluating suspected neuropathy in the primary care setting. It will describe the most common causes, suggest an evidence-based workup to aid in diagnosis, and highlight recent evidence that allows for selection of symptomatic treatment of patients with neuropathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dubuisson, Nicolas J; Van Pesch, Vincent; Van Den Bergh, Peter Y K
Cramp-fasciculation syndrome is a peripheral nerve hyperexcitability disorder, which could be caused by inflammatory neuropathy. We describe a 51-year-old woman who presented with a 4- to 5-year history of fasciculations and painful cramping of the right thenar eminence. Electrophysiological studies showed motor conduction block in the right median nerve between the axilla and the elbow with fasciculation potentials and cramp discharges on electromyography in the right abductor pollicis brevis muscle. High titers of serum anti-GM1 immunoglobulin M antibodies were detected. Monofocal motor neuropathy of the right median nerve was diagnosed. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment led to significant improvement of symptoms and signs. Although fasciculations and cramps have been reported in multifocal motor neuropathy and are considered supporting criteria for the diagnosis, the occurrence of cramp-fasciculation syndrome as the presenting feature and predominant manifestation in monofocal motor neuropathy, a variant of multifocal motor neuropathy, is unique. Muscle Nerve 56: 828-832, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rajaobelina, K; Farges, B; Nov, S; Maury, E; Cephise-Velayoudom, F L; Gin, H; Helmer, C; Rigalleau, V
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in diabetes complications. We aimed to investigate whether the accumulation of AGEs measured by skin autofluorescence (sAF) was associated with signs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and to sensitivity, pain, motor and autonomic function 4 years later in patients with type 1 diabetes. At baseline, 188 patients (age 51 years, diabetes duration 22 years) underwent skin autofluorescence measurement using the AGE Reader. Four years later, signs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy were defined as the presence of neuropathic pain and/or feet sensory loss or foot ulceration. Neurological tests were systematically performed: vibration perception threshold by neuroesthesiometry, neuropathic pain by the Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions score, muscle strength by dynamometry and electrochemical skin conductance. Multivariate analyses were adjusted by age, sex, height, body mass index, tobacco, HbA 1c , diabetes duration, estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin excretion rate. At the 4-year follow-up, 13.8% of patients had signs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The baseline sAF was higher in those with signs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (2.5 ± 0.7 vs 2.1 ± 0.5 arbitrary units (AU), p < 0.0005). In the multivariate analysis, a 1 SD higher skin autofluorescence at baseline was associated with an increased risk of signs of neuropathy (OR = 2.68, p = 0.01). All of the neurological tests were significantly altered in the highest quartile of the baseline sAF (>2.4 AU) compared with the lowest quartiles after multivariate adjustment. This non-invasive measurement of skin autofluorescence may have a value for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetes and a potential clinical utility for detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Smith, Ellen M. Lavoie; Pang, Herbert; Cirrincione, Constance; Fleishman, Stewart; Paskett, Electra D.; Ahles, Tim; Bressler, Linda R.; Fadul, Camilo E.; Knox, Chetaye; Le-Lindqwister, Nguyet; Gilman, Paul B.; Shapiro, Charles L.
Context There are no known effective treatments for painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Objective The primary objective was to determine the effect of duloxetine 60 mg daily on CIPN “average” pain severity Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover Setting Eight National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative research networks recruited patients from community and academic settings between April 2008 and March 2011. Study follow-up was completed July 2012. Patients 231 patients ≥ 25 years of age were randomized (stratified by chemotherapy drug and CIPN comorbid risk) to receive either duloxetine followed by placebo or placebo followed by duloxetine. Eligible patients reported ≥ Grade 1 sensory CIPN per the NCI Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events and ≥ 4/10 average CIPN-related pain following paclitaxel or oxaliplatin treatment. 81% completed the initial treatment period. Intervention The initial treatment consisted of duloxetine/placebo 30mg/one capsule daily for the first week, then 60mg/two capsules for four additional weeks Outcome Measure The primary hypothesis was that duloxetine would be more effective than placebo in decreasing CIPN pain. Pain severity was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form “average pain” item [0 (no pain) – 10 (as bad as can imagine)]. Results Individuals receiving duloxetine as initial treatment (weeks 1–5) reported a larger mean decrease in average pain (1.06; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.40) compared to placebo-treated patients (0.34; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.66) (p = 0.003) (effect size = 0.513). The observed mean difference in the average pain score between the duloxetine and placebo groups was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.26, 1.20). 59% of duloxetine-treated patients compared to 38% of placebo-treated patients reported decreased pain of any amount. Conclusions Among patients with painful CIPN, the use of duloxetine compared with placebo for 5 weeks resulted in a greater reduction in
van der Wal, Selina E. I.; Smedes, Lotte A.; Radema, Sandra A.; van Alfen, Nens; Steegers, Monique A. H.
Background. Treatment of intractable pain due to chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a challenge. Intravenous (iv) lidocaine has shown to be a treatment option for neuropathic pain of different etiologies. Methods. Lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg in 10 minutes followed by 1.5 mg/kg/h over 5 hours) was administered in nine patients with CIPN, and analgesic effect was evaluated during infusion and after discharge. The immediate effect of lidocaine on pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and the extent of the stocking and glove distribution of sensory abnormalities (cold and pinprick) were assessed. Results. Lidocaine had a significant direct analgesic effect in 8 out of 9 patients (P = 0.01) with a pain intensity difference of >30%. Pain reduction persisted in 5 patients for an average of 23 days. Lidocaine did not influence mean PPT, but there was a tendency that the extent of sensory abnormalities decreased after lidocaine. Conclusion. Iv lidocaine has direct analgesic effect in CIPN with a moderate long-term effect and seems to influence the area of cold and pinprick perception. Additional research is needed, using a control group and larger sample sizes to confirm these results. PMID:28458593
Iqbal, Zohaib; Azmi, Shazli; Yadav, Rahul; Ferdousi, Maryam; Kumar, Mohit; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Lim, Jonathan; Malik, Rayaz A; Alam, Uazman
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the commonest cause of neuropathy worldwide, and its prevalence increases with the duration of diabetes. It affects approximately half of patients with diabetes. DPN is symmetric and predominantly sensory, starting distally and gradually spreading proximally in a glove-and-stocking distribution. It causes substantial morbidity and is associated with increased mortality. The unrelenting nature of pain in this condition can negatively affect a patient's sleep, mood, and functionality and result in a poor quality of life. The purpose of this review was to critically review the current literature on the diagnosis and treatment of DPN, with a focus on the treatment of neuropathic pain in DPN. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken, incorporating article searches in electronic databases (EMBASE, PubMed, OVID) and reference lists of relevant articles with the authors' expertise in DPN. This review considers seminal and novel research in epidemiology; diagnosis, especially in relation to novel surrogate end points; and the treatment of neuropathic pain in DPN. We also consider potential new pharmacotherapies for painful DPN. DPN is often misdiagnosed and inadequately treated. Other than improving glycemic control, there is no licensed pathogenetic treatment for diabetic neuropathy. Management of painful DPN remains challenging due to difficulties in personalizing therapy and ascertaining the best dosing strategy, choice of initial pharmacotherapy, consideration of combination therapy, and deciding on defining treatment for poor analgesic responders. Duloxetine and pregabalin remain first-line therapy for neuropathic pain in DPN in all 5 of the major published guidelines by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Academy of Neurology, European Federation of Neurological Societies, National Institute of Clinical Excellence (United Kingdom), and the American Diabetes Association, and their use has been
Eichholz, Martin; Alexander, Andrea H; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Hlavacek, Patrick; Parsons, Bruce; Sadosky, Alesia; Tuchman, Michael M
Since few studies have characterized painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN) symptoms in multicultural populations, this study fielded a survey to better understand pDPN and its impact in African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic populations. Kelton fielded a survey by phone or Internet, in English or Spanish, among adults with pDPN symptoms in the United States between August and October 2015; African-Americans and Hispanics were oversampled to achieve at least 500 subjects for each group. Patients were required to have been diagnosed with pDPN or score ≥ 3 on ID Pain validated screening tool. The survey elicited information on pDPN symptoms and interactions with healthcare providers (HCPs), and included the Brief Pain Inventory and pain-specific Work Productivity and Assessment Questionnaire (WPAI:SHP). Respondents included 823 Caucasians, 525 African-Americans, and 537 Hispanics; approximately half of African-Americans and Hispanics were <40 years of age, vs 12% of Caucasians. Pain was less likely to be rated moderate or severe by African-Americans (65%) and Hispanics (49%) relative to Caucasians (87%; p < 0.05). African-Americans and Hispanics were less likely than Caucasians to report experiencing specific pDPN sensory symptoms. Significantly fewer African-Americans and Hispanics reported receiving a pDPN diagnosis relative to Caucasians ( p < 0.05), and higher proportions of African-Americans and Hispanics reported difficulty communicating with their HCP ( p < 0.05). WPAI:SHP activity impairment was lower in Hispanics (43%) relative to African-Americans (53%) and Caucasian (56%; p < 0.05). Multicultural patients reported differences in pDPN symptoms and pain relative to Caucasians, and fewer received a pDPN diagnosis. While further evaluation is needed to understand these differences, these data suggest a need to broaden pDPN educational initiatives to improve patient-HCP dialogue and encourage discussion of pDPN symptoms and
de Vos, Cecile C; Bom, Marjanne J; Vanneste, Sven; Lenders, Mathieu W P M; de Ridder, Dirk
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is used for treating intractable neuropathic pain. Generally, it induces paresthesia in the area covered by SCS. Burst SCS was introduced as a new stimulation paradigm with good pain relief without causing paresthesia. Good results have been obtained in patients who were naive to SCS. In this study we assess the effectiveness of burst stimulation in three groups of chronic pain patients who are already familiar with SCS and the accompanying paresthesia. Forty-eight patients with at least six months of conventional, tonic stimulation tested burst stimulation for a period of two weeks. They were classified in three different groups: a cross-section of our population with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN), a cross-section of our population with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), and FBSS patients who over time had become poor responders (PR) to SCS. Visual analog scale scores for pain were assessed prior to implantation, with tonic stimulation, and after two weeks of burst stimulation. Burst stimulation reduced pain significantly for almost all patients. When compared with tonic stimulation, burst stimulation led to a significant additional pain reduction of on average 44% in patients with PDN (p < 0.001) and 28% in patients with FBSS (p < 0.01). Patients from the PR group benefitted less from burst stimulation on average. In addition, burst stimulation caused little or no paresthesia whereas tonic stimulation did induce paresthesia. Most patients preferred burst stimulation, but several preferred tonic stimulation because the paresthesia assured them that the SCS was working. About 60% of the patients with tonic SCS experienced further pain reduction upon application of burst stimulation. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.
Bauer, Victoria; Goodman, Nancy; Lapin, Brittany; Cooley, Camille; Wang, Ed; Craig, Terri L; Glosner, Scott E; Juhn, Mark S; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Sadosky, Alesia B; Masi, Christopher
Purpose The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of educational text messages on diabetes self-management activities and outcomes in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN). Methods Patients with pDPN identified from a large integrated health system who agreed to participate were randomized to 6 months of usual care (UC) or UC plus twice-daily diabetes self-management text messages (UC+TxtM). Outcomes included the Pain Numerical Rating Scale, Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA), questions on diabetes health beliefs, and glycated hemoglobin (A1C). Changes from baseline were evaluated at 6 months and compared between groups. Results Demographic characteristics were balanced between groups (N = 62; 53% female, mean age = 63 years, 94% type 2 diabetes), as were baseline measures. After 6 months, pain decreased with UC+TxtM from 6.3 to 5.5 and with UC from 6.5 to 6.0, with no difference between groups. UC+TxtM but not UC was associated with significant improvements from baseline on all SDSCA subscales. On diabetes health beliefs, UC+TxtM patients reported significantly increased benefits and reduced barriers and susceptibility relative to UC at 6 months. A1C declined in both groups, but neither change was significant relative to baseline. Conclusions Patients with pDPN who receive twice-daily text messages regarding diabetes management reported reduced pain relative to baseline, although this change was not significant compared with usual care. In addition, text messaging was associated with increased self-management activities and improved diabetes health beliefs and total self-care. These results warrant further investigation.
Bailey, Anne; Wingard, Deborah; Allison, Matthew; Summers, Priscilla; Calac, Daniel
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) develops in 30% of type 2 diabetes patients, increases the risk for foot ulcers and amputation, and is a significant source of disability and medical costs. Treatment remains challenging, propelling research to focus on therapeutic methods that aim to improve blood circulation or ameliorate oxidative stress that drives development of DPN. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for DPN symptoms and lower extremity arterial circulation in people with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-five patients seen at a Southern California Tribal Health Center who reported a threshold level of diabetic neuropathy symptoms in the lower extremities during the previous 4 weeks received acupuncture treatment once per week over a 10-week period between 2011 and 2013. The Neuropathy Total Symptom Scale (NTSS-6), Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS), and laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF) were used for assessment at baseline and 10 weeks. A total of 19 of 25 study participants completed the study and reported a significant reduction in the NTSS symptoms of aching pain, burning pain, prickling sensation, numbness, and allodynia. Lancinating pain did not decrease significantly. LDF measures improved but not significantly. Acupuncture may effectively ameliorate selected DPN symptoms in these American Indian patients. Copyright © 2017 Medical Association of Pharmacopuncture Institute. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ability of a single IT ATL313 dose to reverse neuropathic pain from traumatic peripheral neuropathy . Milestone 2 is complete. We determined that 1 pmol...cord injury; to prevent and reverse neuropathic pain from inflammatory peripheral neuropathy following either IT or peri-sciatic nerve ( peripheral ...ATL313 can reverse neuropathic pain from inflammatory peripheral neuropathy following either IT or peri-sciatic nerve ( peripheral ) injections. We also
Gonçalves, Leonor; Friend, Lauren V.; Dickenson, Anthony H.
Treatments for neuropathic pain are either not fully effective or have problematic side effects. Combinations of drugs are often used. Tapentadol is a newer molecule that produces analgesia in various pain models through two inhibitory mechanisms, namely central μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonism and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition. These two components interact synergistically, resulting in levels of analgesia similar to opioid analgesics such as oxycodone and morphine, but with more tolerable side effects. The right central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical for the lateral spinal ascending pain pathway, regulates descending pain pathways and is key in the emotional-affective components of pain. Few studies have investigated the pharmacology of limbic brain areas in pain models. Here we determined the actions of systemic tapentadol on right CeA neurones of animals with neuropathy and which component of tapentadol contributes to its effect. Neuronal responses to multimodal peripheral stimulation of animals with spinal nerve ligation or sham surgery were recorded before and after two doses of tapentadol. After the higher dose of tapentadol either naloxone or yohimbine were administered. Systemic tapentadol resulted in dose-dependent decrease in right CeA neuronal activity only in neuropathy. Both naloxone and yohimbine reversed this effect to an extent that was modality selective. The interactions of the components of tapentadol are not limited to the synergy between the MOR and α2-adrenoceptors seen at spinal levels, but are seen at this supraspinal site where suppression of responses may relate to the ability of the drug to alter affective components of pain. PMID:25576174
Elhadd, Tarik; Ponirakis, Georgios; Dabbous, Zeinab; Siddique, Mashhood; Chinnaiyan, Subitha; Malik, Rayaz A
Metformin may lead to B 12 deficiency and neuropathy. There are no published data on the prevalence of Metformin-related B 12 deficiency and neuropathy in the Arabian Gulf. Determine whether Metformin intake is associated with B 12 deficiency and whether B 12 deficiency is associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and painful diabetic neuropathy. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ( n = 362) attending outpatient clinics at HMC underwent assessment of B 12 levels, the DN4 questionnaire, and vibration perception threshold (VPT). Comparing Metformin to non-Metformin users there were no differences in B 12 levels, VPT, or DN4. The prevalence of B 12 deficiency (B 12 <133 pmol/l) was lower ( P < 0.01) in Metformin (8%) compared to non-Metformin (19%) users. Patients with B 12 deficiency had a comparable prevalence and severity of sensory neuropathy and painful neuropathy to patients without B 12 deficiency. Serum B 12 levels were comparable between Metformin and non-Metformin users with T2DM in Qatar. T2DM patients on Metformin had a lower prevalence of B 12 deficiency. Furthermore, the prevalence and severity of neuropathy and painful diabetic neuropathy were comparable between patients with and without B 12 deficiency.
Huang, Zhen-Zhen; Li, Dai; Liu, Cui-Cui; Cui, Yu; Zhu, He-Quan; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Li, Yong-Yong; Xin, Wen-Jun
Painful peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel therapy, which hampers the optimal clinical management of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Currently the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we showed that the clinically relevant dose of paclitaxel (3×8mg/kg, cumulative dose 24mg/kg) induced significant upregulation of the chemokine CX3CL1 in the A-fiber primary sensory neurons in vivo and in vitro and infiltration of macrophages into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats. Paclitaxel treatment also increased cleaved caspase-3 expression, induced the loss of primary afferent terminal fibers and decreased sciatic-evoked A-fiber responses in the spinal dorsal horn, indicating DRG neuronal apoptosis induced by paclitaxel. In addition, the paclitaxel-induced DRG neuronal apoptosis occurred exclusively in the presence of macrophage in vitro study. Intrathecal or systemic injection of CX3CL1 neutralizing antibody blocked paclitaxel-induced macrophage recruitment and neuronal apoptosis in the DRG, and also attenuated paclitaxel-induced allodynia. Furthermore, depletion of macrophage by systemic administration of clodronate inhibited paclitaxel-induced allodynia. Blocking CX3CL1 decreased activation of p38 MAPK in the macrophage, and inhibition of p38 MAPK activity blocked the neuronal apoptosis and development of mechanical allodynia induced by paclitaxel. These findings provide novel evidence that CX3CL1-recruited macrophage contributed to paclitaxel-induced DRG neuronal apoptosis and painful peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Toyama, Satoshi; Shimoyama, Naohito; Szeto, Hazel H; Schiller, Peter W; Shimoyama, Megumi
Several chemotherapeutic agents used for cancer treatment induce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy that compromises patients' quality of life and limits cancer treatment. Recently, mitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to be involved in the mechanism of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. SS-20 is a mitochondria-targeted peptide that promotes mitochondrial respiration and restores mitochondrial bioenergetics. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of SS-20 against the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy utilizing a murine model of peripheral neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin, a first-line chemotherapy agent for colon cancer. Weekly administrations of oxaliplatin induced peripheral neuropathy as demonstrated by the development of neuropathic pain and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in the hind paw. Continuous administration of SS-20 protected against the development of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain and mitigated the loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers to normal levels. Our findings suggest that SS-20 may be a drug candidate for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.
Jensenius, Mogens; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Fladby, Tormod; Hellum, Kjell Block; Hagen, Tormod; Priø, Tine; Christiansen, Merete Skovdal; Vene, Sirkka; Raoult, Didier; Myrvang, Bjørn
African tick bite fever (ATBF) caused by Rickettsia africae is an emerging health problem in travellers to sub-Saharan Africa. We here present 6 patients with evidence of long-lasting sub-acute neuropathy following ATBF contracted during safari trips to southern Africa. Three patients developed radiating pain, paresthaesia and/or motor weakness of extremities, 2 had hemi-facial pain and paresthaesia, and 1 developed unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. When evaluated 3-26 months after symptom onset, cerebrospinal fluid samples from 5 patients were negative for R. africae PCR and serology, but revealed elevated protein content in 3 and mild pleocytosis in 1 case. Despite extensive investigations, no plausible alternative causes of neuropathy could be identified. Treatment with doxycycline in 2 patients had no clinical effect. Given the current increase of international safari tourism to sub-Saharan Africa, more cases of sub-acute neuropathy following ATBF may well be encountered in Europe and elsewhere in the y to come.
Smith, Adam M; Butler, Thomas H; Dolan, Michael S
Elite-level women's fastpitch softball players place substantial biomechanical strains on the elbow that can result in medial elbow pain and ulnar neuropathic symptoms. There is scant literature reporting the expected outcomes of the treatment of these injuries. This study examined the results of treatment in a series of these patients. We identified 6 female softball pitchers (4 high school and 2 collegiate) with medial elbow pain and ulnar neuropathic symptoms. Trials of conservative care failed in all 6, and they underwent surgical treatment with subcutaneous ulnar nerve transposition. These patients were subsequently monitored postoperatively to determine outcome. All 6 female pitchers had early resolution of elbow pain and neuropathic symptoms after surgical treatment. Long-term follow-up demonstrated that 1 patient quit playing softball because of other injuries but no longer reported elbow pain or paresthesias. One player was able to return to pitching at the high school level but had recurrent forearm pain and neuritis 1 year later while playing a different sport and subsequently stopped playing competitive sports. Four patients continued to play at the collegiate level without further symptoms. Medial elbow pain in women's softball pitchers caused by ulnar neuropathy can be treated effectively with subcutaneous ulnar nerve transposition if nonsurgical options fail. Further study is necessary to examine the role of overuse, proper training techniques, and whether pitching limits may be necessary to avoid these injuries. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
GEWANDTER, JENNIFER S.; BURKE, LAURIE; CAVALETTI, GUIDO; DWORKIN, ROBERT H.; GIBBONS, CHRISTOPHER; GOVER, TONY D.; HERRMANN, DAVID N.; MCARTHUR, JUSTIN C.; MCDERMOTT, MICHAEL P.; RAPPAPORT, BOB A.; REEVE, BRYCE B.; RUSSELL, JAMES W.; SMITH, A. GORDON; SMITH, SHANNON M.; TURK, DENNIS C.; VINIK, AARON I.; FREEMAN, ROY
Introduction No treatments for axonal peripheral neuropathy are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although patient- and clinician-reported outcomes are central to evaluating neuropathy symptoms, they can be difficult to assess accurately. The inability to identify efficacious treatments for peripheral neuropathies could be due to invalid or inadequate outcome measures. Methods This systematic review examined the content validity of symptom-based measures of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, HIV neuropathy, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Results Use of all FDA-recommended methods to establish content validity was only reported for 2 of 18 measures. Multiple sensory and motor symptoms were included in measures for all 3 conditions; these included numbness, tingling, pain, allodynia, difficulty walking, and cramping. Autonomic symptoms were less frequently included. Conclusions Given significant overlap in symptoms between neuropathy etiologies, a measure with content validity for multiple neuropathies with supplemental disease-specific modules could be of great value in the development of disease-modifying treatments for peripheral neuropathies. PMID:27447116
Aiyer, Rohit; Mehta, Neel; Gungor, Semih; Gulati, Amitabh
To investigate the efficacy of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists for neuropathic pain (NeuP) and review literature to determine if specific pharmacologic agents provide adequate NeuP relief. Literature was reviewed on PubMed using a variety of key words for 8 NMDAR antagonists. These key words include: "Ketamine and Neuropathy," "Ketamine and Neuropathic Pain," "Methadone and Neuropathy," "Methadone and Neuropathic Pain," "Memantine and Neuropathic pain," "Memantine and Neuropathy," "Amantadine and Neuropathic Pain," "Amantadine and Neuropathy," "Dextromethorphan and Neuropathic Pain," "Dextromethorphan and Neuropathy," "Carbamazepine and Neuropathic Pain," "Carbamazepine and Neuropathy," "Valproic Acid and Neuropathy," "Valproic Acid and Neuropathic Pain," "Phenytoin and Neuropathy," and "Phenytoin and Neuropathic Pain." With the results, the papers were reviewed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting in Systematic and Meta-Analyses) guideline. A total of 58 randomized controlled trials were reviewed among 8 pharmacologic agents, which are organized by date and alphabetical order. Of the trials for ketamine, 15 showed some benefit for analgesia. Methadone had 3 positive trials, while amantadine and memantine each only had 2 trials showing NeuP analgesic properties. Dextromethorphan and valproic acid both had 4 randomized controlled trials that showed some NeuP treatment benefit while carbamazepine had over 8 trials showing efficacy. Finally, phenytoin only had 1 trial that showed clinical response in treatment. There are a variety of NMDAR antagonist agents that should be considered for treatment of NeuP. Nevertheless, continued and further investigation of the 8 pharmacologic agents is needed to continue to evaluate their efficacy for treatment of NeuP.
Chance, Phillip F
Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP; also called tomaculous neuropathy) is an autosomal-dominant disorder that produces a painless episodic, recurrent, focal demyelinating neuropathy. HNPP generally develops during adolescence, and may cause attacks of numbness, muscular weakness, and atrophy. Peroneal palsies, carpal tunnel syndrome, and other entrapment neuropathies may be frequent manifestations of HNPP. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities may be reduced in clinically affected patients, as well as in asymptomatic gene carriers. The histopathological changes observed in peripheral nerves of HNPP patients include segmental demyelination and tomaculous or "sausage-like" formations. Mild overlap of clinical features with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 1 (CMT1) may lead patients with HNPP to be misdiagnosed as having CMT1. HNPP and CMT1 are both demyelinating neuropathies, however, their clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological features are quite distinct. HNPP is most frequently associated with a 1.4-Mb pair deletion on chromosome 17p12. A duplication of the identical region leads to CMT1A. Both HNPP and CMT1A result from a dosage effect of the PMP22 gene, which is contained within the deleted/duplicated region. This is reflected in reduced mRNA and protein levels in sural nerve biopsy samples from HNPP patients. Treatment for HNPP consists of preventative and symptom-easing measures. Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA; also called familial brachial plexus neuropathy) is an autosomal-dominant disorder causing episodes of paralysis and muscle weakness initiated by severe pain. Individuals with HNA may suffer repeated episodes of intense pain, paralysis, and sensory disturbances in an affected limb. The onset of HNA is at birth or later in childhood with prognosis for recovery usually favorable; however, persons with HNA may have permanent residual neurological dysfunction following attack(s). Episodes are often
Upton, Gabrielle A; Tinley, Paul; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder; Crawford, Rachel
This pilot study aimed to investigate and compare the perceived pain relief effectiveness of two different modes of TENS in people with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). A cross-over study was conducted at Charles Sturt University, Orange. Five participants with PDN were assessed with a McGill Pain Questionnaire before and after each of the two TENS treatments. Participants were randomly allocated to Traditional TENS (80Hz, 200ms) or Acupuncture-like TENS (2Hz, 200ms) and the treatments were applied daily for 30min over ten days. Following a seven day washout period, the alternate mode of TENS was carried out using the same method. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests were used to statistically analyse the results. All five participants reported personally meaningful pain relief during one or both of the TENS treatments. The Wilcoxon signed rank testing showed no statistical significance, p=1, likely due to the small sample size. Acupuncture-like TENS had a large effect size (z=-1.625, r=0.514), whilst Traditional TENS produced a medium effect size (z=-1.214, r=0.384). No adverse effects were reported. Acupuncture-like TENS may be more effective for PDN than traditional TENS. A larger scale replication of this pilot study is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galeotti, Nicoletta; Maidecchi, Anna; Mattoli, Luisa; Burico, Michela; Ghelardini, Carla
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes and the few approved therapies for the management of pain have limited efficacy and side effects. With the aim to explore and develop new pharmacological treatments, we investigated the antihyperalgesic properties of St. John's Wort (SJW) and feverfew in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Acute administration of a SJW seed extract reversed mechanical hyperalgesia with a prolonged effect. A SJW extract obtained from the aerial portion of the plant and a feverfew flower extract partially relieved neuropathic pain whereas a feverfew leaf extract was ineffective. The antihyperalgesic efficacy of these herbal drugs was comparable to that of clinically used antihyperalgesic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, l-acetyl-levocarnitine). Further examinations of SJW and feverfew composition revealed that hyperforin and hypericin might be responsible for the antihyperalgesic properties of SJW whereas the efficacy of feverfew seems to be related to the presence of parthenolide. Rats undergoing treatment with SJW and feverfew did not show any behavioral side effect or sign of altered locomotor activity. Our results suggest that SJW and feverfew extracts may become new therapeutic perspectives for painful DPN. © 2013.
Areti, Aparna; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Kumar, Ash
Oxaliplatin use as chemotherapeutic agent is frequently limited by cumulative neurotoxicity which may compromise quality of life. Reports relate this neurotoxic effect to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Carvedilol is an antihypertensive drug, has also been appreciated for its antioxidant and mitoprotective properties. Carvedilol co-treatment did not reduce the anti-tumor effects of oxaliplatin in human colon cancer cells (HT-29), but exhibited free radical scavenging activity against oxaliplatin-induced oxidative stress in neuronal cells (Neuro-2a). Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of carvedilol in the experimental model of oxaliplatin-induced peripheralmore » neuropathy (OIPN) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Oxaliplatin reduced the sensory nerve conduction velocity and produced the thermal and mechanical nociception. Carvedilol significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated these functional and sensorimotor deficits. It also counteracted oxidative/nitrosative stress by reducing the levels of nitrotyrosine and improving the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression in both sciatic nerve and DRG tissues. It improved the mitochondrial function and prevented the oxaliplatin-induced alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential in sciatic nerve thus prevented loss of intra epidermal nerve fiber density in the foot pads. Together the results prompt the use of carvedilol along with chemotherapy with oxaliplatin to prevent the peripheral neuropathy. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation neuroprotective mechanisms of carvedilol in oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. - Highlights: • Oxaliplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction causes neurotoxicity. • Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to bioenergetic and functional deficits. • Carvedilol alleviated oxaliplatin-induced behavioural and functional changes. • Targeting mitochondria with carvedilol attenuated neuropathic
Naddaf, Elie; Dispenzieri, Angela; Mandrekar, Jay
Objective: To define the peripheral neuropathy phenotypes associated with Castleman disease. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review for patients with biopsy-proven Castleman disease evaluated between January 2003 and December 2014. Patients with associated peripheral neuropathy were identified and divided into 2 groups: those with Castleman disease without POEMS syndrome (CD-PN) and those with Castleman disease with POEMS syndrome (CD-POEMS). We used a cohort of patients with POEMS as controls. Clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory characteristics were collected and compared among patient subgroups. Results: There were 7 patients with CD-PN, 20 with CD-POEMS, and 122 with POEMS. Patients with CD-PN had the mildest neuropathy characterized by predominant sensory symptoms with no pain and mild distal sensory deficits (median Neuropathy Impairment Score of 7 points). Although both patients with CD-POEMS and patients with POEMS had a severe sensory and motor neuropathy, patients with CD-POEMS were less affected (median Neuropathy Impairment Score of 33 and 66 points, respectively). The degree of severity was also reflected on electrodiagnostic testing in which patients with CD-PN demonstrated a mild degree of axonal loss, followed by patients with CD-POEMS and then those with POEMS. Demyelinating features, defined by European Federation of Neurologic Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society criteria, were present in 43% of the CD-PN, 78% of the CD-POEMS, and 86% of the POEMS group. Conclusion: There is a spectrum of demyelinating peripheral neuropathies associated with Castleman disease. CD-PN is sensory predominant and is the mildest phenotype, whereas CD-POEMS is a more severe sensory and motor neuropathy. Compared to the POEMS cohort, those with CD-POEMS neuropathy have a similar but less severe phenotype. Whether these patients respond differently to treatment deserves further study. PMID:27807187
Naddaf, Elie; Dispenzieri, Angela; Mandrekar, Jay; Mauermann, Michelle L
To define the peripheral neuropathy phenotypes associated with Castleman disease. We conducted a retrospective chart review for patients with biopsy-proven Castleman disease evaluated between January 2003 and December 2014. Patients with associated peripheral neuropathy were identified and divided into 2 groups: those with Castleman disease without POEMS syndrome (CD-PN) and those with Castleman disease with POEMS syndrome (CD-POEMS). We used a cohort of patients with POEMS as controls. Clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory characteristics were collected and compared among patient subgroups. There were 7 patients with CD-PN, 20 with CD-POEMS, and 122 with POEMS. Patients with CD-PN had the mildest neuropathy characterized by predominant sensory symptoms with no pain and mild distal sensory deficits (median Neuropathy Impairment Score of 7 points). Although both patients with CD-POEMS and patients with POEMS had a severe sensory and motor neuropathy, patients with CD-POEMS were less affected (median Neuropathy Impairment Score of 33 and 66 points, respectively). The degree of severity was also reflected on electrodiagnostic testing in which patients with CD-PN demonstrated a mild degree of axonal loss, followed by patients with CD-POEMS and then those with POEMS. Demyelinating features, defined by European Federation of Neurologic Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society criteria, were present in 43% of the CD-PN, 78% of the CD-POEMS, and 86% of the POEMS group. There is a spectrum of demyelinating peripheral neuropathies associated with Castleman disease. CD-PN is sensory predominant and is the mildest phenotype, whereas CD-POEMS is a more severe sensory and motor neuropathy. Compared to the POEMS cohort, those with CD-POEMS neuropathy have a similar but less severe phenotype. Whether these patients respond differently to treatment deserves further study. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
... is also known as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV. The signs and symptoms of CIPA ... to pain with anhidrosis hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, type ...
Mohrmann, Caroline; Armer, Jane; Hayashi, Robert J
Children treated for cancer are exposed to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents with known toxicity to the peripheral nervous system. The side effect of peripheral neuropathy can cause changes in sensation, function, and even cause pain. Although peripheral neuropathy is recognized by pediatric oncology nurses as an important and significant side effect, measuring neuropathy can be quite complex for clinical care and research efforts. With more children surviving a cancer diagnosis today, this issue is increasingly important for childhood cancer survivors. This article has reviewed existing literature examining peripheral neuropathy in childhood cancer survivors with particular interest paid to measurement tools available and needs for future research. It is important for nurses to choose appropriate measures for clinical care and research methods in order to have an impact on patients experiencing this condition.
Almoznino, Galit; Benoliel, Rafael; Sharav, Yair; Haviv, Yaron
Chronic craniofacial pain involves the head, face and oral cavity and is associated with significant morbidity and high levels of health care utilization. A bidirectional relationship is suggested in the literature for poor sleep and pain, and craniofacial pain and sleep are reciprocally related. We review this relationship and discuss management options. Part I reviews the relationship between pain and sleep disorders in the context of four diagnostic categories of chronic craniofacial pain: 1) primary headaches: migraines, tension-type headache (TTH), trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) and hypnic headache, 2) secondary headaches: sleep apnea headache, 3) temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) and 4) painful cranial neuropathies: trigeminal neuralgia, post-herpetic trigeminal neuropathy, painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PTTN) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Part II discusses the management of patients with chronic craniofacial pain and sleep disorders addressing the factors that modulate the pain experience as well as sleep disorders and including both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin, Elodie; Morel, Véronique; Joly, Dominique; Villatte, Christine; Delage, Noémie; Dubray, Claude; Pereira, Bruno; Pickering, Gisèle
Anti-cancer chemotherapy often induces peripheral neuropathy and consequent cognitive and quality of life impairment. Guidelines recommend antiepileptics or antidepressants but their efficacy is limited.Dextromethorphan, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, has shown its efficacy in painful diabetic neuropathy and in post-operative pain but has not been studied in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. This clinical trial evaluates the effect of dextromethorphan on pain, cognition and quality of life in patients who suffer from neuropathic pain induced by chemotherapy for breast cancer. It also assesses the impact of dextromethorphan genetic polymorphism on analgesia. This trial is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study in two parallel groups (NCT02271893). It includes 40 breast cancer patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. They are randomly allocated to dextromethorphan (maximal dose 90 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint is pain intensity measured after 4 weeks of treatment on a (0-10) Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Secondary outcomes include assessment of neuropathic pain, cognitive function, anxiety/depression, sleep and quality of life. Data analysis is performed using mixed models and the tests are two-sided, with a type I error set at α=0.05. Considering the poor efficacy of available drugs in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain, dextromethorphan may be a valuable therapeutic option. Pharmacogenetics may provide predictive factors of dextromethorphan response in patients suffering from breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Novak, Primoz; Burger, Helena; Marincek, Crt; Meh, Duska
To assess foot pain and its correlation with walking ability in diabetic patients. Two groups of type 2 diabetic patients (30 with symptomatic neuropathy and 30 without symptomatic neuropathy) and 30 healthy volunteers were studied. Pain was assessed by the pain sub-scale of the Foot Function Index. Internal consistency for the pain sub-scale was tested. Walking ability was assessed by the 6-minute walking test. The pain was worse in diabetic patients, the pain sub-scale scores differed between the groups (p < 0.05). High internal consistency was found for the pain sub-scale of the Foot Function Index. Results of the 6-minute walking test differed among the 3 groups: healthy volunteers performed best, and diabetic patients with symptomatic neuropathy worst (p < 0.001). Foot pain correlated moderately with the result of walking test (r = -0.449, p < 0.001). The pain sub-scale of the Foot Function Index is suitable for the assessment of pain in diabetic patients. Patients with severe foot pain have more difficulties when walking long distances than patients with less severe or without any pain.
Gewandter, Jennifer S; Burke, Laurie; Cavaletti, Guido; Dworkin, Robert H; Gibbons, Christopher; Gover, Tony D; Herrmann, David N; Mcarthur, Justin C; McDermott, Michael P; Rappaport, Bob A; Reeve, Bryce B; Russell, James W; Smith, A Gordon; Smith, Shannon M; Turk, Dennis C; Vinik, Aaron I; Freeman, Roy
No treatments for axonal peripheral neuropathy are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although patient- and clinician-reported outcomes are central to evaluating neuropathy symptoms, they can be difficult to assess accurately. The inability to identify efficacious treatments for peripheral neuropathies could be due to invalid or inadequate outcome measures. This systematic review examined the content validity of symptom-based measures of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, HIV neuropathy, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Use of all FDA-recommended methods to establish content validity was only reported for 2 of 18 measures. Multiple sensory and motor symptoms were included in measures for all 3 conditions; these included numbness, tingling, pain, allodynia, difficulty walking, and cramping. Autonomic symptoms were less frequently included. Given significant overlap in symptoms between neuropathy etiologies, a measure with content validity for multiple neuropathies with supplemental disease-specific modules could be of great value in the development of disease-modifying treatments for peripheral neuropathies. Muscle Nerve 55: 366-372, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Brady, Shauna; Lalli, Paul; Midha, Nisha; Chan, Ayechen; Garven, Alexandra; Chan, Cynthia; Toth, Cory
Olfactory dysfunction in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's syndrome and Alzheimer's disease can hallmark disease onset. We hypothesized that patients with diabetes mellitus, a condition featuring peripheral and central neurodegeneration, would have decreased olfaction abilities. We examined participants with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, participants with diabetes without diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and control participants in blinded fashion using standardized Sniffin' Sticks. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy severity was quantified using the Utah Early Neuropathy Scale. Further subcategorization of diabetic peripheral neuropathy based on presence of neuropathic pain was performed with Douleur Neuropathique 4 Questionnaires. Participants with diabetes had decreased olfactory sensitivity, impaired olfactory discrimination abilities, and reduced odor identification skills when compared with controls. However, loss of olfaction ability was, at least partially, attributed to presence of neuropathic pain on subcategory assessment, although pain severity was not associated with dysfunction. Those participants with diabetes without diabetic peripheral neuropathy and those with diabetic peripheral neuropathy without neuropathic pain had similar olfactory function as controls in general. The presence of neuropathic pain, associated with limited attention and concentration, may explain at least a portion of the olfactory dysfunction witnessed in the diabetic patient population.
Klein, Sandra E; Chu, Jennifer; McCormick, Jeremy J; Johnson, Jeffrey E
The foot and ankle surgeon can see peripheral neuropathy in the treatment of foot and ankle conditions. The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the demographics and presenting complaints of patients diagnosed with idiopathic peripheral neuropathy during an examination by a foot and ankle surgeon and (2) to identify the type and frequency of subsequent diagnosis of medical causes of neuropathy. This was a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with idiopathic peripheral neuropathy in our practice between January 1997 and December 2008. Ninety-five patients were identified, and demographic data, presenting complaints, and medical comorbidities were extracted from the medical record. Examination findings of decreased sensation to Semmes Weinstein 5.07 monofilament testing were documented, and electromyogram and nerve conduction study results were reviewed when available. Laboratory values were noted, as were neurologic evaluations performed to diagnose medical conditions associated with peripheral neuropathy. The most common presentation was foot pain, in 36 patients (38%). Ninety-one patients had Semmes Weinstein 5.07 monofilament testing, with loss of protective sensation reported in 75 of the 91 tested (82%). Only 30 of the 95 patients had electromyogram and nerve conduction study results available, with a test positive for peripheral neuropathy in 20 of the 30 tested. Thirty-two patients were evaluated by a neurologist. A specific cause was identified in 12 of the 32 seen by a neurologist. Of the total group of 95 patients, 31 patients (33%) were diagnosed with a condition that may be associated with peripheral neuropathy. Thirty-three percent of the patients presenting to our clinic and given a diagnosis of idiopathic peripheral neuropathy were ultimately diagnosed with a medical cause of neuropathy-most commonly, diabetes. For those patients with idiopathic neuropathy, a spectrum of disease was encountered, including pain, ulcer, infection, and Charcot
Phillips, Tudor J.C.; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D.; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W.; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L.H.; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K.; Rice, Andrew S.C.
HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7 day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n = 28), of whom 75% (n = 21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717
Vinik, Aaron I; Casellini, Carolina M
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. It presents as a variety of syndromes for which there is no universally accepted unique classification. Sensorimotor polyneuropathy is the most common type, affecting about 30% of diabetic patients in hospital care and 25% of those in the community. Pain is the reason for 40% of patient visits in a primary care setting, and about 20% of these have had pain for greater than 6 months. Chronic pain may be nociceptive, which occurs as a result of disease or damage to tissue with no abnormality in the nervous system. In contrast, neuropathic pain is defined as “pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system.” Persistent neuropathic pain interferes significantly with quality of life, impairing sleep and recreation; it also significantly impacts emotional well-being, and is associated with depression, anxiety, and noncompliance with treatment. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a difficult-to-manage clinical problem, and patients with this condition are more apt to seek medical attention than those with other types of diabetic neuropathy. Early recognition of psychological problems is critical to the management of pain, and physicians need to go beyond the management of pain per se if they are to achieve success. This evidence-based review of the assessment of the patient with pain in diabetes addresses the state-of-the-art management of pain, recognizing all the conditions that produce pain in diabetes and the evidence in support of a variety of treatments currently available. A search of the full Medline database for the last 10 years was conducted in August 2012 using the terms painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, painful diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy, painful diabetic neuropathy and pain in diabetes. In addition, recent reviews addressing this issue were adopted as necessary. In particular, reports from the American Academy of
Vinik, Aaron I; Casellini, Carolina M
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. It presents as a variety of syndromes for which there is no universally accepted unique classification. Sensorimotor polyneuropathy is the most common type, affecting about 30% of diabetic patients in hospital care and 25% of those in the community. Pain is the reason for 40% of patient visits in a primary care setting, and about 20% of these have had pain for greater than 6 months. Chronic pain may be nociceptive, which occurs as a result of disease or damage to tissue with no abnormality in the nervous system. In contrast, neuropathic pain is defined as "pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system." Persistent neuropathic pain interferes significantly with quality of life, impairing sleep and recreation; it also significantly impacts emotional well-being, and is associated with depression, anxiety, and noncompliance with treatment. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a difficult-to-manage clinical problem, and patients with this condition are more apt to seek medical attention than those with other types of diabetic neuropathy. Early recognition of psychological problems is critical to the management of pain, and physicians need to go beyond the management of pain per se if they are to achieve success. This evidence-based review of the assessment of the patient with pain in diabetes addresses the state-of-the-art management of pain, recognizing all the conditions that produce pain in diabetes and the evidence in support of a variety of treatments currently available. A search of the full Medline database for the last 10 years was conducted in August 2012 using the terms painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, painful diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy, painful diabetic neuropathy and pain in diabetes. In addition, recent reviews addressing this issue were adopted as necessary. In particular, reports from the American Academy of Neurology
Staff, Nathan P.; Grisold, Anna; Grisold, Wolfgang; Windebank, Anthony J.
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common dose-limiting side effect experienced by patients receiving treatment for cancer. Approximately 30–40% of patients treated with neurotoxic chemotherapy will develop CIPN and there is considerable variability in its severity between patients. It is often sensory-predominant with pain and can lead to long-term morbidity in survivors. The prevalence and burden of CIPN late effects will likely increase as cancer survival rates continue to improve. In this review, we discuss the approach to peripheral neuropathy in patients with cancer and address the clinical phenotypes and pathomechanisms of specific neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:28486769
Mancuso, Michelangelo; Orsucci, Daniele; Angelini, Corrado; Bertini, Enrico; Carelli, Valerio; Comi, Giacomo Pietro; Federico, Antonio; Minetti, Carlo; Moggio, Maurizio; Mongini, Tiziana; Tonin, Paola; Toscano, Antonio; Bruno, Claudio; Ienco, Elena Caldarazzo; Filosto, Massimiliano; Lamperti, Costanza; Diodato, Daria; Moroni, Isabella; Musumeci, Olimpia; Pegoraro, Elena; Spinazzi, Marco; Ahmed, Naghia; Sciacco, Monica; Vercelli, Liliana; Ardissone, Anna; Zeviani, Massimo; Siciliano, Gabriele
Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in mitochondrial disorders has been previously reported. However, the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in mitochondrial disorders is still unclear. Based on the large database of the "Nation-wide Italian Collaborative Network of Mitochondrial Diseases", we reviewed the clinical data of 1200 patients, with special regard to peripheral neuropathy (mean age at onset 24.3 ± 20.1 years; age at last evaluation 39.8 ± 22.3 years; females 52.7%; childhood onset [before age 16 years] 43.1%). Peripheral neuropathy was present in 143/1156 patients (12.4%), being one of the ten most common signs and symptoms. POLG mutations cause a potentially painful, axonal/mixed, mainly sensory polyneuropathy; TYMP mutations lead to a demyelinating sensory-motor polyneuropathy; SURF1 mutations are associated with a demyelinating/mixed sensory-motor polyneuropathy. The only mtDNA mutation consistently associated with peripheral neuropathy (although less severely than in the above-considered nuclear genes) was the m.8993T > G (or the rarer T > C) changes, which lead to an axonal, mainly sensory polyneuropathy. In conclusion, peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common features of a mitochondrial disorder, and may negatively impact on the quality of life of these patients. Furthermore, the presence or absence of peripheral neuropathy, as well as its specific forms and the association with neuropathic pain (indicative of a POLG-associated disease) can guide the molecular analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... be debilitating and difficult to control. Nerve damage (neuropathy) can be caused by many conditions, including: Diabetes. ... and pain in your hands and feet (diabetic neuropathy). Shingles. Anyone who has had chickenpox is at ...
Li, Yan; North, Robert Y; Rhines, Laurence D; Tatsui, Claudio Esteves; Rao, Ganesh; Edwards, Denaya D; Cassidy, Ryan M; Harrison, Daniel S; Johansson, Caj A; Zhang, Hongmei; Dougherty, Patrick M
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common adverse effect experienced by cancer patients receiving treatment with paclitaxel. The voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 (Na v 1.7) plays an important role in multiple preclinical models of neuropathic pain and in inherited human pain phenotypes, and its gene expression is increased in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of paclitaxel-treated rats. Hence, the potential of change in the expression and function of Na v 1.7 protein in DRGs from male rats with paclitaxel-related CIPN and from male and female humans with cancer-related neuropathic pain was tested here. Double immunofluorescence in CIPN rats showed that Na v 1.7 was upregulated in small DRG neuron somata, especially those also expressing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and in central processes of these cells in the superficial spinal dorsal horn. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in rat DRG neurons revealed that paclitaxel induced an enhancement of ProTx II (a selective Na v 1.7 channel blocker)-sensitive sodium currents. Bath-applied ProTx II suppressed spontaneous action potentials in DRG neurons occurring in rats with CIPN, while intrathecal injection of ProTx II significantly attenuated behavioral signs of CIPN. Complementarily, DRG neurons isolated from segments where patients had a history of neuropathic pain also showed electrophysiological and immunofluorescence results indicating an increased expression of Na v 1.7 associated with spontaneous activity. Na v 1.7 was also colocalized in human cells expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and CGRP. Furthermore, ProTx II decreased firing frequency in human DRGs with spontaneous action potentials. This study suggests that Na v 1.7 may provide a potential new target for the treatment of neuropathic pain, including chemotherapy (paclitaxel)-induced neuropathic pain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This work demonstrates that the expression and function of the voltage-gated sodium channel Na
Teasell, Robert W; Arnold, J Malcolm O
The pathophysiology of the pain associated with complex regional pain syndrome, spinal cord injury and diabetic peripheral neuropathy is not known. The pain of complex regional pain syndrome has often been attributed to abnormal sympathetic nervous system activity based on the presence of vasomotor instability and a frequently reported positive response, albeit a temporary response, to sympathetic blockade. In contrast, the pain below the level of spinal cord injury and diabetic peripheral neuropathy are generally seen as deafferentation phenomena. Each of these pain states has been associated with abnormal sympathetic nervous system function and increased peripheral alpha-1 adrenoceptor activity. This increased responsiveness may be a consequence of alpha-1 adrenoceptor postsynaptic hypersensitivity, or alpha-2 adrenoceptor presynaptic dysfunction with diminished noradrenaline reuptake, increased concentrations of noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft and increased stimulation of otherwise normal alpha-1 adrenoceptors. Plausible mechanisms based on animal research by which alpha-1 adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness can lead to chronic neuropathic-like pain have been reported. This raises the intriguing possibility that sympathetic nervous system dysfunction may be an important factor in the generation of pain in many neuropathic pain states. Although results to date have been mixed, there may be a greater role for new drugs which target peripheral alpha-2 adrenoceptors (agonists) or alpha-1 adrenoceptors (antagonists).
Ferrari, Luiz F.; Gear, Robert W.; Levine, Jon D.
Analgesic efficacy varies depending on the pain syndrome being treated. One reason for this may be a differential effect of individual pain syndromes on the function of endogenous pain control circuits at which these drugs act to produce analgesia. To test this hypothesis we examined the effects of diverse (i.e., ongoing inflammatory, neuropathic, or chronic widespread) pain syndromes on analgesia induced by activation of an opioid-mediated noxious stimulus-induced endogenous pain control circuit. This circuit was activated by subdermal capsaicin injection at a site remote from the site of nociceptive testing. Analgesia was not affected by carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain nor the early-phase of oxaliplatin neuropathy (a complication of cancer chemotherapy). However, the duration of analgesia was markedly shorter in the late-phase of oxaliplatin neuropathy and in alcoholic neuropathy. A model of fibromyalgia syndrome produced by chronic unpredictable stress and proinflammatory cytokines also shortened analgesia duration, but so did the same stress alone. Therefore, since chronic pain can activate neuroendocrine stress axes, we tested whether they are involved in the attenuation of analgesic duration induced by these pain syndromes. Rats in which the sympathoadrenal axis was ablated by adrenal medullectomy showed normal duration pain-induced analgesia in groups with either late-phase oxaliplatin neuropathy, alcoholic neuropathy, or exposure to sound stress. These results support the suggestion that pain syndromes can modulate activity in endogenous pain control circuits, and this effect is sympathoadrenal dependent. PMID:20943910
Negrão, Luis; Nunes, Paula
Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common type of peripheral entrapment neuropathy. We performed an exploratory, open-label, multicenter, observational study of 48 patients with peripheral entrapment neuropathy. Patients received a daily capsule of uridine monophosphate, folic acid + vitamin B12 for 2 months and were evaluated using the Pain DETECT questionnaire. The global score for pain decreased from 17.3 ± 5.9 at baseline to 10.3 ± 6.1 at the final evaluation (p < 0.001). Concomitant analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment was stopped or the dose reduced in 77.4% of patients. Uridine monophosphate + folic acid + vitamin B12 reduced total pain score, intensity and characterization of pain and associated symptoms. These results should be tested in a well-designed, adequately powered randomized controlled trial.
Zilliox, Lindsay A.; Ruby, Sandra K.; Singh, Sujal; Zhan, Min; Russell, James W.
AIMS Disagreement exists on effective and sensitive outcome measures in neuropathy associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Nerve conduction studies and skin biopsies are costly, invasive and may have their problems with reproducibility and clinical applicability. A clinical measure of neuropathy that has sufficient sensitivity and correlates to invasive measures would enable significant future research. METHODS Data was collected prospectively on patients with IGT and symptomatic early neuropathy (neuropathy symptoms < 2 years) and normal controls. The seven scales that were examined were the Neuropathy Impairment Score of the Lower Limb (NIS-LL), Michigan Diabetic Neuropathy Score (MNDS), modified Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Scale (mTCNS), Total Neuropathy Score (Clinical) (TNSc), The Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), the Early Neuropathy Score (ENS), and the Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS). RESULTS All seven clinical scales were determined to be excellent in discriminating between patients with neuropathy from controls without neuropathy. The strongest discrimination was seen with the mTCNS. The best sensitivity and specificity for the range of scores obtained, as determined by using receiver operating characteristic curves, was seen for the mTCNS followed by the TNSc. Most scales show a stronger correlation with measures of large than small fiber neuropathy. CONCULSIONS All seven scales identify patients with neuropathy. For the purpose of screening potential patients for a clinical study, the mTCNS followed by the TNSc would be most helpful to select patients with neuropathy. PMID:25690405
... extreme pain disorder is considered a form of peripheral neuropathy because it affects the peripheral nervous system, which ... Page National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Peripheral Neuropathy Information Page Educational Resources (6 links) Disease InfoSearch: ...
... insensitivity to pain is considered a form of peripheral neuropathy because it affects the peripheral nervous system, which ... link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Peripheral Neuropathy Information Page Educational Resources (5 links) Disease InfoSearch: ...
Rudroju, Neelima; Bansal, Dipika; Talakokkula, Shiva Teja; Gudala, Kapil; Hota, Debasish; Bhansali, Anil; Ghai, Babita
Anticonvulsants and antidepressants are mostly used in management of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). However there are few direct comparisons between drugs of these classes, making evidence-based decision-making in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy difficult. This study aimed to perform a network meta-analysis and benefit-risk analysis to evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of these drugs in PDN treatment. Comparative effectiveness study. Medical Education and Research facility in India. A comprehensive data search was done in PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase up to August 2012. We then systematically reviewed the studies which compared any of 6 drugs for the management of PDN: amitriptyline, duloxetine, gabapentin, pregabalin, valproate, and venlafaxine or any of their combinations. We performed a random-effects network meta-analysis to rank treatments in terms of efficacy and safety. We chose the number of patients experiencing = 50% reduction in pain and number of patient withdrawals due to adverse events (AE) as primary outcomes for efficacy and safety, respectively. We also performed benefit-risk analysis, taking efficacy outcome as benefit and safety outcome as risk. Analysis was intention-to-treat. We included 21 published trials in the analysis. Duloxetine, gabapentin, pregabalin, and venlafaxine were shown to be significantly efficacious compared to placebo with odds ratios (OR) of 2.12, 3.98, 2.78, and 4.43, respectively. Amitriptyline (OR: 7.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.87, 29.05) and duloxetine (OR: 3.26, 95% CI: 1.04, 9.97) caused more withdrawals than gabapentin. The ranking order of efficacy was gabapentin, venlafaxine, pregabalin, duloxetine/gabapentin, duloxetine, amitriptyline, and placebo and the ranking order of safety was placebo, gabapentin, pregabalin, venlafaxine, duloxetine/gabapentin combination, duloxetine, and amitriptyline. Benefit-risk balance favored the order: gabapentin, venlafaxine, pregabalin, duloxetine
Hamel, Johanna; Logigian, Eric L
This study describes clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features of a severe acute axonal polyneuropathy common to patients with acute nutritional deficiency in the setting of alcoholism, bariatric surgery (BS), or anorexia. Retrospective analysis of clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory data of patients with acute axonal neuropathy. Thirteen patients were identified with a severe, painful, sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy that developed over 2-12 weeks with sensory ataxia, areflexia, variable muscle weakness, poor nutritional status, and weight loss, often with prolonged vomiting and normal cerebrospinal fluid protein. Vitamin B6 was low in half and thiamine was low in all patients when obtained before supplementation. Patients improved with weight gain and vitamin supplementation, with motor greater than sensory recovery. We suggest that acute or subacute axonal neuropathy in patients with weight loss or vomiting associated with alcohol abuse, BS, or dietary deficiency is one syndrome, caused by micronutrient deficiencies. Muscle Nerve 57: 33-39, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Donnadieu, S; Djian, M C
NEW OPIOID ANALGESICS: Progress in pain reliet has recently been achieved with the introduction of new opioid analgesics such as tramadol and the pediatric preparation of codeine phosphate as well as powerful long-release opioids which can be administered per os, or percutaneously for transdermal fentanyl. CO-ANALGESICS: Other drugs, mainly antidepressants and anti-convulsants, can be usefully combined with analgesics. New serotonin uptake inhibitors and anticonvulsants (gabapentin and lamotrigin) have the advantage of better tolerance. None of these drugs has marketing approval in France for their pain relieving effects. The same is true for clonidine and neostigmine which, after spinal infusion, potentialize opioids and for ketamine which can relieve neuropathy pain by dissociative anesthesia. NEW ANTI-MIGRAINE DRUGS: New drugs have been developed for specific types of pain such as migraine. The new "triptans" are tolerated better than sumatriptan and is reimbursed by the national social security. REFRACTORY NEUROPATHY PAIN: Indications for electrical stimulation techniques conducted in a neurosurgery unit have been identified. Stimulators may be implanted in spinal or supra-spinal localizations. REGULATORY ASPECTS: New legislation has reorganized health care for pain relief in France. The new texts take into consideration personnel training, the health care network and progress in therapeutics.
Pachman, Deirdre R; Qin, Rui; Seisler, Drew; Smith, Ellen M Lavoie; Kaggal, Suneetha; Novotny, Paul; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Lafky, Jacqueline M; Ta, Lauren E; Beutler, Andreas S; Wagner-Johnston, Nina D; Staff, Nathan P; Grothey, Axel; Dougherty, Patrick M; Cavaletti, Guido; Loprinzi, Charles L
Oxaliplatin and paclitaxel are commonly used chemotherapies associated with acute and chronic neuropathies. There is a need to better understand the similarities and differences of these clinical syndromes. Neuropathy data were pooled from patients receiving adjuvant oxaliplatin and weekly paclitaxel or every 3 weeks of paclitaxel. Patients completed daily questionnaires after each chemotherapy dose and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire for patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy before each chemotherapy cycle and for 12 months post-treatment. Acute neuropathy symptoms from both drugs peaked around day 3. Acute symptoms experienced in cycle 1 predicted occurrence in subsequent cycles. Paclitaxel-induced acute symptoms were similar in intensity in each cycle and largely resolved between cycles. Oxaliplatin-induced acute symptoms were about half as severe in the first cycle as in later cycles and did not resolve completely between cycles. Both drugs caused a predominantly sensory chronic neuropathy (with numbness and tingling being more common than pain). Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy worsened after the completion of treatment and began to improve 3 months post-treatment. In contrast, paclitaxel-induced neuropathy began improving immediately after chemotherapy cessation. During treatment, the incidence of paclitaxel sensory symptoms was similar in the hands and feet; with oxaliplatin, the hands were affected more than the feet. Both paclitaxel- and oxaliplatin-induced acute neurotoxicity appeared to predict the severity of chronic neuropathy, more prominently with oxaliplatin. Knowledge of the similarities and differences between neuropathy syndromes may provide insight into their underlying pathophysiology and inform future research to identify preventative treatment approaches.
Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin
Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin
Esmer, C; Díaz Zambrano, S; Santos Díaz, M A; González Huerta, L M; Cuevas Covarrubias, S A; Bravo Oro, A
The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are genetic disorders characterized by the loss of sensation including pain, tactile and temperature. Its clinical and molecular features vary widely; the symptoms may begin from birth or be noticed in the first or second decade, with different types of complications of trauma to the extremities such as ulcers, mutilations and acral amputations. They are classified into six groups from I to VI, determined by the abnormality in eleven genes leading to phenotypic variations in the age of onset and the presence or absence of dysautonomia signs. With the exception of type I, all are autosomal recessive. The type II of these neuropathies is characterized by insensitivity to pain, heat and proprioception. We describe three members of a Mexican family with WNK1 gene mutation that caused hereditary neuropathy IIA. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
White, C M; Pritchard, J; Turner-Stokes, L
Peripheral neuropathies are a wide range of diseases affecting the peripheral nerves. Demyelination or axonal degeneration gives rise to a variety of symptoms including reduced or altered sensation, pain, muscle weakness and fatigue. Secondary disability arises and this may result in adjustments to psychological and social function. Exercise therapy, with a view to developing strength and stamina, forms part of the treatment for people with peripheral neuropathy, particularly in the later stages of recovery from acute neuropathy and in chronic neuropathies. The primary objective was to examine the effect of exercise therapy on functional ability in the treatment of people with peripheral neuropathy. In addition, secondary outcomes of muscle strength, endurance, broader measures of health and well being, as well as unfavourable outcomes were examined. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group register (July 2002 and updated February 2004) and MEDLINE (from January 1966 to June 2004), EMBASE (from January 1980 to June 2004), CINAHL (from January 1982 to July 2002) and LILACS (from January 1982 to July 2002) electronic databases. Bibliographies of all selected randomised controlled trials were checked and authors contacted to identify additional published or unpublished data. Any randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of exercise therapy with no exercise therapy or drugs or an alternative non-drug treatment on functional ability (or disability) in people with peripheral neuropathy at least eight weeks after randomisation was included. Two reviewers independently selected eligible studies, rated the methodological quality and extracted data. Only one trial fully met the inclusion criteria. An additional two trials assessed outcomes less than eight weeks after randomisation and were also included. Methodological quality was poor for several criteria in each study. Data used in the three studies could not be pooled due to
... PubMed Central Yilmaz U, Bird TT, Carter GT, Wang LH, Weiss MD. Pain in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy: an association with fibromyalgia syndrome? Muscle Nerve. 2015 Mar;51(3):385-90. doi: 10.1002/ ...
... that can happen in people with diabetes (diabetic peripheral neuropathy) and in those who develop pain following the ... previously approved to treat depression, anxiety, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Cymbalta's side effects include nausea, dry mouth, sleepiness, ...
Bai, Johnny-Wei; Lovblom, Leif E; Cardinez, Marina; Weisman, Alanna; Farooqi, Mohammed A; Halpern, Elise M; Boulet, Genevieve; Eldelekli, Devrim; Lovshin, Julie A; Lytvyn, Yuliya; Keenan, Hillary A; Brent, Michael H; Paul, Narinder; Bril, Vera; Cherney, David Z I; Perkins, Bruce A
To determine the association of neuropathy and other complications with emotional distress and depression among patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Canadians with ≥50years of T1DM completed a questionnaire including assessment of distress and depression by the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Complications were determined using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (Questionnaire Component), fundoscopy reports, renal function tests, and self-reported peripheral-(PVD) and cardiovascular (CVD) disease. Associations were analyzed by Poisson regression. Among 323 participants, 137 (42.4%) had neuropathy, 113 (36.5%) nephropathy, 207 (69.5%) retinopathy, 95 (29.4%) CVD, and 31 (9.8%) PVD. The neuropathy subgroup had higher prevalence of distress (13 (9.5%) vs. 6 (3.3%), p=0.029) and depression (34 (24.9%) vs. 12 (6.5%), p<0.001). Adjusting for diabetes complications, neuropathy was associated with higher PAID (adjusted RR 1.44 (95% CI 1.14-1.82), p=0.003) and GDS scores (adjusted RR1.57 (1.18-2.11), p=0.002). Independent of potential confounders, neuropathy remained associated with higher PAID (adjusted RR 1.39 (1.10-1.76), p=0.006) and GDS scores (adjusted RR 1.37 (1.03-1.83), p=0.032). Associations with neuropathy were not fully explained by neuropathic pain. Compared to other complications, neuropathy had the greatest association with distress and depression in longstanding T1DM, independent of pain. Strategies beyond pain management are needed to improve quality of life in diabetic neuropathy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Rekleiti, Maria; Sarafis, Pavlos; Saridi, Maria; Toska, Aikaterini; Melos, Chrysovaladis; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Tsironi, Maria
Considerable studies directly connect the complications in diabetic patients, and especially peripheral neuropathy, with the emergence of depression. Neuropathetic pain may deteriorate the general health status of the diabetic patient and glycaemic regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the appearance and degree of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and its correlation with depression, with other parameters of the disease and also duration. 57 diabetic patients participated with diagnosed diabetic peripheral neuropathy (male n=27, female n= 30, mean of age 72.7±6.35 years). The first part of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument and the Zung Depression Rating Scale were used as tools for our study. Data was analysed with the SPSS 18.0 statistic program. 57.9% of the patients were overweight, 35.1% were obese and only 7% were within normal weight range. The BMI findings between the two genders indicate that male participants are more often obese than females. Women surpassed men in the category of overweight patients (p < 0.05). The score based on MNSI was high and between 3 to 12 (mean average of 8.19±2.60 with 8 as intermediate rate). Almost 60% of patients had severe neuropathy, only 2 were found with mild symptoms and the rest had moderate neuropathtic symptoms, based on the score summary from the questionnaire. Investigating in detail the relation of diabetic neuropathy and depression, it derives that a high degree of diabetic neuropathy is related with high score of depression [F(3.160)=9.821, p=0.001]. Moderate and severe neuropathy was found with almost the same levels of depression. The correlation between diabetic neuropathy and depression is confirmed, while a very high depression rate was found in patients with severe neuropathy. The issue needs further study by using common instruments to obtain comparative results from the scientific community.
Harkless, Lawrence B; DeLellis, Salvatore; Carnegie, Dale H; Burke, Thomas J
The medical records of 2239 patients (mean age=73 years) with established peripheral neuropathy (PN) were examined to determine whether treatment with MIRE was, in fact, associated with increased foot sensitivity to the Semmes Weinstein monofilament (SWM) 5.07 and a reduction in neuropathic pain. The PN in 1395 of these patients (62%) was due to diabetes. Prior to treatment with MIRE, of the 10 tested sites (5 on each foot), 7.1+/-2.9 were insensitive to the SWM 5.07, and 2078 patients (93%) exhibited loss of protective sensation defined by Medicare as a loss of sensation at two or more sites on either foot. After treatment, the number of insensate sites on both feet decreased to 2.4+/-2.6, an improvement of 66%. Of the 2078 (93%) patients initially presenting with loss of protective sensation, 1106 (53%) no longer had loss of protective sensation after treatment (P<.0001); 1563 patients (70%) also exhibited neuropathic pain in addition to sensory impairment. Prior to treatment with MIRE, pain measured on the 11-point visual analogue scale (VAS) was 7.2+/-2.2 points, despite the use of a variety of pain-relieving therapeutic agents. After treatment with MIRE, pain was reduced by 4.8+/-2.4 points, a 67% reduction. Therefore, MIRE appears to be associated with significant clinical improvement in foot sensation and, simultaneously, a reduction in neuropathic pain in a large cohort of primarily Medicare aged, community-dwelling patients, initially diagnosed with PN. The quality of life associated with these two outcomes cannot be underappreciated.
Cazzato, Daniele; Castori, Marco; Lombardi, Raffaella; Caravello, Francesca; Bella, Eleonora Dalla; Petrucci, Antonio; Grammatico, Paola; Dordoni, Chiara; Colombi, Marina
Objective: To investigate the involvement of small nerve fibers in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Methods: Patients diagnosed with EDS underwent clinical, neurophysiologic, and skin biopsy assessment. We recorded sensory symptoms and signs and evaluated presence and severity of neuropathic pain according to the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) and ID Pain questionnaires and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Sensory action potential amplitude and conduction velocity of sural nerve was recorded. Skin biopsy was performed at distal leg and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) obtained and referred to published sex- and age-adjusted normative reference values. Results: Our cohort included 20 adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/hypermobility EDS, 3 patients with vascular EDS, and 1 patient with classic EDS. All except one patient had neuropathic pain according to DN4 and ID Pain questionnaires and reported 7 or more symptoms at the Small Fiber Neuropathy Symptoms Inventory Questionnaire. Pain intensity was moderate (NRS ≥4 and <7) in 8 patients and severe (NRS ≥7) in 11 patients. Sural nerve conduction study was normal in all patients. All patients showed a decrease of IENFD consistent with the diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy (SFN), regardless of the EDS type. Conclusions: SFN is a common feature in adults with EDS. Skin biopsy could be considered an additional diagnostic tool to investigate pain manifestations in EDS. PMID:27306637
Abdel-Wahhab, Khaled G; Daoud, Eitedal M; El Gendy, Aliaa; Mourad, Hagar H; Mannaa, Fathia A; Saber, Maha M
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the highly occurred complication of diabetes mellitus; it has been defined as an event of peripheral nerve dysfunction characterized by pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, and paraesthesia. The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the management of neuropathy in diabetic rats. The used animals were divided into the following groups: negative control, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and diabetic rats with peripheral neuropathy (DNP) and DNP treated with gabapentin or with LLLT. Behavioral tests were carried out through hotplate test for the determination of pain sensations and the Morris water maze test for spatial reference memory evaluation. Blood samples were collected at the end of treatment for biochemical determinations. In the current study, the latency of hind-paw lick decreased significantly when DNP are treated with gabapentin or LLLT. The Morris water maze test showed that LLLT treatment improved memory that deteriorated in DNP more than gabapentin do. The results of the biochemical study revealed that LLLT could not affect the level of beta-endorphin that decreased in DNP but significantly decreased S100B that rose in DNP. PGE2 and cytokines IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α showed significant increase in DNP compared with control group. The gabapentin administration or LLLT application significantly reversed the levels of the mentioned markers towards the normal values of the controls. Levels of serum MDA and nitric oxide increased significantly in the DNP but rGSH showed significant decrease. These markers were improved significantly when the DNP were treated with gabapentin or LLLT. The treatment with gabapentin or LLLT significantly decreased the raised level in total cholesterol in DNP but could not decrease the elevated level of triglycerides, while LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in DNP treated with gabapentin but not affected by LLLT. Values of serum alanine
Pruitt, Jimmy; Moracho-Vilrriales, Carolina; Threatt, Tiffaney; Wagner, Sarah; Wu, Jun; Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) represents significant burdens to many patients and the public health-care system. Patients with diabetes in rural areas have higher risk of developing complications and having less access to proper treatment. We studied a rural population of patients with diabetes who attended a pharmacist-led free clinic for a diabetic education program. Our objectives were to 1) determine the prevalence of DPN and painful diabetic neuropathy (p-DN) in patients with type 2 diabetes; 2) assess the proportion of patients with DPN and p-DN left undocumented upon physician referral to a pharmacist-led free clinic; and 3) determine the appropriateness of pain medication regimen. We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients from the Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy (PCSP) Wellness Center located in Clinton, SC. Diagnoses of DPN and/or p-DN were obtained from referral notes in the clinical records and compared with results from foot examinations performed in the free clinic and clinical features. Medication regimens were also obtained and compared using American Academy of Neurology (AAN) treatment guidelines. Within our study population (n=111), the prevalence of DPN was 62.2% (national average of 28%-45%) and that of p-DN was 23.4% (national average of 11%-24%). In p-DN patients (n=26), 53.8% (n=14) had a documented diagnosis of p-DN by the referring physician, and 46.2% (n=12) were identified by the pharmacists. A total of 95% (19 of 20) of the patients treated for p-DN received adequate pharmacological agents, though suboptimal as per clinical guidelines. More than 50% of the patients used subtherapeutic doses of their medications. Gabapentin was the most frequently used medication in our population (65.4%). Patients in rural South Carolina had a higher prevalence of DPN and p-DN with >60% undocumented cases of p-DN. More than 95% of treated patients did not receive optimum therapy according to AAN guidelines.
Ergül, Yakup; Ekici, Bariş; Keskin, Sabiha
Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV is a rare disorder with an autosomal recessive transmission and characterized by self-mutilation due to a lack in pain and heat sensation. Recurrent hyperpyrexia and anhydrosis are seen in patients as a result of a lack of sweat gland innervation. Self-mutilation and insensitivity to pain result in orthopedic complications and patients undergone recurrent surgical interventions with anesthesia. However, these patients are prone to perioperative complications such as hyperthermia, hypothermia, and cardiac complications like bradycardia and hypotension. We report a 5-year-old boy with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV, developing hyperpyrexia and cardiac arrest after anesthesia.
Wilcox, Sophie L; Gustin, Sylvia M; Eykman, Elizabeth N; Fowler, Gordon; Peck, Christopher C; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A
Trigeminal neuralgia, painful trigeminal neuropathy, and painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are chronic orofacial pain conditions that are thought to have fundamentally different etiologies. Trigeminal neuralgia and neuropathy are thought to arise from damage to or pressure on the trigeminal nerve, whereas TMD results primarily from peripheral nociceptor activation. This study sought to assess the volume and microstructure of the trigeminal nerve in these 3 conditions. In 9 neuralgia, 18 neuropathy, 20 TMD, and 26 healthy controls, the trigeminal root entry zone was selected on high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and the volume (mm(3)) calculated. Additionally, using diffusion-tensor images (DTIs), the mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy values of the trigeminal nerve root were calculated. Trigeminal neuralgia patients displayed a significant (47%) decrease in nerve volume but no change in DTI values. Conversely, trigeminal neuropathy subjects displayed a significant (40%) increase in nerve volume but again no change in DTI values. In contrast, TMD subjects displayed no change in volume or DTI values. The data suggest that the changes occurring within the trigeminal nerve are not uniform in all orofacial pain conditions. These structural and volume changes may have implications in diagnosis and management of different forms of chronic orofacial pain. This study reveals that neuropathic orofacial pain conditions are associated with changes in trigeminal nerve volume, whereas non-neuropathic orofacial pain is not associated with any change in nerve volume. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Hao; Romano, Gary; Fedgchin, Margaret; Russell, Lucille; Sanga, Panna; Kelly, Kathleen M.; Frustaci, Mary Ellen
Objective: Fulranumab is an antibody that specifically neutralizes the biological activity of human nerve growth factor. This multicenter, phase-2, randomized, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled study evaluated the analgesic efficacy and safety of fulranumab in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and posttraumatic neuropathy (PTN) patients. Methods: Patients (18 to 80 y) with inadequately controlled moderate-to-severe pain received study medication (subcutaneous injection) every 4 weeks. PHN patients were randomized (3:2:2:3) to receive either placebo or one of 3 doses of fulranumab: 1 mg (1 mgQ4 wk), 3 mg (3 mgQ4 wk), or 10 mg (10 mgQ4 wk). PTN patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either placebo or fulranumab 10 mgQ4 wk. Results: The US Food and Drug Administration placed a clinical hold (December 23, 2010) on all trials of antinerve growth factor drugs, including fulranumab, due to identified risks of osteonecrosis or rapidly progressing osteoarthritis; therefore, only 49 (of 150 planned) PHN patients and 34 (of 50 planned) PTN patients completed the DB efficacy evaluation. There was no significant difference (P>0.05, fulranumab vs. placebo) for change in 7-day average of daily pain intensity scores from DB baseline to end of 12-week DB efficacy phase in PHN or PTN patients (primary endpoint). No significant difference was found with fulranumab versus placebo (P>0.05) in other efficacy measures in either PHN or PTN patients. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (>10% incidence) in PTN patients were sinusitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and headache, whereas in PHN patients it was arthralgia. Discussion: Fulranumab did not demonstrate efficacy in either PHN or PTN patients, but was generally well-tolerated in this small underpowered and abbreviated study. PMID:27153360
Tiwari, Reshu; Siddiqui, Mohd Haris; Mahmood, Tarique; Bagga, Paramdeep; Ahsan, Farogh; Shamim, Arshiya
Diabetic neuropathy is a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus affecting about 50% of patients. Its symptoms include decreased motility and severe pain in peripheral parts. The pathogenesis involved is an abnormality in blood vessels that supply the peripheral nerves, metabolic disorders such as myo-inositol depletion, and increased nonenzymatic glycation. Moreover, oxidative stress in neurons results in activation of multiple biochemical pathways, which results in the generation of free radicals. Apart from available marketed formulations, extensive research is being carried out on herbal-based natural products to control hyperglycemia and its associated complications. This review is focused to provide a summary on diabetic neuropathy covering its etiology, types, and existing work on herbal-based therapies, which include pure compounds isolated from plant materials, plant extracts, and Ayurvedic preparations.
Zis, Panagiotis; Sarrigiannis, Ptolemaios Georgios; Rao, Dasappaiah Ganesh; Hadjivassiliou, Marios
Gluten neuropathy (GN) is defined as an otherwise idiopathic peripheral neuropathy in the presence of serological evidence of gluten sensitivity (positive native gliadin antibodies and/or transglutaminase or endomysium antibodies). We aimed to compare the quality of life (QoL) of GN patients with that of control subjects and to investigate the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on the QoL. All consecutive patients with GN attending a specialist neuropathy clinic were invited to participate. The Overall Neuropathy Limitations Scale (ONLS) was used to assess the severity of the neuropathy. The 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) questionnaire was used to measure participants’ QoL. A strict GFD was defined as effectively being able to eliminate all circulating gluten sensitivity-related antibodies. Fifty-three patients with GN and 53 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. Compared to controls, GN patients showed significantly worse scores in the physical functioning, role limitations due to physical health, energy/fatigue, and general health subdomains of the SF-36. After adjusting for age, gender, and disease severity, being on a strict GFD correlated with better SF-36 scores in the pain domain of the SF-36 (beta 0.317, p = 0.019) and in the overall health change domain of the SF-36 (beta 0.306, p = 0.017). In GN patients, physical dysfunctioning is the major determinant of poor QoL compared to controls. Routine checking of the elimination of gluten sensitivity-related antibodies that results from a strict GFD should be encouraged, as such elimination ameliorates the overall pain and health scores, indicating a better QoL.
Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Camdessanché, Jean-Philippe
To review recent advances in paraneoplastic neuropathies with emphasis on their definition, different forms and therapeutic development. A strict definition of definite paraneoplastic neuropathies is necessary to avoid confusion. With carcinoma, seronegative sensory neuronopathies and neuronopathies and anti-Hu and anti-CV2/Contactin Response Mediator Protein 5 antibodies are the most frequent. With lymphomas, most neuropathies occur with monoclonal gammopathy including AL amyloidosis, Polyneuropathy-Organomegaly-Endocrinopathy-M component-Skin changes (POEMS) syndrome, type I cryoglobulinemia and antimyelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathies and Waldenström's disease. Neuropathies improving with tumor treatment are occasional, occur with a variety of cancer and include motor neuron disease, chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and nerve vasculitis. If antibodies toward intracellular antigens are well characterized, it is not the case for antibodies toward cell membrane proteins. Contactin-associated protein-2 antibodies occur with neuromyotonia and thymoma with the Morvan's syndrome in addition to Netrin 1 receptor antibodies but may not be responsible for peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. The treatment of AL amyloidosis, POEMS syndrome, anti-MAG neuropathy and cryoglobulinemia is now relatively well established. It is not the case with onconeural antibodies for which the rarity of the disorders and a short therapeutic window are limiting factors for the development of clinical trials. A strict definition of paraneoplastic neuropathies helps their identification and is necessary to allow an early diagnosis of the underlying tumor.
Carlos, Fernando; Ramírez-Gámez, Jocelyn; Dueñas, Héctor; Galindo-Suárez, Rosa María; Ramos, Elisa
To perform an economic evaluation of duloxetine, pregabalin, and both branded and generic gabapentin for managing pain in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN) in Mexico. The analysis was conducted using a 3-month decision model, which compares duloxetine 60 mg once daily (DUL), pregabalin 150 mg twice daily (PGB), and gabapentin 600 mg three-times daily (GBP) for PDPN patients with moderate-to-severe pain. A systematic review was performed and placebo-adjusted risk ratios for achieving good pain relief (GPR), adverse events (AE), and withdrawal owing to intolerable AE were calculated. Direct medical costs included drug acquisition and additional visits due to lack of efficacy (poor pain relief) or intolerable AE. Unit costs were taken from local sources. Adherence rates were used to estimate the expected drug costs. All costs are expressed in 2010 Mexican Pesos (MXN). Utility values drawn from published literature were applied to health states. The proportion of patients with GPR and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) were assessed. Branded-GBP was dominated by all the other options. PGB was more costly and less effective than DUL. Compared with branded-GBP and PGB, DUL led to savings of 1.01 and 1.74 million MXN (per 1000 patients). The incremental cost per QALY gained with DUL used instead of generic-GBP was $102 433 MXN. This amount is slightly lower than the estimated gross domestic product per capita in Mexico for 2010. During a second-order Monte Carlo simulation, DUL had the highest probability of being cost-effective (61%), followed by generic-GBP (25%) and PGB (14%). Study limitations include a short timeframe and using data from different dosage schemes for GBP and PGB. This study suggests that DUL provides overall savings and better health outcomes compared with branded-GBP and PGB. Administering DUL rather than generic-GBP is a cost-effective intervention to manage PDPN in Mexico.
There are two patterns of back pain: 1) back-dominant pain and 2) leg pain dominant, greater than back pain. The causes of back pain are very different and numerous, but mostly are due to vertebral, mechanical etiology, and rarely because of non vertebral, visceral etiology. Leg pain greater than back pain is mostly disease of spinal nerve root, generally presented by radicular pain in a dermatomal distribution. Mechanical compression of spinal roots, caused by disc herniation or by spinal stenosis, results in radicular symptoms. Rarely, in about 1% of patients, there are some other reasons except vertebral mechanical cause, like infection, tumor or fracture. There are several causes of pseudoradicular pain like periferal neuropathy, myifascial syndromes, vascular diseases, osteoarthritis. Spondylarthropathies should be taken in cosideration as well. A complete history and physical examination is important to determine further diagnostic evaluation and to provide eficient therapy.
Naddaf, Elie; Dyck, P James Bonham
From pathological standpoint, we divide vasculitic neuropathies in two categories: nerve large arteriole vasculitides and nerve microvasculitis. It is also important to determine whether a large arteriole vasculitis has an infectious etiology as it entails different treatment approach. Treatment of non-infectious large arteriole vasculitides consists initially of induction therapy with corticosteroids. Adding an immunosuppressant, mainly cyclophosphamide, is often needed. Treatment of infectious large arteriole vasculitides needs a multidisciplinary approach to target both the underlying infection and the vasculitis. Corticosteroids are the first-line therapy for classic non-systemic vasculitic neuropathy. Stable or improving patients without biopsy evidence of active vasculitis can be either observed or treated. Currently, adding an immunosuppressant is only indicated for patients who continue to progress on corticosteroids alone or patients with a rapidly progressive course. The treatment of the radiculoplexus neuropathies such as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy, lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (in non-diabetic patients), and diabetic cervical radiculoplexus neuropathy, as well as painless diabetic motor neuropathy, is not well established yet. We treat patients, if they present early on in the disease course or if they have severe disabling symptoms, with IV methylprednisolone 1 g once a week for 12 weeks.
Duggett, Natalie A.; Griffiths, Lisa A.; Flatters, Sarah J.L.
Abstract Painful neuropathy is the major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel chemotherapy. Mitochondrial dysfunction and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) deficit have previously been shown in peripheral nerves of paclitaxel-treated rats, but the effects of paclitaxel in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) have not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the bioenergetic status of DRG neurons following paclitaxel exposure in vitro and in vivo. Utilising isolated DRG neurons, we measured respiratory function under basal conditions and at maximal capacity, glycolytic function, and Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)/ATP levels at 3 key behavioural timepoints; prior to pain onset (day 7), peak pain severity and pain resolution. At day 7, maximal respiration and spare reserve capacity were significantly decreased in DRG neurons from paclitaxel-treated rats. This was accompanied by decreased basal ATP levels and unaltered ADP levels. At peak pain severity, respiratory function was unaltered, yet glycolytic function was significantly increased. Reduced ATP and unaltered ADP levels were also observed at the peak pain timepoint. All these effects in DRG neurons had dissipated by the pain resolution timepoint. None of these paclitaxel-evoked changes could be replicated from in vitro paclitaxel exposure to naive DRG neurons, demonstrating the impact of in vivo exposure and the importance of in vivo models. These data demonstrate the nature of mitochondrial dysfunction evoked by in vivo paclitaxel in the DRG for the first time. Furthermore, we have identified paclitaxel-evoked changes in the bioenergetics of DRG neurons, which result in a persistent energy deficit that is causal to the development and maintenance of paclitaxel-induced pain. PMID:28541258
Indart, Sandrine; Hugon, Jacques; Guillausseau, Pierre Jean; Gilbert, Alice; Dumurgier, Julien; Paquet, Claire; Sène, Damien
Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by xerophthalmia, xerostomia, and potential peripheral or central neurological involvement. In pSS, the prevalence of cognitive disorders is generally sparse across literature and the impact of pain on cognitive profile is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between pain, cognitive complaint, and impairment in a very homogenous population of 10 pSS patients with painful small fiber neuropathy (PSFN) and spontaneous cognitive complaint. Neurological exam, neuropsychological assessment, clinical evaluation measuring pain level, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and cognitive complaint were performed. Our results showed that 100% of patients had cognitive dysfunction especially in executive domain (80%). The most sensitive test was the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), abnormal in 70% of our population. Moreover, we found clear cut significant correlations between pain levels and 3 measures of WCST: the number of errors (R = -0.768, P = .0062), perseverations (R = 0.831, P = .0042), and categories (R = 0.705, P = .02). In the literature review, the impact of pain is underexplored and results could be discordant. In a homogeneous cohort of pSS patients with PSFN, a cognitive complaint seems to be a valid reflection of cognitive dysfunction marked by a specific executive profile found with the WCST. In this preliminary study, this profile is linked to the level of pain and highlights that an appropriate management of pain control and a cognitive readaptation in patients could improve the quality of life.
Babu, Anand; Prasanth, K G; Balaji, Bhaskar
Curcumin exhibits a wide spectrum of biological activities which include neuroprotective, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity. The present study evaluates the effect of curcumin in vincristine-induced neuropathy in a mice model. Vincristine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg, i.p. for 10 consecutive days) was administered to mice to induce neuropathy. Pain behavior was assessed at different days, i.e., 0, 7, 10, and 14 d. Sciatic nerve total calcium, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were also estimated after the 14th day of study. Pregabalin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and curcumin (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for 14 consecutive days. Curcumin at 60 mg/kg significantly attenuated the vincristine-induced neuropathic pain manifestations in terms of thermal hyperalgesia (p < 0.001) and allodynia (p < 0.001); mechanical hyperalgesia (p < 0.001); functional loss (p < 0.001); and in the delayed phase of formalin test (p < 0.001). Curcumin at 30 and 60 mg/kg exhibited significant changes (p < 0.001) in antioxidant levels and in total calcium levels in vincristine-injected mice. Curcumin at 30 and 60 mg/kg dose levels significantly attenuated vincristine-induced neuropathy which may be due to its multiple actions including antinociceptive, calcium inhibitory, and antioxidant effect.
Rutkove, Seward B
Ms Q is a 52-year-old woman who has had progressive polyneuropathy in the setting of diabetes for the past 8 years. Ms Q's major disability is that of increasingly severe neuropathic pain and cramps that have been poorly responsive to a variety of therapies, including gabapentin and topiramate. The diagnosis of and differential diagnosis for diabetic polyneuropathy are reviewed herein. In general, treatment options for diabetic polyneuropathy remain primarily symptomatic. Improving the metabolic profile through weight loss, exercise, and if necessary, medications may help slow neuropathy progression. Many medications are effective in reducing pain, and newly developed ones, such as pregabalin and duloxetine, while specifically marketed for diabetic neuropathy, are likely to be no better and are considerably more expensive than older ones. Alpha-lipoic acid appears to be effective as well.
Pregabalin versus gabapentin in the management of peripheral neuropathic pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy: a cost effectiveness analysis for the Greek healthcare setting
Background The anticonvulsants pregabalin and gabapentin are both indicated for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. The decision on which treatment provides the best alternative, should take into account all aspects of costs and outcomes associated with the two therapeutic options. The objective of this study was to examine the cost – effectiveness of the two agents in the management of patients with painful diabetic neuropathy or post – herpetic neuralgia, under the third party payer perspective in Greece. Methods The analysis was based on a dynamic simulation model which estimated and compared the costs and outcomes of pregabalin and gabapentin in a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 patients suffering from painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) or Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN). In the model, each patient was randomly allocated an average pretreatment pain score, measured using an eleven-point visual analogue scale (0 – 10) and was “run through” the model, simulating their daily pain intensity and allowing for stochastic calculation of outcomes, taking into account medical interventions and the effectiveness of each treatment. Results Pregabalin demonstrated a reduction in days with moderate to severe pain when compared to gabapentin. During the 12 weeks the pregabalin arm demonstrated a 0.1178 (SE 0.0002) QALY gain, which proved to be 0.0063 (SE 0.0003) higher than that in the gabapentin arm. The mean medication cost per patient was higher for the pregabalin arm when compared to the gabapentin arm (i.e. €134.40) over the 12 week treatment period. However, this higher cost was partially offset by the reduced direct medical costs (i.e. the cost of specialist visits, the cost of diagnostic tests and the other applied interventions). Comparing costs with respective outcomes, the ICERs for pregabalin versus gabapentin were €13 (95%CI: 8 – 18) per additional day with no or mild pain and €19,320 (95%CI: 11,743 – 26,755) per QALY gained
de Greef, Bianca T A; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Geerts, Margot; Faber, Catharina G; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J
Small fiber neuropathy generally leads to considerable pain and autonomic symptoms. Gain-of-function mutations in the SCN9A- gene, which codes for the Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel, have been reported in small fiber neuropathy, suggesting an underlying genetic basis in a subset of patients. Currently available sodium channel blockers lack selectivity, leading to cardiac and central nervous system side effects. Lacosamide is an anticonvulsant, which blocks Nav1.3, Nav1.7, and Nav1.8, and stabilizes channels in the slow-inactivation state. Since multiple Nav1.7 mutations in small fiber neuropathy showed impaired slow-inactivation, lacosamide might be effective. The Lacosamide-Efficacy-'N'-Safety in Small fiber neuropathy (LENSS) study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in patients with SCN9A-associated small fiber neuropathy, with the primary objective to evaluate the efficacy of lacosamide versus placebo. Eligible patients (the aim is to recruit 25) fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be randomized to receive lacosamide (200 mg b.i.d.) or placebo during the first double-blinded treatment period (8 weeks), which is preceded by a titration period (3 weeks). The first treatment period will be followed by a tapering period (2 weeks). After a 2-week washout period, patients will crossover to the alternate arm for the second period consisting of an equal titration phase, treatment period, and tapering period. The primary efficacy endpoint will be the proportion of patients demonstrating a 1-point average pain score reduction compared to baseline using the Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale. We assume a response rate of approximately 60 % based on the criteria composed by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) group for measurement of pain. Patients withdrawing from the study will be considered non- responders. Secondary outcomes will include changes in maximum
Tofthagen, Cindy; Kip, Kevin E; Passmore, Denise; Loy, Ian; Berry, Donna L
Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a painful and debilitating adverse effect of certain chemotherapy drugs. There have not been any patient-centered, easily accessible Web-based interventions to assist with self-management of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. The aims of this study were to evaluate usability and acceptability and to estimate an effect size of a Web-based intervention for assessing and managing chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. Participants (N = 14) were instructed to complete the Creativity, Optimism, Planning, and Expert Information for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy program and provide verbal responses to the program. Participants completed the Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool and Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire. Iterative changes were made to the COPE-CIPN. Participants were asked to provide feedback on the revised COPE-CIPN, repeat the Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool, and evaluate acceptability using the Acceptability e-Scale. The COPE-CIPN demonstrated high usability (mean, 1.98 [SD, 1.12]) and acceptability (mean, 4.40 [SD, 0.52]). Comments indicated that the interface was easy to use, and the information was helpful. While neuropathy symptoms continued to increase in this group of patients receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy, there was a decrease in mean level of interference with activities from 53.71 to 39.29 over 3 to 4 months, which indicated a moderate effect (d = 0.39) size. The COPE-CIPN may be a useful intervention to support self-management of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy.
Filipović, Boris; Matak, Ivica; Bach-Rojecky, Lidija; Lacković, Zdravko
Background Infraorbital nerve constriction (IoNC) is an experimental model of trigeminal neuropathy. We investigated if IoNC is accompanied by dural extravasation and if botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) can reduce pain and dural extravasation in this model. Methodology/Principal Findings Rats which developed mechanical allodynia 14 days after the IoNC were injected with BoNT/A (3.5 U/kg) into vibrissal pad. Allodynia was tested by von Frey filaments and dural extravasation was measured as colorimetric absorbance of Evans blue - plasma protein complexes. Presence of dural extravasation was also examined in orofacial formalin-induced pain. Unilateral IoNC, as well as formalin injection, produced bilateral dural extravasation. Single unilateral BoNT/A injection bilaterally reduced IoNC induced dural extravasation, as well as allodynia (lasting more than 2 weeks). Similarly, BoNT/A reduced formalin-induced pain and dural extravasation. Effects of BoNT/A on pain and dural extravasation in IoNC model were dependent on axonal transport through sensory neurons, as evidenced by colchicine injections (5 mM, 2 µl) into the trigeminal ganglion completely preventing BoNT/A effects. Conclusions/Significance Two different types of pain, IoNC and formalin, are accompanied by dural extravasation. The lasting effect of a unilateral injection of BoNT/A in experimental animals suggests that BoNT/A might have a long-term beneficial effect in craniofacial pain associated with dural neurogenic inflammation. Bilateral effects of BoNT/A and dependence on retrograde axonal transport suggest a central site of its action. PMID:22238656
Steigleman, Allan; Butler, Frank; Chhoeu, Austin; O'Malley, Timothy; Bower, Eric; Giebner, Stephen
This case report describes a 20-yr-old man who presented with retro-orbital pain and blurred vision in his left eye 3 wk after an altitude exposure in a hypobaric chamber. He was found to have significant deficits in color vision and visual fields consistent with an optic neuropathy in his left eye. The patient was diagnosed with decompression sickness and treated with hyperbaric oxygen with a U.S. Navy Treatment Table VI. All signs and symptoms resolved with a single hyperbaric oxygen treatment but recurred. A head MRI revealed a left frontoethmoid sinus opacity. A concomitant sinusitis was diagnosed. The patient had full resolution of symptoms after a total of four hyperbaric oxygen treatments and antibiotic therapy at 6-wk follow-up. Although a para-infectious etiology for this patient's optic neuropathy cannot be excluded, his history of altitude exposure and significant, rapid response to hyperbaric oxygen treatment strongly implies decompression sickness in this case.
Rasoulian, Bahram; Hajializadeh, Zahra; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Rashidipour, Marzieh; Fatemi, Iman; Kaeidi, Ayat
Diabetes mellitus is associated with the development of neuronal tissue damage in different central and peripheral nervous system regions. A common complication of diabetes is painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We have explored the antihyperalgesic and neuroprotective properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (RE) in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The nociceptive threshold and motor coordination of these diabetic rats was assessed using the tail-flick and rotarod treadmill tests, respectively. Activated caspase-3 and the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, both biochemical indicators of apoptosis, were assessed in the dorsal half of the lumbar spinal cord tissue by western blotting. Treatment of the diabetic rats with RE improved hyperglycemia, hyperalgesia and motor deficit, suppressed caspase-3 activation and reduced the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, suggesting that the RE has antihyperalgesic and neuroprotective effects in this rat model of STZ-induced diabetes. Cellular mechanisms underlying the observed effects may, at least partially, be related to the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.
Zhou, Muke; Chen, Ning; He, Li; Yang, Mi; Zhu, Cairong; Wu, Fengbo
Neuropathic pain is difficult to treat. Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant drug closely related to carbamazepine and is reportedly better tolerated. Oxcarbazepine has been reported to be efficacious in the treatment of neuropathic pain. To determine the benefits and harms of oxcarbazepine for different forms of neuropathic pain. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (30 October 2012), CENTRAL (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE (January 1966 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012) and the Chinese Biomedical Retrieval System (January 1978 to October 2012) for trials. We also searched the National Institutes of Health (NIH) databases and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials, and wrote to the companies who make oxcarbazepine and to pain experts asking for additional information. All randomised controlled trials and cross-over studies of oxcarbazepine for the treatment of people of any age or sex with any neuropathic pain were eligible. We planned to include trials of oxcarbazepine compared with placebo or any other intervention, regardless of administration route, dosage or length of treatment. Two review authors independently selected the studies for inclusion, assessed their risk of bias, extracted data and typed the data onto forms. The authors resolved any disagreements through discussion. Four multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials with a total of 779 participants were eligible for inclusion. These were from a series of studies funded by the manufacturer. Three of them investigated oxcarbazepine in people with painful diabetic neuropathy (634 participants) and one was a trial of oxcarbazepine for neuropathic pain due to radiculopathy (145 participants). Although these trials were well designed, the imbalanced and large amount of incomplete outcome data led to a risk of bias in the results. Results for painful diabetic neuropathy
Chiba, Terumasa; Oka, Yusuke; Kambe, Toshie; Koizumi, Naoya; Abe, Kenji; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Utsunomiya, Iku; Taguchi, Kyoji
Peripheral neuropathy is a common adverse effect of paclitaxel treatment. The major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel is peripheral sensory neuropathy, which is characterized by painful paresthesia of the hands and feet. To analyze the contribution of substance P to the development of paclitaxel-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, substance P expression in the superficial layers of the rat spinal dorsal horn was analyzed after paclitaxel treatment. Behavioral assessment using the von Frey test and the paw thermal test showed that intraperitoneal administration of 2 and 4mg/kg paclitaxel induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia 7 and 14 days after treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed that paclitaxel (4mg/kg) treatment significantly increased substance P expression (37.6±3.7% on day 7, 43.6±4.6% on day 14) in the superficial layers of the spinal dorsal horn, whereas calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression was unchanged. Moreover, paclitaxel (2 and 4mg/kg) treatment significantly increased substance P release in the spinal cord on day 14. These results suggest that paclitaxel treatment increases release of substance P, but not CGRP in the superficial layers of the spinal dorsal horn and may contribute to paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph
Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms.
Velásquez, Carlos; Tambirajoo, Kantharuby; Franceschini, Paulo; Eldridge, Paul R; Farah, Jibril Osman
To describe the indications and outcomes of upper cervical cord stimulation in trigeminal neuropathy. A consecutive single-center series of patients was retrospectively reviewed. It included 12 patients with trigeminal neuropathy treated with upper cervical spinal cord stimulation. Clinical features, complications, and outcomes were reviewed. All patients had a successful trial before the definitive implantation of a spinal cord stimulator at the level of the craniocervical junction. The mean follow-up period was 4.4 years (range, 0.3-21.1 years). The average coverage in the pain zone was 72% and the median baseline, trial, and postoperative numeric rating scale (NRS) was 7, 3, and 3, respectively. When compared with the baseline, the mean reduction achieved in the postoperative average numeric rating scale was 4 points, accounting for a 57.1% pain reduction. The long-term failure rate was 25%. Despite there being enough evidence to consider upper cervical spinal cord stimulation as an effective treatment for patients with neuropathic trigeminal pain, a randomized controlled trial is needed to fully assess its indications and outcomes and compare it with other therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phillips, Tudor J. C.; Cherry, Catherine L.; Cox, Sarah; Marshall, Sarah J.; Rice, Andrew S. C.
Background Significant pain from HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) affects ∼40% of HIV infected individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). The prevalence of HIV-SN has increased despite the more widespread use of ART. With the global HIV prevalence estimated at 33 million, and with infected individuals gaining increased access to ART, painful HIV-SN represents a large and expanding world health problem. There is an urgent need to develop effective pain management strategies for this condition. Method and Findings Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of analgesics in treating painful HIV-SN. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources: Medline, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, www.clinicaltrials.gov, www.controlled-trials.com and the reference lists of retrieved articles. Selection criteria: Prospective, double-blinded, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the pharmacological treatment of painful HIV-SN with sufficient quality assessed using a modified Jadad scoring method. Review methods: Four authors assessed the eligibility of articles for inclusion. Agreement of inclusion was reached by consensus and arbitration. Two authors conducted data extraction and analysis. Dichotomous outcome measures (≥30% and ≥50% pain reduction) were sought from RCTs reporting interventions with statistically significant efficacies greater than placebo. These data were used to calculate RR and NNT values. Results Of 44 studies identified, 19 were RCTs. Of these, 14 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Interventions demonstrating greater efficacy than placebo were smoked cannabis NNT 3.38 95%CI(1.38 to 4.10), topical capsaicin 8%, and recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF). No superiority over placebo was reported in RCTs that examined amitriptyline (100mg/day), gabapentin (2.4g/day), pregabalin (1200mg/day), prosaptide (16mg/day), peptide-T (6mg/day), acetyl-L-carnitine (1g/day), mexilitine (600mg
Daugherty, Daniel J; Marquez, Alexandra; Calcutt, Nigel A; Schubert, David
Neuropathy is a common complication of long-term diabetes. Proposed mechanisms of neuronal damage caused by diabetes that are downstream of hyperglycemia and/or loss of insulin signaling include ischemic hypoxia, inflammation and loss of neurotrophic support. The curcumin derivative J147 is a potent neurogenic and neuroprotective drug candidate initially developed for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions associated with aging that impacts many pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Here, we demonstrate efficacy of J147 in ameliorating multiple indices of neuropathy in the streptozotocin-induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes was determined by blood glucose, HbA1c, and insulin levels and efficacy of J147 by behavioral, physiologic, biochemical, proteomic, and transcriptomic assays. Biological efficacy of systemic J147 treatment was confirmed by its capacity to decrease TNFα pathway activation and several other markers of neuroinflammation in the CNS. Chronic oral treatment with J147 protected the sciatic nerve from progressive diabetes-induced slowing of large myelinated fiber conduction velocity while single doses of J147 rapidly and transiently reversed established touch-evoked allodynia. Conduction slowing and allodynia are clinically relevant markers of early diabetic neuropathy and neuropathic pain, respectively. RNA expression profiling suggests that one of the pathways by which J147 imparts its protection against diabetic induced neuropathy may be through activation of the AMP kinase pathway. The diverse biological and therapeutic effects of J147 suggest it as an alternative to the polypharmaceutical approaches required to treat the multiple pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to diabetic neuropathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...
Lee, Yi-Chen; Lu, Shui-Chin; Hsieh, Yu-Lin
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or those experiencing the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents may develop sensation disorders due to degeneration and injury of small-diameter sensory neurons, referred to as small fiber neuropathy. Present animal models of small fiber neuropathy affect both large- and small-diameter sensory fibers and thus create a neuropathology too complex to properly assess the effects of injured small-diameter sensory fibers. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an experimental model of pure small fiber neuropathy to adequately examine these issues. This protocol describes an experimental model of small fiber neuropathy specifically affecting small-diameter sensory nerves with resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), through a single dose of intraperitoneal injection, referred to as RTX neuropathy. This RTX neuropathy showed pathological manifestations and behavioral abnormalities that mimic the clinical characteristics of patients with small fiber neuropathy, including intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) degeneration, specifically injury in small-diameter neurons, and induction of thermal hypoalgesia and mechanical allodynia. This protocol tested three doses of RTX (200, 50, and 10 µg/kg, respectively) and concluded that a critical dose of RTX (50 µg/kg) is required for the development of typical small fiber neuropathy manifestations, and prepared a modified immunostaining procedure to investigate IENF degeneration and neuronal soma injury. The modified procedure is fast, systematic, and economic. Behavioral evaluation of neuropathic pain is critical to reveal the function of small-diameter sensory nerves. The evaluation of mechanical thresholds in experimental rodents is particularly challenging and this protocol describes a customized metal mesh that is suitable for this type of assessment in rodents. In summary, RTX neuropathy is a new and easily established
Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C.; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh
Abstract The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional “stocking-and-glove” distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system—the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain. We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients
Viswanathan, Vijay; Rajsekar, Seena; Selvaraj, Bamila; Kumpatla, Satyavani
Background & objectives: Painful diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes and can severely limit patients’ daily functions. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety and effect of using a polyherbal formulation in reducing the symptoms of diabetic neuropathic pain in comparison with placebo among patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 50 (M:F = 33:17) consecutive type 2 diabetes patients with painful diabetic neuropathy were enrolled in this study. All these patients had either two or more symptoms of diabetic neuropathy such as pain, burning and pricking sensations and numbness in their feet. They were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 (n = 26) patients were treated with polyherbal formulation cream and group 2 (n = 24) patients were administered placebo. The patients were followed up for six months. Changes in the symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy of each patient were recorded at baseline, third and sixth month using the Diabetic Neuropathic Score. Results: The mean age of the patients, duration of diabetes and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were similar in both groups at baseline. During follow up visits, there was a decrease in the HbA1c levels in the study and control groups. The symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy were also similar in both groups at baseline. A significant decrease in symptoms of neuropathic pain was observed among the group of patients treated with polyherbal formulation cream (76.9 per cent) compared to the placebo-treated group (12.5 per cent) (P<0.001), at the end of the final follow up. Interpretation & conclusions: In this pilot study polyherbal formulation cream was found to be effective as well as safe to treat painful diabetic neuropathy. However, its long term use needs to be evaluated for any further effectiveness and side effects. PMID:27934800
Maridet, Claire; Sole, Guilhem; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Taieb, Alain
RASopathies comprise several genetic syndromes with mainly cardio-facial-cutaneous manifestations. We report a patient with Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) due to a PTPN11 (p.Thr468Met) mutation associated with hypertrophic neuropathy of lumbar plexus in an adult woman, initially referred for neuropathic pain. Differential diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and other RASopathies is difficult without molecular testing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Miranda, H F; Sierralta, F; Jorquera, V; Poblete, P; Prieto, J C; Noriega, V
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the most common complication of diabetes and pain is one of the main symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, however, currently available drugs are often ineffective and complicated by adverse events. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the antinociceptive interaction between gabapentin and minocycline in a mice experimental model of DN by streptozocin (STZ). The interaction of gabapentin with minocycline was evaluated by the writhing and hot plate tests at 3 and 7 days after STZ injection or vehicle in male CF1 mice. STZ (150 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a marked increase in plasma glucose levels on day 7 (397.46 ± 29.65 mg/dL) than on day 3 (341.12 ± 35.50 mg/dL) and also developed neuropathic pain measured by algesiometric assays. Gabapentin produced similar antinociceptive activity in both writhing and hot plate tests in mice pretreated with STZ. However, minocycline was more potent in the writhing than in the hot plate test in the same type of mice. The combination of gabapentin with minocycline produced synergistic interaction in both test. The combination of gabapentin with minocycline in a 1:1 proportion fulfills all the criteria of multimodal analgesia and this finding suggests that the combination provide a therapeutic alternative that could be used for human neuropathic pain management.
Zan, Yan; Kuai, Cui-Xing; Qiu, Zhi-Xia; Huang, Fang
In recent years, berberine has increasingly become a topic of research as a treatment for diabetes due to its repair function, which recovers damaged pancreatic β cells. However, it is the complications of diabetes that seriously affect patients' life quality and longevity, among which diabetic neuropathy and the consequent acute pain are the most common. In this study, we established STZ-induced diabetic models to observe whether berberine, a main constitute of Coptis chinensis Franch which has shown good hypoglycemic effects, could relieve diabetes-induced pain and explored its possible mechanism in rats and mice. Behavior assays showed increasing mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia thresholds by the Von Frey test and tail flick test during the treatment of berberine. It was found that the administration of berberine (20, 60 mg/kg; 30, 90 mg/kg) suppressed the expression of PKCε and TRPV1 which could be activated by hyperglycemia-induced inflammatory reaction. Our results also presented its capability to reduce the over expression of TNF-[Formula: see text] in diabetic rats and mice. TNF-[Formula: see text] is an inflammatory cytokine, which is closely related to diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Consequently, we supposed that berberine exerts its therapeutic effects in part by suppressing the inflammatory process and blocking the PKC pathway to inhibit TRPV1 activation, which damages neurons and causes diabetic pain.
Lozeron, Pierre; Trocello, Jean-Marc; Kubis, Nathalie
Acquired neuropathies represent most of the neuropathies encountered in clinical practice. Hundreds of causes have been identified even though up to 41% of patients are still classified as idiopathic (Rajabally and Shah in J Neurol 258:1431-1436, 1). Routine evaluation relies on comprehensive medical history taking, clinical examination, nerve conduction studies and laboratory tests. Other investigations such as nerve biopsy or nerve or muscle imaging are performed in specific settings. This review focuses on recent advances in acquired neuropathies.
Low, P. A.
A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.
... Mutation Mycophenolic Acid Mycoplasma Myoglobin Nicotine and Cotinine Non-High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Opioid Testing Osmolality Ova ... that make neuropathy worse Detect and evaluate complications Non-laboratory tests The diagnostic workup for neuropathy begins ...
Rasool, Nailyn; Boudreault, Katherine; Lessell, Simmons; Prasad, Sashank; Cestari, Dean M
Tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf) is a potent immunosuppressant, which inhibits cytokine synthesis and blocks T-cell development. Optic neuropathy from tacrolimus toxicity is very uncommon but, when present, can result in severe vision loss. Case series and review of the literature. We present 3 patients with tacrolimus optic neuropathy after bone marrow transplantation complicated by graft-vs-host disease and demonstrate the differing clinical and radiologic presentation of this presumed toxic optic neuropathy. Tacrolimus optic neuropathy can manifest in a multitude of clinical presentations and can have devastating visual consequences.
Feasibility and effectiveness of electrochemical dermal conductance measurement for the screening of diabetic neuropathy in primary care. DECODING Study (Dermal Electrochemical Conductance in Diabetic Neuropathy). Rationale and design.
Cabré, Juan J; Mur, Teresa; Costa, Bernardo; Barrio, Francisco; López-Moya, Charo; Sagarra, Ramon; García-Barco, Montserrat; Vizcaíno, Jesús; Bonaventura, Immaculada; Ortiz, Nicolau; Flores-Mateo, Gemma
Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of polyneuropathy in the Western world. Diabetic neuropathy is a frequent complication of diabetes and may have great clinical transcendence due to pain and possible ulceration of the lower extremities. It is also a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Although the cause of polyneuropathy in patients with diabetes is only partially known, it has been associated with chronic hyperglycemia suggesting the possible etiopathogenic implication of advanced glycosylation end products. The strategy of choice in the medical management of diabetic neuropathy is early detection since glycaemic control and the use of certain drugs may prevent or slow the development of this disease. Diabetic neuropathy most often presents with a dysfunction of unmyelinated C-fibers, manifested as an alteration of the sweat reflex of the eccrine glands. This dysfunction can now be demonstrated using a newly developed technology which measures dermal electrochemical conductivity. This noninvasive test is easy and cost-effective. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of dermal electrochemical conductance measurement (quantitative expression of the sudomotor reflex) as a screening test for the diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy in patients in primary care.
Leinders, M.; Üçeyler, N.; Pritchard, R.A.; Sommer, C.; Sorkin, L.S.
Alterations in the neuro-immune balance play a major role in the pathophysiology of chronic neuropathic pain. MicroRNAs (miRNA) can regulate both immune and neuronal processes and may function as master switches in chronic pain development and maintenance. We set out to analyze the role of miR-132-3p, first in patients with peripheral neuropathies and second in an animal model of neuropathic pain. We initially determined miR-132-3p expression by measuring its levels in white blood cells (WBC) of 30 patients and 30 healthy controls and next in sural nerve biopsies of 81 patients with painful or painless inflammatory or non-inflammatory neuropathies based on clinical diagnosis. We found a 2.6 fold increase in miR-132-3p expression in WBC of neuropathy patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). MiR-132-3p expression was also slightly up-regulated in sural nerve biopsies from neuropathy patients suffering from neuropathic pain compared to those without pain (1.2 fold; p<0.001). These promising findings were investigated further in an animal model of neuropathic pain, the spared nerve injury model (SNI). For this purpose miR-132-3p expression levels were measured in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord of rats. Subsequently, miR-132-3p expression was pharmacologically modulated with miRNA antagonists or mimetics, and evoked pain and pain aversion were assessed. Spinal miR-132-3p levels were highest 10 days after SNI, a time when persistent allodynia was established (p<0.05). Spinal administration of miR-132-3p antagonists via intrathecal (i.t.) catheters dose dependently reversed mechanical allodyina (p<0.001) and eliminated pain behavior in the place escape avoidance paradigm (p<0.001). Intrathecal administration of miR-132-3p mimetic dose-dependently induced pain behavior in naïve rats (p<0.001). Taken together these results indicate a pro-nociceptive effect of miR-132-3p in chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:27349406
Yildiz, Necmettin; Ardic, Füsun
Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated minor trauma. We report a 37-year-old woman patient with pain in her medial forearm and elbow following the shaking of a rug. Pain and symptoms of dysestesia in the distribution of the right MACN were found. Electrophysiological examination confirmed the normality of the main nerve trunks of the right upper limb and demonstrated abnormalities of the right MACN when compared with the left side. Sensory action potential (SAP) amplitude on the right anterior branch of the MACN was detected to be lower in proportion to the left. In the light of these findings, NSAI drug and physical therapy was performed. Dysestesia and pain were relieved and no recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 14 months. MACN neuropathy should be taken into account for the differential diagnosis of the patients with complaints of pain and dysestesia in medial forearm and anteromedial aspect of the elbow.
Introduction Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated minor trauma. Case presentation We report a 37-year-old woman patient with pain in her medial forearm and elbow following the shaking of a rug. Pain and symptoms of dysestesia in the distribution of the right MACN were found. Electrophysiological examination confirmed the normality of the main nerve trunks of the right upper limb and demonstrated abnormalities of the right MACN when compared with the left side. Sensory action potential (SAP) amplitude on the right anterior branch of the MACN was detected to be lower in proportion to the left. In the light of these findings, NSAI drug and physical therapy was performed. Dysestesia and pain were relieved and no recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 14 months. Conclusion MACN neuropathy should be taken into account for the differential diagnosis of the patients with complaints of pain and dysestesia in medial forearm and anteromedial aspect of the elbow. PMID:18426569
Becker, Maria; Benromano, Tali; Shahar, Abraham; Nevo, Zvi; Pick, Chaim G
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the main complications of diabetes mellitus. The current study demonstrated the bimodal pattern of diabetic peripheral neuropathy found in the behavioral study of pain perception in parallel to the histopathological findings in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) neurons and satellite Schwann cell basement membranes. A gradual decrease in heparan sulfate content, with a reciprocal increase in deposited laminin in the basement membranes of dorsal root ganglia Schwann cells, was shown in streptozotocin-treated rats. In addition, the characteristic biphasic pain profiles were demonstrated in diabetic rats, as shown by hypersensitivity at the third week and hyposensitivity at the tenth week post-streptozotocin injection, accompanied by a continuous decrease in the sciatic nerve conduction velocity. It appears that these basal membrane abnormalities in content of heparan sulfate and laminin, noticed in diabetic rats, may underline the primary damage in dorsal ganglion sensory neurons, simultaneously with the bimodal painful profile in diabetic peripheral neuropathy, simulating the scenario of filtration rate in diabetic kidney.
Kharbanda, Parampreet S; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Chawla, Yogesh K; Das, Chandi P; Syal, Puneet
Neuropathy in association with chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis, is recognized; however, there are differences in the incidence and type of neuropathy reported. The causal relationship of liver disease to neuropathy has been questioned. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence and character of peripheral neuropathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. The effect of alcohol consumption, severity of liver disease and encephalopathy on the incidence and severity of neuropathy were also studied. Patients having an identifiable cause of peripheral neuropathy, except alcohol, were excluded from the study. Patients with evidence of vitamin B12 deficiency or diabetes were also excluded from the study. In this study, 33 patients with liver cirrhosis were evaluated clinically and electrophysiologically to detect any evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies were performed in the upper and lower limbs using surface electrodes. These patients also underwent a detailed clinical examination. Clinical signs of peripheral neuropathy were found in seven (21%) patients. Nerve conduction studies were abnormal in 24 (73%) patients. The pattern of involvement was predominantly of an axonal sensory motor polyneuropathy. Neuropathy was found both in patients with alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related cirrhosis. The presence of encephalopathy did not have a significant bearing on the incidence and severity of neuropathy. The neuropathy was also not significantly related to the severity of liver disease. The present study reveals that a significant number of patients with liver cirrhosis show evidence of peripheral neuropathy, which is present regardless of the etiology of cirrhosis, and is subclinical in a majority of these patients. The cause of neuropathy was probably the liver disease itself, as the incidence and severity of neuropathy in the alcohol-related cirrhosis, although higher, was not significantly different from the neuropathy in patients
Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved
El-Fatatry, Basma Mahrous; Ibrahim, Osama Mohamed; Hussien, Fatma Zakaria; Mostafa, Tarek Mohamed
Peripheral sensory neuropathy is the most prominently reported adverse effect of oxaliplatin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate metformin role in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. From November 2014 to May 2016, 40 patients with stage III colorectal cancer completed 12 cycles of FOLFOX-4 regimen. Twenty patients in the control arm received FOLFOX-4 regimen only, and 20 patients in the metformin arm, received the same regimen along with metformin 500 mg three times daily. The metformin efficacy was evaluated using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE version 4.0), a12-item neurotoxicity questionnaire (Ntx-12) from the validated Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy/Gynecologic Oncology Group and, the brief pain inventory short form "worst pain" item. In addition to neurotensin, malondialdehyde and interleukin-6 serum levels assessment. At the end of the 12th cycle, there were less patients with grade 2 and 3 neuropathy in metformin arm as compared to control arm. (60 versus 95%, P = 0.009) In addition, metformin arm showed significantly higher total scores of Ntx-12 questionnaire than control arm (24.0 versus 19.2, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the mean pain score in metformin arm was significantly lower than those of control arm, (6.7 versus 7.3, P = 0.005). Mean serum levels of malondialdehyde and neurotensin were significantly lower in metformin arm after the 6th and the 12th cycles. Metformin may be a promising drug in protecting colorectal cancer patients against oxaliplatin-induced chronic peripheral sensory neuropathy.
Johnston, Stephen S; Udall, Margarita; Alvir, Jose; McMorrow, Donna; Fowler, Robert; Mullins, Daniel
To describe the characteristics, treatment, and health care expenditures of Medicare Supplemental-insured patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN), post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), or fibromyalgia. Retrospective cohort study. United States clinical practice, as reflected within a database comprising administrative claims from 2.3 million older adults participating in Medicare supplemental insurance programs. Selected patients were aged ≥65 years, continuously enrolled in medical and prescription benefits throughout years 2008 and 2009, and had ≥1 medical claim with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for DPN, PHN, or fibromyalgia, followed within 60 days by a medication or pain intervention procedure used in treating pDPN, PHN, or fibromyalgia during 2008-2009. Utilization of, and expenditures on, pain-related and all-cause pharmacotherapy and medical interventions in 2009. The study included 25,716 patients with pDPN (mean age 75.2 years, 51.2% female), 4,712 patients with PHN (mean age 77.7 years, 63.9% female), and 25,246 patients with fibromyalgia (mean age 74.4 years, 73.0% female). Patients typically had numerous comorbidities, and many were treated with polypharmacy. Mean annual expenditures on total pain-related health care and total all-cause health care, respectively, (in 2010 USD) were: $1,632, $24,740 for pDPN; $1,403, $16,579 for PHN; and $1,635, $18,320 for fibromyalgia. In age-stratified analyses, pain-related health care expenditures decreased as age increased. The numerous comorbidities, polypharmacy, and magnitude of expenditures in this sample of Medicare supplemental-insured patients with pDPN, PHN, or fibromyalgia underscore the complexity and importance of appropriate management of these chronic pain patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Courchesne, Stephanie L.; Karch, Christoph; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Segal, Rosalind A.
Small fiber sensory neuropathy is a common disorder in which progressive degeneration of small diameter nociceptors causes decreased sensitivity to thermal stimuli and painful sensations in the extremities. In the majority of patients, the cause of small fiber sensory neuropathy is unknown, and treatment options are limited. Here, we show that Bcl-w (Bcl-2l2) is required for the viability of small fiber nociceptive sensory neurons. Bcl-w −/− mice demonstrate an adult-onset progressive decline in thermosensation and a decrease in nociceptor innervation of the epidermis. This denervation occurs without cell body loss, indicating that lack of Bcl-w results in a primary axonopathy. Consistent with this phenotype, we show that Bcl-w, in contrast to the closely related Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, is enriched in axons of sensory neurons and that Bcl-w prevents the dying back of axons. Bcl-w −/− sensory neurons exhibit mitochondrial abnormalities, including alterations in axonal mitochondrial size, axonal mitochondrial membrane potential, and cellular ATP levels. Collectively, these data establish bcl-w −/− mice as an animal model of small fiber sensory neuropathy, and provide new insight regarding the role of bcl-w and of mitochondria in preventing axonal degeneration. PMID:21289171
Askew, Robert L.; Cook, Karon F.; Keefe, Francis J.; Nowinski, Cindy J; Cella, David; Revicki, Dennis A.; DeWitt, Esi M. Morgan; Michaud, Kaleb; Trence, Dace L.; Amtmann, Dagmar
Objectives Neuropathic pain is a consequence of many chronic conditions. This study aimed to develop a unidimensional neuropathic pain scale whose scores represent levels of neuropathic pain and distinguish between individuals with neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain conditions. Methods A candidate item pool of 42 pain quality descriptors was administered to participants with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetic neuropathy, and cancer chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. A subset of pain quality descriptors (items) that best distinguished between participants with and those without neuropathic pain conditions were identified. Dimensionality of pain descriptors was evaluated in a development sample and cross-validated in a hold-out sample. Item responses were calibrated using an item response theory model, and scores were generated on a T-score metric. Neuropathic pain scale scores were evaluated in terms of reliability, validity, and the ability to distinguish between participants with and without conditions typically associated with neuropathic pain. Results Of the 42 initial items, 5 were identified for the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Neuropathic Pain Quality scale (PROMIS-PQ-Neuro). The IRT-generated T-scores exhibited good discriminatory ability based on receiver operator characteristic analysis. Score thresholds were identified that optimize sensitivity and specificity. Construct, criterion, and discriminant validity, and reliability of scale scores were supported. Conclusions The 5-item PROMIS PQ-Neuro is a short and practical measure that can be used to identify patients more likely to have neuropathic pain and to distinguish levels of neuropathic pain. The data collected will support future research that targets other unidimensional pain quality domains (e.g., nociceptive pain). PMID:27565279
Baeriswyl, M; Taffé, P; Kirkham, K R; Bathory, I; Rancati, V; Crevoisier, X; Cherix, S; Albrecht, E
Animal data have demonstrated increased block duration after local anaesthetic injections in diabetic rat models. Whether the same is true in humans is currently undefined. We, therefore, undertook this prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that type-2 diabetic patients suffering from diabetic peripheral neuropathy would have increased block duration after ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block when compared with patients without neuropathy. Thirty-three type-2 diabetic patients with neuropathy and 23 non-diabetic control patients, scheduled for fore-foot surgery, were included prospectively. All patients received an ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block with a 30 ml 1:1 mixture of lidocaine 1% and bupivacaine 0.5%. The primary outcome was time to first opioid request after block procedure. Secondary outcomes included the time to onset of sensory blockade, and pain score at rest on postoperative day 1 (numeric rating scale 0-10). These outcomes were analysed using an accelerated failure time regression model. Patients in the diabetic peripheral neuropathy group had significantly prolonged median (IQR [range]) time to first opioid request (diabetic peripheral neuropathy group 1440 (IQR 1140-1440 [180-1440]) min vs. control group 710 (IQR 420-1200 [150-1440] min, p = 0.0004). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients had a time ratio of 1.57 (95%CI 1.10-2.23, p < 0.01), experienced a 59% shorter time to onset of sensory blockade (median time ratio 0.41 (95%CI 0.28-0.59), p < 0.0001) and had lower median (IQR [range]) pain scores at rest on postoperative day 1 (diabetic peripheral neuropathy group 0 (IQR 0-1 [0-5]) vs. control group 3 (IQR 0-5 [0-9]), p = 0.001). In conclusion, after an ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block, patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy demonstrated reduced time to onset of sensory blockade, with increased time to first opioid request when compared with patients without neuropathy. © 2018 The
Sazgar, Amir Arvin; Yazdani, Nasrin; Rezazadeh, Nima; Yazdi, Alireza Karimi
Our results suggest that isolated auditory or vestibular involvement is unlikely and in fact audiovestibular neuropathy can better explain auditory neuropathy. The purpose of this study was to investigate saccule and related neural pathways in auditory neuropathy patients. Three males and five females diagnosed with auditory neuropathy were included in this prospective study. Patients' ages ranged from 21 to 45 years with a mean age of 28.6 ± 8.1 years and the history of disease was between 4 and 19 years. A group of 30 normal subjects served as the control group. The main outcome measures were the mean peak latency (in ms) of the two early waves (p13 and n23) of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test in patients and controls. Of the 8 patients (16 ears), normal response was detected in 3 ears (1 in right and 2 in left ears). There were unrepeatable waves in four ears and absent VEMPs in nine ears.
Kachko, Ludmyla; Ben Ami, Shiri; Liberman, Alon; Birk, Einat; Kronenberg, Sefi
In the United States, duloxetine has been approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in the adult population. Data regarding the use of duloxetine in the pediatric population, however, are very limited. Femoral nerve injury is a rare complication of cardiac catheterization. In the case described, duloxetine contributed to a successful multimodal treatment program for peripheral neuropathic pain due to femoral neuropathy in an adolescent with 'reactive depression' and conversion symptoms. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present article is only the third such report on this dual use of duloxetine in children and adolescents, and the first report of such treatment following femoral neuropathy induced by cardiac catheterization.
Lee, Seunghoon; Kim, Joo-Hee; Shin, Kyung-Min; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kang, Kyung-Won; Lee, Minhee; Jung, So-Young; Shin, Mi-Suk; Kim, Ae-Ran; Park, Hyo-Ju; Hong, Kwon-Eui; Choi, Sun-Mi
The purpose of this study is to conduct a basic analysis of the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) as compared to placebo and usual care and to evaluate the feasibility of large-scale clinical research. This study is a protocol for a three-armed, randomized, patient-assessor-blinded (to the type of treatment), controlled pilot trial. Forty-five participants with a ≥ six month history of PDN and a mean weekly pain score of ≥ 4 on the 11-point Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale (PI-NRS) will be assigned to the electroacupuncture group (n = 15), sham group (n = 15) or usual care group (n = 15). The participants assigned to the electroacupuncture group will receive electroacupuncture (remaining for 30 minutes with a mixed current of 2 Hz/120 Hz and 80% of the bearable intensity) at 12 standard acupuncture points (bilateral ST36, GB39, SP9, SP6, LR3 and GB41) twice per week for eight weeks (a total of 16 sessions) as well as the usual care. The participants in the sham group will receive sham electroacupuncture (no electrical current will be passed to the needle, but the light will be seen, and the sound of the pulse generator will be heard by the participants) at non-acupuncture points as well as the usual care. The participants in the usual care group will not receive electroacupuncture treatment during the study period and will receive only the usual care. The follow-up will be in the 5th, 9th and 17th weeks after random allocation. The PI-NRS score assessed at the ninth week will be the primary outcome measurement used in this study. The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), a sleep disturbance score (11-point Likert scale), the Short-Form 36v2 Health Survey (SF-36), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) will be used as outcome variables to evaluate the effectiveness of the acupuncture. Safety will be assessed at every visit. The result
Allen, D; Riordan-Eva, P; Paterson, R W; Hadden, R D M
The syndrome of subacute simultaneous peripheral neuropathy and bilateral optic neuropathy is known to occur in tropical countries, probably due to malnutrition or toxicity, but not often seen in developed countries. We report seven patients in London who were not malnourished or alcoholic, and in whom no clear cause was found. We retrospectively reviewed the case notes and arranged some further investigations. All patients developed peripheral and bilateral optic neuropathy within 6 months. Patients were aged 30-52, and all of Jamaican birth and race but lived in the UK. Most had subacute, painful ataxic sensory axonal neuropathy or neuronopathy, some with myelopathy. Nerve conduction studies revealed minor demyelinating features in two cases. The optic neuropathy was symmetrical, subacute and monophasic, usually with marked reduction in visual acuity. CSF protein concentration was usually elevated but other laboratory investigations were normal. Patients showed only modest improvement at follow-up. These patients share a common clinical and electrophysiological phenotype, age, ethnicity and elevated CSF protein, but otherwise normal laboratory investigations. The syndrome is a cause of significant morbidity in young people. The cause remains uncertain despite thorough investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alexander, Joe; Edwards, Roger A; Manca, Luigi; Grugni, Roberto; Bonfanti, Gianluca; Emir, Birol; Whalen, Edward; Watt, Stephen; Parsons, Bruce
Achieving a therapeutic response to pregabalin in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN) requires adequate upward dose titration. Our goal was to identify relationships between titration and response to pregabalin in patients with pDPN. Data were integrated from nine randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials as well as one 6-week open-label observational study conducted by 5808 physicians (2642 patients with pDPN) in standard outpatient settings in Germany. These studies evaluated pregabalin for treatment of pDPN. Using these data, we examined "what if" scenarios using a microsimulation platform that integrates data from randomized and observational sources as well as autoregressive-moving-average with exogenous inputs models that predict pain outcomes, taking into account weekly changes in pain, sleep interference, dose, and other patient characteristics that were unchanging. Final pain levels were significantly different depending on dose changes (P < 0.0001), with greater proportions improving with upward titration regardless of baseline pain severity. Altogether, 78.5% of patients with pDPN had 0-1 dose change, and 15.2% had ≥ 2 dose changes. Simulation demonstrated that the 4.8% of inadequately titrated patients who did not improve/very much improve their pain levels would have benefited from ≥ 2 dose changes. Patient satisfaction with tolerability (range 90.3-96.2%) was similar, regardless of baseline pain severity, number of titrations, or extent of improvement, suggesting that tolerability did not influence treatment response patterns. Upward dose titration reduced pain in patients with pDPN who actually received it. Simulation also predicted pain reduction in an inadequately titrated nonresponder subgroup of patients had they actually received adequate titration. The decision not to uptitrate must have been driven by factors other than tolerability. Pfizer, Inc.
Heij, Lara; Niesters, Marieke; Swartjes, Maarten; Hoitsma, Elske; Drent, Marjolein; Dunne, Ann; Grutters, Jan C; Vogels, Oscar; Brines, Michael; Cerami, Anthony; Dahan, Albert
ARA 290 (a peptide designed to activate the innate repair receptor that arrests injury and initiates cytoprotection, antiinflammation and healing) reduces allodynia in preclinical neuropathy models. We studied the safety and efficacy of ARA 290 to reduce symptoms of small fiber neuropathy (SFN) in patients with sarcoidosis. A total of 22 patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis and symptoms of SFN were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory trial consisting of three times weekly intravenous dosing of ARA 290 (2 mg; n = 12) or placebo (n = 10) for 4 wks. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of neuropathy and a spontaneous pain score of ≥5 (Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]). Endpoints assessed were changes in pain intensity and the small fiber neuropathy screening list (SFNSL) score, quality of life (SF-36), depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology [IDS]) and fatigue (Fatigue Assessment Scale [FAS]). No safety concerns were raised by clinical or laboratory assessments. The ARA 290 group showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement at wk 4 in SFNSL score compared with placebo (Δ −11.5 ± 3.04 versus Δ −2.9 ± 3.34 [standard error of the mean]). Additionally, the ARA 290 group showed a significant change from baseline in the pain and physical functioning dimensions of the SF-36 (Δ −23.4 ± 5.5 and Δ −14.6 ± 3.9, respectively). The mean BPI and FAS scores improved significantly but equivalently in both patient groups. No change was observed in the IDS. ARA 290 appears to be safe in patients with sarcoidosis and can reduce neuropathic symptoms. PMID:23168581
Unal, Melih; Demirayak, Engin; Acar, Baver
Lipomas are benign tumors that rarely settle in the hand. They usually present with mass, pain, and nerve compression symptoms. Although isolated median or ulnar nerve compression neuropathy secondary to a lipoma of the hand has been widely reported, simultaneous median and ulnar nerve compression neuropathy are exceedingly rare and there are only three reported cases in the current literature to date. Herein, a case of a 50-year-old woman with a giant palmar lipoma that caused median and ulnar compression neuropathy is presented. The removal of the tumor resulted in the complete recovery of the patient’s symptoms. A deep-seated palmar lipoma should be kept in mind in patients with unilateral compression neuropathy symptoms with a palmar mass. PMID:29666776
Tomohisa, Mori; Junpei, Ohya; Aki, Masumoto; Masato, Harumiya; Mika, Fukase; Kazumi, Yoshizawa; Teruo, Hayashi; Tsutomu, Suzuki
Previous studies have shown that ligands of the sigma-1 receptor chaperone (Sig-1R) regulate pain-related behaviors. Clinical use of chemotherapeutics is often compromised due to their adverse side effects, particularly those related to neuropathy. Previous studies have shown that repeated administration of oxaliplatin and paclitaxel produces neuropathy in rodents. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the involvement of the Sig-1R in chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathy by examining the effects of oxaliplatin and paclitaxel on the Sig-1R levels in the spinal cord, and by examining the effects of Sig-1R agonist and antagonist on oxaliplatin- and paclitaxel-induced neuropathy in rats. Chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathic pain was accompanied by a significant reduction of the Sig-1R level in the spinal cord. Furthermore, the administration of paclitaxel to CHO cells that stably overexpressed Sig-1Rs induced the clustering of Sig-1Rs. We also found that the Sig-1R agonist SA4503 potently inhibited the neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin- and paclitaxel, whereas this action was abolished by the Sig-1R antagonist NE-100. These results suggest that the reduction of Sig-1R activity is involved in chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathy, and the Sig-1R agonist SA4503 could serve as a potential candidate for the treatment of chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tourtellotte, Warren G.
Peripheral neuropathies are highly prevalent and are most often associated with chronic disease, side effects from chemotherapy, or toxic-metabolic abnormalities. Neuropathies are less commonly caused by genetic mutations, but studies of the normal function of mutated proteins have identified particular vulnerabilities that often implicate mitochondrial dynamics and axon transport mechanisms. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are a group of phenotypically related diseases caused by monogenic mutations that primarily affect sympathetic and sensory neurons. Here, I review evidence to indicate that many genetic neuropathies are caused by abnormalities in axon transport. Moreover, in hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. There may be specific convergence on gene mutations that disrupt nerve growth factor signaling, upon which sympathetic and sensory neurons critically depend. PMID:26724390
Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) is a common problem among cancer patients who receive a wide range of chemotherapy. This problem causes a decline in quality of life and increased disabilities. CIPN assessment instruments are either subjective, objective, or a combination of both. So far, there is no agreement on the best way for assessment. The goal of this study was to explore the relationships among subjective and objective CIPN assessment instruments. Specifically, this study aimed to 1) evaluate the relationship between the Total Neuropathy Score-reduced (mainly objective) and patients' function, as measured by the interference scale of the Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool (subjective); and 2) evaluate the relationship between the Total Neuropathy Score-reduced and neuropathy symptom experience, as measured by the symptom experience scale of the Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool (Subjective). To achieve those aims, a secondary data analysis for 56 participants who participated in a study entitled: Group Acupuncture for Treatment of Neuropathy from Chemotherapy was done. After Pearson correlations were calculated, the study found that there is a positive, weak relationship between the TNSr and the symptom experience scale of the CIPNAT(r=0.34). A positive, week relationship was found between the TNSr and the interference with activity scale of the CIPNAT(r=0.28). These results suggest that objective and subjective assessment are not highly correlated, and likely measure different aspects of CIPN. A comprehensive assessment approach is needed for decision making in the clinical oncology setting.
Topakian, Raffi; Wimmer, Sibylle; Pischinger, Barbara; Pichler, Robert
Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal-dominant disorder associated with recurrent mononeuropathies following compression or trivial trauma. Reports on sciatic neuropathy as the presenting manifestation of HNPP are very scarce. We report on a 21-year-old previously healthy man who was admitted with sensorimotor deficits in his left leg. He had no history of preceding transient episodes of weakness or sensory loss. Clinical and electrophysiological examinations were consistent with sciatic neuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid investigation and MRI of the nerve roots, plexus, and sciatic nerve did not indicate the underlying aetiology. When extended electrophysiological tests revealed multiple subclinical compression neuropathies in the upper limbs, HNPP was contemplated and eventually confirmed by genetic testing. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Boulton, Andrew J M
Foot ulceration and Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) are well recognized and documented late sequelae of diabetic peripheral, somatic, and sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The neuropathic foot, however, does not ulcerate spontaneously: it is a combination of loss of sensation due to neuropathy together with other factors such as foot deformity and external trauma that results in ulceration and indeed CN. The commonest trauma leading to foot ulcers in the neuropathic foot in Western countries is from inappropriate footwear. Much of the management of the insensate foot in diabetes has been learned from leprosy which similarly gives rise to insensitive foot ulceration. No expensive equipment is required to identify the high risk foot and recently developed tests such as the Ipswich Touch Test and the Vibratip have been shown to be useful in identifying the high risk foot. A comprehensive screening program, together with education of high risk patients, should help to reduce the all too high incidence of ulceration in diabetes. More recently another very high risk group has been identified, namely patients on dialysis, who are at extremely high risk of developing foot ulceration; this should be preventable. The most important feature in management of neuropathic foot ulceration is offloading as patients can easily walk on active foot ulcers due to the loss of pain sensation. Infection should be treated aggressively and if there is any evidence of peripheral vascular disease, arteriography and appropriate surgical management is also indicated. CN often presents with a unilateral hot, swollen foot and any patient presenting with these features known to have neuropathy should be treated as a Charcot until this is proven otherwise. Most important in the management of acute CN is offloading, often in a total contact cast.
Waxman, Stephen G
The universe of painful Na-channelopathies--human disorders caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels--has recently expanded in three dimensions. We now know that mutations of sodium channels cause not only rare genetic 'model disorders' such as inherited erythromelalgia and channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain but also common painful neuropathies. We have learned that mutations of NaV1.8, as well as mutations of NaV1.7, can cause painful Na-channelopathies. Moreover, recent studies combining atomic level structural models and pharmacogenomics suggest that the goal of genomically guided pain therapy may not be unrealistic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Qiuju; Gu, Rui; Han, Dongyi; Yang, Weiyan
Auditory neuropathy is a sensorineural hearing disorder characterized by absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses and normal cochlear outer hair cell function as measured by otoacoustic emission recordings. Many risk factors are thought to be involved in its etiology and pathophysiology. Four Chinese pedigrees with familial auditory neuropathy were presented to demonstrate involvement of genetic factors in the etiology of auditory neuropathy. Probands of the above-mentioned pedigrees, who had been diagnosed with auditory neuropathy, were evaluated and followed in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, China People Liberation Army General Hospital (Beijing, China). Their family members were studied, and the pedigree maps established. History of illness, physical examination, pure-tone audiometry, acoustic reflex, auditory brainstem responses, and transient evoked and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions were obtained from members of these families. Some subjects received vestibular caloric testing, computed tomography scan of the temporal bone, and electrocardiography to exclude other possible neuropathic disorders. In most affected patients, hearing loss of various degrees and speech discrimination difficulties started at 10 to 16 years of age. Their audiological evaluation showed absence of acoustic reflex and auditory brainstem responses. As expected in auditory neuropathy, these patients exhibited near-normal cochlear outer hair cell function as shown in distortion product otoacoustic emission recordings. Pure-tone audiometry revealed hearing loss ranging from mild to profound in these patients. Different inheritance patterns were observed in the four families. In Pedigree I, 7 male patients were identified among 43 family members, exhibiting an X-linked recessive pattern. Affected brothers were found in Pedigrees II and III, whereas in pedigree IV, two sisters were affected. All the patients were otherwise normal without evidence of
Optic neuropathy is a frequent cause of vision loss encountered by ophthalmologist. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds. The history often points to the possible etiology of the optic neuropathy. A rapid onset is typical of demyelinating, inflammatory, ischemic and traumatic causes. A gradual course points to compressive, toxic/nutritional and hereditary causes. The classic clinical signs of optic neuropathy are visual field defect, dyschromatopsia, and abnormal papillary response. There are ancillary investigations that can support the diagnosis of optic neuropathy. Visual field testing by either manual kinetic or automated static perimetry is critical in the diagnosis. Neuro-imaging of the brain and orbit is essential in many optic neuropathies including demyelinating and compressive. Newer technologies in the evaluation of optic neuropathies include multifocal visual evoked potentials and optic coherence tomography. PMID:19668477
Vrethem, Magnus; Boivie, Jörgen; Arnqvist, Hans; Holmgren, Helen; Lindström, Torbjörn
To study pain characteristics and peripheral nerve involvement in patients with painful diabetic and nondiabetic polyneuropathy in comparison with patients with non-painful polyneuropathy. Fifty-five patients with polyneuropathy (37 with painful polyneuropathy, of whom 19 had diabetes and 18 had no diabetes; and 18 with painless polyneuropathy of different etiologies) were examined clinically using quantitative sensory tests and neurophysiology. Pain intensity and characteristics were analyzed by daily ratings on a 10-step verbal scale and by a questionnaire. Most patients experienced pain of more than one character. There was no clear difference in character or duration of pain between patients with and without diabetes. The mean value of the daily rating of pain intensity showed that pain was more severe in the evenings than in the mornings and that diabetic patients reported worse pain than nondiabetic patients. Thirty-two of the 37 patients with pain had paresthesias and/or dysesthesias, whereas only 7 of 18 patients without pain had paresthesias. Pain was always located in the feet, and, in most patients, also in the lower part of the legs. Some patients also experienced pain in the hands. Tactile sensibility, measured by quantitative tests, was more affected in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients with painful polyneuropathy compared with patients without pain (p = 0.02). Temperature, pain, and vibratory sensibility were equally affected in all patient groups. Nerve conduction velocity, amplitudes, and distal latency were equally affected in the pain group as compared with the control group, indicating that both thin and thick nerve afferents are affected in patients with painful as well as non-painful polyneuropathy and that etiology has no clear impact on nerve involvement. Neuropathy pain was always located in the feet and more severe in diabetic patients compared with patients with neuropathy pain of other etiologies. The authors also found evidence for
Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Sindrup, Søren Hein; Jensen, Troels Staehelin
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials on neuropathic pain treatment are accumulating, so an updated review of the available evidence is needed. Studies were identified using MEDLINE and EMBASE searches. Numbers needed to treat (NNT) and numbers needed to harm (NNH) values were used to compare the efficacy and safety of different treatments for a number of neuropathic pain conditions. One hundred and seventy-four studies were included, representing a 66% increase in published randomized, placebo-controlled trials in the last 5 years. Painful poly-neuropathy (most often due to diabetes) was examined in 69 studies, postherpetic neuralgia in 23, while peripheral nerve injury, central pain, HIV neuropathy, and trigeminal neuralgia were less often studied. Tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, the anticonvulsants gabapentin and pregabalin, and opioids are the drug classes for which there is the best evidence for a clinical relevant effect. Despite a 66% increase in published trials only a limited improvement of neuropathic pain treatment has been obtained. A large proportion of neuropathic pain patients are left with insufficient pain relief. This fact calls for other treatment options to target chronic neuropathic pain. Large-scale drug trials that aim to identify possible subgroups of patients who are likely to respond to specific drugs are needed to test the hypothesis that a mechanism-based classification may help improve treatment of the individual patients. Copyright (c) 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Utah Research News Make a Difference Symptoms of Peripheral Neuropathy Print This Page Peripheral Neuropathy symptoms usually start ... more slowly over many years. The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy often include: A sensation of wearing an invisible “ ...
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPNs) are an increasingly common neuropathic and pain syndrome in adult and pediatric cancer patients and survivors [1–69]. However, symptoms associated with CIPNs are often undiagnosed, under-assessed, and communications problems between clinicians, family members, and patients have been observed [70–73]. Less is known about the prevalence and impact of CIPNs on pediatric cancer populations [70–71]. This article aims to provide a brief understanding of CIPNs in pediatric populations, and to review the evidence for both its prevention and treatment. PMID:25144779
Dimitrova, Alexandra; Murchison, Charles; Oken, Barry
Neuropathy and its associated pain pose great therapeutic challenges. While there has been a recent surge in acupuncture use and research, little remains known about its effects on nerve function. This review aims to assess the efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of neuropathy of various etiologies. The Medline, AMED, Cochrane, Scopus, CINAHL, and clintrials.gov databases were systematically searched from inception to July 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing acupuncture's efficacy for poly- and mononeuropathy were reviewed. Parallel and crossover RCTs focused on acupuncture's efficacy were reviewed and screened for eligibility. The Scale for Assessing Scientific Quality of Investigations in Complementary and Alternative Medicine was used to assess RCT quality. RCTs with score of >9 and active control treatments such as sham acupuncture or medical therapy were included. Fifteen studies were included: 13 original RCTs, a long-term follow-up, and a re-analysis of a prior RCT. The selected RCTs studied acupuncture for neuropathy caused by diabetes, Bell's palsy, carpal tunnel syndrome, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and idiopathic conditions. Acupuncture regimens, control conditions, and outcome measures differed among studies, and various methodological issues were identified. Still, the majority of RCTs showed benefit for acupuncture over control in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, Bell's palsy, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Acupuncture is probably effective in the treatment of HIV-related neuropathy, and there is insufficient evidence for its benefits in idiopathic neuropathy. Acupuncture appears to improve nerve conduction study parameters in both sensory and motor nerves. Meta-analyses were conducted on all diabetic neuropathy and Bell's palsy individual subject data (six RCTs; a total of 680 subjects) using a summary estimate random effects model, which showed combined odds ratio of 4.23 (95% confidence interval 2.3-7.8; p < 0
Murchison, Charles; Oken, Barry
Abstract Objectives: Neuropathy and its associated pain pose great therapeutic challenges. While there has been a recent surge in acupuncture use and research, little remains known about its effects on nerve function. This review aims to assess the efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of neuropathy of various etiologies. Methods: The Medline, AMED, Cochrane, Scopus, CINAHL, and clintrials.gov databases were systematically searched from inception to July 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing acupuncture's efficacy for poly- and mononeuropathy were reviewed. Parallel and crossover RCTs focused on acupuncture's efficacy were reviewed and screened for eligibility. The Scale for Assessing Scientific Quality of Investigations in Complementary and Alternative Medicine was used to assess RCT quality. RCTs with score of >9 and active control treatments such as sham acupuncture or medical therapy were included. Results: Fifteen studies were included: 13 original RCTs, a long-term follow-up, and a re-analysis of a prior RCT. The selected RCTs studied acupuncture for neuropathy caused by diabetes, Bell's palsy, carpal tunnel syndrome, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and idiopathic conditions. Acupuncture regimens, control conditions, and outcome measures differed among studies, and various methodological issues were identified. Still, the majority of RCTs showed benefit for acupuncture over control in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, Bell's palsy, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Acupuncture is probably effective in the treatment of HIV-related neuropathy, and there is insufficient evidence for its benefits in idiopathic neuropathy. Acupuncture appears to improve nerve conduction study parameters in both sensory and motor nerves. Meta-analyses were conducted on all diabetic neuropathy and Bell's palsy individual subject data (six RCTs; a total of 680 subjects) using a summary estimate random effects model, which showed combined odds ratio of 4.23 (95
Agre, J C; Ash, N; Cameron, M C; House, J
A healthy 30-year-old man developed pain in the posterior shoulder region approximately one month after initiating an intensive weightlifting program to increase upper extremity strength. This program especially emphasized shoulder abduction exercises. The pain intensified as he continued and finally he noted weakness of the involved shoulder, which led him to seek medical advice. Examination was normal except for atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle on the involved side and decreased strength of shoulder abduction and external rotation. Electromyographic examination demonstrated 3+ positive sharp waves in the infraspinatus muscle, delayed conduction to the supraspinatus muscle, and absence of an evoked response to the infraspinatus muscle. Surgical decompression of the suprascapular nerve within the suprascapular notch was then performed. Two weeks after surgery the pain was much less and the conduction velocities had improved. Eight months after surgery the patient was free of pain, the conduction velocities had returned to normal, and electromyography revealed reinnervation of the denervated muscle fibers. Intensive shoulder exercise, especially involving repeated forceful abduction movements, should be considered in the etiology of suprascapular neuropathy.
Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Pain; Peripheral Neuropathy; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity
Background The purpose of this study is to conduct a basic analysis of the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) as compared to placebo and usual care and to evaluate the feasibility of large-scale clinical research. Methods/design This study is a protocol for a three-armed, randomized, patient-assessor-blinded (to the type of treatment), controlled pilot trial. Forty-five participants with a ≥ six month history of PDN and a mean weekly pain score of ≥ 4 on the 11-point Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale (PI-NRS) will be assigned to the electroacupuncture group (n = 15), sham group (n = 15) or usual care group (n = 15). The participants assigned to the electroacupuncture group will receive electroacupuncture (remaining for 30 minutes with a mixed current of 2 Hz/120 Hz and 80% of the bearable intensity) at 12 standard acupuncture points (bilateral ST36, GB39, SP9, SP6, LR3 and GB41) twice per week for eight weeks (a total of 16 sessions) as well as the usual care. The participants in the sham group will receive sham electroacupuncture (no electrical current will be passed to the needle, but the light will be seen, and the sound of the pulse generator will be heard by the participants) at non-acupuncture points as well as the usual care. The participants in the usual care group will not receive electroacupuncture treatment during the study period and will receive only the usual care. The follow-up will be in the 5th, 9th and 17th weeks after random allocation. The PI-NRS score assessed at the ninth week will be the primary outcome measurement used in this study. The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), a sleep disturbance score (11-point Likert scale), the Short-Form 36v2 Health Survey (SF-36), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) will be used as outcome variables to evaluate the effectiveness of the acupuncture. Safety will be assessed
Mittal, Ruchika; Kumar, Anil; Singh, Dhirendra Pratap; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Nag, Tapas Chandra
Emerging role of Nrf-2/HO-1 in pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy has been suggested. Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and more than 50% patients of diabetes develop diabetic neuropathy. Rutin has been well documented to show protective effect in various complications, e.g., diabetic neuropathy. However, its mechanistic insight is still not completely understood. The present study has been designed to explore the protective effect of rutin and its interaction with COX-2 inhibitor, nimesulide in diabetic neuropathy. DN (diabetic neuropathy) rats were maintained with or without rutin (100 and 200 mg/kg), nimesulide (5 and 10 mg/kg), and their combinations for 8 weeks. Body weight, serum glucose, pain assessment (mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia, and thermal hyperalgesia), and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) were measured in all groups. Oxidative damage was assessed through biochemical estimation and mitochondrial ROS production, followed by inflammatory and apoptotic markers (TNF-α, caspase-3, Nrf-2, HO-1, and NF-kBp65) for their activity, protein, and gene expression. The structural changes were also reported through transmission electron microscope. Streptozotocin injection (55 mg/kg) induced diabetes reduced body weight, reduced the threshold for pain in various pain assessment parameters. Oxidative damage (increased MDA, decreased SOD, catalase, and GSH levels) increased mitochondrial ROS production followed by increased expression of inflammatory markers and decreased expression of Nrf-2/HO-1 in sciatic nerve. Treatment with rutin (100 and 200 mg/kg) and nimesulide (5 and 10 mg/kg) significantly attenuates these alterations as compared to DN control rats. Furthermore, combination of rutin (200 mg/kg) and nimesulide (10 mg/kg) significantly potentiated their protective effect which was significant as compared to their effect alone in streptozotocin-treated rats. The present study
Komirishetty, Prashanth; Areti, Aparna; Gogoi, Ranadeep; Sistla, Ramakrishna; Kumar, Ashutosh
Neuropathic pain is triggered by the lesions to peripheral nerves which alter their structure and function. Neuroprotective approaches that limit the pathological changes and improve the behavioral outcome have been well explained in different experimental models of neuropathy but translation of such strategies to clinics has been disappointing. Experimental evidences revealed the role of free radicals, especially peroxynitrite after the nerve injury. They provoke oxidative DNA damage and consequent over-activation of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) upregulates pro-inflammatory pathways, causing bioenergetic crisis and neuronal death. Along with these changes, it causes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to neuronal apoptosis. In related preclinical studies agents that neutralize the free radicals and pharmacological inhibitors of PARP have shown benefits in treating experimental neuropathy. This article reviews the involvement of PARP over-activation in trauma induced neuropathy and therapeutic significance of PARP inhibitors in the experimental neuropathy and neuropathic pain.
Ziegler, Dan; Hidvégi, Tibor; Gurieva, Irina; Bongardt, Sabine; Freynhagen, Rainer; Sen, David; Sommerville, Kenneth
OBJECTIVE To evaluate efficacy and safety of lacosamide compared with placebo in painful diabetic polyneuropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Diabetic patients with at least moderate neuropathic pain were randomized to placebo or lacosamide 400 (in a slow or standard titration) or 600 mg/day over 6-week titration and 12-week maintenance periods. Primary efficacy criterion was intra-individual change in average daily Numeric Pain Rating Scale score from baseline to the last 4 weeks. RESULTS For the primary end point, pain reduction was numerically but not statistically greater with lacosamide compared with placebo (400 mg/day, P = 0.12; 600 mg/day, P = 0.18). Both doses were significantly more effective compared with placebo over the titration (P = 0.03, P = 0.006), maintenance (P = 0.01, P = 0.005), and entire treatment periods (P = 0.03, P = 0.02). Safety profiles between titration schemes were similar. CONCLUSIONS Lacosamide reduced neuropathic pain and was well tolerated in diabetic patients, but the primary efficacy criterion was not met, possibly due to an increased placebo response over the last 4 weeks. PMID:20067958
Pestronk, Alan; Schmidt, Robert E; Choksi, Rati M; Sommerville, R Brian; Al-Lozi, Muhammad T
In this investigation we studied clinical and laboratory features of polyneuropathies in patients with serum IgM binding to the trisulfated disaccharide IdoA2S-GlcNS-6S (TS-HDS). We retrospectively compared 58 patients with selective IgM binding to TS-HDS to 41 consecutive patients with polyneuropathies without TS-HDS binding. Patients with IgM vs. TS-HDS commonly had distal, sensory, axonal neuropathies. Weakness was associated with IgM M-proteins. Hand pain and serum IgM M-proteins were more common than in control neuropathy patients. TS-HDS antibody binding was often selectively κ class. Biopsies showed capillary pathology with thickened basal lamina and C5b9 complement deposition. IgM in sera with TS-HDS antibodies often bound to capillaries. Serum IgM binding to TS-HDS is associated with painful, sensory > motor, polyneuropathies with an increased frequency of persistent hand discomfort, serum IgM M-proteins, and capillary pathology. Serum IgM binding to TS-HDS suggests a possible immune etiology underlying some otherwise idiopathic sensory polyneuropathies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Burns, T M; Shneker, B F; Juel, V C
The polyneuropathy caused by chronic gasoline inhalation is reported to be a gradually progressive, symmetric, sensorimotor polyneuropathy. We report unleaded gasoline sniffing by a female 14 years of age that precipitated peripheral neuropathy. In contrast with the previously reported presentation of peripheral neuropathy in gasoline inhalation, our patient developed multiple mononeuropathies superimposed on a background of sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The patient illustrates that gasoline sniffing neuropathy may present with acute multiple mononeuropathies resembling mononeuritis multiplex, possibly related to increased peripheral nerve susceptibility to pressure in the setting of neurotoxic components of gasoline. The presence of tetraethyl lead, which is no longer present in modern gasoline mixtures, is apparently not a necessary factor in the development of gasoline sniffer's neuropathy.
Tomasello, Caterina; Pinto, Rita Maria; Mennini, Chiara; Conicella, Elena; Stoppa, Francesca; Raucci, Umberto
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect of chemotherapy, in need of effective treatment. Preliminary data support the efficacy of scrambler therapy (ST), a noninvasive cutaneous electrostimulation device, in adults with CIPN. We test the efficacy, safety, and durability of ST for neuropathic pain in adolescents with CIPN. We studied nine pediatric patients with cancer and CIPN who received ST for pain control. Each patient received 45-min daily sessions for 10 consecutive days as a first step, but some of them required additional treatment. Pain significantly improved comparing Numeric Rate Scale after 10 days of ST (9.22 ± 0.83 vs. 2.33 ± 2.34; P < 0.001) and at the end of the optimized cycle (EOC) (9.22 ± 0.83 vs. 0.11 ± 0.33, P < 0.001). The improvement in quality of life was significantly reached on pain interference with general activity (8.67 ± 1.66 vs. 3.33 ± 2.12, P < 0.0001), mood (8.33 ± 3.32 vs. 2.78 ± 2.82, P < 0.0005), walking ability (10.00 vs. 2.78 ± 1.22, P < 0.0001), sleep (7.56 ± 2.24 vs. 2.67 ± 1.41, P < 0.001), and relations with people (7.89 ± 2.03 vs. 2.11 ± 2.03, P < 0.0002; Lansky score 26.7 ± 13.2 vs. 10 days of ST 57.8 ± 13.9, P < 0.001; 26.7 ± 13.2 vs. EOC 71.1 ± 16.2, P < 0.001). Based on these preliminary data, ST could be a good choice for adolescents with CIPN for whom pain control is difficult. ST caused total relief or dramatic reduction in CIPN pain and an improvement in quality of life, durable in follow-up. It caused no detected side effects, and can be retrained successfully. Further larger studies should be performed to confirm our promising preliminary data in pediatric patients with cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Comelli, Francesca; Bettoni, Isabella; Colleoni, Mariapia; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Costa, Barbara
Neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and it is still considered to be relatively refractory to most of the analgesics. The aim of the present study was to explore the antinociceptive effect of a controlled cannabis extract (eCBD) in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain. Repeated treatment with cannabis extract significantly relieved mechanical allodynia and restored the physiological thermal pain perception in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats without affecting hyperglycemia. In addition, the results showed that eCBD increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) content in the liver leading to a restoration of the defence mechanism and significantly decreased the liver lipid peroxidation suggesting that eCBD provides protection against oxidative damage in STZ-induced diabetes that also strongly contributes to the development of neuropathy. Finally, the nerve growth factor content in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats was restored to normal following the repeated treatment with eCBD, suggesting that the extract was able to prevent the nerve damage caused by the reduced support of this neurotrophin. These findings highlighted the beneficial effects of cannabis extract treatment in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain, possibly through a strong antioxidant activity and a specific action upon nerve growth factor. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bellows, Brandon K; Nelson, Richard E; Oderda, Gary M; LaFleur, Joanne
Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) affects nearly half of patients with diabetes. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of starting patients with PDN on pregabalin (PRE), duloxetine (DUL), gabapentin (GABA), or desipramine (DES) over a 10-year time horizon from the perspective of third-party payers in the United States. A Markov model was used to compare the costs (2013 $US) and effectiveness (quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) of first-line PDN treatments in 10,000 patients using microsimulation. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. Probabilities and utilities were derived from the published literature. Costs were average wholesale price for drugs and national estimates for office visits and hospitalizations. One-way and probabilistic (PSA) sensitivity analyses were used to examine parameter uncertainty. Starting with PRE was dominated by DUL as DUL cost less and was more effective. Starting with GABA was extendedly dominated by a combination of DES and DUL. DES and DUL cost $23,468 and $25,979, while yielding 3.05 and 3.16 QALYs, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for DUL compared with DES was $22,867/QALY gained. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the model was most sensitive to the adherence threshold and utility for mild pain. PSA showed that, at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) of $50,000/QALY, DUL was the most cost-effective option in 56.3% of the simulations, DES in 29.2%, GABA in 14.4%, and PRE in 0.1%. Starting with DUL is the most cost-effective option for PDN when WTP is greater than $22,867/QALY. Decision makers may consider starting with DUL for PDN patients.
Klein, C; Dyck, P; Friedenberg, S; Burns, T; Windebank, A; Dyck, P
Objective: To study the role of mechanical, infectious, and inflammatory factors inducing neuropathic attacks in hereditary brachial plexus neuropathy (HBPN), an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by attacks of pain and weakness, atrophy, and sensory alterations of the shoulder girdle and upper limb muscles. Methods: Four patients from separate kindreds with HBPN were evaluated. Upper extremity nerve biopsies were obtained during attacks from a person of each kindred. In situ hybridisation for common viruses in nerve tissue and genetic testing for a hereditary tendency to pressure palsies (HNPP; tomaculous neuropathy) were undertaken. Two patients treated with intravenous methyl prednisolone had serial clinical and electrophysiological examinations. One patient was followed prospectively through pregnancy and during the development of a stereotypic attack after elective caesarean delivery. Results: Upper extremity nerve biopsies in two patients showed prominent perivascular inflammatory infiltrates with vessel wall disruption. Nerve in situ hybridisation for viruses was negative. There were no tomaculous nerve changes. In two patients intravenous methyl prednisolone ameliorated symptoms (largely pain), but with tapering of steroid dose, signs and symptoms worsened. Elective caesarean delivery did not prevent a typical postpartum attack. Conclusions: Inflammation, probably immune, appears pathogenic for some if not all attacks of HBPN. Immune modulation may be useful in preventing or reducing the neuropathic attacks, although controlled trials are needed to establish efficacy, as correction of the mutant gene is still not possible. The genes involved in immune regulation may be candidates for causing HBPN disorders. PMID:12082044
Binns-Hall, O; Selvarajah, D; Sanger, D; Walker, J; Scott, A; Tesfaye, S
To evaluate the feasibility of a one-stop microvascular screening service for the early diagnosis of diabetic distal symmetrical polyneuropathy, painful distal symmetrical polyneuropathy and the at-risk diabetic foot. People with diabetes attending retinal screening in hospital and community settings had their feet examined by a podiatrist. Assessment included: Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score evaluation; a 10-g monofilament test; and two validated, objective and quick measures of neuropathy obtained using the point-of-care devices 'DPN-Check', a hand-held device that measures sural nerve conduction velocity and amplitude, and 'Sudoscan', a device that measures sudomotor function. The diagnostic utility of these devices was assessed against the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score as the 'gold standard'. A total of 236 consecutive people attending the retinal screening service, 18.9% of whom had never previously had their feet examined, were evaluated. The prevalence of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy, assessed using the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score, was 30.9%, and was underestimated by 10-g monofilament test (14.4%). The prevalence of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy using DPN-check was 51.5% (84.3% sensitivity, 68.3% specificity), 38.2% using Sudoscan foot electrochemical skin conductance (77.4% sensitivity, 68.3% specificity), and 61.9% using abnormality in either of the results (93.2% sensitivity, 52.8% specificity). The results of both devices correlated with Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score (P<0.001). A new diagnosis of painful distal symmetrical polyneuropathy was made in 59 participants (25%), and 56.6% had moderate- or high-risk foot. Participants rated the service very highly. Combined, eye, foot and renal screening is feasible, has a high uptake, reduces clinic visits, and identifies painful distal symmetrical polyneuropathy and the at-risk foot. Combined large- and small-nerve-fibre assessment using non-invasive, quantitative and quick point
Dworkin, Robert H.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Kent, Joel; Mackey, Sean C.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Stacey, Brett R.; Levy, Robert M.; Backonja, Miroslav; Baron, Ralf; Harke, Henning; Loeser, John D.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Turk, Dennis C.; Wells, Christopher D.
Neuropathic pain (NP) is often refractory to pharmacologic and non-interventional treatment. On behalf of the International Association for the Study of Pain Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group (NeuPSIG), the authors evaluated systematic reviews, clinical trials, and existing guidelines for the interventional management of NP. Evidence is summarized and presented for neural blockade, spinal cord stimulation (SCS), intrathecal medication, and neurosurgical interventions in patients with the following peripheral and central NP conditions: herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN); painful diabetic and other peripheral neuropathies; spinal cord injury NP; central post-stroke pain; radiculopathy and failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS); complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS); and trigeminal neuralgia and neuropathy. Due to the paucity of high-quality clinical trials, no strong recommendations can be made. Four weak recommendations based on the amount and consistency of evidence, including degree of efficacy and safety, are: (1) epidural injections for herpes zoster; (2) steroid injections for radiculopathy; (3) SCS for FBSS; and (4) SCS for CRPS type 1. Based on the available data, we recommend not to use sympathetic blocks for PHN nor RF lesions for radiculopathy. No other conclusive recommendations can be made due to the poor quality of available of data. Whenever possible, these interventions should either be part of randomized clinical trials or documented in pain registries. Priorities for future research include randomized clinical trials; long-term studies; and head-to-head comparisons among different interventional and non-interventional treatments. PMID:23748119
Alexander, Joe; Edwards, Roger A; Savoldelli, Alberto; Manca, Luigi; Grugni, Roberto; Emir, Birol; Whalen, Ed; Watt, Stephen; Brodsky, Marina; Parsons, Bruce
More patient-specific medical care is expected as more is learned about variations in patient responses to medical treatments. Analytical tools enable insights by linking treatment responses from different types of studies, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Given the importance of evidence from both types of studies, our goal was to integrate these types of data into a single predictive platform to help predict response to pregabalin in individual patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN). We utilized three pivotal RCTs of pregabalin (398 North American patients) and the largest observational study of pregabalin (3159 German patients). We implemented a hierarchical cluster analysis to identify patient clusters in the Observational Study to which RCT patients could be matched using the coarsened exact matching (CEM) technique, thereby creating a matched dataset. We then developed autoregressive moving average models (ARMAXs) to estimate weekly pain scores for pregabalin-treated patients in each cluster in the matched dataset using the maximum likelihood method. Finally, we validated ARMAX models using Observational Study patients who had not matched with RCT patients, using t tests between observed and predicted pain scores. Cluster analysis yielded six clusters (287-777 patients each) with the following clustering variables: gender, age, pDPN duration, body mass index, depression history, pregabalin monotherapy, prior gabapentin use, baseline pain score, and baseline sleep interference. CEM yielded 1528 unique patients in the matched dataset. The reduction in global imbalance scores for the clusters after adding the RCT patients (ranging from 6 to 63% depending on the cluster) demonstrated that the process reduced the bias of covariates in five of the six clusters. ARMAX models of pain score performed well (R 2 : 0.85-0.91; root mean square errors: 0.53-0.57). t tests did not show differences between observed
Nazir, Hanan F; AlFutaisi, Amna; Zacharia, Mathew; Elshinawy, Mohamed; Mevada, Surekha T; Alrawas, Abdulhakim; Khater, Doaa; Jaju, Deepali; Wali, Yasser
Vincristine (VCR) induced peripheral neuropathy is a common complication in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A retrospective data analysis over an interval of 10 years (2006-2016) of all children with ALL seen at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital was carried out. Electronic medical records of eligible patients were reviewed. Patients with clinical evidence of neuropathy and abnormal nerve conduction studies (NCSs) were included in the study. Nineteen (nine females and 10 males) out of 103 pediatric patients developed VCR-related neuropathy, and their age ranged between 2.5 and 14 years. Symptoms started after 2-11 doses of VCR. All 19 patients had documented peripheral neuropathy on NCSs. The autonomic nervous system and cranial nerves affection was relatively common in our patients; two presented with bradycardia, two patients with unexplained tachycardia, and five had abdominal pain and constipation, complicated by typhlitis in two patients. One patient developed unilateral hearing loss. Two patients developed severe life-threatening cranial nerve involvement with bilateral ptosis and recurrent laryngeal nerve involvement presented as vocal cord paralysis, hoarseness of voice, frequent chocking, and aspiration episodes. Peripheral neuropathy was the commonest form of VCR-related neuropathy. Autonomic neuropathy was relatively common in our patients. Cranial neuropathy is a serious side effect of VCR that can be severe, involving multiple cranial nerves and needs prompt recognition and management. Concomitant administration of pyridoxine and pyridostigmine does not seem to protect against further neurological damage in some patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Small fiber neuropathy is considered a form of peripheral neuropathy because it affects the peripheral nervous system, which ... Page National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Peripheral Neuropathy Information Page Educational Resources (4 links) Johns Hopkins ...
Tu, Yiji; Lineaweaver, William C; Zheng, Xianyou; Chen, Zenggan; Mullins, Fred; Zhang, Feng
Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent disabling neuromuscular complication of burns. However, the insidious and progressive onset of burn neuropathy makes it often undiagnosed or overlooked. In our study, we reviewed the current studies on the burn-related peripheral neuropathy to summarize the morbidity, mechanism, detecting method and management of peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. Of the 1533 burn patients included in our study, 98 cases (6.39%) were presented with peripheral neuropathy. Thermal and electrical burns were the most common etiologies. Surgical procedures, especially nerve decompression, showed good effect on functional recovery of both acute and delayed peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. It is noteworthy that, for early detection and prevention of peripheral neuropathy, electrodiagnostic examinations should be performed on burn patients independent of symptoms. Still, the underlying mechanisms of burn-related peripheral neuropathy remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
MacKenzie, R A; Skuse, N F; Lethlean, A K
1. Eighty-eight intrafascicular neural recordings were obtained in 10 normal subjects, 5 patients with axonal degeneration and 11 patients with demyelinating neuropathy. 2. Stimulus levels required for perception and fibre activation were higher in neuropathic subjects. Fibres transmitting touch perception had significantly lower conduction velocities in both patient groups, but were very much lower in the group with demyelinating neuropahty than the group with axonal degeneration. Maximum electrical stimulation evoked dispersed fibre responses in the axonal degeneration group and more dispersed, slowly conducting fibre potentials in the demyelinating group. In patients with hypertrophic Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder, usually only a small group of slowly conducting low amplitude potentials was recorded. 3. Delivery of a train of supramaximal stimuli caused prolongation of latency and dispersion of fibre potentials in all microneurographic recordings. The changes were significantly greater in the axonal neuropathy group than in normals, and recovery was slower. The demyelinating neuropathies showed significantly greater changes than both the normal and the axonal neuropathy groups, and post-tetanic conduction slowing became even more marked after limb temperature was raised. 4. Surface SAP recordings showed normal refractory period in chronic axonal neuropathy but significant latency prolongation occurred in demyelinating neuropathy. 5. It is concluded that both receptor and nerve fibre abnormalities contribute to sensory dysfunction in degenerative and demyelinating neuropathies.
Ebata-Kogure, Nozomi; Nozawa, Kazutaka; Murakami, Aya; Toyoda, Tetsumi; Haga, Yuri; Fujii, Koichi
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) may often be painful. Despite the high prevalence of painful DPN (pDPN) among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), understanding of its clinical and economic burden is limited. This study aimed to describe the clinical and economic burdens faced by patients with pDPN in Japan, and compared them with those experienced by patients with DPN but without painful symptoms (non-pDPN). This retrospective, observational study used data from a large-scale, hospital-based Japanese claims database collected from April 2008 to June 2015. Comorbidities, clinical departments visited, length of hospital stay, and medical costs for the period of ± 6 months from the diagnosis of pDPN or non-pDPN were described for each group. Glycemic control status was examined for each group for patients with glycated hemoglobin data. The data of 8,740 patients with pDPN (mean age 70.0 years, 53.4% male) and 12,592 patients with non-pDPN (mean age 67.7 years, 55.7% male) were analyzed. Patients with pDPN had more comorbidities than patients with non-pDPN; 48.7% and 30.9% of patients in the respective groups had 20 or more comorbidities. The median length of hospital stay was 5 days longer in patients with pDPN. The median total medical costs were higher in patients with pDPN (\\517,762) than in patients with non-pDPN (\\359,909). Patients with pDPN spent higher median costs for medications, but the costs for glycemic control drugs were similar in both groups. For 3,372 patients with glycated hemoglobin data, glycemic control was similar between the two groups. Patients with pDPN experienced greater clinical and economic burdens than patients with non-pDPN, suggesting that patients who develop pDPN may suffer not only from the complications of DM and pain, but also from other comorbid disorders.
Azevedo, Helen; Pupe, Camila; Pereira, Rouse; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy, has pain as one of its clinical features, yet it remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. This literature review assessed data related to pain from CMT to determine its prevalence, type and importance as a symptom, which, unlike other symptoms, is likely to be treated. The research encompassed 2007 to 2017 and included five articles that addressed pain from CMT. All of the papers concurred that pain is frequently present in CMT patients, yet its classification remains undefined as there has been no consensus in the literature about the mechanisms that cause it.
Pachman, Deirdre R.; Qin, Rui; Seisler, Drew K.; Smith, Ellen M.L.; Beutler, Andreas S.; Ta, Lauren E.; Lafky, Jacqueline M.; Wagner-Johnston, Nina D.; Ruddy, Kathryn J.; Dakhil, Shaker; Staff, Nathan P.; Grothey, Axel; Loprinzi, Charles L.
Purpose Given that the clinical course of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy is not well defined, the current study was performed to better understand clinical parameters associated with its presentation. Methods Acute and chronic neuropathy was evaluated in patients receiving adjuvant FOLFOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) on study N08CB (North Central Cancer Treatment Group, Alliance). Acute neuropathy was assessed by having patients complete daily questionnaires for 6 days with each cycle of FOLFOX. Before each dose of FOLFOX and as long as 18 months after chemotherapy cessation, chronic neurotoxicity was assessed with use of the 20-item, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire for patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Results Three hundred eight (89%) of the 346 patients had at least one symptom of acute neuropathy with the first cycle of FOLFOX; these symptoms included sensitivity to touching cold items (71%), sensitivity to swallowing cold items (71%), throat discomfort (63%), or muscle cramps (42%). Acute symptoms peaked at day 3 and improved, although they did not always resolve completely between treatments. These symptoms were about twice as severe in cycles 2 through 12 as they were in cycle 1. For chronic neurotoxicity, tingling was the most severe symptom, followed by numbness and then pain. During chemotherapy, symptoms in the hands were more prominent than they were in the feet; by 18 months, symptoms were more severe in the feet than they were in the hands. Patients with more severe acute neuropathy during the first cycle of therapy experienced more chronic sensory neurotoxicity (P < .0001). Conclusion Acute oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy symptoms do not always completely resolve between treatment cycles and are only half as severe on the first cycle as compared with subsequent cycles. There is a correlation between the severities of acute and chronic neuropathies. PMID
Tesfaye, Solomon; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Dickenson, Anthony H.
Although a number of the diabetic neuropathies may result in painful symptomatology, this review focuses on the most common: chronic sensorimotor distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN). It is estimated that 15–20% of diabetic patients may have painful DSPN, but not all of these will require therapy. In practice, the diagnosis of DSPN is a clinical one, whereas for longitudinal studies and clinical trials, quantitative sensory testing and electrophysiological assessment are usually necessary. A number of simple numeric rating scales are available to assess the frequency and severity of neuropathic pain. Although the exact pathophysiological processes that result in diabetic neuropathic pain remain enigmatic, both peripheral and central mechanisms have been implicated, and extend from altered channel function in peripheral nerve through enhanced spinal processing and changes in many higher centers. A number of pharmacological agents have proven efficacy in painful DSPN, but all are prone to side effects, and none impact the underlying pathophysiological abnormalities because they are only symptomatic therapy. The two first-line therapies approved by regulatory authorities for painful neuropathy are duloxetine and pregabalin. α-Lipoic acid, an antioxidant and pathogenic therapy, has evidence of efficacy but is not licensed in the U.S. and several European countries. All patients with DSPN are at increased risk of foot ulceration and require foot care, education, and if possible, regular podiatry assessment. PMID:23970715
Menezes, Manoj P; Ouvrier, Robert A
Mitochondrial diseases in children are often associated with a peripheral neuropathy but the presence of the neuropathy is under-recognized because of the overwhelming involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). These mitochondrial neuropathies are heterogeneous in their clinical, neurophysiological, and histopathological characteristics. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of childhood mitochondrial neuropathy. Early recognition of neuropathy may help with the identification of the mitochondrial syndrome. While it is not definite that the characteristics of the neuropathy would help in directing genetic testing without the requirement for invasive skin, muscle or liver biopsies, there appears to be some evidence for this hypothesis in Leigh syndrome, in which nuclear SURF1 mutations cause a demyelinating neuropathy and mitochondrial DNA MTATP6 mutations cause an axonal neuropathy. POLG1 mutations, especially when associated with late-onset phenotypes, appear to cause a predominantly sensory neuropathy with prominent ataxia. The identification of the peripheral neuropathy also helps to target genetic testing in the mitochondrial optic neuropathies. Although often subclinical, the peripheral neuropathy may occasionally be symptomatic and cause significant disability. Where it is symptomatic, recognition of the neuropathy will help the early institution of rehabilitative therapy. We therefore suggest that nerve conduction studies should be a part of the early evaluation of children with suspected mitochondrial disease. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.
Alejandro, Linh; Behrendt, Carolyn E.; Chen, Kim; Openshaw, Harry; Shibata, Stephen
Objectives We sought to predict oxaliplatin-associated peripheral neuropathy during modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6) therapy. Methods In a 50% female sample, patients with previously untreated, primary or recurrent colorectal cancer were followed through a first course of mFOLFOX6 with oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 every 2 weeks. Accounting for correlation among a subject's cycles, logistic regression estimated per-cycle risk of acute (under 14 days) and persistent (14 days or more) neuropathy. Proportional hazards regression predicted time to persistent neuropathy. Results Among mFOLFOX6 recipients (n=50, age 58.9 +10.1 years), 36% received concomitant bevacizumab. Of total cycles, 94.2% (422/448) were evaluable. Most (84%) subjects reported neuropathy at least once: 74% reported acute and 48% reported persistent symptoms. On multivariate analysis, risk factors shared by acute and persistent neuropathy were body-surface area >2.0, acute neuropathy in a past cycle, and lower body weight. In addition, risk of acute neuropathy decreased with age (adjusted for renal function and winter season), while risk of persistent neuropathy increased with cumulative dose of oxaliplatin and persistent neuropathy in a past cycle. Concomitant bevacizumab was not a risk factor when administered in Stage IV disease but was associated with persistent neuropathy when administered experimentally in Stage III. Females had no increased risk of either form of neuropathy. After 3 cycles, weight, body-surface area, and prior acute neuropathy predicted time to persistent neuropathy. Conclusions Routinely available clinical factors predict acute and persistent neuropathy associated with oxaliplatin. When validated, the proposed prognostic score for persistent neuropathy can help clinicians counsel patients about chemotherapy. PMID:22547012
Klassen, A; Di Iorio, B; Guastaferro, P; Bahner, U; Heidland, A; De Santo, N
Pain and peripheral neuropathy are frequent complications of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Because drug treatment is associated with numerous side effects and is largely ineffective in many maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, nonpharmacologic strategies such as electrotherapy are a potential recourse. Among various forms of electrostimulation, high-tone external muscle stimulation (HTEMS) is a promising alternative treatment for symptomatic diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy (PPN), as demonstrated in a short-term study. Based on these novel findings, we performed a prospective, nonrandomized, pilot trial in MHD patients to determine (1) whether HTEMS is also effective in treating diabetic PPN in the uremic state, and (2) whether uremic PPN is similarly modulated. In total, 40 MHD patients diagnosed with symptomatic PPN (25 with diabetic and 15 with uremic PPN) were enrolled. Both lower extremities were treated intradialytically with HTEMS for 1 hour, three times a week. Initially, a subgroup of 12 patients was followed for 4 weeks, and a further 28 patients for 12 weeks. The patients' degree of neuropathy was graded at baseline before HTEMS and after 1 and 3 months, respectively. Five neuropathic symptoms (tingling, burning, pain, numbness, and numbness in painful areas) as well as sleep disturbances were measured, using the 10-point Neuropathic Pain Scale of Galer and Jensen (Neurology 48:332-338, 1997). A positive response was defined as the improvement of one symptom or more, by at least 3 points. Other parameters included blood pressure, heart rate, dry body weight, and a routine laboratory investigation. The HTEMS led to a significant improvement in all five neuropathic symptoms, and to a significant reduction in sleep disturbances for both diabetic and uremic PPN. The response was independent of the patient's age, with a responder rate of 73%. The improvement of neuropathy was time-dependent, with the best results achieved after 3 months of treatment
Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Pacini, Alessandra; Micheli, Laura; Femia, Angelo Pietro; Maresca, Mario; Zanardelli, Matteo; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Caderni, Giovanna; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Mugelli, Alessandro; Ghelardini, Carla
Neurotoxicity is a major side effect of platinum derivatives both during and after treatment. In the absence of effective pharmacological compounds, the opportunity to identify safe adjuvant treatments among medicinal plants seems appropriate. Astragali radix is an adaptogenic herbal product recently analyzed in platinum-treated cancer patients. With the aim of evaluating the anti-neuropathic profile of Astragali radix, a previously characterized aqueous (Aqu) and two hydroalcoholic (20%HA and 50%HA) extracts were tested in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Repeated administrations significantly reduced oxaliplatin-dependent hypersensitivity with 50%HA, the most effective, fully preventing mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Ex vivo, 50%HA reduced morphometric and molecular alterations induced by oxaliplatin in peripheral nerve and dorsal-root-ganglia. In the spinal cord and in brain areas, 50%HA significantly decreased activation of microglia and astrocytes. Furthermore, 50%HA prevented the nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by the anticancer drug. The protective effect of 50%HA did not alter oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in colon tumors of Pirc rats, an Apc-driven model of colon carcinogenesis. The hydroalcoholic extract (50%HA) of Astragali radix relieves pain and promotes the rescue mechanisms that protect nervous tissue from the damages triggering chronic pain. A safe profile strongly suggests the usefulness of this natural product in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. PMID:28186109
Janahi, Noor M; Santos, Derek; Blyth, Christine; Bakhiet, Moiz; Ellis, Mairghread
Autoimmunity has been identified in a significant number of neuropathies, such as, proximal neuropathies, and autonomic neuropathies associated with diabetes mellitus. However, possible correlations between diabetic peripheral neuropathy and autoimmunity have not yet been fully investigated. This study was conducted to investigate whether autoimmunity is associated with the pathogenesis of human diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A case-control analysis included three groups: 30 patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 30 diabetic control patients without neuropathy, and 30 healthy controls. Blood analysis was conducted to compare the percentages of positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) between the three groups. Secondary analysis investigated the correlations between the presence of autoimmune antibodies and sample demographics and neurological manifestations. This research was considered as a pilot study encouraging further investigations to take place in the near future. Antinuclear antibodies were significantly present in the blood serum of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in comparison to the control groups (p<0.001). The odds of positive values of ANA in the neuropathy group were 50 times higher when compared to control groups. Secondary analysis showed a significant correlation between the presence of ANA and the neurological manifestation of neuropathy (Neuropathy symptom score, Neuropathy disability score and Vibration Perception Threshold). The study demonstrated for the first time that human peripheral diabetic neuropathy may have an autoimmune aetiology. The new pathogenic factors may lead to the consideration of new management plans involving new therapeutic approaches and disease markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Iwamoto, Naotaka; Isu, Toyohiko; Kim, Kyongsong; Morimoto, Daijiro; Matsumoto, Juntaro; Yamazaki, Kazuyoshi; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Isobe, Masanori
Here we report our treatment results of low back and leg pain(LBLP)considering para-lumbar spine disease(PLSD)and peripheral nerve neuropathy(PNN). We enrolled 103 patients who were admitted to our institute for LBLP treatment between January and December in 2014. For the treatment, we preferentially performed intensive block therapy for PLSD. Among 103 patients, 89 patients had PLSD. In 85 patients, we performed intensive block therapy and 82 patients experienced short-term improvement of symptoms. In 35 of these 82 patients, lumbar spine and/or PNN surgical treatment was required as the effect of block therapy was transient. Intensive block therapy was effective in 47 of 103 patients(45.6%), and the remaining patients required surgical treatment(PLSD and/or PNN:31 cases, lumbar spine:13 cases, both:8 cases). Among 103 patients with LBLP, intensive block therapy for PLSD and PNN was useful for short-term symptom improvement in 82 patients(79.6%), and for long-term symptom improvement in 47 patients(45.6%)as evaluated at the final follow-up. Surgical treatment of PLSD and/or PNN was required in 39 patients(37.9%). These results suggested that treatment of PLSD and PNN might yield good results for patients with LBLP.
Fateh, Hamid R; Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher
Almost half of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathies (DPNs) are symptom-free. Methods including questionnaires and electrodiagnosis (EDx) can be fruitful for easy reach to early diagnosis, correct treatments of diabetic neuropathy, and so decline of complications for instance diabetic foot ulcer and prevention of high costs. The goal of our study was to compare effectiveness of the Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST) and electrophysiological evaluation in confirming diabetic peripheral neuropathy. One hundred twenty five known diabetes mellitus male and female subjects older than 18 with or without symptoms of neuropathy comprised in this research. All of them were interviewed in terms of demographic data, lipid profile, HbA1C, duration of disease, and history of retinopathy, so examined by Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST), and nerve conduction studies (NCS). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software 18. One hundred twenty five diabetic patients (70 female, 55 male) were recruited in this study with a mean age of 58.7 ± 10.2, and mean duration of diabetes was 10.17 ± 6.9 years. The mean neuropathy score of MNSI and UKST were 2.3 (1.7) and 4.16 (2.9), respectively. Each instrument detected the peripheral neuropathy in 78 (69 %) and 91 (73 %) of patients, respectively. There was a significant relationship between number of neuropathies and mean of diabetes duration and development of retinopathy in both questionnaire evaluations and NCS. By nerve conduction study, neuropathy was detected in 121 (97 %) diabetic patients were reported in order 15 (12 %) mononeuropathy (as 33 % sensory and 67 % motor neuropathy) and 106 (85 %) polyneuropathy (as 31 % motor and 69 % sensorimotor neuropathy). As regards NCS is an objective, simple, and non-invasive tool and also can determine level of damage and regeneration in peripheral nerves, this study
Kim, W; Guinot, A; Marleix, S; Chapuis, M; Fraisse, B; Violas, P
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN-IV) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of unexplained fever, extensive anhidrosis, total insensitivity to pain, hypotonia, and mental retardation. The most frequent complications of this disease are corneal scarring, multiple fractures, joint deformities, osteomyelitis, and disabling self-mutilations. We reported the case of a 12-year-old boy. The goal was to discuss our decision-making and compare this case with cases described in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Eberhardt, M J; Leffler, A
Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) are crucial for the generation and propagation of action potentials in all excitable cells, and therefore for the function of sensory neurons as well. Preclinical research over the past 20 years identified three Nav-isoforms in sensory neurons, namely Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9. A specific role for the function of nociceptive neurons was postulated for each. Whereas no selective sodium channel inhibitors have been established in the clinic so far, the relevance of all three isoforms regarding the pain sensitivity in humans is currently undergoing a remarkable verification through the translation of preclinical data into clinically manifest pictures. For the last ten years, Nav1.7 has been the main focus of clinical interest, as a large number of hereditary mutants were identified. The so-called "gain-of-function" mutations of Nav1.7 cause the pain syndromes hereditary erythromelalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder. In addition, several Nav1.7 mutants were shown to be associated with small-fiber neuropathies. On the contrary, "loss-of-function" Nav1.7 mutants lead to a congenital insensitivity to pain. Recently, several gain-of-function mutations in Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 have been identified in patients suffering from painful peripheral neuropathies. However, another gain-of-function Nav1.9 mutation is associated with congenital insensitivity to pain. This review offers an overview of published work on painful Nav mutations with clinical relevance, and proposes possible consequences for the therapy of different pain symptoms resulting from these findings.
Tanishima, Hiroyuki; Tominaga, Toshiji; Kimura, Masamichi; Maeda, Tsunehiro; Shirai, Yasutsugu; Horiuchi, Tetsuya
Chronic peripheral neuropathy is a major adverse response to oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens, but there are no established risk factors pertaining to it. We investigated the efficacy of hyperacute peripheral neuropathy (HAPN) as a predictor of oxaliplatin-induced persistent peripheral neuropathy (PPN). Forty-seven cases of stage III colorectal cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy with oxaliplatin after curative surgery between January 2010 and August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. HAPN was defined as acute peripheral neuropathy (APN) occurring on day 1 (≤24 h after oxaliplatin infusion) of the first cycle. PPN was defined as neuropathy lasting >1 year after oxaliplatin discontinuation. The average total dose of oxaliplatin was 625.8 mg/m 2 , and the average relative dose intensity was 66.7%. Twenty-two of the 47 patients (46.8%) had PPN and 13 (27.7%) had HAPN. Male sex, treatment for neuropathy, HAPN, and APN were significantly more frequent in patients with PPN (p = 0.013, 0.02, <0.001, and 0.023, respectively). There was no significant difference in the total oxaliplatin dose between patients with and without PPN (p = 0.061). Multivariate analyses revealed total dose of oxaliplatin and HAPN as independent predictors of PPN [p = 0.015; odds ratio (OR) = 1.005, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.001-1.009 and p = 0.001; OR = 75.307, 5.3-1070.123, respectively]. The total dose of oxaliplatin was relatively lower in patients with HAPN than that in those without HAPN in the PPN-positive group (not significant, p = 0.068). HAPN was found to be a predictor of oxaliplatin-induced PPN.
Ilie, Cristian P; Mischianu, Dan L; Pemberton, Richard J
We reviewed previous publications on post-orgasmic pain with reference to prevalence, epidemiology and treatment options, using the Ovid and PubMed (updated May 2006) databases to comprehensively search MEDLINE for reports on post-orgasmic pain that included peer-reviewed English-language articles. Official proceedings of internationally known scientific societies were also assessed. Because of the heterogeneity of the studies we did not apply meta- analytic techniques to the data. The incidence of post-orgasmic pain is 1-9.7%. The ejaculatory pain is associated with prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and ejaculatory duct obstruction; it is also described in patients after procedures like radical prostatectomy. Aetiopathogenic theories include those referring to bladder neck closure and pudendal neuropathy. The treatment options vary from self-care, a 'perineal hyperprotection programme' to medication with the alpha-blocker, topiramate, and even surgical procedures like removing a section of the sacrotuberous ligament, neurolysis of the pudendal nerve or removing a section of the sacrospinous ligament. This is the first update of the subject, with reference to prevalence, epidemiology and treatment options. There is a need for adequately powered, prospective randomized trials on aetiology and treatment options.
Sotorra-Figuerola, Dídac; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Gay-Escoda, Cosme
To determine the clinical characteristics of Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain in patients that suffer Persistent Idiopathic Facial Pain (PIFP), Painful Post-Traumatic Trigeminal Neuropathy (PPTTN) or Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) and to describe their treatment. A retrospective observational study was made, reviewing the clinical history of the patients diagnosed with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain between 2004 and 2011 at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Barcelona and at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Teknon Medical Center of Barcelona. The average age of the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was 54.5, with a clear female predominance (86.9%, n=20). Of all patients, 60.9% (n=14) were suffering a PIFP, 21.7% (n=5) had a BMS and 17.4% (n=4) were presenting a PPTTN. The pain quality described by the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was oppressive (43.47%, n=10), widely represented by patients with PIFP, and burning (39.13%, n=9) being the only quality that described patients with BMS. The treatment carried out with the patients was only pharmacologic. The most used drugs for the treatment of PIFP and PPTTN were clonazepam (50%, n=9) and amitriptyline (44.44%, n=8). However, a 55.5% (n=10) of the patients with PIFP or PPTTN required the association of two or more drugs for a correct pain control. All the patients with BMS responded satisfactorily to clonazepam. Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain is a little known condition among the general population, physicians and dentists. This favors a late diagnosis and inaccurate treatments which entail unnecessary suffering. It is important to inform both the general population and health professionals concerning this painful condition. Continuous neuropathic orofacial pain, persistent idiopathic facial pain, painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy, burning mouth syndrome, atypical odontalgia.
Spataro, Leah E; Sloane, Evan M; Milligan, Erin D; Wieseler-Frank, Julie; Schoeniger, Diana; Jekich, Brian M; Barrientos, Ruth M; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R
Glia are now recognized as important contributors in pathological pain creation and maintenance. Spinal cord glia exhibit extensive gap junctional connectivity, raising the possibility that glia are involved in the contralateral spread of excitation resulting in mirror image pain. In the present experiments, the gap junction decoupler carbenoxolone was administered intrathecally after induction of neuropathic pain in response to sciatic nerve inflammation (sciatic inflammatory neuropathy) or partial nerve injury (chronic constriction injury). In both neuropathic pain models, a low dose of carbenoxolone reversed mirror image mechanical allodynia, while leaving ipsilateral mechanical allodynia unaffected. Ipsilateral thermal hyperalgesia was briefly attenuated. Critically, blockade of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia was not observed in response to intrathecal glycyrrhizic acid, a compound similar to carbenoxolone in all respects but it does not decouple gap junctions. Thus, blockade of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia by carbenoxolone does appear to reflect an effect on gap junctions. Examination of carbenoxolone's effects on intrathecal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 showed that blockade of pain facilitation might result, at least in part, via suppression of interleukin-1 and, in turn, interleukin-6. These data provide the first suggestion that spread of excitation via gap junctions might contribute importantly to inflammatory and traumatic neuropathic pain. The current studies provide evidence for involvement of gap junctions in spinal cord pain facilitation. Intrathecal carbenoxolone, a gap junction decoupler, reversed neuropathy-induced mirror image pain and intrathecal gp120-induced allodynia. In addition, it decreased gp120-induced proinflammatory cytokines. This suggests gap junction activation might lead to proinflammatory cytokine release by distantly activated glia.
Barter, F; Tanner, A R
Autonomic nervous system integrity has been assessed in 30 alcoholic subjects and 30 age-sex matched controls using five simple tests of cardiovascular responses. There was evidence of parasympathetic neuropathy alone in five of the alcoholic subjects (16%) and of combined parasympathetic and sympathetic neuropathy in an additional six (20%). None of the controls showed any abnormality. Within the alcoholic group, those with autonomic neuropathy were older, were more likely to be female and to have established alcoholic liver disease. Symptoms were a poor guide to the presence or absence of autonomic neuropathy.
Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Liu, Jian Ping
Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (15 June 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2010 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to June 2010), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2010), AMED (January 1985 to June 2010), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to June 2010), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to June 2010), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to June 2010). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to March 2010). No language or publication restrictions were used. We included randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. The data analyses were carried out using Review Manager 5.1 (Cochrane software). Thirty-nine randomized trials involving 2890 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 18 self-concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve
... neuropathy, the most common neurologic complication associated with alcoholism. If you use alcohol to relieve your pain, ... Into Health ® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.niaaa.nih.gov • 301.443.3860 Updated ...
Sheshah, Eman; Madanat, Amal; Al-Greesheh, Fahad; Al-Qaisi, Dalal; Al-Harbi, Mohammad; Aman, Reem; Al-Ghamdi, Abdul Aziz; Al-Madani, Khaled
Sudomotor dysfunction is manifested clinically as abnormal sweating leading to dryness of feet skin and increased risk of foot ulceration. The aim of this study was to test the performance of foot electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy and the risk of foot ulceration against traditional methods in Saudi patients with diabetes mellitus. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 296 Saudi patients with diabetes mellitus. Painful neuropathic symptoms were evaluated using the neuropathy symptom score (NSS). The risk of foot ulceration and diabetic peripheral neuropathy were determined using the neuropathy disability score (NDS). Vibration perception threshold (VPT) was assessed using neurothesiometer. Neurophysiological assessment of the right and left sural, peroneal and tibial nerves was performed in 222 participants. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was defined according to the definition of the American Academy of Neurology. ESC was measured with Sudoscan. Feet-ESC decreased as the scores of sensory and motor function tests increased. Feet-ESC decreased as the NSS, NDS and severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy increased. Sensitivity of feet-ESC < 50μS to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy assessed by VPT ≥ 25 V, NDS ≥ 3, NDS ≥ 6 was 90.1, 61 and 63.8 % respectively and specificity 77, 85 and 81.9 % respectively. Sensitivity of feet-ESC < 70μS to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy assessed by VPT ≥ 25 V, NDS ≥ 3, NDS ≥ 6 was 100, 80.6 and 80.9 % respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of feet-ESC < 70μS to detect confirmed-diabetic peripheral neuropathy were 67.5 and 58.9 % respectively. Sudoscan a simple and objective tool can be used to detect diabetic peripheral neuropathy and the risk of foot ulceration among patients with diabetes mellitus. Prospective studies to confirm our results are warranted.
Yoon, Jeungwon; Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Kwon, Ki-Rok; Shin, Ji-Eun; Sagar, Stephen; Wong, Raimond; Yoo, Hwa-Seung
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is sensory and motor nerve damage to the peripheral nervous system caused by chemotherapeutic agents. It often causes pain and other varying degrees of neuropathic symptoms accompanied by functional limitations and reduced quality of life. Currently, there is no standard treatment protocol for the treatment of CIPN. In need of more research to develop new therapeutic options focusing on their safety, efficacy, and long-term sustained clinical effects, a pilot study of sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture (SBVP) for CIPN was conducted to build up preliminary efficacy data in the process of preparing for a future larger scale randomized controlled SBVP trial for CIPN. We conducted a prospective case series by analyzing the clinical observations made of CIPN patients treated with SBVP. A total of 11 eligible consecutive CIPN patients who visited East-West Cancer Center from June 1, 2010, to February 28, 2011, were treated with total of six SBVP treatments given within the 3-week period. The outcomes were measured using World Health Organization Common Toxicity Criteria for Peripheral neuropathy (WHO grading system), Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (PNQ), Visual Analogue System (VAS), and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) collected at the baseline, post-second, fourth, and the final treatment. Patients were followed 3 weeks into no intervention to determine the sustained effects of pharmacopuncture. Both of the WHO CIPN grade and PNQ scores have shown a decrease in the level of neuropathy. VAS pain level has also shown a great decrease and improvement in patients' quality of life have also been detected though modest. Changes in WHO grade, VAS and Total HRQOL scores between the baseline and after the last treatment session were significant. Changes in WHO grade, Total PNQ, PNQ-sensory, VAS, Total HRQOL, and HRQOL-functional scores between the baseline and the 3-week follow-up were significant. The positive result
Chang, C M; Yu, C W; Fong, K Y; Leung, S Y; Tsin, T W; Yu, Y L; Cheung, T F; Chan, S Y
In an offset printing factory with 56 workers, 20 (36%) developed symptomatic peripheral neuropathy due to exposure to n-hexane. Another 26 workers (46%) were found to have subclinical neuropathy. The initial change in the nerve conduction study was reduced amplitude of the sensory action potentials, followed by reduced amplitude of the motor action potentials, reduction in motor conduction velocities and increase in distal latencies. These changes indicate primary axonal degeneration with secondary demyelination. Sural nerve biopsy in a severe case showed giant axonal swellings due to accumulation of 10nm neurofilaments, myelin sheath attenuation and widening of nodal gaps. The development of neuropathy bore no direct relationship to the duration of exposure, hence factors such as individual susceptibility may be important. Optic neuropathy and CNS involvement were uncommon and autonomic neuropathy was not encountered. Images PMID:8505647
Aubuchon, Adam; Arnold, W David; Bracewell, Anna; Hoyle, J Chad
Sciatic neuropathy after popliteal nerve block (PNB) for regional anesthesia is considered uncommon but has been increasingly recognized in the literature. We identified a case of sciatic neuropathy that occurred after bunionectomy during which a PNB had been performed. To understand the frequency of PNB-related sciatic neuropathy, we performed a retrospective review of sciatic neuropathies at our center over a 5-year period. Forty-five cases of sciatic neuropathy were reviewed. Similar to earlier reports, common etiologies of sciatic neuropathy, including compression, trauma, fractures, and hip arthroplasty, were noted in the majority of our cases (60%, n = 27). Unexpectedly, PNB was the third most common etiology (16%, n = 7). Our results suggest PNB is a relatively common etiology of sciatic neuropathy and is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis. These findings should urge electromyographers to assess history of PNB in sciatic neuropathies, particularly with onset after surgery. Muscle Nerve 56: 822-824, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chong, M Sam; Bajwa, Zahid H
Currently, no consensus on the optimal management of neuropathic pain exists and practices vary greatly worldwide. Possible explanations for this include difficulties in developing agreed diagnostic protocols and the coexistence of neuropathic, nociceptive and, occasionally, idiopathic pain in the same patient. Also, neuropathic pain has historically been classified according to its etiology (e.g., painful diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, spinal cord injury) without regard for the presumed mechanism(s) underlying the specific symptoms. A combined etiologic/mechanistic classification might improve neuropathic pain management. The treatment of neuropathic pain is largely empirical, often relying heavily on data from small, generally poorly-designed clinical trials or anecdotal evidence. Consequently, diverse treatments are used, including non-invasive drug therapies (antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs and membrane stabilizing drugs), invasive therapies (nerve blocks, ablative surgery), and alternative therapies (e.g., acupuncture). This article reviews the current and historical practices in the diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic pain, and focuses on the USA, Europe and Japan.
Munawar, Neha; Oriowo, Mabayoje A; Masocha, Willias
Background: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the cornerstone of the antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, their use is sometimes limited by the development of a painful sensory neuropathy, which does not respond well to drugs. Smoked cannabis has been reported in clinical trials to have efficacy in relieving painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the expression of endocannabinoid system molecules is altered during NRTI-induced painful neuropathy, and also whether endocannabinoids can attenuate NRTI-induced painful neuropathy. Methods: BALB/c mice were treated with 25 mg/kg of 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC, zalcitabine), a NRTI, to induce thermal hyperalgesia. The expression of endocannabinoid system molecules was evaluated by real time polymerase chain reaction in the brain, spinal cord and paw skin at 6 days post ddC administration, a time point when mice had developed thermal hyperalgesia. The effects of the endocannabinoids, N -arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist AM 251, CB2 receptor antagonist AM 630, and G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) antagonists ML193 and CID 16020046 on ddC-induced thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated using the hot plate test. Results: ddC treatment resulted in thermal hyperalgesia and increased transcripts of the synthesizing enzyme Plcβ1 and decreased Daglβ in the paw skins, but not Napepld , and Daglα compared to vehicle treatment. Transcripts of the inactivating enzymes Faah and Mgll were downregulated in the brain and/or paw skin but not in the spinal cord of ddC-treated mice. Both AEA and 2-AG had antihyperalgesic effects in mice with ddC-induced thermal hyperalgesia, but had no effect in ddC-naïve mice. The antihyperalgesic activity of AEA was antagonized by AM251 and AM630, whereas the
Tramontozzi, Louis A.
Abstract Background: Delay in recognition and treatment of inflammatory neuropathies increases morbidity and mortality. We have developed and standardized 3 clinical screening criteria that rapidly detect inflammatory neuropathies. Methods: We reviewed all patients with definite large fiber neuropathy in 2 different patient populations: 1 from a private neurology clinic and the other from a tertiary care center. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with an inflammatory neuropathy and those with a noninflammatory neuropathy. We specifically noted the 3 key neuropathy characteristics: onset, distribution, and associated systemic features (ODS). We studied the sensitivity and specificity of ODS in differentiating between inflammatory and noninflammatory neuropathies. Results: A total of 206 patients were included: 51 from the private clinic and 155 from the tertiary care center. The sensitivity of using ODS in detecting an inflammatory neuropathy was 96% and the specificity was 85%. The positive predictive value of ODS was 0.8 and negative predictive value was 0.97. Conclusions: Rapid screening for inflammatory neuropathies by ODS clinical criteria is highly sensitive and has a high negative predictive value for noninflammatory neuropathies. ODS uses simple clinical criteria to rapidly screen for patients with a potentially treatable form of neuropathy and accelerate their diagnostic evaluation. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that 3 neuropathy characteristics—onset, distribution, and associated systemic features—accurately identify patients with inflammatory neuropathies. PMID:29443273
Tawfik, Mona K; Helmy, Seham A; Badran, Dahlia I; Zaitone, Sawsan A
Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is one of the most frequent complications of diabetes and the current therapies have limited efficacy. This study aimed to study the neuroprotective effect of duloxetine, a serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy. Nine weeks after developing of PDN, mice were treated with either saline or duloxetine (15 or 30 mg/kg) for four weeks. The effect of duloxetine was assessed in terms of pain responses, histopathology of sciatic nerve and spinal cord, sciatic nerve growth factor (NGF) gene expression and on the spinal expression of astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP) and microglia (CD 11 b). The present results highlighted that duloxetine (30 mg/kg) increased the withdrawal threshold in von-Frey test. In addition, both doses of duloxetine prolonged the licking time and latency to jump in the hot-plate test. Moreover, duloxetine administration downregulated the spinal expression of both CD 11 b and GFAP associated with enhancement in sciatic mRNA expression of NGF. The current results highlighted that duloxetine provided peripheral and central neuroprotective effects in neuropathic pain is, at least in part, related to its downregulation in spinal astrocytes and microglia. Further, this neuroprotective effect was accompanied by upregulation of sciatic expression of NGF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cao, Xue-Hong; Byun, Hee-Sun; Chen, Shao-Rui; Cai, You-Qing; Pan, Hui-Lin
Abnormal hyperexcitability of primary sensory neurons plays an important role in neuropathic pain. Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels regulate neuronal excitability by affecting the resting membrane potential and influencing the repolarization and frequency of the action potential. In this study, we determined changes in Kv channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a rat model of diabetic neuropathic pain. The densities of total Kv, A-type (IA) and sustained delayed (IK) currents were markedly reduced in medium- and large-, but not in small-, diameter DRG neurons in diabetic rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of IA subunits, including Kv1.4, Kv3.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3, in the DRG were reduced approximately 50% in diabetic rats compared with those in control rats. However, there were no significant differences in the mRNA levels of IK subunits (Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv2.1, and Kv2.2) in the DRG between the two groups. Incubation with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) caused a large reduction in Kv currents, especially IA currents, in medium and large DRG neurons from control rats. Furthermore, the reductions in Kv currents and mRNA levels of IA subunits in diabetic rats were normalized by pre-treatment with anti-BDNF antibody or K252a, a TrkB tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In addition, the number of medium and large DRG neurons with BDNF immunoreactivity was greater in diabetic than control rats. Collectively, our findings suggest that diabetes primarily reduces Kv channel activity in medium and large DRG neurons. Increased BDNF activity in these neurons likely contributes to the reduction in Kv channel function through TrkB receptor stimulation in painful diabetic neuropathy.
Joshi, Rayanta P; Negi, Geeta; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pawar, Yogesh B; Munjal, Bhushan; Bansal, Arvind K; Sharma, Shyam S
Curcumin has shown to be effective against various diabetes related complications. However major limitation with curcumin is its low bioavailability. In this study we formulated and characterized self nano emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) curcumin formulation to enhance its bioavailability and then evaluated its efficacy in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Bioavailability studies were performed in male Sprague Dawley rats. Further to evaluate the efficacy of formulation in diabetic neuropathy various parameters like nerve function and sensorimotor perception were assessed along with study of inflammatory proteins (NF-κB, IKK-β, COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6). Nanotechnology based formulation resulted in prolonged plasma exposure and bioavailability. SNEDDS curcumin provided better results against functional, behavioural and biochemical deficits in experimental diabetic neuropathy, when compared with naive curcumin. Further western blot analysis confirmed the greater neuroprotective action of SNEDDS curcumin. SNEDDS curcumin formulation due to higher bioavailability was found to afford enhanced protection in diabetic neuropathy. In this study the authors formulated and characterized a self-emulsifying drug delivery system for formulation to enhance curcumin bioavailability in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Enhanced efficacy was demonstrated in a rat model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koulouris, Andreas I; Banim, Paul; Hart, Andrew R
Pain affects approximately 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer, with half requiring strong opioid analgesia, namely: morphine-based drugs on step three of the WHO analgesic ladder (as opposed to the weak opioids: codeine and tramadol). The presence of pain is associated with reduced survival. This article reviews the literature regarding pain: prevalence, mechanisms, pharmacological, and endoscopic treatments and identifies areas for research to develop individualized patient pain management pathways. The online literature review was conducted through: PubMed, Clinical Key, Uptodate, and NICE Evidence. There are two principal mechanisms for pain: pancreatic duct obstruction and pancreatic neuropathy which, respectively, activate mechanical and chemical nociceptors. In pancreatic neuropathy, several histological, molecular, and immunological changes occur which correlate with pain including: transient receptor potential cation channel activation and mast cell infiltration. Current pain management is empirical rather etiology-based and is informed by the WHO analgesic ladder for first-line therapies, and then endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) in patients with resistant pain. For EUS-CPN, there is only one clinical trial reporting a benefit, which has limited generalizability. Case series report pancreatic duct stenting gives effective analgesia, but there are no clinical trials. Progress in understanding the mechanisms for pain and when this occurs in the natural history, together with assessing new therapies both pharmacological and endoscopic, will enable individualized care and may improve patients' quality of life and survival.
Ye, Xin; Han, Wen-Juan; Wang, Wen-Ting; Luo, Ceng; Hu, San-Jue
Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and adversely affects the patients’ quality of life. Evidence has accumulated that PDN is associated with hyperexcitability of peripheral nociceptive primary sensory neurons. However, the precise cellular mechanism underlying PDN remains elusive. This may result in the lacking of effective therapies for the treatment of PDN. The phenolic glucoside, gastrodin, which is a main constituent of the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has been widely used as an anticonvulsant, sedative, and analgesic since ancient times. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying its analgesic actions are not well understood. By utilizing a combination of behavioral surveys and electrophysiological recordings, the present study investigated the role of gastrodin in an experimental rat model of STZ-induced PDN and to further explore the underlying cellular mechanisms. Intraperitoneal administration of gastrodin effectively attenuated both the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by STZ injection. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from nociceptive, capsaicin-sensitive small diameter neurons of the intact dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Recordings from diabetic rats revealed that the abnormal hyperexcitability of neurons was greatly abolished by application of GAS. To determine which currents were involved in the antinociceptive action of gastrodin, we examined the effects of gastrodin on transient sodium currents (I NaT) and potassium currents in diabetic small DRG neurons. Diabetes caused a prominent enhancement of I NaT and a decrease of potassium currents, especially slowly inactivating potassium currents (I AS); these effects were completely reversed by GAS in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, changes in activation and inactivation kinetics of I NaT and total potassium current as well as I AS currents induced by STZ were normalized by GAS. This study provides a
Averochkin, A I; Shtul'man, D R
Analysis is made of 261 patients operated on for tunnel neuropathies. Of these, there were 152 men and 109 women aged 15 to 82 years, the mean age being 46 years. Among 22 patterns of neuropathy, there dominated compression of the ulnar nerve in the cubital canal (104 patients) and compression of the median nerve in the carpal canal (76 patients) accounting for 69% of all the cases. 76 patients had two and more tunnel syndromes; double operative interventions were made in 23 patients. 58 patients (22.2%) recovered, 163 (62.75%) improved, no changes were recorded in 40 (15.3%) patients. There were no deteriorations.
Athie, Maria Carolina Pedro; Vieira, Andre Schwambach; Teixeira, Juliana Maia; Dos Santos, Gilson Gonçalves; Dias, Elayne Vieira; Tambeli, Claudia Herrera; Sartori, Cesar Renato; Parada, Carlos A
Peripheral diabetic neuropathy (DN) manifests in nearly 60% of diabetic patients, being pain its most debilitating symptom. Although electrophysiological and morphological aspects are well described, little is known about its development and progression, undermining effective therapies. Hyperglycemia and insulin signaling impairment are considered the triggering events of oxidative stress observed in the dying nerves, however there are still many gaps in the knowledge of intracellular plastic changes it generates. In this study we aimed to evaluate the early transcriptome changes in DN when the first symptoms of the disease start to appear. Next-Generation Sequencing of messenger RNA (RNA-Seq) of L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) four weeks post-diabetes induction in a rat model for type 1 diabetes. RNA sequencing found 66 transcripts differentially expressed between diabetic and control groups, related mainly to the following biological processes: inflammation, hyperalgesia/analgesia, cell growth and cell survival. Given their roles, the differentially expressed genes suggest an attempt to switch to a survival/regenerative program. Our results show that changes in the transcriptome profile start to appear early in the course of DN and might be related to secure cell homeostasis. Hence, the present data may indicate how DRG cells are responding to hyperglycemia in its early stages and which mechanisms first fail to respond, further leading to cell damage and cell death. Early screening of cell alterations in DN might lead to more concrete targets for pharmaceutical interventions, which could more efficiently delay cell damage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Evans, Scott R.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Chen, Huichao; Yeh, Tzu-min; Lee, Anthony J.; Schifitto, Giovanni; Wu, Kunling; Bosch, Ronald J.; McArthur, Justin C.; Simpson, David M.; Clifford, David B.
Objectives To estimate neuropathic sign/symptom rates with initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected ART-naive patients, and to investigate risk factors for: peripheral neuropathy and symptomatic peripheral neuropathy (SPN), recovery from peripheral neuropathy/SPN after neurotoxic ART (nART) discontinuation, and the absence of peripheral neuropathy/SPN while on nART. Design AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trial participants who initiated cART in randomized trials for ART-naive patients were annually screened for symptoms/signs of peripheral neuropathy. ART use and disease characteristics were collected longitudinally. Methods Peripheral neuropathy was defined as at least mild loss of vibration sensation in both great toes or absent/hypoactive ankle reflexes bilaterally. SPN was defined as peripheral neuropathy and bilateral symptoms. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate associations. Results Two thousand, one hundred and forty-one participants were followed from January 2000 to June 2007. Rates of peripheral neuropathy/SPN at 3 years were 32.1/8.6% despite 87.1% with HIV-1RNA 400 copies/ml or less and 70.3% with CD4 greater than 350 cells/µl. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy included older patient age and current nART use. Associations with higher odds of SPN included older patient age, nART use, and history of diabetes mellitus. Associations with lower odds of recovery after nART discontinuation included older patient age. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy while on nART included older patient age and current protease inhibitor use. Associations with higher odds of SPN while on nART included older patient age, history of diabetes, taller height, and protease inhibitor use. Conclusion Signs of peripheral neuropathy remain despite virologic/immunologic control but frequently occurs without symptoms. Aging is a risk factor for
Hallett, M; Tandon, D; Berardelli, A
There are three general approaches to treatment of peripheral neuropathy. First, an attempt should be made to reverse the pathophysiological process if its nature can be elucidated. Second, nerve metabolism can be stimulated and regeneration encouraged. Third, even if the neuropathy itself cannot be improved, symptomatic therapy can be employed. This review outlines the options available for each approach. PMID:3003254
Dogiparthi, S N; Muralidhar, K; Seshadri, K G; Rangarajan, S
There is a rise in number of people diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus. The incidence is rising in modern Indian society because of Industrial development and drastically changing lifestyles. Diabetic neuropathies are microvascular disorders that are usually associated with the duration of Diabetes. Among the various forms, the most common is Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy. The disease if neglected leads to chronic ulcer formation leading to amputations frequently. Hence the aim of this study is to document the early cutaneous changes and create an early awareness in the importance of controlling Diabetes. The study consisted of 205 patients with Type 2 DM. Participant's neuropathy status was determined based on Neuropathy Disability Score and Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom Score. Among the Skin changes documented, the common changes seen were: Peripheral hair loss in 185 (90.2%), Xerosis in 168 (82%), Anhydrosis in 162 (79%), Plantar Fissures in 136 (66.3%), Plantar Ulcer in 80 (39%), common nail changes documented were Onychomycosis in 165 (80.5%) and Onychauxis in 53 (25.8%) patients in relation to the occupation and duration of Diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, it is important to control glycemic levels in the all stages of Diabetes and institute foot care measures to prevent the complications of neuropathy.
Paisley, Peter; Serpell, Mick
Jont pain in oldder people The prevalence of chronic pain in older people in the community ranges from 25 to 76% and for those in residential care, it is even higher at 83 to 93%. The most common sites affected are the back, hip, or knee, and other joints. There is increased reporting of pain in women (79%) compared with men (53%). Common conditions include osteoarthritis and, to a lesser extent, the inflammatory arthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis. The differential diagnosis includes non-articular pain such as vascular limb pain and nocturnal cramp, some neuropathic pain conditions (such as compressive neuropathies and postherpetic neuralgia), soft tissue disorders such as fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes. In addition to an assessment of pain intensity, a biopsychosocial model should be adopted to ascertain the effect of the pain on the patient's degree of background pain at rest. The disease is often localised to the large load-bearing joints, predominantly the hips and knees. In contrast to osteoarthritis, the inflammatory arthritides typically present with symmetrical swollen, stiff, and painful small joints of the hands and feet, usually worse in the morning.
Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Li, Xinxue; Yang, Guoyan; Liu, Jian Ping
Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy.This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in the year 2011. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. On 14 May 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), AMED (January 1985 to May 2012) and in October 2012, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to October 2012), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to October 2012), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to October 2012). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database, and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to October 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Forty-nine randomised trials involving 3639 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty-eight different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 26 self concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve conduction
Kaufman, Aaron R; Myers, Eileen M; Moster, Mark L; Stanley, Jordan; Kline, Lanning B; Golnik, Karl C
Herpes zoster optic neuropathy (HZON) is a rare manifestation of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). The aim of our study was to better characterize the clinical features, therapeutic choices, and visual outcomes in HZON. A retrospective chart review was performed at multiple academic eye centers with the inclusion criteria of all eyes presenting with optic neuropathy within 1 month of cutaneous zoster of the ipsilateral trigeminal dermatome. Data were collected regarding presenting features, treatment regimen, and visual acuity outcomes. Six patients meeting the HZON inclusion criteria were identified. Mean follow-up was 2.75 months (range 0.5-4 months). Herpes zoster optic neuropathy developed at a mean of 14.1 days after initial rash (range 6-30 days). Optic neuropathy was anterior in 2 eyes and retrobulbar in 4 eyes. Other manifestations of HZO included keratoconjunctivitis (3 eyes) and iritis (4 eyes). All patients were treated with systemic antiviral therapy in addition to topical and/or systemic corticosteroids. At the last follow-up, visual acuity in 3 eyes had improved relative to presentation, 2 eyes had worsened, and 1 eye remained the same. The 2 eyes that did not receive systemic corticosteroids had the best observed final visual acuity. Herpes zoster optic neuropathy is an unusual but distinctive complication of HZO. Visual recovery after HZON is variable. Identification of an optimal treatment regiment for HZON could not be identified from our patient cohort. Systemic antiviral agents are a component of HZON treatment regimens. Efficacy of systemic corticosteroids for HZON remains unclear and should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
Vasculitis can affect the peripheral nervous system alone (nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy) or can be a part of primary or secondary systemic vasculitis. In cases of pre-existing systemic vasculitis, the diagnosis can easily be made, whereas suspected vasculitic neuropathy as initial or only manifestation of vasculitis requires careful clinical, neurophysiological, laboratory and histopathological workout. The typical clinical syndrome is mononeuropathia multiplex or asymmetric neuropathy, but distal-symmetric neuropathy can frequently be seen. Standard treatments include steroids, azathioprine, methotrexate and cyclophosphamide. More recently the B-cell antibody rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulins have shown to be effective in some vasculitic neuropathy types. PMID:25829955
Jayaraman, Manju; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar; Ravi, Priya; Sen, Parveen
Purpose: To investigate the effect of optic neuritis (ON), ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) and compressive optic neuropathy (CON) on multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) amplitudes and latencies, and to compare the parameters among three optic nerve disorders. Materials and Methods: mfVEP was recorded for 71 eyes of controls and 48 eyes of optic nerve disorders with subgroups of optic neuritis (ON, n = 21 eyes), ischemic optic neuropathy (ION, n = 14 eyes), and compressive optic neuropathy (CON, n = 13 eyes). The size of defect in mfVEP amplitude probability plots and relative latency plots were analyzed. The pattern of the defect in amplitude probability plot was classified according to the visual field profile of optic neuritis treatment trail (ONTT). Results: Median of mfVEP amplitude (log SNR) averaged across 60 sectors were reduced in ON (0.17 (0.13-0.33)), ION (0.14 (0.12-0.21)) and CON (0.21 (0.14-0.30)) when compared to controls. The median mfVEP relative latencies compared to controls were significantly prolonged in ON and CON group of 10.53 (2.62-15.50) ms and 5.73 (2.67-14.14) ms respectively compared to ION group (2.06 (-4.09-13.02)). The common mfVEP amplitude defects observed in probability plots were diffuse pattern in ON, inferior altitudinal defect in ION and temporal hemianopia in CON eyes. Conclusions: Optic nerve disorders cause reduction in mfVEP amplitudes. The extent of delayed latency noted in ischemic optic neuropathy was significantly lesser compared to subjects with optic neuritis and compressive optic neuropathy. mfVEP amplitudes can be used to objectively assess the topography of the visual field defect. PMID:24088641
Paik, Julie J; Mammen, Andrew L; Wigley, Fredrick M; Shah, Ami A; Hummers, Laura K; Polydefkis, Michael
To determine the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in scleroderma. The prevalence of length-dependent peripheral neuropathy was rigorously assessed using signs and symptoms of neuropathy derived from the Total Neuropathy Score (TNS), and standardized nerve conduction study (NCS). All subjects underwent TNS and NCS. Those who were symptomatic or had NCS evidence of peripheral neuropathy underwent laboratory evaluation for secondary causes of neuropathy. A total of 130 subjects were approached for participation and 60 enrolled. Of the 60 subjects, 50 (83.3%) were female and 37 (61.7%) were of the limited cutaneous subtype. The mean ± SD age was 55 ± 11.1 years, and mean ± SD disease duration was 15.3 ± 10.1 years. A total of 17 of 60 (28%) had evidence of a peripheral neuropathy as defined by the presence of neuropathic symptoms on the TNS (12 of 60) and/or electrophysiologic evidence of neuropathy (5 subjects with neuropathic symptoms and 5 without neuropathic symptoms). Subjects with neuropathy were more likely to be male (60% versus 40%; P = 0.02), African American (41% versus 4.6%; P = 0.001), have diabetes mellitus (17.7% versus 0%; P = 0.02), have limited cutaneous scleroderma (82.3% versus 53.5%; P = 0.04), and have anti-U1 RNP antibodies (23.5% versus 0%; P = 0.009) than those without neuropathy. A potential nonscleroderma etiology for the peripheral neuropathy such as diabetes mellitus was found in 82.3% (14 of 17) of subjects with neuropathy. While symptoms or objective evidence of peripheral neuropathy are common among patients with scleroderma, the cause may often be attributed to comorbid nonscleroderma-related conditions. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Hall, D M; Ramsey, J; Schwartz, M S; Dookun, D
A 4 year old boy developed a profound motor neuropathy after repeated deliberate inhalation of petroleum vapour. The condition was characterised by extreme slowing of the nerve conduction velocity. He made a gradual recovery over six months. The neuropathy was attributed to the N-hexane component of petroleum.
Rojewska, Ewelina; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna
Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of the kynurenine pathway in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, but the role of this system in neuropathic pain requires further extensive research. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the role of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (Kmo), an enzyme that is important in this pathway, in a rat model of neuropathy after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. For the first time, we demonstrated that the injury-induced increase in the Kmo mRNA levels in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was reduced by chronic administration of the microglial inhibitor minocycline and that this effect paralleled a decrease in the intensity of neuropathy. Further, minocycline administration alleviated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of Kmo mRNA expression in microglial cell cultures. Moreover, we demonstrated that not only indirect inhibition of Kmo using minocycline but also direct inhibition using Kmo inhibitors (Ro61-6048 and JM6) decreased neuropathic pain intensity on the third and the seventh days after CCI. Chronic Ro61-6048 administration diminished the protein levels of IBA-1, IL-6, IL-1beta and NOS2 in the spinal cord and/or the DRG. Both Kmo inhibitors potentiated the analgesic properties of morphine. In summary, our data suggest that in neuropathic pain model, inhibiting Kmo function significantly reduces pain symptoms and enhances the effectiveness of morphine. The results of our studies show that the kynurenine pathway is an important mediator of neuropathic pain pathology and indicate that Kmo represents a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Starobova, Hana; Vetter, Irina
Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a common, dose-dependent adverse effect of several antineoplastics. It can lead to detrimental dose reductions and discontinuation of treatment, and severely affects the quality of life of cancer survivors. Clinically, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy presents as deficits in sensory, motor, and autonomic function which develop in a glove and stocking distribution due to preferential effects on longer axons. The pathophysiological processes are multi-factorial and involve oxidative stress, apoptotic mechanisms, altered calcium homeostasis, axon degeneration and membrane remodeling as well as immune processes and neuroinflammation. This review focusses on the commonly used antineoplastic substances oxaliplatin, cisplatin, vincristine, docetaxel, and paclitaxel which interfere with the cancer cell cycle—leading to cell death and tumor degradation—and cause severe acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies. We discuss drug mechanism of action and pharmacokinetic disposition relevant to the development of peripheral neuropathy, the epidemiology and clinical presentation of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, emerging insight into genetic susceptibilities as well as current understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment approaches. PMID:28620280
... by nerve abnormalities in the legs and feet (peripheral neuropathy). Many people with this condition experience prickling or ... Research Network: Inherited Neuropathies Consortium The Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy: Symptoms General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic ...
Acetyl-L-Carnitine Hydrochloride in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy
Fatigue; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Pain; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma
Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Wang, Jian; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Chaftari, Patrick; Yu, Robert K; Hanna, Ehab Y; Shete, Sanjay
Neuropathic pain (NP), defined as pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system, is a debilitating chronic pain condition often resulting from cancer treatment. Among cancer patients, neuropathy during cancer treatment is a predisposing event for NP. To identify genetic variants influencing the development of NP, we conducted a genome-wide association study in 1,043 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, based on 714,494 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (130 cases, 913 controls). About 12.5% of the patients, who previously had cancer treatment, had neuropathy-associated diagnoses, as defined using the ICD-9/ICD-10 codes. We identified four common SNPs representing four genomic regions: 7q22.3 (rs10950641; SNX8; P = 3.39 × 10 -14 ), 19p13.2 (rs4804217; PCP2; P = 2.95 × 10 -9 ), 3q27.3 (rs6796803; KNG1; P = 6.42 × 10 -9 ) and 15q22.2 (rs4775319; RORA; P = 1.02 × 10 -8 ), suggesting SNX8, PCP2, KNG1 and RORA might be novel target genes for NP in patients with head and neck cancer. Future experimental validation to explore physiological effects of the identified SNPs will provide a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying NP and may provide insights into novel therapeutic targets for treatment and management of NP.
Mazunin, I O; Volodko, N V
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is characterized by bilateral, painless loss of vision in children and young adults (generally up to 25 years old). Since its first description in 1871, the understanding of its etiology and pathogenesis has improved considerably. The article considers Leber neuropathy from the points of view of ophthalmology, neurology and molecular genetics, and presents data on experimental treatment methods, one of which is undergoing clinical trial.
Bikbova, Guzel; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Baba, Takayuki; Bikbov, Mukharram; Yamamoto, Shuichi
Diabetic keratopathy is characterized by impaired innervation of the cornea that leads to decreased sensitivity, with resultant difficulties with epithelial wound healing. These difficulties in wound healing put patients at risk for ocular complications such as surface irregularities, corneal infections, and stromal opacification. Pathological changes in corneal innervations in diabetic patients are an important early indicator of diabetic neuropathy. The decrease in corneal sensitivity is strongly correlated with the duration of diabetes as well as the severity of the neuropathy. This review presents recent findings in assessing the ocular surface as well as the recent therapeutic strategies for optimal management of individuals with diabetes who are susceptible to developing diabetic neuropathy.
Hall, D M; Ramsey, J; Schwartz, M S; Dookun, D
A 4 year old boy developed a profound motor neuropathy after repeated deliberate inhalation of petroleum vapour. The condition was characterised by extreme slowing of the nerve conduction velocity. He made a gradual recovery over six months. The neuropathy was attributed to the N-hexane component of petroleum. PMID:3021070
Munawar, Neha; Oriowo, Mabayoje A.; Masocha, Willias
Background: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the cornerstone of the antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, their use is sometimes limited by the development of a painful sensory neuropathy, which does not respond well to drugs. Smoked cannabis has been reported in clinical trials to have efficacy in relieving painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the expression of endocannabinoid system molecules is altered during NRTI-induced painful neuropathy, and also whether endocannabinoids can attenuate NRTI-induced painful neuropathy. Methods: BALB/c mice were treated with 25 mg/kg of 2′,3′-dideoxycytidine (ddC, zalcitabine), a NRTI, to induce thermal hyperalgesia. The expression of endocannabinoid system molecules was evaluated by real time polymerase chain reaction in the brain, spinal cord and paw skin at 6 days post ddC administration, a time point when mice had developed thermal hyperalgesia. The effects of the endocannabinoids, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist AM 251, CB2 receptor antagonist AM 630, and G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) antagonists ML193 and CID 16020046 on ddC-induced thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated using the hot plate test. Results: ddC treatment resulted in thermal hyperalgesia and increased transcripts of the synthesizing enzyme Plcβ1 and decreased Daglβ in the paw skins, but not Napepld, and Daglα compared to vehicle treatment. Transcripts of the inactivating enzymes Faah and Mgll were downregulated in the brain and/or paw skin but not in the spinal cord of ddC-treated mice. Both AEA and 2-AG had antihyperalgesic effects in mice with ddC-induced thermal hyperalgesia, but had no effect in ddC-naïve mice. The antihyperalgesic activity of AEA was antagonized by AM251 and AM630, whereas the
Bansagi, Boglarka; Griffin, Helen; Whittaker, Roger G.; Antoniadi, Thalia; Evangelista, Teresinha; Miller, James; Greenslade, Mark; Forester, Natalie; Duff, Jennifer; Bradshaw, Anna; Kleinle, Stephanie; Boczonadi, Veronika; Steele, Hannah; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Franko, Edit; Pyle, Angela; Lochmüller, Hanns; Chinnery, Patrick F.
Objective: To study the prevalence, molecular cause, and clinical presentation of hereditary motor neuropathies in a large cohort of patients from the North of England. Methods: Detailed neurologic and electrophysiologic assessments and next-generation panel testing or whole exome sequencing were performed in 105 patients with clinical symptoms of distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN, 64 patients), axonal motor neuropathy (motor Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT2], 16 patients), or complex neurologic disease predominantly affecting the motor nerves (hereditary motor neuropathy plus, 25 patients). Results: The prevalence of dHMN is 2.14 affected individuals per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval 1.62–2.66) in the North of England. Causative mutations were identified in 26 out of 73 index patients (35.6%). The diagnostic rate in the dHMN subgroup was 32.5%, which is higher than previously reported (20%). We detected a significant defect of neuromuscular transmission in 7 cases and identified potentially causative mutations in 4 patients with multifocal demyelinating motor neuropathy. Conclusions: Many of the genes were shared between dHMN and motor CMT2, indicating identical disease mechanisms; therefore, we suggest changing the classification and including dHMN also as a subcategory of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Abnormal neuromuscular transmission in some genetic forms provides a treatable target to develop therapies. PMID:28251916
van Sloten, Thomas T; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Duimel-Peeters, Inge G P; Meijer, Kenneth; Henry, Ronald M A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Schaper, Nicolaas C
We evaluated the associations of diabetic complications and underlying pathology with daily walking activity in type 2 diabetic patients without manifest mobility limitations. 100 persons with type 2 diabetes (mean age 64.5 ± 9.4 years) were studied. Persons with manifest mobility limitations were excluded. Possible determinants measured: peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain, peripheral arterial disease, cardiovascular disease, decreased muscle strength (handgrip strength), BMI, depression, falls and fear of falling. Walking activity was measured during one week with a pedometer. Functional capacity was measured with the 6 min walk test, the timed "up and go" test and a stair climbing test. prevalence of neuropathy (40%) and obesity (53%) was high. Persons took a median of 6429 steps/day. In multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex, neuropathy was associated with a reduction of 1967 steps/day, decreased muscle strength with 1782 steps/day, and an increase in BMI of 1 kg/m(2) with a decrease of 210 steps/day (all p<0.05). Decreased muscle strength and BMI, but not neuropathy, were associated with outcome of functional capacity tests in multiple regression analysis. peripheral neuropathy, decreased muscle strength and obesity are strongly associated with walking in persons with type 2 diabetes without manifest mobility limitations. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leo, Sandra; Moechars, Dieder; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; D'Hooge, Rudi; Meert, Theo
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system with an important role in nociceptive processing. Storage of glutamate into vesicles is controlled by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT). Null mutants for VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 were poorly viable, thus, pain-related behavior was presently compared between heterozygote VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 mice and their respective wild-type littermates using a test battery that included a variety of assays for thermal and mechanical acute nociception, and inflammatory and neuropathic pain syndromes. Behavioral analysis of VGLUT1 mutant mice did not show important behavioral changes in the pain conditions tested. Reduction of VGLUT2 also resulted in unaltered acute nociceptive and inflammatory-induced pain behavior. Interestingly, VGLUT2 heterozygote mice showed an attenuation or absence of some typical neuropathic pain features (e.g., absence of mechanical and cold allodynia after spared nerve injury). Chronic constriction injury in VGLUT2 heterozygote mice showed also reduced levels of cold allodynia, but had no impact on mechanical thresholds. Together, these data suggest that VGLUT2, but not VGLUT1, plays a role in neuropathy-induced allodynia and hypersensitivity, and might be a therapeutic target to prevent and/or treat neuropathic pain.
Zhou, Muke; Chen, Ning; He, Li; Yang, Mi; Zhu, Cairong; Wu, Fengbo
Several anticonvulsant drugs are used in the management of neuropathic pain. Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant drug closely related to carbamazepine. Oxcarbazepine has been reported to be efficacious in the treatment of neuropathic pain, but evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is conflicting. Oxcarbazepine is reportedly better tolerated than carbamazepine. This is the first update of a review published in 2013. To assess the benefits and harms of oxcarbazepine for different types of neuropathic pain. On 21 November 2016, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase. We searched the Chinese Biomedical Retrieval System (January 1978 to November 2016). We searched the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) databases and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials in January 2017, and we wrote to the companies who make oxcarbazepine and to pain experts requesting additional information. All RCTs and randomised cross-over studies of oxcarbazepine for the treatment of people of any age or sex with any neuropathic pain were eligible. We planned to include trials of oxcarbazepine compared with placebo or any other intervention with a treatment duration of at least six weeks, regardless of administration route and dose. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Five multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials with a total of 862 participants were eligible for inclusion in this updated review. Three trials involved participants with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) (n = 634), one included people with neuropathic pain due to radiculopathy (n = 145), and one, which was newly identified at this update, involved participants with peripheral neuropathic pain of mixed origin (polyneuropathy, peripheral nerve injury or postherpetic neuralgia) (n = 83). Some studies did not report all outcomes of interest. For
Baad-Hansen, Lene; Benoliel, Rafael
Definition and taxonomy This review deals with neuropathic pain of traumatic origin affecting the trigeminal nerve, i.e. painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PTTN). Symptomatology The clinical characteristics of PTTN vary considerably, partly due to the type and extent of injury. Symptoms involve combinations of spontaneous and evoked pain and of positive and negative somatosensory signs. These patients are at risk of going through unnecessary dental/surgical procedures in the attempt to eradicate the cause of the pain, due to the fact that most dentists only rarely encounter PTTN. Epidemiology Overall, approximately 3% of patients with trigeminal nerve injuries develop PTTN. Patients are most often female above the age of 45 years, and both physical and psychological comorbidities are common. Pathophysiology PTTN shares many pathophysiological mechanisms with other peripheral neuropathic pain conditions. Diagnostic considerations PTTN may be confused with one of the regional neuralgias or other orofacial pain conditions. For intraoral PTTN, early stages are often misdiagnosed as odontogenic pain. Pain management Management of PTTN generally follows recommendations for peripheral neuropathic pain. Expert opinion International consensus on classification and taxonomy is urgently needed in order to advance the field related to this condition.
Despite increasing knowledge about the risk factors and clinical findings of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), the treatment of this optic neuropathy has remained limited and without clear evidence-based benefit. Historical treatments of NAION are reviewed, beginning with the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial. More recent treatments are placed within the historical context and illustrate the need for evidence-based therapy for ischemic optic neuropathy. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patel, Sita Sharan; Udayabanu, M
Diabetic neuropathy is considered as a disease of the peripheral nervous system, but recent evidences suggest the involvement of central nervous system as well. In this study we evaluated the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) extract against memory dysfunction and hypoalgesia on a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic neuropathy. STZ (50 mg/kg, i.p. consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes, followed by treatment with the UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) and rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. Cognitive functions were evaluated using Morris water maze and passive avoidance step through task. Pain thresholds were measured using thermal, mechanical and chemical induced hyperalgesia. We observed that chronic diabetes resulted in a decline in circulating insulin level, elevated blood glucose, reduced body weight, increased water intake, cognitive impairment and hypoalgesia. UD significantly reduced the blood glucose and polydypsia, as well as improved the body weight, insulin level, cognition and insensate neuropathy. In conclusion, UD showed results comparable to rosiglitazone in reversing the long standing diabetes induced complications such as central and peripheral neuronal dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kakavand Hamidi, Armita; Radfar, Mania; Amoli, Mahsa M
Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variant may play an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications due to its influence on plasma homocysteine levels and also its effect on scavenging peroxynitrite radicals. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between diabetic neuropathy and MTHFR gene C677T and 1298A ⁄C polymorphisms. Patients with type 2 diabetes N=248 were enrolled in the study, consisting of patients with neuropathy (N=141) and patients without neuropathy (N=107). MTHFR C677T polymorphism was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of genomic DNA for genotyping of samples. 1298A/C polymorphism was evaluated using ARMS-PCR. There was a significant difference in MTHFR polymorphism between the groups with and without neuropathy. Our results suggest that MTHFR 677 variant confer risk for diabetic neuropathy among Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Seung Hoon
Abstract Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) is a variant of Guillain–Barre syndrome. It has been reported to have no sensory symptoms and is diagnosed by typical electrophysiological findings of low-amplitude or unobtainable compound muscle action potentials with normal sensory nerve action potentials. However, the authors experienced atypical case of general electrophysiological findings of AMAN with pain and paresthesia and presented it. This case implies that clinician should be on the alert to atypical sensory symptoms from the classical presentation of AMAN even if the patient is diagnosed with AMAN electrophysiologically and should consider proper treatment options based on clinical presentations. PMID:25621680
Pritchard, Nicola; Edwards, Katie; Shahidi, Ayda M; Sampson, Geoff P; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan
Diabetic neuropathy is a significant clinical problem that currently has no effective therapy, and in advanced cases, leads to foot ulceration and lower limb amputation. The accurate detection, characterization and quantification of this condition are important in order to define at-risk patients, anticipate deterioration, monitor progression, and assess new therapies. This review evaluates novel corneal methods of assessing diabetic neuropathy. Two new noninvasive corneal markers have emerged, and in cross-sectional studies have demonstrated their ability to stratify the severity of this disease. Corneal confocal microscopy allows quantification of corneal nerve parameters and noncontact corneal esthesiometry, the functional correlate of corneal structure, assesses the sensitivity of the cornea. Both these techniques are quick to perform, produce little or no discomfort for the patient, and are suitable for clinical settings. Each has advantages and disadvantages over traditional techniques for assessing diabetic neuropathy. Application of these new corneal markers for longitudinal evaluation of diabetic neuropathy has the potential to reduce dependence on more invasive, costly, and time-consuming assessments, such as skin biopsy.
Witzel, Ini-Isabée; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Khalaf, Kinda; Lee, Sungmun; Khandoker, Ahsan H.; Alsafar, Habiba
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global public health problem of epidemic proportions, with 60–70% of affected individuals suffering from associated neurovascular complications that act on multiple organ systems. The most common and clinically significant neuropathies of T2DM include uremic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. These conditions seriously impact an individual’s quality of life and significantly increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Although advances in gene sequencing technologies have identified several genetic variants that may regulate the development and progression of T2DM, little is known about whether or not the variants are involved in disease progression and how these genetic variants are associated with diabetic neuropathy specifically. Significant missing heritability data and complex disease etiologies remain to be explained. This article is the first to provide a review of the genetic risk variants implicated in the diabetic neuropathies and to highlight potential commonalities. We thereby aim to contribute to the creation of a genetic-metabolic model that will help to elucidate the cause of diabetic neuropathies, evaluate a patient’s risk profile, and ultimately facilitate preventative and targeted treatment for the individual. PMID:26074879
Nobile-Orazio, Eduardo; Bianco, Mariangela; Nozza, Andrea
Purpose of review Several advances have been made on the pathogenesis and therapy of neuropathies associated with paraproteinemia (monoclonal gammopathy). It is important for the neurologist to understand the pathogenetic relevance of this association especially when the hematological disease does not require per se any therapy. Recent findings Treatment of the neuropathy in patients with malignant paraproteinemia is mainly addressed by the hematologist while the neurologist is mainly involved in the initial diagnosis and in deciding whether the neuropathy is caused by the disease or by the chemotherapy used for the disease. There is little evidence that the neuropathy is caused by the hematological condition in patients with IgG or IgA monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) unless there is an evidence of a reactivity of the paraprotein with nerve or evidence of its presence in the nerve. Patients with a chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP)-like presentation should be treated as CIDP while there is no evidence that immune or chemotherapy may be effective in the other patients. In most patients with IgM paraproteinemia, that is usually a MGUS or an indolent Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, the neuropathy is induced by an immune reactivity of the paraprotein with nerve and particularly with the myelin-associated glycoprotein. There are now consistent data also from controlled studies that the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab may improve the neuropathy in these patients. POEMS syndrome is a severe condition characterized by a disabling neuropathy whose prognosis has improved in the last few years with therapies against the proliferating plasma cell clone or vascular endothelial growth factor including local radiotherapy and chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Other therapies are also available for patients not eligible or resistant to transplantation, including lenalidomide and possibly
Shah, Arya; Hoffman, E. Matthew; Mauermann, Michelle L; Loprinzi, Charles L; Windebank, Anthony J; Klein, Christopher J; Staff, Nathan P
OBJECTIVE To assess disease burden of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), which is a common dose-limiting side-effect of neurotoxic chemotherapy. Late effects of CIPN may increase with improved cancer survival. METHODS Olmsted County, Minnesota residents receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy were identified and CIPN was ascertained via text searches of polyneuropathy symptoms in the medical record. Clinical records were queried to collect data on baseline characteristics, risk factors, signs and symptoms of CIPN, medications, impairments, and ICD-9 diagnostic codes for all subjects. RESULTS A total of 509 individuals with incident exposure to an inclusive list of neurotoxic chemotherapy agents between 2006 and 2008 were identified. 268 (52.7%) of these individuals were determined to have CIPN. The median time from incident exposure to first documented symptoms was 71 days. Patients with CIPN received a neuropathy ICD-9 diagnosis in only 37 instances (13.8%). Pain symptoms and use of pain medications were observed more often in patients with CIPN. 5-year survival was greater in those with CIPN (55.2%) versus those without (36.1%). Those with CIPN surviving greater than 5 years (n=145) continued to have substantial impairments and were more likely to be prescribed opioids than those without CIPN (OR 2.0, 1.06–3.69). CONCLUSIONS Results from our population-based study are consistent with previous reports of high incidence of CIPN in the first two years following incident exposure to neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, and its association with significant pain symptomatology and accompanied long-term opioid use. Increased survival following exposure to neurotoxic chemotherapy and its long-term disease burden necessitates further study of among survivors. PMID:29439162
Fairbanks, C A; Schreiber, K L; Brewer, K L; Yu, C G; Stone, L S; Kitto, K F; Nguyen, H O; Grocholski, B M; Shoeman, D W; Kehl, L J; Regunathan, S; Reis, D J; Yezierski, R P; Wilcox, G L
Antagonists of glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate subclass (NMDAR) or inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) prevent nervous system plasticity. Inflammatory and neuropathic pain rely on plasticity, presenting a clinical opportunity for the use of NMDAR antagonists and NOS inhibitors in chronic pain. Agmatine (AG), an endogenous neuromodulator present in brain and spinal cord, has both NMDAR antagonist and NOS inhibitor activities. We report here that AG, exogenously administered to rodents, decreased hyperalgesia accompanying inflammation, normalized the mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia/hyperalgesia) produced by chemical or mechanical nerve injury, and reduced autotomy-like behavior and lesion size after excitotoxic spinal cord injury. AG produced these effects in the absence of antinociceptive effects in acute pain tests. Endogenous AG also was detected in rodent lumbosacral spinal cord in concentrations similar to those previously detected in brain. The evidence suggests a unique antiplasticity and neuroprotective role for AG in processes underlying persistent pain and neuronal injury.
Fairbanks, Carolyn A.; Schreiber, Kristin L.; Brewer, Kori L.; Yu, Chen-Guang; Stone, Laura S.; Kitto, Kelley F.; Nguyen, H. Oanh; Grocholski, Brent M.; Shoeman, Don W.; Kehl, Lois J.; Regunathan, Soundararajan; Reis, Donald J.; Yezierski, Robert P.; Wilcox, George L.
Antagonists of glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate subclass (NMDAR) or inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) prevent nervous system plasticity. Inflammatory and neuropathic pain rely on plasticity, presenting a clinical opportunity for the use of NMDAR antagonists and NOS inhibitors in chronic pain. Agmatine (AG), an endogenous neuromodulator present in brain and spinal cord, has both NMDAR antagonist and NOS inhibitor activities. We report here that AG, exogenously administered to rodents, decreased hyperalgesia accompanying inflammation, normalized the mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia/hyperalgesia) produced by chemical or mechanical nerve injury, and reduced autotomy-like behavior and lesion size after excitotoxic spinal cord injury. AG produced these effects in the absence of antinociceptive effects in acute pain tests. Endogenous AG also was detected in rodent lumbosacral spinal cord in concentrations similar to those previously detected in brain. The evidence suggests a unique antiplasticity and neuroprotective role for AG in processes underlying persistent pain and neuronal injury. PMID:10984543
Bansagi, Boglarka; Griffin, Helen; Whittaker, Roger G; Antoniadi, Thalia; Evangelista, Teresinha; Miller, James; Greenslade, Mark; Forester, Natalie; Duff, Jennifer; Bradshaw, Anna; Kleinle, Stephanie; Boczonadi, Veronika; Steele, Hannah; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Franko, Edit; Pyle, Angela; Lochmüller, Hanns; Chinnery, Patrick F; Horvath, Rita
To study the prevalence, molecular cause, and clinical presentation of hereditary motor neuropathies in a large cohort of patients from the North of England. Detailed neurologic and electrophysiologic assessments and next-generation panel testing or whole exome sequencing were performed in 105 patients with clinical symptoms of distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN, 64 patients), axonal motor neuropathy (motor Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT2], 16 patients), or complex neurologic disease predominantly affecting the motor nerves (hereditary motor neuropathy plus, 25 patients). The prevalence of dHMN is 2.14 affected individuals per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval 1.62-2.66) in the North of England. Causative mutations were identified in 26 out of 73 index patients (35.6%). The diagnostic rate in the dHMN subgroup was 32.5%, which is higher than previously reported (20%). We detected a significant defect of neuromuscular transmission in 7 cases and identified potentially causative mutations in 4 patients with multifocal demyelinating motor neuropathy. Many of the genes were shared between dHMN and motor CMT2, indicating identical disease mechanisms; therefore, we suggest changing the classification and including dHMN also as a subcategory of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Abnormal neuromuscular transmission in some genetic forms provides a treatable target to develop therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.
Dalakas, M C; Semino-Mora, C; Leon-Monzon, M
The 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), a nonazylated dideoxynucleoside analog used for the treatment of AIDS, causes a dose-dependent, painful, sensorimotor axonal peripheral neuropathy in up to 30% of the patients. To investigate the cause of the neuropathy, we performed morphological and molecular studies on nerve biopsy specimens from well-selected patients with ddC-neuropathy and from control subjects with disease, including patients with AIDS-related neuropathy never treated with ddC. Because ddC, in vitro, inhibits the replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), we counted the number of normal and abnormal mitochondria in a 0.04 mm(2) cross-sectional area of the nerves and quantified the copy numbers of mtDNA by competitive PCR in all specimens. A varying degree of axonal degeneration was present in all nerves. Abnormal mitochondria with enlarged size, excessive vacuolization, electron-dense concentric inclusions and degenerative myelin structures were prominent in the ddC-neuropathy and accounted for 55% +/- 2.5% of all counted mitochondria in the axon and Schwann cells, compared with 9% +/- 0.7% of the controls (p < 0.001). Significantly (p < 0.005) reduced copy numbers, with as high as 80% depletion, of the mtDNA was demonstrated in the nerves of the ddC-treated patients compared with the controls. We conclude that ddC induces a mitochondrial neuropathy with depletion of the nerve's mtDNA. The findings are consistent with the ability of ddC to selectively inhibit the gamma-DNA polymerase in neuronal cell lines. Toxicity to mitochondria of the peripheral nerve is a new cause of acquired neuropathy induced by exogenous toxins and may be the cause of neuropathy associated with the other neurotoxic antiretroviral drugs or toxic-metabolic conditions.
Pachman, Deirdre R; Dockter, Travis; Zekan, Patricia J; Fruth, Briant; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Ta, Lauren E; Lafky, Jacqueline M; Dentchev, Todor; Le-Lindqwister, Nguyet Anh; Sikov, William M; Staff, Nathan; Beutler, Andreas S; Loprinzi, Charles L
Paclitaxel is associated with both an acute pain syndrome (P-APS) and chronic chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Given that extensive animal data suggest that minocycline may prevent chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity, the purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of minocycline for the prevention of CIPN and the P-APS. Patients with breast cancer were enrolled prior to initiating neoadjuvant or adjuvant weekly paclitaxel for 12 weeks and were randomized to receive minocycline 200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg twice daily or a matching placebo. Patients completed (1) an acute pain syndrome questionnaire daily during chemotherapy to measure P-APS and (2) the EORTC QLQ-CIPN20 questionnaire at baseline, prior to each dose of paclitaxel, and monthly for 6 months post treatment, to measure CIPN. Forty-seven patients were randomized. There were no remarkable differences noted between the minocycline and placebo groups for the overall sensory neuropathy score of the EORTC QLQ-CIPN20 or its individual components, which evaluate tingling, numbness and shooting/burning pain in hands and feet. However, patients taking minocycline had a significant reduction in the daily average pain score attributed to P-APS (p = 0.02). Not only were no increased toxicities reported with minocycline, but there was a significant reduction in fatigue (p = 0.02). Results of this pilot study do not support the use of minocycline to prevent CIPN, but suggest that it may reduce P-APS and decrease fatigue; further study of the impact of this agent on those endpoints may be warranted.
Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing. Whether pain originates in the central or peripheral nervous system, it frequently becomes centralized through maladaptive responses within the central nervous system that can profoundly alter brain systems and thereby behaviour (e.g. depression). Chronic pain should thus be considered a brain disease in which alterations in neural networks affect multiple aspects of brain function, structure and chemistry. The study and treatment of this disease is greatly complicated by the lack of objective measures for either the symptoms or the underlying mechanisms of chronic pain. In pain associated with neurological disease, it is sometimes difficult to obtain even a subjective evaluation of pain, as is the case for patients in a vegetative state or end-stage Alzheimer's disease. It is critical that neurologists become more involved in chronic pain treatment and research (already significant in the fields of migraine and peripheral neuropathies). To achieve this goal, greater efforts are needed to enhance training for neurologists in pain treatment and promote greater interest in the field. This review describes examples of pain in different neurological diseases including primary neurological pain conditions, discusses the therapeutic potential of brain-targeted therapies and highlights the need for objective measures of pain. PMID:22067541
House, R; Krajnak, K; Jiang, D
Pain and its management are important aspects of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). To determine the factors associated with finger and hand pain in workers with HAVS and, specifically, to assess the impact of several neurological variables as well as the vascular component of HAVS, grip strength and age. We assessed men with HAVS at a hospital occupational medicine clinic over 2 years. Subjects scored finger and hand pain separately using the Borg Scale (0-10). The possible predictors we evaluated included the Stockholm Neurological Scale (SNS) and Stockholm Vascular Scale (SVS) stages, current perception threshold (CPT), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), ulnar neuropathy, grip strength and age. We carried out nerve conduction testing to confirm the presence of CTS and ulnar neuropathy and measured CPT in the fingers at 2000 Hz, 250 Hz and 5 Hz corresponding to A-beta (large myelinated), A-delta (small myelinated) and C (unmyelinated) fibres, respectively. We calculated Spearman rank correlations to examine the relation between finger and hand pain and possible predictor variables. Among the 134 subjects, the median (25th-75th percentile) pain scores were 6 (4-8) for the fingers and 5 (1-7) for the hands. We found statistically significant correlations with finger pain for the SVS stage (r = 0.239; P < 0.01) and CTS (r = 0.184; P < 0.05). The only statistically significant correlation identified for hand pain was a negative correlation with grip strength (r = -0.185; P < 0.05). Management of finger and hand pain in HAVS should focus on the correlates we have identified. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Chauhan, Neha; Taliyan, Rajeev; Sharma, Pyare Lal
Diabetic neuropathy is recognized as one of the most common complications of chronic diabetes, but its pathophysiological mechanism is complex and yet to be completely explored. Monotherapy with conventional analgesics fails to provide adequate pain relief in peripheral diabetic neuropathy. There are a number of evidence suggesting that tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of peripheral diabetic neuropathy. TNF-α up-regulation activates nuclear factor κB, which further up-regulates cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 leading to altered prostaglandin profile. Inhibition of TNF-α and COX-2 provides beneficial effect on diabetic neuropathy by decreasing the oxidative stress level and by preventing neuronal hypersensitivity due to an increased prostaglandin level. The present study was designed to assess the effect of dipyrone and thalidomide on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced neuropathic pain behavior in rats. STZ 50 mg/kg, i.p. was administered to induce experimental diabetes in the rats. Three weeks following STZ, dipyrone (300 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) and thalidomide (25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) alone and subeffective dose combination of dipyrone and thalidomide (300 and 25 mg/kg(-1), i.p.) administered daily for 2 weeks significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, and formalin-induced phase-2 flinching response. Moreover, the subeffective dose combination of dipyrone and thalidomide and preemptive treatment with thalidomide (50 mg/kg) reduces oxidative stress in diabetic rats. In conclusion, the combination of subeffective dose of dipyrone and thalidomide prevented the development and maintenance of experimental diabetic neuropathy. The combination of thalidomide (TNF-α inhibitor) and dipyrone (COX inhibitor) may be used as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.
Sanna, Maria Domenica; Ghelardini, Carla; Galeotti, Nicoletta
Although antiretroviral agents have been used successfully in suppressing viral production, they have also been associated with a number of side effects. The antiretroviral toxic neuropathy induces debilitating and extremely difficult to treat pain syndromes that often lead to discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. Due to the critical need for the identification of novel therapeutic targets to improve antiretroviral neuropathic pain management, we investigated the role of the JNK signalling pathway in the mechanism of antiretroviral painful neuropathy. Mice were exposed to zalcitabine (2',3'-dideoxycytidine, ddC) and stavudine (2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine, d4T) that induced a persistent mechanical allodynia and a transient cold allodynia. Treatment with the JNK blocker SP600125 before antiretroviral administration abolished mechanical hypersensitivity with no effect on thermal response. A robust spinal JNK overphosphorylation was observed on post-injection day 1 and 3, along with a JNK-dependent increase in p-c-Jun and ATF3 protein levels. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed the presence of a heterodimeric complex between ATF3 and c-Jun indicating that these transcription factors can act together to regulate transcription through heterodimerization. A rise in BDNF and caspase-3 protein levels was detected on day 1 and BDNF sequestration prevented both caspase-3 and p-JNK increase. These data suggest that BDNF plays a role in the early stages of ddC-induced allodynia by promoting apoptotic events and the activation of a hypernociceptive JNK-mediated pathway. We illustrated the activation of a BDNF-mediated JNK pathway involved in the early events responsible for the promotion of neuropathic pain, leading to a better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the antiretroviral neuropathy. JNK blockade prevents antiretroviral-induced pain hypersensitivity. This may represent a potential prophylactic treatment of neuropathic pain to improve antiretroviral
Gok Metin, Zehra; Arikan Donmez, Ayse; Izgu, Nur; Ozdemir, Leyla; Arslan, Ismail Emre
This study aimed to examine the effects of aromatherapy massage on neuropathic pain severity and quality of life (QoL) in patients suffering from painful diabetic neuropathy. This open-label randomized controlled clinical study was conducted in a university hospital endocrine outpatient clinic in Turkey. The study sample consisted of 46 patients, randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 21) and a control group (n = 25). The intervention group received aromatherapy massage three times per week for a period of 4 weeks. The control group received only routine care. Data were collected from patients using the Douleur Neuropathique questionnaire, the visual analog scale, and the Neuropathic Pain Impact on Quality of Life questionnaire. Neuropathic pain scores significantly decreased in the intervention group compared with the control group in the fourth week of the study. Similarly, QoL scores significantly improved in the intervention group in the fourth week of the study. Aromatherapy massage is a simple and effective nonpharmacological nursing intervention that can be used to manage neuropathic pain and improve QoL in patients with painful neuropathy. Aromatherapy massage is a well-tolerated, feasible, and safe nonpharmacological method that can be readily integrated into clinical settings by nursing staff. The essential oils rosemary, geranium, lavender, eucalyptus, and chamomile can be safely used by nurses in the clinical setting, if applicable. However, training and experience of nurses in aromatherapy massage is critical to achieving positive results. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
KLEIN, CHRISTOPHER J.; DUAN, XIAOHUI; SHY, MICHAEL E.
Inherited neuropathy is a group of common neurologic disorders with heterogeneous clinical presentations and genetic causes. Detailed neuromuscular evaluations, including nerve conduction studies, laboratory testing, and histopathologic examination, can assist in identification of the inherited component beyond family history. Genetic testing increasingly enables definitive diagnosis of specific inherited neuropathies. Diagnosis, however, is often complex, and neurologic disability may have both genetic and acquired components in individual patients. The decision of which genetic test to order or whether to order genetic tests is often complicated, and the strategies to maximize the value of testing are evolving. Apart from rare inherited metabolic neuropathies, treatment approaches remain largely supportive. We provide a clinical update of the various types of inherited neuropathies, their differential diagnoses, and distinguishing clinical features (where available). A framework is provided for clinical evaluations, including the inheritance assessment, electrophysiologic examinations, and specific genetic tests. PMID:23801417
... hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Printable PDF Open All Close All ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder that affects ...
Background Fabry disease is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by progressive lysosomal accumulation of lipids in a variety of cell types, including neural cells. Small, unmyelinated nerve fibers are particularly affected and small fiber peripheral neuropathy often clinically manifests at young age. Peripheral pain can be chronic and/or occur as provoked attacks of excruciating pain. Manifestations of dysfunction of small autonomic fibers may include, among others, impaired sweating, gastrointestinal dysmotility, and abnormal pain perception. Patients with Fabry disease often remain undiagnosed until severe complications involving the kidney, heart, peripheral nerves and/or brain have arisen. Methods An international expert panel convened with the goal to provide guidance to clinicians who may encounter unrecognized patients with Fabry disease on how to diagnose these patients early using simple diagnostic tests. A further aim was to offer recommendations to control neuropathic pain. Results We describe the neuropathy in Fabry disease, focusing on peripheral small fiber dysfunction - the hallmark of early neurologic involvement in this disorder. The clinical course of peripheral pain is summarized, and the importance of medical history-taking, including family history, is highlighted. A thorough physical examination (e.g., angiokeratoma, corneal opacities) and simple non-invasive sensory perception tests could provide clues to the diagnosis of Fabry disease. Reported early clinical benefits of enzyme replacement therapy include reduction of neuropathic pain, and adequate management of residual pain to a tolerable and functional level can substantially improve the quality of life for patients. Conclusions Our recommendations can assist in diagnosing Fabry small fiber neuropathy early, and offer clinicians guidance in controlling peripheral pain. This is particularly important since management of pain in young patients with Fabry disease appears to be
Trivedi, Sweety; Pandit, Alak; Ganguly, Goutam; Das, Shyamal Kumar
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a common disorder and presents as diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to physicians and neurologists. In epidemiological studies from India from various regions the overall prevalence of PN varied from 5 to 2400 per 10,000 population in various community studies. India is composed of a multiethnic, multicultural population who are exposed to different adverse environmental factors such as arsenic and lead. Use of different chemotherapeutic agents with propensity to affect peripheral nerves, increasing methods of diagnosis of connective tissue disorders and use of immunomodulating drugs, growing aging population is expected to change the spectrum and burden of peripheral neuropathy in the community. The other important aspect of peripheral neuropathies is in terms of the geographical and occupational distribution especially of toxic neuropathies like arsenic which is common in eastern belt; lead, mercury and organo-phosphorous compounds where occupational exposures are major sources. Inflammatory neuropathies either due to vasculitis or G B Syndrome, chronic inflammatory polyradiculopathies are another major group of neuropathies which is increasing due to increase longevity of Indian subjects and immunological impairment, also adds to morbidity of the patients and are potentially treatable. Leprous neuropathy is common in India and although its frequency is significantly decreasing because of national control program yet pure neuritic form still remains a cause of concern and similar is the case with another infective cause like diptheric neurpathy. Thus this article is an attempt to cover major categories and also highlight the areas where further studies are needed. PMID:28904445
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has a long-standing commitment to neuropathy research. From 2005-2009, the NIH has committed US $115 million each year. A collaborative effort between researchers and patients can accelerate the translation of pre-clinical discoveries into better treatments for neuropathy patients. Clinical trials are needed to test these new treatments, but they can only be implemented in a timely fashion if patients with neuropathies are willing to participate. This perspective focuses on the value of having various outlets for informing both the patients and the physicians about existing clinical research opportunities and on the potential benefit of establishing patient registries to help with trial recruitment. Once data have been collected, there is a need to broadly share the data in order to inform future trials, and a first step would be to harmonize data collection by using Common Data Elements (CDEs). Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Miura, Shiroh; Shibata, Hiroki; Kida, Hiroshi; Noda, Kazuhito; Tomiyasu, Katsuro; Yamamoto, Ken; Iwaki, Akiko; Ayabe, Mitsuyoshi; Aizawa, Hisamichi; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Fukumaki, Yasuyuki
We studied a four-generation pedigree of a Japanese family with hereditary neuropathy to elucidate the genetic basis of this disease. Twelve members of the family were enrolled in this study. The clinical features were neurogenic muscle weakness with proximal dominancy in the lower extremities, sensory involvement, areflexia, fine postural tremors, painful muscle cramps, elevated creatine kinase levels, recurrent paroxysmal dry cough, and neurogenic bladder. We performed a genome-wide search using genetic loci spaced at about 13 Mb intervals. Although nine chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 17, 19, and 22) had at least one region in which the logarithm of odds (LOD) score was over 1.0, no loci fulfilled the criteria for significant evidence of linkage. Moreover, we analyzed an extra 14 markers on 3p12-q13 (the locus of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, proximal dominant form) and an extra five markers on 3p22-p24 (the locus of hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough) and observed LOD scores of <-3 on both 3p12-q13 and 3p22-p24. Mutation scanning of the entire coding regions of the MPZ and PMP22 genes revealed no mutations. We conclude that the disorder described here is a newly classified hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with autosomal dominant inheritance.
Swaminathan, Aravind; du Cros, Philipp; Seddon, James A; Mirgayosieva, Shamsiya; Asladdin, Rajabov; Dusmatova, Zulfiya
complications as well as optimizing the chances of recovery from TB. Our case report shows the need for close and frequent monitoring for neuropathy to enable early intervention and thereby a favourable outcome in children who may otherwise suffer a long-lasting, debilitating, and painful neuropathy.
... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ... Editorial team. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders Read more Peripheral Nerve Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more A. ...
Hurvitz, E A; Richardson, J K; Werner, R A
To define further the relation between unipedal stance testing and peripheral neuropathy. Prospective cohort. Electroneuromyography laboratory of a Veterans Affairs medical center and a university hospital. Ninety-two patients referred for lower extremity electrodiagnostic studies. A standardized history and physical examination designed to detect peripheral neuropathy, 3 trials of unipedal stance, and electrodiagnostic studies. Peripheral neuropathy was identified by electrodiagnostic testing in 32%. These subjects had a significantly shorter (p <.001) unipedal stance time (15.7s, longest of 3 trials) than the patients without peripheral neuropathy (37.1s). Abnormal unipedal stance time (<45s) identified peripheral neuropathy with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 71%, whereas a normal unipedal stance time had a negative predictive value of 90%. Abnormal unipedal stance time was associated with an increased risk of having peripheral neuropathy on univariate analysis (odds ratio = 8.8, 95% confidence interval = 2.5--31), and was the only significant predictor of peripheral neuropathy in the regression model. Aspects of the neurologic examination did not add to the regression model compared with abnormal unipedal stance time. Unipedal stance testing is useful in the clinical setting both to identify and to exclude the presence of peripheral neuropathy.
Moore, R Andrew; Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Toelle, Thomas; Rice, Andrew S C
to treat to benefit (NNT), concentrating on at least 50% pain intensity reduction, and Initiative on Methods, Measurement and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) definitions of at least moderate and substantial benefit. For harm we calculated number needed to treat for harm (NNH) for adverse effects and withdrawal. Meta-analysis was undertaken using a fixed-effect model. We emphasised differences between conditions now defined as neuropathic pain, and other conditions like masticatory pain, complex regional painsyndrome type 1 (CRPS-1), and fibromyalgia. Seven new studies with 1919 participants were added. Another report (147 participants) provided results for a study already included, but which previously had no usable data. A further report (170 participants) used an experimental formulation of intrathecal gabapentin. Thirty-seven studies (5633 participants) studied oral gabapentin at daily doses of 1200 mg or more in 12 chronic pain conditions; 84% of participants were in studies of postherpetic neuralgia, painful diabetic neuropathy or mixed neuropathic pain. There was no first tier evidence.Second tier evidence for the outcome of at least 50% pain intensity reduction, considered valuable by patients with chronic pain, showed that gabapentin was significantly better than placebo in postherpetic neuralgia (34% gabapentin versus 21% placebo; NNT 8.0, 95% CI 6.0 to 12) and painful diabetic neuropathy (38% versus 21%, NNT 5.9, 95% CI 4.6 to 8.3). There was insufficient information in other pain conditions to reach any reliable conclusion. There was no obvious difference between standard gabapentin formulations and recently-introduced extended-release or gastro-retentive formulations, or between different doses of gabapentin.Adverse events occurred significantly more often with gabapentin. Persons taking gabapentin could expect to have at least one adverse event (62%), withdraw because of an adverse event (11%), suffer dizziness (19%), somnolence (14
To report a rare toxic optic neuropathy after long-term use of two medications: ethambutol and linezolid. A 65-year-old man presented to the Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center in December 2014 for evaluation of progressive vision decrease in both eyes. The patient presented with best-corrected visual acuities of 20/400 in the right eye and counting fingers at 5 feet in the left eye. Color vision was significantly reduced in both eyes. Visual fields revealed a cecocentral defect in both eyes. His fundus and optic nerve examination was unremarkable. Because vision continued to decline after discontinuation of ethambutol, linezolid was also discontinued, after which vision, color vision, and visual fields improved. Because of these findings, the final diagnosis was toxic optic neuropathy. Final visual outcome was 20/30 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Drug-associated toxic optic neuropathy is a rare but vision-threatening condition. Diagnosis is made based on an extensive case history and careful clinical examination. The examination findings include varying decrease in vision, normal pupils and extraocular muscles, and unremarkable fundoscopy, with the possibility of swollen optic discs in the acute stage of the optic neuropathy. Other important findings descriptive of toxic optic neuropathy include decreased color vision and cecocentral visual field defects. This case illustrates the importance of knowledge of all medications and/or substances a patient consumes that may cause a toxic reaction and discontinuing them immediately if the visual functions are worsening or not improving.
Nadi, Maryam; Marandi, Seyyed Mohammad; Esfarjani, Fahimeh; Saleki, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Mahboobeh
Peripheral neuropathy is a common complaint of diabetes. This study aimed to determine the effects of 12 weeks combined training with Vitamin D supplement on improvement of sensory-motor neuropathy in women with diabetic neuropathy. This clinical trial study conducted on 90 patients were selected and randomly divided into two groups. Finally, 81 adult females with diabetes type II (20-55 years old) were interred in this study. The control group had no training, but received Vitamin D. The experimental group received Vitamin D and 12 weeks training program (3 days a week, 60 min/session) including aerobic exercises, strength, and flexibility. Aerobic exercise intensity was set at 60-70% maximum heart rate and resistance training intensity was determined by 10 R.M. Michigan neuropathy questionnaire, reflex hammer and tuning fork 128 Hz used to screening tense of neuropathy (Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument) that were used for pretest and posttest. Following 3 months combined training and supplementation with Vitamin D, had observed a significant reduction in numbness ( P = 0.001), pain (0.002), tingling ( P = 0.001), and weakness ( P = 0.002) in the lower limb and also increases in sense of touch intervention ( P = 0.005), detects the position of the fingers ( P = 0.001) and vibration perception ( P = 0.001) in tissues. Knee reflexes ( P = 0.77) and ankles reflexes ( P = 0.47) did not significantly change after interventions. It seems that taking part in combined training and supplementation with Vitamin D can improve the symptoms of sensory-motor neuropathy.
Lavoie Smith, Ellen M.; Li, Lang; Hutchinson, Raymond J.; Ho, Richard; Burnette, W. Bryan; Wells, Elizabeth; Bridges, Celia; Renbarger, Jamie
Background Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy (VIPN) is difficult to quantify in children. Objective The study objective was to examine the reliability, validity, and clinical feasibility of several VIPN measures for use in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Interventions/Methods Children (N = 65) aged 1–18 years receiving vincristine at four academic centers participated in the study. Baseline and pre-vincristine VIPN assessments were obtained using the Total Neuropathy Score-Pediatric Vincristine (TNS-PV), the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, the Balis grading scale, and the FACES pain scale. TNS-PV scores (n = 806) were obtained over 15 weeks. Blood was obtained at several time-points to quantify pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Cronbach’s alpha for a reduced TNS-PV scale was 0.84. TNS-PV scores correlated with cumulative vincristine dosage (r = 0.53, p = 0.01), pharmacokinetic parameters (r = 0.41, p = 0.05), and grading scale scores (r = 0.46 – 0.52; p = 0.01). FACES scores correlated with the TNS-PV neuropathic pain item (r = 0.48; p = 0.01), and were attainable in all ages. A 2-item V-Rex score (vibration and reflex items) was the most responsive to change (es 0.65, p < 0.001). TNS-PV scores were attainable in 95% of children ≥ 6 years. Conclusions The TNS-PV is reliable and valid for measuring VIPN. It is sensitive to change over time (15 weeks) and feasible for use in children ≥ 6 years of age. Implications for Practice The TNS-PV may be a useful tool for assessing vincristine toxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:23842524
... sensory cells. This nerve damage is known as peripheral neuropathy. Weakness in the legs, followed by the arms, ... and Neuropathy MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Congenital Cataract MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Peripheral Neuropathy General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...
Background A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the naturally derived topical oil, "Neuragen PN®" for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Methods Sixty participants with plantar cutaneous (foot sole) pain due to all cause peripheral neuropathy were recruited from the community. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments (Neuragen PN® or placebo) per week in a crossover design. The primary outcome measure was acute spontaneous pain level as reported on a visual analog scale. Results There was an overall pain reduction for both treatments from pre to post application. As compared to the placebo, Neuragen PN® led to significantly (p < .05) greater pain reduction. Fifty six of sixty subjects (93.3%) receiving Neuragen PN® reported pain reduction within 30 minutes. This reduction within 30 minutes occurred in only twenty one of sixty (35.0%) subjects receiving the placebo. In a break out analysis of the diabetic only subgroup, 94% of subjects in the Neuragen PN® group achieved pain reduction within 30 minutes vs 11.0% of the placebo group. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions This randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial with crossover design revealed that the naturally derived oil, Neuragen PN®, provided significant relief from neuropathic pain in an all cause neuropathy group. Participants with diabetes within this group experienced similar pain relief. Trial registration ISRCTN registered: ISRCTN13226601 PMID:20487567
Park, JungHyun; Park, Hue Jung
Botulinum toxin (BoNT) has been used as a treatment for excessive muscle stiffness, spasticity, and dystonia. BoNT for approximately 40 years, and has recently been used to treat various types of neuropathic pain. The mechanism by which BoNT acts on neuropathic pain involves inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators and peripheral neurotransmitters from sensory nerves. Recent journals have demonstrated that BoNT is effective for neuropathic pain, such as postherpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, and peripheral neuralgia. The purpose of this review is to summarize the experimental and clinical evidence of the mechanism by which BoNT acts on various types of neuropathic pain and describe why BoNT can be applied as treatment. The PubMed database was searched from 1988 to May 2017. Recent studies have demonstrated that BoNT injections are effective treatments for post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, and intractable neuropathic pain, such as poststroke pain and spinal cord injury. PMID:28837075
The international standard of nomenclature and classification in vasculitis, CHCC 1994,was revised as CHCC 2012. In the first part of this review article I briefly summarized the CHCC 2012 and pointed out the changes in this revision, especially on the disorders related to vasculitic neuropathy. Notable changes include the introduction of new terms such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. In the second part, I mentioned the tips for the diagnosis and treatment of vasculitic neuropathy. Because most of the vasculitic neuropathy patients require rigorous, long-standing immunosuppressive therapy, the accurate diagnosis based on the pathological detection of vasculitic changes is mandatory. In this regard, the value of sural nerve biopsy is still not ignorable. In the treatment of vascultic neuropathy, there are no controlled treatment trials and clinical practice is guided by experience from case series and indirectly by analogy with systemic vasculitis. Although combined therapy using prednisolone and cyclophosphamide is usually recommended by experts, tailor-made treatment regimen based on the conditions of each patient would produce the best outcome in vasculitic neuropathy.
Nesbitt, Julian; Moxham, Sian; ramadurai, gopinath; Williams, Lucy
Stroke patients can experience a variety of pain. Many stroke patients have co-morbidities such as osteoporosis, arthritis or diabetes causing diabetic neuropathy. As well as pain from other long term conditions, stroke patients can experience central post-stroke pain, headaches, and musculoskeletal issues such as hypertonia, contractures, spasticity, and subluxations. These stroke patients can also have communication difficulties in the form of expressive dysphasia and/or global aphasia. Communication difficulties can result in these patients not expressing their pain and therefore not having it assessed, leading to inadequate pain relief that could impact their rehabilitation and recovery. By implementing an observational measurement of pain such as the Abbey pain scale, patients with communication difficulties can have their pain assessed and recorded. Initially 30% of patients on the acute stroke ward did not have their pain assessed and adequately recorded and 15% of patients had inadequate pain relief. The patient was assessed if they were in pain and therefore not receiving adequate pain relief by measuring their pain on the Abbey pain scale. After introducing the Abbey pain scale and creating a nurse advocate, an improvement was shown such that only 5% of patients did not have their pain recorded and all had adequate pain relief. PMID:26732690
Nesbitt, Julian; Moxham, Sian; Ramadurai, Gopinath; Williams, Lucy
Stroke patients can experience a variety of pain. Many stroke patients have co-morbidities such as osteoporosis, arthritis or diabetes causing diabetic neuropathy. As well as pain from other long term conditions, stroke patients can experience central post-stroke pain, headaches, and musculoskeletal issues such as hypertonia, contractures, spasticity, and subluxations. These stroke patients can also have communication difficulties in the form of expressive dysphasia and/or global aphasia. Communication difficulties can result in these patients not expressing their pain and therefore not having it assessed, leading to inadequate pain relief that could impact their rehabilitation and recovery. By implementing an observational measurement of pain such as the Abbey pain scale, patients with communication difficulties can have their pain assessed and recorded. Initially 30% of patients on the acute stroke ward did not have their pain assessed and adequately recorded and 15% of patients had inadequate pain relief. The patient was assessed if they were in pain and therefore not receiving adequate pain relief by measuring their pain on the Abbey pain scale. After introducing the Abbey pain scale and creating a nurse advocate, an improvement was shown such that only 5% of patients did not have their pain recorded and all had adequate pain relief.
Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Johnsen, Birger; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Frost, Poul
We aimed to evaluate relations between occupational biomechanical exposures and (1) ulnar neuropathy confirmed by electroneurography (ENG) and (2) ulnar neuropathy-like symptoms with normal ENG. In this triple case-referent study, we identified all patients aged 18-65 years, examined with ENG at a neurophysiological department on suspicion of ulnar neuropathy, 2001-2007. We mailed a questionnaire to 546 patients with ulnar neuropathy, 633 patients with ulnar neuropathy-like symptoms and two separate groups of community referents, matched on sex, age and primary care centre (risk set sampling). The two patient groups were also compared to each other directly. We constructed a Job Exposure Matrix to provide estimates of exposure to non-neutral postures, repetitive movements, hand-arm vibrations and forceful work. Conditional and unconditional logistic regressions were used. The proportion who responded was 59%. Ulnar neuropathy was related to forceful work with an exposure-response pattern reaching an OR of 3.85 (95% CI 2.04 to 7.24); non-neutral postures strengthened effects of forceful work. No relation was observed with repetitive movements. Ulnar neuropathy-like symptoms were related to repetitive movements with an OR of 1.89 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.52) in the highest-exposure category (≥2.5 h/day); forceful work was unrelated to the outcome. Ulnar neuropathy and ulnar neuropathy-like symptoms differed with respect to associations with occupational biomechanical exposures. Findings suggested specific effects of forceful work on the ulnar nerve. Thus, results corroborated the importance of an electrophysiological diagnosis when evaluating risk factors for ulnar neuropathy. Preventive effects may be achieved by reducing biomechanical exposures at work.
Maharaj, Sonill S; Yakasai, Abdulsalam M
Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is a common neurological sequela after HIV, which leads to neuropathic pain and functional limitations. Rehabilitation programs with exercises are used to augment pharmacological therapy to relieve pain but appropriate and effective exercises are unknown. This study explored the safety and effect of moderate-intensity aerobic exercises and progressive resisted exercises for HIV-induced distal symmetrical polyneuropathy neuropathic pain. A randomized pretest, posttest of 12 wks of aerobic exercise or progressive resisted exercise compared with a control. Outcome measures were assessed using the subjective periphery neuropathy, brief peripheral neuropathy screening, and numeric pain rating scale. Pain was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 wks. Data between groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U test, and within-groups Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. There were 136 participants (mean [SD] age = 36.79 [8.23] yrs) and the exercise groups completed the protocols without any adverse effects. Pain scores within and between aerobic exercise and progressive resisted exercise groups showed significant improvement (P < 0.05) from baseline to 6 and 12 wks compared with the control (P > 0.05). This study supports a rehabilitation program of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and progressive resisted exercise being safe and effective for reducing neuropathic pain and is beneficial with analgesics for HIV-induced distal symmetrical polyneuropathy.
Dieb, W; Moreau, N; Chemla, I; Descroix, V; Boucher, Y
Orofacial neuropathic pain is often difficult to treat, mostly because of still unclear underlying mechanisms. The occurrence of such neuropathic pain varies depending on different factors, of which preexisting preoperative pain seems to be of high importance. The aim of this study was thus to test the hypothesis that prior history of pain could indeed be considered a risk factor for the development of orofacial neuropathic pain in the same region. The study was performed in the dental department of the Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière (GHPS) in Paris, France. We investigated the presence of prior inflammatory pain before development of orofacial neuropathic pain in 56 patients. For each patient file, the following items were collected: age, gender; medical history; diagnosis; description of the pain (at time of consultation); presence or absence of prior dental treatment; date and type of dental treatment received. 41 patients (73%) of orofacial neuropathic pain patients had a history of pain compatible with an inflammatory condition; 4% (n=2) did not report any prior pain and 23% (n=13) could not remember. Among the patients with documented history of pain prior to neuropathy, 88% (n=36) received surgical treatment; 61%, (n=25) endodontic treatment and 22%, (n=9) restorative treatment. All eventually received endodontic treatment or tooth extraction. These dental treatments are compatible with the hypothesis of prior inflammatory pain in these patients. These results support the hypothesis that prior inflammatory pain could favor the development of orofacial neuropathic pain. Prevention and treatment of inflammatory trigeminal pain may therefore play a key role in preventing future neuropathic pain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Campellone, Joseph V
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal predominance (HMSN-P) is a rare disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Patients present with slowly progressive proximal-predominant weakness, painful muscle cramps, fasciculations, large-fiber sensory loss, and areflexia. Electrodiagnostic (EDX) studies typically reveal abnormalities consistent with a sensorimotor neuronopathy. A patient with HMSN-P underwent EDX studies, revealing ongoing and chronic neurogenic denervation, motor unit instability, and neuromyotonic discharges, further defining the spectrum of EDX findings in HMSN-P. The clinical, pathological, and genetic features are also reviewed. The appearance of HMSN-P in the United States and elsewhere calls for clinicians in nonendemic regions to be familiar with this rare disorder, which has typically been geographically confined.
Schloss, Janet M; Colosimo, Maree; Airey, Caroline; Masci, Paul; Linnane, Anthony W; Vitetta, Luis
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating side effect resulting from neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of an oral B group vitamin compared to placebo, in preventing the incidence of CIPN in cancer patients undergoing neurotoxic chemotherapy. A pilot, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Newly diagnosed cancer patients prescribed with taxanes, oxaliplatin or vincristine were invited to participate. A total of 71 participants (female 68 %, male 32 %) were enrolled into the study and randomised to the B group vitamin (n = 38) arm or placebo (n = 33). The data from 47 participants were eligible for analysis (B group vitamins n = 27, placebo n = 22). The primary outcome measure was the total neuropathy score assessed by an independent neurologist. Secondary outcome measures included serum vitamin B levels, quality of life, pain inventory and the patient neurotoxicity questionnaires. Outcome measures were conducted at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks. The total neuropathy score (TNS) demonstrated that a B group vitamin did not significantly reduce the incidence of CIPN compared to placebo (p = 0.73). Statistical significance was achieved for patient perceived sensory peripheral neuropathy (12 weeks p = 0.03; 24 weeks p = 0.005; 36 weeks p = 0.021). The risk estimate for the Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (PNQ) was also statistically significant (OR = 5.78, 95 % CI = 1.63-20.5). The European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life, total pain score and pain interference showed no significance (p = 0.46, p = 0.9, p = 0.37 respectively). A trend was observed indicating that vitamin B12 may reduce the onset and severity of CIPN. An oral B group vitamin as an adjunct to neurotoxic chemotherapy regimens was not superior to placebo (p > 0.05) for the prevention of CIPN. Patients taking the B group vitamin perceived a
Gu, Yufan; Menzies, Alexander M; Long, Georgina V; Fernando, S L; Herkes, G
Checkpoint immunotherapy has revolutionised cancer therapy and is now standard treatment for many malignancies including metastatic melanoma. Acute inflammatory neuropathies, often labelled as Guillain-Barre syndrome, are an uncommon but potentially severe complication of checkpoint immunotherapy with individual cases described but never characterised as a group. We describe a case of acute sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy following a single dose of combination ipilimumab and nivolumab for metastatic melanoma. A literature search was performed, identifying 14 other cases of acute neuropathy following checkpoint immunotherapy, with the clinical, electrophysiological and laboratory features summarised. Most cases described an acute sensorimotor neuropathy (92%) with hyporeflexia (92%) that could occur from induction up till many weeks after the final dose of therapy. In contrast to Guillain-Barre syndrome, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis often shows a lymphocytic picture (50%) and the electrophysiology showed an axonal pattern (55%). Treatment was variable and often in combination. 11 cases received steroid therapy with only 1 death within this group, whereas of the 4 patients who did not receive steroid therapy there were 3 deaths. In conclusion checkpoint immunotherapy - induced acute neuropathies are distinct from and progress differently to Guillain-Barre syndrome. As with other immunotherapy related adverse events corticosteroid therapy should be initiated in addition to usual therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dalal, Krishna; Maran, V. Bharathi; Pandey, Ravindra M.; Tripathi, Manjari
Background. The restricted usage of existing pharmacological methods which do not seem to provide the treatment of diabetic neuropathy may lead to exploring the efficacy of a complementary therapy. In this context, this paper was devoted to evaluate the efficacy of foot reflexology. This health science works on the hypothesis that the dysfunctional states of body parts could be identified by observing certain skin features and be rectified by stimulating certain specific areas mapped on feet. Method. Subjects (N = 58) with diagnosed diabetic neuropathy were randomly distributed into reflexology and control groups in which both group patients were treated with ongoing pharmacological drugs. Reflexology group patients were additionally treated holistically with the hypothesis that this therapy would bring homeostasis among body organ functions. This was a caregiver-based study with a follow-up period of 6 months. The outcome measures were pain reduction, glycemic control, nerve conductivity, and thermal and vibration sensitivities. The skin features leading to the detection of the abnormal functional states of body parts were also recorded and analyzed. Results. Reflexology group showed more improvements in all outcome measures than those of control subjects with statistical significance. Conclusion. This study exhibited the efficient utility of reflexology therapy integrated with conventional medicines in managing diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24527055
Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Pritchard, Nicola; Sampson, Geoff P; Edwards, Katie; Vagenas, Dimitrios; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan
To examine the diagnostic capability of the full retinal and inner retinal thickness measures in differentiating individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) from those without neuropathy and non-diabetic controls. Individuals with (n=44) and without (n=107) diabetic neuropathy and non-diabetic control (n=42) participants underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Retinal thickness in the central 1mm zone (including the fovea), parafovea and perifovea was assessed in addition to ganglion cell complex (GCC) global loss volume (GCC GLV) and focal loss volume (GCC FLV), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. Diabetic neuropathy was defined using a modified neuropathy disability score (NDS) recorded on a 0-10 scale, wherein, NDS ≥3 indicated neuropathy and NDS indicated <3 no neuropathy. Diagnostic performance was assessed by areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs), 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI), sensitivities at fixed specificities, positive likelihood ratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (-LR) and the cut-off points for the best AUCs obtained. The AUC for GCC FLV was 0.732 (95% CI: 0.624-0.840, p<0.001) with a sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 80% for differentiating DPN from controls. Evaluation of the LRs showed that GCC FLV was associated with only small effects on the post-test probability of the disease. The cut-off point calculated using the Youden index was 0.48% (67% sensitivity and 73% specificity) for GCC FLV. For distinguishing those with neuropathy from those without neuropathy, the AUCs of retinal parameters ranged from 0.508 for the central zone to 0.690 for the inferior RNFL thickness. For distinguishing those with moderate or advanced neuropathy from those with mild or no neuropathy, the inferior RNFL thickness demonstrated the highest AUC of 0.820, (95% CI: 0.731-0.909, p<0.001) with a sensitivity of 69% and 80% specificity. The cut-off-point for the inferior RNFL
Kluding, Patricia M.; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Singh, Rupali; Jernigan, Stephen; Farmer, Kevin; Rucker, Jason; Sharma, Neena; Wright, Douglas E.
Although exercise can significantly reduce the prevalence and severity of diabetic complications, no studies have evaluated the impact of exercise on nerve function in people with diagnosed diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine feasibility and effectiveness of a supervised, moderately intense aerobic and resistance exercise program in people with DPN. We hypothesize that the exercise intervention can improve neuropathic symptoms, nerve function, and cutaneous innervation. Methods A pre-test post-test design was to assess change in outcome measures following participation in a 10-week aerobic and strengthening exercise program. Seventeen subjects with diagnosed DPN (8 males/9 females; age 58.4±5.98; duration of diabetes 12.4±12.2 years) completed the study. Outcome measures included pain measures (visual analog scale), Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) questionnaire of neuropathic symptoms, nerve function measures, and intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and branching in distal and proximal lower extremity skin biopsies. Results Significant reductions in pain (−18.1±35.5 mm on a 100 mm scale, p=0.05), neuropathic symptoms (−1.24±1.8 on MNSI, p=0.01), and increased intraepidermal nerve fiber branching (+0.11±0.15 branch nodes/fiber, p=−.008) from a proximal skin biopsy were noted following the intervention. Conclusions This is the first study to describe improvements in neuropathic and cutaneous nerve fiber branching following supervised exercise in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. These findings are particularly promising given the short duration of the intervention, but need to be validated by comparison with a control group in future studies. PMID:22717465
Kluding, Patricia M; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Singh, Rupali; Jernigan, Stephen; Farmer, Kevin; Rucker, Jason; Sharma, Neena K; Wright, Douglas E
Although exercise can significantly reduce the prevalence and severity of diabetic complications, no studies have evaluated the impact of exercise on nerve function in people with diagnosed diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine feasibility and effectiveness of a supervised, moderately intense aerobic and resistance exercise program in people with DPN. We hypothesized that the exercise intervention can improve neuropathic symptoms, nerve function, and cutaneous innervation. A pre-test post-test design was used to assess change in outcome measures following participation in a 10-week aerobic and strengthening exercise program. Seventeen subjects with diagnosed DPN (8 males/9 females; age 58.4±5.98; duration of diabetes 12.4±12.2 years) completed the study. Outcome measures included pain measures (visual analog scale), Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) questionnaire of neuropathic symptoms, nerve function measures, and intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and branching in distal and proximal lower extremity skin biopsies. Significant reductions in pain (-18.1±35.5 mm on a 100 mm scale, P=.05), neuropathic symptoms (-1.24±1.8 on MNSI, P=.01), and increased intraepidermal nerve fiber branching (+0.11±0.15 branch nodes/fiber, P=.008) from a proximal skin biopsy were noted following the intervention. This is the first study to describe improvements in neuropathic and cutaneous nerve fiber branching following supervised exercise in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. These findings are particularly promising given the short duration of the intervention, but need to be validated by comparison with a control group in future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Köşkderelioğlu, Aslı; Ortan, Pınar; Ari, Alpay; Gedizlioğlu, Muhteşem
To investigate the existence of peripheral and optic neuropathies in asymptomatic individuals with hepatitis C infection. Thirty consecutive patients who were followed in a hepatitis C outpatient clinic were recruited for electrophysiological evaluation together with 30 age- and gender-compatible healthy controls. All patients had a detailed neurological examination. The information regarding the disease duration and management with interferons were collected. Nerve conduction studies and visual evoked potentials (VEP) were recorded in all subjects. The results of the patient and control groups were statistically compared. Of the patients with hepatitis C infection, 16 were females and 14 males. The mean age was 57.5 years, and the average disease duration was 6.43 years. The P100 latencies in the patient group were within normal limits, while the amplitudes were meaningfully small by comparison with the controls. There were some abnormalities in the nerve conduction studies of 15 patients. Sensorial neuropathy was detected in two patients, sensorimotor polyneuropathy in four, carpal tunnel syndrome in seven, and carpal tunnel syndrome and sensorimotor polyneuropathy as comorbid states in another two patients. The nerve conduction studies and VEP parameters were entirely normal in the control group. Hepatitis C-related neurological abnormalities may occur both in the central and peripheral nervous system. Mononeuritis multiplex, sensorial axonal neuropathy, and multiple mononeuropathies are some of the presentations of the peripheral nervous system involvement. The mode of infection is considered to be via vasculitic mechanisms. In addition, optic neuropathy is a known complication of interferon treatment. Autoantibodies, cytokines, chemokines, and cryoglobulins are accused to play roles in the pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the peripheral nervous system and optic nerves in a group of patients with hepatitis C. The results were in
KÖŞKDERELİOĞLU, Aslı; ORTAN, Pınar; ARI, Alpay; GEDİZLİOĞLU, Muhteşem
Introduction To investigate the existence of peripheral and optic neuropathies in asymptomatic individuals with hepatitis C infection. Methods Thirty consecutive patients who were followed in a hepatitis C outpatient clinic were recruited for electrophysiological evaluation together with 30 age- and gender-compatible healthy controls. All patients had a detailed neurological examination. The information regarding the disease duration and management with interferons were collected. Nerve conduction studies and visual evoked potentials (VEP) were recorded in all subjects. The results of the patient and control groups were statistically compared. Results Of the patients with hepatitis C infection, 16 were females and 14 males. The mean age was 57.5 years, and the average disease duration was 6.43 years. The P100 latencies in the patient group were within normal limits, while the amplitudes were meaningfully small by comparison with the controls. There were some abnormalities in the nerve conduction studies of 15 patients. Sensorial neuropathy was detected in two patients, sensorimotor polyneuropathy in four, carpal tunnel syndrome in seven, and carpal tunnel syndrome and sensorimotor polyneuropathy as comorbid states in another two patients. The nerve conduction studies and VEP parameters were entirely normal in the control group. Conclusion Hepatitis C-related neurological abnormalities may occur both in the central and peripheral nervous system. Mononeuritis multiplex, sensorial axonal neuropathy, and multiple mononeuropathies are some of the presentations of the peripheral nervous system involvement. The mode of infection is considered to be via vasculitic mechanisms. In addition, optic neuropathy is a known complication of interferon treatment. Autoantibodies, cytokines, chemokines, and cryoglobulins are accused to play roles in the pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the peripheral nervous system and optic nerves in a group of patients
Oh, Shin J
Multifocal sensory demyelinating neuropathy has not been adequately reported in the literature. A 42-year-old man with numbness of the left hand for 3 years and of the right hand for 6 months had a pure multifocal sensory neuropathy involving both hands, most prominently affecting 2-point discrimination, number writing, and object recognition of the left hand. Near-nerve needle sensory and mixed nerve conduction studies were performed on the left ulnar nerve. Studies of the left ulnar nerve documented a demyelinating neuropathy characterized by temporal dispersion and marked decrease in the amplitudes of the sensory and mixed compound nerve potentials in the above-elbow-axilla segment. With intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, there was improvement in his neuropathic condition. In this study I describe a case of multifocal sensory demyelinating neuropathy as a counterpart of multifocal motor neuropathy. Muscle Nerve 56: 825-828, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shah, Arya; Hoffman, E Matthew; Mauermann, Michelle L; Loprinzi, Charles L; Windebank, Anthony J; Klein, Christopher J; Staff, Nathan P
To assess disease burden of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), which is a common dose-limiting side effect of neurotoxic chemotherapy. Late effects of CIPN may increase with improved cancer survival. Olmsted County, Minnesota residents receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy were identified and CIPN was ascertained via text searches of polyneuropathy symptoms in the medical record. Clinical records were queried to collect data on baseline characteristics, risk factors, signs and symptoms of CIPN, medications, impairments and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnostic codes for all subjects. A total of 509 individuals with incident exposure to an inclusive list of neurotoxic chemotherapy agents between 2006 and 2008 were identified. 268 (52.7%) of these individuals were determined to have CIPN. The median time from incident exposure to first documented symptoms was 71 days. Patients with CIPN received a neuropathy ICD-9 diagnosis in only 37 instances (13.8%). Pain symptoms and use of pain medications were observed more often in patients with CIPN. Five-year survival was greater in those with CIPN (55.2%) versus those without (36.1%). Those with CIPN surviving greater than 5 years (n=145) continued to have substantial impairments and were more likely to be prescribed opioids than those without CIPN (OR 2.0, 1.06-3.69). Results from our population-based study are consistent with previous reports of high incidence of CIPN in the first 2 years following incident exposure to neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, and its association with significant pain symptomatology and accompanied long-term opioid use. Increased survival following exposure to neurotoxic chemotherapy and its long-term disease burden necessitates further study among survivors. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Plaetke, Rosemarie; Gerloff, Christian; Schroeder, Sven
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus with significant clinical sequelae that can affect a patient's quality of life. Metabolic and microvascular factors are responsible for nerve damage, causing loss of nerve function, numbness, painful sensory symptoms, and muscle weakness. Therapy is limited to anti-convulsant or anti-depressant drugs for neuropathic pain and paresthesia. However, reduced sensation, balance and gait problems are insufficiently covered by this treatment. Previous data suggests that acupuncture, which has been in use in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many years, may potentially complement the treatment options for peripheral neuropathy. Nevertheless, more objective data on clinical outcome is necessary to generally recommend acupuncture to the public. We developed a study design for a prospective, randomized (RCT), placebo-controlled, partially double-blinded trial for investigating the effect of acupuncture on DPN as determined by nerve conduction studies (NCS) with the sural sensory nerve action potential amplitude as the primary outcome. The sural sensory nerve conduction velocity, tibial motor nerve action potential amplitude, tibial motor nerve conduction velocity, the neuropathy deficit score, neuropathy symptom score, and numeric rating scale questionnaires are defined as secondary outcomes. One hundred and eighty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus will be randomized into three groups (needle acupuncture, verum laser acupuncture, and placebo laser acupuncture). We hypothesize that needle and laser acupuncture have beneficial effects on electrophysiological parameters and clinical and subjective symptoms in relation to DPN in comparison with placebo. The ACUDIN trial aims at investigating whether classical needle acupuncture and/or laser acupuncture are efficacious in the treatment of DPN. For the purpose of an objective parameter, NCS were chosen as outcome measures. Acupuncture
Bordini, Brett J; Monrad, Priya
Differentiating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) from inherited neuropathies and other acquired peripheral neuropathies requires understanding the atypical presentations of GBS and its variant forms, as well as historical and physical features suggestive of inherited neuropathies. GBS is typically characterized by the acute onset of ascending flaccid paralysis, areflexia, and dysesthesia secondary to peripheral nerve fiber demyelination. The disorder usually arises following a benign gastrointestinal or respiratory illness, is monophasic, reaches a nadir with several weeks, and responds to immunomodulatory therapy. Inherited neuropathies with onset before adulthood, whose presentation may mimic Guillain-Barré syndrome, are reviewed. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heo, Dong Won; Kim, Kyoung Nam; Lee, Min Woo; Lee, Sung Bok; Kim, Chang-Sik
To evaluate the properties of pattern standard deviation (PSD) according to localization of the glaucomatous optic neuropathy. We enrolled 242 eyes of 242 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, with a best-corrected visual acuity ≥ 20/25, and no media opacity. Patients were examined via dilated fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and Humphrey visual field examination, and divided into those with hemi-optic neuropathy (superior or inferior) and bi-optic neuropathy (both superior and inferior). We assessed the relationship between mean deviation (MD) and PSD. Using broken stick regression analysis, the tipping point was identified, i.e., the point at which MD became significantly associated with a paradoxical reversal of PSD. In 91 patients with hemi-optic neuropathy, PSD showed a strong correlation with MD (r = -0.973, β = -0.965, p < 0.001). The difference between MD and PSD ("-MD-PSD") was constant (mean, -0.32 dB; 95% confidence interval, -2.48~1.84 dB) regardless of visual field defect severity. However, in 151 patients with bi-optic neuropathy, a negative correlation was evident between "-MD-PSD" and MD (r2 = 0.907, p < 0.001). Overall, the MD tipping point was -14.0 dB, which was close to approximately 50% damage of the entire visual field (p < 0.001). Although a false decrease of PSD usually begins at approximately 50% visual field damage, in patients with hemi-optic neuropathy, the PSD shows no paradoxical decrease and shows a linear correlation with MD.
Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; Vriendt, Els De; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Lévy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andrés; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven genes: two genes for autosomal dominant (SPTLC1 and RAB7) and five genes for autosomal recessive forms of HSAN (WNK1/HSN2, NTRK1, NGFB, CCT5 and IKBKAP). We performed a systematic mutation screening of the coding sequences of six of these genes on a cohort of 100 familial and isolated patients diagnosed with HSAN. In addition, we screened the functional candidate gene NGFR (p75/NTR) encoding the nerve growth factor receptor. We identified disease-causing mutations in SPTLC1, RAB7, WNK1/HSN2 and NTRK1 in 19 patients, of which three mutations have not previously been reported. The phenotypes associated with mutations in NTRK1 and WNK1/HSN2 typically consisted of congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis, and early-onset ulcero-mutilating sensory neuropathy, respectively. RAB7 mutations were only found in patients with a Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B (CMT2B) phenotype, an axonal sensory-motor neuropathy with pronounced ulcero-mutilations. In SPTLC1, we detected a novel mutation (S331F) corresponding to a previously unknown severe and early-onset HSAN phenotype. No mutations were found in NGFB, CCT5 and NGFR. Overall disease-associated mutations were found in 19% of the studied patient group, suggesting that additional genes are associated with HSAN. Our genotype–phenotype correlation study broadens the spectrum of HSAN and provides additional insights for molecular and clinical diagnosis. PMID:19651702
Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; De Vriendt, Els; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Lévy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andrés; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven genes: two genes for autosomal dominant (SPTLC1 and RAB7) and five genes for autosomal recessive forms of HSAN (WNK1/HSN2, NTRK1, NGFB, CCT5 and IKBKAP). We performed a systematic mutation screening of the coding sequences of six of these genes on a cohort of 100 familial and isolated patients diagnosed with HSAN. In addition, we screened the functional candidate gene NGFR (p75/NTR) encoding the nerve growth factor receptor. We identified disease-causing mutations in SPTLC1, RAB7, WNK1/HSN2 and NTRK1 in 19 patients, of which three mutations have not previously been reported. The phenotypes associated with mutations in NTRK1 and WNK1/HSN2 typically consisted of congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis, and early-onset ulcero-mutilating sensory neuropathy, respectively. RAB7 mutations were only found in patients with a Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B (CMT2B) phenotype, an axonal sensory-motor neuropathy with pronounced ulcero-mutilations. In SPTLC1, we detected a novel mutation (S331F) corresponding to a previously unknown severe and early-onset HSAN phenotype. No mutations were found in NGFB, CCT5 and NGFR. Overall disease-associated mutations were found in 19% of the studied patient group, suggesting that additional genes are associated with HSAN. Our genotype-phenotype correlation study broadens the spectrum of HSAN and provides additional insights for molecular and clinical diagnosis.
Chaumette, T; Chapuy, E; Berrocoso, E; Llorca-Torralba, M; Bravo, L; Mico, J A; Chalus, M; Eschalier, A; Ardid, D; Marchand, F; Sors, A
Histamine H3 receptors are mainly expressed on CNS neurons, particularly along the nociceptive pathways. The potential involvement of these receptors in pain processing has been suggested using H3 receptor inverse agonists. The antinociceptive effect of S 38093, a novel inverse agonist of H3 receptors, has been evaluated in several neuropathic pain models in rat and compared with those of gabapentin and pregabalin. While S 38093 did not change vocalization thresholds to paw pressure in healthy rats, it exhibited a significant antihyperalgesic effect in the Streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ) neuropathy model after acute and chronic administration and, in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model only after chronic administration, submitted to the paw-pressure test. Acute S 38093 administration at all doses tested displayed a significant cold antiallodynic effect in a model of acute or repeated administration of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy submitted to cold tail immersion, cold allodynia being the main side effect of oxaliplatin in patients. The effect of S 38093 increased following chronic administration (i.e. twice a day during 5 days) in the CCI and STZ models except in the oxaliplatin models where its effect was already maximal from the first administration The kinetics and size of effect of S 38093 were similar to gabapentin and/or pregabalin. Finally, the antinociceptive effect of S 38093 could be partially mediated by α2 adrenoreceptors desensitization in the locus coeruleus. These results highlight the interest of S 38093 to relieve neuropathic pain and warrant clinical trials especially in chemotherapeutic agent-induced neuropathic pain. S 38093, a new H3 antagonist/inverse agonist, displays antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effect in neuropathic pain, especially in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy after chronic administration. This effect of S 38093 in neuropathic pain could be partly mediated by α2 receptors desensitization in the locus coeruleus
Smith, Howard S; Argoff, Charles E
Neuropathic pain continues to be a difficult and challenging clinical issue to deal with effectively. Painful diabetic polyneuropathy is a complex pain condition that occurs with reasonable frequency in the population and it may be extremely difficult for clinicians to provide patients with effective analgesia. Chronic neuropathic pain may occur in approximately one of every four diabetic patients. The pain may be described as burning or a deep-seated ache with sporadic paroxysms of lancinating painful exacerbations. The pain is often constant, moderate to severe in intensity, usually primarily involves the feet and generally tends to worsen at night. Treatment may be multimodal but largely involves pharmacological approaches. Pharmacological therapeutic options include antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), α2δ ligands and topical (5%) lidocaine patch. Other agents may be different antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate), topical capsaicin, tramadol and other opioids. Progress continues with respect to understanding various mechanisms that may contribute to painful diabetic neuropathy. Agents that may hold some promise include neurotrophic factors, growth factors, immunomodulators, gene therapy and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. It is hoped that in the future clinicians will be able to assess patient pathophysiology, which may help them to match optimal therapeutic agents to target individual patient aberrant mechanisms.
Won, Jong Chul; Im, Yong-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Chong Hwa; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Cha, Bong-Yun; Park, Tae Sun
Patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication. However, patients are usually suffering from not only diverse sensory deficit but also neuropathy-related discomforts. The aim of this study is to identify distinct groups of patients with DPN with respect to its clinical impacts on symptom patterns and comorbidities. A hierarchical cluster analysis and factor analysis were performed to identify relevant subgroups of patients with DPN ( n = 1338) and symptom patterns. Patients with DPN were divided into three clusters: asymptomatic (cluster 1, n = 448, 33.5%), moderate symptoms with disturbed sleep (cluster 2, n = 562, 42.0%), and severe symptoms with decreased quality of life (cluster 3, n = 328, 24.5%). Patients in cluster 3, compared with clusters 1 and 2, were characterized by higher levels of HbA1c and more severe pain and physical impairments. Patients in cluster 2 had moderate pain levels but disturbed sleep patterns comparable to those in cluster 3. The frequency of symptoms on each item of MNSI by "painful" symptom pattern showed a similar distribution pattern with increasing intensities along the three clusters. Cluster and factor analysis endorsed the use of comprehensive and symptomatic subgrouping to individualize the evaluation of patients with DPN.
Mercan, Metin; Yayla, Vildan; Altinay, Serdar; Seyhan, Serhat
Tangier disease (TD) (OMIM#205400) is a rare cause of inherited metabolic neuropathies characterized by marked deficiency of high-density lipoproteins and accumulation of cholesterol esters in various tissue resulting from reverse cholesterol transport deficiency. We report a case of a patient with TD with multifocal demyelinating neuropathy with conduction block who presents with winging scapula, tongue, and asymmetric extremity weakness. We also present a review of all studies published from 1960 to 2017 regarding peripheral neuropathy in TD. Our search identified 54 patients with TD with peripheral neuropathy. Syringomyelia-like neuropathy subtype (52.4%) was more frequent than multifocal sensorial and motor neuropathy subtype (26.2%), focal neuropathy subtype (19.1%), and distal symmetric polyneuropathy subtype (2.4%). Splenomegaly was the most common (40.7%) clinical manifestation in these patients. The pattern of electrodiagnostic abnormalities are: (1) demyelinating abnormalities were more predominant in the upper extremities than in the lower extremities and (2) slowing of motor nerve conduction was more prominent in the intermediate segment than in distal nerve segments. The sural-sparing pattern was present in 34.6% and conduction block was present in 11.5% of the patients. Our literature review and our case showed the clinical spectrum of TD neuropathy is quite wide and that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of non-uniform demyelinating neuropathies. © 2018 Peripheral Nerve Society.
Popinchalk, Samuel P; Schaffer, Alyssa A
A thorough history and physical examination are vital to the assessment of upper extremity compressive neuropathies. This article summarizes relevant anatomy and physical examination findings associated with upper extremity compressive neuropathies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Duloxetine, Pregabalin, and Duloxetine Plus Gabapentin for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain Management in Patients With Inadequate Pain Response to Gabapentin: An Open-Label, Randomized, Noninferiority Comparison
Tanenberg, Robert J.; Irving, Gordon A.; Risser, Richard C.; Ahl, Jonna; Robinson, Michael J.; Skljarevski, Vladimir; Malcolm, Sandra K.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether duloxetine is noninferior to (as good as) pregabalin in the treatment of pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a 12-week, open-label study of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain who had been treated with gabapentin (≥900 mg/d) and had an inadequate response (defined as a daily pain score of ≥4 on a numerical rating scale [0-10 points]). The first patient was enrolled on September 28, 2006, and the last patient visit occurred on August 26, 2009. Patients were randomized to duloxetine monotherapy (n=138), pregabalin monotherapy (n=134), or a combination of duloxetine and gabapentin (n=135). The primary objective was a noninferiority comparison between duloxetine and pregabalin on improvement in the weekly mean of the diary-based daily pain score (0- to 10-point scale) at end point. Noninferiority would be declared if the mean improvement for duloxetine was no worse than the mean improvement for pregabalin, within statistical variability, by a margin of –0.8 unit. RESULTS: The mean change in the pain rating at end point was –2.6 for duloxetine and –2.1 for pregabalin. The 97.5% lower confidence limit was a –0.05 difference in means, establishing noninferiority. As to adverse effects, nausea, insomnia, hyperhidrosis, and decreased appetite were more frequent with duloxetine than pregabalin; insomnia, more frequent with duloxetine than duloxetine plus gabapentin; peripheral edema, more frequent with pregabalin than with duloxetine; and nausea, hyperhidrosis, decreased appetite, and vomiting, more frequent with duloxetine plus gabapentin than with pregabalin. CONCLUSION: Duloxetine was noninferior to pregabalin for the treatment of pain in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy who had an inadequate pain response to gabapentin. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00385671 PMID:21719618
Kahloun, Rim; Abroug, Nesrine; Ksiaa, Imen; Mahmoud, Anis; Zeghidi, Hatem; Zaouali, Sonia; Khairallah, Moncef
Different forms of optic neuropathy causing visual impairment of varying severity have been reported in association with a wide variety of infectious agents. Proper clinical diagnosis of any of these infectious conditions is based on epidemiological data, history, systemic symptoms and signs, and the pattern of ocular findings. Diagnosis is confirmed by serologic testing and polymerase chain reaction in selected cases. Treatment of infectious optic neuropathies involves the use of specific anti-infectious drugs and corticosteroids to suppress the associated inflammatory reaction. The visual prognosis is generally good, but persistent severe vision loss with optic atrophy can occur. This review presents optic neuropathies caused by specific viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal diseases. PMID:28539795
Mata, Marina; Chattopadhyay, Munmun; Fink, David J
Neuropathy is a common, untreatable complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In animal models peptide neurotrophic factors can be used to protect against the development of neuropathy, but the combination of short half-life and off-target effects of these potent pleiotropic peptides has limited translation to human therapy. Gene transfer is a promising strategy that might circumvent these limitations. In this essay we review the basic methods of gene transfer and the preclinical data in rodent models that support the utility of this approach in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. The path to a clinical applications and potential pitfalls in developing gene therapy for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy are considered. PMID:18990298
Kandil, Mahmoud R; Darwish, Esam S; Khedr, Eman M; Sabry, Mahmoud M; Abdulah, Mohamed A
There is very little published information about the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of peripheral neuropathies. The current study is a community-based survey was conducted in the Assiut Governorate to estimate their prevalence and clinical profile. A door-to-door study was carried out on 42,223 persons from rural and urban communities in the Assiut Governorate, Egypt. There were 13,288 (31.5%) subjects from the urban and 28,935 (68·5%) from the rural area. All subjects filled in a questionnaire designed specifically for diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. Positive cases were then given a complete medical and neurological examination, routine laboratory tests, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging (magnetic resonance). The crude prevalence rate (CPR) of peripheral neuropathy was 3181/100,000 inhabitants. There was a significantly higher prevalence in the rural compared with the urban population (3795 versus 1844/100,000) and in females than males (4473 versus 1943/100,000; P<0.001 for both). The most common type reported was entrapment neuropathy (736 cases with CPR of 1743/100,000), particularly carpal tunnel syndrome (1686/100,000). Diabetic neuropathy was the most common non-compressive neuropathy with a CPR of 649/100,000. Type II diabetes was recorded in 241 patients with a CPR of 571/100,000. Compressive radiculopathy had a crude prevalence of 358/100,000; traumatic and iatrogenic radiculopathy had a prevalence rate of 149/100,000. Less common conditions were: uremic neuropathy (21/100,000) hepatic neuropathy (14/100,000), Bell's palsy (28/100,000), Guillian-Barre' syndrome (12/100,000), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (12/100,000), hereditary sensory motor neuropathy (12/100,000), and idiopathic neuropathy (92/100,000). The overall prevalence of peripheral neuropathies was high in comparison to other studies. Entrapment neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and spondylotic radiculopathy were the most common. Overall, the prevalence of
Oral manifestations, dental management, and a rare homozygous mutation of the PRDM12 gene in a boy with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VIII: a case report and review of the literature.
Elhennawy, Karim; Reda, Seif; Finke, Christian; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg; Bartzela, Theodosia
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VIII is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder. Chen et al. recently identified the causative gene and characterized biallelic mutations in the PR domain-containing protein 12 gene, which plays a role in the development of pain-sensing nerve cells. Our patient's family was included in Chen and colleagues' study. We performed a literature review of the PubMed library (January 1985 to December 2016) on hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I to VIII genetic disorders and their orofacial manifestations. This case report is the first to describe the oral manifestations, and their treatment, of the recently discovered hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VIII in the medical and dental literature. We report on the oral manifestations and dental management of an 8-month-old white boy with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy-VIII over a period of 16 years. Our patient was homozygous for a mutation of PR domain-containing protein 12 gene and was characterized by insensitivity to pain and thermal stimuli, self-mutilation behavior, reduced sweat and tear production, absence of corneal reflexes, and multiple skin and bone infections. Oral manifestations included premature loss of teeth, associated with dental traumata and self-mutilation, severe soft tissue injuries, dental caries and submucosal abscesses, hypomineralization of primary teeth, and mandibular osteomyelitis. The lack of scientific knowledge on hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy due to the rarity of the disease often results in a delay in diagnosis, which is of substantial importance for the prevention of many complications and symptoms. Interdisciplinary work of specialized medical and dental teams and development of a standardized treatment protocols are essential for the management of the disease. There are many knowledge gaps concerning the management of patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy
Jonkman, Kelly; van de Donk, Tine; Dahan, Albert
In this review, we assess the benefit of ketamine in the treatment of terminal cancer pain that is refractory to opioid treatment and/or complicated by neuropathy. While randomized controlled trials consistently show lack of clinical efficacy of ketamine in treating cancer pain, a large number of open-label studies and case series show benefit. Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist that at low-dose has effective analgesic properties. In cancer pain, ketamine is usually prescribed as adjuvant to opioid therapy when pain becomes opioid resistant or when neuropathic pain symptoms dominate the clinical picture. A literature search revealed four randomized controlled trials that examined the benefit of oral, subcutaneous or intravenous ketamine in opioid refractory cancer pain. None showed clinically relevant benefit in relieving pain or reducing opioid consumption. This suggests absence of evidence of benefit for ketamine as adjuvant analgesic in cancer pain. These findings contrast the benefit from ketamine observed in a large number of open-label studies and (retrospective) case series. We relate the opposite outcomes to methodological issues. The complete picture is such that there is still insufficient evidence to state with certainty that ketamine is not effective in cancer pain.
It is important to know the cellular properties of endoneurial microvascular endothelial cells (PnMECs) and microvascular pericytes which constitute blood-nerve barrier (BNB), since this barrier structure in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) may play pivotal pathophysiological roles in various disorders of the PNS including inflammatory neuropathies (i.e. Guillain-Barré syndrome), vasculitic neuropathies, hereditary neuropathies and diabetic neuropathy. However, in contrast to blood-brain barrier (BBB), very few studies have been directed to BNB and no adequate cell lines originating from BNB had been launched. In our laboratory, we successfully established human immortalized cell lines originating from BNB using temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen and the cellular properties of human cell lines are presented in this paper. Human PnMEC cell line showed high transendothelial electrical resistance and expressed tight junction components and various types of influx as well as efflux transporters that have been reported to function at BBB. Human pericyte cell line also possessed tight junction proteins except claudin-5 and secrete various cytokines and growth factors including bFGF, VEGF, GDNF, NGF, BDNF and angiopoietin-1. Co-culture with pericytes or pericyte-conditioned media strengthend barrier properties of PnMEC, suggesting that in the PNS, peripheral nerve pericytes support the BNB function and play the same role of astrocytes in the BBB. Future accumulation of the knowledge concerning the cellular properties of BNB-forming cells will open the door to novel therapeutic strategies for intractable peripheral neuropathies.
... links) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Peripheral Neuropathy National Institutes of Health Rare Diseases Clinical Research ... neuropathy type 5 University of Chicago Center for Peripheral Neuropathy Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (1 link) The ...
He, Wan-You; Zhang, Bin; Xiong, Qing-Ming; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Zhao, Wei-Cheng; He, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Han-Bing
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of mRNA translation and protein synthesis, and it is specifically inhibited by rapamycin. In chronic pain conditions, mTOR-mediated local protein synthesis is crucial for neuronal hyperexcitability and synaptic plasticity. The tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channel Nav1.8 plays a major role in action potential initiation and propagation and cellular excitability in DRG (dorsal root ganglion) neurons. In this study, we investigated if mTOR modulates the phosphorylation of Nav1.8 that is associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and behavioral hypersensitivity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin (STZ) at 60mg/kg. After the onset of PDN, the rats received daily intrathecal administrations of rapamycin (1μg, 3μg, or 10μg/day) for 7 days; other diabetic rats received the same volumes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Herein, we demonstrate a marked increase in protein expression of total mTOR and phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR) together with the up-regulation of phosphor-Nav1.8 (p-Nav1.8) prior to the mechanical withdrawal threshold reaching a significant reduction in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Furthermore, the intrathecal administration of rapamycin, inhibiting the activity of mTOR, suppressed the phosphorylation of DRG Nav1.8, reduced the TTX-R current density, heightened the voltage threshold for activation and lowered the voltage threshold for inactivation and relieved mechanical hypersensitivity in diabetic rats. An intrathecal injection (i.t.) of rapamycin inhibited the phosphorylation and enhanced the functional availability of DRG Nav1.8 attenuated STZ-induced hyperalgesia. These results suggest that rapamycin is a potential therapeutic intervention for clinical PDN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Molina-Esquivel, E; Pita-Rodríguez, G; Monterrey-Gutiérrez, P A; Clúa-Calderín, A M
A case control study to find out if Cuba's epidemic neuropathy was a result of one of the following causes: (1) an infectious process, (2) exposure to one or more toxical agents, (3) low intake of one or more nutrients, or (4) more than one of such causes and their interactions. A total of 311 cases of epidemic neuropathy with optic and peripheral symptoms and 377 controls were studied. A questionnaire with 55 items was employed to document exposure to factors determined by the etiologic hypothesis. Data analysis was done separately for the optical and peripheral types of the disease. No association was found between illness and any deficiency of basic sanitation for both types of neuropathy. Acute stress, irregularities in food intake, body weight loss in the last 12 months and other indicators of nutritional deficiencies were associated to both clinical manifestations, although they were also high in the controls. Low frequency of illness was found for people living with diseased persons. Females had a significant high risk of illness in the peripheral manifestations whereas smoking was the only toxical risk factor in optical neuropathy. Nutritional deficiencies together with unidentified personal factors were the main associations for illness outcome; smoking increased significantly the risk of optical neuropathy. 1. The infection etiology was unsupported in the study. 2. Smoking appeared as a factor for the optical neuropathy. 3. Stress induced by vital events were significantly associated with the disease. 4. Both types of the neuropathy were associated to body weight loss and other indicators of nutritional deficit.
Hansberry, David R; Suresh, Ragha; Agarwal, Nitin; Heary, Robert F; Goldstein, Ira M
Given its practicality, the internet is a primary resource for patients afflicted with diseases like peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, it is important that the readily available online resources on peripheral neuropathy are tailored to the general public, particularly concerning readability. Patient education resources were downloaded from the US National Library of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Neuropathy.org, GBS/CIDP Foundation International, Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Association, Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy, and Neuropathy Action Foundation websites. All patient education material related to peripheral neuropathy was evaluated for its level of readability using the Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. The FRE scores averaged 43.4 with only the US National Library of Medicine scoring above 60 (76.5). The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores averaged 11.0. All scores were above a seventh-grade level except the US National Library of Medicine, which had a score of a fifth-grade reading level. Most Americans may not fully benefit from patient education resources concerning peripheral neuropathy education on many of the websites. Only the US National Library of Medicine, which is written at a fifth-grade level, is likely to benefit the average American. © 2013 Peripheral Nerve Society.
Nguyen, Viet H
Peripheral neuropathy is characterized as a generalized, relatively homogeneous process affecting many peripheral nerves and predominantly affecting distal nerves. The epidemiology of peripheral neuropathy is limited since the disease presents with varying etiology, pathology, and severity. Toxic, inflammatory, hereditary, and infectious factors can cause damage to the peripheral nerves resulting in peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is most commonly caused by diabetes, alcohol, HIV infection, and malignancy. We report a case of a 42-year-old female with 10-year history of progressively worsening peripheral neuropathy, hypothyroidism, and skin changes who presents with dyspnea secondary to recurrent pleural and pericardial effusions. Prior to her arrival, her peripheral neuropathy was believed to be secondary to chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy (CDIP) given elevated protein in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) which was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and corticosteroids. Unfortunately, her peripheral neuropathy did not have any improvement. Incidentally, patient was found to have splenomegaly and papilledema on physical exam. Serum protein electrophoresis showed a monoclonal pattern of IgA lambda. Patient met the diagnostic criteria for POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes) syndrome. An underlying diagnosis of POEMS syndrome should be considered in patients with chronic debilitating neuropathy and an elevated protein in the CSF.
Nguyen, Viet H.
Peripheral neuropathy is characterized as a generalized, relatively homogeneous process affecting many peripheral nerves and predominantly affecting distal nerves. The epidemiology of peripheral neuropathy is limited since the disease presents with varying etiology, pathology, and severity. Toxic, inflammatory, hereditary, and infectious factors can cause damage to the peripheral nerves resulting in peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is most commonly caused by diabetes, alcohol, HIV infection, and malignancy. We report a case of a 42-year-old female with 10-year history of progressively worsening peripheral neuropathy, hypothyroidism, and skin changes who presents with dyspnea secondary to recurrent pleural and pericardial effusions. Prior to her arrival, her peripheral neuropathy was believed to be secondary to chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy (CDIP) given elevated protein in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) which was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and corticosteroids. Unfortunately, her peripheral neuropathy did not have any improvement. Incidentally, patient was found to have splenomegaly and papilledema on physical exam. Serum protein electrophoresis showed a monoclonal pattern of IgA lambda. Patient met the diagnostic criteria for POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes) syndrome. An underlying diagnosis of POEMS syndrome should be considered in patients with chronic debilitating neuropathy and an elevated protein in the CSF. PMID:22013451
Lopez Sanchez, M I G; Crowston, J G; Mackey, D A; Trounce, I A
Optic neuropathies are an important cause of blindness worldwide. The study of the most common inherited mitochondrial optic neuropathies, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) has highlighted a fundamental role for mitochondrial function in the survival of the affected neuron-the retinal ganglion cell. A picture is now emerging that links mitochondrial dysfunction to optic nerve disease and other neurodegenerative processes. Insights gained from the peculiar susceptibility of retinal ganglion cells to mitochondrial dysfunction are likely to inform therapeutic development for glaucoma and other common neurodegenerative diseases of aging. Despite it being a fast-evolving field of research, a lack of access to human ocular tissues and limited animal models of mitochondrial disease have prevented direct retinal ganglion cell experimentation and delayed the development of efficient therapeutic strategies to prevent vision loss. Currently, there are no approved treatments for mitochondrial disease, including optic neuropathies caused by primary or secondary mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent advances in eye research have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms that mediate pathogenesis, and new therapeutic strategies including gene correction approaches are currently being investigated. Here, we review the general principles of mitochondrial biology relevant to retinal ganglion cell function and provide an overview of the major optic neuropathies with mitochondrial involvement, LHON and ADOA, whilst highlighting the emerging link between mitochondrial dysfunction and glaucoma. The pharmacological strategies currently being trialed to improve mitochondrial dysfunction in these optic neuropathies are discussed in addition to emerging therapeutic approaches to preserve retinal ganglion cell function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Umeda, Akira; Yamane, Tateki; Takeuchi, Jin; Imai, Yasuo; Suzuki, Keisuke; Yumura, Wako
A 42-year-old Japanese man developed Churg–Strauss syndrome 7 years after being diagnosed with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Prominent eosinophilia, subcutaneous nodules, and neuropathy in the left leg were seen. A pathological diagnosis of necrotizing vasculitis was determined by a biopsy of a subcutaneous nodule. The leg pain was severe and there was prominent atrophy of the thigh and calf, but the muscle weakness was mild. Serum anti-myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was positive. Because the initial treatment with an intravenous methylprednisolone pulse at 1 g/day for 3 days was not sufficient, a onetime treatment with intravenous cyclophosphamide at 15 mg/kg and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) at 400 mg/kg/day for 5 days were administered. Peripheral eosinophilia improved and the leg pain significantly improved. IVIG was repeated 1 month later and symptoms gradually improved further. The early diagnosis of Churg–Strauss syndrome and the early initiation of IVIG with cyclophosphamide were thought to be important. PMID:25473575
Bhatjiwale, M; Bhatjiwale, M; Naik, L D; Chopade, P
Trigeminal neuralgia and deafferentation neuropathic pain, or trigeminal neuropathy, are different symptomatologies, rarely reported to present together. The case of a 65-year-old gentleman suffering from trigeminal neuralgia of the maxillary and mandibular division is reported. He first underwent an infraorbital neurectomy that was complicated by deafferentation neuropathic pain, whilst his mandibular neuralgia continued. He was treated successfully for both the neuropathic and neuralgic symptoms in the same session using ultra-extended euthermic pulsed radiofrequency treatment for the maxillary division (V2) and radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the mandibular division (V3). This report is novel in describing the use of dual modalities in the same session for two distinct coexisting clinical entities in two different divisions of the same cranial nerve. The use of ultra-extended pulsed radiofrequency treatment for neuropathic pain in this case is also unique. Nearly 2years after the procedure, the patient continues to have complete pain relief. Copyright © 2018 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Negi, Geeta; Kumar, Ashutosh; Sharma, Shyam S., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Peroxynitrite mediated nitrosative stress, an indisputable initiator of DNA damage and overactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a nuclear enzyme activated after sensing DNA damage, are two crucial pathogenetic mechanisms in diabetic neuropathy. The intent of the present study was to investigate the effect of combination of a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst (PDC), FeTMPyP and a PARP inhibitor, 4-ANI against diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The end points of evaluation of the study included motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and nerve blood flow (NBF) for evaluating nerve functions; thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia for assessing nociceptive alterations, malondialdehyde and peroxynitrite levels to detect oxidativemore » stress-nitrosative stress; NAD concentration in sciatic nerve to assess overactivation of PARP. Additionally immunohistochemical studies for nitrotyrosine and Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) was also performed. Treatment with the combination of FeTMPyP and 4-ANI led to significant improvement in nerve functions and pain parameters and also attenuated the oxidative-nitrosative stress markers. Further, the combination also reduced the overactivation of PARP as evident from increased NAD levels and decreased PAR immunopositivity in sciatic nerve microsections. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment with the combination of a PDC and PARP inhibitor attenuates alteration in peripheral nerves in diabetic neuropathy (DN).« less
Ashwin, D P; Chandan, G D; Jasleen, Handa Kaur; Rajkumar, G C; Rudresh, K B; Prashanth, R
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) IV is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by a decrease in the number of myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers of peripheral nerves which causes diminished or absent pain sensation leading to increase in self-mutilative habits. A retrospective study of eight cases ranging from age group of 4 to 17 years for oral and digital signs and symptoms is presented. All the patients showed congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis. Oral self-mutilations, such as autoextraction of teeth and severe bite injuries (with resultant scarring) of the finger tips and oral soft tissues (tongue, lip, and buccal mucosa) were found in most patients. Our study suggests that early diagnosis and specific treatment plan are important for prevention of characteristic of the oral as well as digital trauma associated with this disorder.
Sames, Lori; Moore, Allison; Arnold, Renee; Ekins, Sean
Approximately 1 in 2500 Americans suffer from Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. The underlying disease mechanisms are unique in most forms of CMT, with many point mutations on various genes causing a toxic accumulation of misfolded proteins. Symptoms of the disease often present within the first two decades of life, with CMT1A patients having reduced compound muscle and sensory action potentials, slow nerve conduction velocities, sensory loss, progressive distal weakness, foot and hand deformities, decreased reflexes, bilateral foot drop and about 5% become wheelchair bound. In contrast, the ultra-rare disease Giant Axonal Neuropathy (GAN) is frequently described as a recessively inherited condition that results in progressive nerve death. GAN usually appears in early childhood and progresses slowly as neuronal injury becomes more severe and leads to death in the second or third decade. There are currently no treatments for any of the forms of CMTs or GAN. We suggest that further clinical studies should analyse electrical impedance myography as an outcome measure for CMT. Further, additional quality of life (QoL) assessments for these CMTs are required, and we need to identify GAN biomarkers as well as develop new genetic testing panels for both diseases. We propose that using the Global Registry of Inherited Neuropathy (GRIN) could be useful for many of these studies. Patient advocacy groups and professional organizations (such as the Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation (HNF), Hannah's Hope Fund (HHF), The Neuropathy Association (TNA) and the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) can play a central role in educating clinicians and patients. Undertaking these studies will assist in the correct diagnosis of disease recruiting patients for clinical studies, and will ultimately improve the endpoints for clinical trials. By addressing obstacles that prevent industry investment in various forms of inherited neuropathies, we can
Zeboulon, P; Vignal-Clermont, C; Baudouin, C; Labbé, A
Cassava root is a staple food for almost 500 million people worldwide. Excessive consumption of it is a rare cause of optic neuropathy. Ten patients diagnosed with cassava root related optic neuropathy were included in this retrospective study. Diagnostic criteria were a bilateral optic neuropathy preceded by significant cassava root consumption. Differential diagnoses were excluded through a neuro-ophthalmic examination, blood tests and a brain MRI. All patients had visual field examination and OCT retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysis as well as an evaluation of their cassava consumption. All patients had a bilateral optic nerve head atrophy or pallor predominantly located into the temporal sector. Visual field defects consisted of a central or cecocentral scotoma for all patients. RNFL showed lower values only in the temporal sector. Mean duration of cassava consumption prior to the appearance of visual symptoms was 22.7±11.2 years with a mean of 2.57±0.53 cassava-based meals per week. Cassava related optic neuropathy is possibly due to its high cyanide content and enabled by a specific amino-acid deficiency. Cassava root chronic consumption is a rare, underappreciated cause of optic neuropathy and its exact mechanism is still uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Li; Liang, Jianfeng; Yu, Yanbing
Cranial neuropathy is usually idiopathic and familial cases are uncommon. We describe a family with 5 members with cranial neuropathy over 3 generations. All affected patients were women, indicating an X-linked dominant or an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Our cases and a review of the literature suggest that familial idiopathic cranial neuropathy is a rare condition which may be related to autosomal dominant vascular disorders (e.g. vascular tortuosity, sclerosis, elongation or extension), small posterior cranial fossas, anatomical variations of the posterior circulation, hypersensitivity of cranial nerves and other abnormalities. Moreover, microvascular decompression is the treatment of choice because vascular compression is the main factor in the pathogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of familial cranial neuropathy in China.
Roh, Kangsan; Kil, Eui-Joon; Lee, Minji; Auh, Chung-Kyun; Lee, Myung-Ah; Yeom, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sukchan
Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based anticancer drug used to treat metastatic colorectal, breast, and lung cancers. While oxaliplatin kills cancer cells effectively, it exhibits several side effects of varying severity. Neuropathic pain is commonly experienced during treatment with oxaliplatin. Patients describe symptoms of paresthesias or dysesthesias that are triggered by cold (acute neuropathy), or as abnormal sensory or motor function (chronic neuropathy). In particular, we found that aluminum levels were relatively high in some cancer patients suffering from neuropathic pain based on clinical observations. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that aluminum accumulation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the course of oxaliplatin treatment exacerbates neuropathic pain. In mice injected with oxaliplatin (three cycles of 3 mg/kg i.p. daily for 5 days, followed by 5 days of rest), we detected cold allodynia using the acetone test, but not heat hyperalgesia using a hot plate. However, co-treatment with aluminum chloride (AlCl3∙6H2O; 7 mg/kg i.p. for 14 days: equivalent 0.78 mg/kg of elemental Al) and oxaliplatin (1 cycle of 3 mg/kg i.p. daily for 5 days, followed by 5 days of rest) synergistically induced cold allodynia as well as increased TRPAl mRNA and protein expression. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis showed a significant increase in aluminum concentrations in the DRG of mice treated with aluminum chloride and oxaliplatin compared to aluminum chloride alone. Similarly, in a mouse induced-tumor model, aluminum concentrations were increased in DRG tissue and tumor cells after oxaliplatin treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that aluminum accumulation in the DRG may exacerbate neuropathic pain in oxaliplatin-treated mice. PMID:25928068
Desideri, Isacco; Francolini, Giulio; Becherini, Carlotta; Terziani, Francesca; Delli Paoli, Camilla; Olmetto, Emanuela; Loi, Mauro; Perna, Marco; Meattini, Icro; Scotti, Vieri; Greto, Daniela; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Sulprizio, Susanna; Livi, Lorenzo
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major clinical problem associated with a number of cytotoxic agents. OPERA ® (GAMFARMA srl, Milan, Italy) is a new dietary supplement where α-lipoic acid, Boswellia Serrata, methylsulfonylmethane and bromelain are combined in a single capsule. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the efficacy and safety of OPERA ® supplementation in a series of patients affected by CIPN. We selected 25 subjects with CIPN evolving during or after chemotherapy with potentially neurotoxic agents. Patients were enrolled at the first clinical manifestation of neuropathy. CIPN was assessed at the enrollment visit and subsequently repeated every 3 weeks until 12 weeks. Primary endpoint was the evaluation of changes of measured scores after 12 weeks of therapy compared to baseline evaluation. Secondary endpoints were the evaluation of neuropathy reduction at 12 weeks after beginning of therapy with OPERA ® . Analysis of VAS data showed reduction in pain perceived by patients. According to NCI-CTC sensor and motor score, mISS scale and TNSc scale, both pain and both sensor and motor neuropathic impairment decreased after 12 weeks of treatments. Treatment with OPERA supplement was well tolerated; no increase in the toxicity profile of any of the therapeutic regimen that the patients were undergoing was reported. OPERA ® was able to improve CIPN symptoms in a prospective series of patients treated with neurotoxic chemotherapy, with no significant toxicity or interaction. Prospective RCT in a selected patients' population is warranted to confirm its promising activity.
Saylor, Deanna; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Nakasujja, Noeline; Robertson, Kevin; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Sacktor, Ned
To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and functional impairment associated with peripheral neuropathy in a prospective cohort of adults in rural Uganda. Eight hundred participants (400 HIV- and 400 antiretroviral-naive HIV+) in the Rakai Community Cohort Study underwent detailed neurologic evaluations including assessment of neuropathy symptoms, functional measures (Patient Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory and Karnofsky Performance Status scores), and neurologic evaluation by a trained medical officer. Neuropathy was defined as ≥1 subjective symptom and ≥1 sign of neuropathy on examination. Neuropathy risk factors were assessed using log binomial regression. Fifty-three percent of participants were men, with a mean (SD) age of 35 (8) years. Neuropathy was present in 13% of the cohort and was more common in HIV+ vs HIV- participants (19% vs 7%, p < 0.001). Older age (relative risk [RR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06), female sex (RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.04-2.15), HIV infection (RR 2.82, 95% CI 1.86-4.28), tobacco use (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.02-2.48), and prior neurotoxic medication use (RR 2.08, 95% CI 1.07-4.05) were significant predictors of neuropathy in the overall cohort. Only older age was associated with neuropathy risk in the HIV+ (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and HIV- (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10) cohorts. Neuropathy was associated with impaired functional status on multiple measures across all participant groups. Peripheral neuropathy is relatively common and associated with impaired functional status among adults in rural Uganda. Older age, female sex, and HIV infection significantly increase the risk of neuropathy. Neuropathy may be an underrecognized but important condition in rural Uganda and warrants further study. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Nakigozi, Gertrude; Nakasujja, Noeline; Robertson, Kevin; Gray, Ronald H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Sacktor, Ned
Objective: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and functional impairment associated with peripheral neuropathy in a prospective cohort of adults in rural Uganda. Methods: Eight hundred participants (400 HIV− and 400 antiretroviral-naive HIV+) in the Rakai Community Cohort Study underwent detailed neurologic evaluations including assessment of neuropathy symptoms, functional measures (Patient Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory and Karnofsky Performance Status scores), and neurologic evaluation by a trained medical officer. Neuropathy was defined as ≥1 subjective symptom and ≥1 sign of neuropathy on examination. Neuropathy risk factors were assessed using log binomial regression. Results: Fifty-three percent of participants were men, with a mean (SD) age of 35 (8) years. Neuropathy was present in 13% of the cohort and was more common in HIV+ vs HIV− participants (19% vs 7%, p < 0.001). Older age (relative risk [RR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.06), female sex (RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.04–2.15), HIV infection (RR 2.82, 95% CI 1.86–4.28), tobacco use (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.02–2.48), and prior neurotoxic medication use (RR 2.08, 95% CI 1.07–4.05) were significant predictors of neuropathy in the overall cohort. Only older age was associated with neuropathy risk in the HIV+ (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.05) and HIV− (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.10) cohorts. Neuropathy was associated with impaired functional status on multiple measures across all participant groups. Conclusions: Peripheral neuropathy is relatively common and associated with impaired functional status among adults in rural Uganda. Older age, female sex, and HIV infection significantly increase the risk of neuropathy. Neuropathy may be an underrecognized but important condition in rural Uganda and warrants further study. PMID:28679596
Funalot, Benoît; Reynier, Pascal; Vighetto, Alain; Ranoux, Danièle; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Godinot, Catherine; Malthièry, Yves; Mas, Jean-Louis
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a mitochondrial disease caused by point mutations in mitochondrial DNA. It usually presents as severe bilateral visual loss in young adults. We report on a neurological disorder resembling Leigh syndrome, which complicated Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in three unrelated male patients harboring mitochondrial DNA mutations at nucleotide positions 3460, 14459, and 14484, respectively. This Leigh-like encephalopathy appears to be associated with a much more severe outcome than isolated Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.
Liu, Feng; Mao, Ji-Ping; Yan, Xiang
To evaluate the application value of Toronto clinical scoring system (TCSS) and its grading of neuropathy for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), and to explore the relationship between TCSS grading of neuropathy and the grading of diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy. A total of 209 patients of Type 2 diabtes (T2DM) underwent TCSS. Taking electrophysiological examination as a gold standard for diagnosing DPN, We compared the results of TCSS score > or = 6 with electrophysiological examination, and tried to select the optimal cut-off points of TCSS. The corresponding accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of TCSS score > or = 6 were 76.6%, 77.2%, and 75.6%, respectively.The Youden index and Kappa were 0.53 and 0.52, which implied TCSS score > or = 6 had a moderate consistency with electrophysiological examination. There was a linear positive correlation between TCSS grading of neuropathy and the grading of diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy (P<0.05). The optimal cut-off point was 5 or 6 among these patients. TCSS is reliable in diagnosing DPN and its grading of neuropathy has clinical value.
Packham, Tara L; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Sadosky, Alesia; MacDermid, Joy C; Brunner, Florian
painDETECT (PD-Q) is a self-reported assessment of pain qualities developed as a screening tool for pain of neuropathic origin. Rasch analysis is a strategy for examining the measurement characteristics of a scale using a form of item response theory. We conducted a Rasch analysis to consider if the scoring and measurement properties of PD-Q would support its use as an outcome measure. Rasch analysis was conducted on PD-Q scores drawn from a cross-sectional study of the burden and costs of NeP. The analysis followed an iterative process based on recommendations in the literature, including examination of sequential scoring categories, unidimensionality, reliability and differential item function. Data from 624 persons with a diagnosis of painful diabetic polyneuropathy, small fibre neuropathy, and neuropathic pain associated with chronic low back pain, spinal cord injury, HIV-related pain, or chronic post-surgical pain was used for this analysis. PD-Q demonstrated fit to the Rasch model after adjustments of scoring categories for four items, and omission of the time course and radiating questions. The resulting seven-item scale of pain qualities demonstrated good reliability with a person-separation index of 0.79. No scoring bias (differential item functioning) was found for this version. Rasch modelling suggests the seven pain-qualities items from PD-Q may be used as an outcome measure. Further research is required to confirm validity and responsiveness in a clinical setting.
Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng
Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. Copyright © Singapore Medical Association.
Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng
Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. PMID:26892473
Menezes, Manoj P; Rahman, Shamima; Bhattacharya, Kaustuv; Clark, Damian; Christodoulou, John; Ellaway, Carolyn; Farrar, Michelle; Pitt, Matthew; Sampaio, Hugo; Ware, Tyson L; Wedatilake, Yehani; Thorburn, David R; Ryan, Monique M; Ouvrier, Robert
Peripheral nerve involvement is common in mitochondrial disease but often unrecognised due to the prominent central nervous system features. Identification of the underlying neuropathy may assist syndrome classification, targeted genetic testing and rehabilitative interventions. Clinical data and the results of nerve conduction studies were obtained retrospectively from the records of four tertiary children's hospital metabolic disease, neuromuscular or neurophysiology services. Nerve conductions studies were also performed prospectively on children attending a tertiary metabolic disease service. Results were classified and analysed according to the underlying genetic cause. Nerve conduction studies from 27 children with mitochondrial disease were included in the study (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - 7, POLG - 7, SURF1 - 10, PDHc deficiency - 3). Four children with mtDNA mutations had a normal study while three had mild abnormalities in the form of an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy when not acutely unwell. One child with MELAS had a severe acute axonal motor neuropathy during an acute stroke-like episode that resolved over 12months. Five children with POLG mutations and disease onset beyond infancy had a sensory ataxic neuropathy with an onset in the second decade of life, while the two infants with POLG mutations had a demyelinating neuropathy. Seven of the 10 children with SURF1 mutations had a demyelinating neuropathy. All three children with PDHc deficiency had an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. Unlike CMT, the neuropathy associated with mitochondrial disease was not length-dependent. This is the largest study to date of peripheral neuropathy in genetically- classified childhood mitochondrial disease. Characterising the underlying neuropathy may assist with the diagnosis of the mitochondrial syndrome and should be an integral part of the assessment of children with suspected mitochondrial disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society
Leonardi, Luca; Marcotulli, Christian; Storti, Eugenia; Tessa, Alessandra; Serrao, Mariano; Parisi, Vincenzo; Santorelli, F M; Pierelli, Francesco; Casali, Carlo
Mutations in the mitofusin 2 (MFN2) gene cause CMT2A the most common form of autosomal dominant axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT). In addition, mutations in MFN2 have been shown to be responsible for Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy type VI (HSMN VI), a rare early-onset axonal CMT associated with optic neuropathy. Most reports of HMSN VI presented with a sub-acute form of optic neuropathy. Herein, we report a CMT2A patient, who developed very rapidly progressing severe optic neuropathy. A 40-year-old Caucasian man was evaluated for gait disturbance and lower limbs weakness, slowly progressed over the last 2 years. Due to clinical data and family history, a diagnosis of CMT2 was made. The novel heterozygous c.775C > T (p.Arg259Cys) mutation in MFN2 was detected in the patient and his clinical affected mother. Interestingly, the patient developed a severe sudden bilateral visual deterioration few years early, with clinical and instrumental picture suggestive of acute bilateral optic neuropathy. Our report expands the spectrum of MFN2-related manifestation because it indicates that visual symptoms of HMSN VI may enter in the differential with acquired or hereditary acute optic neuropathies, and that severe optic neuropathy is not invariably an early manifestation of the disease but may occur as disease progressed. This report could have an impact on clinicians who evaluate patients with otherwise unexplainable bilateral acute-onset optic neuropathy, especially if associated with a motor and sensory axonal neuropathy.
Barbosa, Margarida; Saavedra, Ana; Severo, Milton; Maier, Christoph; Carvalho, Davide
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is very common in the diabetic population. Early screening for foot pathology is of the utmost importance. The Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) is an easy, brief, and noninvasive screening tool. The aim of this study was to validate the semantics and characteristics of both sections of the Portuguese translation of the MNSI for Portuguese diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was performed on 87 type 1 and 2 diabetic patients at our outpatient endocrinology department. The final sample was composed of 76 patients. Nerve conduction studies were requested, but only a subsample of 42 patients agreed to participate in them. The scale was internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha > 0.70 in section A, or a clinical history questionnaire and a physical examination [section B]), and the scores of both sections were positively correlated (r = 0.70; P < 0.001). With regard to stability, MNSI scores between test/retest showed high stability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) demonstrated its validity, with ROC curve values for section A, section B, and sections A + B of 0.913, 0.798, and 0.906 respectively. Considering a cut off of ≥ 3 in section A and of ≥ 2 in section B, we obtained a sensitivity of 100% and 86%; a specificity of 64% and 61%; a positive predictive value of 80% and 73%; and a negative predictive value of 100% and 79%, respectively. The Portuguese MNSI is a reliable and valid tool for screening diabetic neuropathy. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.
Kramer, Rita; Bielawski, Jacek; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Othman, Alaa; Alecu, Irina; Ernst, Daniela; Kornhauser, Drew; Hornemann, Thorsten; Spassieva, Stefka
Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy. In the current study, we tested the involvement of a novel class of neurotoxic sphingolipids, the 1-deoxysphingolipids. 1-Deoxysphingolipids are produced when the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase uses l-alanine instead of l-serine as its amino acid substrate. We tested whether treatment of cells with paclitaxel (250 nM, 1 µM) and cisplatin (250 nM, 1 µM) would result in elevated cellular levels of 1-deoxysphingolipids. Our results revealed that paclitaxel, but not cisplatin treatment, caused a dose-dependent elevation of 1-deoxysphingolipids levels and an increase in the message and activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (P < 0.05). We also tested whether there is an association between peripheral neuropathy symptoms [evaluated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy-20 (CIPN20) instrument] and the 1-deoxysphingolipid plasma levels (measured by mass spectrometry) in 27 patients with breast cancer who were treated with paclitaxel chemotherapy. Our results showed that there was an association between the incidence and severity of neuropathy and the levels of very-long-chain 1-deoxyceramides such as C24 (P < 0.05), with the strongest association being with motor neuropathy (P < 0.001). Our data from cells and from patients with breast cancer suggest that 1-deoxysphingolipids, the very-long-chain in particular, play a role as molecular intermediates of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.—Kramer, R., Bielawski, J., Kistner-Griffin, E., Othman, A., Alecu, I., Ernst, D., Kornhauser, D., Hornemann, T., Spassieva, S. Neurotoxic 1-deoxysphingolipids and paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26198449
Kornak, Uwe; Mademan, Inès; Schinke, Marte; Voigt, Martin; Krawitz, Peter; Hecht, Jochen; Barvencik, Florian; Schinke, Thorsten; Gießelmann, Sebastian; Beil, F Timo; Pou-Serradell, Adolf; Vílchez, Juan J; Beetz, Christian; Deconinck, Tine; Timmerman, Vincent; Kaether, Christoph; De Jonghe, Peter; Hübner, Christian A; Gal, Andreas; Amling, Michael; Mundlos, Stefan; Baets, Jonathan; Kurth, Ingo
Many neurodegenerative disorders present with sensory loss. In the group of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies loss of nociception is one of the disease hallmarks. To determine underlying factors of sensory neurodegeneration we performed whole-exome sequencing in affected individuals with the disorder. In a family with sensory neuropathy with loss of pain perception and destruction of the pedal skeleton we report a missense mutation in a highly conserved amino acid residue of atlastin GTPase 3 (ATL3), an endoplasmic reticulum-shaping GTPase. The same mutation (p.Tyr192Cys) was identified in a second family with similar clinical outcome by screening a large cohort of 115 patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. Both families show an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and the mutation segregates with complete penetrance. ATL3 is a paralogue of ATL1, a membrane curvature-generating molecule that is involved in spastic paraplegia and hereditary sensory neuropathy. ATL3 proteins are enriched in three-way junctions, branch points of the endoplasmic reticulum that connect membranous tubules to a continuous network. Mutant ATL3 p.Tyr192Cys fails to localize to branch points, but instead disrupts the structure of the tubular endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that the mutation exerts a dominant-negative effect. Identification of ATL3 as novel disease-associated gene exemplifies that long-term sensory neuronal maintenance critically depends on the structural organisation of the endoplasmic reticulum. It emphasizes that alterations in membrane shaping-proteins are one of the major emerging pathways in axonal degeneration and suggests that this group of molecules should be considered in neuroprotective strategies.
Callaghan, Brian C; Gao, LeiLi; Li, Yufeng; Zhou, Xianghai; Reynolds, Evan; Banerjee, Mousumi; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Feldman, Eva L; Ji, Linong
To determine the associations between individual metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and peripheral neuropathy in a large population-based cohort from Pinggu, China. A cross-sectional, randomly selected, population-based survey of participants from Pinggu, China was performed. Metabolic phenotyping and neuropathy outcomes were performed by trained personnel. Glycemic status was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria, and the MetS using modified consensus criteria (body mass index instead of waist circumference). The primary peripheral neuropathy outcome was the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) examination. Secondary outcomes were the MNSI questionnaire and monofilament testing. Multivariable models were used to assess for associations between individual MetS components and peripheral neuropathy. Tree-based methods were used to construct a classifier for peripheral neuropathy using demographics and MetS components. The mean (SD) age of the 4002 participants was 51.6 (11.8) and 51.0% were male; 37.2% of the population had normoglycemia, 44.0% prediabetes, and 18.9% diabetes. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy increased with worsening glycemic status (3.25% in normoglycemia, 6.29% in prediabetes, and 15.12% in diabetes, P < 0.0001). Diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 2.60, 95% CI 1.77-3.80) and weight (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.18) were significantly associated with peripheral neuropathy. Age, diabetes, and weight were the primary splitters in the classification tree for peripheral neuropathy. Similar to previous studies, diabetes and obesity are the main metabolic drivers of peripheral neuropathy. The consistency of these results reinforces the urgent need for effective interventions that target these metabolic factors to prevent and/or treat peripheral neuropathy.
Issar, Tushar; Arnold, Ria; Kwai, Natalie C G; Pussell, Bruce A; Endre, Zoltan H; Poynten, Ann M; Kiernan, Matthew C; Krishnan, Arun V
To demonstrate construct validity of the Total Neuropathy Score (TNS) in assessing peripheral neuropathy in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). 113 subjects with CKD and 40 matched controls were assessed for peripheral neuropathy using the TNS. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted and internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity of the TNS was tested by comparing scores between case and control groups. Factor analysis revealed valid item correlations and internal consistency of the TNS was good with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.897. Subjects with CKD scored significantly higher on the TNS (CKD: median, 6, interquartile range, 1-13; controls: median, 0, interquartile range, 0-1; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed construct validity was maintained for subjects with stages 3-5 CKD with and without diabetes. The TNS is a valid measure of peripheral neuropathy in patients with CKD. The TNS is the first neuropathy scale to be formally validated in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ding, Qiang; Fang, Sui; Chen, Xueqin; Wang, Youxin; Li, Jian; Tian, Fuyun; Xu, Xiang; Attali, Bernard; Xie, Xin; Gao, Zhaobing
The organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN), often leads to paresthesias, ataxia and paralysis, occurs in the late-stage of acute poisoning or after repeated exposures to organophosphate (OP) insecticides or nerve agents, and may contribute to the Gulf War Syndrome. The acute phase of OP poisoning is often attributed to acetylcholinesterase inhibition. However, the underlying mechanism for the delayed neuropathy remains unknown and no treatment is available. Here we demonstrate that TRPA1 channel (Transient receptor potential cation channel, member A1) mediates OPIDN. A variety of OPs, exemplified by malathion, activates TRPA1 but not other neuronal TRP channels. Malathion increases the intracellular calcium levels and upregulates the excitability of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro. Mice with repeated exposures to malathion also develop local tissue nerve injuries and pain-related behaviors, which resembles OPIDN. Both the neuropathological changes and the nocifensive behaviors can be attenuated by treatment of TRPA1 antagonist HC030031 or abolished by knockout of Trpa1 gene. In the classic hens OPIDN model, malathion causes nerve injuries and ataxia to a similar level as the positive inducer tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), which also activates TRPA1 channel. Treatment with HC030031 reduces the damages caused by malathion or tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate. Duloxetine and Ketotifen, two commercially available drugs exhibiting TRPA1 inhibitory activity, show neuroprotective effects against OPIDN and might be used in emergency situations. The current study suggests TRPA1 is the major mediator of OPIDN and targeting TRPA1 is an effective way for the treatment of OPIDN. PMID:28894590
Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E
A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected.
Gonçalves, Nádia Pereira; Vægter, Christian Bjerggaard; Pallesen, Lone Tjener
The global prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing, affecting more than half a billion individuals within the next few years. As diabetes negatively affects several physiological systems, this dramatic increase represents not only impaired quality of life on the individual level but also a huge socioeconomic challenge. One of the physiological consequences affecting up to half of diabetic patients is the progressive deterioration of the peripheral nervous system, resulting in spontaneous pain and eventually loss of sensory function, motor weakness, and organ dysfunctions. Despite intense research on the consequences of hyperglycemia on nerve functions, the biological mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathy are still largely unknown, and treatment options lacking. Research has mainly focused directly on the neuronal component, presumably from the perspective that this is the functional signal-transmitting unit of the nerve. However, it is noteworthy that each single peripheral sensory neuron is intimately associated with numerous glial cells; the neuronal soma is completely enclosed by satellite glial cells and the length of the longest axons covered by at least 1,000 Schwann cells. The glial cells are vital for the neuron, but very little is still known about these cells in general and especially how they respond to diabetes in terms of altered neuronal support. We will discuss current knowledge of peripheral glial cells and argue that increased research in these cells is imperative for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathy.
Gonçalves, Nádia Pereira; Vægter, Christian Bjerggaard; Pallesen, Lone Tjener
The global prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing, affecting more than half a billion individuals within the next few years. As diabetes negatively affects several physiological systems, this dramatic increase represents not only impaired quality of life on the individual level but also a huge socioeconomic challenge. One of the physiological consequences affecting up to half of diabetic patients is the progressive deterioration of the peripheral nervous system, resulting in spontaneous pain and eventually loss of sensory function, motor weakness, and organ dysfunctions. Despite intense research on the consequences of hyperglycemia on nerve functions, the biological mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathy are still largely unknown, and treatment options lacking. Research has mainly focused directly on the neuronal component, presumably from the perspective that this is the functional signal-transmitting unit of the nerve. However, it is noteworthy that each single peripheral sensory neuron is intimately associated with numerous glial cells; the neuronal soma is completely enclosed by satellite glial cells and the length of the longest axons covered by at least 1,000 Schwann cells. The glial cells are vital for the neuron, but very little is still known about these cells in general and especially how they respond to diabetes in terms of altered neuronal support. We will discuss current knowledge of peripheral glial cells and argue that increased research in these cells is imperative for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathy. PMID:29770116
Rossor, Alexander M; Carr, Aisling S; Devine, Helen; Chandrashekar, Hoskote; Pelayo-Negro, Ana Lara; Pareyson, Davide; Shy, Michael E; Scherer, Steven S; Reilly, Mary M
Peripheral neuropathy is a common finding in patients with complex inherited neurological diseases and may be subclinical or a major component of the phenotype. This review aims to provide a clinical approach to the diagnosis of this complex group of patients by addressing key questions including the predominant neurological syndrome associated with the neuropathy, for example, spasticity, the type of neuropathy and the other neurological and non-neurological features of the syndrome. Priority is given to the diagnosis of treatable conditions. Using this approach, we associated neuropathy with one of three major syndromic categories: (1) ataxia, (2) spasticity and (3) global neurodevelopmental impairment. Syndromes that do not fall easily into one of these three categories can be grouped according to the predominant system involved in addition to the neuropathy, for example, cardiomyopathy and neuropathy. We also include a separate category of complex inherited relapsing neuropathy syndromes, some of which may mimic Guillain-Barré syndrome, as many will have a metabolic aetiology and be potentially treatable. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Komatsu, Masaaki; Wheeler, Heather E.; Chung, Suyoun; Low, Siew-Kee; Wing, Claudia; Delaney, Shannon M.; Gorsic, Lidija K.; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Zhang, Wei; Nakamura, Yusuke; Dolan, M. Eileen
Purpose Paclitaxel is used worldwide in the treatment of breast, lung, ovarian and other cancers. Sensory peripheral neuropathy is an associated adverse effect that cannot be predicted, prevented or mitigated. To better understand the contribution of germline genetic variation to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy, we undertook an integrative approach that combines genome-wide association study (GWAS) data generated from HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and Asian patients. Methods GWAS was performed with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity generated in 363 LCLs and with paclitaxel-induced neuropathy from 145 Asian patients. A gene-based approach was used to identify overlapping genes and compare to a European clinical cohort of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were used for functional validation of candidate genes. Results SNPs near AIPL1 were significantly associated with paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity in Asian LCLs (P < 10−6). Decreased expression of AIPL1 resulted in decreased sensitivity of neurons to paclitaxel by inducing neurite morphological changes as measured by increased relative total outgrowth, number of processes and mean process length. Using a gene-based analysis, there were 32 genes that overlapped between Asian LCL cytotoxicity and Asian patient neuropathy (P < 0.05) including BCR. Upon BCR knockdown, there was an increase in neuronal sensitivity to paclitaxel as measured by neurite morphological characteristics. Conclusion We identified genetic variants associated with Asian paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity and functionally validated the AIPL1 and BCR in a neuronal cell model. Furthermore, the integrative pharmacogenomics approach of LCL/patient GWAS may help prioritize target genes associated with chemotherapeutic-induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26015512
Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Pritchard, Nicola; Vagenas, Dimitrios; Edwards, Katie; Sampson, Geoff P; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan
To investigate the relationship between diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and retinal tissue thickness. Full retinal thickness in the central retinal, parafoveal, and perifoveal zones and thickness of the ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) were assessed in 193 individuals (84 with type 1 diabetes, 67 with type 2 diabetes, and 42 healthy controls) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Among those with diabetes, 44 had neuropathy defined using a modified neuropathy disability score recorded on a 0-10 scale. Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between diabetic neuropathy and retinal tissue thickness, adjusted for the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), age, sex, duration of diabetes, and HbA 1c levels. In individuals with diabetes, perifoveal thickness was inversely related to the severity of neuropathy (p < 0.05), when adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and HbA 1c levels. DR was associated with reduced thickness in parafovea (p < 0.01). The RNFL was thinner in individuals with greater degrees of neuropathy (p < 0.04). DPN is associated with structural compromise involving several retinal layers. This compromise may represent a threat to visual integrity and therefore warrants examination of functional correlates.
Gupta, Harsh V; Lee, Ricky W; Raina, Sunil K; Behrle, Brian L; Hinduja, Archana; Mittal, Manoj K
YouTube is an important resource for patients. No study has evaluated the information on peripheral neuropathy disseminated by YouTube videos. In this study, our aim was to perform a systematic review of information on YouTube regarding peripheral neuropathy. The Web site (www.youtube.com) was searched between September 19 and 21, 2014, for the terms "neuropathy," "peripheral neuropathy," "diabetic neuropathy," "neuropathy causes," and "neuropathy treatment." Two hundred videos met the inclusion criteria. Healthcare professionals accounted for almost half of the treatment videos (41 of 92; 44.6%), and most came from chiropractors (18 of 41; 43.9%). Alternative medicine was cited most frequently among the treatment discussions (54 of 145, 37.2%), followed by devices (38 of 145, 26.2%), and pharmacological treatments (23 of 145, 15.9%). Approximately half of the treatment options discussed in the videos were not evidence-based. Caution should be exercised when YouTube videos are used as a patient resource. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
identify those that diminish or eliminate the EphB1-NR1 protein-protein interaction. Damage to pain sensing peripheral nerves following traumatic...injury or other insult, such as diabetic neuropathy or bone cancer growth, strongly elevates the protein-protein interaction between EphB1 and the NR1
Callaghan, Brian C; Price, Raymond S; Chen, Kevin S; Feldman, Eva L
Peripheral neuropathy is a prevalent condition that usually warrants a thorough history and examination but has limited diagnostic evaluation. However, rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy often require more extensive diagnostic testing and different treatments. To describe rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy, including the appropriate diagnostic evaluation and available treatments. References were identified from PubMed searches conducted on May 29, 2015, with an emphasis on systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials. Articles were also identified through the use of the authors' own files. Search terms included common rare neuropathy localizations and their causes, as well as epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Diffuse, nonlength-dependent neuropathies, multiple mononeuropathies, polyradiculopathies, plexopathies, and radiculoplexus neuropathies are rare peripheral neuropathy localizations that often require extensive diagnostic testing. Atypical neuropathy features, such as acute/subacute onset, asymmetry, and/or motor predominant signs, are frequently present. The most common diffuse, nonlength-dependent neuropathies are Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Effective disease-modifying therapies exist for many diffuse, nonlength-dependent neuropathies including Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and some paraprotein-associated demyelinating neuropathies. Vasculitic neuropathy (multiple mononeuropathy) also has efficacious treatment options, but definitive evidence of a treatment effect for IgM anti-MAG neuropathy and diabetic amyotrophy (radiculoplexus neuropathy) is lacking. Recognition of rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy is essential given the implications for diagnostic testing and treatment. Electrodiagnostic studies are an important
Silva, Magali Aparecida Orate Menezes da; Piatto, Vânia Belintani; Maniglia, Jose Victor
Mutations in the otoferlin gene are responsible for auditory neuropathy. To investigate the prevalence of mutations in the mutations in the otoferlin gene in patients with and without auditory neuropathy. This original cross-sectional case study evaluated 16 index cases with auditory neuropathy, 13 patients with sensorineural hearing loss, and 20 normal-hearing subjects. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and the mutations in the otoferlin gene sites were amplified by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. The 16 index cases included nine (56%) females and seven (44%) males. The 13 deaf patients comprised seven (54%) males and six (46%) females. Among the 20 normal-hearing subjects, 13 (65%) were males and seven were (35%) females. Thirteen (81%) index cases had wild-type genotype (AA) and three (19%) had the heterozygous AG genotype for IVS8-2A-G (intron 8) mutation. The 5473C-G (exon 44) mutation was found in a heterozygous state (CG) in seven (44%) index cases and nine (56%) had the wild-type allele (CC). Of these mutants, two (25%) were compound heterozygotes for the mutations found in intron 8 and exon 44. All patients with sensorineural hearing loss and normal-hearing individuals did not have mutations (100%). There are differences at the molecular level in patients with and without auditory neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Lee, Sang-Soo; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Han, Seol-Heui
We describe terminal changes in a long-term follow-up of a 51-year-old man with sporadic hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). From the age of 15 years onwards, he suffered from multiple painless ulcers of his feet and fingers, necessitating amputation. Neurological studies revealed almost complete sensory loss affecting all modalities in the upper and lower limbs, minimal involvement of motor fibers, and areflexia. A neurophysiological abnormality involved an absence of sensory action potentials with relatively normal motor nerve conduction velocities. Biopsy of the sural nerve showed almost total loss of myelinated fibers with a mild decrease in unmyelinated fibers. Despite the late onset of the disease, the progressive course, and the lancinating pain, the terminal features of this patient, which involved a selective loss of myelinated fibers and widespread sensory loss, seem to be symptomatic of HSAN II, the progressive form of autosomal recessive sensory neuropathy, and emphasize the clinical heterogeneity of HSAN.
Kramer, Rita; Bielawski, Jacek; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Othman, Alaa; Alecu, Irina; Ernst, Daniela; Kornhauser, Drew; Hornemann, Thorsten; Spassieva, Stefka
Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy. In the current study, we tested the involvement of a novel class of neurotoxic sphingolipids, the 1-deoxysphingolipids. 1-Deoxysphingolipids are produced when the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase uses l-alanine instead of l-serine as its amino acid substrate. We tested whether treatment of cells with paclitaxel (250 nM, 1 µM) and cisplatin (250 nM, 1 µM) would result in elevated cellular levels of 1-deoxysphingolipids. Our results revealed that paclitaxel, but not cisplatin treatment, caused a dose-dependent elevation of 1-deoxysphingolipids levels and an increase in the message and activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (P < 0.05). We also tested whether there is an association between peripheral neuropathy symptoms [evaluated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy-20 (CIPN20) instrument] and the 1-deoxysphingolipid plasma levels (measured by mass spectrometry) in 27 patients with breast cancer who were treated with paclitaxel chemotherapy. Our results showed that there was an association between the incidence and severity of neuropathy and the levels of very-long-chain 1-deoxyceramides such as C24 (P < 0.05), with the strongest association being with motor neuropathy (P < 0.001). Our data from cells and from patients with breast cancer suggest that 1-deoxysphingolipids, the very-long-chain in particular, play a role as molecular intermediates of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. © FASEB.
Staff, Nathan P.; Windebank, Anthony J.
Purpose of Review: Peripheral neuropathies secondary to vitamin deficien