Fallatah, Summayah M.A.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 of the upper limb is a painful and debilitating condition. Interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) in conjugation with other modalities was shown to be a feasible therapy with variable success. We reported a case of CRPS type 1 as diagnosed by International Association for the Study of Pain criteria in which pharmacological approaches failed to achieve adequate pain relief and even were associated with progressive dysfunction of the upper extremity. Single injection ISB, in combination with physical therapy and botulinum toxin injection, was successful to alleviate pain with functional restoration. PMID:25422619
Robbins, J Will; Lundy, Paige A; Gard, Andrew P; Puccioni, Mark J
Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) encompasses a spectrum of neurological dysfunction related to excessive tension on the distal spinal cord resulting in anatomic deformation and metabolic disturbance. Symptoms typically manifest as back/leg pain, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, constipation, sphincter abnormalities, and scoliosis. To date, among the least well-described symptoms of TCS is pain or hypersensitivity in the perineal region. The authors reviewed their experience with spinal cord detethering to identify and further characterize those who present with perineal pain or hypersensitivity. Cases of spinal cord detethering at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially identified by procedural codes. Cases were reviewed for presenting symptoms, specifically perineal pain or hypersensitivity. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings, clinical outcome, and length of follow-up were also noted. Of the 491 patients identified, seven patients (1.4%) were identified as having preoperative perineal pain or hypersensitivity. All of these patients had complete resolution of perineal pain/hypersensitivity at the time of last follow-up. Furthermore, five (71%) of these patients experienced resolution of all initial symptoms. Perineal pain or hypersensitivity can be an important symptom of spinal cord tethering. Spinal cord detethering may result in a good outcome and relief of perineal pain or hypersensitivity.
Wolter, Tilman; Kieselbach, Kristin
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been described in a variety of neuropathic and vasospastic pain conditions including Raynaud's syndrome. We report here the outcome of single lead SCS in the case of a 49-year-old woman with severe Raynaud's syndrome, which had failed to respond to medical therapy. With a single quadripolar cervical lead in midline position at the C2/C3 level sustained pain relief of the bilateral pain was accomplished. Pain scores sank from 7/10 to 2-3/10 on the nominal analog scale and remained stable more than nearly four years by now. Treatment of bilateral pain in Raynaud's syndrome with SCS in a single technique is feasible. Advantages and disadvantages as compared with stimulation with bilateral leads are discussed. © 2011 International Neuromodulation Society.
Osumi, Michihiro; Sumitani, Masahiko; Kumagaya, Shin-ichiro; Morioka, Shu
Objective Disturbance of goal-directed motor control may cause or exacerbate pathological pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We conducted a single-case study about motor control involved in reaching with a patient with CRPS in an upper limb. Methods Using a three-dimensional measurement system, we recorded reaching movement trajectories of the intact and affected hand before and after pain alleviation by therapeutic nerve blockade. We assessed degrees of tremor in the acceleration phase (from start until maximum peak velocity) and the deceleration phase (from maximum peak velocity until goal). To quantify the smoothness of reaching movements, we analyzed the curves of the trajectories during the initial movement phase (from start and maximum peak acceleration). Results The results showed that the tremor of the affected hand was greater than that of the intact hand during the deceleration phase, both before and after pain alleviation. Reaching trajectories of the intact hand smoothly traced curves convexed toward the intact side, while those of the affected hand represented unnaturally rectilinear functions associated with the loss of smooth movements. Further, these unnatural trajectories partially recovered after pain alleviation. Conclusion Disturbance of sensorimotor integration and pain-related fear might affect goal-directed motor control in CRPS patients. PMID:28138265
Osumi, Michihiro; Sumitani, Masahiko; Kumagaya, Shin-Ichiro; Morioka, Shu
Disturbance of goal-directed motor control may cause or exacerbate pathological pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We conducted a single-case study about motor control involved in reaching with a patient with CRPS in an upper limb. Using a three-dimensional measurement system, we recorded reaching movement trajectories of the intact and affected hand before and after pain alleviation by therapeutic nerve blockade. We assessed degrees of tremor in the acceleration phase (from start until maximum peak velocity) and the deceleration phase (from maximum peak velocity until goal). To quantify the smoothness of reaching movements, we analyzed the curves of the trajectories during the initial movement phase (from start and maximum peak acceleration). The results showed that the tremor of the affected hand was greater than that of the intact hand during the deceleration phase, both before and after pain alleviation. Reaching trajectories of the intact hand smoothly traced curves convexed toward the intact side, while those of the affected hand represented unnaturally rectilinear functions associated with the loss of smooth movements. Further, these unnatural trajectories partially recovered after pain alleviation. Disturbance of sensorimotor integration and pain-related fear might affect goal-directed motor control in CRPS patients.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...
... worsens. Treatment options for myofascial pain syndrome include physical therapy and trigger point injections. Pain medications and relaxation ... syndrome typically includes medications, trigger point injections or physical therapy. No conclusive evidence supports using one therapy over ...
Kalytczak, Marcelo Martins; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Bley, André Serra; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Politti, Fabiano
Possible delays in pre-activation or deficiencies in the activity of the dynamic muscle stabilizers of the knee and hip joints are the most common causes of the patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The aim of the study was to compare kinematic variables and electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles between patients with PFPS and health subjects during the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT). This study included 14 female with PFPS (PFPS group) and 14 female healthy with no history of knee pain (Healthy group). Kinematic and EMG data ware collected through participants performed a single session of the SLTHT. The PFPS group exhibited a significant increase (p<0.05) in the EMG activity of the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles, when compared with the healthy group in pre-activity and during the stance phase. This same result was also found for the vastus lateralis muscle (p<0.05) when analyzing the EMG activity during the eccentric phase of the stance phase. In kinematic analysis, no significant differences were found between the groups. These results indicate that biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles mainly during the pre-activation phase and stance phases of the SLTHT are more active in PFPS group among healthy group.
Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola
Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed.
Taba Taba Vakili, Sahar; Alam, Tausif; Sollinger, Hans
Loin pain hematuria syndrome is a rare disease with a prevalence of ∼0.012%. The most prominent clinical features include periods of severe intermittent or persistent unilateral or bilateral loin pain accompanied by either microscopic or gross hematuria. Patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome initially present with hematuria, flank pain, or most often both hematuria and flank pain. Kidney biopsies from patients with loin pain hematuria typically reveal only minor pathologic abnormalities. Further, loin pain hematuria syndrome is not associated with loss of kidney function or urinary tract infections. Loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated hematuria and pain are postulated to be linked to vascular disease of the kidney, coagulopathy, renal vasospasm with microinfarction, hypersensitivity, complement activation on arterioles, venocalyceal fistula, abnormal ureteral peristalsis, and intratubular deposition of calcium or uric acid microcrystals. Many patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome also meet criteria for a somatoform disorder, and analgesic medications, including narcotics, commonly are used to treat loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated pain. Interventional treatments include renal denervation, kidney autotransplantation, and nephrectomy; however, these methods should be used only as a last resort when less invasive measures have been tried unsuccessfully. In this review article, we discuss and critique current clinical practices related to loin pain hematuria syndrome pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
... regional pain syndrome is an uncommon form of chronic pain that usually affects an arm or a ... I need? Is my condition likely temporary or chronic? What types of treatments are available? Which do ...
Collado, Hervé; Fredericson, Michael
Patellofemoral pain (PFP) syndrome is a frequently encountered overuse disorder that involves the patellofemoral region and often presents as anterior knee pain. PFP can be difficult to diagnose. Not only do the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment remain challenging, but the terminology used to describe PFP is used inconsistently and can be confusing. Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) seems to be multifactorial, resulting from a complex interaction among intrinsic anatomic and external training factors. Although clinicians frequently make the diagnosis of PFPS, no consensus exists about its etiology or the factors most responsible for causing pain. This article discusses the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of PFP.
Chang, Victor T; Janjan, Nora; Jain, Subash; Chau, Chi
Cancer pain often presents in a body region. This review summarizes articles from 1999-2004 relevant to cancer pain syndromes in the head and neck, chest, back, abdomen, pelvis, and limbs. Although the evidence is limited, progress is being made in further development of the evidence base to support and guide current practice.
Kim, Minhee; Lee, Minyoung; Kim, Yushin; Oh, Sejun; Lee, Dongshin
Abstract Objective: This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of self-exercise with a therapeutic inflatable ball (SEIB) in elderly patients with myofascial pain syndrome. Design: Single-blind, randomized, controlled noninferiority trial. Setting: University campus. Participants: Forty elderly patients with myofascial pain syndrome completed the study. They were randomly allocated to SEIB (n = 22; mean age, 70.23 ± 6.11 years) or ultrasound (US) therapy (n = 18; mean age, 67.99 ± 5.64 years). Intervention: SEIB and US therapy (twice weekly for 4 consecutive weeks). Outcome measures: Visual analog scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and cervical lateral flexion (CLF) were measured at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Results: The noninferiority test indicated that SEIB was not inferior to US for VAS, PPT, and CLF. Between-group comparisons showed no significant differences in the VAS (F = 2.579; p = 0.117), the PPT (F = 0.245; p = 0.624), and the CLF (F = 2.072; p = 0.159). In within-group comparisons, both groups presented significant differences in VAS (SEIB after 1 week and US after 1 week), PPT (SEIB after 3 weeks and US after 4 weeks), and CLF (SEIB after 4 weeks and US after 4 weeks) compared with baseline values. Conclusions: SEIB for 4 weeks has an effect similar to that of US for desensitizing myofascial pain and increasing joint flexibility. High accessibility and low cost would make SEIB a practical self-treatment method in elderly patients with myofascial pain syndrome. PMID:26910293
Kim, Minhee; Lee, Minyoung; Kim, Yushin; Oh, Sejun; Lee, Dongshin; Yoon, BumChul
This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of self-exercise with a therapeutic inflatable ball (SEIB) in elderly patients with myofascial pain syndrome. Single-blind, randomized, controlled noninferiority trial. University campus. Forty elderly patients with myofascial pain syndrome completed the study. They were randomly allocated to SEIB (n = 22; mean age, 70.23 ± 6.11 years) or ultrasound (US) therapy (n = 18; mean age, 67.99 ± 5.64 years). SEIB and US therapy (twice weekly for 4 consecutive weeks). Visual analog scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and cervical lateral flexion (CLF) were measured at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The noninferiority test indicated that SEIB was not inferior to US for VAS, PPT, and CLF. Between-group comparisons showed no significant differences in the VAS (F = 2.579; p = 0.117), the PPT (F = 0.245; p = 0.624), and the CLF (F = 2.072; p = 0.159). In within-group comparisons, both groups presented significant differences in VAS (SEIB after 1 week and US after 1 week), PPT (SEIB after 3 weeks and US after 4 weeks), and CLF (SEIB after 4 weeks and US after 4 weeks) compared with baseline values. SEIB for 4 weeks has an effect similar to that of US for desensitizing myofascial pain and increasing joint flexibility. High accessibility and low cost would make SEIB a practical self-treatment method in elderly patients with myofascial pain syndrome.
Zapata, Aura Ligia; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Leone, Claudio; Doria-Filho, Ulysses; Silva, Clovis Artur Almeida
The presence of musculoskeletal pain was evaluated in adolescents. Pain was reported by 40% of respondents, benign joint hypermobility syndrome by 10%, myofascial syndrome by 5%, tendonitis by 2%, and fibromialgia by 1%. Logistical regression analysis indicated that sex and age were predictive of pain.
Sun, Mei-Yuan; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Cheng, Yung-Yen; Hung, Hung-Chang; Li, Tsai-Chung; Yen, Sch-May; Huang, I-Shin
Chronic neck myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common disorder seen in clinics. There is no gold standard method to treat myofascial pain. We investigated the effects of acupuncture on patients with chronic neck MPS by a single-blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 35 patients were randomly allocated to an acupuncture group (AG) or a sham acupuncture group (SG). Each subject received acupuncture treatment twice per week for three consecutive weeks. The primary outcome measure was quality of life as assessed with Short Form-36, and secondary outcome measures were neck range of motion (ROM), motion-related pain, and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), as determined by a blinded investigator. The clinical assessments were made before treatment (BT) and after six acupuncture treatments (AT), as well as four weeks (F1) and 12 weeks (F2) after the end of the treatment. A total of 34 patients completed the trial. The results indicated that there is no significant difference in the ROM, motion-related pain, and SF-MPQ scores between AG and SG at AT, F1 and F2 (all p > 0.05). However, AG has greater improvement in physical functioning and role emotional of Short Form-36 quality of life at F2. The results indicate that acupuncture may be used to improve the quality of life in patients with chronic neck MPS.
Häuser, W; Grandt, D
Psychosomatics of visceral pain syndromes. From a psychosomatic point of view visceral pain syndromes can be classified into nociceptive (somatic and visceral) pain syndromes without and with maladaptive pain coping resp.psychic comorbidity, functional pain syndromes (typical symptom clusters without biochemical or structural abnormalities in clinical routine diagnostics) and psychic disorders with pain as main symptom. With regard to the etiology and the course of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) as representatives of somatic pain syndromes and of irritable bowel syndrome/chronic pelvic pain as representatives of functional pain syndromes empirically validated psychosocial aspects are summarized: Personality traits, illness behavior, daily hassles, life events and psychic comorbidity and effects of psychotherapy. Psychosocial factors are decisive in the etiology and the course of functional pain syndromes as determinants of their severity (psychosomatic disease in a narrow sense). Psychosocial factors are not decisive for the etiology, but for the course of IBD (psychosomatic disease in a broader sense). Within general pain therapy of visceral pain syndromes a biopsychosocial approach should be applied right from the beginning (psychosomatic basic care). Within special pain therapy of visceral pain syndromes a qualified psychiatric - psychotherapeutic diagnostics and co-therapy should be mandatory.
Novikova, L B; Akopyan, A P
To analyze clinical characteristics of pain syndrome in patients with dorsalgia. Authors studied 43 patients (mean age 41.9±1.2 years), 34 women and 9 men, with acute and subacute chronic back pain. The study included neurological examination, MRI and/or CT of the spine, measurement of anxiety and depression with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the McGill Pain Inventory. Chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MFPS) was frequently associated with anxiety-depressive disorders found in patients with cervical and cervical/pectoral pain, fibromyalgia with minimal neurological symptoms and no signs of neural structure compression according to MRI and CT. The results of the study of chronic MFPS should be taken into account in the choice of tactics of treatment of MFPS patients. The use of amelotex in the combination with compligam B in patients with dorsopathy and MFPS is effective together with correction of emotional disorders and treatment with chondroprotectors.
Sebastin, Sandeep J
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040
Borg-Stein, Joanne; Iaccarino, Mary Alexis
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional pain disorder caused by taut bands of muscle fibers in skeletal muscles called myofascial trigger points. MPS is a common disorder, often diagnosed and treated by physiatrists. Treatment strategies for MPS include exercises, patient education, and trigger point injection. Pharmacologic interventions are also common, and a variety of analgesics, antiinflammatories, antidepressants, and other medications are used in clinical practice. This review explores the various treatment options for MPS, including those therapies that target myofascial trigger points and common secondary symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bley, Andre Serra; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Rabelo, Nayra Deise Dos Anjos; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia
Asymmetry in the alignment of the lower limbs during weight-bearing activities is associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), caused by an increase in patellofemoral (PF) joint stress. High neuromuscular demands are placed on the lower limb during the propulsion phase of the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT), which may influence biomechanical behavior. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to compare kinematic, kinetic and muscle activity in the trunk and lower limb during propulsion in the SLTHT using women with PFPS and pain free controls. The following measurements were made using 20 women with PFPS and 20 controls during propulsion in the SLTHT: kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee; kinetics of the hip, knee and ankle; and muscle activation of the gluteus maximus (GM), gluteus medius (GMed), biceps femoris (BF) and vastus lateralis (VL). Differences between groups were calculated using three separate sets of multivariate analysis of variance for kinematics, kinetics, and electromyographic data. Women with PFPS exhibited ipsilateral trunk lean; greater trunk flexion; greater contralateral pelvic drop; greater hip adduction and internal rotation; greater ankle pronation; greater internal hip abductor and ankle supinator moments; lower internal hip, knee and ankle extensor moments; and greater GM, GMed, BL, and VL muscle activity. The results of the present study are related to abnormal movement patterns in women with PFPS. We speculated that these findings constitute strategies to control a deficient dynamic alignment of the trunk and lower limb and to avoid PF pain. However, the greater BF and VL activity and the extensor pattern found for the hip, knee, and ankle of women with PFPS may contribute to increased PF stress.
Strauss, Eric J; Nho, Shane J; Kelly, Bryan T
Originally defined as "tenderness to palpation over the greater trochanter with the patient in the side-lying position," greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) as a clinical entity, has expanded to include a number of disorders of the lateral, peritrochanteric space of the hip, including trochanteric bursitis, tears of the gluteus medius and minimus and external coxa saltans (snapping hip). Typically presenting with pain and reproducible tenderness in the region of the greater trochanter, buttock, or lateral thigh, GTPS is relatively common, reported to affect between 10% and 25% of the general population. Secondary to the relative paucity of information available on the diagnosis and management of components of GTPS, the presence of these pathologic entities may be underrecognized, leading to extensive workups and delays in appropriate treatment. This article aims to review the present understanding of the lesions that comprise GTPS, discussing the relevant anatomy, diagnostic workup and recommended treatment for trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius and minimus tears, and external coxa saltans.
Carr, Emily S.; De La Cerda, Ashley
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurologic disorder that often results in debilitating chronic pain, but the diagnosis may elude providers as it is one of exclusion. A history of trauma may be elucidated. We report a case of CRPS and review the clinical findings, appropriate workup, and treatment options for the patient. The patient we describe went through an extensive workup before receiving the correct diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis leads to prolonged suffering for the patient and, at times, unnecessary invasive debridement procedures. Raising awareness of this entity may help physicians make the correct diagnosis early, as well as initiate a collaborative effort between neurology, anesthesiology, and dermatology to provide the patient the most favorable outcome. PMID:27365892
Gerwin, Robert D
Myofascial pain is one of the most common causes of pain. The diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is made by muscle palpation. The source of the pain in MPS is the myofascial trigger point, a very localized region of tender, contracted muscle that is readily identified by palpation. The trigger point has well-described electrophysiologic properties and is associated with a derangement of the local biochemical milieu of the muscle. A proper diagnosis of MPS includes evaluation of muscle as a cause of pain, and assessment of associated conditions that have an impact on MPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... skin temperature, switching between warm or cold Faster growth of nails and hair Muscle spasms and joint pain Severe burning, aching pain ... easily Pain that is becoming worse Slower hair growth Stiff joints and weak muscles Stage 3 (irreversible changes can be seen) Limited ...
... cord. This syndrome can be caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, tumors, epilepsy, brain or spinal cord trauma, or ... cord. This syndrome can be caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, tumors, epilepsy, brain or spinal cord trauma, or ...
Danilov, Andrei; Kurganova, Julia
Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by epiphysis and extrapineal structures. It performs several functions including chronobiotic, antioxidant, oncostatic, immune modulating, normothermal, and anxiolytic functions. Melatonin affects the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract, participates in reproduction and metabolism, and body mass regulation. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated melatonin efficacy in relation to pain syndromes. The present paper reviews the studies on melatonin use in fibromyalgia, headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic back pain, and rheumatoid arthritis. The paper discusses the possible mechanisms of melatonin analgesic properties. On one hand, circadian rhythms normalization results in sleep improvement, which is inevitably disordered in chronic pain syndromes, and activation of melatonin adaptive capabilities. On the other hand, there is evidence of melatonin-independent analgesic effect involving melatonin receptors and several neurotransmitter systems.
Choy, Ernest; Clauw, Daniel J.; Goldenberg, Don L.; Harris, Richard E.; Helfenstein, Milton; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Noguchi, Koichi; Silverman, Stuart L.; Ushida, Takahiro; Wang, Guochun
This manuscript, developed by a group of chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia (FM) and identify ongoing challenges in the field of FM and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of FM and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with FM and other conditions with FM-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients’ lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about FM and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of FM. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of FM and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to FM and chronic pain in general. PMID:27022674
Saxena, Anudeep; Chansoria, Mayank; Tomar, Gaurav; Kumar, Abhyuday
Over the last few decades, advances have been made in the understanding of myofascial pain syndromes (MPSs). In spite of its high prevalence in the society, it is not a commonly established diagnosis. MPS is said to be the great imitator. This article puts some light on the various clinical presentations of the syndrome, on the various tools to reach to a diagnosis for commencing the treatment and on the treatment modalities that have been used so far.
Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N
Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions.
Desai, Mehul J; Saini, Vikramjeet; Saini, Shawnjeet
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The appropriate evaluation and management of myofascial pain is an important part of musculoskeletal rehabilitation, and regional axial and limb pain syndromes. This article reviews the current hypotheses regarding the treatment modalities for myofascial trigger points and muscle pain. Through a critical evidence-based review of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, the authors aim to provide clinicians with a more comprehensive knowledge of the interventions for myofascial pain.
Gerwin, Robert D
Myofascial pain syndromes caused by trigger points (TrPs) in muscle are a common cause of local and generalized pain. Trigger points are hyperirritable zones in contracted bands of muscle, thought to be caused by muscle overload or stress. Stress TrPs have characteristic electromyographic features, and can be visualized with ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography. Trigger point needling or injection can be effective in inactivating TrP, but correcting triggers is also critical. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Teachey, William S
It has been long recognized in the otolaryngic community that despite great effort dedicated to the physiology and pathology of the ear, nose, throat/head and neck, there are a number of symptoms, including pain in various locations about the head and neck, which cannot be explained by traditional otolaryngic principles. The tenets of myofascial dysfunction, however, as elucidated by Dr. Janet Travell, explain most of these previously unexplained symptoms; furthermore, treatment based on Dr. Travell's teachings is effective in relieving these symptoms.
Scarpato, Salvatore; Atzeni, Fabiola; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Brucato, Antonio; Quartuccio, Luca; Pietrogrande, Maurizio; Monti, Giuseppe; Galli, Massimo
Cryoglobulinaemic syndrome (CS) includes clinical signs and symptoms that range from the classic triad of Meltzer and Franklin (purpura, weakness and arthralgias) to multiple organ involvement, and it may be characterised by nociceptive or neuropathic pain. Both types of pain use the same pathways and neurotransmitters, but nociceptive pain has an adaptive system and biological function whereas neuropathic pain does not. Managing CS means dealing with often very different clinical patterns, activity and severity with the aim of preventing irreversible organ damage, reducing pain, improving the patients' quality of life and reducing social costs. However, treatment is still largely empirical, and it is often delayed. The Italian Group for the Study of Cryoglobulinaemia (GISC) strongly recommended a low-antigen-content diet and colchicine for all symptomatic CS patients. Patients with mild-moderate symptoms (such as purpura, weakness, arthralgia and initial neuropathy) have been treated with low or medium doses of steroids, and, in the presence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatitis, an attempt has been made to eradicate HCV with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. In the case of severe or rapidly progressive disease (glomerulonephritis, neuropathy, leg ulcers, widespread vasculitis or hyperviscosity syndrome), more aggressive treatment should be used (e.g., high doses of corticosteroids, plasma exchange plus cyclophosphamide or rituximab). Pain management in CS therefore depends on the type of pain (nociceptive, neuropathic or mixed), the characteristics of the patients and their co-morbidities. Drug therapy should be carefully monitored in order to obtain prompt and beneficial results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilkinson, Harold A
Enthesopathies are a common cause of axial pain that is amenable to "minimally invasive" therapy. To evaluate the effectiveness of injection therapy for enthesopathies. Single blinded, randomized, and cross-over study. Thirty-five patients diagnosed as having painful enthesopathies as a major pain generator were studied. Of the patients studied, 86% of patients had undergone prior lumbar spine surgery and all were referred for neurosurgical evaluation for possible surgery. Patients were injected either with anesthetics alone or with anesthetics combined with phenol-glycerol proliferant prolotherapy. Outcomes were analyzed both clinically at the time of regular follow-ups, and by a series of multipart questionnaires. Patients received a total of 86 injections, 39 with local anesthetics, and 47 with prolotherapy. By clinical assessment patients obtained excellent to good relief of pain and tenderness after 80% of prolotherapy injections, but only 47% after anesthetics alone. By questionnaire, 66% reported excellent to good relief after prolotherapy vs. 34% after anesthetics alone. Patients reported improvement in work capacity and social functioning following both types of injections, but a greater reduction in focal pain intensity following prolotherapy injections. The mean and median durations of persistent relief were 2.4 and 1.75 months with prolotherapy vs. 1.8 and 0.75 months with anesthetics alone. Roughly 10% obtained greater than six months of relief from either injection. In the crossover portion of the study, patients reported that prolotherapy injections following initial anesthetic-only injections provided much better relief than that achieved after their anesthetic-only injections, and that anesthetic-only injections following initial prolotherapy injections failed to provide relief as good as that achieved after their prolotherapy. Subsequent to this study, only four of 35 patients required additional spine surgery, but 29 of the 35 patients requested
Abnormal activity of the sympathetic nervous system may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic pain syndromes. This article reviews the animal studies of sympathetically induced pain behavior, the controversy of sympathetically maintained pain in clinical practice, and the dysautonomic nature of fibromyalgia (FM). FM has neuropathic pain features (stimuli-independent pain state accompanied by allodynia and paresthesias). The proposal of FM as a sympathetically maintained pain syndrome is based on the controlled studies showing that patients with FM display signs of relentless sympathetic hyperactivity and that the pain is submissive to sympathetic blockade and is rekindled by norepinephrine injections. Dysautonomia also may explain the multisystem features of FM.
Oaklander, Anne Louise; Horowitz, Steven H
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the current consensus-derived name for a syndrome usually triggered by limb trauma. Required elements include prolonged, disproportionate distal-limb pain and microvascular dysregulation (e.g., edema or color changes) or altered sweating. CRPS-II (formerly "causalgia") describes patients with identified nerve injuries. CRPS-I (formerly "reflex sympathetic dystrophy") describes most patients who lack evidence of specific nerve injuries. Diagnosis is clinical and the pathophysiology involves combinations of small-fiber axonopathy, microvasculopathy, inflammation, and brain plasticity/sensitization. Females have much higher risk and workplace accidents are a well-recognized cause. Inflammation and dysimmunity, perhaps facilitated by injury to the blood-nerve barrier, may contribute. Most patients, particularly the young, recover gradually, but treatment can speed healing. Evidence of efficacy is strongest for rehabilitation therapies (e.g., graded-motor imagery), neuropathic pain medications, and electric stimulation of the spinal cord, injured nerve, or motor cortex. Investigational treatments include ketamine, botulinum toxin, immunoglobulins, and transcranial neuromodulation. Nonrecovering patients should be re-evaluated for neurosurgically treatable causal lesions (nerve entrapment, impingement, infections, or tumors) and treatable potentiating medical conditions, including polyneuropathy and circulatory insufficiency. Earlier impressions that CRPS represents malingering or psychosomatic illness have been replaced by evidence that CRPS is a rare complication of limb injury in biologically susceptible individuals. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lugo, Luz Helena; García, Hector Ivan; Rogers, Heather L; Plata, Jesús Alberto
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of the shoulder girdle and cervical region is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Physical therapy (PT) and lidocaine injections (LI) are two treatments with demonstrated effectiveness compared to a control group, however little is known about their combined value. The objective of this study was to determine whether LI into trigger points combined with a PT program would be more effective than each separate treatment alone in improving pain, function, and quality of life in a group of patients with MPS of the shoulder girdle and cervical region. A single-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial (RCT) was conducted with three parallel groups in the Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of two urban hospitals in Medellin, Colombia. One hundred and twenty seven patients with shoulder girdle MPS for more than 6 weeks and pain greater than 40 mm on the visual analog scale (VAS) were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups: PT, LI, or the combination of both (PT + LI). The primary outcome was VAS pain rating at 1-month post-treatment. The secondary outcomes included VAS pain rating at 3 months, and, at both 1 and 3 months post-treatment: (a) function, evaluated by hand-back maneuver and the hand-mouth maneuver, (b) quality of life, as measured by sub-scales of the Short Form - 36 (SF-36), and (c) depressive symptoms, as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 (PHQ-9). Independent t-tests were used to compare outcomes between groups at 1 month and 3 months post-treatment. In the per protocol analysis, there were no significant intergroup differences in VAS at 1 month PT + LI, 40.8 [25.3] vs. PT, 37.8 [21.9], p = 0.560 and vs. LI, 44.2 [24.9], p = 0.545. There were also no differences between groups on secondary outcomes except that the PT and PT + LI groups had higher right upper limb hand-back maneuver scores compared to the LI alone group at both 1 and 3 months (p = 0.013 and p
Dixit, Sameer; DiFiori, John P; Burton, Monique; Mines, Brandon
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common cause of knee pain in the outpatient setting. It is caused by imbalances in the forces controlling patellar tracking during knee flexion and extension, particularly with overloading of the joint. Risk factors include overuse, trauma, muscle dysfunction, tight lateral restraints, patellar hypermobility, and poor quadriceps flexibility. Typical symptoms include pain behind or around the patella that is increased with running and activities that involve knee flexion. Findings in patients with PFPS range from limited patellar mobility to a hypermobile patella. To confirm the diagnosis, an examination of the knee focusing on the patella and surrounding structures is essential. For many patients with the clinical diagnosis of PFPS, imaging studies are not necessary before beginning treatment. Radiography is recommended in patients with a history of trauma or surgery, those with an effusion, those older than 50 years (to rule out osteoarthritis), and those whose pain does not improve with treatment. Recent research has shown that physical therapy is effective in treating PFPS. There is little evidence to support the routine use of knee braces or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Surgery should be considered only after failure of a comprehensive rehabilitation program. Educating patients about modification of risk factors is important in preventing recurrence.
Shankland, Wesley E
It is not uncommon for practitioners who treat craniofacial pain to see patients with undiagnosed throat and submandibular pain. Usually, these patients will already have been seen by their primary care physician and frequently, several others doctors including otolaryngologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and even neurologists. Far too often these patients have three common features: 1. they have endured multiple expensive diagnostic tests; 2. they have received treatment of multiple courses of antibiotics; and 3. no specific diagnosis for their pain complaints has been determined and their pain persists. In this article, five disorders, Ernest syndrome, Eagle's syndrome, carotid artery syndrome, hyoid bone syndrome and superior pharyngeal constrictor syndrome are briefly described. All five produce common symptoms, making diagnosis difficult, which is often followed by ineffective or no treatment being provided to the patient. Diagnostic criteria and suggested treatment modalities are also presented.
Chang, Victor T; Janjan, Nora; Jain, Subash; Chau, Chi
Cancer pain assessment and management are integral to palliative medicine. This paper reviews recent publications in the period 1999-2004 in the broad categories of epidemiology, pain assessment, nonpharmacologic approaches to cancer pain (radiation therapy, anesthetic blocks, palliative surgery and chemotherapy, complementary and alternative medicine), and in nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, visceral pain, and bone pain.
Peña, L; Moreno, C B; Gutierrez-Alvarez, A M
Pain is a common symptom in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Intensity is moderate to severe in most cases and pain may persist after resolution of the disease. Identify the most appropriate analgesic therapy for pain management in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Systematic review and selection of scientific articles on treatment of pain in Guillain-Barre syndrome patients, published between January 1985 and December 2012. We included only randomised, double-blind, controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of drugs for pain management in these patients. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. One evaluated the use of gabapentin, another evaluated carbamazepine, a third compared gabapentin to carbamazepine, and the last evaluated use of methylprednisolone. Both carbamazepine and gabapentin were useful for pain management. Patients experienced lower-intensity pain with gabapentin treatment in the study comparing that drug to carbamazepine. Methylprednisolone was not shown to be effective for reducing pain. The published data did not permit completion of a meta-analysis. There is no robust evidence at present that would point to a single treatment option for this disorder. Further clinical studies of larger patient samples and with a longer duration are needed to characterise types of pain for each patient and measure pain intensity in an objective way. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Caviggioli, Fabio; Maione, Luca; Forcellini, Davide; Klinger, Francesco; Klinger, Marco
Mastectomy with axillary dissection is still one of the most common procedures in oncologic surgery. Unfortunately, a condition of neuropathic pain, termed postmastectomy pain syndrome, can appear after mastectomy. Although evidence regarding the epidemiology of postmastectomy pain syndrome is well researched, an effective therapy is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of lipoaspirate graft in the treatment of postmastectomy pain syndrome. From February of 2006 to August of 2008, a total of 113 patients affected by postmastectomy pain syndrome and severe scar retractions were enrolled for this clinical study. Seventy-two patients were treated with autologous fat grafted in painful scars, and 41 patients did not undergo any further surgical procedure. Pain assessment was performed using a visual analogue scale before and after treatment, with a mean follow-up of 13 months. In addition, antalgic drug intake was recorded in the 34 patients who received a surgical treatment. Results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. A significant decrease in pain according to the visual analogue scale was detected in patients treated with autologous fat graft (3.23-point reduction, p = 0.0005). Twenty-eight of 34 patients stopped their analgesic therapy with a significant follow-up (13 months). Autologous fat grafting is a safe, relatively noninvasive, and rapid surgical procedure. The authors' results suggest its effectiveness for treatment of postmastectomy pain syndrome. Therapeutic, II.
Ropper, A H; Shahani, B T
The clinical features of pain were prospectively analyzed in 29 consecutive patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Sixteen (55%) had characteristic pain early in the illness described as similar to the muscular discomfort following exercise ("charley horse"). Pain preceded weakness by one to five days in four patients. The anterior and posterior aspects of the thighs, the buttocks, and the low part of the back were most frequently affected. Pain was frequently worse at night. Specific clinical signs or electrophysiologic abnormalities were not associated with pain, but serum creatine kinase level was elevated in ten of 13 patients with pain and only one of eight without pain. A review of previously reported pathologic material in five patients with GBS failed to disclose a relation between inflammation of dorsal root ganglia and pain. These results suggest that alterations in muscle related to neurogenic changes may cause the typical pain of GBS.
Background Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is a neuropathic pain syndrome associated with somatosensory abnormalities due to central nervous system lesion following a cerebrovascular insult. Post-stroke pain (PSP) refers to a broader range of clinical conditions leading to pain after stroke, but not restricted to CPSP, including other types of pain such as myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), painful shoulder, lumbar and dorsal pain, complex regional pain syndrome, and spasticity-related pain. Despite its recognition as part of the general PSP diagnostic possibilities, the prevalence of MPS has never been characterized in patients with CPSP patients. We performed a cross-sectional standardized clinical and radiological evaluation of patients with definite CPSP in order to assess the presence of other non-neuropathic pain syndromes, and in particular, the role of myofascial pain syndrome in these patients. Methods CPSP patients underwent a standardized sensory and motor neurological evaluation, and were classified according to stroke mechanism, neurological deficits, presence and profile of MPS. The Visual Analogic Scale (VAS), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), and Beck Depression Scale (BDS) were filled out by all participants. Results Forty CPSP patients were included. Thirty-six (90.0%) had one single ischemic stroke. Pain presented during the first three months after stroke in 75.0%. Median pain intensity was 10 (5 to 10). There was no difference in pain intensity among the different lesion site groups. Neuropathic pain was continuous-ongoing in 34 (85.0%) patients and intermittent in the remainder. Burning was the most common descriptor (70%). Main aggravating factors were contact to cold (62.5%). Thermo-sensory abnormalities were universal. MPS was diagnosed in 27 (67.5%) patients and was more common in the supratentorial extra-thalamic group (P <0.001). No significant differences were observed among the different stroke location groups and pain questionnaires and
Cetrullo, N; Cocchi, S; Guadagni, M G; Piana, G
The most recent pain and anxiety control techniques employed in patients with Down syndrome are described in relation to how cooperative the patient is and what assessment is made of his or her general condition. The growing deinstitutionalization of these patients and the growing social opportunities for them are matched by an increasing demand for dental treatment. Down syndrome is thus one of the disabilities with which the dentist is most likely to come into contact in his own surgery. Pain control is one of the keys to building the relationship between physician and patient and obtaining patient compliance in the conviction that only regular controls can maintain the oral health of these patients. A local anaesthetic, combined when possible with psychological techniques, remains the approach of choice and only a level of compliance that is really wanting or the need to carry out numerous operations in a single session should lead the dentist to choose conscious sedation or a general anaesthetic. The choice of technique, however, should take into account any systemic disease present, such as congenital heart and neurological diseases, bearing in mind that conscious or deep sedation and general anaesthesia should only be adopted in a hospital environment and require the presence of an anaesthesiologist.
Koehle, Michael Stephen
Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a common diagnosis in athletes and especially runners. This article discusses 3 cases of patellofemoral pain caused by pronounced inactivity and prolonged knee hyperflexion at altitude in a unique population of Tibetan Buddhist monks. In this case, the monks responded well to a program of activity modification and exercises.
Fomby, E W; Mellion, M B
Though common, myofascial pain syndrome can be difficult to recognize and distinguish from underlying entities. It is often confused with fibromyalgia. Diagnosis hinges on the identification of painful muscle trigger points that, when palpated, create local twitch responses and refer pain in predictable patterns. With appropriate treatment, such as stretch and spray, trigger point injections, or massage therapy, prognosis is good. Perpetuating factors, such as poor posture or workplace ergonomics, also need to be addressed.
Acute pain is a symptom enabling us to implement a response when faced with an attack. Chronic pain is complex and multifactorial. The care of the patient by a multidisciplinary team comprises the diagnosis of the pain and the putting in place of a treatment for each of its components. This includes physical reconditioning, adaptation strategies and work on the psychological elements relating to the representation of the pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Nizar, Abd Jalil
Background Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional musculoskeletal pain disorder that is caused by myofascial trigger points. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients, as well as to identify risk factors and the outcome of this disorder. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 126 patients who attended the Pain Management Unit for chronic back pain between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Data examined included demographic features of patients, duration of back pain, muscle(s) involved, primary diagnosis, treatment modality and response to treatment. Results The prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients was 63.5% (n = 80). Secondary MPS was more common than primary MPS, making up 81.3% of the total MPS. There was an association between female gender and risk of developing MPS (χ2 = 5.38, P = 0.02, O.R. = 2.4). Occupation, body mass index and duration of back pain were not significantly associated with MPS occurrence. Repeated measures analysis showed significant changes (P < 0.001) in Visual Analogue Score (VAS) and Modified Oswestry Disability Score (MODS) with standard management during three consecutive visits at six-month intervals. Conclusions MPS prevalence among chronic back pain patients was significantly high, with female gender being a significant risk factor. With proper diagnosis and expert management, MPS has a favourable outcome. PMID:21716607
Dystrophy is a main factor of CRPS. A large number of patients do not develop dystrophy but, instead, they suffer from pain with limitation in movement, possible paraesthesia and/or swelling. This is then a chronic regional pain syndrome or (shoulder-arm-) hand-finger syndrome. These patients should never be confronted with the diagnosis Morbus Sudeck or algodystrophy, which are today also well known among non-professionals, to avoid pushing them into a status of constant severe invalidity. Histories, clinical examination, as well as a good personal understanding of the patient are indispensable. Knowing that pain, or the extent of pain, remains subjective until today, the clinical diagnosis depends on the absence of side differences in: a) the circumference of soft tissues of both upper extremities; b) the callosity of the palm; c) the bone-density. These three parameters allow verification of the consequences of the pain complaints (indirect pain verification). It is essential to find the cause for their suffering and to treat it as far as possible: 1) Too long and inappropriate immobilisation (patient's suffering not considered sufficiently). These patients can recover quickly when the right diagnosis is made in good time. 2) Limitation of movement due to scar, neuroma, or elongation pain: a) bizarre functional disabilities can develop; b) due to the patient's complaints, one or several operations would finally be performed, which will not lead to an improvement but rather to an aggravation of the pain; c) socially-induced purposeful pain increase, the typical statement of the patient will be: "I can't stand it any longer". Patients who are socially over-burdened, or have psycho-social problems, may experience a decline of performance or a post-traumatic stress disorder. Several patients will be introduced as illustrations for each of the relevant groups.
Simons, Laura E
A significant proportion of children and adolescents with chronic pain endorse elevated pain-related fear. Pain-related fear is associated with high levels of disability, depressive symptoms, and school impairment. Because of faulty nerve signaling, individuals with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome may be more prone to develop pain-related fear as they avoid use of and neglect the affected body area(s), resulting in exacerbated symptoms, muscle atrophy, maintenance of pain signaling, and ongoing pain-related disability. Not surprisingly, effective treatments for elevated pain-related fears involve exposure to previously avoided activities to downregulate incorrect pain signaling. In the context of intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment of youth with neuropathic pain, decreasing pain-related fear is associated with improved physical and psychological functioning, whereas high initial pain-related fear is a risk factor for less treatment responsiveness. An innovative approach to targeting pain-related fear and evidence of a neural response to treatment involving decoupling of the amygdala with key fear circuits in youth with complex regional pain syndrome suggest breakthroughs in our ability to ameliorate these issues.
Nejati, Parisa; Forogh, Bijan; Moeineddin, Reza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Nejati, Mina
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190), volleyball (103), running (42), fencing (45) and rock climbing (38). The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 %) soccer players, 21/103(20.38 %) volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 %) runners, 6/45(13.33 %) fencers and 10/38 (26.31%) rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.
Ustun, Nilgun; Arslan, Fatma; Mansuroglu, Ayhan; Inanoglu, Deniz; Yagız, Abdullah Erman; Guler, Hayal; Turhanoglu, Ayse Dicle
The aim of this study is to investigate whether eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream phonophoresis superior to conventional US over the trigger points (TPs) in terms of improvements of pain, range of motion and disability in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Fifty patients (42 female, 8 male) diagnosed with MPS were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including phonophoresis (PH) group (n = 25) and ultrasound (US) group (n = 25). PH group received EMLA cream phonophoresis (2.5 % lidocaine, 2.5 % prilocaine); US group received conventional ultrasound therapy over the all active TPs on trapezius muscle for 10 min a day for 15 sessions. Outcome measures were performed before the treatment course and at the end of a 15-session course of treatment. Student T, Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis. At the end of the therapy, there was statistically significant decrease in both PH group and US group in terms of number of trigger point (NTP) (p = 0.001, p = 0.029), pain intensity on movement (p = 0.001 vs. 0.002) and right/left cervical lateral ROMs (p = 0.001/p = 0.001, p = 0.009/p = 0.020) relative to baseline. The NTP decrease in PH group was significantly higher than that in US group (1.84 ± 1.46 vs. 0.72 ± 1.45; p = 0.01). Pain intensity at rest (p = 0.001) and NPDI scores (p = 0.001) were statistically improvement in only PH group. EMLA cream phonophoresis is more effective than conventional ultrasound therapy in terms of pain and associated neck disability, and it seems the complementary treatment option for MPS.
Casale, Roberto; Atzeni, Fabiola; Masala, Ignazio Francesco; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) encompasses a wide range of painful conditions, but it is characterised by continuing (spontaneous and/or evoked) limb pain that is seemingly disproportionate in time or degree to the usual course of any known trauma or other lesion. The pain is regional, with distal predominance usually but not related to a specific nerve territory or dermatome, and it is usually associated with abnormal sensory, motor, sudomotor, vasomotor and/or trophic findings. The complexity of the aetiopathogenetic factors making up the clinical picture of CRPS is mirrored by the inconsistency of almost all of the monotherapies used to treat it so far. Motor and sensory symptoms significantly interfere with the patients' daily function and quality of life, and almost all of them report substantial disability in their working and recreational activities, mood and mobility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Painful leg and moving toes (PLMT) syndrome is a distinct clinical entity and in majority of the patients there are some underlying causes related to spinal cord, cauda equina, or peripheral neuropathy. However, some cases are cryptogenic with no identifiable underlying cause. Response to treatment is disappointing in most of the cases. We report a 60-year-old lady who presented with very severe type of painful legs and moving toes (PLMT) with no underlying cause. PMID:26713024
Lin, Shun-Yuan; Neoh, Choo-Aun; Huang, Yuan-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Ng, Ho-Fu; Shi, Hon-Yi
The objective of this study was to evaluate a program for managing myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The study design was a randomized controlled trial. The setting was the pain clinic of an academic hospital in Taiwan. Sixty-two (62) patients with a 3-month or longer history of MPS who were treated at this institution from July to November 2007 were included in the study. The participants were randomized to an experimental group (n = 32) or a control group (n = 30). Both groups underwent trigger-point dry needling and muscle-stretch exercise regimen for passively stretching the affected muscles to their normal lengths; the experimental group then watched an 8-minute multimedia instructional video about MPS with supplemental handouts. The Brief Pain Inventory-Taiwan was administered at baseline and 1 month thereafter. The effect size model was used to measure the effects of Brief Pain Inventory-Taiwan. Bootstrap estimation was used to derive 95% confidence intervals for group differences. Compared to the control group, the experimental group had significantly less interference of pain, lower intensity of present pain, and least pain (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis of patients with shoulder pain revealed significantly improved pain intensity and interference of pain (p < 0.05). The findings emphasize the importance of including patient education programs in MPS intervention.
Avraham, Feazadeh; Aviv, Saposhnik; Ya'akobi, Pnina; Faran, Hava; Fisher, Zilla; Goldman, Yael; Neeman, Guy; Carmeli, Eli
Patello-femoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common knee joint disability. The integration of hip soft tissue regimens are not always emphasized, although current literature implies that there is a significant relationship between the two and there is a lack of randomized clinical trials to substantiate this relationship in clinical practice. A randomized controlled assessor blinded trial was designed to explore different rehabilitation programs related to PFPS. The study was conducted at RAZIEL institute of physical therapy, Netania, Israel with a total of 30 consecutive patients (mean age 35y), diagnosed with PFPS. All patients were randomly allocated into 3 groups. Group I conventional knee rehabilitation program. Included quadriceps strengthening and Trans Electric Neuromuscular Stimulation (TENS). Group II hip oriented rehabilitation program. included stretching, Hip external rotators strengthening and TENS. Group III a combination of the two above programs. Pain and function were documented on initial of the program and again 3 weeks later, on the completion. Pain was assessed by a numeric visual analogue scale (VAS); function was assessed by Patello-femoral joint evaluation scale (PFJES) (0-100 points). At end of trial, all groups showed significant improvements in VAS and PFJES (p<0.0001); these improvements did not vary significantly between the 3 groups. The conclusions were that the explored different rehabilitation programs showed a similar beneficial effect.
Williams, P.L.; Smibert, J.G.; Cox, R.; Mitchell, R.; Klenerman, L.
A total of 45 patients with the painful heel syndrome without evidence of an associated inflammatory arthritis, seven of whom had pain in both heels, were studied using technetium-99 isotope bone scans and lateral and 45 degrees medial oblique radiographs of both feet. Of the 52 painful heels 31 (59.6%) showed increased uptake of tracer at the calcaneum. Patients with scans showing increased uptake tended to have more severe heel pain and responded more frequently to a local hydrocortisone injection. On plain x-ray, 39 of 52 painful heels (75%) and 24 of the 38 opposite nonpainful heels (63%) showed plantar spurs, compared with five of 63 (7.9%) heels in 59 age- and sex-matched controls. No evidence of stress fractures was seen.
Chatterjee, Aparna; McCroskey, Aidan L.; Ahmadi, Tamana; Simmelink, Drew; Oldfield, Edward C.; Pryor, Christopher R.; Faschan, Michael; Raulli, Olivia
Pain can be broadly divided into 3 classes, including nociceptive or inflammatory pain (protective), neuropathic (pathological, occurring after damage to the nervous system), or centralized (pathological, due to abnormal function but with no damage or inflammation to the nervous system). The latter has been posited to occur when descending analgesic pathways are attenuated and/or glutamatergic transmission is facilitated. Additionally, this “pain prone phenotype” can be associated with early life trauma and a suboptimal response to opiates. This article will review the relationships between centralized pain syndromes (ie, fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain), childhood sexual abuse, and opiate misuse. Finally, treatment implications, potentially effecting primary care physicians, will be discussed. PMID:28462250
Bean, Debbie J; Johnson, Malcolm H; Kydd, Robert R
Cognitive and emotional factors are known to influence peoples' pain experiences in many conditions, including low back pain. However, in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), their role is unclear. This study aimed to assess the relationships between psychological factors, pain, and disability in CRPS, compared with low back pain. This could help to identify target variables for psychological treatment. A total of 88 CRPS patients and 88 low back pain patients completed measures of pain, disability, depression, anxiety, and fear of movement and reinjury (kinesiophobia). Mean scores between the 2 groups were compared, and correlations between psychological factors, pain, and disability were compared between the 2 groups. Predictors of pain and disability were assessed using multiple regression analyses. The 2 groups had remarkably similar scores on measures of pain, disability, depression, anxiety, and kinesiophobia. In both groups, those who were more depressed, anxious, and kinesiophobic were more disabled. For the CRPS group (but not the low back pain group), pain intensity significantly correlated with distress. Multivariate analyses showed that the unique predictors of disability for the 2 groups were pain and depression, and that depression had a stronger relationship with disability for the CRPS group. For both groups, pain intensity was predicted by kinesiophobia, and anxiety was a unique predictor in the CRPS group only. In CRPS, disability and pain severity were more strongly associated with psychological factors than they were in low back pain. Cause and effect relationships could not be established by this cross-sectional study.
Nowotny, Janusz; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Brzęk, Anna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Czupryna, Krzysztof
The effects of faulty postures include disturbances of the symmetric distribution of compressive and tensile forces acting on both sides of the body axis and the emergence of harmful shear forces. The torques of antigravity muscles also change unfavourably. This may lead to the development of a repetitive strain syndrome, stenosis of intervertebral foramina, compression of nerve roots and back pain. The development of back pain syndromes is significantly affected by the performance of various work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between back pain syndromes and the quality of body posture, especially in the context of work ergonomics. The study enrolled 125 persons: 39 adults with a childhood history of scoliosis, 39 midwives, and 47 physiotherapists. Body posture was assessed in all participants. In midwives and physiotherapists, body position during the performance of work-related tasks was also evaluated. The frequency and severity of pain was assessed with the Jackson-Moskowitz measure. The study revealed that over 80% of the participants suffered from spinal pain. In most cases, the pain was intermittent and was felt in the lumbar spine. The occurrence of pain among midwives and physiotherapists was not directly dependent on the predominant type of abnormal spinal position assumed during the performance of occupational tasks or the quality of body posture. The complaint was also reported by ca. 85% of persons with a history of scoliosis. An incorrect body posture (especially scoliosis) and performance of work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions increase the probability of back pain.
Beneng, Kiran; Renton, Tara
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a rare but impactful condition affecting mainly post-menopausal women resulting in constant pain and significant difficulty with eating, drinking and daily function. The aetiology of BMS remains an enigma. Recent evidence suggests it likely to be neuropathic in origin, the cause of which remains unknown. There is no cure for this condition and the unfortunate patients remain managed on a variety of neuropathic pain medication, salivary substitutes and other non-medical interventions that help the patient 'get through the day'. Some simple strategies can assist both clinician and patient to manage this debilitating condition. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The dental team will recognize patients presenting with burning mouth syndrome. They are difficult patients to manage and are often referred to secondary care and, ultimately, depend on their general medical practitioners for pain management.
van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; Baartmans, Martin G A; Vos, Paul; Dokter, Jan; White, Tonya; Tibboel, Dick
We present a case study of a 10-year-old child with severe burns that were misinterpreted as inflicted burns. Because of multiple injuries since early life, the family was under suspicion of child abuse and therefore under supervision of the Child Care Board for 2 years before the boy was burned. Because the boy incurred the burns without feeling pain, we conducted a thorough medical examination and laboratory testing, evaluated detection and pain thresholds, and used MRI to study brain morphology and brain activation patterns during pain between this patient and 3 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. We found elevated detection and pain thresholds and lower brain activation during pain in the patient compared with the healthy controls and reference values. The patient received the diagnosis of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV on the basis of clinical findings and the laboratory testing, complemented with the altered pain and detection thresholds and MRI findings. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy IV is a very rare congenital pain insensitivity syndrome characterized by the absence of pain and temperature sensation combined with oral mutilation due to unawareness, fractures, and anhidrosis caused by abnormalities in the peripheral nerves. Health care workers should be aware of the potential presence of this disease to prevent false accusations of child abuse.
Speed, Traci J; Mathur, Vani A; Hand, Matthew; Christensen, Bryt; Sponseller, Paul D; Williams, Kayode A; Campbell, Claudia M
The clinical manifestations of Marfan syndrome frequently cause pain. This study aimed to characterize pain in a cohort of adults with Marfan syndrome and investigate demographic, physical, and psychological factors associated with pain and pain-related disability. Two hundred and forty-five participants (73% female, 89% non-Hispanic white, 90% North American) completed an online questionnaire assessing clinical features of Marfan syndrome, pain severity, pain-related disability, physical and mental health, depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and insomnia. Eighty-nine percent of respondents reported having pain with 28% of individuals reporting pain as a presenting symptom of Marfan syndrome. Almost half of individuals reported that pain has spread from its initial site. Participants in our study reported poor physical and mental health functioning, moderate pain-related disability, and mild levels of depressive symptoms, sleep disturbances, and pain catastrophizing. Those who identified pain as an initial symptom of Marfan syndrome and those who reported that pain had spread from its initial site reported greater psychological burden compared with those without pain as an initial symptom or pain spreading. Physical health is the largest predictor of pain severity and pain-related disability. While pain catastrophizing and worse mental health functioning are significant correlates of pain severity and pain-related disability, respectively. Pain is a significant and persistent problem in Marfan syndrome and is associated with profound disability and psychological burden. Further studies are indicated to better characterize the directionality of pain, pain-related disability, and psychological burden in Marfan syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María L; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gili, Pablo; Caminero, Ana B; Cebrián, José L
To describe 2 topographic facial pain conditions with the pain clearly localized in the eye (idiopathic ophthalmodynia) or in the nose (idiopathic rhinalgia), and to propose their distinction from persistent idiopathic facial pain. Persistent idiopathic facial pain, burning mouth syndrome, atypical odontalgia, and facial arthromyalgia are idiopathic facial pain syndromes that have been separated according to topographical criteria. Still, some other facial pain syndromes might have been veiled under the broad term of persistent idiopathic facial pain. Through a 10-year period we have studied all patients referred to our neurological clinic because of facial pain of unknown etiology that might deviate from all well-characterized facial pain syndromes. In a group of patients we have identified 2 consistent clinical pictures with pain precisely located either in the eye (n=11) or in the nose (n=7). Clinical features resembled those of other localized idiopathic facial syndromes, the key differences relying on the topographic distribution of the pain. Both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location, and may deserve a nosologic status just as other focal pain syndromes of the face. Whether all such focal syndromes are topographic variants of persistent idiopathic facial pain or independent disorders remains a controversial issue.
van de Meent, Hendrik; Oerlemans, Margreet; Bruggeman, Almar; Klomp, Frank; van Dongen, Robert; Oostendorp, Rob; Frölke, Jan Paul
"Pain exposure" physical therapy (PEPT) is a new treatment for patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) that consists of a progressive-loading exercise program and management of pain-avoidance behavior without the use of specific CRPS-1 medication or analgesics. The aim of this study was to investigate primarily whether PEPT could be applied safely in patients with CRPS-1. Twenty patients with CRPS-1 were consecutively enrolled in the study after giving informed consent. The diagnosis of CRPS-1 was defined using the Bruehl and Harden/IASP diagnostic criteria. CRPS-1 was diagnosed between 3 and 18 months after the inciting event (trauma). According to a multiple single-case design (baseline [A1], treatment [B], follow-up [A2]), multiple baseline and follow-up measurements were performed to evaluate changes in CRPS signs and symptoms and to assess functional parameters. When comparing the baseline with the follow-up phase, patients improved significantly with respect to pain on the visual analogue scale (57%), pain intensity (48%), muscle strength (52%), arm/shoulder/hand disability (36%), 10-meter walking speed (29%), pain disability index (60%), kinesiophobia (18%), and the domains of perceived health change in the SF-36 survey (269%). Three patients initially showed increased vegetative signs but improved in all other CRPS parameters and showed good functional recovery at follow-up. We conclude that PEPT is a safe and effective treatment for patients with CRPS-1. A progressive-loading exercise program and management of pain-avoidance behavior without the use of specific medication ("pain exposure" physical therapy) is safe and effective for patients with complex regional pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.
Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts…
Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.
Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts…
Kilinc, Ozden; Sencan, Savas; Ercalik, Tulay; Koytak, Pinar Kahraman; Alibas, Hande; Gunduz, Osman Hakan; Tanridag, Tulin; Uluc, Kayihan
An increased response to painful stimuli without spontaneous pain suggests a role of central hyperexcitability of pain pathways in the pathogenesis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). In this study we aimed to test the hypothesis that spinal pain pathways are affected in MPS. We used cutaneous silent period (CSP) parameters to demonstrate the hyperexcitability of spinal pain pathways in MPS. Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with MPS and 30 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The CSP recordings were performed in the right upper and left lower extremities. In both upper and lower extremities, patients had prolonged CSP latencies (P = 0.034 and P = 0.049 respectively) and shortened CSP durations (P = 0.009 and P = 0.008, respectively). Delayed and shortened CSP in MPS patients implies dysfunction in the inhibitory mechanism of the spinal/supraspinal pain pathways, suggesting central sensitization in the pathogenesis of MPS and supporting our research hypothesis. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Edwards, J E; McQuay, H J; Moore, R A
Dihydrocodeine is a synthetic opioid analgesic developed in the early 1900s. Its structure and pharmacokinetics are similar to that of codeine and it is used for the treatment of postoperative pain or as an antitussive. It is becoming increasingly important to assess the relative efficacy and harm caused by different treatments. Relative efficacy can be determined when an analgesic is compared with control under similar clinical circumstances. To quantitatively assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose dihydrocodeine compared with placebo in randomised trials in moderate to severe postoperative pain. Published reports were identified from a variety of electronic databases including Medline, Biological Abstracts, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Oxford Pain Relief Database. Additional studies were identified from the reference lists of retrieved reports. The following inclusion criteria were used: full journal publication, clinical trial, random allocation of patients to treatment groups, double blind design, adult patients, pain of moderate to severe intensity at baseline, postoperative administration of study drugs, treatment arms which included dihydrocodeine and placebo and either oral or injected (intramuscular or intravenous) administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis: Summed pain intensity and pain relief data over 4-6 hours were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to yield the number of patients obtaining at least 50% pain relief. This was used to calculate relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat for one patient to obtain at least 50% pain relief. Single-dose adverse effect data were collected and used to calculate relative risk and number-needed-to-harm. Fifty-two reports were identified as possible randomised trials which assessed dihydrocodeine in postoperative pain. Four reports met the inclusion criteria; all assessed oral dihydrocodeine. Three reports (194 patients) compared
Berry, Sandra H; Bogart, Laura M; Pham, Chau; Liu, Karin; Nyberg, Leroy; Stoto, Michael; Suttorp, Marika; Clemens, J Quentin
No standard case definition exists for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome for patient screening or epidemiological studies. As part of the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology study, we developed a case definition for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome with known sensitivity and specificity. We compared this definition with others used in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome epidemiological studies. We reviewed the literature and performed a structured, expert panel process to arrive at an interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome case definition. We developed a questionnaire to assess interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome symptoms using this case definition and others used in the literature. We administered the questionnaire to 599 women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, overactive bladder, endometriosis or vulvodynia. The sensitivity and specificity of each definition was calculated using physician assigned diagnoses as the reference standard. No single epidemiological definition had high sensitivity and high specificity. Thus, 2 definitions were developed. One had high sensitivity (81%) and low specificity (54%), and the other had the converse (48% sensitivity and 83% specificity). These values were comparable or superior to those of other epidemiological definitions used in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome prevalence studies. No single case definition of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome provides high sensitivity and high specificity to identify the condition. For prevalence studies of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome the best approach may be to use 2 definitions that would yield a prevalence range. The RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome case definitions, developed through structured consensus and validation, can be used for this purpose. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research
Stecco, Antonio; Gesi, Marco; Stecco, Carla; Stern, Robert
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the muscle, sensory, motor, and autonomic nervous system symptoms caused by stimulation of myofascial trigger points (MTP). The participation of fascia in this syndrome has often been neglected. Several manual and physical approaches have been proposed to improve myofascial function after traumatic injuries, but the processes that induce pathological modifications of myofascial tissue after trauma remain unclear. Alterations in collagen fiber composition, in fibroblasts or in extracellular matrix composition have been postulated. We summarize here recent developments in the biology of fascia, and in particular, its associated hyaluronan (HA)-rich matrix that address the issue of MPS.
Zhang, Yadong; Zheng, Tao; Tu, Xiang'an; Chen, Xin; Wang, Zhu; Chen, Shengfu; Yang, Qiyun; Wan, Zi; Han, Dayu; Xiao, Haipeng; Sun, Xiangzhou; Deng, Chunhua
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and explore the influence of UPOINT domains, National Institutes of Health-CP symptom index (NIH-CPSI) and other factors on ED prevalence. This was a prospective study of consecutive patients with CP/CPPS seen at 11 tertiary hospitals during January-July 2014. ED was diagnosed as a score of<21 on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). Patients from one center were evaluated by the UPOINT system and NIH-CPSI. Each patient was assessed using clinical examination, asocio-demographic questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), NIH-CPSI and IIEF-5.1406 patients from 11 centers (mean age, 32.18 years; range 18-60 years) were enrolled. ED was found in 638/1406 patients (45.4%), and was categorized as mild in 291(45.6%), moderate in 297(46.6%) and severe in50(7.7%). 192 patients from one center(mean age,31.3 years; range 18-57 years) were further studied.IIEF-5 score correlated negatively with NIH-CPSI(r = 0.251), PHQ (r = 0.355) and PCS (r = 0.322)scores (P<0.001).PHQ score correlated positively with NIH-CPSI (r = 0.586) and PCS(r = 0.662) scores (P<0.001).NIH-CPSI, PHQ, PCS and IIEF-5 scores did not differ significantly between class IIIA and IIIB CP/CPPS. Multivariate logistic regression showed that UPOINT psychological (P) domain and NIH-CPSI symptom severity were independent risk factors for ED in CP/CPPS. It is concluded that psychological factors and symptom severity are independent risk factors for ED in CP/CPPS.
Chen, Xin; Wang, Zhu; Chen, Shengfu; Yang, Qiyun; Wan, Zi; Han, Dayu; Xiao, Haipeng; Sun, Xiangzhou; Deng, Chunhua
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and explore the influence of UPOINT domains, National Institutes of Health-CP symptom index (NIH-CPSI) and other factors on ED prevalence. This was a prospective study of consecutive patients with CP/CPPS seen at 11 tertiary hospitals during January–July 2014. ED was diagnosed as a score of<21 on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). Patients from one center were evaluated by the UPOINT system and NIH-CPSI. Each patient was assessed using clinical examination, asocio-demographic questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), NIH-CPSI and IIEF-5.1406 patients from 11 centers (mean age, 32.18 years; range 18–60 years) were enrolled. ED was found in 638/1406 patients (45.4%), and was categorized as mild in 291(45.6%), moderate in 297(46.6%) and severe in50(7.7%). 192 patients from one center(mean age,31.3 years; range 18–57 years) were further studied.IIEF-5 score correlated negatively with NIH-CPSI(r = 0.251), PHQ (r = 0.355) and PCS (r = 0.322)scores (P<0.001).PHQ score correlated positively with NIH-CPSI (r = 0.586) and PCS(r = 0.662) scores (P<0.001).NIH-CPSI, PHQ, PCS and IIEF-5 scores did not differ significantly between class IIIA and IIIB CP/CPPS. Multivariate logistic regression showed that UPOINT psychological (P) domain and NIH-CPSI symptom severity were independent risk factors for ED in CP/CPPS. It is concluded that psychological factors and symptom severity are independent risk factors for ED in CP/CPPS. PMID:27120096
Callaghan, Michael J; Selfe, James
trials. The intensity and length of treatment was very varied: for example, length of treatment ranged from one week in one trial to three months in another. A meta-analysis of the visual analogue scale (VAS) pain data (scale 0 to 10: worst pain), measured in different ways, from four trials (data from 161 knees), found no statistically or clinically significant difference between taping and non taping in pain at the end of the treatment programmes (mean difference (MD) -0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.15 to 0.85; random-effects model used given the significant heterogeneity (P < 0.0001)). Data for other outcomes measuring function and activities of daily living were from single trials only and gave contradictory results. The currently available evidence from trials reporting clinically relevant outcomes is low quality and insufficient to draw conclusions on the effects of taping, whether used on its own or as part of a treatment programme. Further research involving large, preferably multi-centre, good quality and well reported randomised controlled trials that measure clinically important outcomes and long-term results is warranted. Before this, consensus is required on the diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome, the standardisation of outcome measurement and an acceptable approach for patellar taping.
Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M S; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J; Williams, Frances M K
Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n=8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry eye disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), we explored the underlying genetic and environmental factors contributing to CPS and the correlation between them. The sample was predominantly female (87.3%), with a mean age of 54.7 (±14.7) years. Prevalence of the different CPS ranged from 7.4% (PP) to 15.7% (MIG). For all CPS the within-twin correlation in monozygotic twin pairs was higher than in dizygotic pairs, suggesting a heritable component. Estimated heritability ranged from 19% (IBS) to 46% (PP). Except for MIG, we found significant pairwise phenotypic correlations between the CPS. The phenotypic correlation was highest between CWP and IBS (0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.27 to 0.46). Excluding MIG from further analyses, cross-twin cross-trait correlations were higher in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twin pairs, suggestive of shared genetic factors between CWP, PP, IBS, and dry eye disease. Twin modeling analysis revealed the common pathway model as the model best explaining the observed pattern of correlation between the traits, with an estimated heritability of 66% of the underlying latent variable. These results are evidence of shared genetic factors in conditions manifesting chronic pain and justify the search for underlying genetic variants.
Callegari, C; Bortolaso, P; Vender, S
While undergoing treatment in the psychiatric department, A.C., a 40-year-old white male, who had arrived in the casualty department complaining of an uncontrollable anxiety attack and in a state of fluctuating consciousness, was found to be suffering from a psychopathological condition characterized by pathological lying, gambling, compulsive restlessness, a long clinical history of chronic back pain, with multiple invasive diagnostic investigations and repeated surgery for disc hernia with relative complications, culminating in the fitment of a fixed neurostimulator, a slow-discharge morphine pump and the patient being granted a full disability pension. The continual increases in the doses of morphine suggested a tendency towards drug addiction. After providing a brief overview of the historical background and current concepts relating to the relationship between factitious disorders, malingering and hysteria, the authors discuss the differential diagnosis of the case, suggesting a diagnosis of Münchausen syndrome (the hypothesis best supported by the clinical evidence). This diagnosis, although the subject of much academic debate, is, unfortunately, still not frequently encountered in the medical literature, with the result that even today it has a strong clinical, relational and social impact.
Pappas, Evangelos; Wong-Tom, Wing M.
Context: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common overuse injuries. Objective: To assess the collective evidence of predisposing factors to PFPS. Data Sources: MEDLINE (1960–June 2010), EMBASE (1980–June 2010), and CINAHL (1982–June 2010). Study Selection: Studies were included if patients were asymptomatic at baseline testing (free of PFPS) and were prospectively followed for the development of the disorder. Only studies that assessed at least 1 variable that can be measured at a typical clinic were included. After duplicates were removed, 973 studies were assessed from their titles or abstracts, 20 from the full text, and from these, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Data Extraction: Data were extracted for age, weight, height, sample size, patient type (military vs civilian), follow-up periods, diagnostic methods, and diagnostic criteria. Means and standard deviations were extracted for all outcome variables. Results: Meta-analyses were performed for height, weight, leanness, Q angle, number of sit-ups, knee extension strength, and peak knee valgus angle during landing. Lower knee extension strength was the only variable that was predictive of PFPS (P < 0.01). Other variables that were identified as predictive of PFPS by single studies were vertical jump, push-ups, knee flexion and hip abduction strength, thumb-to-forearm flexibility, quadriceps and gastrocnemius flexibility, genu varum, navicular drop, knee valgus moment at initial contact during landing, social support, and palliative reaction. Conclusions: It appears that anthropometric variables are not associated with PFPS, while knee extension strength deficits appear to be predictors of PFPS. PMID:23016077
Derry, Sheena; Faura, Clara; Edwards, Jayne; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew
Background Dipyrone (metamizole) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in others because of an association with life-threatening blood agranulocytosis. This review updates a 2001 Cochrane review, and no relevant new studies were identified, but additional outcomes were sought. Objectives To assess the efficacy and adverse events of single dose dipyrone in acute postoperative pain. Search methods The earlier review searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to December 1999. For the update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE,EMBASE and LILACS to February 2010. Selection criteria Single dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo or active controlled trials of dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We included oral, rectal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. Derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Use and time to use of rescue medication were additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results Fifteen studies tested mainly 500 mg oral dipyrone (173 participants), 2.5 g intravenous dipyrone (101), 2.5 g intramuscular dipyrone (99); fewer than 60 participants received any other dose. All studies used active controls (ibuprofen, paracetamol, aspirin, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, dexketoprofen, ketorolac, pethidine, tramadol, suprofen); eight used placebo controls. Over 70% of participants
Edwards, Jayne; Meseguer, Fuensanta; Faura, Clara; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J; Derry, Sheena
Dipyrone (metamizole) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in others because of an association with life-threatening blood agranulocytosis. This review updates a 2001 Cochrane review, and no relevant new studies were identified, but additional outcomes were sought. To assess the efficacy and adverse events of single dose dipyrone in acute postoperative pain. The earlier review searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to December 1999. For the update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE,EMBASE and LILACS to February 2010. Single dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo or active controlled trials of dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We included oral, rectal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of study drugs. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. Derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Use and time to use of rescue medication were additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Fifteen studies tested mainly 500 mg oral dipyrone (173 participants), 2.5 g intravenous dipyrone (101), 2.5 g intramuscular dipyrone (99); fewer than 60 participants received any other dose. All studies used active controls (ibuprofen, paracetamol, aspirin, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, dexketoprofen, ketorolac, pethidine, tramadol, suprofen); eight used placebo controls.Over 70% of participants experienced at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours with oral dipyrone 500 mg compared to 30
Murphy, Stephen F.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Thumbikat, Praveen
The cause of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has yet to be established. Since the late 1980s, cytokine, chemokine, and immunological classification studies using human samples have focused on identifying biomarkers for CPPS, but no diagnostically beneficial biomarkers have been identified, and these studies have done little to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic prostatic pain. Given the large number of men thought to be affected by this condition and the ineffective nature of current treatments, there is a pressing need to elucidate these mechanisms. Prostatitis types IIIa and IIIb are classified according to the presence of pain without concurrent presence of bacteria; however, it is becoming more evident that, although levels of bacteria are not directly associated with levels of pain, the presence of bacteria might act as the initiating factor that drives primary activation of mast-cell-mediated inflammation in the prostate. Mast cell activation is also known to suppress regulatory T cell (Treg) control of self-tolerance and also activate neural sensitization. This combination of established autoimmunity coupled with peripheral and central neural sensitization can result in the development of multiple symptoms, including pelvic pain and bladder irritation. Identifying these mechanisms as central mediators in CPPS offers new insight into the prospective treatment of the disease. PMID:24686526
Acerra, Nicole E; Souvlis, Tina; Moseley, G Lorimer
Despite being different conditions, complex regional pain syndrome type 1, phantom limb pain and stroke share some potentially important similarities. This report examines experimental and clinical findings from each patient population. It identifies common aspects of symptomatic presentation, sensory phenomena and patterns of cortical reorganization. Based on these common findings, we argue that established principles of stroke rehabilitation are also applicable to rehabilitation of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and phantom limb pain. In addition, we contend that promising treatment approaches for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and phantom limb pain may be helpful in stroke rehabilitation. Examples of emerging supportive evidence for these hypotheses are provided and discussed.
Crowell, Michael S; Wofford, Nancy H
Objectives: A recent clinical prediction rule (CPR) identified characteristics that may predict an immediate reduction in pain following lumbopelvic manipulation in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. The purpose of this single-arm cohort study was to replicate the proposed CPR in a different population and investigate changes in self-reported pain, hip range of motion, strength, and function immediately following lumbopelvic manipulation. Methods: Forty-four subjects (63·6% female; mean age 27·4 years) met inclusion criteria. Hip internal rotation range of motion, lower extremity strength using a handheld dynamometer, and single/triple hop tests were assessed prior to and immediately following a spinal manipulation. A global rating of change questionnaire was administered after testing and telephonically at 1 week. Paired t-tests compared pre- and post-manipulation range of motion, strength, and hop test limb symmetry indices (α = 0·05). Results: Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a successful outcome measured by the numerical pain rating scale immediately following manipulation. Twenty-five of subjects experienced a successful outcome as measured by the global rating of change questionnaire at 1 week. No single individual or combination of predictor variables predicted a positive outcome immediately following the lumbopelvic manipulation (+likelihood ratio 0·7 with three of five predictor variables present). Statistically significant differences (P<0·05) were found in hip extension and abduction strength and hip internal rotation symmetry post-manipulation, but do not appear to be clinically meaningful. Discussion: The previously identified CPR was not able to be replicated and no clinically meaningful changes in range of motion, strength, or function were apparent. Future research should focus on a comprehensive impairment-based treatment approach in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:23904749
Saad, Andre; Knolla, Raelene; Gupta, Kamal
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) (previously reflex sympathetic dystrophy) is a chronic pain condition usually resulting as a consequence of trauma or surgery. Though described occasionally after vascular surgery, it is distinctly rare after percutaneous cardiovascular procedures. We report a case of CRPS following trans- femoral catheterization-related groin pseudoaneurysm. To our knowledge, this is the first such report following transfemoral catheterization. A 36-year-old female underwent an electrophysiological study and AV node re-entry tachycardia ablation using the left femoral vein approach. One month later she presented complaining of numbness and tingling in her left foot with swelling and mild groin discomfort. A lower extremity duplex scan showed a left common femoral artery pseudoaneurysm that was partially thrombosed and subsequently resolved spontaneously. The patient had intractable symptoms of pain, temperature changes, color changes, and trophic changes of the left foot. Conventional angiography was done to rule out occlusive arterial disease but just showed very sluggish flow. Further evaluation with transcutaneous oxymetry and 3-phase bone scan was consistent with microvascular dysfunction and poor cutaneous blood flow suggestive of cold-type CRPS. In this case report, we also review the clinical features and the vascular changes associated with CRPS and discuss the pathophysiology of the syndrome from a cardiovascular specialist's perspective. Interventionalists should be aware that CRPS is a possible, albeit rare, condition that may follow many vascular procedures that they perform on a daily basis.
de Figueiredo, J M; Baiardi, J J; Long, D M
A 51-year-old man was admitted for evaluation and treatment of scrotal pain of 20 years' duration following unilateral orchiectomy for right testicular injury. Past attempts had failed to provide definitive or persistent relief. Physical examination and investigations were unremarkable. Psychiatric assessment revealed an angry, depressed man with a drasmatic, hypermasculine manner and hysterical and obsessive personality traits. Review of systems with a structured interview indicated that the patient had numerous medically unexplained symptoms and that he fulfilled both the Feighner and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 3rd edition (DSM-III) diagnostic criteria for Briquet syndrome. The case is important because it demonstrates the usefulness of recognizing Briquet syndrome in patients with the single presenting complaint of chronic, intractable pain, and the fact that Briquet syndrome, commonly considered a female disorder, can occur in men regardless of sexual orientation and in the absence of expected compensation. In addition, the case confirms the utility of a structured interview and defined criteria for making the diagnosis of Briquet syndrome.
Sherry, David D; Malleson, Peter N
Idiopathic musculoskeletal pain syndromes in children have a variety of manifestations; they can be diffuse or well localized, constant or intermittent, with or without autonomic symptoms and signs, completely incapacitating or not limiting activities, and they can tax the physician's diagnostic skill. A careful history and examination is usually all that is needed to make a diagnosis, although the differential diagnosis is large and might require laboratory and radiographic investigation. Pain and functional assessment help track the progress with therapy. Intense exercise therapy is associated with the best outcome. Psychologic issues should be evaluated to determine if further psychologic intervention is indicated. The medium-term outcome is probably good for most of these children, but the long-term prognosis is unknown. One must be aware that other manifestations of psychologic problems might emerge. By the time these children and their families see the rheumatologist they are desperate and can be frustrating to work with due to their difficulty in accepting any kind of psychologic element to the pain and its associated disability. Nevertheless, it is rewarding to help the children understand and work through their pain so they can resume normal lives.
Arar, Zeljka Vuković; Janjetović, Zeljka; Marinić, Miljenko; Sekelj, Sandra; Lezaić, Zeljka; Dikanović, Marinko
Tolosa Hunt syndrome is a rare disorder caused by nonspecific inflammation in the cavernous sinus/superior orbital fissure and/or orbital apex. It is clinically characterized by alternating remissions and exacerbations, and manifested as diplopia associated with unilateral periorbital hemicranial headache. The symptoms include blepharoptosis, which is usually mild if present, bulbomotor paresis involving the pupil, and loss of sensation in the area supplied by the first division of the trigeminal nerve. Therapy for Tolosa-Hunt syndrome are systemic steroids. The course of disease in a 25-year-old man hospitalized for painful ophthalmoplegia and diplopia is presented. The history included severe pain on rightward eye movement and parabulbarly on the right, considerable defect in the area supplied by the first division of the trigeminal nerve, right hemicrania, and diplopia on looking to the left, right, upward and downward that developed after four days. A month before, the patient was observed at neurology department for severe right hemicrania. Current status included severe pain parabulbarly on the right, discrete proptosis with mild ptosis on the right eye, restricted right eye bulbar motoricity on looking nasally, nasally upward and downward, and loss of sensation in the area supplied by the first division of the trigeminal nerve. Pupilar motoricity was normal. Upon admission, neuroradiologic examination (orbit CT) and brain MR were performed, and therapy with systemic corticosteroids was initiated ex iuvantibus, in consultation with a neurologist. At 24 hours of corticosteroid therapy, the pain subsided, whereas diplopia disappeared almost completely after 5 days, now being only occasionally recorded on looking to the left and upward.
As gynaecologists frequently function as “general practitioners” for women, gynaecologists are frequently confronted with questions which initially appear to have only a tenuous connection to their field. Chronic pain syndromes represent a particular challenge, especially as pain syndromes are often associated with severe psychosocial stress for the affected woman. This article discusses some of the psychometric aspects of chronic pain in endometriosis and fibromyalgia together with practical therapeutic approaches. PMID:26640283
Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency, and salivary corti...
Hill, Renee J.; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni
Abstract Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by newly uncovered neuro inflammatory processes. With increased education about CRPS through a biopsychosocial perspective, both physicians and MHPs can better diagnose, treat, and manage CRPS symptomatology. PMID:24223338
Hill, Renee J; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni
Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by newly uncovered neuro inflammatory processes. With increased education about CRPS through a biopsychosocial perspective, both physicians and MHPs can better diagnose, treat, and manage CRPS symptomatology.
Bolaños-Vergaray, Juan Javier; de la Gala García, Francisco; Obaya Rebollar, Juan Carlos; Bové Alvarez, Maria
Slipping rib syndrome is an overlooked cause of persistent abdominal or chest pain. The etiology of this syndrome is not well understood, but the characteristic pain is from hypermobility of the false ribs. Although it is a diagnosis of exclusion, misdiagnosis may lead to an excessive workup. A simple clinical examination via the hooking maneuver is the most significant feature of its diagnosis. We describe the case of a 41-year-old woman with slipping rib syndrome.
Saban, Bernice; Masharawi, Youssef
Pressure pain threshold (PPT) is a useful tool for evaluating mechanical sensitivity in patients suffering from various musculoskeletal disorders. However, no previous study has investigated PPT in the heel of patients experiencing plantar heel pain syndrome (PHPS). The aim of this study was to compare PPT levels and topographic presentation of sensitivity in the heel of patients with PHPS and in healthy controls. The reliability of PPT testing in patients with PHPS was assessed for intra- and interrater recordings. The PPT levels of 40 feet in each group were then assessed on 5 predetermined sites in the heel using a standardized measurement protocol. Patient functional status (FS) as measured by the Foot & Ankle Computerized Adaptive Test was employed as an external reference. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed no group differences for PPTs at all sites (P = .406). Age (P = .099) or BMI (P = .510) did not affect PPT values, although there was an effect on gender (P = .006). The analysis revealed significant differences between sites (P < .001) demonstrating a diverse topographic distribution. In the PHPS group, PPT levels at the anterior/medial, posterior/medial and central sites were significantly lower than at the posterior/lateral and anterior/lateral sites (P < .05). For the control group, PPT levels at the anterior/medial site were significantly lower than all other sites (P < .001). No significant differences were found between PPT of the PHPS patients and controls, therefore, PPT cannot be recommended as an assessment tool for these patients. The topographic distribution indicated low PPT levels at the anterior/medial area of the heel in patients with PHPS and controls. Level II, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2016.
Sutar, Roshan; Yadav, Suresh; Desai, Geetha
The definition of functional pain syndromes is varied across literature. No effort has been made to see all functional pain disorder groups under broad nomenclature which would exclude conditions for which pathophysiology is strongly known. Since these disorders are commonly treated with alternative treatment modalities and impose significant burden on health utilization, an effort to look into studies on yoga-based interventions on 'functional pain syndromes' (FPS) was made. This study defined FPS as 'Chronic relapsing remitting pain conditions, the origin of which is difficult to trace with no definite physical pathology on clinical suspicion or available laboratory measures and are valid based on subjective pain reporting, associated distress and socio-occupational dysfunction'. Chronic headache, neck pain, back pain, fibromyalgia, pelvic pain, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and somatoform pain disorders were included for this review. The review found four meta-analyses on the selected topic both indicating modest efficacy and benefit of yoga in these disorders. Future efforts should be directed to do a large meta-analysis of functional pain syndromes.
Reshetnyak, V K; Kukushkin, M L; Gurko, N C
This review considers the literature data on the epidemiology of phantom-pain syndrome (PPS) presents the results of numerous clinical studies demonstrating the lack of effectiveness of the vast majority of modem non-pharmacological and pharmacological methods of treatment of PPS. Detail presents data on the patho genetic mechanisms underlying the PPS. According to most researchers, the major role in the patho genesis of the PPS has the reorganization of the somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex of the brain. At the same time discusses the views of researchers who believe that the main reason PPS is to strengthen nociceptive and nonnociceptive afferentation in the peripheral newous system. The comparison of these conflicting data it is concluded that in the genesis of the PPS plays the role of both primary and secondary sensitization. Leading important dysfunction of the central nervous system. Details the modern understanding of the mechanisms underlying the high efficiency of suppression of PPS during stimulation of motor cortex.
Resmini, Giuseppina; Ratti, Chiara; Canton, Gianluca; Murena, Luigi; Moretti, Antimo; Iolascon, Giovanni
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a multifactorial and disabling disorder with complex etiology and pathogenesis. Goals of therapy in CRPS should be pain relief, functional restoration, and psychological stabilization, but early interventions are needed in order to achieve these objectives. Several drugs have been used to reduce pain and to improve functional status in CRPS, despite the lack of scientific evidence supporting their use in this scenario. They include anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, anesthetics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, oral muscle relaxants, corticosteroids, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, calcium channel blockers and topical agents. NSAIDs showed no value in treating CRPS. Glucocorticoids are the only anti-inflammatory drugs for which there is direct clinical trial evidence in early stage of CRPS. Opioids are a reasonable second or third-line treatment option, but tolerance and long term toxicity are unresolved issues. The use of anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants has not been well investigated for pain management in CRPS. During the last years, bisphosphonates have been the mostly studied pharmacologic agents in CRPS treatment and there are good evidence to support their use in this condition. Recently, the efficacy of intravenous (IV) administration of neridronate has been reported in a randomized controlled trial. Significant improvements in VAS score and other indices of pain and quality of life in patients who received four 100 mg IV doses of neridronate versus placebo were reported. These findings were confirmed in the open-extension phase of the study, when patients formerly enrolled in the placebo group received neridronate at the same dosage, and these results were maintained at 1 year follow-up. The current literature concerning sympathetic blocks and sympathectomy techniques lacks evidence of efficacy. Low evidence was recorded for a free radical scavenger, dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) cream (50%). The same level
Vitali, Claudio; Del Papa, Nicoletta
Joint and muscle pain are commonly observed in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Different types of pain can be distinguished, that is, articular pain, neuropathic pain and widespread pain. Articular pain is due to more or less evident synovitis, usually involving peripheral joints such as hand joints, wrists, knees and ankles. Drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, or lupus synovitis, are also employed for articular involvement in pSS. Pure sensory neuropathies and, more often, small fibre neuropathies are responsible for neuropathic pain in pSS. This is usually localised in the legs and arms with a characteristic glove or sock distribution. Widespread pain, often assuming the features of fibromyalgia, has also been reported in patients with pSS. The pathological mechanisms underlying both neuropathic pain and widespread (fibromyalgia) pain in pSS have not been so far completely clarified.
Lin, Wei-Chen; Shen, Cheng-Che; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Yang, Albert C
The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of developing myofascial pain syndrome among patients diagnosed with insomnia. We conducted a population-based longitudinal study of a matched cohort with 7,895 participants (1,579 patients with insomnia and 6,316 controls) who were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The patients were observed for a maximum of 10 years to determine the incidence of newly diagnosed myofascial pain syndrome. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with myofascial pain syndrome in patients with insomnia. During the 10-year follow-up period, 182 insomnia patients (14.9 per 1,000 person-years) and 379 controls (7.5 per 1,000 person-years) were diagnosed with myofascial pain syndrome. The incidence risk ratio of myofascial pain syndrome between the insomnia and control patients was 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.67-2.38, P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, monthly income, urbanization, and comorbidities, the insomnia patients were 1.93 times more likely to develop myofascial pain syndrome (95% CI = 1.62-2.31, P < .001) than the control patients. Malignant neoplasm (hazard ratio = 3.08) and living in urban areas (hazard ratio = 3.05) were identified as independent risk factors for myofascial pain syndrome in patients with insomnia. Patients with insomnia had a higher risk of developing myofascial pain syndrome than controls. This study adds to the understanding of the complex relationship between sleep disturbance and pain.
Zapata, Aura Ligia; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Leone, Claudio; Doria-Filho, Ulysses; Silva, Clovis Artur Almeida
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of pain and musculoskeletal pain syndromes in adolescents and associate them to computer and video game use. A cross-sectional study was performed on the entire adolescent population (n=833) of a private situated in the city of São Paulo. The research included a questionnaire and physical examination of the musculoskeletal system. Statistical analysis was carried out with Fisher, chi-square, Mann Whitney tests and logistic regression. A total of 791 adolescent was evaluated. A computer was used by 99% and video games by 58%. Pain was reported by 312 (39.4%) students: 23% complained of back pain, 9% of upper limb pain, 4% of diffuse pain and 4% of pain in the trapezium muscle. A clinical examination was carried out in 359 students, and one or more musculoskeletal pain syndromes were present in 56 students (15.6%): benign joint hypermobility syndrome in 10%, myofascial syndrome in 5%, tendonitis in 2% and fibromyalgia in 1%. In the multivariate analysis, the logistical regression showed that the independent variables in the prediction of pain were sex [odds ratio (OR): 2.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.33-3.61] and age (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.28) and that the prediction of musculoskeletal pain syndromes were sex (OR: 3.17, 95% CI: 1.69-6.22) and number of days a week using the computer (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05-1.42). However, the variations in the dependent variables by the mathematical regression models were low. Despite the frequent use of computer and video games among adolescents, this was not associated with the presence of pain and musculoskeletal pain syndromes.
Морозова, О Г; Ярошевский, А А; Липинская, Я В
The relevance of this study is due to the prevalence of autonomic disorders and musculoskeletal pain, especially among the young people of working age. In recent years, many authors in scientific works have been highlighted aspects of mutual development myofascial and autonomic dysfunction, which is caused by neurophysiological preconditions and anatomical and topographical relationships that need to be considered in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. To study the characteristics of the formation and flow of autonomic dysfunction syndrome with paroxysmal and permanent types of flow in patients with myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization. Using clinical neurological, vertebral neurological, neuropsychological methods of studying the severity of pain (visual analogue scale and Pain questionnaire of Mac Gill) examined 84 patients suffering from autonomic dysfunction on the background of myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization. To identify the features of vegetative regulation of patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (51 people) - with a permanent type of course; group 2 (33 patients) - a type of paroxysmal of course of autonomic dysfunction. It was found more pronounced disturbances in patients with paroxysmal type of course of autonomic dysfunction. The frequency and severity of autonomic paroxysms associated with the severity of musculo-tonic syndrome and location of active trigger points in the muscles of the neck and shoulder girdle, due to anatomic and topographic features of these muscles, namely the proximity of their location to the sympathetic formations neck. The formation and development of emotional and affective disorders in both groups played a significant role of pain and musculo-tonic syndrome. The syndrome of autonomic dysfunction, in particular its paroxysmal type of flow, on the one hand is a response to the development of myofascial pain syndromes cervicobrachial localization, with another - a factor
Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha; de Oliveira, Raquel
When an organ disease is ruled out as the origin of pelvic pain, the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) injury and consequent dysfunction could be the mechanism of visceral chronic pain perpetuation. As much as a dorsal discus herniation may harm the dorsal or ventral roots, a ventral discus herniation at L4-L5 or L5-S1 may result in direct physical trauma to the SHP, maintaining chronic visceral pain mediated by sympathetic dysfunction, conceivably also afferent fibers dysfunction. We propose that similarly to nociceptive somatic dysfunction named complex regional pain syndrome, the maintained sympathetic pelvic pain secondary to straight physical damage to the SHP characterize in fact the same disease, but in nociceptive visceral tissue, named visceral complex regional pain syndrome, a concept constructed based on the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria (1994).
Barnhoorn, Karlijn J; Staal, J Bart; van Dongen, Robert T M; Frölke, Jan Paul M; Klomp, Frank P; van de Meent, Henk; Samwel, Han; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G
To investigate whether pain-related fears are mediators for reducing disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 when treating with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy. An explorative secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Fifty-six patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. The experimental group received Pain Exposure Physical Therapy in a maximum of five treatment sessions; the control group received conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline. Levels of disability, pain, and pain-related fears (fear-avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, and kinesiophobia) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months follow-up. The experimental group had a significantly larger decrease in disability of 7.77 points (95% CI 1.09 to 14.45) and in pain of 1.83 points (95% CI 0.44 to 3.23) over nine months than the control group. The potential mediators pain-related fears decreased significantly in both groups, but there were no significant differences between groups, which indicated that there was no mediation. The reduction of pain-related fears was comparable in both groups. We found no indication that pain-related fears mediate the larger reduction of disability and pain in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 treated with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy compared to conventional treatment. International Clinical Trials Registry NCT00817128.
Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio
Summary The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause. PMID:27252736
Vorobeĭchik, Ia M; Kukushkin, M L; Reshetniak, V K; Ovechkin, A M; Gnezdilov, A V
The authors carried out estimation of analgetic effect of tisanidin by double blind test in patients with phantom limb pain syndrome. 14 patients took the medicine in a dose of 12 mg/day and 5 patients took placebo at the same dose. Characteristics and intensity of pain were estimated in accordance with McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scale. Pain possessed more than one sensory characteristics in the majority of patients. Tisanidin had a significant analgetic influence on all type of phantom limb pain: "neuralgic"--acute, shooting, transitory, "causalgic"--hot, burning, searing, "cramping" pain. Pain sensation did not decrease only in one of 14 patients treated with tisanidin. The authors explain the effectivity of the drug for treatment of phantom limb pain of different sensory modality by variety of the mechanisms of its therapeutic action, the capacity to decrease the releasing of excitatory neurotransmitter amino acids and the influence on alpha 2-adrenoceptors.
Matsuda, Ken; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Ko; Shibata, Minoru
Abstract A patient with complex regional pain syndrome type II was successfully treated using free anterolateral thigh flap transfer with digital nerve coaptation to the cutaneous nerve of the flap. Release of the scarred tissue and soft tissue coverage with targeted sensory nerve coaptation were useful in relieving severe pain. PMID:27252946
Dirckx, M; Stronks, D L; van Bodegraven-Hof, E A M; Wesseldijk, F; Groeneweg, J G; Huygen, F J P M
In patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the temperature of the affected side often differs from that of the contralateral side. In the acute phase, the affected side is usually warmer than the contralateral side, the so-called 'warm' CRPS. This thermal asymmetry can develop into a colder affected side, the so-called 'cold' CRPS. In contrast to cold CRPS, in warm CRPS, inflammation is generally assumed to be present. However, there are reports of cold CRPS patients, successfully treated with vasodilatation therapy, who subsequently displayed warm CRPS. It seems that inflammation could be 'hidden' behind vasomotor disturbance. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. A retrospective analysis was made of patients in our CRPS database. We defined three types of CRPS: cold CRPS, neither cold nor warm (intermediate) CRPS, and warm CRPS. Of these patients, the difference between the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (Δ IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (Δ TNF-α) in the affected extremity and that in the contralateral extremity was determined. The bilateral difference of the level of these cytokines did not differ among patients with cold CRPS, intermediate CRPS, or those with warm CRPS. Inflammation may be involved in cold CRPS. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stoelb, Brenda L.; Carter, Gregory T.; Abresch, Richard T.; Purekal, Sophia; McDonald, Craig M.; Jensen, Mark P.
Objective To describe the frequency, intensity, and impact of pain in persons with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS). Design Retrospective, cross-sectional survey. Setting Community-based survey. Participants Convenience sample of people with PPS. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Overall intensity and duration of pain, pain sites, pain interference, pain treatments, and relief provided by pain treatments. Results A total of 91% (n=57) of the study participants (N=63) reported pain. The most frequently reported pain sites were the shoulders, lower back, legs, and hips. Participants reported pain intensity to be the greatest in the knees, legs, wrists, lower back, and head. Pain interfered most with sleep and with activities requiring a high level of musculoskeletal involvement. Respondents also reported pain problems that were more severe than those of the general population and than those of a sample of people with multiple sclerosis. Many treatments had been tried previously for pain, but continued use of treatments was reported by relatively few participants at the time of the survey. Conclusions The findings indicate that pain is a persistent and common problem in persons with PPS, highlighting the need for effective and accessible pain treatments for this population. PMID:18929021
Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. Trigger point pathophysiology in myofascial pain syndrome, which involves muscle stiffness, tenderness, and pain that radiates to other areas of the body, is considered. The causes of trigger points and several theories about how they develop are reviewed, and treatment approaches, including stretching, physical therapy, dry needling, and injections, are offered.
Nambi-Joseph, Pushpa; Stanton-Hicks, Michael; Sferra, James J
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) applies to a variety of conditions in which symptoms such as allodynia and hyperalgesia predominate along with hyperpathia and vasomotor/sudomotor disturbances. The incidence of CRPS in the chronic pain population varies and is difficult to determine, though it appears to affect women more than men. Treatment is multidisciplinary, and recovery of function and the reduction of pain are the main goals of treatment;this article addresses some of the interventional modalities that are used.
Bohr, T W
"It is in the healing business that the temptations of junk science are the strongest and the controls against it the weakest." Despite their subjective nature, these syndromes (particularly MPS) have little reliability and validity, and advocates paint them as "objective." Despite a legacy of poor-quality science, enthusiasts continue to cite small, methodologically flawed studies purporting to show biologic variables for these syndromes. Despite a wealth of traditional pain research, disciples continue to ignore the placebo effect, demonstrating a therapeutic hubris despite studies showing a dismal natural history for FS. In reviewing the literature on MPS and FS, F.M.R. Walshe's sage words come to mind that the advocates of these syndromes are "better armed with technique than with judgment." A sympathic observer might claim that labeling patients with monikers of nondiseases such as FS and MPS may not be such a bad thing. After all, there is still a stigma for psychiatric disease in our society, and even telling a sufferer that this plays only a partial role may put that patient on the defensive. Labeling may have iatrogenic consequences, however, particularly in the setting of the work place. Furthermore, review of a typical support group newsletter gives ipso facto proof of this noxious potential. The author of a flyer stuffed inside the newsletter complains that getting social security and disability benefits for "the invisible disability" can be "an uphill battle. But don't loose (sic) hope." Apparently the "seriousness of the condition" is not appreciated by the medical community at large, and "clinician bias may well be the largest threat," according to Boston epidemiologist Dr. John Mason. Sufferers are urged to trek to their local medical library and pull four particular articles claiming FS patients have more "stress," "daily hassles," and difficulty working compared with arthritis patients. If articles can't be located, patients are told to ask their
Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Molino-Pagan, Diana; Parra-Perez, Paco; Valenzuela, Sara
OBJECTIVE : This study set out to identify the neuropathic component of pain experienced by burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients evaluated using painDETECT, a diagnostic tool that could easily be introduced into clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study included 64 patients (33 BMS and 31 suffering nociceptive pain). Each completed the painDETECT neuropathic pain questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and pain intensity was also measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS : Pain among BMS patients (evaluated by VAS) was 6.1 ± 1.9, and 4.3 ± 1.7 among nociceptive patients (P < 0.001). PainDETECT obtained total scores ≥ 19 in 21% of BMS patients, indicating the presence of neuropathic pain. When painDETECT pain descriptors were analyzed comparing the BMS group with nociceptive pain subjects, statistically significant differences were found for burning sensation (P < 0.010), prickling (P < 0.001), electric shock-like sensation (P = 0.046), thermal sensation (P < 0.001), and numbness (P = 0.002). Logistic regression analysis found that VAS scoring was the strongest determinant predicting neuropathic pain. CONCLUSION : The present study suggests that almost a third of BMS patients present neuropathic pain, which is strongly associated with the intensity of pain measured using VAS. These data could provide the basis for further research.
El Otmani, H; Moutaouakil, F; Fadel, H; Slassi, I
Painful legs and moving toes (PLMT) is a rare syndrome characterized by spontaneous neuropathic pain in the lower limbs associated with peculiar involuntary movements of the toes. It has been associated with a variety of peripheral and central nervous system diseases. Pathophysiology is unclear and treatment approaches remain largely empirical. We report a case of a 42-year-old women with typical presentation of PLMT syndrome, associated with lumbar (L5) disc prolapse. Oxcarbazepine gave a partial improvement. Clinical presentations and etiological aspects of the PLMT syndrome are described and pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic possibilities discussed.
Kwon, Junbeom; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Chang, Won Hyuk; Park, Chunung; Lee, Sang Chul
To report the characteristics of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the infraspinatus muscle and evaluate the therapeutic effect of trigger-point injections. Medical records of 297 patients (221 women; age, 53.9±11.3 years) with MTrPs in the infraspinatus muscle were reviewed retrospectively. Because there were 83 patients with MTrPs in both infraspinatus muscles, the characteristics of total 380 infraspinatus muscles with MTrPs (214 one side, 83 both sides) were investigated. Specific characteristics collected included chief complaint area, referred pain pattern, the number of local twitch responses, and distribution of MTrPs in the muscle. For statistical analysis, the paired t-test was used to compare a visual analogue scale (VAS) before and 2 weeks after the first injection. The most common chief complaint area of MTrPs in the infraspinatus muscle was the scapular area. The most common pattern of referred pain was the anterolateral aspect of the arm (above the elbow). Active MTrPs were multiple rather than single in the infraspinatus muscle. MTrPs were frequently in the center of the muscle. Trigger-point injection of the infraspinatus muscle significantly decreased the pain intensity. Mean VAS score decreased significantly after the first injection compared to the baseline (7.11 vs. 3.74; p<0.001). Characteristics of MTrPs and the therapeutic effects of trigger-point injections of the infraspinatus muscle were assessed. These findings could provide clinicians with useful information in diagnosing and treating myofascial pain syndrome of the infraspinatus muscle.
Magistro, Giuseppe; Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Grabe, Magnus; Weidner, Wolfgang; Stief, Christian G; Nickel, J Curtis
monotherapy for management. No efficient monotherapeutic option is available. The best evidence-based management of CP/CPPS strongly suggests a multimodal therapeutic approach addressing the individual clinical phenotypic profile. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome presents a variable syndrome. Successful management of this condition is challenging. It appears that a tailored treatment strategy addressing individual patient characteristics is more effective than one single therapy. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rossi, FH; Liu, W; Geigel, E; Castaneda, S; Rossi, EM; Schnacky, K
Report three cases of painful legs and moving toes (PLMT) syndrome responsive to pregabalin along with a review of its literature. Three patients with PLMT syndrome improved with pregabalin. The first and third patient reported improvement in pain scores, quality of life, and quality of sleep sustained over time. The second and third patient had near complete remission of toe movements, but pregabalin was discontinued in the second patient due to aggravation of leg edema. PLMT is a rare and debilitating disorder characterized by lower limb pain and involuntary toes or feet movements. Its pathophysiology remains unknown and its therapy refractory to most drugs, except for pregabalin, as shown in this case series. PLMT is a rare and incapacitating syndrome due to the lack of an effective pain therapy. We report three patients with PLMT who favorable responded to pregabalin. We propose pregabalin be considered in the management of PLMT. PMID:25766346
Fishman, Scott M
This feature presents information for patients in a question and answer format. It is written to simulate actual questions that many pain patients ask and to provide answers in a context and language that most pain patients will comprehend. Issues addressed in this issue are carpel tunnel syndrome, fibromyalgia, glucosamine and chondroitin, hypnosis, marijuana.
Thomas, Donna-Ann; Maslin, Benjamin; Legler, Aron; Springer, Erin; Asgerally, Abbas; Vadivelu, Nalini
There is increasing interest in the use of complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of chronic pain. This review examines alternative and complimentary therapies, which can be incorporated as part of a biopsychosocial approach in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. In the present investigation, literature from articles indexed on PubMed was evaluated including topics of alternative therapies, complimentary therapies, pain psychology, biofeedback therapy, physical exercise therapies, acupuncture, natural and herbal supplements, whole-body cryotherapy, and smartphone technologies in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. This review highlights the key role of psychology in the treatment of chronic pain. Cognitive behavior therapy appears to be the most impactful while biofeedback therapy has also been shown to be effective for chronic pain. Exercise therapy has been shown to be effective in short-, intermediate-, and long-term pain states. When compared to that in sham controls, acupuncture has shown some benefit for neck pain immediately after the procedure and in the short term and improvement has also been demonstrated in the treatment of headaches. The role of smartphones and whole-body cryotherapy are new modalities and further studies are needed. Recent literature suggests that several alternate therapies could play a role in the treatment of chronic pain, supporting the biopsychosocial model in the treatment of pain states.
Loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS) is an uncommon clinical entity that has divided renal physicians, pain practitioners, and even psychiatrists since its initial description. A relative paucity of data exists regarding the condition, with best practice guidelines lacking amid the existing threads of anecdotal experiences and variable follow-up observations. The aim of this article was to review the cumulative published experience of pain relief strategies for LPHS. PMID:27103962
Chandola, H C; Chakraborty, Arunangshu
Summary Pain and fatigue associated to the musculoskeletal system are among the leading causes of patients to visit their physicians and nearly one-third of such patients suffer from fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic debilitating disorder characterized by widespread pain with tenderness in specific areas, leading to fatigue, headache and sleep disorder. Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS), is also a localized musculoskeletal pain producing condition whose diagnostic and management criteria differ from FMS but still considered by many only a subtype of FMS. Till date no exact cause has been held responsible for these painful conditions, therefore treatment of these disorders is always a challenge. The therapies are not precise but multimodal including pharmacological and alternative approaches. This article describes the existing knowledge pertaining to these conditions in regard of causative factors diagnosis and management. PMID:20640108
Warren, John W; Howard, Fred M; Cross, Raymond K; Good, Janine L; Weissman, Myrna M; Wesselmann, Ursula; Langenberg, Patricia; Greenberg, Patty; Clauw, Daniel J
Probing for clues to the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), we sought antecedent nonbladder syndromes that distinguished incident IC/PBS cases from matched controls. Female incident IC/PBS cases were recruited nationally, and their IC/PBS onset date (index date) was established. The controls were recruited by national random digit dialing and matched to the cases by sex, age, region, and interval between the (assigned) index date and interview. The prevalence of 24 nonbladder syndromes before the index date was assessed, 7 by multiple methods. The cases with IC/PBS had greater antecedent prevalence of 11 syndromes, and 243 of 313 cases (78%) vs 145 of 313 controls (45%) had multiple syndromes (P < .001). Fibromyalgia-chronic widespread pain (FM-CWP), chronic fatigue syndrome, sicca syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome were associated with each other by pairwise and factor analyses using numerous assumptions. Cases with FM-CWP, chronic fatigue syndrome, sicca syndrome, and/or irritable bowel syndrome (n = 141, 45%) were more likely to have other syndromes (ie, migraine, chronic pelvic pain, depression, and allergy). Three other syndrome clusters were identified; each was associated with this FM-CWP cluster. Eleven antecedent syndromes were more often diagnosed in those with IC/PBS, and most syndromes appeared in clusters. The most prominent cluster comprised FM-CWP, chronic fatigue syndrome, sicca syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome; most of the other syndromes and identified clusters were associated with it. Among the hypotheses generated was that some patients with IC/PBS have a systemic syndrome and not one confined to the bladder.
Tuling, Jeffrey R; Tunks, Eldon
In the elderly, pain of a widespread nature can often be debilitating. It is not uncommon to attribute this widespread pain to osteoarthritis within the spinal column structures and peripheral joints or to other musculoskeletal etiology. However, chiropractors should remain wary regarding pain experienced by the elderly, especially if pain is widespread and exhibits neuropathic features. Common features of neuropathic pain involve the presence of allodynia, hyperpathia and hyperalgesia. This characteristic widespread pain can sometimes be the sequelae of a central nervous system lesion such as a “Thalamic Pain Syndrome”, or “Central Post-Stroke Pain”, which are terms commonly used to describe pain that originates in the central nervous system. Following is the case of a 90-year-old patient presenting with widespread pain attributed to Thalamic Pain Syndrome or Central Post-Stroke Pain. Discussion of the characteristics of neuropathic pain and bedside testing techniques are presented to help the chiropractor identify a patient who may be presenting with Central Post-Stroke Pain.
Jhang, Jia-Fong; Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng
Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is characterized by bladder pain associated with urgency, frequency, nocturia, dysuria and sterile urine. Recent studies have shown that these bladder dysfunctions could originate from chronic inflammation or urothelial insult and proceed to a cascade of tissue reactions, which finally ascends to the central nervous system. Pilot studies of intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis had been introduced since 2005 with a promising result. Recent evidence suggests that botulinum toxin type A could significantly improve symptoms such as daytime frequency, nocturia, pain, quality of life and bladder capacity in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients. Single injection of botulinum toxin could not achieve long-term successful therapeutic result, and repeat injections could provide a better long-term success rate. However, patients with ulcer type bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis might not gain a benefit from botulinum toxin type A injection. Laboratory evidence showed that botulinum toxin type A for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis injection could induce peripheral desensitization, reduces bladder chronic inflammation and decreases apoptotic signal molecules in the urothelium. The present article reviewed the recent advances of botulinum toxin type A on bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.
Hayashi, Motohiro Chernov, Mikhail F.; Taira, Takaomi; Ochiai, Taku; Nakaya, Kotaro; Tamura, Noriko; Goto, Shinichi; Yomo, Shoji; Kouyama, Nobuo; Katayama, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoriko; Izawa, Masahiro; Muragaki, Yoshihiro
Purpose: To evaluate outcomes after pituitary radiosurgery in patients with post-stroke thalamic pain syndrome. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2006, 24 patients with thalamic pain syndrome underwent pituitary radiosurgery at Tokyo Women's Medical University and were followed at least 12 months thereafter. The radiosurgical target was defined as the pituitary gland and its connection with the pituitary stalk. The maximum dose varied from 140 to 180 Gy. Mean follow-up after treatment was 35 months (range, 12-48 months). Results: Initial pain reduction, usually within 48 h after radiosurgery, was marked in 17 patients (71%). However, in the majority of cases the pain recurred within 6 months after treatment, and at the time of the last follow-up examination durable pain control was marked in only 5 patients (21%). Ten patients (42%) had treatment-associated side effects. Anterior pituitary abnormalities were marked in 8 cases and required hormonal replacement therapy in 3; transient diabetes insipidus was observed in 2 cases, transient hyponatremia in 1, and clinical deterioration due to increase of the numbness severity despite significant reduction of pain was seen once. Conclusions: Pituitary radiosurgery for thalamic pain results in a high rate of initial efficacy and is accompanied by acceptable morbidity. It can be used as a primary minimally invasive management option for patients with post-stroke thalamic pain resistant to medical therapy. However, in the majority of cases pain recurrence occurs within 1 year after treatment.
Offiah, I; McMahon, S B; O'Reilly, B A
The bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a spectrum of urological symptoms characterised by bladder pain with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. There is no evidence-based management approach for the diagnosis or treatment of BPS. The objective of this study was to critically review and summarise the evidence relating to the diagnosis and treatment of the bladder pain syndrome. A review of published data on the diagnosis and treatment of the BPS was performed. Our search was limited to English-language articles, on the "diagnosis", and "management" or "treatment" of "interstitial cystitis" and the "bladder pain syndrome" in "humans." Frequency, urgency and pain on bladder filling are the most common symptoms of BPS. All urodynamic volumes are reduced in patients with BPS. Associated conditions include psychological distress, depression, history of sexual assault, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Cystoscopy remains the test for definitive diagnosis, with visualisation of haemorrhage on cystoreduction. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is essential in the management of this condition. Orally administered amitriptyline is an efficacious medical treatment for BPS. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and local anaesthetic, with/without hydrodistension are among new treatment strategies. Sacral or pudendal neuromodulation is effective, minimally invasive and safe. Surgery is reserved for refractory cases. There remains a paucity of evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of BPS. We encountered significant heterogeneity in the assessment of symptoms, duration of treatment and follow up of patients in our literature review.
Sayegh, Fares; Potoupnis, Michael; Kapetanos, George
Trochanteric bursitis is a clinical condition which simulates major hip diseases and low back pain, it may also mimic nerve root pressure syndrome. Patients with greater trochanteric bursitis pain syndrome (GTBPS) usually suffer from pain radiating to the posterolateral aspect of the thigh, paraesthesiae in the legs, and tenderness over the iliotibial tract.. The purpose of this study is to indicate the similarity between the clinical features of the GTBPS and those of chronic low back pain, and to highlight the importance of diagnosing GTBPS in patients complaining of low back conditions. Three hundred female patients were included in this prospective study. All patients complained about chronic low back pain or sciatica and had a failed long term conservative treatment. Local injection of the tender peritrochanteric area was only done in half of the patients (group 1). Patients were required to answer the Oswestry Disability Index Questionnaire during all periods of follow-up. Patients of group 1 had a better clinical outcome (p < 0.0005) than the patients in group 2 where no injection was done. We conclude that greater trochanter bursitis pain syndrome is a frequent syndrome which may be associated with low back symptoms. Patients with a long standing history of low back pain and sciatica should be routinely checked for GTBPS. GTBPS is easy to diagnose and can be treated. Peritrochanteric infiltration with glucocorticoids mixed with 2% lidocaine relieves patients from their symptoms for a long period of time. Recurrence should always be expected, but treatment may be repeated.
Davoine, Georges-André; Godinat, Gilles; Petite, Dominique; Saurer, Andreas
Chronic persistant pain is very challenging as the patient and his/her therapist are confronted with a lack of explanation about the origin of pain. The relationship has also to face many obstacles such as psychological strain or psychosocial tensions such as disagreements about the patients working capacity. Nevertheless continuing attention from a solid and secure therapist may progressively lead to changes in pain experience, the emergence of emotions and improved therapist patient interactions.
Treatment of chronic, nonmalignant pain syndromes has been largely suboptimal and the most debilitating conditions--such as LBP, arthritis, and neuropathic pain--continue to pose a significant burden to individuals and society. Although significant scientific advances in delineating pathophysiologic mechanisms have facilitated the development of targeted pharmacologic and interventional treatments, the integral role played by psychologic, behavioral, and social factors in generating, perpetuating, and individualizing the pain experience has been largely ignored. Consequently, adequate pain relief may still be an achievable goal, but one that is often realized only with a concomitant, cognitive, behaviorally based, functional restoration approach. A multidisciplinary integrative approach that places equal emphasis on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying pain, as well as the multidimensional interplay of cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences is essential to improving outcomes. Although there are presently a paucity of data that identify specific characteristics that define which individuals will benefit from any particular modality, evidence clearly demonstrates that the MPC setting offers patients an opportunity to achieve both adequate pain relief and improved physical, behavioral, and psychologic function. A key challenge for clinicians lies in changing the approach to pain "treatment" and in bridging the gap between the current evolving understanding of pain mechanisms and clinical management. Physiatrists' focus on maximal functional restoration is a critical contribution to cost-effective pain medicine practice. Wisely combining effective pain management techniques within a functional restoration program has the best chance of improving the quality of life for patients with chronic pain disorders and diseases.
van Rijn, M A; Munts, A G; Marinus, J; Voormolen, J H C; de Boer, K S; Teepe-Twiss, I M; van Dasselaar, N T; Delhaas, E M; van Hilten, J J
Dystonia in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) responds poorly to treatment. Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) may improve this type of dystonia, but information on its efficacy and safety is limited. A single-blind, placebo-run-in, dose-escalation study was carried out in 42 CRPS patients to evaluate whether dystonia responds to ITB. Thirty-six of the 38 patients, who met the responder criteria received a pump for continuous ITB administration, and were followed up for 12 months to assess long-term efficacy and safety (open-label study). Primary outcome measures were global dystonia severity (both studies) and dystonia-related functional limitations (open-label study). The dose-escalation study showed a dose-effect of baclofen on dystonia severity in 31 patients in doses up to 450 microg/day. One patient did not respond to treatment in the dose-escalation study and three patients dropped out. Thirty-six patients entered the open-label study. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed a substantial improvement in patient and assessor-rated dystonia scores, pain, disability and quality-of-life (Qol) at 12 months. The response in the dose-escalation study did not predict the response to ITB in the open-label study. Eighty-nine adverse events occurred in 26 patients and were related to baclofen (n=19), pump/catheter system defects (n=52), or could not be specified (n=18). The pump was explanted in six patients during the follow-up phase. Dystonia, pain, disability and Qol all improved on ITB and remained efficacious over a period of one year. However, ITB is associated with a high complication rate in this patient group, and methods to improve patient selection and catheter-pump integrity are warranted.
Torres Lacomba, María; Mayoral del Moral, Orlando; Coperias Zazo, José Luís; Gerwin, Robert D; Goñí, Alvaro Zapico
Pain after breast cancer therapy is a recognized complication found to have an adverse impact on patient's quality of life, increasing psychosocial distress. In recent years, case reports about myofascial pain syndrome are emerging in thoracic surgery as a cause of postsurgery pain. Myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome characterized by myofascial trigger points in palpable taut bands of skeletal muscle that refers pain a distance, and that can cause distant motor and autonomic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of myofascial pain syndrome prospectively 12 months after breast cancer surgery. Each participant was assessed preoperatively, postoperatively between day 3 and day 5, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. A physical therapist, expert in the diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome, performed follow-up assessments. Pain descriptions by the patients and pain pattern drawings in body forms guided the physical examination. The patients were not given any information concerning myofascial pain or other muscle pain syndromes. One year follow-up was completed by 116 women. Of these, 52 women developed myofascial pain syndrome (44.8%, 95% confidence interval: 35.6, 54.3). Myofascial pain syndrome is a common source of pain in women undergoing breast cancer surgery that includes axillary lymph node dissection at least during the first year after surgery. Myofascial pain syndrome is one potential cause of chronic pain in breast cancer survivors who have undergone this kind of surgery.
Every pain syndrome has an inflammatory profile consisting of the inflammatory mediators that are present in the pain syndrome. The inflammatory profile may have variations from one person to another and may have variations in the same person at different times. The key to treatment of Pain Syndromes is an understanding of their inflammatory profile. Pain syndromes may be treated medically or surgically. The goal should be inhibition or suppression of production of the inflammatory mediators and inhibition, suppression or modulation of neuronal afferent and efferent (motor) transmission. A successful outcome is one that results in less inflammation and thus less pain. We hereby briefly describe the inflammatory profile for several pain syndromes including arthritis, back pain, neck pain, fibromyalgia, interstitial cystitis, migraine, neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome/reflex sympathetic dystrophy (CRPS/RSD), bursitis, shoulder pain and vulvodynia. These profiles are derived from basic science and clinical research performed in the past by numerous investigators and serve as a foundation to be built upon by other researchers and will be updated in the future by new technologies such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our unifying theory or law of pain states: the origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. The biochemical mediators of inflammation include cytokines, neuropeptides, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Irrespective of the type of pain whether it is acute or chronic pain, peripheral or central pain, nociceptive or neuropathic pain, the underlying origin is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Activation of pain receptors, transmission and modulation of pain signals, neuro plasticity and central sensitization are all one continuum of inflammation and the inflammatory response. Irrespective of the characteristic of the pain, whether it is sharp, dull, aching, burning, stabbing, numbing or tingling, all pain
Stretanski, Michael F
Objectives. This study aims to demonstrate the utility of spinal cord stimulation in a neuropathic pain syndrome and overall decline in health and functional independence following elapid envenomation in a morbidly obese, insulin-dependent diabetic. Materials and Methods. A two-lead, 16-electrode constant-current, independently controlled system is placed in the mid-cervical spine. Results. Noted were a improvement in overall health status with better glycemic control and return to work status in response to adequate pain control. Conclusions. The case serves as a model for other orphan pain cases with a seemingly esoteric etiology and adds to the existing body of literature that spinal cord stimulation and neuromodulation, in general, has a wide-ranging applicability peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes.
Logan, Deirdre E; Williams, Sara E; Carullo, Veronica P; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Bruehl, Stephen; Berde, Charles B
Historically, in both adult and pediatric populations, a lack of knowledge regarding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and absence of clear diagnostic criteria have contributed to the view that this is a primarily psychiatric condition. To test the hypothesis that children with CRPS are more functionally disabled, have more pain and are more psychologically distressed than children with other pain conditions. A total of 101 children evaluated in a tertiary care pediatric pain clinic who met the International Association for the Study of Pain consensus diagnostic criteria for CRPS participated in the present retrospective study. Comparison groups included 103 children with abdominal pain, 291 with headache and 119 with back pain. Children and parents completed self-report questionnaires assessing disability, somatization, pain coping, depression, anxiety and school attendance. Children with CRPS reported higher pain intensity and more recent onset of pain at the initial tertiary pain clinic evaluation compared with children with other chronic pain conditions. They reported greater functional disability and more somatic symptoms than children with headaches or back pain. Scores on measures of depression and anxiety were within normal limits and similar to those of children in other pain diagnostic groups. As a group, clinic-referred children with CRPS may be more functionally impaired and experience more somatic symptoms compared with children with other pain conditions. However, overall psychological functioning as assessed by self-report appears to be similar to that of children with other chronic pain diagnoses. Comprehensive assessment using a biopsychosocial framework is essential to understanding and appropriately treating children with symptoms of CRPS.
Logan, Deirdre E; Williams, Sara E; Carullo, Veronica P; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Bruehl, Stephen; Berde, Charles B
BACKGROUND Historically, in both adult and pediatric populations, a lack of knowledge regarding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and absence of clear diagnostic criteria have contributed to the view that this is a primarily psychiatric condition. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that children with CRPS are more functionally disabled, have more pain and are more psychologically distressed than children with other pain conditions. METHODS: A total of 101 children evaluated in a tertiary care pediatric pain clinic who met the International Association for the Study of Pain consensus diagnostic criteria for CRPS participated in the present retrospective study. Comparison groups included 103 children with abdominal pain, 291 with headache and 119 with back pain. Children and parents completed self-report questionnaires assessing disability, somatization, pain coping, depression, anxiety and school attendance. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported higher pain intensity and more recent onset of pain at the initial tertiary pain clinic evaluation compared with children with other chronic pain conditions. They reported greater functional disability and more somatic symptoms than children with headaches or back pain. Scores on measures of depression and anxiety were within normal limits and similar to those of children in other pain diagnostic groups. CONCLUSIONS: As a group, clinic-referred children with CRPS may be more functionally impaired and experience more somatic symptoms compared with children with other pain conditions. However, overall psychological functioning as assessed by self-report appears to be similar to that of children with other chronic pain diagnoses. Comprehensive assessment using a biopsychosocial framework is essential to understanding and appropriately treating children with symptoms of CRPS. PMID:23662291
van Bree, S H W; van Bree, M D R; Somsen, G A
An altered mental status and peripheral nerve dysfunction are alarming signs in a patient presenting with chest pain. If complicated by acute myocardial infarction, this raises the suspicion of aortic dissection and warrants immediate CT angiography. We report a dramatic case of chest pain in a 79-year-old man with somnolence and Horner's syndrome, subsequently complicated by myocardial infarction. Autopsy demonstrated a type A aortic dissection involving the carotid arteries and the right coronary artery.
Lederman, Andrew; Turk, David; Howard, Antonio; Reddy, Srinivas; Stern, Michelle
We present the case of a 24 yr old male who was diagnosed with gluteal compartment syndrome and was subsequently found to have developed lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy and complex regional pain syndrome. The patient's gluteal compartment syndrome was diagnosed within 24 h of presentation to the emergency room, and he underwent emergent compartment release. While recovering postoperatively, persistent weakness was noted in the right lower limb. Results of electrodiagnostic testing were consistent with a lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy. After admission to inpatient rehabilitation, the patient complained of pain, burning sensation, and numbness in the distal right lower limb. Based on clinical findings, he was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type II, or causalgia, and was referred for a lumbar sympathetic block under fluoroscopic guidance. Sympathetic block resulted in relief of the patient's symptoms. He was discharged home with good pain control on oral medications.
Moldwin, Robert M.
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and vulvodynia are chronic pain syndromes that appear to be intertwined from the perspectives of embryology, pathology and epidemiology. These associations may account for similar responses to various therapies. PMID:26816866
Noehren, B; Scholz, J; Davis, I
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common overuse injury in runners. Recent research suggests that hip mechanics play a role in the development of this syndrome. Currently, there are no treatments that directly address the atypical mechanics associated with this injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gait retraining using real-time feedback improves hip mechanics and reduces pain in subjects with PFPS. Ten runners with PFPS participated in this study. Real-time kinematic feedback of hip adduction (HADD) during stance was provided to the subjects as they ran on a treadmill. Subjects completed a total of eight training sessions. Feedback was gradually removed over the last four sessions. Variables of interest included peak HADD, hip internal rotation (HIR), contralateral pelvic drop, as well as pain on a verbal analogue scale and the lower-extremity function index. We also assessed HADD, HIR and contralateral pelvic drop during a single leg squat. Comparisons of variables of interest were made between the initial, final and 1-month follow-up visit. Following the gait retraining, there was a significant reduction in HADD and contralateral pelvic drop while running. Although not statistically significant, HIR decreased by 23% following gait retraining. The 18% reduction in HADD during a single leg squat was very close to significant. There were also significant improvements in pain and function. Subjects were able to maintain their improvements in running mechanics, pain and function at a 1-month follow-up. An unexpected benefit of the retraining was an 18% and 20% reduction in instantaneous and average vertical load rates, respectively. Gait retraining in individuals with PFPS resulted in a significant improvement of hip mechanics that was associated with a reduction in pain and improvements in function. These results suggest that interventions for PFPS should focus on addressing the underlying mechanics associated with this injury
Monnin, J L; Pierrugues, R; Bories, P; Michel, H
The slipping rib syndrome is characterized by upper abdominal pain due to irritation of the intercostal nerve by incomplete dislocation of the costal cartilage of the 8th, 9th, or 10th ribs. Twenty-three new cases are reported and the literature is reviewed. Diagnosis is only clinical. The pain is precipitated by movement and certain postures; it is faithfully reproduced by pressure on one particular point of the costal margin and is relieved by local injection of an anaesthetic. Pain from a slipping rib is usually attributed to visceral causes, which is a source of diagnostic errors.
Zhou, Guangyu; Hotta, Jaakko; Lehtinen, Maria K; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta
The choroid plexus, located in brain ventricles, has received surprisingly little attention in clinical neuroscience. In morphometric brain analysis, we serendipitously found a 21% increase in choroid plexus volume in 12 patients suffering from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. No enlargement was observed in a group of 8 patients suffering from chronic pain of other etiologies. Our findings suggest involvement of the choroid plexus in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Since the choroid plexus can mediate interaction between peripheral and brain inflammation, our findings pinpoint the choroid plexus as an important target for future research of central pain mechanisms.
Galor, Anat; Covington, Derek; Levitt, Alexandra E.; McManus, Katherine T.; Seiden, Benjamin; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Kalangara, Jerry; Feuer, William; Patin, Dennis J.; Martin, Eden R.; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D.; Levitt, Roy C.
Recent data demonstrate that dry eye (DE) susceptibility and other chronic pain syndromes (CPS) such as chronic widespread pain, irritable bowel syndrome and pelvic pain, may share common heritable factors. Previously, we showed that DE patients describing more severe symptoms tended to report features of neuropathic ocular pain (NOP). We hypothesize that patients with a greater number of CPS would have a different DE phenotype compared to those with fewer CPS. We recruited a cohort of 154 DE patients from the Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital and defined high and low CPS groups by cluster analysis. In addition to worse non-ocular pain complaints and higher PTSD and depression scores (P<0.01), we found that the high CPS group reported more severe neuropathic-type DE symptoms compared to the low CPS group, including worse ocular pain assessed via 3 different pain scales (P<0.05), with similar objective corneal DE signs. This is the first study to demonstrate DE patients who manifest a greater number of comorbid CPS report more severe DE symptoms and features of NOP. These findings provide further evidence that NOP may represent a central pain disorder, and that shared mechanistic factors may underlie vulnerability to some forms of DE and other comorbid CPS. PMID:26606863
Lee, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hyug-Gi; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Auh, Q-Schick; Hong, Jyung-Pyo; Chun, Yang-Hyun
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the most challenging chronic pain conditions and is characterized by burning pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, autonomic changes, trophic changes, edema, and functional loss involving mainly the extremities. Until recently, very few reports have been published concerning CRPS involving the orofacial area. We report on a 50-year-old female patient who presented with unbearable pain in all of her teeth and hypersensitivity of the facial skin. She also reported intractable pain in both extremities accompanied by temperature changes and orofacial pain that increased when the other pains were aggravated. In the case of CRPS with trigeminal neuropathic pain, protocols for proper diagnosis and prompt treatment have yet to be established in academia or in the clinical field. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging for a thorough analysis of the cortical representation of the affected orofacial area immediately before and immediately after isolated light stimulus of the affected hand and foot and concluded that CRPS can be correlated with trigeminal neuropathy in the orofacial area. Furthermore, the patient was treated with carbamazepine administration and stellate ganglion block, which can result in a rapid improvement of pain in the trigeminal region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... out other conditions, such as arthritis, Lyme disease, generalized muscle diseases, a clotted vein, or small fiber ... Friedreich's Ataxia Information Page Gaucher Disease Information Page Generalized Gangliosidoses Information Page Gerstmann's Syndrome Information Page Gerstmann- ...
Ay, Saime; Konak, Hatice Ecem; Evcik, Deniz; Kibar, Sibel
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping and sham Kinesio Taping on pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and disability in cervical myofascial pain syndrome patients (MPS). This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study. Sixty-one patients with MPS were randomly assigned into two groups. Group 1 (n=31) was treated with Kinesio Taping and group 2 (n=30) was treated sham taping five times by intervals of 3 days for 15 days. Additionally, all patients were given neck exercise program. Patients were evaluated according to pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion and disability. Pain was assessed by using Visual Analog Scale, pressure pain threshold was measured by using an algometer, and active cervical range of motion was measured by using goniometry. Disability was assessed with the neck pain disability index disability. Measurements were taken before and after the treatment. At the end of the therapy, there were statistically significant improvements on pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and disability (p<0.05) in both groups. Also there was a statistical difference between the groups regarding pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical flexion-extension (p<0.05); except cervical rotation, cervical lateral flexion and disability (p>0.05). This study shows that Kinesio Taping leads to improvements on pain, pressure pain threshold and cervical range of motion, but not disability in short time. Therefore, Kinesio Taping can be used as an alternative therapy method in the treatment of patients with MPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Ay, Saime; Konak, Hatice Ecem; Evcik, Deniz; Kibar, Sibel
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping and sham Kinesio Taping on pain, pressure pain treshold, cervical range of motion, and disability in cervical myofascial pain syndrome patients (MPS). This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study. Sixty one patients with MPS were randomly assigned into two groups. Group 1 (n=31) were treated with kinesio taping and group 2 (n=30) were treated sham taping five times by intervals of 3 days for 15 days. Additionally, all patients were given neck exercise program. Patients were evaluated according to pain, pressure pain treshold, cervical range of motion and disability. Pain was assessed by using Visual Analog Scale, pressure pain treshold was measured by using an algometer, and active cervical range of motion was measured by using goniometry. Disability was assessed with the neck pain disability index disability. Measurements were taken before and after the treatment. At the end of the therapy, there were statistically significant improvements on pain, pressure pain treshold, cervical range of motion, and disability (p<0.05) in both groups. Also there was a statistical difference between the groups regarding pain, pressure pain treshold, cervical flexion-extension (p<0.05); except cervical rotation, cervical lateral flexion and disability(p>0.05). This study shows that Kinesio Taping leads to improvements on pain, pressure pain treshold and cervical range of motion, but not disability in short time. Therefore, Kinesio Taping can be used as an alternative therapy method in the treatment of patients with MPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Lee, Ching-Chih; Hsu, Chia-Chen
Knee pain is a prevailing health problem of middle and old age. Medial plica-related medial abrasion syndrome (MAS), although a well-known cause of knee pain in younger individuals, has rarely been investigated in older individuals. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestations of this syndrome as a cause of knee pain in middle and old age. The outcomes of arthroscopic treatment for this syndrome were also evaluated.A total of 232 knees of 169 patients >40 years of age (41-82, median: 63 years old) suffering from chronic knee pain were analyzed. The clinical diagnosis, predisposing factors, presenting symptoms, and physical signs were investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter of the clinical presentation for the diagnosis of MAS were evaluated after confirmation by arthroscopy. For patients with MAS, the roentgenographic and arthroscopic manifestations were investigated, and arthroscopic medial release (AMR) was performed. The outcomes were evaluated by the changes in the pain domain of the Knee Society scoring system and by patient satisfaction. The prevalence of medial plica was 95%, and osteoarthritis (OA) was the most common clinical diagnosis. Symptoms of pain and crepitus in motion and local tenderness during physical examination were the most sensitive parameters for the diagnosis. A history of a single knee injury combined with local tenderness and a palpable band found during physical examination were the most specific parameters for the diagnosis. The majority of patients suffering from this syndrome were successfully treated using AMR, yielding a satisfaction rate of 85.5% after a minimum of 3 years.MAS is a common cause of knee pain in middle and old age and can be effectively treated by AMR. Its concomitance with OA warrants further investigation.
Gambaro, Giovanni; Fulignati, Pierluigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Rovella, Valentina; Di Daniele, Nicola
Loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS) is a severe renal pain condition of uncertain origin and often resistant to treatment. Nephrectomy and renal autotrasplantation have occasionally been performed in very severe cases. Its pathogenesis is controversial. A 40-year-old hypertensive lady was diagnosed with LPHS after repeated diagnostic imaging procedures had ruled out any renal, abdominal or spinal conditions to justify pain. Notwithstanding treatment with three drugs, she had frequent hypertensive crises during which the loin pain was dramatically exacerbated. Vascular causes of the pain and hypertension were investigated and excluded. Her renal function was normal. The patient was referred to a multidisciplinary pain clinic, but had no significant improvement in her pain symptoms despite the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adjuvant antidepressants and opioid-like agents. The pain and the discomfort were so severe that her quality of life was very poor, and her social and professional activities were compromised. Nephrectomy and renal autotransplantation have occasionally been performed in these cases. Since visceral pain signals flow through afferent sympathetic fibres, we felt that percutaneous catheter-based radiofrequency ablation of the renal sympathetic nerve fibres (recently introduced for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension) could be valuable for pain relief. We treated the patient with radiofrequency ablation (Medtronic Symplicity Catheter) applied only to the right renal artery. After a 6-month follow-up, the patient is pain free and normotensive with all drugs withdrawn. She has experienced no hypertensive crises in the meantime. This observation suggests that percutaneous sympathetic denervation could prove to be an effective mini-invasive strategy for the treatment of chronic renal pain, and LPHS in particular.
Capó-Juan, M A
Pain is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that depends on the interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Between 15-25% of adults suffer from chronic pain at some point in their lives. Cervical chronic pain is considered a public health problem affecting 9.6% men and 21.9% women, according to the latest National Health Survey 2011-12. A high percentage of medical consultations due to muscle pain turn out to be myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Its existence implies the presence of myofascial trigger points which can be latent or active throughout the whole population. The aim of this review is to update knowledge in the various therapies applied by the physiotherapist in the treatment of this syndrome at cervical level. From the review it appears that some of the most used techniques that may be useful in the short or medium term are: ischemic compression and/or trigger point pressure release and dry needling. Furthermore, various combinations of treatment modalities are used to treat this syndrome, taking other aspects into account, such as education.
Koh, S M; Moate, F; Grinsell, D
This study highlights the benefits of carpal tunnel release (CTR) in four patients presenting with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) after hand surgery who also had carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) diagnosed clinically and by nerve conduction studies. Three of the patients underwent pre- and postoperative volumetric, circumference, grip strength and range of motion measurements. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) functional outcome measure and pain scores were also used. There was almost complete resolution of CRPS symptoms in all four patients, with notable reductions in oedema and improvements in grip strength and range of motion. There were also improvements in DASH outcome scores and pain scores after CTR.
Olsen, Margaret N.; Sherry, David D.; Boyne, Kathleen; McCue, Rebecca; Gallagher, Paul R.; Brooks, Lee J.
Study Objectives: To investigate sleep quality in adolescents with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome (JPFS) and determine whether sleep abnormalities, including alpha-delta sleep (ADS), correlate with pain intensity. We hypothesized that successful treatment for pain with exercise therapy would reduce ADS and improve sleep quality. Design: Single-center preintervention and postintervention (mean = 5.7 ± 1.0 weeks; range = 4.0-7.3 weeks) observational study. Patients: Ten female adolescents (mean age = 16.2 ± 0.65 SD yr) who met criteria for JPFS and completed treatment. Interventions: Multidisciplinary pain treatment, including intensive exercise therapy. Measurements and Results: Pain and disability were measured by a pain visual analog scale (VAS) and the Functional Disability Inventory. Subjective sleep measures included a sleep VAS, an energy VAS, and the School Sleep Habits Survey. Objective sleep measures included actigraphy, polysomnography (PSG), and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Baseline PSG was compared with that of healthy age- and sex-matched control patients. At baseline, patients had poorer sleep efficiency, more arousals/awakenings, and more ADS (70.3% of total slow wave sleep [SWS] versus 21.9% SWS, P = 0.002) than controls. ADS was unrelated to pain, disability, or subjective sleep difficulty. After treatment, pain decreased (P = 0.000) and subjective sleep quality improved (P = 0.008). Objective sleep quality, including the amount of ADS, did not change. Conclusions: Although perceived sleep quality improved in adolescents with JPFS after treatment, objective measures did not. Our findings do not suggest exercise therapy for pain improves sleep by reducing ADS, nor do they support causal relationships between ADS and chronic pain or subjective sleep quality. Citation: Olsen MN; Sherry DD; Boyne K; McCue R; Gallagher PR; Brooks LJ. Relationship between sleep and pain in adolescents with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome. SLEEP 2013
de Souza, Barbara Nogueira Caracas
Os peroneum is an accessory ossicle located within the peroneus longus tendon. The painful os peroneum syndrome (POPS) results from a wide spectrum of conditions, including fractures, diastases, and other causes. POPS can result in tenosynovitis or discontinuity of the peroneus longus tendon with a clinical presentation of pain in the lateral aspect of the midfoot. Authors report a typical case of POPS, illustrating this entity through different imaging methods (radiographs, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging). We emphasize the prevalence of this ossicle and discuss painful complications. PMID:27478674
Politi, Massimo; Toro, Corrado; Tenani, Giulia
Patients with pharyngodynia and neck pain symptoms can lead to an extensive differential diagnosis. Eagle's syndrome must be taken in account. Eagle defined “stylalgia” as an autonomous entity related to abnormal length of the styloid process or to mineralization of the stylohyoid ligament complex. The stylohyoid complex derives from Reichert's cartilage of the second branchial arch. The styloyd process is an elongated conical projection of the temporal bone that lies anteriorly to the mastoid process. The incidence of Eagle's syndrome varies among population. Usually asymptomatic, it occurs in adult patients. It is characterized by pharyngodynia localized in the tonsillar fossa and sometimes accompanied by disphagia, odynophagia, foreign body sensation, and temporary voice changes. In some cases, the stylohyoid apparatus compresses the internal and/or the external carotid arteries and their perivascular sympathetic fibers, resulting in a persistent pain irradiating in the carotid territory. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is still under discussion. PMID:20339566
Politi, Massimo; Toro, Corrado; Tenani, Giulia
Patients with pharyngodynia and neck pain symptoms can lead to an extensive differential diagnosis. Eagle's syndrome must be taken in account. Eagle defined "stylalgia" as an autonomous entity related to abnormal length of the styloid process or to mineralization of the stylohyoid ligament complex. The stylohyoid complex derives from Reichert's cartilage of the second branchial arch. The styloyd process is an elongated conical projection of the temporal bone that lies anteriorly to the mastoid process. The incidence of Eagle's syndrome varies among population. Usually asymptomatic, it occurs in adult patients. It is characterized by pharyngodynia localized in the tonsillar fossa and sometimes accompanied by disphagia, odynophagia, foreign body sensation, and temporary voice changes. In some cases, the stylohyoid apparatus compresses the internal and/or the external carotid arteries and their perivascular sympathetic fibers, resulting in a persistent pain irradiating in the carotid territory. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is still under discussion.
Ural, Ülkü Mete; Tekın, Yeşim Bayoğlu; Kir Şahın, Figen; Erdıvanli, Başar; Kazdal, Hızır
Escobar syndrome is characterized with multiple pterygia or webs of the skin and multiple congenital anomalies. We present a 15-year-old patient with Escobar syndrome who complained of persistent blunt abdominal pain for 1 year. Preoperative evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of imperforate hymen, and the patient underwent hymenectomy under intravenous sedation. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and her complaints resolved completely. After a 3-month follow-up, she reported having normal menstrual bleeding intervals each month without any complications. Patients with Escobar syndrome may suffer from abdominal pain due to imperforate hymen. Careful evaluation of these patients must include a complete gynaecological assessment and, if indicated, surgical treatment must be performed without delay. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Chiu, Bin; Tai, Huai-Ching; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Birder, Lori A.
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A), derived from Clostridium botulinum, has been used clinically for several diseases or syndrome including chronic migraine, spasticity, focal dystonia and other neuropathic pain. Chronic pelvic or bladder pain is the one of the core symptoms of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). However, in the field of urology, chronic bladder or pelvic pain is often difficult to eradicate by oral medications or bladder instillation therapy. We are looking for new treatment modality to improve bladder pain or associated urinary symptoms such as frequency and urgency for patients with BPS/IC. Recent studies investigating the mechanism of the antinociceptive effects of BoNT A suggest that it can inhibit the release of peripheral neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators from sensory nerves. In this review, we will examine the evidence supporting the use of BoNTs in bladder pain from basic science models and review the clinical studies on therapeutic applications of BoNT for BPS/IC. PMID:27376330
Jarrett, Monica E.; Shulman, Robert J.; Cain, Kevin C.; Deechakawan, Wimon; Smith, Lynne T.; Richebé, Philippe; Eugenio, Margaret; Heitkemper, Margaret M.
Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency and salivary cortisol levels before and after the CPM test; and examine the relationship of CPM efficiency with gastrointestinal, somatic pain, and psychological distress symptoms in each group. Women, ages 20–42, gave consent, completed questionnaires and kept a symptom diary for 2 weeks. CPM efficiency was tested with a heat test stimulus and cold water condition stimulus in a laboratory between 8 and 10 a.m. on a follicular phase day. Salivary cortisol samples were collected just before and after the experimental testing. Compared to the HC group, women with IBS reported more days with gastrointestinal and somatic pain/discomfort, psychological distress, fatigue, and feeling stressed. During the CPM baseline testing women with IBS reported greater pain sensitivity compared to the HC group. In the IBS group, CPM efficiency was associated with the pain impact (PROMIS) measure, daily abdominal pain/discomfort, psychological distress, in particular anxiety. There was no group difference in salivary cortisol levels. Overall, women with IBS exhibit an increased sensitivity to thermal stimuli. Impaired CPM was present in a subset of women with IBS. PMID:24463504
Velvin, G; Bathen, T; Rand-Hendriksen, S; Geirdal, A Ø
The purpose of this study was to explore the literature on chronic pain in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS), critically appraising and synthesizing relevant literature. A systematic review was conducted by searching the published literature databases using available medical, physical, psychological, social databases and other sources. All studies that addressed pain in MFS, published in peer-reviewed journals were assessed. Of 351 search results, 18 articles satisfied the eligibility criteria. All studies were cross-sectional and quantitative; no randomized controlled trials or intervention studies were found. Most studies had small sample sizes, low response rates and mainly dealt with other aspects of the diagnosis than pain. Only one article dealt mainly with pain. The research on chronic pain in MFS is limited in size and quality. Despite these limitations, studies describe that the prevalence of pain in patients with MFS is high, varying from 47 to 92% and affecting several anatomic sites. In addition, chronic pain limits daily function and few studies describe treatment options for pain in patients with MFS. Research is needed to obtain more evidence-based knowledge for developing more appropriate rehabilitation programs for people with MFS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
From an international symposium by the National Institutes of Health, June 16–17, 2008, the mechanisms around urogenital pain (UGP) are now much more clearly understood, with a move away from considering the ‘end-organ’ as being responsible towards a central neuroplasticity theory and as a consequence both a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach to management. PMID:26526548
Brennan, Peter A; Ilankovan, Vellupillai
The management of refractory temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain is both challenging and controversial. A number of simple, noninvasive approaches have been used in the management of this condition with variable success. In patients who fail to respond to conventional conservative measures, in a joint that is not deemed to be grossly mechanically deranged, we advocate the use of TMJ arthrocentesis. In our practice, this is followed by intra-articular morphine infusion in an attempt to give long-term pain relief. Arthrocentesis is a simple technique with minimal morbidity that can be tried instead of more invasive procedures. To date we have used arthrocentesis of the upper joint space, with intra-articular morphine injection in over 500 TMJs. Approximately 90% of patients have found the procedure beneficial, with pain often being reduced 1 year after the procedure. We recommend arthrocentesis as an effective, minimally invasive technique in patients with continuing pain in the TMJ that is unresponsive to conservative management. We additionally advocate the use of intra-articular morphine as a long acting analgesic in these patients. Although arthrocentesis is a well documented technique and there have been many studies published in relation to the use of intra-articular morphine in orthopedic surgery, further research is required, to delineate its use in the TMJ more fully.
Vicenzino, Bill; Collins, Natalie; Crossley, Kay; Beller, Elaine; Darnell, Ross; McPoil, Thomas
Background Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a highly prevalent musculoskeletal overuse condition that has a significant impact on participation in daily and physical activities. A recent systematic review highlighted the lack of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials for the conservative management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although foot orthoses are a commonly used intervention for patellofemoral pain syndrome, only two pilot studies with short term follow up have been conducted into their clinical efficacy. Methods/design A randomised single-blinded clinical trial will be conducted to investigate the clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of foot orthoses in the management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. One hundred and seventy-six participants aged 18–40 with anterior or retropatellar knee pain of non-traumatic origin and at least six weeks duration will be recruited from the greater Brisbane area in Queensland, Australia through print, radio and television advertising. Suitable participants will be randomly allocated to receive either foot orthoses, flat insoles, physiotherapy or a combined intervention of foot orthoses and physiotherapy, and will attend six visits with a physiotherapist over a 6 week period. Outcome will be measured at 6, 12 and 52 weeks using primary outcome measures of usual and worst pain visual analogue scale, patient perceived treatment effect, perceived global effect, the Functional Index Questionnaire, and the Anterior Knee Pain Scale. Secondary outcome measures will include the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Patient-Specific Functional Scale, Physical Activity Level in the Previous Week, pressure pain threshold and physical measures of step and squat tests. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be based on treatment effectiveness against resource usage recorded in treatment logs and self-reported diaries
Obringer, S. John; Elrod, G. Franklin
The purpose of this study was to identify the major characteristics of postpolio syndrome (PPS), investigate physical and psychological limitations, and comprehensively review current medical interventions through a single subject design. The study addresses the symptoms and characteristics, the effect on life style, and the current recommended…
Lankhorst, Nienke E; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; van Middelkoop, Marienke
This review systematically summarises factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). A systematic literature search was conducted. Studies including ≥20 patients with PFPS that examined ≥1 possible factor associated with PFPS were included. A meta-analysis was performed, clinical heterogeneous data were analysed descriptively. The 47 included studies examined 523 variables, eight were pooled. Pooled data showed a larger Q-angle, sulcus angle and patellar tilt angle (weighted mean differences (WMD) 2.08; 95% CI 0.64, 3.63 and 1.66; 95% CI 0.44, 2.77 and 4.34; 95% CI 1.16 to 7.52, respectively), less hip abduction strength, lower knee extension peak torque and less hip external rotation strength (WMD -3.30; 95% CI -5.60, -1.00 and -37.47; 95% CI -71.75, -3.20 and -1.43; 95% CI -2.71 to -0.16, respectively) in PFPS patients compared to controls. Foot arch height index and congruence angle were not associated with PFPS. Six out of eight pooled variables are associated with PFPS, other factors associated with PFPS were based on single studies. Further research is required.
Harrington, J. M.; Carter, J. T.; Birrell, L.; Gompertz, D.
OBJECTIVES: To establish consensus case definitions for several common work related upper limb pain syndromes for use in surveillance or studies of the aetiology of these conditions. METHODS: A group of healthcare professionals from the disciplines interested in the prevention and management of upper limb disorders were recruited for a Delphi exercise. A questionnaire was used to establish case definitions from the participants, followed by a consensus conference involving the core group of 29 people. The draft conclusions were recirculated for review. RESULTS: Consensus case definitions were agreed for carpal tunnel syndrome, tenosynovitis of the wrist, de Quervain's disease of the wrist, epicondylitis, shoulder capsulitis (frozen shoulder), and shoulder tendonitis. The consensus group also identified a condition defined as "non-specific diffuse forearm pain" although this is essentially a diagnosis made by exclusion. The group did not have enough experience of the thoracic outlet syndrome to make recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: There was enough consensus between several health professionals from different disciplines to establish case definitions suitable for use in the studies of several work related upper limb pain syndromes. The use of these criteria should allow comparability between studies and centres and facilitate research in this field. The criteria may also be useful in surveillance programmes and as aids to case management. PMID:9624281
Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J
Background Fenbufen is a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), used to treat acute and chronic painful conditions. There is no known systematic review of its use in acute postoperative pain. Objectives To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral fenbufen in acute postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief database for studies to June 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered fenbufen in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Searches identified only one study with (90 participants in total, 31 taking fenbufen). The study compared oral fenbufen 800 mg, fenbufen 400 mg, and placebo in participants with established postoperative pain. Fenbufen at both doses had apparent analgesic efficacy, but the numbers of participants was too small to allow sensible analysis. Gastrointestinal adverse events were noted in 4 of 15 participants taking fenbufen 800 mg. Authors’ conclusions In the absence of evidence of efficacy for oral fenbufen in acute postoperative pain, its use in this indication is not justified at present. Because trials clearly demonstrating analgesic efficacy in the most basic of acute pain studies is lacking, use in other indications should be
Diedrichs, Carolina; Baron, Ralf; Gierthmühlen, Janne
Background Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is characterized by sensory, motor and autonomic abnormalities without electrophysiological evidence of a nerve lesion. Objective Aims were to investigate how sensory, autonomic and motor function change in the course of the disease. Methods 19 CRPS-I patients (17 with acute, 2 with chronic CRPS, mean duration of disease 5.7±8.3, range 1–33 months) were examined with questionnaires (LANSS, NPS, MPI, Quick DASH, multiple choice list of descriptors for sensory, motor, autonomic symptoms), motor and autonomic tests as well as quantitative sensory testing according to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain at two visits (baseline and 36±10.6, range 16–53 months later). Results CRPS-I patients had an improvement of sudomotor and vasomotor function, but still a great impairment of sensory and motor function upon follow-up. Although pain and mechanical detection improved upon follow-up, thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity increased, including the contralateral side. Increase in mechanical pain sensitivity and loss of mechanical detection were associated with presence of ongoing pain. Conclusions The results demonstrate that patients with CRPS-I show a sensitization of the nociceptive system in the course of the disease, for which ongoing pain seems to be the most important trigger. They further suggest that measured loss of function in CRPS-I is due to pain-induced hypoesthesia rather than a minimal nerve lesion. In conclusion, this article gives evidence for a pronociceptive pain modulation profile developing in the course of CRPS and thus helps to assess underlying mechanisms of CRPS that contribute to the maintenance of patients’ pain and disability. PMID:27149519
Fogelman, Yacov; Kent, John
Myofascial pain is a major cause of musculoskeletal regional pain. Myofascial pain, which is a high-prevalence but eminently treatable condition, is almost universally underdiagnosed by physicians and undertreated by physical therapy modalities. Large numbers of patients can be left suffering in chronic pain for years. Dry needling, also referred to as Intramuscular Stimulation, is a method in the arsenal of pain management which has been known for almost 200 years in Western medicine, yet has been almost completely ignored. With the increase in research in this field over the past two decades, there are many high-quality studies that demonstrate dry needling to be an effective and safe method for the treatment of myofascial pain when diagnosed and treated by adequately-trained physicians or physical therapists. This article provides an overview of recent literature regarding the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome, evidence for the efficacy of dry needling as a central component of its management, and a glimpse at developments in recent imaging methods to aid in the treatment of these problems.
Monsivais, Diane; McNeill, Jeanette
The objective was to develop an integrated review of quantitative and qualitative research regarding the influence of patients' beliefs and attitudes toward pain medication prescribed for the treatment of nonmalignant chronic pain on use of the pain medication. Studies involving patients at least 18 years old with nonmalignant chronic pain were included. Studies of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, cancer, and acute pain were excluded. Medline, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Cochrane databases from 1985 to 2005 were searched. Reference lists were screened for relevant articles. Abstracts were screened for compliance with the study criteria, and the articles were obtained for those that met criteria. By using a systematic process, each article was subjected to repeated review and data abstracted to the collection sheets. Evidence tables were created to assist with data review. High levels of concern positively correlate with nonadherence, preconceived ideas about when the drug should start working can cause the patient to discontinue it before it begins to work, and patients may perceive that if medication is taken on a regular basis to control pain it may not be effective in the future if the pain increases. Research also showed that if patients perceived the benefits of taking the pain medication to be high, they were willing to risk the side effects.
Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Min, Young-Don
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a mechanical duodenal obstruction by the SMA. The traditional approach to SMA syndrome was open bypass surgery. Nowadays, a conventional approach has been replaced by laparoscopic surgery. But single incision laparoscopic approach for SMA syndrome is rare. Herein, we report the first case of SMA syndrome patient who was treated by single incision laparoscopic duodenojejunostomy.
Schreiber, Adam L; Abramov, Ronnen; Fried, Guy W; Herbison, Gerald J
A 44-year-old man was in his car when it was rear-ended in a minor motor vehicle collision, during which his right forearm contacted the steering wheel. Shortly thereafter, pain in his right shoulder developed, but initial work-up was unremarkable. His pain progressed to shoulder girdle weakness over several months and did not improve after 2.5 years. At the time of consultation, he complained of right-sided neck pain radiating to the right deltoid muscle and axilla as well as right shoulder blade pain with shoulder girdle weakness. Repeated electrodiagnostic studies revealed denervation limited to the serratus anterior and right deltoid muscles without evidence of cervical radiculopathy. He was diagnosed with Parsonage-Turner syndrome, which is a neurologic condition characterized by acute onset of shoulder and arm pain followed by weakness and sensory disturbance. The authors review patient presentation, physical examination, and work-up needed for diagnosis of this syndrome to help physicians avoid administering unnecessary tests and treatment.
Raju, T B V G; Seshadri, Abitha; Vamsipavani, B; Abhilash, K; Subhash, A V; Kumari, K V Halini
The incidence of post-operative pain was compared following single-visit canal treatment in single- and multi-rooted teeth, with and without periapical radiolucency. The article also reviews the issues of postoperative pain and healing, following single-visit and multi-visit endodontic therapy. Single-visit endodontic therapy (SVE) was performed in 50 single-rooted teeth and 60 multiple-rooted teeth. Single-visit endodontic therapy (SVE) was performed in 50 single-rooted teeth and 60 multiple-rooted teeth. The subjects were divided as follows: Group I -Single-rooted teeth with periapical radiolucency (n=25); Group II-Single-rooted teeth without periapical radiolucency (n=25); Group III-Multiple-rooted teeth with periapical radiolucency (n=30); and Group IV-Multiple-rooted teeth without periapical radiolucency (n=30). Assessment of postoperative pain was done at 24hrs, 3 days and 1 week using a self report questionnaire. The data was analyzed using non-parametric Kruskal -Wallis test. No statistically significant difference was observed in postoperative pain following SVE between the single-rooted and multiple-rooted teeth groups at 24hrs, 3 days and 1 week. The presence or absence of periapical radiolucency had no significant influence on the incidence of reported postoperative pain following SVE. There was no difference in incidence of pain in single rooted teeth and multi-rooted teeth with and without periapical radiolucencies following SVE. Thus, incidence of post-operative pain does not seem to be a valid comparison criterion between single- and multiple-visit endodontic therapies. Also, the literature suggests similar success rates with single-visit and multiple-visit root canal treatment. How to cite the article: Raju TB, Seshadri A, Vamsipavani B, Abhilash K, Subhash AV, Kumari KV. Evaluation of Pain in Single and Multi Rooted Teeth Treated in Single Visit Endodontic Therapy. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):27-32.
Saubade, M; Martin, R; Becker, A; Gremion, G
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most frequent cause of anterior knee pain in adolescents and adults. Due to its complex etiology, which is multifactorial and still poorly understood, its management is a major challenge for the practitioner. The diagnosis is made primarily on the history and clinical examination of the knee, but also of the entire lower limb, which may sometimes require the completion of imaging. The treatment is mostly conservative, focussing on rehabilitation with targeted and personalized therapy. Surgical treatment is reserved for cases with a causal structural lesion.
Talaat, A M; el-Dibany, M M; el-Garf, A
A study of the effectiveness of physical therapy for patients with myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome was performed. Clinical evaluation of 120 patients revealed marked male preponderance, distribution according to age showed a great prevalence of the third decade, and most common chief complaints were pain and muscle tenderness. Patients were classified randomly into three equal groups treated by muscle relaxant drugs, shortwave diathermy, and ultrasonic therapy, respectively. Regular follow-up was carried out for 6 to 12 months to assess patients' responses to different forms of treatment. Evaluation revealed marked relief of symptoms by the use of physical therapy, and the best results were obtained by the use of ultrasonic therapy.
Straube, Sebastian; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; Cole, Peter
This review is an update of a review first published in Issue 2, 2003, which was substantially updated in Issue 7, 2010. The concept that many neuropathic pain syndromes (traditionally this definition would include complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS)) are "sympathetically maintained pains" has historically led to treatments that interrupt the sympathetic nervous system. Chemical sympathectomies use alcohol or phenol injections to destroy ganglia of the sympathetic chain, while surgical ablation is performed by open removal or electrocoagulation of the sympathetic chain or by minimally invasive procedures using thermal or laser interruption. To review the evidence from randomised, double blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of chemical and surgical sympathectomy for neuropathic pain, including complex regional pain syndrome. Sympathectomy may be compared with placebo (sham) or other active treatment, provided both participants and outcome assessors are blind to treatment group allocation. On 2 July 2013, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Oxford Pain Relief Database. We reviewed the bibliographies of all randomised trials identified and of review articles and also searched two clinical trial databases, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, to identify additional published or unpublished data. We screened references in the retrieved articles and literature reviews and contacted experts in the field of neuropathic pain. Randomised, double blind, placebo or active controlled studies assessing the effects of sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and CRPS. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. No pooled analysis of data was possible. Only one study satisfied our inclusion criteria, comparing percutaneous radiofrequency thermal lumbar sympathectomy with lumbar sympathetic neurolysis using phenol in 20 participants with CRPS. There was no comparison of
Defalque, R J; Bromley, J J
Fifty-four patients developed severe intercostal neuralgia a few weeks after sternotomy. Immediate relief afforded by parasternal nerve blocks confirmed that the pain derived from scar-entrapped neuromas of the anterior rami of the first 4-6 intercostal nerves in the upper (and mainly left) interchondral spaces after insertion of the sternal wires. Permanent relief (i.e., over 6 months) followed repeated bupivacaine blocks in 57.4% of the patients, phenol blocks in another 22.2%, and alcohol blocks in a remaining 9%. Treatment was successful in 87% of the patients.
Mostamand, Javid; Bader, Dan L; Hudson, Zöe
Although patellar taping has been shown to reduce pain in participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome, the mechanisms of pain reduction have not completely been established following its application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate EMG activity of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis following the application of patellar taping during a functional single leg squat. Both vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset and vastus medialis obliquus/vastus lateralis amplitude of 18 participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 18 healthy participants as controls were measured using an EMG unit. This procedure was performed on the affected knee of participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome, before, during, and after patellar taping during unilateral squatting. The same procedure was also performed on the unaffected knees of both groups. The mean values of vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset prior to taping (2.54 ms, s = 4.35) were decreased significantly following an immediate application of tape (-3.22 ms, s = 3.45) and after a prolonged period of taping (-6.00 ms, s = 3.40 s) (P < 0.05). There was also a significant difference between the mean values of vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset among controls (-2.03 ms, s = 6.04) and participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome prior to taping (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant difference between the ranked values of vastus medialis obliquus/vastus lateralis amplitude of the affected and unaffected knees of participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome and controls during different conditions of taping (P > 0.05). Decreased values of vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset may contribute to patellar realignment and explain the mechanism of pain reduction following patellar taping in participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Santos Sánchez, J A; Ramos Pascua, L R; García Casado, D; Bermúdez López, C
Calcification in the soft tissue next to the medial femoral condyle after a history of trauma around the knee is a recognized radiographic finding-PS (Pellegrini-Stieda) sign. When this is associated with pain and a restricted range of motion it is known as the PS syndrome. We describe two cases of PS syndrome, treated conservatively with rest and physiotherapy, as well as the radiographic and ultrasound findings, and the many theories proposed in attempts to explain the pathogenesis of PS disease.
Jin, Eun-Heui; Zhang, Enji; Ko, Youngkwon; Sim, Woo Seog; Moon, Dong Eon; Yoon, Keon Jung; Hong, Jang Hee; Lee, Won Hyung
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic, progressive, and devastating pain syndrome characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, altered skin temperature, and motor dysfunction. Although previous gene expression profiling studies have been conducted in animal pain models, there genome-wide expression profiling in the whole blood of CRPS patients has not been reported yet. Here, we successfully identified certain pain-related genes through genome-wide expression profiling in the blood from CRPS patients. We found that 80 genes were differentially expressed between 4 CRPS patients (2 CRPS I and 2 CRPS II) and 5 controls (cut-off value: 1.5-fold change and p<0.05). Most of those genes were associated with signal transduction, developmental processes, cell structure and motility, and immunity and defense. The expression levels of major histocompatibility complex class I A subtype (HLA-A29.1), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), alanine aminopeptidase N (ANPEP), l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (G-CSF3R), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) genes selected from the microarray were confirmed in 24 CRPS patients and 18 controls by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We focused on the MMP9 gene that, by qRT-PCR, showed a statistically significant difference in expression in CRPS patients compared to controls with the highest relative fold change (4.0±1.23 times and p = 1.4×10−4). The up-regulation of MMP9 gene in the blood may be related to the pain progression in CRPS patients. Our findings, which offer a valuable contribution to the understanding of the differential gene expression in CRPS may help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of CRPS pain progression. PMID:24244504
The effectiveness and cost evaluation of pain exposure physical therapy and conventional therapy in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1. Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial
Background Pain Exposure Physical Therapy is a new treatment option for patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. It has been evaluated in retrospective as well as in prospective studies and proven to be safe and possibly effective. This indicates that Pain Exposure Physical Therapy is now ready for clinical evaluation. The results of an earlier performed pilot study with an n = 1 design, in which 20 patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 were treated with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy, were used for the design and power calculation of the present study. After completion and evaluation of this phase III study, a multi-centre implementation study will be conducted. The aim of this study is to determine whether Pain Exposure Physical Therapy can improve functional outcomes in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. Methods/design This study is designed as a single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. 62 patients will be randomized with a follow-up of 9 months to demonstrate the expected treatment effect. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 is diagnosed in accordance with the Bruehl/International Association for the Study of Pain criteria. Conventional therapy in accordance with the Dutch guideline will be compared with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy. Primary outcome measure is the Impairment level SumScore, restricted version. Discussion This is the first randomized controlled study with single blinding that has ever been planned in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 and does not focus on a single aspect of the pain syndrome but compares treatment strategies based on completely different pathophysiological and cognitive theories. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00817128; National Trial Register NTR2090 PMID:22515496
The effectiveness and cost evaluation of pain exposure physical therapy and conventional therapy in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1. Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial.
Barnhoorn, Karlijn J; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Dongen, Robert T M; Klomp, Frank P; Samwel, Han; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Adang, Eddy; Groenewoud, Hans; van de Meent, Henk; Frölke, Jan Paul M
Pain Exposure Physical Therapy is a new treatment option for patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. It has been evaluated in retrospective as well as in prospective studies and proven to be safe and possibly effective. This indicates that Pain Exposure Physical Therapy is now ready for clinical evaluation. The results of an earlier performed pilot study with an n = 1 design, in which 20 patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 were treated with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy, were used for the design and power calculation of the present study.After completion and evaluation of this phase III study, a multi-centre implementation study will be conducted.The aim of this study is to determine whether Pain Exposure Physical Therapy can improve functional outcomes in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. This study is designed as a single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. 62 patients will be randomized with a follow-up of 9 months to demonstrate the expected treatment effect. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 is diagnosed in accordance with the Bruehl/International Association for the Study of Pain criteria. Conventional therapy in accordance with the Dutch guideline will be compared with Pain Exposure Physical Therapy. Primary outcome measure is the Impairment level SumScore, restricted version. This is the first randomized controlled study with single blinding that has ever been planned in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 and does not focus on a single aspect of the pain syndrome but compares treatment strategies based on completely different pathophysiological and cognitive theories.
Aguilar-Rebolledo, F; Rendón-Macías, M E; Escobar-Barrios, E
In Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) painful involvement has not been considered as a major clinical manifestation for diagnostic criteria among children. Was to evaluate whether clinical our purpose painful sensations are the main manifestations in pediatric patients with GBS. Twenty patients that fulfilled the Asbury criteria for diagnosis of GBS were studied prospectively from January, 1992 to June, 1994. Painful sensations were evaluated considering segmentary level with special focus in intensity, modality, topography distribution from the beginning to the resolution of the paralysis and effect to analgesic therapy every day for the first week and weekly thereafter. Patients had a mean age of 9.6 years (SD 5.4). Twelve patients were males and eight were females. All the patients but one complained of pain during some time of the course of illness, (19/20, 95%). At the illness onset, pain sensations were spontaneously referred in 12/20 (60%) of the cases, after anamnesis in 3/20 (15%) and physical exam in 4/20 (20%). Pain distribution during acme occurred in feet, thighs and legs in 95% of patients; back, arms and forearms in 65%, buttocks, shoulders and hands in 35%. The highest intensity of pain took place the first week of the illness course, and the mean time of decreasing occurred with a median of three days after onset with complete resolution three weeks later. We report that pain was an early and main clinical manifestation of GBS in children. We suggest that pain must be considered as a relevant criterium for GBS diagnosis in pediatric patients.
Ovechkin, A M; Kukushkin, M L; Gnezdilov, A V; Reshetniak, V K
Examinations of 72 patients with a history of amputation of the lower limb showed that preamputation pain may be transformed into phantom pain via "pain memory" mechanisms. This fact is confirmed by similarity of the verbal structure of preamputation pain and phantom pain syndrome, which are particularly expressed in the patients operated on under total anesthesia. At the same time, the share of patients considering phantom pain identical to preamputation pain is much lower among those operated on under prolonged perioperative epidural anesthesia, and no "pain memory" phenomena are observed in this group 6 months after surgery. Prolonged epidural anesthesia provides a pain-free period before surgery by disrupting the time relationship between nociceptive impulsation entry in the CNS structures and amputation, thus preventing fixation of 'pain experience' survived in the memory. The adequacy of intraoperative analgesia attained by prolonged epidural anesthesia plays the crucial role in prevention of realization of the "pain memory" effect.
Moffie, D; Hamburger, H L
We report a patient with a Wallenberg's lateral medullary syndrome in which pain was a prominent feature. This led to substitution of the original and correct diagnosis by that of a thalamic syndrome for which a prefrontal leucotomy was performed. The patient died some years later from a myocardial infarction and autopsy was performed. In the dorsolateral part of the medulla oblongata a cavity was found in which aberrant nerve fibres with neuroma-like formations could be seen. These fibres coursed along blood vessels, and penetrated from the surface of the medulla oblongata. On the base of the clinico-pathological correlations, it is conjectured that destruction of the lateral reticular formation cannot be the sole cause of the severe pain.
Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Wisniewski, Amy B.; VanGordon, Samuel; Lin, HsuehKung; Kropp, Bradley P.; Towner, Rheal A.
The definition of interstitial cystitis (IC) has evolved over the years from being a well-defined entity characterized by diagnostic lesion (Hunner’s ulcer) in the urothelium to a clinical diagnosis by exclusion [painful bladder syndrome (PBS)]. Although the etiology is unknown, a central theme has been an association with increased permeability of the bladder. This article reviews the evidence for increased permeability being important to the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and in treating the disorder. Recent work showing cross-communication among visceral organs is also reviewed to provide a basis for understanding IC/PBS as a systemic disorder of a complex, interconnected system consisting of the bladder, bowel and other organs, nerves, cytokine-responding cells and the nervous system. PMID:26751576
Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Qureshi, Abdul Rehman M; Rahman, Labiba; Jesudasan, Ajantha; Hafez, Kevin K; Rana, Mohammad A
The objectives of the study were to analyze the association between Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, and to explore the relationship between mood disorder comorbidity (anxiety and depression), pain, and restless legs syndrome. This study included 123 Parkinson's disease patients and 123 non-Parkinson's disease patients matched for age and gender, and evaluated for anxiety severity, depression severity, pain severity, pain interference, pain disability, and restless legs syndrome prevalence. This was performed using semi-structured interviews and a neurological examination through the restless legs syndrome diagnostic criteria and the following inventories; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, and Pain Disability Index. Parkinson's disease patients had significantly greater anxiety severity, depression severity, pain severity, pain interference, pain disability, and restless legs syndrome prevalence in comparison to controls. In addition, Parkinson's disease patients' comorbid for anxiety and depression had significantly greater pain severity, pain interference, and pain disability, but not RLS prevalence, in comparison to Parkinson's disease only, Parkinson's disease anxiety, and Parkinson's disease depression patients. Pain interference, pain severity, and pain disability is greater among Parkinson's disease patients with anxiety and depression, in comparison to Parkinson's disease patients without anxiety and depression. On the contrary, the prevalence of restless legs syndrome was not found to be relevant.
Bellini, Martina; Barbieri, Massimo
Sacroiliac joint pain can be managed by intra-articular injections or radiofrequency of its innervation. Single strip lesions radiofrequency denervation is a new system. The objective of this study was to present one of the first utilizations of this innovative technique. 60 patients who met the diagnostic criteria for sacroiliac joint syndrome were enrolled in the study. In total, 102 single strip lesions radiofrequency denervations were performed. Pain intensity was measured with the Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire and the Oswestry Disability Index whose scores were assessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure. 91.8 % of the 102 radiofrequency treatments resulted in a reduction of more than 50% pain intensity relief at 1 month, 81.6% at 3 months and 59.16% at 6 months. In 35.7% of cases, the relief was continuative up to 1 year. No relief was observed in 12.24% of cases. The ODI scores improved significantly 1 month after the procedure, compared with the baseline scores. The ODI scores after 6 months improved very clearly compared with the baseline scores and with the 3-month scores. Single strip lesions radiofrequency denervation using the Simplicity III probe is a potential modality for intermediate term relief for patients with sacroiliac pain.
Background This study aimed to answer three questions related to chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS): 1) Is the motor cortex excitability, as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters (TMS), related to state-trait anxiety? 2) Does anxiety modulate corticospinal excitability changes after evoked pain by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST)? 3) Does the state-trait anxiety predict the response to pain evoked by QST if simultaneously receiving a heterotopic stimulus [Conditional Pain Modulation (CPM)]? We included females with chronic MPS (n = 47) and healthy controls (n = 11), aged 19 to 65 years. Motor cortex excitability was assessed by TMS, and anxiety was assessed based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The disability related to pain (DRP) was assessed by the Profile of Chronic Pain scale for the Brazilian population (B:PCP:S), and the psychophysical pain measurements were measured by the QST and CPM. Results In patients, trait-anxiety was positively correlated to intracortical facilitation (ICF) at baseline and after QST evoked pain (β = 0.05 and β = 0.04, respectively) and negatively correlated to the cortical silent period (CSP) (β = -1.17 and β = -1.23, respectively) (P <0.05 for all comparisons). After QST evoked pain, the DRP was positively correlated to ICF (β = 0.02) (P < 0.05). Pain scores during CPM were positively correlated with trait-anxiety when it was concurrently with high DRP (β = 0.39; P = 0.02). Controls’ cortical excitability remained unchanged after QST. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in chronic MPS, the imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory descending systems of the corticospinal tract is associated with higher trait-anxiety concurrent with higher DRP. PMID:24645677
Breser, María L; Salazar, Florencia C; Rivero, Viginia E; Motrich, Rubén D
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is the most common urologic morbidity in men younger than 50 years and is characterized by a diverse range of pain and inflammatory symptoms, both in type and severity, that involve the region of the pelvis, perineum, scrotum, rectum, testes, penis, and lower back. In most patients, pain is accompanied by inflammation in the absence of an invading infectious agent. Since CP/CPPS etiology is still not well established, available therapeutic options for patients are far from satisfactory for either physicians or patients. During the past two decades, chronic inflammation has been deeply explored as the cause of CP/CPPS. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge regarding immunological mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain and prostate inflammation in CP/CPPS. Cumulative evidence obtained from both human disease and animal models indicate that several factors may trigger chronic inflammation in the form of autoimmunity against prostate, fostering chronic prostate recruitment of Th1 cells, and different other leukocytes, including mast cells, which might be the main actors in the consequent development of chronic pelvic pain. Thus, the local inflammatory milieu and the secretion of inflammatory mediators may induce neural sensitization leading to chronic pelvic pain development. Although scientific advances are encouraging, additional studies are urgently needed to establish the relationship between prostatitis development, mast cell recruitment to the prostate, and the precise mechanisms by which they would induce pelvic pain.
Breser, María L.; Salazar, Florencia C.; Rivero, Viginia E.; Motrich, Rubén D.
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is the most common urologic morbidity in men younger than 50 years and is characterized by a diverse range of pain and inflammatory symptoms, both in type and severity, that involve the region of the pelvis, perineum, scrotum, rectum, testes, penis, and lower back. In most patients, pain is accompanied by inflammation in the absence of an invading infectious agent. Since CP/CPPS etiology is still not well established, available therapeutic options for patients are far from satisfactory for either physicians or patients. During the past two decades, chronic inflammation has been deeply explored as the cause of CP/CPPS. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge regarding immunological mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain and prostate inflammation in CP/CPPS. Cumulative evidence obtained from both human disease and animal models indicate that several factors may trigger chronic inflammation in the form of autoimmunity against prostate, fostering chronic prostate recruitment of Th1 cells, and different other leukocytes, including mast cells, which might be the main actors in the consequent development of chronic pelvic pain. Thus, the local inflammatory milieu and the secretion of inflammatory mediators may induce neural sensitization leading to chronic pelvic pain development. Although scientific advances are encouraging, additional studies are urgently needed to establish the relationship between prostatitis development, mast cell recruitment to the prostate, and the precise mechanisms by which they would induce pelvic pain. PMID:28824626
Recent advances in brain science have shown that the brain function encoding emotion depends on interoceptive signals such as visceral pain. Visceral pain arose early in our evolutionary history. Bottom-up processing from gut-to-brain and top-down autonomic/neuroendocrine mechanisms in brain-to-gut signaling constitute a circuit. Brain imaging techniques have enabled us to depict the visceral pain pathway as well as the related emotional circuit. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic recurrent abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort associated with bowel dysfunction. It is also thought to be a disorder of the brain-gut link associated with an exaggerated response to stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, is an obvious candidate in the pathophysiology of IBS. Indeed, administration of CRH has been shown to aggravate the visceral sensorimotor response in IBS patients, and the administration of peptidergic CRH antagonists seems to alleviate IBS pathophysiology. Serotonin (5-HT) is another likely candidate associated with brain-gut function in IBS, as 5-HT3 antagonists, 5-HT4 agonists, and antidepressants were demonstrated to regulate 5-HT neurotransmission in IBS patients. Autonomic nervous system function, the neuroimmune axis, and the brain-gut-microbiota axis show specific profiles in IBS patients. Further studies on stress and visceral pain neuropathways in IBS patients are warranted. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gupta, Vishal; Moshiree, Baharak; Verne, G Nicholas
Irritable bowel syndrome represents a common gastrointestinal disorder that significantly impacts patients' lives. It is defined by Rome II criteria and characterized by abdominal pain and bloating associated with changes in bowel habit. Visceral hypersensitivity is currently considered a biological marker for the disease. Current therapeutic treatments include the use of fiber supplements, antidiarrheal agents, laxatives, antispasmodics, tricyclic antidepressants and serotonergic agents. Through a proper understanding of the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology and treatment options, this disorder can be treated effectively in many patients.
Labrèze, Laurent; Dixmérias-Iskandar, Florence; Monnin, Dominique; Bussières, Emmanuel; Delahaye, Evelyne; Bernard, Dominique; Lakdja, Fabrice
A multidisciplinary expert group had reviewed all scientific data available of post mastectomy pain syndrome. Seventy six publications were retained and thirty evidence based diagnosis, treatment and follow-up recommendations are listed. Few of theses recommendations are classed level A. Datas analysis make possible to propose a strategy based on systematic association of drugs, kinesitherapy and psychological support. Evaluation and closer follow-up are necessary. Several decisional trees are proposed.
Verghese, Tina S; Riordain, Richael Ni; Champaneria, Rita; Latthe, Pallavi M
Bladder pain syndrome is a difficult condition to treat. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of various complementary therapies available for treatment. This review was conducted in adherence with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews. Citations were retrieved using a comprehensive database search (from inception to July 2014: CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Medline and SIGEL and grey literature). Studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected. Eligibility consisted of women with bladder pain syndrome, an intervention of alternative/complementary therapies and an outcome of improvement of symptoms. Information regarding study characteristics and primary outcomes was collated. The Cochrane risk of bias scale was used to evaluate the quality of the studies included. A total of 1,454 citations were identified, 11 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (4 randomised control trials [RCTs] and 7 prospective studies). The key interventions studied were acupuncture, relaxation therapy, physical therapy, hydrogen-rich therapy, diet and nitric oxide synthetase. Therapies with the potential for benefit in patients with bladder pain syndrome are dietary management, acupuncture and physical therapy. These findings were obtained from small studies and hence caution is advised. Robustly designed multicentre RCTs on these complementary therapies are needed to guide patients and clinicians.
Khaund, Razib; Flynn, Sharon H
Iliotibial band syndrome is a common knee injury. The most common symptom is lateral knee pain caused by inflammation of the distal portion of the iliotibial band. The iliotibial band is a thick band of fascia that crosses the hip joint and extends distally to insert on the patella, tibia, and biceps femoris tendon. In some athletes, repetitive flexion and extension of the knee causes the distal iliotibial band to become irritated and inflamed resulting in diffuse lateral knee pain. Iliotibial band syndrome can cause significant morbidity and lead to cessation of exercise. Although iliotibial band syndrome is easily diagnosed clinically, it can be extremely challenging to treat. Treatment requires active patient participation and compliance with activity modification. Most patients respond to conservative treatment involving stretching of the iliotibial band, strengthening of the gluteus medius, and altering training regimens. Corticosteroid injections should be considered if visible swelling or pain with ambulation persists for more than three days after initiating treatment. A small percentage of patients are refractory to conservative treatment and may require surgical release of the iliotibial band.
Frohlich, Lauren; Wesley, Alison; Wallen, Margaret; Bundy, Anita
Purpose: Pain associated with hypermobility of wrist and hand joints can contribute to decreased handwriting output. This study examined the effectiveness of a neoprene wrist/hand splint in reducing pain and increasing handwriting speed and endurance for students with joint hypermobility syndrome. Methods: Multiple baseline, single system design…
Frohlich, Lauren; Wesley, Alison; Wallen, Margaret; Bundy, Anita
Purpose: Pain associated with hypermobility of wrist and hand joints can contribute to decreased handwriting output. This study examined the effectiveness of a neoprene wrist/hand splint in reducing pain and increasing handwriting speed and endurance for students with joint hypermobility syndrome. Methods: Multiple baseline, single system design…
McGuire, Brian E.; Defrin, Ruth
People with an intellectual disability experience both acute and chronic pain with at least the same frequency as the general population. However, considerably less is known about the pain perception of people with Down syndrome. In this review paper, we evaluated the available clinical and experimental evidence. Some experimental studies of acute pain have indicated that pain threshold was higher than normal but only when using a reaction time method to measure pain sensitivity. However, when reaction time is not part of the calculation of the pain threshold, pain sensitivity in people with Down syndrome is in fact lower than normal (more sensitive to pain). Clinical studies of chronic pain have shown that people with an intellectual disability experience chronic pain and within that population, people with Down syndrome also experience chronic pain, but the precise prevalence of chronic pain in Down syndrome has yet to be established. Taken together, the literature suggests that people with Down syndrome experience pain, both acute and chronic, with at least the same frequency as the rest of the population. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that although acute pain expression appears to be delayed, once pain is registered, there appears to be a magnified pain response. We conclude by proposing an agenda for future research in this area. PMID:26283936
Uh, Mitchell; Dewar, Catharine; Spouge, David; Blocka, Kenneth
Crowned dens syndrome (CDS) is a rare but underrecognized cause of severe neck pain in older adults. It is characterized by acute onset pain and stiffness of the cervical spine. Accompanying fever and elevated inflammatory markers often lead to misdiagnosis. It is frequently associated with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, hydroxyapatite crystals, and sometimes other inflammatory conditions. Periodontoid calcification is seen on cervical computed tomography (CT) scan but is not typically visible on plain radiographs, making CT scanning invaluable in diagnosis. We describe a case of CDS in a 59-year-old woman, who presented with severe neck pain, elevated inflammatory markers, and progressive evolution in the appearance of her CT scans. The pathophysiology, clinical and radiographic findings, and dramatic response to corticosteroid therapy are reviewed.
Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J
Background This review updates a 1999 Cochrane review showing that ibuprofen at various doses was effective in postoperative pain in single dose studies designed to demonstrate analgesic efficacy. New studies have since been published. Ibuprofen is one of the most widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) analgesics both by prescription and as an over-the-counter medicine. Ibuprofen is used for acute and chronic painful conditions. Objectives To assess analgesic efficacy of ibuprofen in single oral doses for moderate and severe postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to May 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered ibuprofen (any formulation) in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Seventy-two studies compared ibuprofen and placebo (9186 participants). Studies were predominantly of high reporting quality, and the bulk of the information concerned ibuprofen 200 mg and 400 mg. For at least 50% pain relief compared with placebo the NNT for ibuprofen 200 mg (2690 participants) was 2.7 (2.5 to 3.0) and for ibuprofen 400 mg (6475 participants) it was 2.5 (2.4 to 2.6). The proportion with at least 50% pain relief was 46% with 200 mg and 54% with 400 mg. Remedication within 6 hours was less
Sultan, Asquad; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena
Background Flurbiprofen is a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), related to ibuprofen and naproxen, used to treat acute and chronic painful conditions. There is no systematic review of its use in acute postoperative pain. Objectives To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral flurbiprofen in acute postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to January 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered flurbiprofen in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Eleven studies compared flurbiprofen (699 participants) with placebo (362 participants) in studies lasting 6 to 12 hours. Studies were of adequate reporting quality, and most participants had pain following dental extractions. The dose of flurbiprofen used was 25 mg to 100 mg, with most information for 50 mg and 100 mg. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours for flurbiprofen 50 mg compared with placebo (692 participants) was 2.7 (2.3 to 3.3) and for 100 mg (416 participants) it was 2.5 (2.0 to 3.1). With flurbiprofen 50 mg and 100 mg 65% to 70% of participants experienced at least 50% pain relief, compared with 25% to 30% with placebo. Rescue medication was used by 25
Jessee, April D.; Gourley, Meganne M.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.
Reference/Citation: D'hondt NE, Struijs PA, Kerkhoffs GM, et al. Orthotic devices for treating patellofemoral pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(2):CD002267. Clinical Question: Is there an effective bracing or taping technique for treating patellofemoral pain? Data Sources: The authors searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group specialized register (December 2001), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (2000, issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2000), EMBASE (January 1988 to March 2000), CINAHL (January 1982 to March 2000), and PEDro (up to March 2000) without language limitations. They also contacted relevant orthotic companies and searched the included reference lists of the retrieved articles. The search terms for MEDLINE were anterior knee pain, arthralgia, knee joint, patella, and patellofemoral pain. The search terms for EMBASE were brace, chondropathy, dynamic splint, knee, orthosis, orthotics, patella, patella chondromalacia, patellofemoral joint, randomized control trial, and strap. The search terms for CINAHL were anterior knee pain, brace, orthot, orthos, randomi, strap, tape, patell, and patellofemoral. In PEDro, the subsequent composite of search terms was therapy: manipulation, massage, mobilization, orthoses, splinting, stretching, strength training, taping; subdiscipline: musculoskeletal, orthopaedics, sports; method: clinical trial; problem: muscle weakness, pain, reduced joint compliance; body part: foot or ankle, lower leg or knee. Study Selection: All randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing the effectiveness of knee or foot orthotics for treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome were included. Any trials that described the use of orthotic devices in conjunction with operative treatment were excluded from this review. Using these inclusion criteria, 2 reviewers independently assessed the potentially eligible studies and resolved any disagreements through conversation and negotiation by a third reviewer
Kondo, Daiki; Harada, Kouji H.; Youssefian, Shohab; Shioi, Hirotomo; Kabata, Risako; Domon, Yuki; Kubota, Kazufumi; Kitano, Yutaka; Takayama, Yasunori; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Ohno, Kousaku; Saito, Yoshiaki; Asano, Takeshi; Tominaga, Makoto
Painful peripheral neuropathy has been correlated with various voltage-gated sodium channel mutations in sensory neurons. Recently Nav1.9, a voltage-gated sodium channel subtype, has been established as a genetic influence for certain peripheral pain syndromes. In this study, we performed a genetic study in six unrelated multigenerational Japanese families with episodic pain syndrome. Affected participants (n = 23) were characterized by infantile recurrent pain episodes with spontaneous mitigation around adolescence. This unique phenotype was inherited in an autosomal-dominant mode. Linkage analysis was performed for two families with 12 affected and nine unaffected members, and a single locus was identified on 3p22 (LOD score 4.32). Exome analysis (n = 14) was performed for affected and unaffected members in these two families and an additional family. Two missense variants were identified: R222H and R222S in SCN11A. Next, we generated a knock-in mouse model harboring one of the mutations (R222S). Behavioral tests (Hargreaves test and cold plate test) using R222S and wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice, young (8–9 weeks old; n = 10–12 for each group) and mature (36–38 weeks old; n = 5–6 for each group), showed that R222S mice were significantly (p < 0.05) more hypersensitive to hot and cold stimuli than WT mice. Electrophysiological studies using dorsal root ganglion neurons from 8–9-week-old mice showed no significant difference in resting membrane potential, but input impedance and firing frequency of evoked action potentials were significantly increased in R222S mice compared with WT mice. However, there was no significant difference among Nav1.9 (WT, R222S, and R222H)-overexpressing ND7/23 cell lines. These results suggest that our novel mutation is a gain-of-function mutation that causes infantile familial episodic pain. The mouse model developed here will be useful for drug screening for familial episodic pain syndrome associated with SCN11A mutations
Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J
Background Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) licensed for use in rheumatic disease and other musculoskeletal disorders in the UK, and widely available in other countries worldwide. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral sulindac in acute postoperative pain, using clinical studies of patients with established pain, and with outcomes measured primarily over 6 hours using standard methods. This type of study has been used for many decades to establish that drugs have analgesic properties. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral sulindac in acute postoperative pain, and any associated adverse events. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies up to June 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of oral sulindac for relief of acute postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We planned to use area under the “pain relief versus time” curve to derive the proportion of participants with meloxicam experiencing least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, using validated equations; to use number needed to treat to benefit (NNT); the proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period; time to use of rescue analgesia; information on adverse events and withdrawals. Main results No studies were identified by the searches that examined oral sulindac in patients with established postoperative pain. Authors’ conclusions In the absence of evidence of efficacy, at present, for oral sulindac in acute postoperative pain, its use in this indication is not justified. Because trials clearly demonstrating analgesic efficacy in the most basic of acute pain studies is lacking, use in other indications should be evaluated carefully. Given the large number of available drugs of this and similar classes
Schattschneider, Jörn; Binder, Andreas; Siebrecht, Dieter; Wasner, Gunnar; Baron, Ralf
Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) can be relieved by sympathetic blockade. Different sympathetic efferent output channels innervate distinct effector organs (ie, cutaneous vasoconstrictor, muscle vasoconstrictor. and sudomotor neurons, as well as neurons innervating deep somatic tissues like bone, joints, and tendons). The aim of the present study was to elucidate in CRPS patients the sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) component that exclusively depends on cutaneous sympathetic activity compared with the SMP depending on the sympathetic innervation of deep somatic tissues. The sympathetic outflow to the painful skin was modulated selectively in awake humans. High and low cutaneous vasoconstrictor activity was produced in 12 CRPS type 1 patients by whole-body cooling and warming (thermal suit). Spontaneous pain was quantified during high and low cutaneous vasoconstrictor activity. By comparing the cutaneous SMP component with the change in pain that was achieved by modulation of the entire sympathetic outflow (sympathetic ganglion block), the SMP component originating in deep somatic structures was estimated. The relief of spontaneous pain after sympathetic blockade was more pronounced than changes in spontaneous pain that could be induced by selective sympathetic cutaneous modulation. The entire SMP component (cutaneous and deep) changes considerably over time. It is most prominent in the acute stages of CRPS. Sympathetic afferent coupling takes place in the skin and in the deep somatic tissues, but especially in the acute stages of CRPS, the pain component that is influenced by the sympathetic innervation of deep somatic structures is more important than the cutaneous activation. The entire sympathetic maintained pain component is not constant in the course of the disease but decreases over time.
This study aimed to evaluate the presence and importance of pain catastrophizing among men diagnosed with chronic abacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in a routine clinical setting. 61 men, mean age 46 ± 11 years, with a mean CP/CPPS history of 11 ± 11 years, completed the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) to evaluate pain catastrophizing, and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). They were also scored according to the UPOINT system. The patients' mean scores were: IEEF-5 17.6 ± 7.3, NIH-CPSI pain subscale 11.1 ± 4.4, quality of life question 2.7 ± 1.6, quality of life impact subscale 6.9 ± 2.7 and CSQ catastrophizing score 15.3 ± 9.1. Patients with a high tendency for catastrophizing (CSQ score ≥20) (28%) had higher UPOINT and pain scores, worse quality of life and quality of life impact, but did not stand out regarding voiding dysfunction and ejaculatory pain. Two distinctly different cohorts could be identified: a smaller cohort with a high degree of catastrophizing, severe pain and poor quality of life, and a larger one with a low degree of catastrophizing, less severe pain and moderately reduced quality of life. It is important in clinical practice to distinguish between the two groups since they require different therapeutic approaches.
Piva, Sara R; Fitzgerald, Kelley; Irrgang, James J; Jones, Scott; Hando, Benjamin R; Browder, David A; Childs, John D
Background The reliability and measurement error of several impairment measures used during the clinical examination of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) has not been established. The purpose was to determine the inter-tester reliability and measurement error of measures of impairments associated with PFPS in patients with PFPS. Methods A single group repeated measures design was used. Two pairs of physical therapists participated in data collection. Examiners were blinded to each others' measurements. Results Thirty patients (age 29 +/- 8; 17 female) with PFPS participated in this study. Inter-tester reliability coefficients were substantial for measures of hamstrings, quadriceps, plantarflexors, and ITB/TFL complex length, hip abductors strength, and foot pronation (ICCs from .85 to .97); moderate for measures of Q-angle, tibial torsion, hip external rotation strength, lateral retinacular tightness, and quality of movement during a step down task (ICCs from .67 to .79); and poor for femoral anteversion (ICC of .45). Standard error of measurement (SEM) for measures of muscle length ranged from 1.6 degrees to 4.3 degrees. SEM for Q-angle, tibial torsion, and femoral anteversion were 2.4 degrees, 2.9 degrees, and 4.5 degrees respectively. SEM for foot pronation was 1 mm. SEM for measures of muscle strength was 1.8 Kg for abduction and 2.4 Kg for external rotation. Conclusion Several of the impairments associated with PFPS had sufficient reliability and low measurement error. Further investigation is needed to test if these impairment measurements are related to physical function and whether or not they are useful for decision-making. PMID:16579850
Traa, Maria X; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
Background Fenoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), available in several different countries, but not widely used. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral fenoprofen in acute postoperative pain, and associated adverse events. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to December 2010. Selection criteria Single oral dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of fenoprofen for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief (TOTPAR) or pain intensity difference (SPID) over 4 to 6 hours was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. These derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, the relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results Five studies (696 participants) met the inclusion criteria; 24 participants were treated with fenoprofen 12.5 mg, 23 with fenoprofen 25 mg, 79 with fenoprofen 50 mg, 78 with fenoprofen 100 mg, 146 with fenoprofen 200 mg, 55 with fenoprofen 300 mg, 43 with zomepirac 100 mg, 30 with morphine 8 mg, 77 with codeine 60 mg, and 141 with placebo. Participants had pain following third molar extraction, laparoscopy, minor day surgery and episiotomy. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours with a single dose of fenoprofen 200 mg compared to placebo was 2.3 (1.9 to 3.0). There were insufficient data to analyse other doses or active comparators
Wasey, Jack O; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J
Background Diflunisal is a long-acting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) most commonly used to treat acute postoperative pain or chronic joint pain from osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. This review analyses the effectiveness and harm of different doses of diflunisal in the context of moderate to severe postoperative pain. Objectives To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral diflunisal in acute postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to January 2010. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered diflunisal in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Nine studies in dental, orthopedic and gynaecological surgery met the inclusion criteria, testing doses of diflunisal from 125 mg to 1000 mg. For diflunisal 1000 mg, the NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours was 2.1 (1.8 to 2.6) (6 studies, 391 participants); the NNT to prevent remedication within 6 hours was 1.9 (1.7 to 2.3), and within 12 hours was 2.2 (1.9 to 2.7) (6 studies, 409 participants). More participants experienced adverse events with diflunisal 100 mg than with placebo, but none were serious or led to withdrawal. For diflunisal 500 mg, the NNT for at least 50% pain relief
Piva, Sara R.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Irrgang, James J.; Fritz, Julie M.; Wisniewski, Stephen; McGinty, Gerald T.; Childs, John D.; Domenech, Manuel A.; Jones, Scott; Delitto, Anthony
Objectives To explore whether impairment of muscle strength, soft tissue length, movement control, postural and biomechanic alterations, and psychologic factors are associated with physical function and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Rehabilitation outpatient. Participants Seventy-four patients diagnosed with PFPS. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Measurements were self-reported function and pain; strength of quadriceps, hip abduction, and hip external rotation; length of hamstrings, quadriceps, plantar flexors, iliotibial band/tensor fasciae latae complex, and lateral retinaculum; foot pronation; Q-angle; tibial torsion; visual observation of quality of movement during a lateral step-down task; anxiety; and fear-avoidance beliefs. Results After controlling for age and sex, anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs about work and physical activity were associated with function, while only fear-avoidance beliefs about work and physical activity were associated with pain. Conclusions Psychologic factors were the only associates of function and pain in patients with PFPS. Factors related to physical impairments did not associate to function or pain. Our results should be validated in other samples of patients with PFPS. Further studies should determine the role of other psychologic factors, and how they relate to anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs in these patients. PMID:19236982
Thomeé, R; Augustsson, J; Karlsson, J
There is no clear consensus in the literature concerning the terminology, aetiology and treatment for pain in the anterior part of the knee. The term 'anterior knee pain' is suggested to encompass all pain-related problems. By excluding anterior knee pain due to intra-articular pathology, peripatellar tendinitis or bursitis, plica syndromes, Sinding Larsen's disease, Osgood Schlatter's disease, neuromas and other rarely occurring pathologies, it is suggested that remaining patients with a clinical presentation of anterior knee pain could be diagnosed with patello-femoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Three major contributing factors of PFPS are discussed: (i) malalignment of the lower extremity and/or the patella; (ii) muscular imbalance of the lower extremity; and (iii) overactivity. The significance of lower extremity alignment factors and pathological limits needs further investigation. It is possible that the definitions used for malalignment should be re-evaluated, as the scientific support is very weak for determining when alignment is normal and when there is malalignment. Consequently, pathological limits must be clarified, along with evaluation of risk factors for acquiring PFPS. Muscle tightness and muscular imbalance of the lower extremity muscles with decreased strength due to hypotrophy or inhibition have been suggested, but remain unclear as potential causes of PFPS. Decreased knee extensor strength is a common finding in patients with PFPS. Various patterns of weaknesses have been reported, with selective weakness in eccentric muscle strength, within the quadriceps muscle and in terminal knee extension. The significance of muscle function in a closed versus open kinetic chain has been discussed, but is far from well investigated. It is clear that further studies are necessary in order to establish the significance of various strength deficits and muscular imbalances, and to clarify whether a specific disturbance in muscular activation is a cause or an effect
Alexander, Guillermo M.; Reichenberger, Erin; Peterlin, B. Lee; Perreault, Marielle J.; Grothusen, John R.; Schwartzman, Robert J.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a severe chronic pain condition that most often develops following trauma. Blood samples were collected from 220 individuals, 160 CRPS subjects, and 60 healthy pain-free controls. Plasma amino acid levels were compared and contrasted between groups. L-Aspartate, L-glutamate, and L-ornithine were significantly increased, whereas L-tryptophan and L-arginine were significantly decreased in CRPS subjects as compared to controls. In addition, the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio demonstrated a significant increase, whereas the global arginine bioavailability ratio (GABR) was significantly decreased in the CRPS subjects. The CRPS subjects demonstrated a significant correlation between overall pain and the plasma levels of L-glutamate and the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio. CRPS subjects also showed a correlation between the decrease in plasma L-tryptophan and disease duration. This study shows that CRPS subjects exhibit significant changes in plasma levels of amino acids involved in glutamate receptor activation and in amino acids associated with immune function as compared to healthy pain-free controls. A better understanding of the role plasma amino acids play in the pathophysiology of CRPS may lead to novel treatments for this crippling condition. PMID:24303215
Alexander, Guillermo M; Reichenberger, Erin; Peterlin, B Lee; Perreault, Marielle J; Grothusen, John R; Schwartzman, Robert J
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a severe chronic pain condition that most often develops following trauma. Blood samples were collected from 220 individuals, 160 CRPS subjects, and 60 healthy pain-free controls. Plasma amino acid levels were compared and contrasted between groups. L-Aspartate, L-glutamate, and L-ornithine were significantly increased, whereas L-tryptophan and L-arginine were significantly decreased in CRPS subjects as compared to controls. In addition, the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio demonstrated a significant increase, whereas the global arginine bioavailability ratio (GABR) was significantly decreased in the CRPS subjects. The CRPS subjects demonstrated a significant correlation between overall pain and the plasma levels of L-glutamate and the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio. CRPS subjects also showed a correlation between the decrease in plasma L-tryptophan and disease duration. This study shows that CRPS subjects exhibit significant changes in plasma levels of amino acids involved in glutamate receptor activation and in amino acids associated with immune function as compared to healthy pain-free controls. A better understanding of the role plasma amino acids play in the pathophysiology of CRPS may lead to novel treatments for this crippling condition.
Straube, Sebastian; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J
This review is an update on 'Sympathectomy for neuropathic pain' originally published in Issue 2, 2003. The concept that many neuropathic pain syndromes (traditionally this definition would include complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS)) are "sympathetically maintained pains" has historically led to treatments that interrupt the sympathetic nervous system. Chemical sympathectomies use alcohol or phenol injections to destroy ganglia of the sympathetic chain, while surgical ablation is performed by open removal or electrocoagulation of the sympathetic chain, or minimally invasive procedures using thermal or laser interruption. To review the evidence from randomised, double blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of chemical and surgical sympathectomy for neuropathic pain. Sympathectomy could be compared with placebo (sham) or other active treatment. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library to May 2010. We screened references in the retrieved articles and literature reviews, and contacted experts in the field of neuropathic pain. Randomised, double blind, placebo or active controlled studies assessing the effects of sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and CRPS. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. No pooled analysis of data was possible. Only one study satisfied our inclusion criteria, comparing percutaneous radiofrequency thermal lumbar sympathectomy with lumbar sympathetic neurolysis using phenol in 20 participants with CRPS. There was no comparison of sympathectomy versus sham or placebo. No dichotomous pain outcomes were reported. Average baseline scores of 8-9/10 on several pain scales fell to about 4/10 initially (1 day) and remained at 3-5/10 over four months. There were no significant differences between groups, except for "unpleasant sensation", which was higher with radiofrequency ablation. One participant in the phenol group experienced postsympathectomy neuralgia, while two in the
Dag, Ersel; Gokce, Burcu; Kocak, Mukadder
A 55-year-old man was admitted to us with a sense of numbness, tingling, and burning in his feet and headache, characterized as a feeling of pressure all around his head, for 1 year and aggravated in the past 3 months. The patient's neurologic examination was normal and he had no other known diseases except for hypertension according to his medical history. During the examination, we recognized purplish lesions on the patient's body. His kidney, liver, and thyroid function test results and vitamin B12 levels were all normal. His hematocrit level was 41.8%, platelet value was 234,000 (150,000-500,000); and sedimentation rate was 9 mm/h (0-20). Electromyography was performed and results were found to be normal. The patient was diagnosed as having small fiber neuropathy. Dermatologic examination revealed reddish blue mottling of the skin with fishnet reticular pattern on his back, on the front side of the body, and on both arms and legs, and the lesions were classified as livedo racemosa (Figure 1). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed subcortical hyperintense ischemic-gliotic signal changes on T2-FLAIR in the deep white matter of bilateral frontoparietal vertex, centrum semiovale, and corona radiata (Figure 2). FLAIR sequence axial MRI of the brain of our patient showed subcortical hyperintense lesions in both cerebral hemispheres. His cardiac examination was normal and minimal aortic regurgitation was seen on echocardiography. His cognitive assessment Minimental Test Score was 22, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment score was 18. Laboratory values for inflammatory markers and autoimmune antibodies including syphilis serology, lupus anticoagulants, and anticardiolipin antibodies were negative. Factor V Leiden mutation was not detected in the patient. The patient was diagnosed with Sneddon's syndrome with the above signs and symptoms and small fiber neuropathy. Clopidogrel 75 mg and gabapentin 1200 mg was started once a day and blood pressure regulation was
Thomson McBride, Andrew Richard; Barnett, Andrew James; Livingstone, James Alexander; Atkins, Roger Michael
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a common problem presenting to orthopedic surgeons or pain therapists, most frequently encountered after trauma or surgery to a limb. Because of a lack of a simple objective diagnostic test, diagnosis is reliant on clinical assessment. Prospective studies have repeatedly demonstrated a higher incidence than retrospective studies, an observation that has been challenged owing to the lack of uniformity of diagnostic criteria across specialties and workers researching the condition. A series of 262 adult patients presenting to the Bristol Royal Infirmary with a closed unilateral distal radial fracture were assessed at a mean of 9.47 weeks after their injury by a single clinician (J.A.L.). Each assessment made allowed comparison of the modified International Association for the Study of Pain (Bruehl) criteria for the presence of CRPS with the criteria described by Atkins. The incidence of CRPS was similar using either criteria (Bruehl 20.61% vs. Atkins 22.52%). Using the Bruehl criteria as a gold standard, there was strong diagnostic agreement (kappa=0.79, sensitivity=0.87, specificity=0.94). Disagreements between the 2 criteria methods were found in 19 patients. The majority of these discordances were due to differences in pain and sensory abnormality assessment. These findings show that the Bruehl and Atkins criteria are basically concordant. The differences reflect only minor variations in the assessment of pain. Agreement between researchers in the orthopedic and pain therapy communities will allow improved understanding of CRPS.
Ye, Jing-Jhao; Lee, Kuan-Ting; Chou, Ying-Yu; Sie, Hung-Hai; Huang, Ju-Nan; Chuang, Chiung-Cheng
Efficacy of pain assessment is the basis for effective therapy. Clinically, assessing pain is by subjective scale, but these methods have some shortcomings. Therefore, studies have been conducted on assessment of pain using physiological signals. Photoplethysmography (PPG) signal provides much information about the cardiovascular system. PPG- derived parameters (PPG parameters) reflect nociceptive stimulation, and obtain an approximation of the R-R interval from PPG period. The aim of this study was to evaluate PPG signal for assessment of pain intensity in chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) patients. This study recruited 37 patients with chronic MPS, all of them were treated with electrotherapy and thermotherapy. The difference of PPG parameters between pre- and post- therapy, and correlation between pulse rate variability (PRV) and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined. We also obtained patients' pain intensity scores by Visual analogue scale (VAS), visual rating scale (VRS) and Wong-Banker face pain rating scale (Wong-Banker). PPG and PRV/HRV parameters showed significant difference between pre- and post-treatment. The variation trend of PRV was similar with HRV in heart rate (HR), R-R interval (RRI), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF; in addition, a high correlation between the parameters was observed either in the pre- or post-therapy. PPG parameters indicated increased sympathetic tone. The results of the study indicated that PRV may substitute for HRV in assessment of pain intensity in chronic MPS reflected parasympathetic nervous tone increase, and PPG parameters might reflect stress stimulation on skin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Freedman, Scott R.; Brody, Lori Thein; Rosenthal, Michael; Wise, Justin C.
Background: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most prevalent orthopaedic condition among physically active individuals, contributing to an estimated 30% to 40% of all sports medicine visits. Techniques using Kinesio Tape (KT) have become increasingly popular; however, there has been scant research supporting its use on patients with PFPS. Hypothesis: The use of patellar KT to treat patients with PFPS will provide a statistically significant improvement in short-term pain and single-leg hop measures as compared with sham placement of KT. Study Design: Nonrandomized controlled clinical trial with repeated-measures design. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Forty-nine subjects (41 females, 8 males) between the ages of 12 and 24 years with PFPS participated in this study. Each subject underwent patellar kinesio taping with both experimental and sham applications while completing 4 functional tasks and the single-leg triple jump test (STJT). The treatment outcome was analyzed using separate paired t tests to measure improvement on a numeric pain rating scale. A 2-way, 2 × 2 analysis of variance was used to analyze the relationship between taping condition (experimental vs sham) and side (involved vs uninvolved) for STJT scores. Results: Separate paired t tests found step-up, step-down, and STJT pain improvement statistically significant between taping conditions. The 2-factor analysis of variance yielded a significant main effect for taping condition, but the main effect for side was not significant. The interaction between taping condition and side was significant. This showed there was little change in STJT distance between repeated measures performed on the untaped, noninvolved leg. However, subjects’ STJT distances were significantly greater for the experimental KT application than the sham application for the involved side. Conclusion: Patellar kinesio taping provided an immediate and statistically significant improvement in pain and single-leg hop
Moore, R Andrew; Edwards, Jayne; Loke, Yoon; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J
Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2000. Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic properties, and is used mainly for treating rheumatic disorders. Some drugs have been directly compared against each other within a trial setting to determine their relative efficacies, whereas other have not. It is possible, however, to compare analgesics indirectly by examining the effectiveness of each drug against placebo when used in similar clinical situations. Objectives To determine the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose piroxicam compared with placebo in moderate to severe postoperative pain. To compare the effects of piroxicam with other analgesics. Search methods Published studies were identified from systematic searching of MEDLINE, Biological Abstracts, EMBASE, CENTRAL and the Oxford Pain Relief Database in December 2007. Additional studies were identified from the reference lists of retrieved reports. Selection criteria The following inclusion criteria were used: full journal publication, randomised placebo controlled trial, double-blind design, adult participants, postoperative pain of moderate to severe intensity at the baseline assessment, postoperative administration of oral or intramuscular piroxicam. Data collection and analysis Summed pain intensity and pain relief data were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to yield the number of participants obtaining at least 50% pain relief. This was used to calculate estimates of relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) for one participant to obtain at least 50% pain relief. Information was collected on adverse effects and estimates of relative risk and number-needed-to-treat-to-harm (NNH) were calculated. Main results In this update no further studies were found. The original search identified three studies (141 participants) which compared oral piroxicam 20 mg with placebo and
Hyman, Paul E; Bursch, Brenda; Sood, Manu; Schwankovsky, Lenore; Cocjin, Jose; Zeltzer, Lonnie K
Pain-associated disability syndrome (PADS) is a recently defined term that describes patients with chronic pain whose restriction in daily activities appears disproportionately severe for the observable pathology. The aim of this study is to describe the features of a group of pediatric patients with abdominal symptoms fitting this diagnosis. To identify factors associated with visceral PADS, we reviewed the records of 40 patients (18 males; age range, 7-21 years) with gastrointestinal symptoms severe enough to prevent school attendance or eating for 2 months or more. These patients, in whom pain was neither feigned nor self-induced, met the diagnostic criteria for visceral PADS, including failure of usual treatments and lack of a satisfactory organic explanation for the severity of the pain. The dominant symptom was abdominal pain in 30 patients, regurgitation in 5 patients, nausea in 3 patients, and chest pain in 2 patients. All patients complained of pain or discomfort, and all met symptom-based criteria for one or more functional gastrointestinal disorder. Disordered sleep was a problem for 39 patients. Factors associated with PADS included learning disabilities, unrealistic goals in a perfectionist, high-achieving child, early pain experiences, passive or dependent coping style, marital problems in the home, and chronic illness in a parent. All patients had at least two associated factors, and a majority had four or more associated factors. Possible triggering events included an acute febrile illness in 20 patients, school change in 11 patients, trauma in 2 patients, death of a loved one in 2 patients, and sexual abuse in 2 patients. Before diagnosis, all patients underwent extensive negative evaluations. Nearly all patients had mental health evaluations that ruled out eating disorder and psychosis. Medical management had failed, and surgeries worsened symptoms. In a majority of patients, we identified a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Evaluation of preteens
Perez, R S G M; Zollinger, P E; Dijkstra, P U; Thomassen-Hilgersom, I L; Zuurmond, W W A; Rosenbrand, C J G M; Geertzen, J H B
The development and treatment ofthe complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) are a subject of much discussion. Using the method for the development ofevidence-based guidelines, a multidisciplinary guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome has been drawn up. The diagnosis of CRPS-I is based on the clinical observation of signs and symptoms. For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised up to step z. In case of pain ofa neuropathic nature, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For the treatment ofinflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. In order to enhance peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used for a cold extremity ifvasodilatory medication produces insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, the use of vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operation time and limited use of bloodlessness are advised for the secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Use of regional anaesthetic techniques can also be considered in this connection.
Abd Jalil, Nizar; Awang, Mohammad Saufi; Omar, Mahamarowi
Scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome wherein pain originates over the neck area and radiates down to the arm. This condition may present as primary or secondary to underlying cervical pathology. Although scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a well known medical entity, it is often misdiagnosed as being some other neck pain associated with radiculopathy, such as cervical disc prolapse, cervical spinal stenosis and thoracic outlet syndrome. Because scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimics cervical radiculopathy, this condition often leads to mismanagement, which can, in turn, result in persistent pain and suffering. In the worst-case scenarios, patients may be subjected to unjustifiable surgical intervention. Because the clinical findings in scalene myofascial pain syndrome are "pathognomonic", clinicians should be aware of ways to recognize this disorder and be able to differentiate it from other conditions that present with neck pain and rediculopathy. We present two cases of unilateral scalene myofascial pain syndrome that significantly impaired the patients' functioning and quality of life. This case report serves to create awareness about the existence of the syndrome and to highlight the potential morbidity due to clinical misdiagnosis.
Kingery, W S
The purpose of this review was to identify and analyze the controlled clinical trial data for peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) and complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS). A total of 72 articles were found, which included 92 controlled drug trials using 48 different treatments. The methods of these studies were critically reviewed and the results summarized and compared. The PNP trial literature gave consistent support (two or more trials) for the analgesic effectiveness of tricyclic antidepressants, intravenous and topical lidocaine, intravenous ketamine, carbamazepine and topical aspirin. There was limited support (one trial) for the analgesic effectiveness of oral, topical and epidural clonidine and for subcutaneous ketamine. The trial data were contradictory for mexiletine, phenytoin, topical capsaicin, oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and intravenous morphine. Analysis of the trial methods indicated that mexiletine and intravenous morphine were probably effective analgesics for PNP, while non-steroidals were probably ineffective. Codeine, magnesium chloride, propranolol, lorazepam, and intravenous phentolamine all failed to provide analgesia in single trials. There were no long-term data supporting the analgesic effectiveness of any drug and the etiology of the neuropathy did not predict treatment outcome. Review of the controlled trial literature for CRPS identified several potential problems with current clinical practices. The trial data only gave consistent support for analgesia with corticosteroids, which had long-term effectiveness. There was limited support for the analgesic effectiveness of topical dimethylsulfoxyde (DMSO), epidural clonidine and intravenous regional blocks (IVRBs) with bretylium and ketanserin. The trial data were contradictory for intranasal calcitonin and intravenous phentolamine and analysis of the trial methods indicated that both treatments were probably ineffective for most patients. There were consistent trial
Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith
Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted.
Enggaard, Thomas Peter; Scherer, Christian; Nikolajsen, Lone; Andersen, Claus
The development of stump and phantom pain after limb amputation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is very frequent. Stump pain is typically recurred CRPS and the possibilities for effective pharmacological pain relief are often limited. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has a well-documented pain relieving effect in patients with CRPS. This case story summarises the long term effect of SCS in a patient with CRPS after two amputations of the right leg. Pharmacological pain therapies as well as Guanethidine blockade were found to be ineffective.
Munts, Alexander G; van der Plas, Anton A; Voormolen, Joan H; Marinus, Johan; Teepe-Twiss, Irene M; Onkenhout, Willem; van Gerven, Joop M; van Hilten, Jacobus J
Since glycinergic neurotransmission plays an important inhibitory role in the processing of sensory and motor information, intrathecal glycine (ITG) administration may be a potential therapy for both pain and movement disorders in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Aims of the current study, which is the first report on ITG in humans, were to evaluate its safety and efficacy. ITG treatment during 4 weeks was studied in CRPS patients with dystonia in the period before they received intrathecal baclofen treatment. Twenty patients were assessed and after exclusion of one patient, the remaining 19 patients were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Safety was assessed by clinical evaluation, blood examinations and electrocardiograms. Efficacy measures involved pain (numeric rating scale, McGill pain questionnaire), movement disorders (Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale, unified myoclonus rating scale, tremor research group rating scale), activity (Radboud skills questionnaire, walking ability questionnaire), and a clinical global impression (CGI) and patient's global impression score (PGI). Treatment-emergent adverse events were generally mild to moderate and not different from placebo treatment. During ITG treatment growth hormone levels were slightly increased. Although there was a trend to worsening on the CGI and PGI during ITG treatment, there were no significant differences between ITG and placebo treatment in any of the outcomes. ITG given over 4 weeks was ineffective for pain or dystonia in CRPS. Although no serious adverse events occurred, further studies are required to rule out potential neurotoxicity of ITG.
GIGANTE, ANTONIO; BOTTEGONI, CARLO; BARBADORO, PAMELA
Purpose the present prospective open-label study was designed to gain further insights into a condition thought to constitute a neglected but not uncommon syndrome characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process, not related to rotator cuff or pectoralis minor tendinopathy, long head of the biceps tendon disorders, or instability. The aim was to clarify its prevalence, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and response to corticosteroid injections. Methods patients with primary anterior shoulder pain precisely reproduced by deep pressure on the apex of the coracoid process were recruited. Patients with clinical or instrumental signs of other shoulder disorders were excluded. Patients were given an injection of triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg/ml 1 ml at the coracoid trigger point. They were evaluated after 15, 30 and 60 days and at 2 years using Equal Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) and the Italian version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Results between January 1 and December 31 2010, we treated 15 patients aged 26–66 years. The majority were women (86.67%). At 15 days, 6 (40%) patients reported complete resolution of their symptoms, while 9 (60%) complained of residual symptoms and received another injection. At 30 days, 14 (93.33%) patients were pain-free and very satisfied. At 2 years, the 14 patients who had been asymptomatic at 30 days reported that they had experienced no further pain or impaired shoulder function. The analysis of variance for repeated measures showed a significant effect of time on EQ-VAS and SST scores. Conclusions the present study documents the existence, and characteristics, of a “coracoid syndrome” characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process and showed that the pain is usually amenable to steroid treatment. This syndrome should be clearly distinguished from anterior shoulder pain due to other causes, in
Kapural, Leonardo; Lokey, Kristi; Leong, Michael S; Fiekowsky, Sharon; Stanton-Hicks, Michael; Sapienza-Crawford, Anne J; Webster, Lynn R
Ziconotide is a nonopioid analgesic currently indicated as monotherapy, but frequently used in combination with opioids, for the management of severe chronic pain in patients for whom intrathecal (IT) therapy is warranted and who are intolerant of, or whose pain is, refractory to other treatments. There is a paucity of information regarding ziconotide use in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Seven cases in which IT ziconotide was used in patients with CRPS were analyzed. All patients (4 male, 3 female; age range, 14 to 52 years) had experienced inadequate pain relief with multiple conventional and interventional treatments. Three patients received ziconotide monotherapy exclusively; 4 patients received ziconotide monotherapy initially, then combination IT therapy. The mean ziconotide dose was 5.2 mcg/d (range, 0.5 to 13 mcg/d) at initiation and 24.7 mcg/d (range, 0.06 to 146 mcg/d) at the last available assessment. The mean duration of ziconotide therapy was 3.1 years (range, 26 days to 8 years). At ziconotide initiation, the mean visual analog scale (VAS) score was 89.3 mm (range, 75 to 100 mm); VAS scores decreased by a mean of 47.5% (range, 5% to 100%) at last assessment. Of the 5 patients who experienced substantial improvement in pain, edema, skin abnormalities, and/or mobility with ziconotide therapy, 2 have discontinued ziconotide and are pain free. Another patient experienced marked reversal of both edema and advanced skin trophic changes. Adverse events included urinary retention, depression, anxiety, and hallucinations. Adverse events generally resolved spontaneously, with treatment, or with ziconotide discontinuation/dose reduction. Although further studies are required, ziconotide holds promise as an effective treatment for CRPS.
Segura-Pérez, María; Hernández-Criado, M Teresa; Calvo-Lobo, César; Vega-Piris, Lorena; Fernández-Martín, Raquel; Rodríguez-Sanz, David
The purpose of this study was to analyze pain intensity in patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) following a multimodal rehabilitation protocol. A prospective study was carried out following the Template for Intervention Description and Replication criteria. Patients were recruited from the rehabilitation unit of a university hospital in Spain between 2009 and 2013. Patients were included if they had a medical diagnosis of MPS in any of the following regions: cervicobrachial (n = 102), lumbosacral (n = 30), elbow (n = 14), ankle and foot (n = 10), and temporomandibular jaw (n = 1). The multimodal rehabilitation protocol included myofascial trigger point dry needling, spray and stretching, Kinesio taping, eccentric exercise, and patient education. The protocol was applied for 4 weeks (5 sessions) for the active and/or latent myofascial trigger points in each body region. Pain intensity was measured by using the visual analog scale (VAS) immediately before beginning of the study and 1 week after completion of the protocol. The study sample comprised 150 patients (mean ± standard deviation age, 51.5 ± 1.19 years). Statistically significant differences were obtained for reduction in pain intensity (4 ± 2.03; P = .002). Clinically relevant reductions (VAS ≥30 mm; P < .001) were obtained in 78.7% of the interventions. Four treatment sessions reduced the VAS score by 10 mm in 83.55% of the sample. There were no statistically significant differences (P = .064) for reduction in pain intensity in the different body regions. A multimodal rehabilitation protocol showed clinically relevant differences in the reduction in pain intensity in different body regions in patients with MPS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hennessy, DB; Curry, D; Cartwright, C; Downey, P; Pahuja, A
Introduction Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder. Bladder instillation is one avenue of treatment but evidence for its effectiveness is limited. Chondroitin sulphate solution 2.0% (Urocyst) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) replenishment therapy instilled for patients with IC/PBS. We assessed its effectiveness for treating IC/PBS in Northern Ireland. Methods Patients with IC/PBS were assessed with the O'Leary-Sant interstitial cystitis index score and global response assessment questionnaire prior to commencing treatment. Assessment with these questionnaires was performed after 6 treatments (10 weeks) and again after 10 treatments (24 weeks). Assessment end points were pain, urgency, symptom score and problem score. Results Data was collected on 10 patients, 9 female and 1 male. 6 patients had failed RIMSO-50 dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) 50% treatment prior. At baseline the mean pain score was 6.6, urgency score 7.00, symptom score 13.5 and problem score 12.5. After 24 weeks the mean pain score fell to 2.0, urgency score to 1.80, symptom score to 6.89 and problem score to 5.67. At 10 weeks the global response to treatment was 100%. Nocturia was the first symptom to improve with urgency and pain following. No side effects were noted during instillation and all patients tolerated the treatments. Conclusion IC/PBS is a difficult disease to treat. It requires a multimodal approach. We found that intravesical chondroitin sulphate reduced pain, urgency and O'Leary-Sant symptom and problem scores in patients with IC/PBS. All patients tolerated the treatment and no side effects were reported. PMID:26668417
Lake, David A.; Wofford, Nancy H.
Context: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common orthopaedic condition for which operative and nonoperative treatments have been used. Therapeutic modalities have been recommended for the treatment of patients with PFPS—including cold, ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, electrical stimulation for pain control, electromyographic biofeedback, and laser. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of therapeutic modalities for the treatment of patients with PFPS. Data Sources: In May and August 2010, Medline was searched using the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science Citation Index, Science Direct, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health, and Your Journals@OVID. Study Selection: Selected studies were randomized controlled trials that used a therapeutic modality to treat patients with PFPS. The review included articles with all outcome measures relevant for the PFPS patient: knee extension and flexion strength (isokinetic and isometric), patellofemoral pain assessment during activities of daily life, functional tests (eg, squats), Kujala patellofemoral score, and electromyographic recording from knee flexors and extensors and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional areas. Data Extraction: Authors conducted independent quality appraisals of studies using the PEDro Scale and a system designed for analysis of studies on interventions for patellofemoral pain. Results: Twelve studies met criteria: 1 on the effects of cold and ultrasound together, ice alone, iontophoresis, and phonophoresis; 3, neuromuscular electrical stimulation; 4, electromyographic biofeedback; 3, electrical stimulation for control of pain; and 1, laser. Discussion: Most studies were of low to moderate quality. Some reported that therapeutic modalities, when combined with other treatments, may be of some benefit for pain management or other symptoms. There was no consistent evidence of any beneficial effect when a therapeutic modality was used alone
Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F; Boeckxstaens, Guy E
Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have demonstrated excellent results in IBS patients, but the limited availability and labor-intensive nature limit their routine use in daily practice. In patients who are refractory to first-line therapy, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are both effective to obtain symptomatic relief, but only TCAs have been shown to improve abdominal pain in meta-analyses. A diet low in fermentable carbohydrates and polyols (FODMAP) seems effective in subgroups of patients to reduce abdominal pain, bloating, and to improve the stool pattern. The evidence for fiber is limited and only isphagula may be somewhat beneficial. The efficacy of probiotics is difficult to interpret since several strains in different quantities have been used across studies. Antispasmodics, including peppermint oil, are still considered the first-line treatment for abdominal pain in IBS. Second-line therapies for diarrhea-predominant IBS include the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5HT3 antagonists alosetron and ramosetron, although the use of the former is restricted because of the rare risk of ischemic colitis. In laxative-resistant, constipation-predominant IBS, the chloride-secretion stimulating drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist that also has direct analgesic effects, reduce abdominal pain and improve the stool pattern.
Moore, R Andrew; Edwards, Jayne; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J
Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2000. Dihydrocodeine is a synthetic opioid analgesic developed in the early 1900s. Its structure and pharmacokinetics are similar to that of codeine and it is used for the treatment of postoperative pain or as an antitussive. It is becoming increasingly important to assess the relative efficacy and harm caused by different treatments. Relative efficacy can be determined when an analgesic is compared with control under similar clinical circumstances. Objectives To quantitatively assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose dihydrocodeine compared with placebo in randomised trials in moderate to severe postoperative pain. Search methods Published reports were identified from electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, the Oxford Pain Relief Database in December 2007, the original search was conducted in October 1999). Additional studies were identified from the reference lists of retrieved reports. Selection criteria Inclusion criteria: full journal publication, clinical trial, random allocation of participants to treatment groups, double blind design, adult participants, baseline pain of moderate to severe intensity, postoperative administration of study drugs, treatment arms which included dihydrocodeine and placebo and either oral or injected (intramuscular or intravenous) administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis Data collection and analysis: summed pain intensity and pain relief data over four to six hours were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to yield the number of participants obtaining at least 50% pain relief. This was used to calculate relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) for one participant to obtain at least 50% pain relief. Single-dose adverse effect data were collected and used to calculate relative risk and number-needed-to-treat-to-harm (NNH). Main results Fifty-two reports
Lai, H. Henry; Jemielita, Thomas; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Bradley, Catherine S.; Naliboff, Bruce; Williams, David A.; Gereau, Robert W.; Kreder, Karl; Clemens, J. Quentin; Rodriguez, Larissa V.; Krieger, John N.; Farrar, John T.; Robinson, Nancy; Landis, J. Richard
Purpose We characterized the location and spatial distribution of whole body pain among patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) using a body map; and compared the severity of urinary symptoms, pelvic pain, non-pelvic pain, and psychosocial health among patients with different pain patterns. Methods 233 women and 191 men with UCPPS enrolled in a multi-center, one-year observational study completed a battery of baseline measures, including a body map describing the location of pain during the past week. Participants were categorized as having “pelvic pain only” if they reported pain in the abdomen and pelvis only. Participants who reported pain beyond the pelvis were further divided into two sub-groups based on the number of broader body regions affected by pain: an “intermediate” group (1–2 additional regions outside the pelvis) and a “widespread pain” group (3–7 additional regions). Results Of the 424 enrolled patients 25% reported pelvic pain only, and 75% reported pain beyond the pelvis of which 38% reported widespread pain. Participants with greater number of pain locations had greater non-pelvic pain severity (p<0.0001), sleep disturbance (p=0.035), depression (p=0.005), anxiety (p=0.011), psychological stress (p=0.005), negative affect scores (p=0.0004), and worse quality of life (p≤0.021). No difference in pelvic pain and urinary symptom severity were observed by increasing pain distribution. Conclusions Three-quarters of men and women with UCPPS reported pain outside the pelvis. Widespread pain was associated with greater severity of non-pelvic pain symptoms, poorer psychosocial health and worse quality of life, but not worse pelvic pain or urinary symptoms. PMID:28373134
Maier, C; Baron, R; Tölle, T R; Binder, A; Birbaumer, N; Birklein, F; Gierthmühlen, J; Flor, H; Geber, C; Huge, V; Krumova, E K; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Magerl, W; Maihöfner, C; Richter, H; Rolke, R; Scherens, A; Schwarz, A; Sommer, C; Tronnier, V; Uçeyler, N; Valet, M; Wasner, G; Treede, R-D
Neuropathic pain is accompanied by both positive and negative sensory signs. To explore the spectrum of sensory abnormalities, 1236 patients with a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic pain were assessed by quantitative sensory testing (QST) following the protocol of DFNS (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain), using both thermal and mechanical nociceptive as well as non-nociceptive stimuli. Data distributions showed a systematic shift to hyperalgesia for nociceptive, and to hypoesthesia for non-nociceptive parameters. Across all parameters, 92% of the patients presented at least one abnormality. Thermosensory or mechanical hypoesthesia (up to 41%) was more frequent than hypoalgesia (up to 18% for mechanical stimuli). Mechanical hyperalgesias occurred more often (blunt pressure: 36%, pinprick: 29%) than thermal hyperalgesias (cold: 19%, heat: 24%), dynamic mechanical allodynia (20%), paradoxical heat sensations (18%) or enhanced wind-up (13%). Hyperesthesia was less than 5%. Every single sensory abnormality occurred in each neurological syndrome, but with different frequencies: thermal and mechanical hyperalgesias were most frequent in complex regional pain syndrome and peripheral nerve injury, allodynia in postherpetic neuralgia. In postherpetic neuralgia and in central pain, subgroups showed either mechanical hyperalgesia or mechanical hypoalgesia. The most frequent combinations of gain and loss were mixed thermal/mechanical loss without hyperalgesia (central pain and polyneuropathy), mixed loss with mechanical hyperalgesia in peripheral neuropathies, mechanical hyperalgesia without any loss in trigeminal neuralgia. Thus, somatosensory profiles with different combinations of loss and gain are shared across the major neuropathic pain syndromes. The characterization of underlying mechanisms will be needed to make a mechanism-based classification feasible. Copyright (c) 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights
Gomora-García, Mónica; Rojano-Mejía, David; Solis-Hernández, José Luis; Escamilla-Chávez, Carolina
Painful shoulder impingement syndrome is one of the first reasons for care in rehabilitation centres. As the evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical measures as adjuvant treatment is limited, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of physiotherapy on shoulder pain. A retrospective and analytical study was conducted using the medical records of patients with shoulder pain who attended in a rehabilitation centre from October 2010 to September 2011. The demographic and clinical data were collected, and the clinical improvement was determined as: complete, incomplete, or no improvement. Chi squared was used to determine whether there were differences between the different modalities of physiotherapy, as well as the level of improvement. The study included a total of 181 patients, with a mean age of 54.3 years, and a mean of 4.6 months of onset of pain. The physiotherapy treatments included: warm compresses plus interferential current (60.2%), and warm compresses plus ultrasound (17.1%). Just over half (53.6%) obtained a moderate recovery, 36.4% slight improvement, and 9.9% no improvement. No significant differences were found between the different forms of therapy. The supervised rehabilitation program consists of 9 sessions of physiotherapy. A functional improvement of 90% was obtained, without finding any statistical differences between the therapies used. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Tait, Raymond C; Ferguson, McKenzie; Herndon, Christopher M
Chronic orofacial pain is a symptom associated with a wide range of neuropathic, neurovascular, idiopathic, and myofascial conditions that affect a significant proportion of the population. While the collective impact of the subset of the orofacial pain disorders involving neurogenic and idiopathic mechanisms is substantial, some of these are relatively uncommon. Hence, patients with these disorders can be vulnerable to misdiagnosis, sometimes for years, increasing the symptom burden and delaying effective treatment. This manuscript first reviews the decision tree to be followed in diagnosing any neuropathic pain condition, as well as the levels of evidence needed to make a diagnosis with each of several levels of confidence: definite, probable, or possible. It then examines the clinical literature related to the idiopathic and neurogenic conditions that can occasion chronic orofacial pain, including burning mouth syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, post-herpetic neuralgia, and atypical odontalgia. Temporomandibular disorders also are examined as are other headache conditions, even though they are not neurologic conditions, because they are common and can mimic symptoms of the latter disorders. For each of these conditions, the paper reviews literature regarding incidence and prevalence, physiologic and other contributing factors, diagnostic signs and symptoms, and empirical evidence regarding treatments. Finally, in order to improve the quality and accuracy of clinical diagnosis, as well as the efficiency with which effective treatment is initiated and delivered, criteria are offered that can be instrumental in making a differential diagnosis. PMID:28638895
Winkelman, John W; Gagnon, Alison; Clair, Andrew G
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor condition characterized by an urge to move the legs, worsening of symptoms at rest and during the evening/night, and improvement of symptoms with movement. Our review explores the role and impact of sensory symptoms in RLS. The phenomenology of RLS is discussed, highlighting the difficulty patients have in describing their sensations and in differentiating between sensory and motor symptoms. Sensory symptoms have a significant impact on quality of life but remain much less well understood than motor symptoms and sleep disturbances in RLS. Although RLS symptoms usually are not described as painful, sensory manifestations in RLS do share some similarities with chronic pain sensations, and RLS frequently occurs in chronic pain and neuropathic conditions. Peripheral neuropathies may account for some of the sensory disturbances in secondary RLS, while alterations in central somatosensory processing may be a more viable explanation for the sensory disturbances in primary RLS. The effectiveness of analgesics in treating RLS supports the concept of abnormal sensory modulation in RLS and suggests an overlap between pain modulatory pathways and sensory disturbances. Future studies are needed to better understand the experiential and biologic aspects of altered sensory experiences in RLS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Strauss, Adam C.; Dimitrakov, Jordan D.
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition among men of a wide age range, with detrimental effects on quality of life. The etiology, pathogenesis, and optimal treatment of CP/CPPS remain unknown, although progress has been made in these domains in recent years. A wide variety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies have been studied in clinical trials, but most have shown limited efficacy in symptom alleviation. CP/CPPS is increasingly viewed as a condition that involves variable degrees of neuropathic pain. Medications such as gabapentin, pregabalin, memantine, and tricyclic antidepressants are often used in other neuropathic pain conditions and, therefore, are considered potential treatments for CP/CPPS. Few studies of these agents in patients with CP/CPPS have been reported, but future clinical trials should help to determine their utility and to characterize the pathogenetic mechanisms of pain in CP/CPPS. Combining treatment trials with biomarker, genomic, and imaging studies, in addition to epidemiologic and symptom-based assessments, will maximize the ability to probe disease etiology and pathogenesis, as well as identify effective treatment. PMID:20142810
Dell, Jeffrey R
Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is characterized by urinary frequency, urgency, and pelvic pain in the absence of any other identifiable pathology. Initial identification of IC/PBS is challenging, as patients may have a range of symptoms that overlap with other disorders, including urinary tract infection (UTI). These patients may be treated empirically with antibiotics; however, many patients with such symptoms are actually culture negative and are later diagnosed with IC/PBS. This review describes the importance of recognizing the symptom overlap between IC/PBS and UTI and focuses on approaches to the diagnosis and management of IC/PBS. Physicians can improve patient care by considering IC/PBS early in the differential diagnosis.
Khatun, S; Huq, M Z; Islam, M A; Uddin, M W; Asaduzzaman, M; Hossain, M M
The purpose of the present study was to investigate two years clinical outcome of patients having myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS). A total of 50 patients (male: 15, Female: 35, age: raged from 20 to 65 years) were included for this study. Clinical diagnosis for the assessment of anxiety and depression of each patient was performed by Hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale. Patients were then received either one of the following treatments: Occlusion correction only (n=14), Muscle Relaxant + anti-depressant drug (n=26), Physiotherapy + antidepressant drug + muscle relaxant (n=6) and Appliance + muscle relaxant (n= 4). Following two years observation, it was revealed that the treatment was apparently successful in 95% case; only 5% case was not successful due to their irregular visit. It can be concluded that MPDS is not primarily related to occlusal factors and a complex psycho physiological mechanism is involved in this type of pain problems.
Sundar, Raghav; Sundar, Gaurav
Zinner syndrome refers to the triad of ipsilateral renal agenesis, seminal vesicle cysts and ejaculatory duct obstruction. Ipsilateral renal agenesis may be associated with seminal vesicle cysts in 70% of cases, but a remnant ureteral bud has been shown to coexist in only 27% of these cases. While some patients may remain asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally, others present with symptoms related to seminal vesicle cysts or ejaculatory duct obstruction: voiding or ejaculatory difficulty or pain. The diagnosis is made with imaging findings, and differentiation from other pelvic cysts requires a multimodality approach. In this report, we present typical imaging findings of a patient who presented with painful ejaculation where there was a congenital seminal vesicle cyst with ipsilateral renal agenesis associated with a remnant ureteral bud draining into the seminal vesicle cyst and also associated with a cyst of the prostatic utricle. We discuss the relevant embryological basis for this unusual combination of findings. PMID:25750220
Although fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have distinct clinical phenotypes, they do share many other features. Pain, allodynia and dysaesthesia occur in each condition and seem to exist on a similar spectrum. Fibromyalgia and CRPS can both be triggered by specific traumatic events, although fibromyalgia is most commonly associated with psychological trauma and CRPS is most often associated with physical trauma, which is frequently deemed routine or minor by the patient. Fibromyalgia and CRPS also seem to share many pathophysiological mechanisms, among which the most important are those involving central effects. Nonetheless, peripheral effects, such as neurogenic neuroinflammation, are also important contributors to the clinical features of each of these disorders. This Review highlights the differing degrees to which neurogenic neuroinflammation might contribute to the multifactorial pathogenesis of both fibromyalgia and CRPS, and discusses the evidence suggesting that this mechanism is an important link between the two disorders, and could offer novel therapeutic targets.
Bisciotti, G N; Volpi, P; Zini, R; Auci, A; Aprato, A; Belli, A; Bellistri, G; Benelli, P; Bona, S; Bonaiuti, D; Carimati, G; Canata, G L; Cassaghi, G; Cerulli, S; Delle Rose, G; Di Benedetto, P; Di Marzo, F; Di Pietto, F; Felicioni, L; Ferrario, L; Foglia, A; Galli, M; Gervasi, E; Gia, L; Giammattei, C; Guglielmi, A; Marioni, A; Moretti, B; Niccolai, R; Orgiani, N; Pantalone, A; Parra, F; Quaglia, A; Respizzi, F; Ricciotti, L; Pereira Ruiz, M T; Russo, A; Sebastiani, E; Tancredi, G; Tosi, F; Vuckovic, Z
The nomenclature and the lack of consensus of clinical evaluation and imaging assessment in groin pain generate significant confusion in this field. The Groin Pain Syndrome Italian Consensus Conference has been organised in order to prepare a consensus document regarding taxonomy, clinical evaluation and imaging assessment for groin pain. A 1-day Consensus Conference was organised on 5 February 2016, in Milan (Italy). 41 Italian experts with different backgrounds participated in the discussion. A consensus document previously drafted was discussed, eventually modified, and finally approved by all members of the Consensus Conference. Unanimous consensus was reached concerning: (1) taxonomy (2) clinical evaluation and (3) imaging assessment. The synthesis of these 3 points is included in this paper. The Groin Pain Syndrome Italian Consensus Conference reached a consensus on three main points concerning the groin pain syndrome assessment, in an attempt to clarify this challenging medical problem. PMID:28890800
Straube, Sebastian; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J
Background This review is an update on ‘Sympathectomy for neuropathic pain’ originally published in Issue 2, 2003. The concept that many neuropathic pain syndromes (traditionally this definition would include complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS)) are “sympathetically maintained pains” has historically led to treatments that interrupt the sympathetic nervous system. Chemical sympathectomies use alcohol or phenol injections to destroy ganglia of the sympathetic chain, while surgical ablation is performed by open removal or electrocoagulation of the sympathetic chain, or minimally invasive procedures using thermal or laser interruption. Objectives To review the evidence from randomised, double blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of chemical and surgical sympathectomy for neuropathic pain. Sympathectomy could be compared with placebo (sham) or other active treatment. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library to May 2010. We screened references in the retrieved articles and literature reviews, and contacted experts in the field of neuropathic pain. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo or active controlled studies assessing the effects of sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and CRPS. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. No pooled analysis of data was possible. Main results Only one study satisfied our inclusion criteria, comparing percutaneous radiofrequency thermal lumbar sympathectomy with lumbar sympathetic neurolysis using phenol in 20 participants with CRPS. There was no comparison of sympathectomy versus sham or placebo. No dichotomous pain outcomes were reported. Average baseline scores of 8-9/10 on several pain scales fell to about 4/10 initially (1 day) and remained at 3-5/10 over four months. There were no significant differences between groups, except for “unpleasant sensation”, which was higher with
Guenot, Marc; Bullier, Jean; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lansky, Petr; Mertens, Patrick; Sindou, Marc
Despite the key role played by the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in pain modulation, single-unit recordings have only been performed very rarely in this structure in humans. The authors report the results of a statistical analysis of 64 unit recordings from the human dorsal horn. The recordings were done in three groups of patients: patients with deafferentation pain resulting from brachial plexus avulsion, patients with neuropathic pain resulting from peripheral nerve injury, and patients with pain resulting from disabling spasticity. The patterns of neuronal activities were compared among these three groups. Nineteen neurons were recorded in the dorsal horns of five patients undergoing DREZotomy for a persistent pain syndrome resulting from peripheral nerve injury (i.e., nondeafferented dorsal horns), 31 dorsal horn neurons were recorded in nine patients undergoing DREZotomy for a persistent pain syndrome resulting from brachial plexus avulsion (i.e., deafferented dorsal horns), and 14 neurons were recorded in eight patients undergoing DREZotomy for disabling spasticity. These groups were compared in terms of mean frequency, coefficient of variation of the discharge, other properties of the neuronal discharge studied by the nonparametric test of Wald-Wolfowitz, and the possible presence of bursts. The coefficient of variation tended to be higher in the deafferented dorsal horn group than in the other two groups. Two neurons displaying burst activity could be recorded, both of which belonged to the deafferented dorsal horn group. A significant difference was found in term of neuronal behavior between the peripheral nerve trauma group and the other groups: The brachial plexus avulsion and disabling spasticity groups were very similar, including various types of neuronal behavior, whereas the peripheral nerve lesion group included mostly neurons with "nonrandom" patterns of discharge (i.e., with serial dependency of interspike intervals).
Avershin, V A; Oleĭnikov, B V; Pil'kevich, R P; Sofel', S A; Kniazhishche, A N; Grebenkin, S S
This paper summarizes experience gained in the Central Military Sanatorium, Sochi, in the field of diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of patients with myofascial pain syndrome affecting the quadratum lumborum muscle. Conditions facilitating development of triggering myofascial structures in these muscles are analysed and methods of their diagnosis are discussed. The proposed compression test allows active trigger structures to be identified in the quadratum lumborum muscle. Detailed description of the method of myofascial meridional reflexotherapy is presented (ischemic compression of condensed trigger structures or points with dry needling, taking account of the breathing act). The authors emphasize the importance of correction of structural disproportions responsible for the formation of myofascial trigger structures.
Complex regional pain syndrome can be a debilitating disorder, which, in its earliest stages, can be prevented by aggressive rehabilitation based on reactivation. It is critical to follow international criteria on making the diagnosis; overdiagnosis can lead to inappropriate interventions and further disability. When present, early recognition with reactivation is the cornerstone of treatment. This article presents a phased approach to treatment that suggests movements of nonresponders quickly to more integrated levels of care. Some commonly used invasive interventions, such as sympathectomy and spinal cord stimulation, have not been proved effective; these unproven and potentially harmful therapies should be avoided.
Collins, Natalie; Crossley, Kay; Beller, Elaine; Darnell, Ross; McPoil, Thomas
Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of foot orthoses in the management of patellofemoral pain syndrome with flat inserts or physiotherapy, and to investigate the effectiveness of foot orthoses plus physiotherapy. Design Prospective, single blind, randomised clinical trial. Setting Single centre trial within a community setting in Brisbane, Australia. Participants 179 participants (100 women) aged 18 to 40 years, with a clinical diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome of greater than six weeks’ duration, who had no previous treatment with foot orthoses or physiotherapy in the preceding 12 months. Interventions Six weeks of physiotherapist intervention with off the shelf foot orthoses, flat inserts, multimodal physiotherapy (patellofemoral joint mobilisation, patellar taping, quadriceps muscle retraining, and education), or foot orthoses plus physiotherapy. Main outcome measures Global improvement, severity of usual and worst pain over the preceding week, anterior knee pain scale, and functional index questionnaire measured at 6, 12, and 52 weeks. Results Foot orthoses produced improvement beyond that of flat inserts in the short term, notably at six weeks (relative risk reduction 0.66, 99% confidence interval 0.05 to 1.17; NNT 4 (99% confidence interval 2 to 51). No significant differences were found between foot orthoses and physiotherapy, or between physiotherapy and physiotherapy plus orthoses. All groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in primary outcomes over 52 weeks. Conclusion While foot orthoses are superior to flat inserts according to participants’ overall perception, they are similar to physiotherapy and do not improve outcomes when added to physiotherapy in the short term management of patellofemoral pain. Given the long term improvement observed in all treatment groups, general practitioners may seek to hasten recovery by prescribing prefabricated orthoses. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN
Wildgaard, Kim; Ringsted, Thomas K; Kehlet, Henrik; Werner, Mads U
Quantitative sensory testing is a reference method for characterization of postsurgical neuropathic components. Correct interpretation of data requires detailed information concerning the validity of the testing methods. The objective of the study was to assess the test-retest variability of thermal thresholds in patients (n = 14) with the postthoracotomy pain syndrome. Sensory mapping with a metal roller (25°C) on the surgical side delineated an area with cool sensory dysfunction. In this area and in a contralateral area, 4 prespecified sites (2.6 cm) were outlined, in addition to the maximum pain site on the surgical side. In these total 9 sites, warmth detection threshold, cool detection threshold, and heat pain threshold were assessed. Comparisons of thermal test-retest assessments did not demonstrate any significant intraside differences. The SDs of the thermal assessments in nonpain sites and in the maximum pain site ranged from 1.9 to 2.5°C and 3.5 to 6.9°C, respectively. The estimated within-patient and between-patient variances were 5% to 28% and 72% to 95%, respectively, of the total variances. Although a generally poor test-retest agreement was demonstrated, the much lower within-patient than between-patient variances facilitated estimations of highly statistical significant, within-patient differences in thermal thresholds. In patients with postthoracotomy pain syndrome, several statistical methods indicated an excessively high variability in thermal thresholds, questioning the use of single quantitative sensory testing in assessments to characterize patients with chronic pain states.
A phase II, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of Curcumina and Calendula suppositories for the treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III.
Morgia, Giuseppe; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Urzì, Daniele; Privitera, Salvatore; Castelli, Tommaso; Favilla, Vincenzo; Cimino, Sebastiano
The management of chronic prostatitis/ chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III (CP/CPPS) has been always considered complex due to several biopsychological factors underling the disease. In this clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula extract in patients with CP/CPPS III. From June 2015 to January 2016 we enrolled 60 consecutive patients affected by CP/CPPS III in our institution. Patients between 20 and 50 year of age with symptoms of pelvic pain for 3 months or more before study, a total National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score ≥ 15 point and diagnosed with NIH category III. Patients were then allocated to receive placebo (Group A) or treatment (Group B). Treatment consisted of rectal suppositories of Curcumin extract 350 mg (95%) and Calendula extract 80 mg (1 suppository/die for 1 month). Patients of Group B received 1 suppository/die for 1 month of placebo. The primary endpoint of the study was the reduction of NIH-CPSI. The secondary outcomes were the change of peak flow, IIEF-5, VAS score and of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). A total of 48 patients concluded the study protocol. The median age of the all cohort was 32.0 years, the median NIH-CPSI was 20.5, the median IIEF-5 was 18.5, the median PEDT was 11.0, the median VAS score was 7.5 and the median peak flow was 14.0. After 3 months of therapy in group A we observed a significant improvement of NIH-CPSI (-5.5; p < 0.01), IIEF-5 (+ 3.5; p < 0.01), PEDT (-6.5; p < 0.01), peak flow (+2.8; p < 0.01) and VAS (-6.5; p < 0.01) with significant differences over placebo group (all p-value significant). In this phase II clinical trial we showed the clinical efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula in patients with CP/CPPS III. The benefits of this treatment could be related to the reduction of inflammatory cytokines and of inflammatory cells. These results should be confirmed in
Nelson, Ariana M; Walega, David R; McCarthy, Robert J
To characterize the incidence, severity, quality, and treatment of pain in a large cohort of Marfan patients. A web-based survey was distributed to all individuals on the Marfan Foundation listserv. Respondents who endorsed a diagnosis of Marfan syndrome were queried as to the presence, frequency, severity, location, and quality of their pain and were asked to describe the specific treatments used to manage pain. The primary outcome was the presence of pain symptoms in respondents during the 7-day period preceding completion of the survey. Of the 993 patients with a verified diagnosis of Marfan syndrome, 67% (95% confidence interval, 64%-69%) reported pain in the preceding 7 days. Median (interquartile range) "average daily pain" was 4 (3 to 5) on the numeric rating scale; "worst pain" was 7 (5 to 8). "Worst pain experienced" was ≥4 in 93% of respondents. Analgesic use to control pain related to Marfan syndrome was reported in 56% of respondents with 55% reporting <50% pain relief with this modality. Few patients underwent interventional procedures for pain control, despite intractable back and joint pain being common. A majority (52%) of respondents rated "chronic pain care" from their physicians as either "poor" or "fair." Our findings suggest that pain symptoms in Marfan patients are underestimated and likely undertreated. We propose a need for improved patient and medical provider awareness of pain management options in this population, including the development of effective algorithms to treat pain in Marfan patients.
Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Ching-Chun; Lin, Herng-Ching
Background Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. Design Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. Results Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, p<0.001). The conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to controls, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27∼3.66). Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53) compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. Conclusions Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population. PMID:23991081
Chung, Shiu-Dong; Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Ching-Chun; Li, Hsien-Chang; Lin, Herng-Ching
Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, p<0.001). The conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to controls, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27∼3.66). Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53) compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population.
Moore, Owen A; McIntyre, Mairead; Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J
Background Tenoxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) licensed for use in rheumatic disease and other musculoskeletal disorders in the UK, and is widely available in other countries worldwide. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral tenoxicam in acute postoperative pain, using clinical studies of patients with established pain, and with outcomes measured primarily over 6 hours using standard methods. This type of study has been used for many decades to establish that drugs have analgesic properties. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral tenoxicam in acute postoperative pain, and any associated adverse events. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2009), MEDLINE (March 2009); EMBASE via Ovid (March 2009); the Oxford Pain Relief Database. Selection criteria Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of oral tenoxicam for relief of acute postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The area under the “pain relief versus time” curve was used to derive the proportion of participants with tenoxicam experiencing least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, using validated equations. The number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) was calculated using 95% confidence intervals (CI). The proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period, and time to use of rescue analgesia, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was also collected. Main results Not one of sixteen studies identified by the searches and examined in detail studied oral tenoxicam in patients with established postoperative pain and therefore no results are available. Authors’ conclusions In the absence of evidence of efficacy for oral tenoxicam in acute postoperative pain, its use in this indication is not justified at present. Because trials clearly
Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Al Saif, Amer; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah; Mamdouh, Khaled A
[Purpose] Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a frequent musculoskeletal disorder, which can result from core muscles instability that can lead to pain and altered dynamic balance. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of core muscle strengthening on pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female patients with age ranging from 16 to 40 years with patellofemoral pain syndrome were divided into study (N=10) and control (N=10) groups. Both groups were given 4 weeks of conventional physical therapy program and an additional core muscle strengthening for the study group. The tools used to assess the outcome were Visual Analogue Scale and Star Excursion Balance Test. [Results] The results of the study show that participants in the study group revealed a significantly greater improvement in the intensity of pain and dynamic balance as compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Adding a core muscle-strengthening program to the conventional physical therapy management improves pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Al Saif, Amer; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah; Mamdouh, Khaled A
[Purpose] Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a frequent musculoskeletal disorder, which can result from core muscles instability that can lead to pain and altered dynamic balance. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of core muscle strengthening on pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female patients with age ranging from 16 to 40 years with patellofemoral pain syndrome were divided into study (N=10) and control (N=10) groups. Both groups were given 4 weeks of conventional physical therapy program and an additional core muscle strengthening for the study group. The tools used to assess the outcome were Visual Analogue Scale and Star Excursion Balance Test. [Results] The results of the study show that participants in the study group revealed a significantly greater improvement in the intensity of pain and dynamic balance as compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Adding a core muscle-strengthening program to the conventional physical therapy management improves pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:27313363
Bendszus, M; Rieckmann, P; Perez, J; Koltzenburg, M; Reiners, K; Solymosi, L
The authors report three patients with chronic sciatic pain without focal neurologic deficit. Sitting or lying on the affected side provoked pain, and standing and walking relieved it. MRI revealed varicotic gluteal vessels compressing the sciatic nerve. Decompression of the nerve resulted in complete and permanent pain relief. Sciatic or buttock pain in patients with varicosities and pain provocation in the sitting or lying position suggests this neurovascular compression syndrome.
Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Jiménez-Gómez, Laura; Gómez-Ahufinger, Victoria; Palacios-Ceña, María; Arias-Buría, José L; Koppenhaver, Shane L; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César
The application of dry needling usually is associated with postneedling-induced pain. A postneedling intervention reduce this adverse event is needed. To determine the effectiveness of low-load exercise on reducing postneedling-induced pain after dry needling of active trigger points (TrPs) in the infraspinatus muscle in subacromial pain syndrome. A 72-hour follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial. Urban hospitals. Individuals with subacromial pain syndrome (n = 90, 52% female, mean age: 35 ± 13 years) with active TrPs in the infraspinatus muscle. All individuals received dry needling into the infraspinatus active TrP. Then, they were divided randomly into an experimental group, which received a single bout of low-load exercise of shoulder muscles; a placebo group, which received inactive ultrasound for 10 minutes; and a control group, which did not receive any intervention. Numerical Pain Rating Scale (0-10 point) was administered postneedling, immediately postintervention (2 minutes), and 24, 48, and 72 hours after needling. Shoulder pain (Numerical Pain Rating Scale, 0-10) and disability (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; Shoulder Pain and Disability Index) were assessed before and 72 hour after needling. The 5 × 3 analysis of covariance showed that the exercise group demonstrated a larger decrease in postneedling-induced pain immediately after (P = .001), 24 hours (P = .001), and 48 hours after (P = .006) than placebo or control groups. No differences were found at 72 hours (P = .03). Similar improvements in shoulder pain (P < .001) and related disability (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand: P < .001; Shoulder Pain and Disability Index: P < .001) were observed 72 hours after needling, irrespective of the treatment group. Low-load exercise was effective for reducing postneedling-induced pain on active TrPs in the infraspinatus muscle 24 and 48 hours after needling. The application of a postneedling intervention did not influence
Moloney, Rachel D; Johnson, Anthony C; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Dinan, Timothy G; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Cryan, John F
Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs of the body, which affects a significant proportion of the population and is a common feature of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). While IBS is multifactorial, with no single etiology to completely explain the disorder, many patients also experience comorbid behavioral disorders, such as anxiety or depression; thus, IBS is described as a disorder of the gut-brain axis. Stress is implicated in the development and exacerbation of visceral pain disorders. Chronic stress can modify central pain circuitry, as well as change motility and permeability throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. More recently, the role of the gut microbiota in the bidirectional communication along the gut-brain axis, and subsequent changes in behavior, has emerged. Thus, stress and the gut microbiota can interact through complementary or opposing factors to influence visceral nociceptive behaviors. This review will highlight the evidence by which stress and the gut microbiota interact in the regulation of visceral nociception. We will focus on the influence of stress on the microbiota and the mechanisms by which microbiota can affect the stress response and behavioral outcomes with an emphasis on visceral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Itz, Coen J; Willems, Paul C; Zeilstra, Dick J; Huygen, Frank J
When conservative therapies such as pain medication or exercise therapy fail, invasive treatment may be indicated for patients with lumbosacral spinal pain. The Dutch Society of Anesthesiologists, in collaboration with the Dutch Orthopedic Association and the Dutch Neurosurgical Society, has taken the initiative to develop the guideline "Spinal low back pain," which describes the evidence regarding diagnostics and invasive treatment of the most common spinal low back pain syndromes, that is, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, coccygodynia, pain originating from the intervertebral disk, and failed back surgery syndrome. The aim of the guideline is to determine which invasive treatment intervention is preferred for each included pain syndrome when conservative treatment has failed. Diagnostic studies were evaluated using the EBRO criteria, and studies on therapies were evaluated with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. For the evaluation of invasive treatment options, the guideline committee decided that the outcome measures of pain, function, and quality of life were most important. The definition, epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanism, diagnostics, and recommendations for invasive therapy for each of the spinal back pain syndromes are reported. The guideline committee concluded that the categorization of low back pain into merely specific or nonspecific gives insufficient insight into the low back pain problem and does not adequately reflect which therapy is effective for the underlying disorder of a pain syndrome. Based on the guideline "Spinal low back pain," facet joint pain, pain of the sacroiliac joint, and disk pain will be part of a planned nationwide cost-effectiveness study. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.
Im, Sang Hee
Objective To evaluate the effect of the Whirlpool hydrotherapy on pain and anxiety in chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) patients, compared to the conventional hydrocollator pack therapy. Methods Forty-one subjects who have MPS in the upper trapezius muscles without depression were recruited. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups: the whirlpool therapy group whose bodies were immersed in a whirlpool bath at 34℃-36℃ for 30 minutes; the hydrocollator group who took a 30-minute application of a standard hot hydrocollator pack. Patients in both groups received therapy three days a week for 2 weeks and underwent several evaluations at baseline and after treatment. The variables we analyzed during evaluations were as follows: the primary outcome we considered was pain severity using a visual analogue scale. And the secondary outcomes examined included anxiety using the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and quality of life (QoL) using the Korean version of the World Health Organization QoL Assessment, Brief Form. All follow-up values were compared with the baseline values. Results The baseline parameters did not show significant differences between two groups. And after 2-week treatment, both groups revealed significant improvement in anxiety levels and QoL, as well as in pain. However, the improvement on pain (p=0.002) and anxiety (p=0.010) was significantly greater in the whirlpool group, compared to the hydrocollator group. Conclusion The whirlpool hydrotherapy can be used as a more effective therapeutic method to reduce pain and anxiety in chronic MPS patients without depression. PMID:24020034
Kim, Eung Don; Yoo, Woo Joo; Kim, Yoo Na; Park, Hue Jung
Abstract The stellate ganglion is a common target to manage neuropathic pain in the upper extremities. However, the effect duration of a single stellate ganglion block is often temporary. To overcome the short-term effects of a single sympathetic block, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) can be applied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of PRF on the cervical sympathetic chain under ultrasound guidance for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Twelve CRPS patients who underwent PRF on the cervical sympathetic chain were enrolled in this retrospective analysis. Under ultrasound guidance, PRF was performed for 420 seconds at 42°C on the C6- and C7-level sympathetic chain. The pain intensity decreased significantly at 1 week after the procedure. Overall, 91.7% of patients experienced at least moderate improvement. A positive correlation was observed between the extent of pain reduction at 1 week after PRF and the degree of overall benefit (r = 0.605, P = 0.037). This reduction in symptoms was maintained for a mean of 31.41 ± 26.07 days after PRF. There were no complications associated with this procedure. PRF on the cervical sympathetic chain, which can be performed easily and safely under ultrasound guidance, should be considered an option for managing CRPS of the upper extremities. PMID:28072749
Ga, Hyuk; Choi, Ji-Ho; Park, Chang-Hae; Yoon, Hyun-Jung
To compare the efficacy of acupuncture needling and 0.5% lidocaine injection of trigger points in myofascial pain syndrome of elderly patients. Thirty nine participants with myofascial pain syndrome of one or both upper trapezius muscles were randomised to treatment with either acupuncture needling (n=18) or 0.5% lidocaine injection (n=21) at all the trigger points on days 0, 7 and 14, in a single-blinded study. Pain scores, range of neck movement, pressure pain intensity and depression were measured up to four weeks from the first treatment. Local twitch responses were elicited at least once in 94.9% of all subjects. Both groups improved, but there was no significant difference in reduction of pain in the two groups at any time point up to one month. Overall, the range of cervical movement improved in both groups, apart from extension in the acupuncture needling group. Changes in depression showed only trends. There was no significant difference between acupuncture needling and 0.5% lidocaine injection of trigger points for treating myofascial pain syndrome in elderly patients.
Toms, Laurence; McQuay, Henry J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2004 - this original review had been split from a previous title on 'Single dose paracetamol (acetaminophen) with and without codeine for postoperative pain'. The last version of this review concluded that paracetamol is an effective analgesic for postoperative pain, but additional trials have since been published. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol using current data, and to compare the findings with other analgesics evaluated in the same way. To assess the efficacy of single dose oral paracetamol for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database and reference lists of articles to update an existing version of the review in July 2008. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of paracetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Area under the "pain relief versus time" curve was used to derive the proportion of participants with paracetamol or placebo experiencing at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, using validated equations. Number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) was calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period, and time to use, were sought as measures of duration of analgesia. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was also collected. Fifty-one studies, with 5762 participants, were included: 3277 participants were treated with a single oral dose of paracetamol and 2425 with placebo. About half of participants treated with paracetamol at standard doses achieved at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, compared with about 20% treated with placebo. NNTs for at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours following a single dose of paracetamol were as follows: 500 mg
Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Simons, David; Cuadrado, Maria Luz; Pareja, Juan
Neck and head pain syndromes are common problems seen in clinical practice. Pain features of commonly designated idiopathic neck pain and some primary headaches (ie, tension-type headache or migraine) fit the descriptions of referred pain originating in muscle trigger points (TrPs). This article discusses the scientific evidence supporting the role of muscle TrPs in chronic musculo-skeletal disorders of the neck and head. The relevance of referred pain elicited by muscle TrPs in patients with neck pain has been investigated in few studies. Some authors found that both muscle TrPs in neck-shoulder muscles and cervical joint dysfunctions contribute at the same time to neck pain perception. Furthermore, it seems that referred pain originated in muscle TrPs could also contribute to neck symptoms perceived by subjects after a rear-end crash. In addition, several recent studies reported that both TTH and migraine are associated with referred pain from TrPs in the suboccipital, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, temporalis, or superior oblique muscles. Referred pain elicited by active TrPs mimics the pain areas observed during head pain attacks in these primary headaches. Based on available data, it seems that the pain profile of neck and head syndromes may be provoked referred pain from TrPs in the posterior cervical, head, and shoulder muscles. Additional studies are needed to delineate more information on the relation between muscle TrPs and musculoskeletal pain syndromes of the head and neck.
Arora, Pramod; Mittal, Manoj; Nair, Anugrah; Sultana, Waqia
Venipuncture is one of the most commonly done medical procedures. We report a unique case of a 23-year-old young male who presented with features suggestive of inflammatory arthritis. The symptoms, which initially started on the right side, also involved the other side after a few weeks. Although the patient's symptoms and signs were simulating inflammatory arthritis, he had atypical features like poor response to anti-inflammatory medicines and normal laboratory parameters. His musculoskeletal ultrasonography was also not suggestive of arthritis. His history was reviewed and on direct questioning he revealed a history of venipuncture for blood sample withdrawal, done from right antecubital region for routine health check on the day prior to the onset of symptoms. Complex regional pain syndrome was suspected and triple-phase radioisotope bone scan was done which was highly suggestive of this diagnosis. The patient was managed with multidimensional approach and responded very well to the treatment. Complex regional pain syndrome is usually not thought of in the initial differential diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis. In this report we highlight the need to elicit the often overlooked history of trivial trauma like venipuncture, especially in atypical cases of arthritis. Also the role of newer diagnostic modalities in such cases is emphasized. PMID:27891152
Catelli, D. S.; Kuriki, H. U.; Polito, L. F.; Azevedo, F. M.; Negrão Filho, R. F.; Alves, N.
The Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), has a multifactorial etiology and affects approximately 7 to 15% of the population, mostly women, youth, adults and active persons. PFPS causes anterior or retropatelar pain that is exacerbated during functional motor gestures, such as up and down stairs or spending long periods of time sitting, squatting or kneeling. As the diagnostic evaluation of this syndrome is still indirect, different mechanisms and methodologies try to make a classification that distinguishes patients with PFPS in relation to asymptomatic. Thereby, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of the electromyographic (EMG) signal in the frequency domain of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) in patients with PFPS, during the ascent of stairs. 33 young women (22 control group and 11 PFPS group), were evaluated by EMG during ascent of stairs. The VMO mean power frequency (MPF) and the VL frequency 95% (F95) were lower in symptomatic individuals. This may be related to the difference in muscle recruitment strategy exerted by each muscle in the PFPS group compared to the control group.
Tzortzopoulou, Aikaterini; McNicol, Ewan D; Cepeda, M Soledad; Francia, Marie Belle D; Farhat, Tamman; Schumann, Roman
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most commonly prescribed analgesic for the treatment of acute pain. It may be administered orally or intravenously. The efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) formulations of paracetamol, IV paracetamol and IV propacetamol, compared with placebo and other analgesics, is unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of IV formulations of paracetamol for treatment of postoperative pain in both adults and children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to May 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010, Week 18), LILACS (1992 to May 2010) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomized, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled single dose clinical trials of IV propacetamol or IV paracetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults or children. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We collected adverse event information from the studies. Thirty-six studies (3896 participants) were included. Thirty-seven percent of participants receiving IV propacetamol/paracetamol experienced at least 50% pain relief over four hours compared with 16% of those receiving placebo (number needed to treat to benefit (NNT = 4.0; 95% confidence interval 3.5 to 4.8). The proportion of participants in IV propacetamol/paracetamol groups experiencing at least 50% pain relief diminished over six hours, as reflected in a higher NNT of 5.3 (4.2 to 6.7). Participants receiving IV propacetamol/paracetamol required 30% less opioid over four hours than those receiving placebo. However, this did not translate to a reduction in opioid-induced adverse events.Meta-analysis of efficacy comparisons between IV propacetamol/paracetamol and active comparators (opioids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs)) were either not statistically significant, not clinically significant, or both.Adverse events
Valkenburg, Abraham J; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique
The aim of this study was to compare thermal detection and pain thresholds in children with Down syndrome with those of their siblings. Sensory detection and pain thresholds were assessed in children with Down syndrome and their siblings using quantitative testing methods. Parental questionnaires addressing developmental age, pain coping, pain behaviour, and chronic pain were also utilized. Forty-two children with Down syndrome (mean age 12y 10mo) and 24 siblings (mean age 15y) participated in this observational study. The different sensory tests proved feasible in 13 to 29 (33-88%) of the children with Down syndrome. These children were less sensitive to cold and warmth than their siblings, but only when measured with a reaction time-dependent method, and not with a reaction time-independent method. Children with Down syndrome were more sensitive to heat pain, and only 6 (14%) of them were able to adequately self-report pain, compared with 22 (92%) of siblings (p<0.001). Children with Down syndrome will remain dependent on pain assessment by proxy, since self-reporting is not adequate. Parents believe that their children with Down syndrome are less sensitive to pain than their siblings, but this was not confirmed by quantitative sensory testing. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.
Burton, Allen W; Bruehl, Stephen; Harden, R Norman
Complex regional pain syndrome is a clinically challenging entity both in terms of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. Complex regional pain syndrome is a post-traumatic painful neurologic syndrome involving the somatosensory, sympathetic and often the somatomotor systems. This complex condition consists of local neurogenic inflammation out of proportion to injury; severe pain in the skin, subcutaneous tissues and joints; and a central hyperexcitability that is often compounded with a sympathetic component. The syndrome is multifaceted manifesting both central and peripheral neurologic pathophysiology, frequently including a prominent psychosocial component. The wide array of possible patient presentations and antecedent pathologies also complicate successful treatment. To further add to the clinical challenges of complex regional pain syndrome, the epidemiology and natural history of complex regional pain syndrome are only partially known; evidence concerning complex regional pain syndrome treatment has grown slowly, due in large part to the vagaries of diagnosis; and research data--when they are available--are difficult to interpret. Thus, in spite of our evolving understanding of this neurologic disorder, in many cases complex regional pain syndrome remains difficult to diagnose and treat successfully.
Roy, Yvonne M; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
Background Lumiracoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. COX-2 inhibitors were developed to avoid COX-1-related gastrointestinal (GI) problems while maintaining the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of traditional non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Objectives To review the analgesic efficacy, duration of analgesia, and adverse effects of a single oral dose of lumiracoxib for moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE to February 2010. Selection criteria Single oral dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of lumiracoxib for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and the data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR 6) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. These derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, the relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Numbers of participants using rescue medication, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results In this updated review four studies met the inclusion criteria. In total 366 participants were treated with lumiracoxib 400 mg, 51 with lumiracoxib 100 mg, and 212 with placebo. Active comparators were naproxen 500 mg, rofecoxib 50 mg, celecoxib 200 mg, celecoxib 400 mg, and ibuprofen 400 mg. With lumiracoxib 400 mg 50% of participants had at least 50% pain relief over six hours, compared with 8% given placebo; RB 6.9 (95% CI 4.1 to 12), NNT 2.4 (2.1 to 2.8). Median time to onset of analgesia was shorter for lumiracoxib 400 mg (0.6 to 1.5 hours) than
Clemens, J Quentin; Brown, Sheila O; Calhoun, Elizabeth A
We compared the rate of mental health disorders in male and female patients with pelvic pain and control subjects. Male patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (174) and female patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (111) were identified from a urology tertiary care clinic population. A control group consisting of 72 men and 175 women was also recruited. Subjects completed self-administered questionnaires that included items about demographics, medical history, medication use and urological symptoms. The Patient Health Questionnaire was used to identify depression and panic disorder. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios for the presence of a mental health diagnosis. Mental health disorders were identified in 13% of the chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome cases and 4% of male controls (OR 2.0, p = 0.04), as well as in 23% of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome cases and 3% of female controls (OR 8.2, p <0.0001). Disease status (case vs control) (OR 10.4, p = 0.001) and income greater than $50,000 (OR 0.34, p = 0.008) were the only 2 variables independently predictive of the presence of a mental health diagnosis. Age, gender, race/ethnicity and education were not predictive. Medications for anxiety, depression or stress were being taken by 18% of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, 37% of those with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, 7% of male controls and 13% of female controls. Depression and panic disorder are significantly more common in men and women with pelvic pain conditions than in controls. Medication use data suggest that anxiety and depression may be more difficult to treat in patients with urological pain syndromes than in controls.
Hearn, Leslie; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
Dipyrone (metamizole) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in other countries because of an association with life-threatening blood disorders. This review replaces a 2010 Cochrane review that has been withdrawn. To assess the analgesic efficacy and associated adverse events of single dose dipyrone for moderate to severe acute postoperative pain using methods that permit comparison with other analgesics evaluated in standardised trials using almost identical methods and outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS to 11 August 2015; the Oxford Pain Relief Database; two clinical trial registries; and the reference lists of articles. We included randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We accepted oral, rectal, intramuscular, and intravenous routes of administration. Two review authors independently considered studies for inclusion in the review, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We used summed total pain relief or pain intensity difference (TOTPAR or SPID) over four to six hours to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. From derived results, we calculated the risk ratio and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared to placebo. We looked at use of rescue medication and time to use of rescue medication as additional measures of efficacy. We also looked for information on adverse events and withdrawals. We included eight studies, involving 809 participants, comparing oral dipyrone 500 mg (143 participants), oral dipyrone 1000 mg (57 participants), and intramuscular dipyrone 2000 mg (35 participants) with
Little, T L; Mansoor, J
Low back pain is a common complaint among cyclists. Here we present the case of a competitive master cyclist with low back pain and whose symptoms ultimately resolved when he was treated for internal snapping hip syndrome. Internal snapping hip syndrome is a painful lesion of the iliopsoas caused by snapping of the tendon over the iliopectineal eminence or anterior femoral head when the femur is extended from a flexed position. This is the first published report that we are aware of that describes this syndrome as a potential cause of low back pain in a competitive cyclist.
Blaes, Anne H.; Haddad, Tuffia C.; Hunter, David W.; Hirsch, Alan T.; Ludewig, Paula M.
Background Axillary web syndrome (AWS) is a condition that may develop following breast cancer surgery and that presents as a palpable axillary cord of tissue. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the clinical characteristics of AWS related to movement, function, pain, and postoperative edema and (2) to define the incidence of and risk factors for AWS within the first 3 months following breast cancer surgery. Design This was a prospective cohort study with a repeated-measures design. Methods Women who underwent breast cancer surgery with sentinel node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection (N=36) were assessed for AWS, shoulder range of motion, function, pain, and postoperative edema (using girth measurements, bioimpedance, and tissue dielectric constant) at 2, 4, and 12 weeks. Demographic characteristics were used for risk analysis. Results Seventeen women (47.2%) developed AWS, and AWS persisted in 10 participants (27.8%) at 12 weeks. Abduction range of motion was significantly lower in the AWS group compared with the non-AWS group at 2 and 4 weeks. There were no differences between groups in measurements of function, pain, or edema at any time point. Trunk edema measured by dielectric constant was present in both groups, with an incidence of 55%. Multivariate analysis determined lower body mass index as being significantly associated with AWS (odds ratio=0.86; 95% confidence interval=0.74, 1.00). Limitations Limitations included a short follow-up time and a small sample size. Conclusion Axillary web syndrome is prevalent following breast/axilla surgery for early-stage breast cancer and may persist beyond 12 weeks. The early consequences include movement restriction, but the long-term effects of persistent AWS cords are yet unknown. Low body mass index is considered a risk factor for AWS. PMID:25977305
Zancan, L; Guariso, G; Gobber, D
Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) syndrome is described by Apley 40 years ago. The definition of condition, still generally accepted, is at least three episodes of abdominal pain over a period of three months, with pain of intensity which affects the behaviour of the child. The prevalence of condition among school children is 10-15%. Apley's classic studies demonstrated organic disease in only 10% of the children. Apley's conclusions have dominated pediatric writing through present era. In recent years, however, a number of reports have appeared in the medical literature that have suggested that careful investigation of children with RAP may reveal previously unsuspected functional or morphologic abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. These have included reports of peptic disease and Helicobacter Pylori infection, abnormal antro-duodenal motility, lactase malabsorption, gastro-esophageal reflux. Nevertheless these abnormalities cannot be correlated always with specific complaints. Therefore pathogenetic background is not clarified. Despite greater understanding of these disorders the enigme remains. There is a need for controlled studies in non selected patients.
Citaker, Seyit; Kaya, Defne; Yuksel, Inci; Yosmaoglu, Baran; Nyland, John; Atay, Ozgur Ahmet; Doral, Mahmut Nedim
Background: The relationship between one-leg static standing balance (OLSSB) and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is unknown. Hypothesis: OLSSB decreases in patients with PFPS. Design: Prospective case series. Methods: Fifty-two women with unilateral PFPS were enrolled in this study. OLSSB was evaluated with a stabilometer. Q angle was measured with a lengthened-arm universal goniometer. Lower extremity alignment was analyzed with full-length standing anteroposterior teleroentgenograms. Quadriceps and hamstring strength was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer. Results: There were significant differences in OLSSB, Q angle, and strength of quadriceps and hamstring between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides. There was a correlation between the strength of the quadriceps and hamstring and OLSSB, while there was no correlation between OLSSB and the severity of pain, lower extremity alignment, and Q angle on the symptomatic side. Conclusions: OLSSB and quadriceps and hamstring strength decreased and Q angle increased on the symptomatic side in PFPS patients. A relationship between OLSSB and pain, Q angle, and lower extremity alignment was not detected, while there was a correlation between the strength of the quadriceps and hamstring and OLSSB. Clinical Relevance: A quadriceps and hamstring strengthening may be beneficial to improve OLSSB in patients with PFPS. PMID:23016053
Moreno-Fernández, Ana Maria; Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Bueso-Madrid, Débora; Fernández-Rodríguez, Ana; de Miguel, Manuel
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) refer to a group of clinical picture affecting the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joint that are characterized by muscular or joint pain, dysfunction (limited or altered functions) and joint noises, as well as other associated symptoms, such as tension headaches, otalgia, dizziness, tinnitus, and others. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome of unknown etiology involving generalized chronic pain accompanied, in a high percentage of cases, by other symptoms such as asthenia, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and other less frequent symptoms, such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Data were compiled by two experienced examiners following a specific form. An electronic search was carried out in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PUBMED, and SCOPUS electronic databases (up to April 2016, unrestricted by date or language). Comparative clinical studies with patients with both clinical pictures involving the study of pathogenic processes. Fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorders with muscle pain both have profiles that affect the muscular system and therefore share many epidemiological, clinical, and physiopathological symptoms. Because of this, we are led to think that there is, if not a common etiology, at least a common pathogenesis. This article revises the physiopathological processes of both clinical pictures in an attempt to determine their similarities and likenesses. This would undoubtedly help in providing a better therapeutic approach.
Just, T; Steiner, S; Pau, H W
Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of idiopathic burning mouth syndrome (BMS) on both, the pain perception within trigeminal lingual nerve distribution and gustatory sensitivity using capsaicin threshold test, and regional taste tests, respectively. Pain thresholds for capsaicin were assessed using capsaicin-impregnated filter-paper strips. The strips were placed midline on the tongue tip for whole mouth testing with the mouth closed, and on the left or right edge of the extended anterior tongue for lateralized testing. Measures of gustatory function were obtained by validated "taste strips" test kit and electrogustometry. The tests were applied to 13 patients with BMS. Results were compared with those from 28 healthy subjects. Patients with BMS exhibited a decreased gustatory and somatosensory perception compared with healthy controls. These changes were found for lateralized tests but not for the whole mouth test procedure. Duration of disorder showed an effect on the capsaicin threshold, with patients being less sensitive to capsaicin exhibiting an increased duration of disorder. Both pain-related and gustatory sensitivies of the tongue are found to be decreased in BMS.
Background Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were formulated and formally approved by all Dutch professional associations involved in CRPS-I treatment. Results For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised with the exception of strong opioids. For neuropathic pain, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For inflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. To promote peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used to increase blood flow in case vasodilatory medication has insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operating time, limited use of tourniquet, and use of regional anaesthetic techniques are recommended for secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Conclusions Based on the literature identified and the extent of evidence found for therapeutic interventions for CRPS-I, we conclude that further research is needed into each of the therapeutic modalities discussed in the guidelines. PMID:20356382
Toms, Laurence; McQuay, Henry J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2004 - this original review had been split from a previous title on ‘Single dose paracetamol (acetaminophen) with and without codeine for postoperative pain’. The last version of this review concluded that paracetamol is an effective analgesic for postoperative pain, but additional trials have since been published. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol using current data, and to compare the findings with other analgesics evaluated in the same way. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral paracetamol for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database and reference lists of articles to update an existing version of the review in July 2008. Selection criteria Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of paracetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Area under the “pain relief versus time” curve was used to derive the proportion of participants with paracetamol or placebo experiencing at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, using validated equations. Number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) was calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period, and time to use, were sought as measures of duration of analgesia. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was also collected. Main results Fifty-one studies, with 5762 participants, were included: 3277 participants were treated with a single oral dose of paracetamol and 2425 with placebo. About half of participants treated with paracetamol at standard doses achieved at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, compared with about 20% treated with placebo. NNTs for at
Danilova, E I; Grafova, V N; Reshetnik, V K
The phantom-pain syndrome model was used to examine the effects of phenazepam, sydnocarb and their combination in chronic oral administration. Phenazepam was shown to have no effects on the development of the phantom-pain syndrome. Sydnocarb arrested the progression of the pain syndrome, reduced its symptoms, alleviated inflammatory manifestations and extremity edema. The agent increased animals' excitability. When their combination was used, the clinical signs of the pain syndrome developed in the same way as with sydnocarb alone. At the same time phenazepam decreased the animals' aggression and excitability caused by sydnocarb. It is suggested that enhancing the efficiency of inhibitory GABAergic processes may result in lower clinical signs of the phantom-pain syndrome in case of involvement of brain catecholaminergic systems whose activation increases the inhibitory functions of its related GABA. The sympathomimetic action of sydnocarb induces an elevation of norepinephrine concentrations in the nerve endings and postsynaptic receptors, resulting in trophic improvement and restoration of tissue viability.
Żyluk, A; Puchalski, P
Several definitions and sets of diagnostic criteria of complex regional pain syndrome have been proposed, but to date none has been accepted completely. This article presents a specific subtype of the disease, called 'chronic, refractory complex regional pain syndrome' which is extremely severe, disabling and resistant to treatment. It also emphasizes difficulties with diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome because of its variable clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria being insufficiently precise. The necessity to distinguish between criteria for clinical use and for scientific purposes is suggested with a proposal of practical guideline for diagnosing acute complex regional pain syndrome. A review of treatments for complex regional pain syndrome is presented, with opinion on their effectiveness: good in an early stage, less well in chronic and generally poor in the chronic, refractory subtype.
Alba-Martín, Pablo; Gallego-Izquierdo, T; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Pecos-Martín, Daniel
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome with physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] A computer-based review conducted of four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PEDro, and the University Library) was completed based on the inclusion criteria of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients treated with physical exercise methods and examination with self-reported pain and/or functional questionnaires. [Results] The findings of ten clinical trials of moderate to high quality were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise as conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Conclusion] The intervention programs that were most effective in relieving pain and improving function in patellofemoral pain syndrome included proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and strengthening exercises for the hip external rotator and abductor muscles and knee extensor muscles.
Chiou, Eric; Nurko, Samuel
Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are both associated with recurrent abdominal pain and are among the most commonly diagnosed medical problems in pediatrics. The majority of patients with mild complaints improve with reassurance and time. For a distinct subset of patients with more severe and disabling illness, finding effective treatment for these disorders remains a challenge. Based on the biopsychosocial model of functional disease, the Rome III criteria have helped frame FAP and IBS in terms of being a positive diagnosis and not a diagnosis of exclusion. However, the lack of a single, proven intervention highlights the complex interplay of pathologic mechanisms likely involved in the development of childhood FAP and IBS and the need for a multidisciplinary, integrated approach. This article discusses the epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical approach and therapeutic options for the management of FAP and IBS in children and adolescents. PMID:21731470
Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul HH
Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers–Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers–Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3). PMID:26316810
Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul Hh
Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers-Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3).
Oberoi, Snehlata; Vargervik, Karin
Three siblings and their mother are reported who all had cytogenetically proven velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). One boy had normal dental and craniofacial findings, except for an increased cranial base angle. His sister had only one central incisor in the maxilla. One central incisor had also been missing in the primary dentition. She had no labial frenulum present. Cephalometry showed a small maxillary unit length indicating mild maxillary hypoplasia, an increased anterior face height, steep mandibular plane angle, retruded chin, and a large cranial base angle. Dental measurements showed retroclined lower incisors and increased interincisal angle. A second sister had a cleft of the secondary palate. All permanent teeth were present with the exception of a missing central incisor in the lower jaw: the single lower central incisor was situated in the midline. Her cephalometry showed similar findings as in her sister. All three siblings required palate surgery for speech. Mother was not available for detailed dental and other oral investigations. A single maxillary central incisor has previously been reported in VCFS, but to our knowledge a single central incisor in the mandible has not been reported previously in this entity.
Edinger, Lara; Schwartzman, Robert J; Ahmad, Ayesha; Erwin, Kirsten; Alexander, Guillermo M
The spread of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been well documented. Many severe refractory long-standing patients have total body pain (TBP) that evolved from a single extremity injury. The purpose of this study was to document by objective sensory threshold testing the extent of body area involvement in 20 long-standing patients with CRPS who have TBP. A comparison of sensory threshold testing parameters between 20 long-standing refractory patients with CRPS who have TBP versus 10 healthy participants. Twenty patients with CRPS who stated that they suffered from total body pain were chosen from the Drexel University College of Medicine CRPS database. They were compared to 10 healthy participants that were age and gender matched to the patients with CRPS. The sensory parameters tested were: skin temperature; static and mechanical allodynia; thermal allodynia; mechanical hyperalgesia; after sensations following all sensory tests. The sites chosen for testing in the patients with CRPS were the most painful area in each of 8 body regions that comprised the total body area. Five patients with CRPS had signs of CRPS over 100% of their body (20%). One patient had pain over 87% and another had pain over 90% of their body area. The average percentage of body involvement was 62% (range 37% - 100%). All patients with CRPS had at least one sensory parameter abnormality in all body regions. All patients with CRPS had lower pain thresholds for static allodynia in all body areas, while 50% demonstrated a lower threshold for dynamic allodynia in all body regions compared to the healthy participants. Cold allodynia had a higher median pain rating on the Likert pain scale in all body areas versus healthy participants except for the chest, abdomen, and back. Eighty-five percent of the patients with CRPS had a significantly lower pain threshold for mechanical hyperalgesia in all body areas compared to the healthy participants. After sensations occurred after all sensory
Barbero, Marco; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, María; Cescon, Corrado; Falla, Deborah
Widespread pain is considered a sign of central sensitization in people with chronic pain. Our aim was to examine whether pain extent, assessed from the pain drawing, relates to measures from quantitative sensory testing in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Thirty women with FMS and no other co-morbid conditions completed pain drawings (dorsal and ventral views) and clinical and related disability questionnaires. Pain extent and pain frequency maps were obtained from the pain drawings using a novel customized software. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed over the 18 tender points considered by the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FMS diagnosis and over two additional standardized points. Heat and cold pain thresholds were also assessed on the dorsal aspect of the neck, the dorsal aspect of the wrist, and the tibialis anterior. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between pain extent and quantitative sensory testing outcomes as well as clinical symptoms. Larger extent of pain was associated with a higher pain intensity (dorsal area: r s = 0.461, P = 0.010; total area: r s = 0.593, P = 0.001), younger age (ventral area: r s = -0.544, P = 0.002; total area: r s = -0.409, P = 0.025), shorter history of pain (ventral area: r s = -0.367, P = 0.046), and higher cold pain thresholds over the tibialis anterior muscle (r s = -0.406, P = 0.001). No significant association was observed between pain extent and the remaining outcomes. Pain drawings constitute an easy and accurate approach to quantify widespread pain. Larger pain extent is associated with pain intensity but not with signs of central sensitization in women with FMS.
Hornyak, M; Stiasny-Kolster, K; Evers, S; Happe, S
Pain in the legs belongs to the five most frequent regional pain symptoms. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) presents a particular differential diagnosis for pain in the legs, which is characterized by a nocturnal urge to move the legs often associated with painful sensations in the legs. It is one of the most common neurological disorders and probably the leading cause of nocturnal pain in the legs. In this overview, the diagnosis and therapy of RLS as well as aspects of pain therapy of the disorder are presented. In addition, the differential diagnoses for exclusion of other specific causes of nocturnal pain in the legs are discussed.
Claudon, B; Poussel, M; Billon-Grumillier, C; Beyaert, C; Paysant, J
Patellofemoral pain is likely due to compressive force acting on the patella related in turn to knee extension moment. The latter variable was assumed to be (i) reduced during short-distance free walking in case of patellofemoral pain syndrome and (ii) increased after therapeutic pain reduction. Peak knee extension moment at beginning of stance phase was recorded by three-dimensional gait analysis in 22 controls and in 23 patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome before and after rehabilitation of knee extensors and flexors to reduce the pain. Pain would occur mainly in stressful activities such as stair negotiation or squatting and was quantified by the anterior knee pain scale. Peak knee extension moment was significantly reduced in all the patients before treatment (n=23) compared to controls, although no one had pain during free walking. In the 17 patients who experienced significant post-rehabilitation pain reduction in their stressful activities, the peak knee extension moment was significantly reduced before treatment compared to controls and significantly increased after treatment, reaching values similar to control values. The peak knee extension moment during free walking appears to be a good kinetic variable related to a compensatory mechanism limiting or avoiding anterior knee pain and may be of interest in assessing knee dynamics alteration in patients with PFPS.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise on sacroiliac joint pain with knee pain. [Subjects and Methods] A 39-year-old female had severe pain in the right medial buttock and right anterior knee. This study assessed the anterior pelvic tilt angle and pain provocation tests before and after single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise for 4 weeks. [Results] Following the course of exercise, the anterior pelvic tilt angles were increased, and the visual analog scale pain scores for both the right buttock and right knee were 2/10. [Conclusion] Single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise may be effective for treating SI joint pain with knee pain in females. PMID:27799721
Werhagen, Lars; Borg, Kristian
Post-polio syndrome is a neurological disorder occurring several years after an acute polio infection. The main symptoms are increased muscular weakness and atrophy, fatigue and pain. Pain is present more often in younger individuals and in females and, according to the visual analogue scale (VAS), the intensity of pain is relatively high. The aim of the present study was to analyse the impact of pain on quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome. Transversal study. Patients with post-polio syndrome underwent a thorough neurological and general examination. They were interviewed about the presence and intensity of pain during the previous 3 months, then completed the quality of life inventory Short-Form 36 (SF-36), which included questions about pain during the previous 4 weeks, and rated their pain intensity during the previous 24 h according to the VAS. Seventy-seven of the patients (68%) experienced pain at the examination. Pain was found to have a significant impact on the SF-36 subdomains Vitality and General health. A correlation was found between pain during the previous 3 months, the previous 4 weeks, and the previous 24 h. Pain is common in patients with post-polio syndrome. Although patients have a high mean VAS score the pain only affects quality of life for Vitality and General Health, but not for other physical and mental domains.
Mika, T; Orłow, H; Kuszelewski, Z
The effectiveness was estimated of infrared laser radiation in the treatment of low back pain syndrome. The patients received irradiation from a semiconductor laser. The results were evaluated in 82 patients using a questionnaire of pain, taking into account its intensity, frequency, taking of analgesics, and the motor activity of the patient. The results suggest a favourable effect of infrared laser radiation on pain.
McNicol, Ewan D; Ferguson, McKenzie C; Haroutounian, Simon; Carr, Daniel B; Schumann, Roman
This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 10, 2011. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most commonly prescribed analgesic for the treatment of acute pain. It may be administered orally, rectally, or intravenously. The efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) formulations of paracetamol, IV paracetamol, and IV propacetamol (a prodrug that is metabolized to paracetamol), compared with placebo and other analgesics, is unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of IV formulations of paracetamol for the treatment of postoperative pain in both adults and children. We ran the search for the previous review in May 2010. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE (May 2010 to 16 February 2016), EMBASE (May 2010 to 16 February 2016), LILACS (2010 to 2016), a clinical trials registry, and reference lists of reviews for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any language and we retrieved articles. Randomized, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled single dose clinical trials of IV paracetamol or IV propacetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults or children. Two review authors independently extracted data, which included demographic variables, type of surgery, interventions, efficacy, and adverse events. We contacted study authors for additional information. We graded each included study for methodological quality by assessing risk of bias and employed the GRADE approach to assess the overall quality of the evidence. We included 75 studies (36 from the original review and 39 from our updated review) enrolling a total of 7200 participants.Among primary outcomes, 36% of participants receiving IV paracetamol/propacetamol experienced at least 50% pain relief over four hours compared with 16% of those receiving placebo (number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) = 5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.7 to 5.6, high quality evidence). The proportion of participants in IV
Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
Background This is an update of a review published in The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4. Celecoxib is a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor usually prescribed for the relief of chronic pain in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Celecoxib is believed to be associated with fewer upper gastrointestinal adverse effects than conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Its effectiveness in acute pain was demonstrated in the earlier reviews. Objectives To assess analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of a single oral dose of celecoxib for moderate to severe postoperative pain. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The most recent search was to 3 January 2012. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of adults prescribed any dose of oral celecoxib or placebo for acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed studies for quality and extracted data. We converted summed pain relief (TOTPAR) or pain intensity difference (SPID) into dichotomous information, yielding the number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, and used this to calculate the relative benefit (RB) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for one patient to achieve at least 50% of maximum pain relief with celecoxib who would not have done so with placebo. We used information on use of rescue medication to calculate the proportion of participants requiring rescue medication and the weighted mean of the median time to use. Main results Eight studies (1380 participants) met the inclusion criteria. We identified five potentially relevant unpublished studies in the most recent searches, but data were not available at this time. The number of included studies therefore remains unchanged. The NNT for celecoxib 200 mg and 400 mg compared with placebo
Diercks, Ron; Bron, Carel; Dorrestijn, Oscar; Meskers, Carel; Naber, René; de Ruiter, Tjerk; Willems, Jaap; Winters, Jan; van der Woude, Henk Jan
Treatment of “subacromial impingement syndrome” of the shoulder has changed drastically in the past decade. The anatomical explanation as “impingement” of the rotator cuff is not sufficient to cover the pathology. “Subacromial pain syndrome”, SAPS, describes the condition better. A working group formed from a number of Dutch specialist societies, joined by the Dutch Orthopedic Association, has produced a guideline based on the available scientific evidence. This resulted in a new outlook for the treatment of subacromial pain syndrome. The important conclusions and advice from this work are as follows: (1) The diagnosis SAPS can only be made using a combination of clinical tests. (2) SAPS should preferably be treated non-operatively. (3) Acute pain should be treated with analgetics if necessary. (4) Subacromial injection with corticosteroids is indicated for persistent or recurrent symptoms. (5) Diagnostic imaging is useful after 6 weeks of symptoms. Ultrasound examination is the recommended imaging, to exclude a rotator cuff rupture. (6) Occupational interventions are useful when complaints persist for longer than 6 weeks. (7) Exercise therapy should be specific and should be of low intensity and high frequency, combining eccentric training, attention to relaxation and posture, and treatment of myofascial trigger points (including stretching of the muscles) may be considered. (8) Strict immobilization and mobilization techniques are not recommended. (9) Tendinosis calcarea can be treated by shockwave (ESWT) or needling under ultrasound guidance (barbotage). (10) Rehabilitation in a specialized unit can be considered in chronic, treatment resistant SAPS, with pain perpetuating behavior. (11) There is no convincing evidence that surgical treatment for SAPS is more effective than conservature management. (12) There is no indication for the surgical treatment of asymptomatic rotator cuff tears. PMID:24847788
Sharan, D; Manjula, M; Urmi, D; Ajeesh, PS
Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) refers to pain attributed to muscle and its surrounding fascia, which is associated with “myofascial trigger points” (MTrPs). MTrPs in the trapezius has been proposed as the main cause of temporal and cervicogenic headache and neck pain. Literature shows that the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among physiotherapists is high. Yoga has traditionally been used to treat MSDs in various populations. But there is scarcity of literature which explains the effects of yoga on reducing MPS of the neck in terms of various physical parameters and subjective responses. Therefore, a pilot study was done among eight physiotherapists with minimum six months of experience. A structured yoga protocol was designed and implemented for five days in a week for four weeks. The outcome variables were Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hands (DASH) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) for Trigger Points, Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) - active & passive, grip and pinch strengths. The variables were compared before and after the intervention. Finally, the result revealed that all the variables (DASH: P<0.00, NDI: P<0.00, VAS: P<0.00, PPT: Left: P<0.00, PPT: Right: P<0.00, Grip strength: left: P<0.00, Grip strength: right: P<0.01, Key pinch: left: P<0.01, Key pinch: right: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: left: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: right: P<0.00, Tip pinch: left: P<0.01, Tip pinch: Right: P<0.01) improved significantly after intervention. PMID:25035608
Bjerring, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L
The shape (amplitude and latency) of single cortical responses to argon laser stimulation was found to match six perceptual classes: three pre-pain and three pain. The amplitude of the pain related single cortical responses correlated with the perceived feeling of pain. Easy detectable responses were obtained because habituation to the stimuli was reduced and a high degree of attention was given to each stimulus. Single cortical responses to argon laser stimuli are suggested as a new quantitative technique with application in the assessment of function in the thermal and nociceptive pathways.
Bjerring, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L
The shape (amplitude and latency) of single cortical responses to argon laser stimulation was found to match six perceptual classes: three pre-pain and three pain. The amplitude of the pain related single cortical responses correlated with the perceived feeling of pain. Easy detectable responses were obtained because habituation to the stimuli was reduced and a high degree of attention was given to each stimulus. Single cortical responses to argon laser stimuli are suggested as a new quantitative technique with application in the assessment of function in the thermal and nociceptive pathways. PMID:3351530
Werhagen, Lars; Borg, Kristian
Pain is a common symptom that affects quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome. An increase in cytokine in the cerebrospinal fluid suggests that inflammation is pathophysiologically important in post-polio syndrome. Intravenous immunoglobulin might therefore be a therapeutic option. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment on pain in post-polio syndrome. An uncontrolled clinical study. Patients with post-polio syndrome and pain (n = 45) underwent a neurological examination and were interviewed about pain before and 6 months after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Pain intensity was measured on a visual analogue scale. The pain was classified according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria as neuropathic when it occurred in an area with decreased sensibility, or nociceptive when signs of inflammation and/or painful joints movements were present. After treatment 31/45 (69%) patients were improved, with a mean visual analogue scale decrease from 53 to 42 (p = 0.001). Eighteen patients (40%) had a decrease of 20 or more points on the visual analogue scale. The effect of treatment did not differ regarding age, gender and severity of disability. Two-thirds of 45 patients with post-polio syndrome and pain reported a decrease on the visual analogue scale for pain after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, and 40% reported a decrease of 20 or more points on the visual analogue scale.
Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Lin, Guo-Hong; Hsu, Ar-Tyan
In this study, a portable electromyogram (EMG) system and a stimulator are developed for patellofemoral pain syndrome patients, with the objective of reducing the pain experienced by these patients; the patellar pain is caused by an imbalance between the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and the vastus lateralis (VL). The EMG measurement circuit and the electrical stimulation device proposed in this study are specifically designed for the VMO and the VL; they are capable of real-time waveform recording, possess analyzing functions, and can upload their measurement data to a computer for storage and analysis. The system can calculate and record the time difference between the EMGs of the VMO and the VL, as well as the signal strengths of both the EMGs. As soon as the system detects the generation of the EMG of the VL, it quickly calculates and processes the event and stimulates the VMO as feedback through electrical stimulation units, in order to induce its contraction. The system can adjust the signal strength, time length, and the sequence of the electrical stimulation, both manually and automatically. The output waveform of the electrical stimulation circuit is a dual-phase asymmetrical pulse waveform. The primary function of the electrical simulation circuit is to ensure that the muscles contract effectively. The performance of the device can be seen that the width of each pulse is 20-1000 μs, the frequency of each pulse is 10-100 Hz, and current strength is 10-60 mA.
Plotnikoff, Gregory; Barber, Melissa
Single-disorder or single-organ-system clinical practice guidelines are often of limited usefulness in guiding effective management of patients with chronic multidimensional signs and symptoms. The presence of multiple long-standing medical problems in a given patient despite intensive medical effort suggests that addressing systemic core imbalances could complement more narrowly focused approaches. A 72-year-old man experiencing longstanding depression, fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic pain in the context of additional refractory illnesses was assessed and treated, guided by a system-oriented approach to underlying core imbalances termed functional medicine. This patient was referred from a team of clinicians representing primary care, cardiology, gastroenterology, hematology, and psychology. Prior treatment had been unsuccessful in managing multiple chronic comorbidities. Diagnostic assessment included comprehensive stool and nutritional/metabolic laboratory testing. The blood-, urine-, or stool-based measurements of relevant markers for multiple systemic issues, including digestion/absorption, inflammation, oxidative stress, and methylation, identified previously unrecognized root causes of his constellation of symptoms. These functional measurements guided rational recommendations for dietary choices and supplementation. The patient experienced steady and significant improvement in his mental health, fatigue, chronic pain, and irritable bowel syndrome-as well as the unexpected resolution of his chronic idiopathic pancytopenia. The success in this case suggests that other patients with chronic, complex, and treatment-refractory illness may benefit from a system-oriented assessment of core imbalances guided by specialized nutritional/metabolic and digestive laboratory testing.
Schrepf, Andrew; Bradley, Catherine S.; O'Donnell, Michael; Luo, Yi; Harte, Steven E.; Kreder, Karl; Lutgendorf, Susan
Background Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) is a condition characterized by pelvic pain and urinary symptoms. Some IC/BPS patients have pain confined to the pelvic region, while others suffer widespread pain. Inflammatory processes have previously been linked to pelvic pain in IC/BPS, but their association with widespread pain in IC/BPS has not been characterized. Methods Sixty-six women meeting criteria for IC/BPS completed self-report measures of pain as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP), collected 3 days of saliva for cortisol assays, and provided blood samples. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 agonists and cytokines were measured in supernatant; IL-6 was also measured in plasma. Associations between inflammatory variables and the likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain, or the presence of a comorbid syndrome, were tested by logistic regression and General Linear Models, respectively. A subset of patients (n=32) completed Quantitative Sensory Testing. Results A one standard deviation increase in TLR-4 inflammatory response was associated with a 1.59 greater likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain (p = .019). Participants with comorbid syndromes also had higher inflammatory responses to TLR-4 stimulation in PBMCs (p = .016). Lower pressure pain thresholds were marginally associated with higher TLR-4 inflammatory responses (p = .062), and significantly associated with higher IL-6 in plasma (p = .031). Conclusions TLR-4 inflammatory responses in PBMCs are a marker of widespread pain in IC/BPS, and should be explored in other conditions characterized by medically unexplained pain. PMID:25771510
Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; King, Christopher; Ting, Tracy V; Arnold, Lesley M
While a majority of research has focused on adult fibromyalgia (FM), recent evidence has provided insights into the presence and impact of FM in children and adolescents. Commonly referred as juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM), youths, particularly adolescent girls, present with persistent widespread pain and cardinal symptoms observed in adult FM. A majority of youth with JFM continue to experience symptoms into adulthood, which highlights the importance of early recognition and intervention. Some differences are observed between adult and juvenile-onset FM syndrome with regard to comorbidities (e.g., joint hypermobility is common in JFM). Psychological comorbidities are common but less severe in JFM. Compared to adult FM, approved pharmacological treatments for JFM are lacking, but non-pharmacologic approaches (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy and exercise) show promise. A number of conceptual issues still remain including (1) directly comparing similarities and differences in symptoms and (2) identifying shared and unique mechanisms underlying FM in adults and youths.
Rompe, Jan D; Segal, Neil A; Cacchio, Angelo; Furia, John P; Morral, Antonio; Maffulli, Nicola
There are no controlled studies testing the efficacy of various nonoperative strategies for treatment of greater trochanter pain syndrome. Hypothesis The null hypothesis was that local corticosteroid injection, home training, and repetitive low-energy shock wave therapy produce equivalent outcomes 4 months from baseline. Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 2. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with refractory unilateral greater trochanter pain syndrome were assigned sequentially to a home training program, a single local corticosteroid injection (25 mg prednisolone), or a repetitive low-energy radial shock wave treatment. Subjects underwent outcome assessments at baseline and at 1, 4, and 15 months. Primary outcome measures were degree of recovery, measured on a 6-point Likert scale (subjects with rating completely recovered or much improved were rated as treatment success), and severity of pain over the past week (0-10 points) at 4-month follow-up. One month from baseline, results after corticosteroid injection (success rate, 75%; pain rating, 2.2 points) were significantly better than those after home training (7%; 5.9 points) or shock wave therapy (13%; 5.6 points). Regarding treatment success at 4 months, radial shock wave therapy led to significantly better results (68%; 3.1 points) than did home training (41%; 5.2 points) and corticosteroid injection (51%; 4.5 points). The null hypothesis was rejected. Fifteen months from baseline, radial shock wave therapy (74%; 2.4 points) and home training (80%; 2.7 points) were significantly more successful than was corticosteroid injection (48%; 5.3 points). The role of corticosteroid injection for greater trochanter pain syndrome needs to be reconsidered. Subjects should be properly informed about the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment options, including the economic burden. The significant short-term superiority of a single corticosteroid injection over home training and shock wave therapy
Verre, M; De Santis, F; Glyronakis, S; Grande, A M; Renzi, A; Santangelo, E; Tortorella, V; Varano, M
The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain state provoked by lesions of the soft tissues or of the bony tissues (type CRPS-I or reflex sympathetic dystrophy-RSD) or by lesions of the nerves (type CRPS-II or causalgia) with vegetative alterations (perspiration, vasomotory alterations) and trophic alterations (bony cutaneous atrophy, alopecia, articular contractures). The pharmacological block of the sympathetic nerves through a peripheral vein is inserted in the multidisciplinary approach that characterizes the therapy of this syndrome. A retrospective survey was carried out on a group of 185 patients affected by RDS/CRPS with block of the sympathetic nerves through a peripheral vein with guanethidine. Superior limb: Inflation of the tourniquet till disappearance of the radial wrist. Cannulation of a peripheral vein with Butterfly needle n. 23. Guanethidine 10 mg, lidocaine 20 mg, sodic heparin 500 u.i, NaCl 0.9% 20 ml. Injection in 5 minutes. Permanence of the pneumatic tourniquet inflated above systolic blood pressure for 15 minutes. Deflation slowly. Inferior limb: Inflation of the tourniquet till disappearance of the pedidium wrist. Cannulation of a peripheral vein with Butterfly needle n. 23. Guanethidine 20 mg, lidocaine 40 mg, sodic heparin 1000 u.i, NaCl 0.9% 40 ml. Injection in 5 minutes. Permanence of the pneumatic tourniquet inflated above systolic blood pressure for 15 minutes. Deflation slowly. The first stage (hyperemic) showed the highest incidence of remissions: (83, 33%). Even in the second stage (dystrophic) the answer to the therapy has been fundamentally positive: (53, 68%). In the third stage (atrophic) the results have been more modest: (8, 33%). The block of sympathetic system with guanethidine is still an important method in the therapy of the CRPS; in fact it is surely less invading than the blocks of the stellate ganglion or of the lumbar sympathetic.
Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn
Background: Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is defined as a syndrome of urgency, frequency, and suprapubic pain in the absence of positive urine culture or obvious bladder pathology. As no specific etiology has been identified yet, no specific methodology exists for diagnosis of this condition. One potential etiology of PBS/IC is inflammation of the bladder mucosa associated with abnormal angiogenesis and ulcerative lesions. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using transcutaneous near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the bladder to monitor tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics as a means of differentiating subjects diagnosed with PBS/IC from those with other bladder conditions. Methods: Twenty-four adult patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction were divided into 2 groups, PBS/IC and non-PBS/IC after standard diagnostic investigations. Detrusor oxygen saturation percentage (TSI%) was measured in all subjects while they were at rest in a supine position, using a spatially resolved (SR) NIRS instrument. Mean values of detrusor TSI% were significantly different between the two groups (74.2%+/-4.9 in PBS/IC vs. 63.6%+/-5.5 in non-PBS/IC, P<0.0005). Results: Noninvasive NIRS interrogation of the bladder demonstrated that patients diagnosed as having PBS/IC had significantly higher detrusor oxygen saturation at rest. Conclusions: SR-NIRS as a feasible non-noninvasive entity for use in the evaluation of patients for the presence or absence of physiologic changes associated with PBS/IC.
Anzai, Takashi; Hiroshige, Yuu; Nakamura, Masahiro; Iizuka, Takashi; Nakazato, Yuji; Ikeda, Katsuhisa
Most patients complaining of pharyngeal pain have an upper respiratory tract infection or other local explanation for their pain. Here we show 3 rare cases of patients visiting our Otorhinolaryngology Department who had an initial symptom of pharyngeal pain caused by acute coronary syndrome (ACS). An electrocardiogram and a cardiac biomarker test are recommended to exclude ACS with atypical presentation in cases without pharyngolaryngeal findings comparable to pharyngeal pain. PMID:28243429
Nielsen, Lecia Møller; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Simrén, Magnus; Törnblom, Hans; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr
PPC-5650 is a new pharmacological agent that can modulate acid-sensing ion channel activity, leading to a reduction in the pain signal under up-regulated conditions. The non-clinical programme for PPC-5650 supported a role for this novel agent in the treatment of pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In patients with IBS, the aims of the study were: (1) to assess the efficacy of a single bolus of PPC-5650 locally applied in the rectum using multi-modal stimulations of the recto sigmoid and (2) to assess the safety profile of PPC-5650. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial in patients with IBS, excluding females of child-bearing potential. The study consisted of a training visit, study visit 1 and 2 and a follow-up visit. Rectosigmoid electrical, thermal and mechanical stimulations were performed, pain perception was rated on a pain intensity scale and referred pain areas were assessed. All adverse events were registered. Twenty-five patients with IBS were enrolled and completed the study (9 women and 16 men; mean age 50.4 ± 12.7 years). No effects of the study drug were found on any of the rectal stimulations or for referred pain areas (all p > 0.05). No significant or clinically relevant treatment-related differences were seen for the laboratory safety variables or any other reported adverse event. In conclusion, in patients with IBS on rectal sensitivity to multi-modal stimulations, PPC-5650 did not produce efficacy relative to placebo. The overall safety and tolerability of PPC-5650 was acceptable.
Andreano, Anita; Galimberti, Stefania; Franza, Elvira; Knavel, Erica M; Sironi, Sandro; Lee, Fred T; Meloni, Maria Franca
To prospectively investigate the frequency and severity of postablation syndrome (PAS) and postprocedural pain in a cohort of patients undergoing hepatic microwave ablation. From March 2009 to November 2011, 54 consecutive patients undergoing microwave ablation for liver tumors were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered to investigate PAS and pain at 1, 7, and 40 days after ablation. Four patients did not complete all three questionnaires and were excluded from the analysis. Additionally, laboratory tests with results known to significantly increase or decrease after ablation were performed, and ablation parameters were recorded. Potential predictors of PAS and pain at 1 and 7 days were evaluated by a logistic regression model. Fifty patients underwent a single microwave ablation session, 33 for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 17 for liver metastasis. Median ablation volumes on computed tomography were 31 cm(3) for HCC and 42 cm(3) for metastasis. Sixty percent of patients experienced PAS in the first week. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels after ablation were significantly associated with PAS during postprocedure days 1-7. Median visual analog scale scores for pain at the puncture site were 1 and 0.24 at 1 and 7 days, respectively. The risk of having at least moderate pain in the first week was significantly related to ablation volume and time and postablation increase in AST level. The incidence and severity of PAS with hepatic microwave ablation is similar to that reported for radiofrequency ablation, with the best predictive factor being postablation AST level elevation. Postablation pain was best predicted by total ablation volume and AST level. © 2013 The Society of Interventional Radiology Published by SIR All rights reserved.
Kaya, Defne; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Callaghan, Michael
Summary Purpose: the aim of this article was to review the clinical approach of quadriceps strengthening programmes. Methods: a literature search was carried out from 1980 up to September 2011. Eligible studies were those that: (1) evaluated the patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (not healthy or asymptomatic subjects) (2) examined the effect of kinetic chain exercises (3) examined the effect of weight-bearing exercises (4) compared the effect of the combined exercises programme in the treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Results and conclusion: patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome may tolerate a closed kinetic chain exercises programme better than open kinetic chain. Weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing quadriceps exercises can significantly improve subjective and clinical outcomes in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Combining treatments as an initial approach to treating patellofemoral pain but developing individualized more functional, global treatments are essential. PMID:23738270
Tan, Wei Phin; Levine, Laurence A
Post-vasectomy pain syndrome remains one of the more challenging urological problems to manage. This can be a frustrating process for both the patient and clinician as there is no well-recognized diagnostic regimen or reliable effective treatment. Many of these patients will end up seeing physicians across many disciplines, further frustrating them. The etiology of post-vasectomy pain syndrome is not clearly delineated. Postulations include damage to the scrotal and spermatic cord nerve structures via inflammatory effects of the immune system, back pressure effects in the obstructed vas and epididymis, vascular stasis, nerve impingement, or perineural fibrosis. Post-vasectomy pain syndrome is defined as at least 3 months of chronic or intermittent scrotal content pain. This article reviews the current understanding of post-vasectomy pain syndrome, theories behind its pathophysiology, evaluation pathways, and treatment options.
Klein, Fritz; Ospina, Carlos; Rudolph, Birgit; Wüstefeld, Joost; Denecke, Timm; Neuhaus, Peter; Schmidt, Sven-Christian
The case of a 58-year-old male patient who developed a chronic pain syndrome after laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh for treatment of a large symptomatic umbilical hernia combined with rectus diastasis is reported. Twelve months after an uncomplicated initial surgery, the patient presented with progressive signs of a foreign body sensation and pain in the anterior abdominal wall. Computed tomography examination revealed no pathologic findings but a marked shrinkage of the mesh implant. Because of further progressive symptoms, explorative laparotomy was performed. Mesh shrinkage and adhesions with a surrounding chronic tissue reaction were found as the cause of the pain syndrome. This case demonstrates a case of a chronic pain syndrome due to mesh shrinkage 12 months after initial ventral hernia repair. Mesh shrinkage should therefore be taken into consideration in patients with progressive pain chronic syndromes after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.
Tan, Wei Phin; Levine, Laurence A
Post-vasectomy pain syndrome remains one of the more challenging urological problems to manage. This can be a frustrating process for both the patient and clinician as there is no well-recognized diagnostic regimen or reliable effective treatment. Many of these patients will end up seeing physicians across many disciplines, further frustrating them. The etiology of post-vasectomy pain syndrome is not clearly delineated. Postulations include damage to the scrotal and spermatic cord nerve structures via inflammatory effects of the immune system, back pressure effects in the obstructed vas and epididymis, vascular stasis, nerve impingement, or perineural fibrosis. Post-vasectomy pain syndrome is defined as at least 3 months of chronic or intermittent scrotal content pain. This article reviews the current understanding of post-vasectomy pain syndrome, theories behind its pathophysiology, evaluation pathways, and treatment options. PMID:26952956
Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J; Wiffen, Philip J
Thirty-five Cochrane Reviews of randomised trials testing the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain have been published. This overview brings together the results of all those reviews and assesses the reliability of available data. To summarise data from all Cochrane Reviews that have assessed the effects of pharmaceutical interventions for acute pain in adults with at least moderate pain following surgery, who have been given a single dose of oral analgesic taken alone. We identified systematic reviews in The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single Review Group, had a standard title, and had as their primary outcome numbers of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. For individual reviews we extracted the number needed to treat (NNT) for this outcome for each drug/dose combination, and also the percentage of participants achieving at least 50% maximum pain relief, the mean of mean or median time to remedication, the percentage of participants remedicating by 6, 8, 12, or 24 hours, and results for participants experiencing at least one adverse event. The overview included 35 separate Cochrane Reviews with 38 analyses of single dose oral analgesics tested in acute postoperative pain models, with results from about 45,000 participants studied in approximately 350 individual studies. The individual reviews included only high-quality trials of standardised design and outcome reporting. The reviews used standardised methods and reporting for both efficacy and harm. Event rates with placebo were consistent in larger data sets. No statistical comparison was undertaken.There were reviews but no trial data were available for acemetacin, meloxicam, nabumetone, nefopam, sulindac, tenoxicam, and tiaprofenic acid. Inadequate amounts of data were available for dexibuprofen, dextropropoxyphene 130 mg, diflunisal 125 mg, etoricoxib 60 mg
Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J; Wiffen, Philip J
Background Thirty-five Cochrane Reviews of randomised trials testing the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain have been published. This overview brings together the results of all those reviews and assesses the reliability of available data. Objectives To summarise data from all Cochrane Reviews that have assessed the effects of pharmaceutical interventions for acute pain in adults with at least moderate pain following surgery, who have been given a single dose of oral analgesic taken alone. Methods We identified systematic reviews in The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single Review Group, had a standard title, and had as their primary outcome numbers of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. For individual reviews we extracted the number needed to treat (NNT) for this outcome for each drug/dose combination, and also the percentage of participants achieving at least 50% maximum pain relief, the mean of mean or median time to remedication, the percentage of participants remedicating by 6, 8, 12, or 24 hours, and results for participants experiencing at least one adverse event. Main results The overview included 35 separate Cochrane Reviews with 38 analyses of single dose oral analgesics tested in acute postoperative pain models, with results from about 45,000 participants studied in approximately 350 individual studies. The individual reviews included only high-quality trials of standardised design and outcome reporting. The reviews used standardised methods and reporting for both efficacy and harm. Event rates with placebo were consistent in larger data sets. No statistical comparison was undertaken. There were reviews but no trial data were available for acemetacin, meloxicam, nabumetone, nefopam, sulindac, tenoxicam, and tiaprofenic acid. Inadequate amounts of data were available for dexibuprofen, dextropropoxyphene 130
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Helm, Standiford; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Racz, Gabor B
assessment show that the cost utility of managing chronic, intractable low back pain with percutaneous adhesiolysis at a QALY that is similar or lower in price than medical therapy only, physical therapy, manipulation, spinal cord stimulation, and surgery. The limitations of this cost utility analysis are that it is a single-center evaluation, with the inclusion of costs of adhesiolysis procedures in an ambulatory surgery center and physician visits, rather than all related costs including drug therapy and costs of disability in multiple settings. This cost utility analysis of percutaneous adhesiolysis in the treatment of post-lumbar surgery syndrome and lumbar central spinal stenosis shows the clinical effectiveness and cost utility of these procedures at USD $2,650 per one year of QALY when performed in an ambulatory surgery center. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.
Cooper, B C; Rabuzzi, D D
The diagnosis of myofacial pain dysfunction (MPD), commonly called temporomandibular joint syndrome, has traditionally been made on the presence of a group of clinical symptoms that produce pain and limitation of movement. The cause of this common illness has been the subject of controversy for over half a century. There has been a lack of agreement on diagnosis, a cause, and treatment. Advanced bioelectronic technology now makes an accurate diagnosis possible, based not merely on clinical symptoms, but on reproducible scientific data. A cause of MPD is discernable and reliable treatment possible, as well as long lasting resolution objectively monitorable with the Mandibular Kinesiograph (MKG 5-R) and Bioelectric Processor (EMIR). A study of mandibular movement and masticular muscle function of 26 "normal" subjects (i.e., clinically asymptomatic) revealed that the overwhelming majority did indeed have dysfunction of the muscles which move and posture the mandible. The significance of this study is twofold. First it demonstrates a valid testing procedure for measuring mandibular movement and muscle function. Second it establishes the fact that most individuals have a physical predisposition to MPD. Changes in the adaptive capacity of the neuromusculature by physical or emotional trauma could then precipitate MPD.
Song, Chen-Yi; Lin, Jiu-Jenq; Jan, Mei-Hwa; Lin, Yeong-Fwu
Lateral patellar malalignment and maltracking are commonly believed to be associated with patellofemoral pain. In the current review, a computerized and manual search of English-language articles was performed using multiple combinations of the following keywords: 'patellofemoral pain syndrome' or 'patellofemoral pain', and 'patellar alignment' or 'patellar tracking'. The role of patellar alignment and tracking in vivo is discussed via a review of papers regarding the differences in asymptomatic and symptomatic patella. An attempt is made to identify the potential mechanism of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Evidence suggests that symptomatic patella do not consistently demonstrate lateral malalignment or tracking in patellar tilt and translation. Abnormal patellar alignment and tracking may be potential risk factors that are associated with patellofemoral pain. Other contributing factors should be considered in dealing with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Further studies are required to determine what normal patella alignment and tracking is before going on to define how these are altered in subjects with patellofemoral pain. Furthermore, prospective studies are needed to identify the alteration of patellofemoral kinematics, if any, and whether these are the causative factor or the consequence of the patellofemoral pain syndrome, as well as to determine the risk of development of patellofemoral pain syndrome in individuals with and without abnormal patellar tracking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Ran; Chomistek, Andrea K.; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wu, Kana
Purpose Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a prevalent urologic disorder among men, but its etiology is still poorly understood. Our objective was to examine the relationship between physical activity and incidence of CP/CPPS in a large cohort of male health professionals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed from 1986 to 2008. The study population included 20,918 men who completed all CP/CPPS questions on the 2008 questionnaire. Leisure-time physical activity, including type and intensity of activity, was measured by questionnaire in 1986. A National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index pain score was calculated based on the responses on the 2008 questionnaire. Participants with pain scores ≥ 8 were considered CP/CPPS cases (n=689). Results Higher leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower risk of CP/CPPS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing >35.0 to ≤3.5 MET-h/wk of physical activity was 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56, 0.92, p for trend <0.001). Observed inverse associations between physical activity and CP/CPPS were similar for both moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Sedentary behavior, measured as time spent watching television, was not associated with risk of CP/CPPS (p for trend 0.64). Conclusions Findings from this study, the first large scale and most comprehensive study to date on this association, suggest that higher levels of leisure-time physical activity may lower risk of CP/CPPS in middle-aged and older men. PMID:25116086
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating chronic disease characterized by discomfort or recurrent abdominal and pelvic pains in the absence of urinary tract infections. Its symptomatology includes discomfort, increased bladder pressure, sensitivity and intense pain in the bladder and pelvic areas, increased voiding frequency and urgency, or a combination of these symptoms. For these reasons, this pathology has a very negative impact on quality of life. The etiology of IC/BPS is still not well understood and different hypotheses have been formulated, including autoimmune processes, allergic reactions, chronic bacterial infections, exposure to toxins or dietary elements, and psychosomatic factors. The finding of an effective and specific therapy for IC/BPS remains a challenge for the scientific community because of the lack of a consensus regarding the causes and the inherent difficulties in the diagnosis. The last recent hypothesis is that IC/BPS could be pathophysiologically related to a disruption of the bladder mucosa surface layer with consequent loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This class of mucopolysaccharides has hydrorepellent properties and their alteration expose the urothelium to many urinary toxic agents. It has been hypothesized that when these substances penetrate the bladder wall a chain is triggered in the submucosa. In order to improve the integrity and function of the bladder lining, GAG layer replenishment therapy is widely accepted as therapy for patients with IC/BPS who have poor or inadequate response to conventional therapy. Currently, Chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin, hyaluronic acid (HA), and pentosan polysulphate (PPS), and combinations of two GAGs (CS and HA) are the available substances with different effectiveness rates in patients with IC/BPS. There are four different commercially available products for GAG replenishment including CS, heparin, HA and PPS. Each product has different concentrations and
Oh, Ji Youn; Lim, Jin Hun; Kim, Yong Seok; Kwon, Young Eun; Yu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jun Hak
Differential diagnosis of posterior neck pain is very challenging based on symptoms and physical examination only. Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis is a rare and frequently misdiagnosed entity in various causes of neck pain. It results from calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the longus colli muscle which is characterized by severe neck pain, painful restriction of neck movement, dysphagia, and odynophagia. We herein report a case of a patient with acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis, who complained of posterior neck pain, initially diagnosed and treated as a myofascial neck pain syndrome.
Waweru, Peter; Gill, Hardeep; Abeid, Chris
Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition and has one of the highest mortality rates of cardiovascular diseases. It remains a devastating disease; with multiple unanswered questions concerning treatment modalities. The role of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in these patients; especially those with uncomplicated acute aortic Type B dissections (AAD-B) is especially controversial although it has been shown to have better long-term outcomes compared to medical therapy alone. For those who have TEVAR, up to 60% may develop an acute, transient systemic inflammatory response syndrome that remains vaguely defined. The role of local inflammation in this post-implantation syndrome (PIS) has not been highlighted. We present a case of a 57-year-old male patient with an uncomplicated AAD-B who developed an ‘atypical’ PIS post-TEVAR with severe refractory abdominal pains; leukocytosis and raised C-reactive protein. The role of local inflammation in PIS is highlighted. PMID:28344762
Libon, David J; Schwartzman, Robert J; Eppig, Joel; Wambach, Denene; Brahin, Eric; Peterlin, B Lee; Alexander, Guillermo; Kalanuria, Atul
We sought to elucidate the existence of neuropsychological subtypes in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). One hundred thirty seven patients with CRPS were administered tests that assess executive control, naming/lexical retrieval, and declarative memory. A 2-step cluster analysis that does not require any a priori specification regarding the number of clusters, classified patients into three groups. Group 1 obtained scores that were in the average range on all tests (n = 48; normal CRSP group). Group 2 (n = 58; dysexecutive CRSP group) presented with mild impairment or statistically low average test performance on working memory/verbal fluency tests. Group 3 (n = 31; global CRSP group) produced scores in the statistically low average/borderline range on all tests with particularly reduced scores on naming/declarative memory tests. Between-group analyses found that the CRPS group 1 obtained higher scores than CRPS groups 2 and 3 on all tests. However, groups 2 and 3 were equally impaired on executive tests. CRPS group 3 was impaired on tests of naming/memory tests compared to the other groups. Significant neuropsychological deficits are present in 65% of patients, with many patients presenting with elements of a dysexecutive syndrome and some patients presenting with global cognitive impairment.
Ormeci, Tugrul; Mahirogulları, Mahir; Aysal, Fikret
Introduction Various causes influence the etiology of tarsal tunnel syndrome including systemic diseases with progressive neuropathy, such as diabetes. Presentation of case We describe a 52-year-old male patient with complaints of numbness, burning sensation and pain in both feet. The laboratory results showed that the patient had uncontrolled diabetes, and the EMG showed distal symmetrical sensory-motor neuropathy and nerve entrapment at the right. Ultrasonography and MRI showed the cyst in relation to medial plantar nerve, and edema- moderate atrophy were observed at the distal muscles of the foot. Discussion Foot neuropathy in diabetic patients is a complex process. So, in planning the initial treatment, medical or surgical therapy is selected based on the location and type of the pathology. Foot deformities can be corrected with resting, anti-inflammatory treatment, appropriate shoes, orthesis and socks, and if required, ankle stabilization can be attempted. If the patient is still unresponsive, surgical treatment may be applied. Conclusion It is essential to investigate more localized reasons like tarsal tunnel syndrome that may mimic diabetic neuropathy, should be treated primarily. PMID:26333036
Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo; Meirleir, Kenny De
In addition to debilitating fatigue the majority of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) experience chronic widespread pain. Conducting a systematic review to critically assess the existing knowledge on chronic pain in CFS. We focussed on the definition, the prevalence and incidence, the aetiology, the relevance and the therapy strategy for chronic musculoskeletal pain and post-exertional pain in CFS. To identify relevant articles, we searched eight medical search engines. The search terms "chronic fatigue syndrome" AND "pain", "nociception", "arthralgia" and "myalgia", were used to identify articles concerning pain in CFS. Included articles were reviewed by two blinded researchers. Twenty-five articles and two abstract were identified and selected for further appraisal. Only 11 search results focussed on musculoskeletal pain in CFS patients. Regarding the standardized review of the articles, a 96% agreement between the researchers was observed. There is no consensus in defining chronic widespread pain in CFS, and although there is little or no strong proof for the exact prevalence, chronic pain is strongly disabling in CFS. Aetiological theories are proposed (sleep abnormalities, tryptophan, parovirus-B, hormonal and brain abnormalities and central sensitisation) and a reduction of pain threshold after exercise has been shown. Furthermore depression seemed not related to pain in CFS and a staphylococcus toxoid vaccine caused no significant pain reduction. The results from the systematic review highlight the clinical importance of chronic pain in CFS, but only few studies addressing the aetiology or treatment of chronic pain in CFS are currently available.
Rauck, Richard L; North, James; Eisenach, James C
Chronic pain may be accompanied by hyperalgesia and allodynia, and analgesic interventions may reduce these hypersensitivity phenomena. Preclinical data suggest that intrathecal clonidine and adenosine reduce hypersensitivity, but only clonidine reduces pain; therefore, we tested the effects of these interventions in patients with chronic pain. Twenty-two subjects with pain and hyperalgesia in a lower extremity from complex regional pain syndrome were recruited in a double-blind crossover study to receive intrathecal clonidine, 100 μg, or adenosine, 2 mg. Primary outcome measure was proportion with ≥30% reduction in pain 2 hours after injection, and secondary measures were pain report, areas of hypersensitivity, and temporal summation to heat stimuli. Treatments did not differ in the primary outcome measure (10 met success criterion after clonidine administration and 5 after adenosine administration), although they did differ in pain scores over time, with clonidine having a 3-fold greater effect (P = 0.014). Both drugs similarly reduced areas of hyperalgesia and allodynia by approximately 30% and also inhibited temporal summation. The percentage change in pain report did not correlate with the percentage change in areas of hyperalgesia (P = 0.09, r = 0.08) or allodynia (P = 0.24, r = 0.24) after drug treatment. Both intrathecal clonidine and adenosine acutely inhibit experimentally induced and clinical hypersensitivity in patients with chronic regional pain syndrome. Although these drugs do not differ in analgesia by the primary outcome measure, their difference in effect on pain scores over time and lack of correlation between effect on pain and hypersensitivity suggest that analgesia does not parallel antihyperalgesia with these treatments.
Castori, Marco; Morlino, Silvia; Ghibellini, Giulia; Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Grammatico, Paola
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an umbrella term for a growing group of hereditary disorders of the connective tissue mainly manifesting with generalized joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and vascular and internal organ fragility. In contrast with other well known heritable connective tissue disorders with severe cardiovascular involvement (e.g., Marfan syndrome), most EDS patients share a nearly normal life span, but are severely limited by disabling features, such as pain, fatigue and headache. In this work, pertinent literature is reviewed with focus on prevalence, features and possible pathogenic mechanisms of headache in EDSs. Gathered data are fragmented and generally have a low level of evidence. Headache is reported in no less than 1/3 of the patients. Migraine results the most common type in the hypermobility type of EDS. Other possibly related headache disorders include tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, headache attributed to spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage, headache secondary to Chiari malformation, cervicogenic headache and neck-tongue syndrome, whose association still lacks of reliable prevalence studies. The underlying pathogenesis seems complex and variably associated with cardiovascular dysautonomia, cervical spine and temporomandibular joint instability/dysfunction, meningeal fragility, poor sleep quality, pain-killer drugs overuse and central sensitization. Particular attention is posed on a presumed subclinical cervical spine dysfunction. Standard treatment is always symptomatic and usually unsuccessful. Assessment and management procedures are discussed in order to put some basis for ameliorating the actual patients' needs and nurturing future research.
McCartney, Shirley; Weltin, Markus; Burchiel, Kim J
Based on a classification scheme for facial pain syndromes and a binomial (yes/no) facial pain questionnaire, we previously reported on the ability of an artificial neural network (ANN) to recognize and correctly diagnose patients with different facial pain syndromes. We now report on an updated questionnaire, the development of a secure web-based neural network application and details of ANNs trained to diagnose patients with different facial pain syndromes. Online facial pain questionnaire responses collected from 607 facial pain patients (395 female, 65%, ratio F/M 1.86/1) over 5 years and 7 months were used for ANN training. Sensitivity and specificity of the currently running ANN for trigeminal neuralgia type 1 and trigeminal neuralgia type 2 are 92.4 and 62.5% and 87.8 and 96.4%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity are 86.7 and 95.2% for trigeminal neuropathic pain, 0 and 100% for trigeminal deafferentation pain and 100% for symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia. Sensitivity is 50% for nervus intermedius neuralgia (NIN) and 0% for atypical facial pain (AFP), glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) and temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ). Specificity for AFP, NIN and TMJ is 99% and for GPN, 100%. We demonstrate the utilization of question-based historical self-assessment responses used as inputs to design an ANN for the purpose of diagnosing facial pain syndromes (outputs) with high accuracy.
Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Linda
Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS.
Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning
Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS. PMID:27366194
Calderón, Enrique; Calderón-Seoane, María Eloísa; García-Hernández, Rafael; Torres, Luis Miguel
Objectives Chronic neuropathic pain and chronic complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), in particular, are debilitating and difficult-to-treat conditions that have a strong impact on patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster as add-on therapy in patients with chronic peripheral neuropathic pain conditions, including CRPS. Patients and methods This was a single-center, prospective, observational study set in a specialized pain unit of a tertiary hospital in Spain. A total of 56 patients with long-standing peripheral neuropathic pain, ten of them with CRPS, received 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster as add-on analgesic therapy for 6 months. Results After 6 months of treatment, a ≥50% reduction in pain intensity was attained by 75% of patients, as measured by numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain. The average NRS score was reduced by 61% (4.7 points), from a baseline mean score of 7.8 to an end point mean score of 3.1. Marked improvements were also observed in the CRPS group: six out of ten patients achieved a ≥50% reduction in NRS score, and the average NRS score for patients with CRPS was reduced by 51% (4.0 points), from a baseline mean score of 7.9 to an end point mean score of 3.9. The improvements in pain intensity were partially translated into a decrease in disability index and in anxiety levels. Conclusion 5% Lidocaine-medicated plaster may be useful as add-on therapy for a number of peripheral neuropathic pain conditions, including CRPS. PMID:27785090
Calderón, Enrique; Calderón-Seoane, María Eloísa; García-Hernández, Rafael; Torres, Luis Miguel
Chronic neuropathic pain and chronic complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), in particular, are debilitating and difficult-to-treat conditions that have a strong impact on patient's quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster as add-on therapy in patients with chronic peripheral neuropathic pain conditions, including CRPS. This was a single-center, prospective, observational study set in a specialized pain unit of a tertiary hospital in Spain. A total of 56 patients with long-standing peripheral neuropathic pain, ten of them with CRPS, received 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster as add-on analgesic therapy for 6 months. After 6 months of treatment, a ≥50% reduction in pain intensity was attained by 75% of patients, as measured by numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain. The average NRS score was reduced by 61% (4.7 points), from a baseline mean score of 7.8 to an end point mean score of 3.1. Marked improvements were also observed in the CRPS group: six out of ten patients achieved a ≥50% reduction in NRS score, and the average NRS score for patients with CRPS was reduced by 51% (4.0 points), from a baseline mean score of 7.9 to an end point mean score of 3.9. The improvements in pain intensity were partially translated into a decrease in disability index and in anxiety levels. 5% Lidocaine-medicated plaster may be useful as add-on therapy for a number of peripheral neuropathic pain conditions, including CRPS.
The syndrome of "painful legs and moving toes" is characterised by spontaneous causalgic pain in the lower extremities associated with peculiar involuntary movements of the toes and feet. It has been observed after a variety of lesions affecting the posterior nerve roots, the spinal ganglia and the peripheral nerves. The pathophysiology of the syndrome is unknown. I report a patient who developed the syndrome during treatment for schizophrenia with the antipsychotic agent molindone hydrochloride. The patient's response to the combination of clonazepam and baclofen suggests that the pathophysiology of the "painful legs and moving toes" may be linked to impairment of spinal serotonergic and GABA functions.
Harada, Ko; Iwamuro, Masaya; Hanayama, Yoshihisa; Otsuka, Fumio
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is characterized by an inflammation of the perihepatic capsules associated with pelvic inflammatory disease. The typical symptom is severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain. We report a patient with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome who presented with an atypical chief complaint of right-side chest pain unaccompanied by symptoms specific to pelvic inflammatory disease. This case indicates that Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right-side chest pain in young women, because early diagnosis and treatment of the disease are essential to prevent chronic complications.
Meeus, Mira; Roussel, Nathalie A; Truijen, Steven; Nijs, Jo
The aims of this study were to examine: (i) baseline pressure pain thresholds in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and those with chronic low back pain compared with healthy subjects; (ii) the change in mean pain threshold in response to exercise; and (iii) associations with exercise-induced increase in nitric oxide. Twenty-six patients with chronic fatigue syndrome suffering of chronic pain, 21 patients with chronic low back pain and 31 healthy subjects. Participants underwent a submaximal aerobic exercise protocol on a bicycle ergometer, preceded and followed by venous blood sampling (nitric oxide) and algometry (hand, arm, calf, low back). Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome presented overall lower pain thresholds compared with healthy subjects and patients with chronic low back pain (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between healthy subjects and patients with chronic low back pain. After submaximal aerobic exercise, mean pain thresholds decreased in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, and increased in the others (p < 0.01). At baseline, nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in the chronic low back pain group. After controlling for body mass index, no significant differences were seen between the groups at baseline or in response to exercise. Nitric oxide was not related to pain thresholds in either group. The results suggest hyperalgesia and abnormal central pain processing during submaximal aerobic exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome, but not in chronic low back pain. Nitric oxide appeared to be unrelated to pain processing.
Endogenous pain inhibition is often deficient in adults with chronic pain conditions including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is unclear whether deficiencies in pain inhibition are present in young children with IBS. The present study compared endogenous pain inhibition, somatic pain threshold, ...
Segal, Neil A.; Felson, David T.; Torner, James C.; Zhu, Yanyan; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael C.
Objectives To describe the prevalence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS); to determine whether GTPS is associated with iliotibial band (ITB) tenderness, knee osteoarthritis (OA), body mass index (BMI), or low back pain (LBP); and to assess whether GTPS is associated with reduced hip internal rotation, physical activity, and mobility. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting Multicenter observational study. Participants Community-dwelling adults (N=3026) ages 50 to 79 years. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Greater trochanteric tenderness to palpation in subjects with complaints of hip pain and no signs of hip OA or generalized myofascial tenderness. Results The prevalence of unilateral and bilateral GTPS was 15.0% and 8.5% in women and 6.6% and 1.9% men. Odds ratio (OR) for women was 3.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–4.25), but age and race were not significantly associated with GTPS. In a multivariate model, adjusting for age, sex, ITB tenderness, ipsilateral and contralateral knee OA, BMI, and LBP, ITB tenderness (OR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.34–2.19), knee OA ipsilaterally (OR=3.47; 95% CI, 2.72–4.42) and con-tralaterally (OR=1.74; 95% CI, 1.32–2.28), and LBP (OR=2.79; 95% CI, 2.22–3.50) were positively related to GTPS. In this complete model, BMI was not associated with GTPS (OR=1.10; 95% CI, 0.80–1.52 when comparing ≥ 30 with <25kg/m2). Hip internal rotation range of motion did not differ based on GTPS status. After multivariate adjustment, GTPS did not alter physical activity score, but bilateal GTPS was significantly associated with a higher 20-meter walk time and chair stand time. Conclusions The higher prevalence of GTPS in women and in adults with ITB pain or knee OA indicates that altered lower-limb biomechanics may be related to GTPS. Slower functional performance in those with GTPS suggests that the study of targeted rehabilitation may be useful. A longitudinal study will be necessary to identify
Delavierre, D; Rigaud, J; Sibert, L; Labat, J-J
To review the diagnosis and pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis (CP) and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). A review of the literature was performed by searching the Medline database (National Library of Medicine). Search terms were either medical subject heading (MeSH) keywords (microbiology, pelvic pain, prostatitis) or terms derived from the title or abstract. Search terms were used alone or in combinations by using the "AND" operator. The literature search was conducted from 1990 to the present time. Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a chronic, recurrent bacterial infection of the prostate, accounting for about 5 to 10% of all cases of chronic prostatitis (CP). CPPS is nonbacterial genitourinary pelvic pain present for at least 3 months, sometimes associated with sexual and voiding disorders. Although the prostate does not appear to be involved in all cases of chronic pelvic pain in men, the term CP usually remains associated with CPPS (CP/CPPS). CP/CPPS has a negative impact on quality of life. The precise pathogenesis of CP/CPPS has not been elucidated, but prostatic infection and inflammation could be involved, not as direct causes, but as initiating factors of a neurological hypersensitization phenomenon. Evaluation of CP/CPPS comprises clinical interview completed by the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index questionnaire (NIH-CPSI), physical examination, urine culture and uroflowmetry combined with determination of the post-voiding residual volume. The other investigations are optional and are designed to exclude other urological diagnoses. The Meares-Stamey four-glass test should be abandoned in favour of a simplified test comprising urine analysis before and after prostatic massage. However, the indications for this test are limited to patients in whom chronic bacterial prostatitis is suspected or with bacteriuria on urine culture. Chronic bacterial prostatitis represents only about 5 to 10% of all cases of CP. The usual
Franz, Randall W; Prok, Aleksey
A young adult man with Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome presented to our pain management service with complaints of severe lower extremity neuropathic pain (pain scale 8 of 10 on the left and 4 of 10 on the right). The pain in his left leg was so severe that he wanted to undergo a left lower extremity amputation. The patient declined chronic use of narcotic medications for pain relief, believing that this would interfere with his educational and lifestyle pursuits. After a complete evaluation for possible sources of pain, we performed a trial placement of a spinal cord stimulator at the T9 level, which relieved his pain. We then placed a stimulator at the T10 level. At 1 year postimplantation, he was pain free (pain scale 1 of 10 bilaterally) and was able to function normally without narcotic support. We believe this to be the first use of a spinal cord stimulator for lower extremity pain resulting from Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome. We also discuss the clinical evaluation and treatment of a Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome patient with chronic pain.
Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Turan, Yasemin; Gürgan, Alev; Deveci, Hülya
The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome in chronic low back pain and evaluate the differences in clinical and functional parameters in chronic low back pain patients with and without metabolic syndrome. Patients complaining of low back pain complaint lasting for at least 2 months were included in the study. In order to establish functional deficiency, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Istanbul Low Back Pain Disability Index and Oswestry Disability Index were used. To evaluate depression, Beck's depression scale was used. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to the criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) defined in 2001. For this; lumbar circumference around anterior iliac spine, arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, plasma triglyceride levels and HDL cholesterol levels were noted down. Sixty patients (51 women) were included in the study. There was significant difference in terms of BMI (P = 0.034), age (P = 0.001), waist circumference (P = 0.048) and disease duration (P = 0.005) between chronic low back pain patients with and without metabolic syndrome. There was no significant difference in other parameters. Low back pain is a frequent complaint amongst people with obesity in the abdominal area. According to our results, elderly people, people with chronic low back pain and patients with high BMI are under risk for metabolic syndrome. For this reason this group of patients can be screened for metabolic syndrome and preventive measures can be taken.
Melzack, Ronald; Katz, Joel
Pain has many valuable functions. It often signals injury or disease, generates a wide range of adaptive behaviors, and promotes healing through rest. Despite these beneficial aspects of pain, there are negative features that challenge our understanding of the puzzle of pain, including persistent phantom limb pain after amputation or total spinal cord transection. Pain is a personal, subjective experience influenced by cultural learning, the meaning of the situation, attention, and other psychological variables. Pain processes do not begin with the stimulation of receptors. Rather, injury or disease produces neural signals that enter an active nervous system that (in the adult organism) is the substrate of past experience, culture, and a host of other environmental and personal factors. These brain processes actively participate in the selection, abstraction, and synthesis of information from the total sensory input. Pain is not simply the end product of a linear sensory transmission system; it is a dynamic process that involves continuous interactions among complex ascending and descending systems. The neuromatrix theory guides us away from the Cartesian concept of pain as a sensation produced by injury, inflammation, or other tissue pathology and toward the concept of pain as a multidimensional experience produced by multiple influences. These influences range from the existing synaptic architecture of the neuromatrix-which is determined by genetic and sensory factors-to influences from within the body and from other areas in the brain. Genetic influences on synaptic architecture may determine-or predispose toward-the development of chronic pain syndromes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:1-15. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1201 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Kopsky, David J
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid modulator in animals and humans, and has been evaluated since the 1970s as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug in more than 30 clinical trials, in a total of ~6,000 patients. PEA is currently available worldwide as a nutraceutical in different formulations, with and without excipients. Here we describe the results of all clinical trials evaluating PEA's efficacy and safety in nerve compression syndromes: sciatic pain and pain due to carpal tunnel syndrome, and review preclinical evidence in nerve impingement models. Both the pharmacological studies as well as the clinical trials supported PEA's action as an analgesic compound. In total, eight clinical trials have been published in such entrapment syndromes, and 1,366 patients have been included in these trials. PEA proved to be effective and safe in nerve compression syndromes. In one pivotal, double blind, placebo controlled trial in 636 sciatic pain patients, the number needed to treat to reach 50% pain reduction compared to baseline was 1.5 after 3 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, no drug interactions or troublesome side effects have been described so far. Physicians are not always aware of PEA as a relevant and safe alternative to opioids and co-analgesics in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Especially since the often prescribed co-analgesic pregabaline has been proven to be ineffective in sciatic pain in a double blind enrichment trial, PEA should be considered as a new and safe treatment option for nerve compression syndromes.
Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Yeng, Lin Tchia; Garcia, Oliver Garcia; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Araujo, Joaci O
The authors show the clinical evaluation and follow-up results in 56 patients diagnosed with a failed back surgery pain syndrome. Descriptive and prospective study conducted over a one-year period. In this study, 56 patients with a failed back surgery pain syndrome were assessed in our facility. The age ranged from 28 to 76 years (mean, 48.8 ± 13.9 years). The pain was assessed through a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Postoperative pain was more severe (mean VAS score 8.3) than preoperative pain (7.2). Myofascial pain syndromes (MPS) were diagnosed in 85.7% of patients; neuropathic abnormalities associated or not with MPS were found in 73.3%. Drug therapy associated with physical medicine treatment provided > 50% pain improvement in 57.2% of cases; trigger point injection in 60.1%, and epidural infusion of morphine with lidocaína in 69.3% of refractory cases. In patients with a post-laminectomy syndrome, postoperative pain was more severe than preoperative pain from a herniated disk. A miofascial component was found in most patients.
Tyagi, Shantanu; Sinha, Rajeev; Tyagi, Aarti
CONTEXT AND AIMS: Our study aims to evaluate the post-operative pain and cosmesis of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) in comparison with the standard, 3-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC) with respect to the length of incision, cosmetic scores, post-operative pain scores and duration of hospital stay. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This comparative randomised study was conducted in a tertiary care centre teaching hospital between September 2012 and 2014. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients, who qualified as per inclusion criteria, were included in the study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients were included in the SLC arm and 75 in the SILC arm. SILC procedure was carried out as transumbilical multiport technique and SLC as 3-port technique utilizing - 5, 5, 10 mm ports. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The data for the primary observations (post-operative pain scores, cosmetic score and incision length) and secondary observation (post-operative hospital stay) were noted. Weighted mean difference was used for calculation of quantitative variables, and odds ratios were used for pooling qualitative variables. RESULTS: Pain scores at 4 and 24 h were significantly better for SILC arm than SLC arm (at 4 h - 4.84 ± 0.95 vs. 6.17 ± 0.98, P < 0.05 and at 24 h - 3.84 ± 0.96 vs. 5.17 ± 0.09, P < 0.05). Length of incision was significantly smaller (SILC - 2.631 ± 0.44 cm vs. SLC - 5.11 ± 0.44 cm), P < 0.05 and cosmetic score was significantly better in SILC arm (6.25 ± 1.24) than SLC arm (4.71 ± 1.04), P < 0.05. Difference between the hospital stay is insignificant for two arms SILC (2.12 ± 0.34) and SLC (2.13 ± 0.35), P > 0.05. DISCUSSION: Significant difference was found in duration and intensity of pain between two procedures at 4 and 24 h. Cosmesis was significantly better in SILC than SLC group, the sample size in our study was small to arrive at a definite conclusion. The procedure can be selectively and judiciously performed by surgeons
Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J
Codeine is an opioid metabolised to active analgesic compounds, including morphine. It is widely available by prescription, and combination drugs including low doses of codeine are commonly available without prescription. To assess the efficacy, the time to onset of analgesia, the time to use of rescue medication and any associated adverse events of single dose oral codeine in acute postoperative pain. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed to November 2009. Single oral dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of codeine for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data independently extracted by two review authors. Summed total pain relief (TOTPAR) or pain intensity difference (SPID) over 4 to 6 hours were used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief, which were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, the relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours. Numbers using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Data on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Thirty-five studies were included (1223 participants received codeine 60 mg, 27 codeine 90 mg, and 1252 placebo). Combining all types of surgery (33 studies, 2411 participants), codeine 60 mg had an NNT of at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours of 12 (8.4 to 18) compared with placebo. At least 50% pain relief was achieved by 26% on codeine 60 mg and 17% on placebo.Following dental surgery the NNT was 21 (12 to 96) (15 studies, 1146 participants), and following other types of surgery the NNT was 6.8 (4.6 to 13) (18 studies, 1265 participants). The NNT to prevent use of rescue medication within 4 to 6 hours was 11 (6.3 to 50) (11 studies, 765 participants
Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J
Background Codeine is an opioid metabolised to active analgesic compounds, including morphine. It is widely available by prescription, and combination drugs including low doses of codeine are commonly available without prescription. Objectives To assess the efficacy, the time to onset of analgesia, the time to use of rescue medication and any associated adverse events of single dose oral codeine in acute postoperative pain. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed to November 2009. Selection criteria Single oral dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of codeine for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data independently extracted by two review authors. Summed total pain relief (TOTPAR) or pain intensity difference (SPID) over 4 to 6 hours were used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief, which were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, the relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours. Numbers using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Data on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Thirty-five studies were included (1223 participants received codeine 60 mg, 27 codeine 90 mg, and 1252 placebo). Combining all types of surgery (33 studies, 2411 participants), codeine 60 mg had an NNT of at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours of 12 (8.4 to 18) compared with placebo. At least 50% pain relief was achieved by 26% on codeine 60 mg and 17% on placebo. Following dental surgery the NNT was 21 (12 to 96) (15 studies, 1146 participants), and following other types of surgery the NNT was 6.8 (4.6 to 13) (18 studies, 1265 participants). The NNT to prevent
Soyata, Ahmet Z; Celebi, Fahri; Yargc, Lutfi I
Restless legs syndrome is an underdiagnosed sensori-motor disorder and psychotropic drugs are one of the main secondary causes of the illness. The most common psychotropic agents that cause restless legs syndrome are antidepressants; however, antipsychotics have also been reported to induce restless legs syndrome. The prevalence, vulnerability factors and the underlying mechanism of antipsychotic-induced restless legs syndrome are unclear. A possible explanation is that dopaminergic blockade is the main precipitator of the syndrome. Quetiapine-induced restless legs syndrome is another point of interest because of its low binding to D2 receptors. We herein report the case of a restless legs syndrome that emerged after a single low dose quetiapine administration.
Barney, Chantel C.; Feyma, Timothy; Beisang, Arthur; Symons, Frank J.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with myriad debilitating health issues and significant motor and communicative impairments. Because of the former there is concern about the possibility of recurrent and chronic pain but because of the latter it remains difficult to determine what pain ‘looks like’ in RTT. This study investigated pain experience and expression using multiple complementary subjective and objective approaches among a clinical RTT sample. Following informed consent, 18 participants (all female) with RTT (mean age= 12.8 years, SD= 6.32) were characterized in terms of pain experience and interference, typical pain expression, and elicited pain behavior during a passive range of motion-like examination procedure. Parents completed the Dalhousie Pain Interview (DPI; pain type, frequency, duration, intensity), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI; pain interference), and the Non-Communicating Children’s Pain Checklist – Revised (NCCPC-R; typical pain expression). A Pain Examination Procedure (PEP) was conducted and scored using the Pain and Discomfort Scale (PADS). The majority of the sample (89%) were reported to experience pain in the previous week which presented as gastrointestinal (n=8), musculoskeletal (n=5), and seizure related pain (n=5) that was intense (scored 0–10; M= 5.67, SD= 3.09) and long in duration (M= 25.22 hours, SD= 53.52). Numerous pain-expressive behaviors were inventoried (e.g., vocal, facial, mood/interaction changes) when parents reported their child’s typical pain behaviors and based on independent direct observation during a reliably coded pain exam. This study provides subjective and objective evidence that individuals with RTT experience recurring and chronic pain for which pain expression appears intact. PMID:26425056
Ga, Hyuk; Choi, Ji-Ho; Park, Chang-Hae; Yoon, Hyun-Jung
To compare the efficacies of dry needling of trigger points (TrPs) with and without paraspinal needling in myofascial pain syndrome of elderly patients. Single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Forty (40) subjects, between the ages of 63 and 90 with myofascial pain syndrome of the upper trapezius muscle. Eighteen (18) subjects were treated with dry needling of all the TrPs only and another 22 with additional paraspinal needling on days 0, 7, and 14. At 4-week follow-up the results were as follows: (1) TrP and paraspinal dry needling resulted in more continuous subjective pain reduction than TrP dry needling only; (2) TrP and paraspinal dry needling resulted in significant improvements on the geriatric depression scale but TrP dry needling only did not; (3) TrP and paraspinal dry needling resulted in improvements of all the cervical range of motions but TrP dry needling only did not in extensional cervical range of motion; and (4) no cases of gross hemorrhage were noted. TrP and paraspinal dry needling is suggested to be a better method than TrP dry needling only for treating myofascial pain syndrome in elderly patients.
Kutch, Jason J; Labus, Jennifer S; Harris, Richard E; Martucci, Katherine T; Farmer, Melissa A; Fenske, Sonja; Fling, Connor; Ichesco, Eric; Peltier, Scott; Petre, Bogdan; Guo, Wensheng; Hou, Xiaoling; Stephens, Alisa J; Mullins, Chris; Clauw, Daniel J; Mackey, Sean C; Apkarian, A Vania; Landis, J Richard; Mayer, Emeran A
Chronic pain symptoms often change over time, even in individuals who have had symptoms for years. Studying biological factors that predict trends in symptom change in chronic pain may uncover novel pathophysiological mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. In this study, we investigated whether brain functional connectivity measures obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline can predict longitudinal symptom change (3, 6, and 12 months after scan) in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome. We studied 52 individuals with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (34 women, 18 men) who had baseline neuroimaging followed by symptom tracking every 2 weeks for 1 year as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network study. We found that brain functional connectivity can make a significant prediction of short-term (3 month) pain reduction with 73.1% accuracy (69.2% sensitivity and 75.0% precision). In addition, we found that the brain regions with greatest contribution to the classification were preferentially aligned with the left frontoparietal network. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging measures seemed to be less informative about 6- or 12-month symptom change. Our study provides the first evidence that future trends in symptom change in patients in a state of chronic pain may be linked to functional connectivity within specific brain networks.
Jhang, Jia-Fong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as pain in the pelvic organs and related structures of at least 6 months’ duration. The pathophysiology of CPP is uncertain, and its treatment presents challenges. Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A), known for its antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and muscle relaxant activity, has been used recently to treat refractory CPP with promising results. In patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, most studies suggest intravesical BoNT-A injection reduces bladder pain and increases bladder capacity. Repeated BoNT-A injection is also effective and reduces inflammation in the bladder. Intraprostatic BoNT-A injection could significantly improve prostate pain and urinary frequency in the patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Animal studies also suggest BoNT-A injection in the prostate decreases inflammation in the prostate. Patients with CPP due to pelvic muscle pain and spasm also benefit from localized BoNT-A injections. BoNT-A injection in the pelvic floor muscle improves dyspareunia and decreases pelvic floor pressure. Preliminary studies show intravesical BoNT-A injection is useful in inflammatory bladder diseases such as chemical cystitis, radiation cystitis, and ketamine related cystitis. Dysuria is the most common adverse effect after BoNT-A injection. Very few patients develop acute urinary retention after treatment. PMID:26094697
Arora, Hans C.; Eng, Charis
Analysis of the human microbiome continues to reveal new and previously unrealized associations between microbial dysbiosis and disease. Novel approaches to bacterial identification using culture-independent methods allow practitioners to discern the presence of alterations in the taxa and diversity of the microbiome and identify correlations with disease processes. While some of these diseases that have been extensively studied are well-defined in their etiology and treatment methods (colorectal cancer), others have provided much more significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. One such condition, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), has several etiological and potentiating contributions from infection, inflammation, central nervous system (CNS) changes, stress, and central sensitization—all factors that play important roles in the crosstalk between the human body and its microbiome. No singular cause of CP/CPPS has been identified and it is most likely a syndrome with multifactorial causes. This heterogeneity and ambiguity are sources of significant frustration for patients and providers alike. Despite multiple attempts, treatment of chronic prostatitis with monotherapy has seen limited success, which is thought to be due to its heterogeneous nature. Phenotypic approaches to both classify the disease and direct treatment for CP/CPPS have proven beneficial in these patients, but questions still remain regarding etiology. Newer microbiome research has found correlations between symptom scores and disease severity and the degree of dysbiosis in urine and gut (stool) microbiomes in these patients as compared to un-afflicted controls. These findings present potential new diagnostic and therapeutic targets in CP/CPPS patients. PMID:28217695
Arora, Hans C; Eng, Charis; Shoskes, Daniel A
Analysis of the human microbiome continues to reveal new and previously unrealized associations between microbial dysbiosis and disease. Novel approaches to bacterial identification using culture-independent methods allow practitioners to discern the presence of alterations in the taxa and diversity of the microbiome and identify correlations with disease processes. While some of these diseases that have been extensively studied are well-defined in their etiology and treatment methods (colorectal cancer), others have provided much more significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. One such condition, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), has several etiological and potentiating contributions from infection, inflammation, central nervous system (CNS) changes, stress, and central sensitization-all factors that play important roles in the crosstalk between the human body and its microbiome. No singular cause of CP/CPPS has been identified and it is most likely a syndrome with multifactorial causes. This heterogeneity and ambiguity are sources of significant frustration for patients and providers alike. Despite multiple attempts, treatment of chronic prostatitis with monotherapy has seen limited success, which is thought to be due to its heterogeneous nature. Phenotypic approaches to both classify the disease and direct treatment for CP/CPPS have proven beneficial in these patients, but questions still remain regarding etiology. Newer microbiome research has found correlations between symptom scores and disease severity and the degree of dysbiosis in urine and gut (stool) microbiomes in these patients as compared to un-afflicted controls. These findings present potential new diagnostic and therapeutic targets in CP/CPPS patients.
Eisenberg, Elon; Shtahl, Shalom; Geller, Rimma; Reznick, Abraham Z; Sharf, Ordi; Ravbinovich, Meirav; Erenreich, Adam; Nagler, Rafael M
Although both inflammatory and neural mechanisms have been suggested as potential contributors to Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS-I), the pathogenesis of the syndrome is still unclear. Clinical trials have shown that free radical scavengers can reduce signs and symptoms of CRPS-I, indirectly suggesting that free radicals and increased oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of CRPS-I. This study investigated this premise by determining the levels of antioxidants in the serum and saliva of 31 patients with CRPS-I and in a control group of 21 healthy volunteers. Serum lipid peroxidation products (MDA) and all antioxidative parameters analyzed were significantly elevated in CRPS-I patients: median salivary peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity values, uric acid (UA) concentration and total antioxidant status (TAS) values were higher in CRPS-I patients by 150% (p=0.01), 280% (p=0.04), 60% (p=0.0001), and 200% (p=0.0003), respectively, as compared with controls. Similar although not as extensive pattern of oxidative changes were found in the serum: mean serum UA and MDA concentrations and TAS value in the CRPS-I patients were higher by 16% (p=0.04), 25% (p=0.02), and 22% (p=0.05), respectively, than in the controls. Additionally, median salivary albumin concentration and median salivary LDH activities in the patients were 2.5 times (p=0.001) and 3.1 (p=0.004) times higher than in the controls. The accumulated data show that free radicals are involved in the pathophysiology of CRPS-I, which is reflected both in serum and salivary analyses. These data could be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in CRPS-I patients.
Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Rasmussen, Sten; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard
This review overviews the long-term prognosis of conservatively treated patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Median values of the 16 included studies show that 29% of soldiers, 27.8% of sports active and 24,7% of the general public will become pain free after they are diagnosed with PFPS. 21.5% of sports active and 23% of the general public diagnosed with PFPS will stop participating in sports because of knee pain. There is an indication that around one third diagnosed with PFPS will become pain free and one fourth will stop participating in sports because of knee pain.
Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A
The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity exists in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. A total of 20 females with carpal tunnel syndrome (aged 22-60 years), and 20 healthy matched females (aged 21-60 years old) were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. The results showed that pressure pain threshold levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome as compared to healthy controls (all, P < 0.001). Pressure pain threshold was negatively correlated to both hand pain intensity and duration of symptoms (all, P < 0.001). Our findings revealed bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome, which suggest that widespread central sensitization is involved in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The generalized decrease in pressure pain thresholds associated with pain intensity and duration of symptoms supports a role of the peripheral drive to initiate and maintain central sensitization. Nevertheless, both central and peripheral sensitization mechanisms are probably involved at the same time in carpal tunnel syndrome.
Background: The intent of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of massage therapy in the rehabilitation of post–anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction patellofemoral pain syndrome. The primary complications following surgical repair of the anterior cruciate ligament—classified as patellofemoral pain syndrome—are hamstring flexion contracture and quadriceps weakness, leading to patellofemoral dysfunction and retropatellar pain. Methods: Treatment included lymphatic drainage, myofascial release, neuromuscular techniques including trigger point release, muscle energy techniques and cross-fiber friction. Orthopedic physical assessment tests were used to chart changes in patellofemoral function and changes in range of motion in the knee during the course of the massage interventions. Subjective reporting on pain level and function were also documented. Results: A decrease in pain level, hamstring flexion contracture and lateral tracking of the patella were documented. Conclusion: Massage therapy was determined to be an effective complementary therapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:21589717
Kubik, Alicja; Biedroń, Agnieszka
Pain management is based mainly on pharmacotherapy which has many limitations. Non-pharmacological techniques, like neurofeedback (EEG-biofeedback) are alternative methods of pain treatment. Data from literature confirm high efficacy of neurofeedback in pain syndromes treatment, chronic and acute as well. Neurofeedback plays an important role in management of post stroke, post traumatic headaches and in primary headaches like tension type headaches or migraine. Literature review and own experience indicate importance of number and frequency of performed neurofeedback trainings on treatment effectiveness. Satisfactory results have already been observed after 30 trainings however usually 40-60 training have to be performed. Effectiveness of such therapy in pain syndromes is usually good or less often acceptable (50% reduction of headaches). Children with tension type headaches (differently than adults) need reminder therapy every 6-12 months, otherwise recurrence of headaches is observed. Based on our own experience neurofeedback therapy seems to play role in neuropathic pain and cancer pain management.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has traditionally been classified by stooling pattern (e.g., diarrhea-predominant). However, other patterns of symptoms have long been recognized, e.g., pain severity. Our objective was to examine the utility of subtyping women with IBS based on pain/discomfort severit...
Welsh, Caitlyn; Podschun, Laura; Kolber, Morey J.
Due to complex movements and high physical demands, dance is often associated with a multitude of impairments including pain of the low back, pelvis, leg, knee, and foot. This case report provides an exercise progression, emphasizing enhancement of strength and neuromuscular performance using the concept of regional interdependence in a 17 year old female dancer with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:21589665
To determine gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration in children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome (FAP/IBS) versus control subjects and ascertain potential relationships with pain symptoms and stooling, GI permeability a...
Valle Feijóo, M L; Bermúdez Sanjurjo, J R; González Vázquez, L; Rey Martínez, M; de la Fuente Aguado, J
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare condition characterized by abdominal pain and a wide range of nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a woman with abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as clinical presentation of AIP. The diagnosis was achieved through the etiologic study of the SIADH.
Nickel, J. Curtis
Acceptance of the National Institutes of Health definition of Category III Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) and the development and validation of the Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index has stimulated significant research into treatment of this condition. Evidence-based suggestions for treatment include the following. (i) Antimicrobials cannot be recommended for men with longstanding, previously treated CP/CPPS. (ii) Alpha-blockers can be recommended as first-line medical therapy, particularly in alpha-blocker-naïve men with moderately severe symptoms who have relatively recent onset of symptoms. (iii) Alpha-blockers cannot be recommended in men with longstanding CP/CPPS who have tried and failed alpha-blockers in the past. And (iv) anti-inflammatory therapy, finasteride and pentosan polysulfate are not recommended as primary treatment; however, they may have a useful adjunctive role in a multimodal therapeutic regimen. Early data on herbal therapies, particularly quercetin and cernilton, are intriguing, but larger multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trials are required before a high level of evidence recommendation can be made on its use. At this time, surgery (including minimally invasive) is recommended only for definitive indications and not generally for CP/CPPS. PMID:17954024
Pöllmann, W; Feneberg, W; Steinbrecher, A; Haupts, M R; Henze, T
While pain is a common problem in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, it is frequently overlooked and has to be asked for actively. Pain can be classified into 4 diagnostically and therapeutically relevant categories. 1. PAIN DIRECTLY RELATED TO MS: Painful paroxysmal symptoms like trigeminal neuralgia or painful tonic spasms are treated with carbamazepine as first choice, or lamotrigine, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine and other anticonvulsants. Painful "burning" dysaesthesia, the most frequent chronic pain syndrome, are treated with tricyclic antidepressants or carbamazepine, further options include gabapentin or lamotrigine. While escalation therapy may require opioids, the role of cannabinoids in the treatment of pain still has to be determined. 2. PAIN INDIRECTLY RELATED TO MS: Pain related to spasticity often improves with adequate physiotherapy. Drug treatment includes antispastic agents like baclofen or tizanidine, alternatively gabapentin. In severe cases botulinum toxin injections or intrathecal baclofen merit consideration. Physiotherapy and physical therapy may ameliorate malposition-induced joint and muscle pain. Moreover, painful pressure lesions should be avoided using optimally adjusted aids. 3. Treatment-related pain can occur with subcutaneous injections of beta interferons or glatiramer acetate and may be reduced by optimizing the injection technique and by local cooling. Systemic side effects of interferons like myalgias can be reduced by paracetamol or ibuprofen. 4. Pain unrelated to MS such as back pain or headache are frequent in MS patients and may be worsened by the disease. Treatment should be follow established guidelines. In summary, a careful analysis of the pain syndrome will allow the design of the appropriate treatment plan using various medical and non-medical options and thus will help to ameliorate the patients' quality of life.
Moisset, Xavier; Calbacho, Valentina; Torres, Pilar; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle; Dallel, Radhouane
Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic and spontaneous oral pain with burning quality in the tongue or other oral mucosa without any identifiable oral lesion or laboratory finding. Pathogenesis and etiology of BMS are still unknown. However, BMS has been associated with other chronic pain syndromes including other idiopathic orofacial pain, the dynias group and the family of central sensitivity syndromes. This would imply that BMS shares common mechanisms with other cephalic and/or extracephalic chronic pains. The primary aim of this systematic review was to determine whether BMS is actually associated with other pain syndromes, and to analyze cephalic and extracephalic somatosensory sensitivity in these patients. Methods This report followed the PRISMA Statement. An electronic search was performed until January 2015 in PubMed, Cochrane library, Wiley and ScienceDirect. Searched terms included “burning mouth syndrome OR stomatodynia OR glossodynia OR burning tongue OR oral burning”. Studies were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria (report of an association between BMS and other pain(s) symptoms or of cutaneous cephalic and/or extracephalic quantitative sensory testing in BMS patients), and a descriptive analysis conducted. Results The search retrieved 1512 reports. Out of these, twelve articles met criteria for co-occurring pain symptoms and nine studies for quantitative sensory testing (QST) in BMS patients. The analysis reveals that in BMS patients co-occurring pain symptoms are rare, assessed by only 0.8% (12 of 1512) of the retrieved studies. BMS was associated with headaches, TMD, atypical facial pain, trigeminal neuralgia, post-herpetic facial pain, back pain, fibromyalgia, joint pain, abdominal pain, rectal pain or vulvodynia. However, the prevalence of pain symptoms in BMS patients is not different from that in the age-matched general population. QST studies reveal no or inconsistent evidence of abnormal cutaneous cephalic
Kuan, Yung-Hui; Shyu, Bai-Chuang
Painful sensations are some of the most frequent complaints of patients who are admitted to local medical clinics. Persistent pain varies according to its causes, often resulting from local tissue damage or inflammation. Central somatosensory pathway lesions that are not adequately relieved can consequently cause central pain syndrome or central neuropathic pain. Research on the molecular mechanisms that underlie this pathogenesis is important for treating such pain. To date, evidence suggests the involvement of ion channels, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channel P2X receptors, in central nervous system pain transmission and persistent modulation upon and following the occurrence of neuropathic pain. Several P2X receptor subtypes, including P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, have been shown to play diverse roles in the pathogenesis of central pain including the mediation of fast transmission in the peripheral nervous system and modulation of neuronal activity in the central nervous system. This review article highlights the role of the P2X family of ATP receptors in the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain and pain transmission. We discuss basic research that may be translated to clinical application, suggesting that P2X receptors may be treatment targets for central pain syndrome.
Werhagen, Lars; Borg, Kristian
The purpose of this study was to analyze pain, both nociceptive and neuropathic, in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and relate the pain to age at the initial polio infection, age at examination, to gender and disability. The study was conducted in a university hospital department. Patients with PPS were interviewed at their regular visits about pain, its character, intensity and localization. A clinical examination, including a thorough neurological examination, was performed. Data included age at time of polio infection, age at time of examination and gender. Pain intensity was measured with the VAS-scale and walking capability by the WISCI-scale. One hundred sixty-three (88 women, 75 men) patients were included in the study. Pain was present in 109 (67%). Pain was more frequently reported by women (82%) than by men (49%). 96 patients experienced nociceptive pain, 10 patients both neuropathic and nociceptive pain and three experienced pure neuropathic pain. Half of the patients with pain experienced pain in more than one body region. When neuropathic pain was present, another additional neurological disorder was diagnosed. Pain was more often found in younger patients (around 70%) than in older patients (around 50%). In summary pain is common in patients with PPS and most patients experienced nociceptive pain. Women have pain more often than men. Older patients experience pain more seldom than younger patients. Age at time of primary polio infection is important for the development of pain. When neuropathic pain is present, it is important to proceed with neurological examination to find an adequate diagnosis.
Hirsch, Alan R; Ziad, Alhumayyd; Kim, Ah Young; Lail, Navdeep Singh; Sharma, Sameer
Burning mouth syndrome affects 1-3% of the population The exact mechanism is unknown. Bartoshuk has demonstrated sweet hypogeusia in those with burning mouth syndrome. Intensification of sweet taste may compensate for this deficit and reduce the pain. © 2011 American Headache Society.
González-Roldán, Ana María; Bomba, Isabelle C; Diesch, Eugen; Montoya, Pedro; Flor, Herta; Kamping, Sandra
To examine the role of perceived control in pain perception, fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls participated in a reaction time experiment under different conditions of pain controllability. No significant differences between groups were found in pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings. However, during the expectation of uncontrollable pain, patients compared to controls showed higher hippocampal activation. In addition, hippocampal activity during the pain expectation period predicted activation of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus and hippocampus during pain stimulation in fibromyalgia patients. The increased activation of the hippocampus during pain expectation and subsequent activation of the PCC/precuneus during the lack of control phase points towards an influence of pain perception through heightening of alertness and anxiety responses to pain in fibromyalgia patients.
Hylands-White, Nicholas; Duarte, Rui V; Beeson, Paul; Mayhew, Stephen D; Raphael, Jon H
Pain is a subjective response that limits assessment. The purpose of this case report was to explore how the objectivity of the electroencephalographic response to thermal stimuli would be affected by concurrent spinal cord stimulation. A patient had been implanted with a spinal cord stimulator for the management of complex regional pain syndrome of both hands for 8 years. Following ethical approval and written informed consent we induced thermal stimuli using the Medoc PATHWAY Pain & Sensory Evaluation System on the right hand of the patient with the spinal cord stimulator switched off and with the spinal cord stimulator switched on. The patient reported a clinically significant reduction in thermal induced pain using the numerical rating scale (71.4 % reduction) with spinal cord stimulator switched on. Analysis of electroencephalogram recordings indicated the occurrence of contact heat evoked potentials (N2-P2) with spinal cord stimulator off, but not with spinal cord stimulator on. This case report suggests that thermal pain can be reduced in complex regional pain syndrome patients with the use of spinal cord stimulation and offers objective validation of the reported outcomes with this treatment.
Chiou, Eric; Nurko, Samuel
Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are among the most commonly diagnosed medical problems in pediatrics. Symptom-based Rome III criteria for FAP and IBS have been validated and help the clinician in making a positive diagnosis. The majority of patients with mild complaints improve with reassurance and time. For a distinct subset of patients with more severe and disabling illness, finding effective treatment for these disorders remains a challenge. Over the years, a wide range of therapies have been proposed and studied. The lack of a single, proven intervention highlights the complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors probably involved in the development of childhood FAP and IBS, and the need for a multidisciplinary, integrated approach. This article reviews the current literature on the efficacy of pharmacologic, dietary and psychosocial interventions for FAP and IBS in children and adolescents. PMID:20528117
Iwańczak, Franciszek; Siedlecka-Dawidko, Jolanta; Iwanczak, Barbara
III Rome Criteria of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children, distinguished the disturbances with abdominal pain, to which irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pains, functional dyspepsia and abdominal migraine were included. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was sonographic assessment of the gallbladder and its contractility in functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children. The study comprised 96 children aged 6 to 18 years, 59 girls and 37 boys. Depending on diagnosis, the children were divided into three groups. 38 children with functional abdominal pain constituted the first group, 26 children with irritable bowel syndrome were included to the second group, the third group consisted of 32 healthy children (control group). Diagnosis of functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome was made based on the III Rome Criteria. In irritable bowel syndrome both forms with diarrhea (13) and with constipation (13) were observed. Anatomy and contractility of the gallbladder were assessed by ultrasound examination. The presence of septum, wall thickness, thick bile, vesicle volume in fasting state and 30th and 60th minute after test meal were taken into consideration. Test meal comprised about 15% of caloric requirement of moderate metabolism. Children with bile stones and organic diseases were excluded from the study. Thickened vesicle wall and thick bile were present more frequently in children with irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain than in control group (p < 0.02). Fasting vesicle volume was significantly greater in children with functional abdominal pain than in irritable bowel syndrome and control group (p = 0.003, p = 0.05). Vesicle contractility after test meal was greatest in children with functional abdominal pain. Evaluation of diminished (smaller than 30%) and enlarged (greater then 80%) gallbladder contractility at 30th and 60th minute after test meal demonstrated disturbances of contractility in children
Oomen, Robert J A; Witjens, Annemijke C; van Wijck, Albert J M; Grobbee, Diederik E; Lock, Tycho M T W
Testicular pain syndrome (TPS), defined as an intermittent or constant pain in one or both testicles for at least 3 months, resulting in significant reduction of daily activities, is common. Microsurgical denervation of the spermatic cord (MDSC) has been suggested as an effective treatment option. The study population comprised 180 TPS patients admitted to our outpatient urology clinic between 1999 and 2011. On 3 different occasions, patients were offered a double-blind, placebo-controlled temporary blockade of the spermatic cord. A single blockade consisted of 10 mL 2% lidocaine, 10 mL 0.25% bupivacaine, or 10 mL 0.9% sodium chloride. If the results of these blockades were positive, MDSC was offered. All MDSCs were performed by a single urologist (M.T.W.T.L.) using an inguinal approach. Pain reduction was determined at prospective follow-up. This study evaluated 180 patients. Most patients (61.1%) had undergone a scrotal or inguinal procedure. Patients had complaints during sexual activities (51.7%), sitting (37.5%), and/or cycling (36.7%); 189 randomized blockades were offered to all patients. There was a positive response in 37% and a negative response in 51%. MDSC was performed on 58 testicular units, including 3 patients with a negative outcome of the blockades. At mean follow-up of 42.8 months, 86.2% had a ≥ 50% reduction of pain and 51.7% were completely pain free. MDSC is a valuable treatment option for TPS patients because in this study 86.2% experienced a ≥ 50% reduction of pain. To prevent superfluous diagnostics and treatment, it is mandatory to follow a systematic protocol in the treatment of TPS.
This pilot study tested the effectiveness of 6 therapeutic touch treatments on the experience of pain and quality of life for persons with fibromyalgia syndrome. Its findings support that subjects who received therapeutic touch had a statistically significant decrease in pain for each pretherapeutic to posttherapeutic touch treatment, as well as significant improvement in quality of life from pre-first to pre-sixth treatment. Therapeutic touch may be an effective treatment for relieving pain and improving quality of life in this specific population of persons with fibromyalgia syndrome.
Paiva, Aline Lariessy Campos; Araujo, João Luiz Vitorino; Lovato, Renan Maximilian; Teixeira, Joel Augusto Ribeiro; Miura, Flávio Key; Guirado, Vinicius Monteiro de Paula; Veiga, José Carlos Esteves
Eagle syndrome is a rare condition presenting with retroauricular pain (usually as main symptom) associated with dysphagia, headache, neck pain on rotation and, much rarelier, stroke. This occurs due to styloid process elongation. Sometimes, there is also styloid ligament calcification, which can cause compression of nerves and arteries and the symptoms above. Treatment can be conservative with pain modulators (e.g. pregabalin) or infiltrations (steroids or anesthetics drugs). In refractory cases, surgical approach aiming to reduce the size of the styloid process can be performed. We present a rare case of Eagle syndrome (documented by computed tomography) with good response to clinical treatment.
Vegunta, Sravanthi; Cotugno, Richard; Williamson, Amber; Grebe, Theresa A
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a multiple malformation syndrome characterized by pulmonic stenosis, cardiomyopathy, short stature, lymphatic dysplasia, craniofacial anomalies, cryptorchidism, clotting disorders, and learning disabilities. Eight genes in the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway are implicated in NS. Chronic pain is an uncommon feature. To investigate the prevalence of pain in NS, we distributed a two-part questionnaire about pain among NS individuals at the Third International Meeting on Genetic Syndromes of the Ras/MAPK Pathway. The first part of the questionnaire queried demographic information among all NS participants. The second part was completed by individuals with chronic pain. Questions included musculoskeletal problems and clinical features of pain. Forty-five questionnaires were analyzed; 53% of subjects were female. Mean age was 17 (2-48) years; 47% had a PTPN11 mutation. Sixty-two percent (28/45) of individuals with NS experienced chronic pain. There was a significant relationship between prevalence of pain and residing in a cold climate (P = 0.004). Pain occurred commonly in extremities/joints and head/trunk, but more commonly in extremities/joints (P = 0.066). Subjects with hypermobile joints were more likely to have pain (P = 0.052). Human growth hormone treatment was not statistically significant among subjects without chronic pain (P = 0.607). We conclude that pain is a frequent and under-recognized clinical feature of NS. Chronic pain may be associated with joint hypermobility and aggravated by colder climate. Our study is a preliminary investigation that should raise awareness about pain as a common symptom in children and adults with NS.
Boelens, Oliver B; Maatman, Robert C; Scheltinga, Marc R; van Laarhoven, Kees; Roumen, Rudi M
Most patients with chronic back pain suffer from degenerative thoracolumbovertebral disease. However, the following case illustrates that a localized peripheral nerve entrapment must be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic back pain. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman with continuous excruciating pain in the lower back area. Previous treatment for nephroptosis was to no avail. On physical examination the pain was present in a 2 x 2 cm area overlying the twelfth rib some 4 cm lateral to the spinal process. Somatosensory testing using swab and alcohol gauze demonstrated the presence of skin hypo- and dysesthesia over the painful area. Local pressure on this painful spot elicited an extreme pain response that did not irradiate towards the periphery. These findings were highly suggestive of a posterior version of the anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), a condition leading to a severe localized neuropathic pain in anterior portions of the abdominal wall. She demonstrated a beneficial albeit temporary response after lidocaine infiltration as dictated by an established diagnostic and treatment protocol for ACNES. She subsequently underwent a local neurectomy of the involved superficial branch of the intercostal nerve. This limited operation had a favorable outcome resulting in a pain-free return to normal activities up to this very day (follow-up of 24 months).We propose to name this novel syndrome "posterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome" (POCNES). Each patient with chronic localized back pain should undergo simple somatosensory testing to detect the presence of overlying skin hypo- and dysesthesia possibly reflecting an entrapped posterior cutaneous nerve.Key words: Chronic pain, back pain, posterior cutaneous nerve entrapment, peripheral nerve entrapment, surgical treatment for pain, anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment.
Ярошевський, Олександр Анатолійович
The relevance of this study is caused by the wide spread of musculoskeletal pain, particularly among young people of working age and lack of effectiveness of drug treatment. To study the capability of non-pharmacological treatment in patients with myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization considering the influence to nonspecific symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome (autonomic dysfunctions and emotional disorders). We studied 115 patients aged from 18 to 44 years with myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization. We used neurological, vertebral- neurological, neuropsychological examination. The severity of pain was assessed by the Visual analog scale for pain (VAS pain). Patients were divided into two groups. The first group of patients (59 individuals) received the complex of manual therapy. The second group of patients (56 individuals) received the complex of manual therapy combined with acupuncture. Non-pharmacological treatment was effective in patients with myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization. Application of manual therapy methods in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization leading to the reduction of severity of pain, emotional disorders and autonomic dysfunctions. The combination of manual therapy with acupuncture increases the effectiveness of treatment of myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization by reducing the emotional disorders and autonomic dysfunctions. Patients with myofascial pain syndrome of cervicobrachial localization need the complex of manual therapy combined with acupuncture. The manual therapy corrects abnormal biomechanical pattern while acupuncture corrects autonomic dysfunctions and emotional disorders.
Krieger, John N; Stephens, Alisa J; Landis, J Richard; Clemens, J Quentin; Kreder, Karl; Lai, H Henry; Afari, Niloofar; Rodríguez, Larissa; Schaeffer, Anthony; Mackey, Sean; Andriole, Gerald L; Williams, David A
We used MAPP data to identify participants with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes only or a chronic functional nonurological associated somatic syndrome in addition to urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes. We characterized these 2 subgroups and explored them using 3 criteria, including 1) MAPP eligibility criteria, 2) self-reported medical history or 3) RICE criteria. Self-reported cross-sectional data were collected on men and women with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes, including predominant symptoms, symptom duration and severity, nonurological associated somatic syndrome symptoms and psychosocial factors. Of 424 participants with urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes 162 (38%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome, including irritable bowel syndrome in 93 (22%), fibromyalgia in 15 (4%), chronic fatigue syndrome in 13 (3%) and multiple syndromes in 41 (10%). Of 233 females 103 (44%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome compared to 59 of 191 males (31%) (p = 0.006). Participants with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome had more severe urological symptoms and more frequent depression and anxiety. Of 424 participants 228 (54%) met RICE criteria. Of 228 RICE positive participants 108 (47%) had a nonurological associated somatic syndrome compared to 54 of 203 RICE negative patients (28%) with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome (p < 0.001). Nonurological associated somatic syndromes represent important clinical characteristics of urological chronic pelvic pain syndromes. Participants with a nonurological associated somatic syndrome have more severe symptoms, longer duration and higher rates of depression and anxiety. RICE positive patients are more likely to have a nonurological associated somatic syndrome and more severe symptoms. Because nonurological associated somatic syndromes are more common in women, future studies must account for this potential confounding factor in urological chronic pelvic pain
Feliu, Miriam H; Edwards, Christopher L
The present paper examines the literature that addresses psychologic aspects involved in complex regional pain syndrome from a historic perspective to provide a rationale for the emergence of psychologic theories to explain its pathogenesis. The support of such perspective is then analyzed through the review of evidence-based studies. A review of the literature from a historic perspective was presented since its first description to the present time, including the clinical presentation and associated symptoms. An evidence-based approach was used to review the literature on complex regional pain syndrome and psychologic factors associated with the etiology or as predictors in the development of the disorder. After reviewing the literature on the history and the myths associated with complex regional pain syndrome, a hypothesis is provided based on an analysis of the Zeitgeist in the development of the psychologic theory associated with the disorder. We also concluded there is no evidence to support a linear relationship that establishes a psychologic predisposition to develop the disorder. An analysis of the Zeitgeist when complex regional pain syndrome was first described helps to understand the long-standing theories associated with a psychological theory of its etiology. This understanding should help to undermine the perpetuation of such claims which may contribute to undertreatment and misdiagnosis. To be consistent with todays Zeitgeist we must incorporate psychologic aspects, which while not causal in nature or exclusive of complex regional pain syndrome, are strongly associated with a wide spectrum of chronic pain disorders.
Groeneweg, George; Huygen, Frank JPM; Coderre, Terence J; Zijlstra, Freek J
Background During the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), impaired microcirculation is related to increased vasoconstriction, tissue hypoxia, and metabolic tissue acidosis in the affected limb. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the ischemia and pain in chronic cold CPRS. Discussion The diminished blood flow may be caused by either sympathetic dysfunction, hypersensitivity to circulating catecholamines, or endothelial dysfunction. The pain may be of neuropathic, inflammatory, nociceptive, or functional nature, or of mixed origin. Summary The origin of the pain should be the basis of the symptomatic therapy. Since the difference in temperature between both hands fluctuates over time in cold CRPS, when in doubt, the clinician should prioritize the patient's report of a persistent cold extremity over clinical tests that show no difference. Future research should focus on developing easily applied methods for clinical use to differentiate between central and peripheral blood flow regulation disorders in individual patients. PMID:19775468
Ferrari, Marie-Louise Gander; Thuraisingam, Silvia; Känel, Roland v; Egloff, Niklaus
Background: Several studies show yoga may benefit chronic pain management. We investigated the effect of a single yoga session on the perception of pain, measured by a standardized pain provocation test in healthy yoga participants while also comparing pain perception to participants’ own expectations. Materials and Methods: Ninety yoga participants were recruited at hatha yoga schools in Switzerland. Pain perception was measured with a standardized algometric pain provocation test; i.e., a calibrated peg was applied for 10 seconds after which the participant rated pain intensity on a 0–10 numerical rating scale. The test was applied to the middle finger, ear lobe, and second toe before and after a 60-minute yoga session. Results: Sixty out of 90 (66.7%) yoga participants expected a reduced pain perception after the yoga session. However, 36 (40%) participants actually experienced less pain after compared to before the yoga session. But overall, pain perception statistically did not significantly change from before to after the yoga session at any of the three body locations assessed. The expectations and also the previous yoga experience did not significantly influence the participants’ pain perception. Conclusions: Regardless of the high positive expectations on the influence of yoga on pain, a single yoga session does not significantly influence pain perception induced by a pain provocation test. Hypoalgesic effects of yoga should be explained otherwise. PMID:26170598
Ferrari, Marie-Louise Gander; Thuraisingam, Silvia; von Känel, Roland; Egloff, Niklaus
Several studies show yoga may benefit chronic pain management. We investigated the effect of a single yoga session on the perception of pain, measured by a standardized pain provocation test in healthy yoga participants while also comparing pain perception to participants' own expectations. Ninety yoga participants were recruited at hatha yoga schools in Switzerland. Pain perception was measured with a standardized algometric pain provocation test; i.e., a calibrated peg was applied for 10 seconds after which the participant rated pain intensity on a 0-10 numerical rating scale. The test was applied to the middle finger, ear lobe, and second toe before and after a 60-minute yoga session. Sixty out of 90 (66.7%) yoga participants expected a reduced pain perception after the yoga session. However, 36 (40%) participants actually experienced less pain after compared to before the yoga session. But overall, pain perception statistically did not significantly change from before to after the yoga session at any of the three body locations assessed. The expectations and also the previous yoga experience did not significantly influence the participants' pain perception. Regardless of the high positive expectations on the influence of yoga on pain, a single yoga session does not significantly influence pain perception induced by a pain provocation test. Hypoalgesic effects of yoga should be explained otherwise.
Osipova, N A; Petrova, V V; Abuzarova, G R; Edeleva, N V; Belov, A V
The paper deals with the anesthesiological problems in the prevention and therapy of neuropathic pain syndrome (NPS), including phantom pain syndrome (PPS) at different stages of surgical treatment in a cancer patient. A prospective study has been conducted; a protocol has been elaborated for the management of patients with preoperative chronic pain syndrome and those at a high risk for NPS after cancer operations associated with damage to nerve structures. A clinical case of successful therapy for severe NPS in a female patient after 4 surgical interventions, including exarticulation of the upper limb, is described. The undertaken prevention of NPS and its treatment policy that is based on the current views of the mechanisms responsible for this type of pain and included, in addition to opioid analgesics, different types of antineuropathic agents, including the recent generation anticonvulsant gabapentin (neurontin), are analyzed and investigated in detail.
Prystupa, Andrzej; Mróz, Tomasz; Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Mróz, Katarzyna; Prystupa, Tomasz; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Załuska, Wojciech; Filip, Rafał
Visceral pain has been defined as a pain resulting from activation of pain receptors localized in mucous membrane, serous membrane, and smooth muscles of hollow organs. The great majority of these organs are innervated by parasympathetic and sympathetic outflows. Afferent nerve fibres are involved in conduction of both acute and persistent pain and hyperalgesia. Visceral pain differs significantly from other types of pain in the way it originates and in clinical presentation. It can be misleading as a symptom, producing several problems in the diagnostic process. Sometimes, severe visceral pain is observed in the course of non-lifethreatening functional gastrointestinal disorders, while slight abdominal discomfort may be a first symptom of malignant tumours. For many years, the treatment of visceral pain has been considered as not satisfactory enough and covered a wide variety of pharmacological substances. For example, the complex therapy of pain and other manifestations associated with irritable bowel syndrome include psychotherapy/behavioural therapy, bulk-forming agents, probiotics, laxatives, antidiarrheals, antibacterial agents, antispasmodics, and antidepressants. The current knowledge about the pathogenesis of visceral pain gives a rationale for the development of new, more efficacious drugs with a positive benefit/risk ratio. Unfortunately, experience gained so far with the use of some agents affecting serotoninergic transmission in the gastrointestinal tract have shown a serious danger associated with their administration for patients with irritable bowel syndrome.
Relationships between family and parent characteristics and functional abilities in children with recurrent pain syndromes: an investigation of moderating effects on the pathway from pain to disability.
Logan, Deirdre E; Scharff, Lisa
To identify family characteristics associated with children's ability to function with recurrent pain. Seventy-eight children ages 7-17 years with recurrent pain syndromes [migraine headache or recurrent abdominal pain (RAP)] were recruited from clinic settings. Children completed pain diaries and the Functional Disability Inventory (FDI). Mothers and fathers completed self-report measures of psychological distress, and mothers reported on family environment. Controlling for the influence of pain intensity, family environment and parental distress jointly predicted children's ability to function with pain. Among children with migraine, family environment moderated the relationship between pain and functional disability; in this group, greater pain associated with more functional disability in children from disruptive family environments, but not in children from more adaptive family environments. For some pediatric recurrent pain sufferers, family characteristics associate with the extent of pain-related disability and may help identify children likely to experience more impaired functioning in response to recurrent pain.
Lo, Tony Chung Tung; Yeung, Stephen Tung; Lee, Sujin; Skavinski, Kira; Liao, Solomon
Objective Ehlers–Danlos syndrome frequently causes acute and chronic pain because of joint subluxations and dislocations secondary to hypermobility. Current treatments for pain related to Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and central pain syndrome are inadequate. This case report discusses the therapeutic use of ketamine intravenous infusion as an alternative. Case report A 27-year-old Caucasian female with a history of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and spinal cord ischemic myelopathy resulting in central pain syndrome, presented with severe generalized body pain refractory to multiple pharmacological interventions. After a 7-day course of ketamine intravenous infusion under controlled generalized sedation in the intensive care unit, the patient reported a dramatic reduction in pain levels from 7–8 out of 10 to 0–3 out of 10 on a numeric rating scale and had a significant functional improvement. The patient tolerated a reduction in her pain medication regimen, which originally included opioids, gabapentin, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Conclusion Ketamine infusion treatment has been used in various pain syndromes, including central neuropathic pain, ischemic pain, and regional pain syndrome. Reports have suggested that ketamine modulates pain by the regression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor to a resting state. As such, propagation of nociceptive signal to brain is interrupted allowing for the restoration of physiological balance between pain inhibition and facilitation. The present report shows that this treatment option can be used in patients with refractory central pain syndrome in the setting of spinal cord myelopathy secondary to Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. In addition, as seen in this case, this protocol can potentially decrease the chronic use of pain medication, such as opioids. PMID:27695362
Azzi, Jacques; Atweh, Samir; Saade, Nayef; Jabbour, Rosette
Painful legs and moving toes syndrome is rare. It is predominantly diagnosed in middle-aged adults following a history of spinal cord surgery or trauma. The syndrome consists of abnormal repetitive movements, most commonly in the lower extremities, accompanied by pain in the affected limb. Pain usually precedes the movements. We report a case in a young patient that we believe was induced by the intake of a low-potency neuroleptic, which was prescribed to him for anxiety. The patient was treated with carbamazepine with mild relief of pain and later on with botulinum injection, which significantly reduced the movements and mildly improved the pain. After stopping the treatment, the beneficial effect lasted for about 3 months after which his condition gradually returned to its initial state. PMID:25535220
Kennedy, Rick; Hester, Joan; Simon, Dominic W N
A synovial sarcoma presented in the knee of a young woman 20 years after the onset of pain which was attributed to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Was this a chance occurrence, or could there be any link between the two conditions? Did the pain itself and the persistent inflammatory and immunological response to pain contribute to the development of malignancy, or could the malignancy have been present subclinically for many years and have contributed to the ongoing pain syndrome? This case report looks into the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma and CRPS and the relationship between the neurogenic inflammation seen in CRPS and that seen in malignancies. The diagnosis of CRPS is a diagnosis of exclusion. Constant vigilance of patients with this unpleasant condition is necessary.
Katznelson, Rita; Segal, Shira C.; Clarke, Hance
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a treatment that delivers 100% oxygen at increased atmospheric pressures. The efficacy of HBOT for treating pain has been described in various animal pain models and may have clinical efficacy in the treatment of human chronic pain syndromes. We present our experience with posttraumatic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type 2 in a patient who underwent 15 sessions of HBOT. A 41-year-old male with one-year history of CRPS of left foot followed by left ankle fracture demonstrated less pain, decreased swelling, less allodynia, and improvement in skin color and range of motion of the lower limb after 3 weeks of HBOT. Patient was back to work for the first time in over a year. HBOT may be considered as a valuable therapeutic tool in the treatment of long-standing CRPS. PMID:27445607
Bisciotti, Gian Nicola; Auci, Alessio; Di Marzo, Francesco; Galli, Roberto; Pulici, Luca; Carimati, Giulia; Quaglia, Alessandro; Volpi, Piero
Summary Background groin pain affects all types of athletes, especially soccer players. Many diseases with different etiologies may cause groin pain. Purpose offer a mini review of groin pain in soccer accompanied by the presentation of a case report highlighting the possible association of more clinical frameworks into the onset of groin pain syndrome, in order to recommend that clinical evaluations take into account possible associations between bone, muscle and tendon such as inguinal canal disease. Conclusion the multifactorial etiology of groin pain syndrome needs to be examined with a comprehensive approach, with standardized clinical evaluation based on an imaging protocol in order to evaluate all possible diseases. Study design Mini review- Case report (Level V). PMID:26605198
Ting, Joseph C; Fukshansky, Mikhail; Burton, Allen W
We report the successful treatment of refractory ischemic pain from cisplatin-induced Raynaud's syndrome with spinal cord stimulation after failed pharmacologic management and surgical sympathectomy. A 48-year-old man developed ischemic pain of the hands while undergoing cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic carcinoma. After extensive pharmacologic management and surgical sympathectomy failed to provide adequate analgesia, the patient underwent a percutaneous spinal cord stimulation trial followed by permanent implantation and received significant pain relief prior to succumbing to his illness. Spinal cord stimulation provided effective therapy for refractory ischemic pain, even after failed sympathectomy.
Divarci, Emre; Celtik, Ulgen; Dokumcu, Zafer; Celik, Ahmet; Ergun, Orkan
Median arcuate ligament syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by chronic postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss caused by compression on celiac artery. A 17-year-old girl with chronic severe abdominal pain and weight loss was referred to our clinic. Other causes of chronic abdominal pain were investigated and excluded. The compression on celiac artery was detected on Doppler ultrasound and diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography angiography. The patient underwent laparoscopic release of median arcuate ligament. There were no intraoperative complications; however, partial pain response was observed postoperatively that necessitated para-spinal ganglion blockage. The patient is symptom-free in 1-year follow-up period. PMID:28082779
Aslan, Ahmet; Barutca, Hakan; Kocaaslan, Cemal; Orman, Süleyman; Şahin, Sinan
Summary Background Patients with Nutcracker syndrome generally present with nonspecific abdominal pain, with the left renal vein (LRV) lodged between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. In rare cases this can result in atypical gastrointestinal symptoms, making the diagnosis of Nutcracker syndrome challenging. Case Report A 28-year-old female patient presented with complaints of severe abdominal pain and palpable pulsatile abdominal mass located in the left epigastric area. Computed tomography angiography revealed that the LRV was lodged in the aortomesenteric region with a dilated left ovarian vein and pelvic varicose veins. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy were normal. The patient was diagnosed as Nutcracker syndrome and discharged to be treated with analgesics. Conclusions Nutcracker syndrome can be seen with atypical gastrointestinal and vascular symptoms. Computed tomography angiography is a reliable and robust technique to prove the diagnosis of nutcracker syndrome. PMID:28058069
Mehendale, Anand W; Goldman, Mark P
Fibromyalgia is a disorder that is appearing more and more in the clinical practice but is poorly understood. This paper attempts to look at all available and reliable data on these conditions and will outline current, scientifically sound understanding of these disorders, treatment modalities and future directions for research. It also attempts to analyze the social and cultural implications. Various terms used to describe these syndromes are fibromyalgia (FMS), and myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). PubMed search was performed. Pertinent articles published in past 25 years and The National Academy of Sciences colloquium on Neurobiology of Pain was also reviewed. In addition, news-articles in the lay press as well as the Internet were monitored for material posted by sufferers of these disorders. Studies were reviewed for clinical presentations, history of these disorders, comorbid conditions, etiology, biochemical and microbiologic abnormalities, abnormalities found on neuroimaging and functional neurophysiologic techniques. In addition patient postings on the Internet and articles appearing in lay press were reviewed and social implications are discussed. Upon analysis of these materials the review was organized based on the quality of data and it's contextual scientific, cultural and political meaning for this disorder. This review appears to be pointing towards an entirely new paradigm in pain disorders; therefore, a hypothesis and future direction of research is repeatedly suggested. This study proposes an entirely new paradigm in these disorders based on scientific and cultural data.
Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Kopsky, David J
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid modulator in animals and humans, and has been evaluated since the 1970s as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug in more than 30 clinical trials, in a total of ~6,000 patients. PEA is currently available worldwide as a nutraceutical in different formulations, with and without excipients. Here we describe the results of all clinical trials evaluating PEA’s efficacy and safety in nerve compression syndromes: sciatic pain and pain due to carpal tunnel syndrome, and review preclinical evidence in nerve impingement models. Both the pharmacological studies as well as the clinical trials supported PEA’s action as an analgesic compound. In total, eight clinical trials have been published in such entrapment syndromes, and 1,366 patients have been included in these trials. PEA proved to be effective and safe in nerve compression syndromes. In one pivotal, double blind, placebo controlled trial in 636 sciatic pain patients, the number needed to treat to reach 50% pain reduction compared to baseline was 1.5 after 3 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, no drug interactions or troublesome side effects have been described so far. Physicians are not always aware of PEA as a relevant and safe alternative to opioids and co-analgesics in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Especially since the often prescribed co-analgesic pregabaline has been proven to be ineffective in sciatic pain in a double blind enrichment trial, PEA should be considered as a new and safe treatment option for nerve compression syndromes. PMID:26604814
Williams, Bryan S; Cohen, Steven P
Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a term used to describe chronic pain overlying the lateral aspect of the hip. This regional pain syndrome, once described as trochanteric bursitis, often mimics pain generated from other sources, including, but not limited to myofascial pain, degenerative joint disease, and spinal pathology. The incidence of greater trochanteric pain is reported to be approximately 1.8 patients per 1000 per year with the prevalence being higher in women, and patients with coexisting low back pain, osteoarthritis, iliotibial band tenderness, and obesity. Symptoms of GTPS consist of persistent pain in the lateral hip radiating along the lateral aspect of the thigh to the knee and occasionally below the knee and/or buttock. Physical examination reveals point tenderness in the posterolateral area of the greater trochanter. Most cases of GTPS are self-limited with conservative measures, such as physical therapy, weight loss, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and behavior modification, providing resolution of symptoms. Other treatment modalities include bursa or lateral hip injections performed with corticosteroid and local anesthetic. More invasive surgical interventions have anecdotally been reported to provide pain relief when conservative treatment modalities fail.
Viana, Michele; Glastonbury, Christine M; Sprenger, Till; Goadsby, Peter J
We reviewed the literature on published cases of progressive facial hemiatrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome) to identify possible pathophysiological mechanisms of the syndrome. To describe the somatosensory phenotype of a previously unreported patient with progressive facial hemiatrophy and facial pain. Case report and 4-month follow-up period. University-based tertiary referral headache center. A 37-year-old woman with progressive facial hemiatrophy and strictly left-sided facial pain over 12 years. Greater occipital nerve blockade with lidocaine, 2% (2 mL), and methylprednisolone sodium phosphate (80 mg). Trigeminal sensory phenotype on quantitative sensory testing using thermal threshold and Von Frey hairs. The case report includes patient photographs, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological findings. On the left side, there was continuous pain in V(1) and V(2) and intermittent sharp shooting pains in V(3). The sensory examination showed areas on the left side with pinprick hyperalgesia, cold and heat hyperalgesia, and dynamic mechanical allodynia. The pain in V(1) and V(3) and the allodynia dramatically improved after greater occipital nerve blockade. In the cases reported in the literature, a constant component of the pain was always part of the phenotype, and positive or negative trigeminal sensory signs were frequently described. The phenotype of our patient suggests neuropathic pain involving all 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve, and the patient fulfills newly defined stricter criteria for neuropathic pain. Similar to our case, phenotypes of the other published cases seem to agree with trigeminal neuropathic pain rather than trigeminal neuralgia specifically.
Huang, Jen-Ting; Chen, Han-Yu; Hong, Chang-Zern; Lin, Ming-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Tsai, Chien-Tsung; Chang, Wen-Dien
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of lumbar facet joint injection for piriformis myofascial pain syndrome. Fifty-two patients with chronic myofascial pain in the piriformis muscle each received a lumbar facet injection into the ipsilateral L5-S1 facet joint region, using the multiple insertion technique. Subjective pain intensity, trunk extension range, and lumbar facet signs were measured before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after injection. Thirty-six patients received follow-up for 6 months. Immediately after the injection, 27 patients (51.9%) had complete pain subsidence, 19 patients (36.5%) had pain reduction to a tolerable level, and only 6 patients (11.5%) had no pain relief to a tolerable level. Mean pain intensity was reduced from 7.4±0.9 to 1.6±2.1 after injection (P<0.01). This effectiveness lasted for 2 weeks in 49 patients (94.2%), and lasted for approximately 6 months in 35 (97.2%) of 36 patients. The mean range of motion increased from 13.4±6.8 degrees to 22.1±6.0 degrees immediately after injection, and further increased 2 weeks and 6 months later. Immediately after injection, 45 patients (86.5%) had no facet sign. In addition, 90.4% and 94.4% of patients had no facet sign after 2 weeks and after 6 months, respectively. It is important to identify the possible cause of piriformis myofascial pain syndrome. If this pain is related to lumbar facet lesions, lumbar facet joint injection can immediately suppress piriformis myofascial pain symptoms. This effectiveness may last for at least 6 months in most patients. This study further supports the importance of eliminating the underlying etiological lesion for complete and effective relief of myofascial pain syndrome.
Huang, Jen-Ting; Chen, Han-Yu; Hong, Chang-Zern; Lin, Ming-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Tsai, Chien-Tsung; Chang, Wen-Dien
Background and aims The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of lumbar facet joint injection for piriformis myofascial pain syndrome. Methods Fifty-two patients with chronic myofascial pain in the piriformis muscle each received a lumbar facet injection into the ipsilateral L5–S1 facet joint region, using the multiple insertion technique. Subjective pain intensity, trunk extension range, and lumbar facet signs were measured before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after injection. Thirty-six patients received follow-up for 6 months. Results Immediately after the injection, 27 patients (51.9%) had complete pain subsidence, 19 patients (36.5%) had pain reduction to a tolerable level, and only 6 patients (11.5%) had no pain relief to a tolerable level. Mean pain intensity was reduced from 7.4±0.9 to 1.6±2.1 after injection (P<0.01). This effectiveness lasted for 2 weeks in 49 patients (94.2%), and lasted for approximately 6 months in 35 (97.2%) of 36 patients. The mean range of motion increased from 13.4±6.8 degrees to 22.1±6.0 degrees immediately after injection, and further increased 2 weeks and 6 months later. Immediately after injection, 45 patients (86.5%) had no facet sign. In addition, 90.4% and 94.4% of patients had no facet sign after 2 weeks and after 6 months, respectively. Conclusions It is important to identify the possible cause of piriformis myofascial pain syndrome. If this pain is related to lumbar facet lesions, lumbar facet joint injection can immediately suppress piriformis myofascial pain symptoms. This effectiveness may last for at least 6 months in most patients. This study further supports the importance of eliminating the underlying etiological lesion for complete and effective relief of myofascial pain syndrome. PMID:25170256
Lim, Chaegil; Park, Yongnam; Bae, Youngsook
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Kinesio taping and spiral taping on menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome, to investigate the efficacy of the two types of taping as methods for alleviating menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 34 unmarried women. The subjects were randomly divided into a Kinesio taping group, a spiral taping group and a control group. Subjects with a regular menstrual cycle underwent taping a total of six times; twice a week for about three weeks, starting from 14 days before menstruation and continuing until its end. Degrees of menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome were measured before the application of taping. [Results] The results revealed that Kinesio taping had significant effects on menstrual pain, while spiral taping was effective at alleviating both menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. [Conclusion] Both taping methods before menstruation brought significant relief to menstrual pain, which suggests that spiral taping is an effective method of alleviating premenstrual symptoms. PMID:24259847
Ramon, Silvia; Gleitz, Markus; Hernandez, Leonor; Romero, Luis David
Chronic muscle pain syndrome is one of the main causes of musculoskeletal pathologies requiring treatment. Many terms have been used in the past to describe painful muscular syndromes in the absence of evident local nociception such as myogelosis, muscle hardening, myalgia, muscular rheumatism, fibrositis or myofascial trigger point with or without referred pain. If it persists over six months or more, it often becomes therapy resistant and frequently results in chronic generalized pain, characterized by a high degree of subjective suffering. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as a series of sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by a stiffness of the muscle, caused by hyperirritable nodules in musculoskeletal fibers, known as myofascial trigger points (MTP), and fascial constrictions. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic condition that involves both central and peripheral sensitization and for which no curative treatment is available at the present time. Fibromyalgia shares some of the features of MPS, such as hyperirritability. Many treatments options have been described for muscle pain syndrome, with differing evidence of efficacy. Extracorporeal Shockwave Treatment (ESWT) offers a new and promising treatment for muscular disorders. We will review the existing bibliography on the evidence of the efficacy of ESWT for MPS, paying particular attention to MTP (Myofascial Trigger Point) and Fibromyalgia (FM).
Colaco, Marc; Koslov, David S; Keys, Tristan; Evans, Robert J; Badlani, Gopal H; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Walker, Stephen J
Interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome are terms used to describe a heterogeneous chronic pelvic and bladder pain disorder. Despite its significant prevalence, our understanding of disease etiology is poor. We molecularly characterized interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and determined whether there are clinical factors that correlate with gene expression. Bladder biopsies from female subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and female controls without signs of the disease were collected and divided into those with normal and low anesthetized bladder capacity, respectively. Samples then underwent RNA extraction and microarray assay. Data generated by these assays were analyzed using Omics Explorer (Qlucore, Lund, Sweden), GeneSifter® Analysis Edition 4.0 and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis to determine similarity among samples within and between groups, and measure differentially expressed transcripts unique to each phenotype. A total of 16 subjects were included in study. Principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clear separation between gene expression in tissues from subjects with low compared to normal bladder capacity. Gene expression in tissue from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had normal bladder capacity did not significantly differ from that in controls without interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Pairwise analysis revealed that pathways related to inflammatory and immune response were most involved. Microarray analysis provides insight into the potential pathological condition underlying interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. This pilot study shows that patients with this disorder who have low compared to normal bladder capacity have significantly different molecular characteristics, which may reflect a difference in disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc
Gürsoy, Azize Esra; Kolukısa, Mehmet; Yıldız, Gülsen Babacan; Kocaman, Gülşen; Çelebi, Arif; Koçer, Abdülkadir
Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of neuropathic pain assessed by the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) scale and electrophysiological findings in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods We studied 124 hands with idiopathic CTS with pain complaints involving hand and wrist. All hands were assessed by the LANSS with which a score of 12 or more is defined as pain dominated by neuropathic mechanisms. These hands were assigned to minimal, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme severe groups according to the results of the median nerve conduction studies. Results A LANSS score ≥ 12, suggestive of pain dominated by neuropathic mechanisms, was defined in 59 (47.6%) CTS hands. Pain intensity was significantly higher in CTS hands with a LANSS score ≥ 12 (P < 0.001). Among electrophysiological findings, compound muscle action potential amplitude was significantly lower in hands with a LANSS score ≥ 12 compared with hands with a LANSS score < 12 (P = 0.020). Severity of CTS was not significantly different between LANSS ≥ 12 and LANSS < 12 groups. Electrophysiological severity was significantly higher in CTS hands with evoked pain (P = 0.005) and allodynia (P < 0.001) in LANSS subscore analysis. Conclusion We suggest that the presence of pain dominated by neuropathic mechanisms in CTS is not related to electrophysiological CTS severity. Neuropathic pain should be assessed carefully in patients with CTS, and an appropriate treatment plan should be chosen, taking into account the clinical and electrophysiological findings together with the true pain classification. PMID:23326196
Althaus, Astrid; Poels, Marcel; Joppich, Robin; Lefering, Rolf; Wappler, Frank; Windisch, Wolfram; Ludwig, Corinna; Stoelben, Erich
Background Thoracotomy leads to chronic neuropathic pain in up to 50% of patients and is responsible for an impaired quality of life. Intercostal nerve injury has been suggested to be responsible for this pain. In the present study the impact of paravertebral intercostal neurectomy on post thoracotomy pain was assessed. Methods In this single center parallel-group randomized controlled trial patients underwent muscle sparing anterolateral thoracotomy and anatomical lung resection for lung cancer. A subcostal approach was used for thoracotomy with single paravertebral neurectomy being performed at the beginning of the procedure at the level of the retracted intercostal space. For documentation of neuropathic pain the Leeds Assessment Score for Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) was used postoperatively. The primary endpoint was defined as LANSS ≥12 points on day 120. In addition, the numeric pain rating scale (NRS) was used to score pain intensity. Results Out of 172 patients initially randomized 161 patients were investigated following intraoperative and postoperative drop-out criteria. All patients required anatomical lung resection via thoracotomy. Five patients were lost for follow up. For the remaining 156 patients there was no difference between the two groups with regard to LANSS ≥12: 26.6% in patients with neurectomy and 28.8% in control-subjects (P=0.78). In addition, the NSR score at day 120 did not differ significantly at rest and during activity between the two groups (at rest: 21.7% vs. 15.8% P=0.439; activity: 24.5% vs. 21.9% P=0.735). Conclusions Neurectomy was not shown to reduce the post thoracotomy pain syndrome in patients with anatomical lung resection following anterolateral muscle sparing thoracotomy. PMID:27746994
Keep, Marcus F; Mastrofrancesco, Lois; Craig, Arthur D; Ashby, Lynn S
The authors report the neuroimaging features, treatment planning, and outcome in a case of radiosurgical thalamotomy targeting the centromedian nucleus (CMN) for stroke-induced thalamic pain. A 79-year-old man, with embolic occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery and large hemispheric infarction involving the thalamus, suffered a right hemiplegia and expressive aphasia. One year poststroke, severe right-sided facial, scalp, arm, and trunk pain developed and was exacerbated by any tactile contact. Medical treatment had failed. Medical illness, including mandatory anticoagulation therapy for atrial fibrillation, precluded surgical procedures. Minimally invasive radiosurgery was offered as an alternative. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were used to localize the left CMN. A single shot of 140 Gy was delivered to the 100% isodose line by using the 4-mm collimator helmet. The patient was evaluated at regular intervals. By 12 weeks posttreatment, he had significant improvements in pain control and his ability to tolerate physical contact during activities of daily living. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated baseline encephalomalacia from his prior stroke, and signal changes in the left CMN consistent with gamma irradiation-based thalamotomy. Currently, nearly 7 years after radiosurgery, he continues to enjoy a marked reduction in pain without the need of analgesic medications. Thalamic pain syndrome is generally refractory to conventional treatment. Neurosurgical interventions provide modest benefit and carry associated risks of invasive surgery and anesthesia. The CMN is readily localized with neuroimaging and is an approximate target to reduce the suffering aspect of pain. In this case, radiosurgery was a safe and effective treatment, providing durable symptom control and improved quality of life.
Nishi, Shamima Easmin; Hassan, Siti Nazihahasma
Neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon that affects millions of people worldwide. Maxillofacial structures consist of various tissues that receive frequent stimulation during food digestion. The unique functions (masticatory process and facial expression) of the maxillofacial structure require the exquisite organization of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuralgia is painful paroxysmal disorder of the head-neck region characterized by some commonly shared features such as the unilateral pain, transience and recurrence of attacks, and superficial and shock-like pain at a trigger point. These types of pain can be experienced after nerve injury or as a part of diseases that affect peripheral and central nerve function, or they can be psychological. Since the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerves innervate the oral structure, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia are the most common syndromes following myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Nevertheless, misdiagnoses are common. The aim of this review is to discuss the currently available diagnostic procedures and treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. PMID:28827979
Khan, Mohammad; Nishi, Shamima Easmin; Hassan, Siti Nazihahasma; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua
Neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon that affects millions of people worldwide. Maxillofacial structures consist of various tissues that receive frequent stimulation during food digestion. The unique functions (masticatory process and facial expression) of the maxillofacial structure require the exquisite organization of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuralgia is painful paroxysmal disorder of the head-neck region characterized by some commonly shared features such as the unilateral pain, transience and recurrence of attacks, and superficial and shock-like pain at a trigger point. These types of pain can be experienced after nerve injury or as a part of diseases that affect peripheral and central nerve function, or they can be psychological. Since the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerves innervate the oral structure, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia are the most common syndromes following myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Nevertheless, misdiagnoses are common. The aim of this review is to discuss the currently available diagnostic procedures and treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.
Malaki, Majid; Mortazavi, Fakhr Sadat; Moazemi, Sussan; Shoaran, Maryam
Insomnia and limb pain are common problems in dialysis patients. In addition, restless leg syndrome (RLS) as a specific cause of insomnia and limb pain has been reported in many studies. The purpose of this study was to estimate incidence of insomnia and RLS as a cause of insomnia in these patients. Twenty-six patients undergoing hemodialysis were investigated for insomnia, limb pain and RLS as per the defined criteria. They were evaluated for dialysis quality, dialysis duration, hemoglobin, serum phosphorous, ionized calcium, iron and ferritin levels. These variables between patients with insomnia and those with normal sleep were evaluated by independent "t" test. Without considering the etiology or pathogenesis of insomnia, we evaluated the occurrence of insomnia and limb pain in these patients, and specifically, restless leg syndrome. Insomnia and limb pain were common in dialytic patients. 46% of patients had insomnia. 91% of sleepless group had limb pain as a persistent, annoying complaint. Limb pain was not seen in groups with a normal sleep pattern. Restless leg syndrome was found in 8% of total cases (2 out of 26) and 17% among the insomnia group (2 out of 12). In spite of high incidence of insomnia among patients undergoing regular hemodialysis, role of RLS is trivial. There is a strong relationship between hemoglobin levels and duration of renal replacement therapy to insomnia occurrence.
Papadopoulos, Elias C; Khan, Safdar N
Piriformis syndrome is a common cause of low back pain. It is often not included in the differential diagnosis of back, buttock, and leg pain. Additionally it has received minimal recognition because it is often seen as a diagnosis of exclusion. Familiarity with the common elements of the syndrome should increase its recognition and facilitate the appropriate treatment. These include buttock pain and tenderness with or without electrodiagnostic or neurologic signs. Pain is exacerbated in prolonged sitting. Specific physical findings are tenderness in the sciatic notch and buttock pain in flexion, adduction, and internal rotation (FADIR) of the hip. Imaging modalities are rarely helpful, but electrophysiologic studies should confirm the diagnosis, if not immediately, then certainly in a patient re-evaluation and as such should be sought persistently. Physical therapy aims at stretching the muscle and reducing the vicious cycle of pain and spasm. It is a mainstay of conservative treatment, usually enhanced by local injections. Surgery should be reserved as a last resort in case of failure of all conservative modalities. Piriformis syndrome may constitute up to 5% of cases of low back, buttock, and leg pain. Recognition and widespread appreciation of the clinical presentation improves its early detection and accurate treatment.
Robinson, Gail; Cohen, Helen; Goebel, Andreas
This systematic investigation of the neurocognitive correlates of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in a single case also reports agnosia for object orientation in the context of persistent CRPS. We report a patient (JW) with severe long-standing CRPS who had no difficulty identifying and naming line drawings of objects presented in 1 of 4 cardinal orientations. In contrast, he was extremely poor at reorienting these objects into the correct upright orientation and in judging whether an object was upright or not. Moreover, JW made orientation errors when copying drawings of objects, and he also showed features of mirror reversal in writing single words and reading single letters. The findings are discussed in relation to accounts of visual processing. Agnosia for object orientation is the term for impaired knowledge of an object's orientation despite good recognition and naming of the same misoriented object. This defect has previously only been reported in patients with major structural brain lesions. The neuroanatomical correlates are discussed. The patient had no structural brain lesion, raising the possibility that nonstructural reorganisation of cortical networks may be responsible for his deficits. Other patients with CRPS may have related neurocognitive defects.
Moloney, Rachel D; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F
Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs, which is distinct from somatic pain. It is a hallmark of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable-bowel syndrome (IBS). Currently, the treatment strategies targeting visceral pain are unsatisfactory, with development of novel therapeutics hindered by a lack of detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Stress has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of visceral pain in both preclinical and clinical studies. Here, we discuss the complex etiology of visceral pain reviewing our current understanding in the context of the role of stress, gender, gut microbiota alterations, and immune functioning. Furthermore, we review the role of glutamate, GABA, and epigenetic mechanisms as possible therapeutic strategies for the treatment of visceral pain for which there is an unmet medical need. Moreover, we discuss the most widely described rodent models used to model visceral pain in the preclinical setting. The theory behind, and application of, animal models is key for both the understanding of underlying mechanisms and design of future therapeutic interventions. Taken together, it is apparent that stress-induced visceral pain and its psychiatric comorbidities, as typified by IBS, has a multifaceted etiology. Moreover, treatment strategies still lag far behind when compared to other pain modalities. The development of novel, effective, and specific therapeutics for the treatment of visceral pain has never been more pertinent.
Moloney, Rachel D.; O’Mahony, Siobhain M.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.
Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs, which is distinct from somatic pain. It is a hallmark of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable-bowel syndrome (IBS). Currently, the treatment strategies targeting visceral pain are unsatisfactory, with development of novel therapeutics hindered by a lack of detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Stress has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of visceral pain in both preclinical and clinical studies. Here, we discuss the complex etiology of visceral pain reviewing our current understanding in the context of the role of stress, gender, gut microbiota alterations, and immune functioning. Furthermore, we review the role of glutamate, GABA, and epigenetic mechanisms as possible therapeutic strategies for the treatment of visceral pain for which there is an unmet medical need. Moreover, we discuss the most widely described rodent models used to model visceral pain in the preclinical setting. The theory behind, and application of, animal models is key for both the understanding of underlying mechanisms and design of future therapeutic interventions. Taken together, it is apparent that stress-induced visceral pain and its psychiatric comorbidities, as typified by IBS, has a multifaceted etiology. Moreover, treatment strategies still lag far behind when compared to other pain modalities. The development of novel, effective, and specific therapeutics for the treatment of visceral pain has never been more pertinent. PMID:25762939
olde Hartman, Tim C; Lucassen, Peter L B J; van de Lisdonk, Eloy H; Bor, Hans H J; van Weel, Chris
Background: Reliable longitudinal data of patients with functional somatic symptoms in general practice are lacking. Aims: To identify distinctive features in patients with chronic functional somatic symptoms, and to determine whether these symptoms support the hypothesis of the existence of specific somatic syndromes. Design of study: Observational study, with a comparison control group. Setting: Four primary care practices affiliated with the University of Nijmegen in the Netherlands. Method: One hundred and eighty-two patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2002 as having chronic functional somatic symptoms and 182 controls matched by age, sex, socioeconomic status, and practice were included. Data on comorbidity, referrals, diagnostic tests, and hospital admissions over a period of 10 years prior to the diagnosis were collected. Medication use and number of visits to the general practitioner (GP) were extracted from the moment computerised registration was started. Results: In the 10 years before the diagnosis of chronic functional somatic symptoms, significantly more patients than controls presented functional somatic symptoms in at least two body systems, and used more somatic and psychotropic drugs. They visited the GP twice as much, statistically had significantly more psychiatric morbidity, and were referred more often to mental health workers and somatic specialists. The number of patients undergoing diagnostic tests was higher for patients with chronic functional somatic symptoms than for controls, but hospital admissions rates were equal. Conclusion: Patients with chronic functional somatic symptoms have a great diversity of functional somatic symptoms. They use more somatic and psychotropic drugs than controls in the years before diagnosis. Moreover, they show high rates of referrals and psychiatric morbidity. The diversity of symptoms of patients with chronic functional somatic symptoms supports the concept that symptoms do not cluster in well defined
ABSTRACT Purpose: Pain is a significantly disabling problem that often interacts with other deficits during the rehabilitation process. The aim of this paper is to review evidence of interactions between pain and the motor cortex in order to attempt to answer the following questions: (1) Does acute pain interfere with motor-cortex activity? (2) Does chronic pain interfere with motor-cortex activity, and, conversely, does motor-cortex plasticity contribute to chronic pain? (3) Can the induction of motor plasticity by means of motor-cortex stimulation decrease pain? (4) Can motor training result in both motor-cortex reorganization and pain relief? Summary of Key Points: Acute experimental pain has been clearly shown to exert an inhibitory influence over the motor cortex, which can interfere with motor learning capacities. Current evidence also suggests a relationship between chronic pain and motor-cortex reorganization, but it is still unclear whether one causes the other. However, there is growing evidence that interventions aimed at normalizing motor-cortex organization can lead to pain relief. Conclusions: Interactions between pain and the motor cortex are complex, and more studies are needed to understand these interactions in our patients, as well as to develop optimal rehabilitative strategies. PMID:22654236
Hayden, Radford J; Louis, Dean S; Doro, Christopher
Fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes are terms used to describe a constellation of complaints ranging from generalized aches to specific tender trigger points often accompanied by fatigue, depression, and sleep disturbances. In the past 5 years, research has been directed primarily at determining the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes and the treatment of patients' comorbidities to alleviate their symptomatology. Controversy exists as to whether fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes represent a specific pathology or are merely terms to describe clinical conditions that provide patients with the reassurance that their symptoms are real and help clinicians with therapeutic direction. In the occupational health setting, this uncertainty can lead to significant difficulty in determining short- and long-term disability and assigning culpability to an individual's work environment.
Sakai, Toshinori; Higashino, Kosaku; Goda, Yuichiro; Mineta, Kazuaki; Sairyo, Koichi
Bertolotti's syndrome is characterized by anomalous enlargement of the transverse process of the most caudal lumbar segment, causing chronic and persistent low back pain or sciatica. We describe the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with left sciatic pain and low back pain due to a recurrent lumbar disc herniation at L4-5 with Bertolotti's syndrome. Selective L5 nerve root block and local injection of lidocaine into the articulation between the transverse process and sacral ala temporarily relieved the left sciatic pain and low back pain, respectively. To confirm the effect of local injection on low back pain, we gave a second local injection, which once again relieved the low back pain. Microendoscopic resection of the pseudoarticulation region and discectomy successfully relieved all symptoms. This report illustrates the effectiveness of minimally invasive resection of the transverse process for the treatment of low back pain with Bertolotti's syndrome. PMID:25045566
Cerezo-Téllez, Ester; Torres-Lacomba, María; Fuentes-Gallardo, Isabel; Perez-Muñoz, Milagros; Mayoral-Del-Moral, Orlando; Lluch-Girbés, Enrique; Prieto-Valiente, Luis; Falla, Deborah
Chronic neck pain attributed to a myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by the presence of muscle contractures referred to as myofascial trigger points. In this randomized, parallel-group, blinded, controlled clinical trial, we examined the effectiveness of deep dry needling (DDN) of myofascial trigger points in people with chronic nonspecific neck pain. The study was conducted at a public Primary Health Care Centre in Madrid, Spain, from January 2010 to December 2014. A total of 130 participants with nonspecific neck pain presenting with active myofascial trigger points in their cervical muscles were included. These participants were randomly allocated to receive: DDN plus stretching (n = 65) or stretching only (control group [n = 65]). Four sessions of treatment were applied over 2 weeks with a 6-month follow-up after treatment. Pain intensity, mechanical hyperalgesia, neck active range of motion, neck muscle strength, and perceived neck disability were measured at baseline, after 2 sessions of intervention, after the intervention period, and 15, 30, 90, and 180 days after the intervention. Significant and clinically relevant differences were found in favour of dry needling in all the outcomes (all P < 0.001) at both short and long follow-ups. Deep dry needling and passive stretching is more effective than passive stretching alone in people with nonspecific neck pain. The results support the use of DDN in the management of myofascial pain syndrome in people with chronic nonspecific neck pain.
Vargas-Schaffer, Grisell; Nowakowsky, Michal; Eghtesadi, Marzieh; Cogan, Jennifer
Chronic chest pain is a challenge, and serratus anterior muscle pain syndrome (SAMPS) is often overlooked. We have developed an ultrasound-guided technique for infiltrating local anesthetics and steroids in patients with SAMPS. In 8 patients, the duration of chronic pain was approximately 19 months. Three months after treatment, all patients had experienced a significant reduction in pain. Infiltration for SAMPS confirms the diagnosis and provides adequate pain relief.
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is the most common musculoskeletal pain disorder of the head and neck area. In the past, several theories were put forth to explain its origin and nature, but none proved complete. Myofascial pain responds to changing psychological states and stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, anger, depression and chronic pain are direct contributional factors. Myofascial pain syndrome may be considered as a psychosomatic disorder. There are numerous accepted palliative approaches, but of all, relaxation techniques stand out and initiate healing at the base level. In this article, the connection between mental factors, MPS and meditation are highlighted. Recent literature has shed light on the fundamental role of free radicals in the emergence of myofascial pain. The accumulating free radicals disrupt mitochondrial integrity and function, leading to sustenance and progression of MPS. Meditation on the other hand was shown to reduce free radical load and can result in clinical improvement. 'Mindfulness' is the working principle behind the effect of all meditations, and I emphasize that it can serve as a potential tool to reverse the neuro-architectural, neurobiological and cellular changes that occur in MPS. The findings described in this paper were drawn from studies on myofascial pain, fibromyalgia, similar chronic pain models and most importantly from self experience (experimentation). Till date, no hypothesis is available connecting MPS and meditation. Mechanisms linking MPS and meditation were identified, and this paper can ignite novel research in this direction.
Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Bayat, Masume; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Kargozar, Elham
To compare the effects of dry needling and physiotherapy in treatment of myofascial pain syndrome, a randomized controlled trial was performed on 28 patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of upper trapezius muscle in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Center of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital from April 2009 to April 2010. After matching the age, sex, duration of symptoms, pain severity, and quality of life measures, subjects were randomly assigned into two subgroups of case (dry needling) and control (physiotherapy). One week and 1 month after receiving standard therapeutic modalities, outcomes and intragroup and intergroup changes in pain severity, pressure pain of trigger point (TP), and quality of life measures were evaluated and compared. After 1 month, both the physiotherapy and dry needling groups had decreased resting, night, and activity pain levels (p<0.05). Pressure pain threshold of TP and some scores of quality of life (SF-36) were improved (p<0.05). Overall results were similar in both groups. It seems that both physiotherapy modalities and dry needling have equal effect on myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscle.
Background of Hypothesis: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is the most common musculoskeletal pain disorder of the head and neck area. In the past, several theories were put forth to explain its origin and nature, but none proved complete. Myofascial pain responds to changing psychological states and stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, anger, depression and chronic pain are direct contributional factors. Myofascial pain syndrome may be considered as a psychosomatic disorder. There are numerous accepted palliative approaches, but of all, relaxation techniques stand out and initiate healing at the base level. In this article, the connection between mental factors, MPS and meditation are highlighted. Recent literature has shed light on the fundamental role of free radicals in the emergence of myofascial pain. The accumulating free radicals disrupt mitochondrial integrity and function, leading to sustenance and progression of MPS. Meditation on the other hand was shown to reduce free radical load and can result in clinical improvement. ‘Mindfulness’ is the working principle behind the effect of all meditations, and I emphasize that it can serve as a potential tool to reverse the neuro-architectural, neurobiological and cellular changes that occur in MPS. Conclusions: The findings described in this paper were drawn from studies on myofascial pain, fibromyalgia, similar chronic pain models and most importantly from self experience (experimentation). Till date, no hypothesis is available connecting MPS and meditation. Mechanisms linking MPS and meditation were identified, and this paper can ignite novel research in this direction. PMID:28503039
Taubman, B; Vetter, V L
Four patients with the slipping rib syndrome presenting as chest pain are described, and the appropriate literature is reviewed. In two of the patients the physicians caring for the children were initially concerned that a cardiac condition was the cause of the chest pain, and a cardiac evaluation was done. In one patient an emotional cause for the pain was first considered and then a cardiac cause was pursued. In the last patient esophagitis was thought to be the cause and the child was referred to a gastroenterologist. It is suggested that slipping rib syndrome should be considered by physicians when evaluating children with a complaint of chest pain. The condition can be easily diagnosed on physical examination and therefore may save some patients from an unnecessary cardiac or gastroentestinal evaluation.
[Multimodal pain therapy for treatment of chronic pain syndrome. Consensus paper of the ad hoc commission on multimodal interdisciplinary pain management of the German Pain Society on treatment contents].
Arnold, B; Brinkschmidt, T; Casser, H-R; Diezemann, A; Gralow, I; Irnich, D; Kaiser, U; Klasen, B; Klimczyk, K; Lutz, J; Nagel, B; Pfingsten, M; Sabatowski, R; Schesser, R; Schiltenwolf, M; Seeger, D; Söllner, W
Multimodal pain management is a comprehensive treatment of complex chronic pain syndromes. In addition to medical therapy various other specialized therapeutic interventions based on the biopsychosocial model of pain origin and chronic pain development, are added. During the last few years treatment centers for chronic pain have been established throughout Germany. Multimodal pain management has been included in the official catalogue of the recognized medical procedures for day clinic units as well as for inpatient pain management. In daily practice there is, however, still a lack of clarity and of consistency about the components that multimodal pain management should contain. This is the reason for the ad hoc commission on multimodal interdisciplinary pain management of the German Pain Society to propose the following position paper that has been worked out in a multilevel and interdisciplinary consensus process. The paper describes the mandatory treatment measures in the four core disciplines of multimodal pain management, pain medicine, psychotherapy, exercise therapy including physiotherapy and assistant medical professions including nurses.
Long, Suzanne S; Surrey, David E; Nazarian, Levon N
Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common condition with clinical features of pain and tenderness at the lateral aspect of the hip. Diagnosing the origin of greater trochanteric pain is important because the treatment varies depending on the cause. We hypothesized that sonographic evaluation of sources for greater trochanteric pain syndrome would show that bursitis was not the most commonly encountered abnormality. We performed a retrospective review of musculoskeletal sonographic examinations performed at our institution over a 6-year period for greater trochanteric pain syndrome; completed a tabulation of the sonographic findings; and assessed the prevalence of trochanteric bursitis, gluteal tendon abnormalities, iliotibial band abnormalities, or a combination of findings. Prevalence of abnormal findings, associations of bursitis, gluteal tendinosis, gluteal tendon tears, and iliotibial band abnormalities were calculated. The final study population consisted of 877 unique patients: 602 women, 275 men; average age, 54 years; and age range, 15-87 years). Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 700 (79.8%) did not have bursitis on ultrasound. A minority of patients (177, 20.2%) had trochanteric bursitis. Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 438 (49.9%) had gluteal tendinosis, four (0.5%) had gluteal tendon tears, and 250 (28.5%) had a thickened iliotibial band. The cause of greater trochanteric pain syndrome is usually some combination of pathology involving the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus tendons as well as the iliotibial band. Bursitis is present in only the minority of patients. These findings have implications for treatment of this common condition.
Rasmussen, Mathias Bæk; Deutch, Søren Rasmussen
Pronator teres syndrome is a rare but clinically important condition which can cause pain in the forearm. It is a com-pression neuropathy due to compression of the median nerve proximal in the forearm. In this case report we de-scribe a 69-year-old male patient with pain in both forearms in more than ten years. After surgical decompression of the median nerve in both arms he experienced almost complete relief of his symptoms.
Marsh, Courtney A; Will, Matthew A; Smorgick, Noam; Quint, Elisabeth H; Hussain, Hero; Smith, Yolanda R
To assess the association between pelvic pain and uterine remnants and review the management of pelvic pain in females with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. Retrospective cohort. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a tertiary referring medical center. Forty-eight females with MRKH presenting from 1997 to 2011 with anatomy confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). None. Prevalence Of uterine remnants and the association of uterine remnants with pelvic pain in females with MRKH. Of the 48 females with MRKH, 23 (48%) had uterine remnants and 22 (46%) had pelvic pain. Presence of endometrium was associated with pelvic pain (RR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.2-4.7) in females with MRKH. Of the females with MKRH and pain, 9/22 had laparoscopy, with endometriosis seen in 5/9 of the uterine remnants at stages higher than are usually seen in teenagers (56%). Nine patients with pain and uterine remnants (8 with endometrium, 1 without) had laparoscopic removal of uterine remnants with resolution of pain. Given the high prevalence of uterine remnants in females with MRKH, anatomic evaluation with MRI should be considered when assessing the etiology of pelvic pain. Presence of endometrium within uterine remnants, and subsequent endometriosis, in females with MRKH may be associated with pelvic pain necessitating surgical or medical management.
Näslund, Jan; Waldén, Markus; Lindberg, Lars-Göran
Anterior knee pain without clinical and radiologic abnormalities has primarily been explained from a purely structural view. A recently proposed biologic and homeostatic explanation questions the malalignment theory. No objective measurement of the pathophysiology responsible for changes in local homeostasis has been presented. Flexing the knee joint interferes with the perfusion of the patellar bone in patellofemoral pain syndrome. Case control study; Level of evidence, 4. Pulsatile blood flow in the patella was measured continuously and noninvasively using photoplethysmography. Measurements were made with the patient in a resting position with knee flexion of 20 degrees and after passive knee flexion to 90 degrees. In total, 22 patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome were examined bilaterally, and 33 subjects with healthy knees served as controls. The pulsatile blood flow in the patient group decreased after passive knee flexion from 20 degrees to 90 degrees (systematic change in position, or relative position [RP] = -0.32; 95% confidence interval for RP, -0.48 to -0.17), while the response in the control group showed no distinct pattern (RP = 0.17; 95% confidence interval for RP, -0.05 to 0.31). The difference between the groups was significant (P = .0002). The median change in patients was -26% (interquartile range, 37). Pulsatile patellar blood flow in patellofemoral pain syndrome patients is markedly reduced when the knee is being flexed, which supports the previous notion of an ischemic mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of this pain syndrome.
Kajetanek, C; Thaunat, M; Guimaraes, T; Carnesecchi, O; Daggett, M; Sonnery-Cottet, B
Sinding-Larsen-Johansson (SLJ) syndrome is a type of osteochondrosis of the distal pole of the patella most often caused by repeated microtrauma. Here, we describe the case of a professional athlete with painful SLJ syndrome treated arthroscopically. A 29-year-old male professional handball player presented with anterior knee pain that persisted after 4 months of an eccentric rehabilitation protocol and platelet-rich plasma injections. Despite this conservative treatment, the patient could not participate in his sport. The SLJ lesion was excised arthroscopically, which led to complete disappearance of symptoms and return to competitive sports after 5 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Chopra, Pradeep; Cooper, Mark S
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain syndrome, which involves glial activation and central sensitization in the central nervous system. Here, we describe positive outcomes of two CRPS patients, after they were treated with low-dose naltrexone (a glial attenuator), in combination with other CRPS therapies. Prominent CRPS symptoms remitted in these two patients, including dystonic spasms and fixed dystonia (respectively), following treatment with low-dose naltrexone (LDN). LDN, which is known to antagonize the Toll-like Receptor 4 pathway and attenuate activated microglia, was utilized in these patients after conventional CRPS pharmacotherapy failed to suppress their recalcitrant CRPS symptoms.
Ma, Yao; Bu, He; Jia, Ji-rong; Zhang, Xue
To review the literature of acupuncture at trigger point for myofascial pain syndrome from the main selected points (trigger point), the mechanism of Chinese medicine and modern research and its clinical application. The results show that acupuncture at trigger point has significant effect on the myofascial pain syndrome, which could be influenced by the type of needle, manipulation, insertion angle and depth of the needles. However, the involved studies at present are still far from enough and lack of systematic study with multivariate analysis, it is needed to be improved that some problems about the clinical diagnosis and basic research.
Andréu, José-Luis; Otón, Teresa; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Sanz, Jesús
Some occupational factors have been implicated in the development of disorders manifested as hand pain. The associations seem to be well documented in processes such as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) or writer's cramp. There are contradictory data in the literature about the relationships of trigger finger, De Quervain's tenosynovitis (DQT) and tenosynovitis of the wrist with occupational factors. In this article, we review current knowledge about clinical manifestations, case definition, implicated occupational factors, diagnosis and treatment of the most relevant hand pain disorders that have been associated with occupational factors, excluding carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).
Khawaja, Shehryar Nasir; Crow, Heidi; Gonzalez, Yoly
Goldenhar syndrome (GS) is a development syndrome, characterized by incomplete development of the craniofacial region. The involvement is mainly unilateral; it varies from being mild to severe; and it can range from malocclusion and facial asymmetry to a more complex phenotype with complete absence of the mandibular ramus and temporomandibular joint. However, orthopedic symptoms of orofacial pain and dysfunction have not generally been considered as part of the symptom complex in GS cases. The case presented here is of a 15-year-old Caucasian patient, who was referred for evaluation because of bilateral pain in the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joints.
Ratti, Chiara; Nordio, Andrea; Resmini, Giuseppina; Murena, Luigi
Summary Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that occurs after a tissue injury (fractures, sprain, surgery) of the upper or lower extremities. A clear pathophysiological mechanism has not been established yet and different patterns are considered to play a role in the genesis of the disease. The diagnosis is made by different diagnosis criteria and a gold standard has not been established yet. Incidence of CRPS is unclear and large prospective studies on the incidence and prevalence of CRPS are scarce. The aim of this review is to give an overview on the prevalent data regarding this chronic syndrome. PMID:27134626
Motealleh, Alireza; Gheysari, Elham; Shokri, Esmaeil; Sobhani, Sobhan
To evaluate the immediate effect of lubmopelvic manipulation on EMG activity of vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and gluteus medius as well as pain and functional performance of athletes with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Randomized placebo-controlled trial. Twenty eight athletes with patellofemoral pain syndrome were randomly assigned to two groups. One group received a lubmopelvic manipulation at the side of the involved knee while the other group received a sham manipulation. EMG activity of the vasti and gluteus medius were recorded before and after manipulation while performing a rocking on heel task. The functional abilities were evaluated using two tests: step-down and single-leg hop. Additionally, the pain intensity during the functional tests was assessed using a visual analog scale. The onset and amplitude of EMG activity from vastus medialis and gluteus medius were, respectively, earlier and higher in the manipulation group compared to the sham group. There were no significant differences, however, between two groups in EMG onset of vastus lateralis. While the scores of one-leg hop test were similar for both groups, significant improvement was observed in step-down test and pain intensity in the manipulation group compared to the sham group. Lubmopelvic manipulation might improve patellofemoral pain and functional level in athletes with patellofemoral pain syndrome. These effects could be due to the changes observed in EMG activity of gluteus medius and vasti muscles. Therefore, the lubmopelvic manipulation might be considered in the rehabilitation protocol of the athletes with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Piché, Mathieu; Arsenault, Marianne; Poitras, Pierre; Rainville, Pierre; Bouin, Mickael
The mechanisms of chronic pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been widely investigated but remain unclear. The present study investigated the relation between visceral hypersensitivity, cutaneous thermal sensitivity, and central pain mechanisms. Rectal sensitivity was assessed with a barostat, and forearm and calf sensitivity with a contact thermode. Central mechanisms were assessed by counterirritation using sustained cold-pain to the hand and painful electric shocks to the ankle. Psychological symptoms were also assessed, using questionnaires. Female volunteers with diarrhea-predominant IBS (n=27) and healthy controls (n=25) participated in the study. IBS patients had lower rectal and calf pain thresholds compared to controls (p's<0.05). IBS patients also reported more pain than controls for rectal distensions, and heat pain on the calf and forearm (all p's<0.001). Cold-pain inhibited shock-pain in controls but not IBS patients (controls: -13.5+/-5.3 vs IBS: +1.9+/-10.5; p<0.01). In addition, visceral hypersensitivity was significantly correlated to cutaneous thermal hypersensitivity and pain inhibition deficits, although effects were only weak and moderate, respectively. Furthermore, covariance analyses indicated that psychological factors accounted for group differences in visceral hypersensitivity and pain inhibition deficits. In conclusion, this study confirms the relation between altered pain inhibition processes and widespread hypersensitivity in IBS. The present results also suggests that psychological symptoms and altered pain processing in IBS patients may reflect at least in part, common underlying mechanisms. Copyright 2009 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Clauw, D J; Chrousos, G P
Patients with unexplained chronic pain and/or fatigue have been described for centuries in the medical literature, although the terms used to describe these symptom complexes have changed frequently. The currently preferred terms for these syndromes are fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome, names which describe the prominent clinical features of the illness without any attempt to identify the cause. This review delineates the definitions of these syndromes, and the overlapping clinical features. A hypothesis is presented to demonstrate how genetic and environmental factors may interact to cause the development of these syndromes, which we postulate are caused by central nervous system dysfunction. Various components of the central nervous system appear to be involved, including the hypothalamic pituitary axes, pain-processing pathways, and autonomic nervous system. These central nervous system changes lead to corresponding changes in immune function, which we postulate are epiphenomena rather than the cause of the illnesses.
Sunychuk, M M
The article presents the findings of using underwater vertical extension in a complex treatment of patients with lumbosacral pain syndromes. The rheovasography method has been applied. Underwater vertical extension method in a complex treatment of patients with lumbosacral pain syndromes was found to be effective according to clinical data and positive dynamics of rheovasography's indices.
Nalamachu, Srinivas; Nalamasu, Rohit; Jenkins, Julie; Marriott, Thomas
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve at the wrist that is characterized by pain, paresthesias, weakness, and loss of dexterity. This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the heated lidocaine/tetracaine patch (HLT patch) as a conservative treatment for pain of CTS. Twenty adult patients (mean age = 44 ± 12 years) with pain secondary to unilateral CTS and electrodiagnostic evidence of mild-to-moderate CTS enrolled in this open-label study. Patients were treated with a single HLT patch placed over the junction of forearm and wrist on the palmar aspect of the wrist twice daily (morning and evening at 12-hour intervals) for 2 hours. At baseline and during the 2-week study, patients graded their pain intensity with an 11-point numerical rating scale (0 = no pain, 10 = worst imaginable pain). Pain interference with general activity, work, and sleep was evaluated with a similar 0-to-10-point scale. Fifteen patients completed the 14-day treatment period. Mean average pain intensity score decreased from 5.1 ± 1.5 at baseline to 2.5 ± 1.6 at end of study in the per-protocol population (P < 0.001). Two-thirds of the patients demonstrated clinically meaningful pain relief (≥ 30% reduction in average pain score), with 40% of the patients reaching this threshold by the third treatment day. Similar improvements were observed for pain interference scores. The HLT patch was generally well tolerated. The HLT patch resulted in clinically meaningful reduction in pain intensity in the majority of patients with mild-to-moderate CTS and may represent a targeted nonsurgical treatment for pain associated with CTS. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.
Arnold, Lesley M; Choy, Ernest; Clauw, Daniel J; Goldenberg, Don L; Harris, Richard E; Helfenstein, Milton; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Noguchi, Koichi; Silverman, Stuart L; Ushida, Takahiro; Wang, Guochun
This manuscript, developed by a group of chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia (FM) and identify ongoing challenges in the field of FM and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of FM and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with FM and other conditions with FM-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients' lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about FM and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of FM. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of FM and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to FM and chronic pain in general.
Moura, Katherinne F.; Monteiro, Renan L.; Lucareli, Paulo R.G.
ABSTRACT Study design Case series Background and Purpose Scapular dyskinesis has been associated with several shoulder injuries. Recent literature has suggested that a greater activation of the scapular muscles can play an important role in reducing subacromial impingement in patients with shoulder pain. Thus, the purpose of this case series was to describe a rehabilitation program that emphasizes scapular dyskinesis correction for those with clinical evidence of subacromial pain syndrome. Case Descriptions The four amateur athletes in this series showed clinical evidence of subacromial pain syndrome and scapular dyskinesis and each underwent a treatment protocol consisting of three phases. Phase 1 emphasized pain relief, scapular control, and recovery of normal range of motion (ROM), Phase 2 focused on muscular strengthening, and Phase 3 emphasized sensory motor training. Outcomes All subjects demonstrated decreased pain, improved sports performance and function, increased muscular strength for shoulder elevation and external rotation, and increased ROM for internal rotation. Improvement in serratus anterior (SA) activation was also noted. Discussion The results of this case series suggest that subjects with clinical tests positive for subacromial pain syndrome can show significant improvement with an intervention focused on scapular dyskinesis correction. SA activation can play an important role in this process given that all subjects presented with better recruitment after rehabilitation, as measured by electromyography. Levels of Evidence Level 4 PMID:27525180
Siqueira, Flavio Meirelles; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Rosa-e-Silva, Julio Cesar; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto; de Castro-Afonso, Luis Henrique; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Abud, Daniel Giansante
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical response and success rate after periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome and to report the safety of endovascular treatment and its rate of complications. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome in our department from January 2012 to November 2015. Data were analyzed based on patient background, imaging findings, embolized veins, rate of complications, and clinical response as indicated by the visual analog pain scale. RESULTS: We performed periuterine varices embolization in 22 patients during the study, four of which required a second embolization. Seventeen patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the first embolization and three patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the second embolization. Minor complications were observed in our patients, such as postural hypotension, postoperative pain, and venous perforation during the procedure, without clinical repercussion. CONCLUSION: Periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome appears to be an effective and safe technique. PMID:28076514
Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Asteria, Corrado; Whitehead, William E
This systematic review addresses the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of several chronic pain syndromes affecting the pelvic organs: chronic proctalgia, coccygodynia, pudendal neuralgia, and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic or recurrent pain in the anal canal, rectum, or other pelvic organs occurs in 7% to 24% of the population and is associated with impaired quality of life and high health care costs. However, these pain syndromes are poorly understood, with little research evidence available to guide their diagnosis and treatment. This situation appears to be changing: A recently published large randomized, controlled trial by our group comparing biofeedback, electrogalvanic stimulation, and massage for the treatment of chronic proctalgia has shown success rates of 85% for biofeedback when patients are selected based on physical examination evidence of tenderness in response to traction on the levator ani muscle-a physical sign suggestive of striated muscle tension. Excessive tension (spasm) in the striated muscles of the pelvic floor appears to be common to most of the pelvic pain syndromes. This suggests the possibility that similar approaches to diagnostic assessment and treatment may improve outcomes in other pelvic pain disorders. PMID:22110274