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Sample records for painful degenerative disc

  1. Electromagnetic fields in the treatment of chronic lower back pain in patients with degenerative disc disease

    PubMed Central

    Arneja, Amarjit S; Kotowich, Alan; Staley, Doug; Summers, Randy; Tappia, Paramjit S

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of low-amplitude, low frequency electromagnetic field therapy (EMF) therapy in patients with persistent chronic lower back pain associated with degenerative disc disease. Design: Double-blind, randomized and placebo controlled. Intervention: EMF using a medical device resonator; control group underwent same procedures, except the device was turned off. Outcome measures: Pain reduction and mobility. Results: Improvements in overall physical health, social functioning and reduction in bodily pain were observed in the EMF group. The pain relief rating scale showed a higher level of pain relief at the target area in the EMF group. An increase in left lateral mobility was seen only in the EMF group. Conclusion: EMF treatment may be of benefit to patients with chronic nonresponsive lower back pain associated with degenerative disc disease. PMID:28031951

  2. Effect of TENS on pain relief in patients with degenerative disc disease in lumbosacral spine.

    PubMed

    Pop, Teresa; Austrup, Heiner; Preuss, Rudolf; Niedziałek, Marta; Zaniewska, Anna; Sobolewski, Marek; Dobrowolski, Tomasz; Zwolińska, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    The study sought to evaluate the impact of long-term TENS therapy on pain relief in patients with degenerative disc disease in the lumbosacral spine. The study involved 39 patients with lumbosacral pain who were receiving treatment in the Regional Hospital No 2 in Rzeszów and in Winsen Hospital. The experimental group consisted of 16 patients who were fitted with L-S orthoses with a built-in OmniTens plus mini-device for long-term application (3 times a day, for 20 minutes) of TENS currents with a frequency of 35 Hz and impulse duration of 150µsec. The control group consisted of 23 patients who received conventional TENS therapy once a day for 20 minutes, with a frequency of 35 Hz and impulse duration of 150 µsec. The results were assessed with the Oswestry Questionnaire, a visual analogue scale (VAS), as well as Schober's Test. Tests were performed before and on completion of the therapy. All participants reported pain relief and improved spinal function and mobility. Statistically significant differences were obtained in the group of patients treated with low frequency pulsed TENS currents administered via the orthosis. 1. TENS therapy contributed to pain relief and improvement of function and mobility of the lumbosacral spine 2. Representing an appropriate and effective technique, TENS stimulation via an orthosis should be more commonly prescribed.

  3. Chinese herbal medicine for chronic neck pain due to cervical degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Kien; Cui, Xuejun; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2010-11-15

    Systematic review. To assess the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines in treating chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms. Chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms is a common condition. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. We electronically searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AMED (up to 2009), the Chinese Biomedical Database and related herbal medicine databases in Japan and South Korea (up to 2007). We also contacted content experts and hand searched a number of journals published in China.We included randomized controlled trials with adults with a clinical diagnosis of cervical degenerative disc disease, cervical radiculopathy, or myelopathy supported by appropriate radiologic findings. The interventions were Chinese herbal medicines. The primary outcome was pain relief, measured with a visual analogue scale, numerical scale, or other validated tool. All 4 included studies were in Chinese; 2 of which were unpublished. Effect sizes were not clinically relevant and there was low quality evidence for all outcomes due to study limitations and sparse data (single studies). Two trials (680 participants) found that Compound Qishe Tablets relieved pain better in the short-term than either placebo or Jingfukang; one trial (60 participants) found than an oral herbal formula of Huangqi relieved pain better than Mobicox or Methycobal, and another trial (360 participants) showed that a topical herbal medicine, Compound Extractum Nucis Vomicae, relieved pain better than Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel. There is low quality evidence that an oral herbal medication, Compound Qishe Tablet, reduced pain more than placebo or Jingfukang and a topical herbal medicine, Compound Extractum Nucis Vomicae, reduced pain more than Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel. Further research is very likely to change both the effect size and our confidence in the results.

  4. Depression, social factors, and pain perception before and after surgery for lumbar and cervical degenerative vertebral disc disease

    PubMed Central

    Jabłońska, Renata; Ślusarz, Robert; Królikowska, Agnieszka; Haor, Beata; Antczak, Anna; Szewczyk, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of psychosocial factors on pain levels and depression, before and after surgical treatment, in patients with degenerative lumbar and cervical vertebral disc disease. Patients and methods The study included 188 patients (98 women, 90 men) who were confirmed to have cervical or lumbar degenerative disc disease on magnetic resonance imaging, and who underwent a single microdiscectomy procedure, with no postoperative surgical complications. All patients completed two questionnaires before and after surgery – the Beck Depression Inventory scale (I–IV) and the Visual Analog Scale for pain (0–10). On hospital admission, all patients completed a social and demographic questionnaire. The first pain and depression questionnaire evaluations were performed on the day of hospital admission (n=188); the second on the day of hospital discharge, 7 days after surgery (n=188); and the third was 6 months after surgery (n=140). Results Patient ages ranged from 22 to 72 years, and 140 patients had lumbar disc disease (mean age, 42.7±10.99 years) and 44 had cervical disc disease (mean age, 48.9±7.85 years). Before surgery, symptoms of depression were present in 47.3% of the patients (11.7% cervical; 35.6% lumbar), at first postoperative evaluation in 25.1% of patients (7% cervical; 18.1% lumbar), and 6 months following surgery in 31.1% of patients (7.5% cervical; 23.6% lumbar). Patients with cervical disc disease who were unemployed had the highest incidence of depression before and after surgery (p=0.037). Patients with lumbar disc disease who had a primary level of education or work involving standing had the highest incidence of depression before and after surgery (p=0.368). Conclusion This study highlighted the association between social and demographic factors, pain perception, and depression that may persist despite surgical treatment for degenerative vertebral disc disease. PMID:28115868

  5. Level of Education as a Risk Factor for Extensive Prevalence of Cervical Intervertebral Disc Degenerative Changes and Chronic Neck Pain.

    PubMed

    Markotić, Vedran; Zubac, Damir; Miljko, Miro; Šimić, Goran; Zalihić, Amra; Bogdan, Gojko; Radančević, Dorijan; Šimić, Ana Dugandžić; Mašković, Josip

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of degenerative intervertebral disc changes in the patients who previously reported symptoms of neck pain and to determine the influence of education level on degenerative intervertebral disc changes and subsequent chronic neck pain. One hundred and twelve patients were randomly selected from the University Hospital in Mostar, Bosna and Herzegovina, (aged 48.5±12.7 years) and submitted to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine. MRI of 3.0 T (Siemens, Skyrim, Erlangen, Germany) was used to obtain cervical spine images. Patients were separated into two groups based on their education level: low education level (LLE) and high education level (HLE). Pfirrmann classification was used to document intervertebral disc degeneration, while self-reported chronic neck pain was evaluated using the previously validated Oswestry questionnaire. The entire logistic regression model containing all predictors was statistically significant, (χ 2 (3)=12.2, p=0.02), and was able to distinguish between respondents who had chronic neck pain and vice versa. The model explained between 10.0% (Cox-Snell R 2 ) and 13.8% (Nagelkerke R 2 ) of common variance with Pfirrmann classification, and it had the strength to discriminate and correctly classify 69.6% of patients. The probability of a patient being classified in the high or low group of degenerative disc changes according to the Pfirrmann scale was associated with the education level (Wald test: 5.5, p=0.02). Based on the Pfirrmann assessment scale, the HLE group was significantly different from the LLE group in the degree of degenerative changes of the cervical intervertebral discs (U=1,077.5, p=0.001). A moderate level of intervertebral disc degenerative changes (grade II and III) was equally matched among all patients, while the overall results suggest a higher level of education as a risk factor leading to cervical disc degenerative changes, regardless of age

  6. Chinese herbal medicine for chronic neck pain due to cervical degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xuejun; Trinh, Kien; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2010-01-20

    Chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms is a common condition. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. To assess the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines in treating chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms. We electronically searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and AMED (beginning to October 1, 2009), the Chinese Biomedical Database and related herbal medicine databases in Japan and South Korea (1979 to 2007). We also contacted content experts and handsearched a number of journals published in China. We included randomized controlled trials with adults with a clinical diagnosis of cervical degenerative disc disease, cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy supported by appropriate radiological findings. The interventions were Chinese herbal medicines, defined as products derived from raw or refined plants or parts of plants, minerals and animals that are used for medicinal purposes in any form. The primary outcome was pain relief, measured with a visual analogue scale, numeric scale or other validated tool. The data were independently extracted and recorded by two review authors on a pre-developed form. Risk of bias and clinical relevance were assessed separately by two review authors using the twelve criteria and the five questions recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. All four included studies were in Chinese; two of which were unpublished. Effect sizes were not clinically relevant and there was low quality evidence for all outcomes due to study limitations and sparse data (single studies). Two trials (680 participants) found that Compound Qishe Tablets relieved pain better in the short-term than either placebo or Jingfukang; one trial (60 participants) found than an oral herbal formula of Huangqi ((Radix Astragali)18 g, Dangshen (Radix Codonopsis) 9 g, Sanqi (Radix

  7. Intradiscal thermal annuloplasty for the treatment of lumbar discogenic pain in patients with multilevel degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Kapural, Leonardo; Mekhail, Nagy; Korunda, Zdenko; Basali, Ayman

    2004-08-01

    Symptomatic degenerative disc disease (DDD) may lead to significant deterioration of quality of life and increased disability. Intradiscal thermal annuloplasty (IDTA) is a minimally invasive treatment for painful DDD. We hypothesized that there may be an improvement in pain scores and the pain disability index (PDI) of patients who have multilevel DDD after IDTA. Patients 24-66 yr old, male and female with multilevel DDD (MDDD) and matched 1 or 2 level DDD (1,2-DDD) patients were enrolled in the study. Visual analog pain scale (VAS) score and PDI were observed for 12 mo. The 1,2-DDD patient group had a 2.5 +/- 2.4 VAS score at 12 mo after annuloplasty compared to 7.7 +/- 2 before the procedure. The MDDD VAS score was 4.9 +/- 2.9 at 12 mo compared to 7.4 +/- 1.8 before the procedure. Similar improvements in PDI were found. The pain relief and PDI were significantly better in patients with 1,2-DDD than in the MDDD group (P = 0.0037 and P = 0.041, respectively). We concluded that IDTA is an effective treatment of discogenic pain and that the number of discs affected by degeneration is an important determinant of the procedure outcome.

  8. Predictors of outcome after surgery with disc prosthesis and rehabilitation in patients with chronic low back pain and degenerative disc: 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hellum, Christian; Johnsen, Lars Gunnar; Gjertsen, Øyvind; Berg, Linda; Neckelmann, Gesche; Grundnes, Oliver; Rossvoll, Ivar; Skouen, Jan Sture; Brox, Jens Ivar; Storheim, Kjersti

    2012-04-01

    A prospective study to evaluate whether certain baseline characteristics can predict outcome in patients treated with disc prosthesis or multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Secondary analysis of 154 patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) for at least 1 year and degenerative discs originally recruited for a randomized trial. Outcome measures were Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) dichotomized to < or ≥15 points improvement and whether subjects were working at 2-year follow-up. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used. In patients treated with disc prosthesis, long duration of LBP and high Fear-Avoidance Beliefs for work (FABQ-W) predicted worse ODI outcome [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.2 and OR = 1.7, CI 1.2-2.4 for every 5 years or 5 points]. Modic type I or II predicted better ODI outcome (OR = 5.3, CI 1.1-25.3). In patients treated with rehabilitation, a high ODI, low emotional distress (HSCL-25), and no daily narcotics predicted better outcome for ODI (OR = 2.5, CI 1.4-4.5 for every 5 ODI points, OR = 2.1, CI 1.1-5.1 for every 0.5 HSCL points and OR = 23.6, CI 2.1-266.8 for no daily narcotics). Low FABQ-W and working at baseline predicted working at 2-year follow-up after both treatments (OR = 1.3, CI 1.0-1.5 for every 5 points and OR = 4.1, CI 1.2-13.2, respectively). Shorter duration of LBP, Modic type I or II changes and low FABQ-W were the best predictors of success after treatment with disc prosthesis, while high ODI, low distress and not using narcotics daily predicted better outcome of rehabilitation. Low FABQ-W and working predicted working at follow-up.

  9. Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease: Disc Degeneration Symptoms and Magnetic Resonance Image Findings

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Shafaq; Rehmani, Muhammad Asim Khan; Raees, Aisha; Alvi, Arsalan Ahmad; Ashraf, Junaid

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Cross sectional and observational. Purpose To evaluate the different aspects of lumbar disc degenerative disc disease and relate them with magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and symptoms. Overview of Literature Lumbar disc degenerative disease has now been proven as the most common cause of low back pain throughout the world. It may present as disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis, facet joint arthropathy or any combination. Presenting symptoms of lumbar disc degeneration are lower back pain and sciatica which may be aggravated by standing, walking, bending, straining and coughing. Methods This study was conducted from January 2012 to June 2012. Study was conducted on the diagnosed patients of lumbar disc degeneration. Diagnostic criteria were based upon abnormal findings in MRI. Patients with prior back surgery, spine fractures, sacroiliac arthritis, metabolic bone disease, spinal infection, rheumatoid arthritis, active malignancy, and pregnancy were excluded. Results During the targeted months, 163 patients of lumbar disc degeneration with mean age of 43.92±11.76 years, came into Neurosurgery department. Disc degeneration was most commonly present at the level of L4/L5 105 (64.4%).Commonest types of disc degeneration were disc herniation 109 (66.9%) and lumbar spinal stenosis 37 (22.7%). Spondylolisthesis was commonly present at L5/S1 10 (6.1%) and associated mostly with lumbar spinal stenosis 7 (18.9%). Conclusions Results reported the frequent occurrence of lumbar disc degenerative disease in advance age. Research efforts should endeavor to reduce risk factors and improve the quality of life. PMID:24353850

  10. Chronic pain coping styles in patients with herniated lumbar discs and coexisting spondylotic changes treated surgically: Considering clinical pain characteristics, degenerative changes, disability, mood disturbances, and beliefs about pain control.

    PubMed

    Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Głowacki, Maciej

    2013-12-27

    Pain catastrophizing, appraisals of pain control, styles of coping, and social support have been suggested to affect functioning in patients with low back pain. We investigated the relation of chronic pain coping strategies to psychological variables and clinical data, in patients treated surgically due to lumbar disc herniation and coexisting spondylotic changes. The average age of study participants (n=90) was 43.47 years (SD 10.21). Patients completed the Polish versions of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (PL-CPCI-42), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-PL), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-PL), Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire (BPCQ-PL), and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ-PL). In the PL-CPCI-42 results, resting, guarding and coping self-statements were frequently used as coping strategies (3.96 SD 1.97; 3.72 SD 1.72; 3.47 SD 2.02, respectively). In the CSQ-PL domains, catastrophizing and praying/hoping were frequently used as coping strategies (3.62 SD 1.19). The mean score obtained from the BDI-PL was 11.86 SD 7.23, and 12.70 SD 5.49 from the RMDQ-PL. BPCQ-PL results indicate that the highest score was in the subscale measuring beliefs that powerful others can control pain (4.36 SD 0.97). Exercise correlated significantly with beliefs about internal control of pain (rs=0.22). We identified associations between radiating pain and guarding (p=0.038) and between sports recreation and guarding (p=0.013) and task persistence (p=0.041). Back pain characteristics, depressive mood, disability, and beliefs about personal control of pain are related to chronic LBP coping styles. Most of the variables related to advancement of degenerative changes were not associated with coping efforts.

  11. Prognosis of intervertebral disc loss from diagnosis of degenerative disc disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Lin, A.; Tay, K.; Romano, W.; Osman, Said

    2015-03-01

    Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD) is one of the most common causes of low back pain, and is a major factor in limiting the quality of life of an individual usually as they enter older stages of life, the disc degeneration reduces the shock absorption available which in turn causes pain. Disc loss is one of the central processes in the pathogenesis of DDD. In this study, we investigated whether the image texture features quantified from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be appropriate markers for diagnosis of DDD and prognosis of inter-vertebral disc loss. The main objective is to use simple image based biomarkers to perform prognosis of spinal diseases using non-invasive procedures. Our results from 65 subjects proved the higher success rates of the combination marker compared to the individual markers and in the future, we will extend the study to other spine regions to allow prognosis and diagnosis of DDD for a wider region.

  12. Two-year comprehensive medical management of degenerative lumbar spine disease (lumbar spondylolisthesis, stenosis, or disc herniation): a value analysis of cost, pain, disability, and quality of life: clinical article.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; Godil, Saniya S; Mendenhall, Stephen K; Zuckerman, Scott L; Shau, David N; McGirt, Matthew J

    2014-08-01

    important difference in any outcome measure. The mean 2-year total cost (direct plus indirect) of medical management was $6606 for spondylolisthesis, $7747 for stenosis, and $7097 for herniation. In an institution-wide, prospective, longitudinal quality of life registry that measures cost and effectiveness of all spine care provided, comprehensive medical management did not result in sustained improvement in pain, disability, or quality of life for patients with surgically eligible degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, stenosis, or disc herniation. From both the societal and payer perspective, continued medical management of patients with these lumbar pathologies in whom 6 weeks of conservative therapy failed was of minimal value given its lack of health utility and effectiveness and its health care costs. The findings from this real-world practice setting may more accurately reflect the true value and effectiveness of nonoperative care in surgically eligible patient populations.

  13. Imaging of degenerative lumbar intervertebral discs; linking anatomy, pathology and imaging.

    PubMed

    Adams, Ashok; Roche, Oran; Mazumder, Asif; Davagnanam, Indran; Mankad, Kshitij

    2014-09-01

    Low back pain is a common medical condition that has significant implications for healthcare providers and the UK economy. Low back pain can be classified as 'specific' in which an underlying pathophysiological mechanism is identified (eg, herniated intervertebral disc). Advanced imaging should be performed in this situation and in those patients in whom systemic disease is strongly suspected. In the majority (approximately 90%), low back pain in 'non specific' and there is a weak correlation with imaging abnormalities. This is an area of ongoing research and remains controversial in terms of imaging approach and treatment (eg, theory of discogenic pain, interpretation and treatment of endplate changes). With regards Modic endplate changes, current research suggests that an infective component may be involved that may identify novel potential treatments in patients with chronic low back pain refractory to other treatment modalities. MRI is the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of degenerative changes in intervertebral discs. MRI has superior soft tissue contrast resolution when compared to other imaging modalities (eg, plain radiography, CT). An understanding of normal anatomy and MR appearances of intervertebral discs, particularly with regards to how these appearances change with advancing age, is required to aid image interpretation. Knowledge of the spectrum of degenerative processes that may occur in the intervertebral discs is required in order to identify and explain abnormal MRI appearances. As the communication of MRI findings may guide therapeutic decision making and surgical intervention, the terminology used by radiologists must be accurate and consistent. Therefore, description of degenerative disc changes in the current paper is based on the most up-to-date recommendations, the aim being to aid reporting by radiologists and interpretation of reports by referring clinicians. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  14. The 'Lumbar Fusion Outcome Score' (LUFOS): a new practical and surgically oriented grading system for preoperative prediction of surgical outcomes after lumbar spinal fusion in patients with degenerative disc disease and refractory chronic axial low back pain.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Tobias A; Rehman, Azeem A; Teles, Alisson R; Aldag, Jean C; Dinh, Dzung H; McCall, Todd D

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate the predictive effect of non-invasive preoperative imaging methods on surgical outcomes of lumbar fusion for patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD) and refractory chronic axial low back pain (LBP), the authors conducted a retrospective review of 45 patients with DDD and refractory LBP submitted to anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) at a single center from 2007 to 2010. Surgical outcomes - as measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS/back pain) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) - were evaluated pre-operatively and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year post-operatively. Linear mixed-effects models were generated in order to identify possible preoperative imaging characteristics (including bone scan/99mTc scintigraphy increased endplate uptake, Modic endplate changes, and disc degeneration graded according to Pfirrmann classification) which may be predictive of long-term surgical outcomes . After controlling for confounders, a combined score, the Lumbar Fusion Outcome Score (LUFOS), was developed. The LUFOS grading system was able to stratify patients in two general groups (Non-surgical: LUFOS 0 and 1; Surgical: LUFOS 2 and 3) that presented significantly different surgical outcomes in terms of estimated marginal means of VAS/back pain (p = 0.001) and ODI (p = 0.006) beginning at 3 months and continuing up to 1 year of follow-up. In conclusion,  LUFOS has been devised as a new practical and surgically oriented grading system based on simple key parameters from non-invasive preoperative imaging exams (magnetic resonance imaging/MRI and bone scan/99mTc scintigraphy) which has been shown to be highly predictive of surgical outcomes of patients undergoing lumbar fusion for treatment for refractory chronic axial LBP.

  15. Patterns of lumbar disc degeneration are different in degenerative disc disease and disc prolapse magnetic resonance imaging analysis of 224 patients.

    PubMed

    Kanna, Rishi M; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Rajasekaran, S

    2014-02-01

    Existing research on lumbar disc degeneration has remained inconclusive regarding its etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, prevention, and management. Degenerative disc disease (DDD) and disc prolapse (DP) are common diseases affecting the lumbar discs. Although they manifest clinically differently, existing studies on disc degeneration have included patients with both these features, leading to wide variations in observations. The possible relationship or disaffect between DDD and DP is not fully evaluated. To analyze the patterns of lumbar disc degeneration in patients with chronic back pain and DDD and those with acute DP. Prospective, magnetic resonance imaging-based radiological study. Two groups of patients (aged 20-50 years) were prospectively studied. Group 1 included patients requiring a single level microdiscectomy for acute DP. Group 2 included patients with chronic low back pain and DDD. Discs were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging through Pfirmann grading, Schmorl nodes, Modic changes, and the total end-plate damage score for all the five lumbar discs. Group 1 (DP) had 91 patients and group 2 (DDD) had 133 patients. DP and DDD patients differed significantly in the number, extent, and severity of degeneration. DDD patients had a significantly higher number of degenerated discs than DP patients (p<.000). The incidence of multilevel and pan-lumbar degeneration was also significantly higher in DDD group. The pattern of degeneration also differed in both the groups. DDD patients had predominant upper lumbar involvement, whereas DP patients had mainly lower lumbar degeneration. Modic changes were more common in DP patients, especially at the prolapsed level. Modic changes were present in 37% of prolapsed levels compared with 9.9% of normal discs (p<.00). The total end-plate damage score had a positive correlation with disc degeneration in both the groups. Further the mean total end-plate damage score at prolapsed level was also significantly higher

  16. Vertebral degenerative disc disease severity evaluation using random forest classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Hector E.; Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Pham, Yasuyuki; Stieger, James; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) develops in the spine as vertebral discs degenerate and osseous excrescences or outgrowths naturally form to restabilize unstable segments of the spine. These osseous excrescences, or osteophytes, may progress or stabilize in size as the spine reaches a new equilibrium point. We have previously created a CAD system that detects DDD. This paper presents a new system to determine the severity of DDD of individual vertebral levels. This will be useful to monitor the progress of developing DDD, as rapid growth may indicate that there is a greater stabilization problem that should be addressed. The existing DDD CAD system extracts the spine from CT images and segments the cortical shell of individual levels with a dual-surface model. The cortical shell is unwrapped, and is analyzed to detect the hyperdense regions of DDD. Three radiologists scored the severity of DDD of each disc space of 46 CT scans. Radiologists' scores and features generated from CAD detections were used to train a random forest classifier. The classifier then assessed the severity of DDD at each vertebral disc level. The agreement between the computer severity score and the average radiologist's score had a quadratic weighted Cohen's kappa of 0.64.

  17. Thermo-sensitive injectable glycol chitosan-based hydrogel for treatment of degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengzheng; Shim, Hyeeun; Cho, Myeong Ok; Cho, Ik Sung; Lee, Jin Hyun; Kang, Sun-Woong; Kwon, Bosun; Huh, Kang Moo

    2018-03-15

    The use of injectable hydrogel formulations have been suggested as a promising strategy for the treatment of degenerative disc disease to both restore the biomechanical function and reduce low back pain. In this work, a new thermo-sensitive injectable hydrogels with tunable thermo-sensitivity and enhanced stability were developed with N-hexanoylation of glycol chitosan (GC) for treatment of degenerative disc disease, and their physico-chemical and biological properties were evaluated. The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was controlled in a range of 23-56 °С, depending on the degree of hexanoylation and the polymer concentration. In vitro and in vivo tests showed no cytotoxicity and no adverse effects in a rat model. The hydrogel filling of the defective IVD site in an ex vivo porcine model maintained its stability for longer than 28 days. These results suggest that the hydrogel can be used as an alternative material for treatment of disc herniation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Use of Chymopapain in Degenerative Disc Disease: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Dennis S.; Macnab, Ian

    1970-01-01

    On the basis of the early results of the use of intradiscal injection of chymopapain in 15 patients with degenerative lumbar disc disease, the following statements are warranted: The injection can be beneficial in selected patients with lumbar disc disease. The relief of leg symptoms seems to be more striking than that of the accompanying low back symptoms although both are apparent. The exact mechanism by which pain is relieved is still obscure, but helpful information has been obtained from the early results of this investigation. The failure of chymopapain in carefully selected patients has resulted in only a brief time delay in operative intervention. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:5445694

  19. Human Amniotic Tissue-derived Allograft, NuCel, in Posteriolateral Lumbar Fusions for Degenerative Disc Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease; Spinal Stenosis; Spondylolisthesis; Spondylosis; Intervertebral Disk Displacement; Intervertebral Disk Degeneration; Spinal Diseases; Bone Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases; Spondylolysis

  20. Total disc replacement for chronic back pain in the presence of disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Wilco; Van der Gaag, Niels A; Tuschel, Alexander; de Kleuver, Marinus; Peul, Wilco; Verbout, A J; Oner, F Cumhur

    2012-09-12

    In the search for better surgical treatment of chronic low-back pain (LBP) in the presence of disc degeneration, total disc replacement has received increasing attention in recent years. A possible advantage of total disc replacement compared with fusion is maintained mobility at the operated level, which has been suggested to reduce the chance of adjacent segment degeneration. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of total disc replacement for chronic low-back pain in the presence of lumbar disc degeneration compared with other treatment options in terms of patient-centred improvement, motion preservation and adjacent segment degeneration. A comprehensive search in Cochrane Back Review Group (CBRG) trials register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, ISI, and the FDA register was conducted. We also checked the reference lists and performed citation tracking of included studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing total disc replacement with any other intervention for degenerative disc disease. We assessed risk of bias per study using the criteria of the CBRG. Quality of evidence was graded according to the GRADE approach. Two review authors independently selected studies and assessed risk of bias of the studies. Results and upper bounds of confidence intervals were compared against predefined clinically relevant differences. We included 40 publications, describing seven unique RCT's. The follow-up of the studies was 24 months, with only one extended to five years. Five studies had a low risk of bias, although there is a risk of bias in the included studies due to sponsoring and absence of any kind of blinding. One study compared disc replacement against rehabilitation and found a statistically significant advantage in favour of surgery, which, however, did not reach the predefined threshold for clinical relevance. Six studies compared disc replacement against fusion and found that the mean improvement in VAS back pain was

  1. Intradiscal injection of simvastatin results in radiologic, histologic, and genetic evidence of disc regeneration in a rat model of degenerative disc disease

    PubMed Central

    Than, Khoi D.; Rahman, Shayan U.; Wang, Lin; Khan, Adam; Kyere, Kwaku A.; Than, Tracey T.; Miyata, Yoshinari; Park, Yoon-Shin; La Marca, Frank; Kim, Hyungjin M.; Zhang, Huina; Park, Paul; Lin, Chia-Ying

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT A large percentage of back pain can be attributed to degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is known to play an important role in chondrogenesis of the IVD. Simvastatin is known to up-regulate expression of BMP-2. Thus, we hypothesized that intradiscal injection of simvastatin in a rat model of degenerative disc disease (DDD) would result in retardation of DDD. PURPOSE To develop a novel conservative treatment for DDD and related discogenic back pain. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING Laboratory investigation. METHODS Disc injury was induced in 272 rats via 21-gauge needle puncture. After 6 weeks, injured discs were treated with simvastatin in a saline or hydrogel carrier. Rats were sacrificed at predetermined time points. Outcome measures assessed were radiologic, histologic, and genetic. Radiologically, the MRI index (number of pixels multiplied by corresponding image densities) was determined. Histologically, disc spaces were read by 3 blinded scorers employing a previously described histological grading scale. Genetically, nuclei pulposi were harvested and polymerase chain reaction was run to determine relative levels of aggrecan, collagen type II, and BMP-2 gene expression. This project was supported by Grant No. R01 AR056649 from NIAMS/NIH. There are no other financial conflicts of interest to report. RESULTS Radiologically, discs treated with 5 mg/mL simvastatin in hydrogel or saline demonstrated MRI indices that were normal through 8 weeks post-treatment, although this was more sustained when delivered in hydrogel. Histologically, discs treated with 5 mg/mL simvastatin in hydrogel demonstrated improved grades in comparison to discs treated at higher doses. Genetically, discs treated with 5 mg/mL of simvastatin in hydrogel demonstrated higher gene expression of aggrecan and collagen type II than control. CONCLUSIONS Degenerate discs treated with 5 mg/mL simvastatin in a hydrogel carrier demonstrated

  2. Effects of the intradiscal implantation of stromal vascular fraction plus platelet rich plasma in patients with degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Comella, Kristin; Silbert, Robert; Parlo, Michelle

    2017-01-13

    Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) can easily be obtained from a mini-lipoaspirate procedure of fat tissue and platelet rich plasma (PRP) can be obtained from peripheral blood. The SVF contains a mixture of cells including ADSCs and growth factors and has been depleted of the adipocyte (fat cell) population. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of administering SVF and PRP intra-discally into patients with degenerative disc disease. A total of 15 patients underwent a local tumescent liposuction procedure to remove approximately 60 ml of fat tissue. The fat was separated to isolate the SVF and the cells were delivered into the disc nucleus of patients with degenerative disc disease. The subjects were then monitored for adverse events, range of motion, visual analog scale (VAS), present pain intensity (PPI), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Dallas Pain Questionnaire and Short Form (SF)-12 scores over a period of 6 months. Safety events were followed for 12 months. No severe adverse events (SAEs) were reported during a 12 month follow up period with no incidences of infection. Patients demonstrated statistically significant improvements in several parameters including flexion, pain ratings, VAS, PPI, and short form questionnaires. In addition, both ODI and BDI data was trending positive and a majority of patients reported improvements in their Dallas Pain Questionnaire scores. Overall, patients were pleased with the treatment results. More importantly, the procedure demonstrated a strong safety profile with no severe adverse events or complications linked to the therapy. Trial registration NCT02097862. Name of registry: www.clinicaltrials.gov . https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02097862?term=bioheart&rank=6 . Date of registration: March 25, 2014; Date of enrollment: March 2014.

  3. Do the disc degeneration and osteophyte contribute to the curve rigidity of degenerative scoliosis?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Bao, Hongda; Yan, Peng; Liu, Shunan; Bao, Mike; Zhu, Zezhang; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong

    2017-03-29

    The factors associated with lateral curve flexibility in degenerative scoliosis have not been well documented. Disc degeneration could result in significant change in stiffness and range of motion in lateral bending films. The osteophytes could be commonly observed in degenerative spine but the relationship between osteophyte formation and curve flexibility remains controversial. The aim of the current study is to clarify if the disc degeneration and osteophyte formation were both associated with curve flexibility of degenerative scoliosis. A total of 85 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The inclusion criteria were as follow: age greater than 45 years, diagnosed as degenerative scoliosis and coronal Cobb angle greater than 20°. Curve flexibility was calculated based on Cobb angle, and range of motion (ROM) was based on disc angle evaluation. Regional disc degeneration score (RDS) was obtained according to Pfirrmann classification and osteophyte formation score (OFS) was based on Nanthan classification. Spearman correlation was performed to analyze the relationship between curve flexibility and RDS as well as OFS. Moderate correlation was found between RDS and curve flexibility with a Spearman coefficient of -0.487 (P = 0.009). Similarly, moderate correlation was observed between curve flexibility and OFS with a Spearman coefficient of -0.429 (P = 0.012). Strong correlation was found between apical ROM and OFS compared to the relationship between curve flexibility and OFS with a Spearman coefficient of -0.627 (P < 0.001). Both disc degeneration and osteophytes formation correlated with curve rigidity. The pre-operative evaluation of both features may aid in the surgical decision-making in degenerative scoliosis patients.

  4. Evaluation of Electrospun Nanofiber-Anchored Silicone for the Degenerative Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    Riahanizad, S.

    2017-01-01

    The nucleus pulposus (NP) substitution by polymeric gel is one of the promising techniques for the repair of the degenerative intervertebral disc (IVD). Silicone gel is one of the potential candidates for a NP replacement material. Electrospun fiber anchorage to silicone disc, referred as ENAS disc, may not only improve the biomechanical performances of the gel but it can also improve restoration capability of the gel, which is unknown. This study successfully produced a novel process to anchor any size and shape of NP gel with electrospun fiber mesh. Viscoelastic properties of silicone and ENAS disc were measured using standard experimental techniques and compared with the native tissue properties. Ex vivo mechanical tests were conducted on ENAS disc-implanted rabbit tails to the compare the mechanical stability between intact and ENAS implanted spines. This study found that viscoelastic properties of ENAS disc are higher than silicone disc and comparable to the viscoelastic properties of human NP. The ex vivo studies found that the ENAS disc restore the mechanical functionality of rabbit tail spine, after discectomy of native NP and replacing the NP by ENAS disc. Therefore, the PCL ENF mesh anchoring technique to a NP implant can have clinical potential. PMID:29181144

  5. Concurrent Use of Lumbar Total Disc Arthroplasty and Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: The Lumbar Hybrid Procedure for the Treatment of Multilevel Symptomatic Degenerative Disc Disease: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Scott-Young, Matthew; McEntee, Laurence; Schram, Ben; Rathbone, Evelyne; Hing, Wayne; Nielsen, David

    2018-01-15

    A prospective study. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and patient outcomes post combined total disc arthroplasty (TDA) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), known as hybrid surgery for the treatment of multilevel symptomatic degenerative disc disease (DDD). Class I studies comparing the treatment of one-level lumbar DDD with TDA and ALIF have confirmed the effectiveness of those treatments through clinical and patient outcomes. Although the success of single-level disease is well documented, the evidence relating to the treatment of multilevel DDD with these modalities is emerging. With the evolution of the TDA technology, a combined approach to multilevel disease has developed in the form of the hybrid procedure. A total of 617 patients underwent hybrid surgery for chronic back pain between July 1998 and February 2012. Visual Analog Pain Scale for the back and leg were recorded along with the Oswestry Disability Index and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Both statistically and clinically significant (p < 0.005) reductions were seen in back and leg pain, which were sustained for at least 8 years postsurgery. In addition, significant improvements (P < 0.001) in self-rated disability and function were also maintained for at least 8 years. Patient satisfaction was rated as good or excellent in >90% of cases. The results of this research indicate that improvements in both back and leg pain and function can be achieved using the hybrid lumbar reconstructive technique. 4.

  6. Association of catechol-O-methyltransferase genetic variants with outcome in patients undergoing surgical treatment for lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Dai, Feng; Belfer, Inna; Schwartz, Carolyn E; Banco, Robert; Martha, Julia F; Tighioughart, Hocine; Tromanhauser, Scott G; Jenis, Louis G; Kim, David H

    2010-11-01

    Surgical treatment for lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) has been associated with highly variable results in terms of postoperative pain relief and functional improvement. Many experts believe that DDD should be considered a chronic pain disorder as opposed to a degenerative disease. Genetic variation of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been associated with variation in human pain sensitivity and response to analgesics in previous studies. To determine whether genetic variation of COMT is associated with clinical outcome after surgical treatment for DDD. Prospective genetic association study. Sixty-nine patients undergoing surgical treatment for lumbar DDD. Diagnosis was based on documentation of chronic disabling low back pain (LBP) present for a minimum of 6 months and unresponsive to supervised nonoperative treatment, including activity modification, medication, physical therapy, and/or injection therapy. Plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging revealed intervertebral disc desiccation, tears, and/or collapse without focal herniation, nerve root compression, stenosis, spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, or alternative diagnoses. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog score (VAS) for LBP. Surgical treatment included 65 instrumented fusions and four disc arthroplasty procedures. All patients completed preoperative and 1-year postoperative ODI questionnaires. DNA was extracted from a sample of venous blood, and genotype analysis was performed for five common COMT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Potential genetic association between these COMT SNPs and the primary outcome variable, 1-year change in ODI, was investigated using both single-marker and haplotype association analyses. Association with VAS scores for LBP was analyzed as a secondary outcome variable. Single-marker analysis revealed that the COMT SNP rs4633 was significantly associated with greater improvement in ODI score 1 year after surgery (p=.03), with

  7. Chemometric evaluation of concentrations of trace elements in intervertebral disc tissue in patient with degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Gasik, Zuzanna; Frankowski, Marcin; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Molisak, Bartłomiej; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek; Gasik, Robert

    2017-12-23

    The work is designed to uncover the pattern of mutual relation among trace elements and epidemiological data in the degenerated intervertebral disk tissue in humans. Hitherto the reason of the degenerative process is not fully understood. Trace elements are the basic components of the biological compound related both its metabolism as well as environmental exposure. The relation pattern among elements occurs gives new perspective in solving the cause of the disease. We have analysed trace elements content in the 30 intervertebral disc from 22 patients with degenerative disc disease. The concentrations of Al, Cu, Cd, Mo, Ni and Pb were determined with Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. To analyse the multidimentional relation between trace element concentration and epidemiological data the chemometric analysis was applied. The similarity have been shown in occurrence of following pairs: Cd-Mo as well as Mg-Zn. The second pair was correlated with Pb concentration. Pb levels are observed to be competitive to Cu concentration. Cd concentration was related to Zn and Mg deficiency. No single but rather cluster of epidemiological data show observable influence on the TE tissue variance. Zn and Cu was related to the male sex. Operation with orthopedic implants were related to combined Al, Mo and Zn concentration. This is the first chemometric analysis of trace elements in disk tissue. It shows multidimentional relations that are missed by the classical statistic. The analysis shows significant relation. The nature of the relations is the basis for further metabolic and environmental research.

  8. [Controversies about instrumented surgery and pain relief in degenerative lumbar spine pain. Results of scientific evidence].

    PubMed

    Robaina-Padrón, F J

    2007-10-01

    Investigation and development of new techniques for intrumented surgery of the spine is not free of conflicts of interest. The influence of financial forces in the development of new technologies an its immediately application to spine surgery, shows the relationship between the published results and the industry support. Even authors who have defend eagerly fusion techniques, it have been demonstrated that them are very much involved in the revision of new articles to be published and in the approval process of new spinal technologies. When we analyze the published results of spine surgery, we must bear in mind what have been call in the "American Stock and Exchange" as "the bubble of spine surgery". The scientific literature doesn't show clear evidence in the cost-benefit studies of most instrumented surgical interventions of the spine compare with the conservative treatments. It has not been yet demonstrated that fusion surgery and disc replacement are better options than the conservative treatment. It's necessary to point out that at present "there are relationships between the industry and back pain, and there is also an industry of the back pain". Nonetheless, the "market of the spine surgery" is growing up because patients are demanding solutions for their back problems. The tide of scientific evidence seams to go against the spinal fusions in the degenerative disc disease, discogenic pain and inespecific back pain. After decades of advances in this field, the results of spinal fusions are mediocre. New epidemiological studies show that "spinal fusion must be accepted as a non proved or experimental method for the treatment of back pain". The surgical literature on spinal fusion published in the last 20 years following the Cochrane's method establish that: 1- this is at least incomplete, not reliable and careless; 2- the instrumentation seems to slightly increase the fusion rate; 3- the instrumentation doesn't improve the clinical results in general, lacking

  9. Instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody fusion device (Cage) in degenerative disc disease (DDD): 3 years outcome.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, M K; Hossain, M A; Sakeb, N; Khan, S I; Zaman, N

    2013-10-01

    This prospective interventional study carried out at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and a private hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from October 2003 to September 2011. Surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD) should aim to re-expand the interbody space and stabilize until fusion is complete. The present study conducted to find out the efficacy of using interbody fusion device (Cage) to achieve interbody space re-expansion and fusion in surgical management of DDD. We have performed the interventional study on 53 patients, 42 female and 11 male, with age between 40 to 67 years. All the patients were followed up for 36 to 60 months (average 48 months). Forty seven patients were with spondylolisthesis and 06 with desiccated disc. All subjects were evaluated with regard to immediate and long term complications, radiological fusion and interbody space re-expansion and maintenance. The clinical outcome (pain and disability) was scored by standard pre and postoperative questionnaires. Intrusion, extrusion and migration of the interbody fusion cage were also assessed. Forty seven patients were considered to have satisfactory outcome in at least 36 months follow up. Pseudoarthrosis developed in 04 cases and 06 patients developed complications. In this series posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody cage and instrumentation in DDD showed significant fusion rate and maintenance of interbody space. Satisfactory outcome observed in 88.68% cases.

  10. Reliability of the modified Tufts Lumbar Degenerative Disc Classification between neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists.

    PubMed

    Burke, Shane M; Hwang, Steven W; Mehan, William A; Bedi, Harprit S; Ogbuji, Richard; Riesenburger, Ron I

    2016-07-01

    Cross-specialty inter-rater reliability has not been explicitly reported for imaging characteristics that are thought to be important in lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Sufficient cross-specialty reliability is an essential consideration if radiographic stratification of symptomatic patients to specific treatment modalities is to ever be realized. Therefore the purpose of this study was to directly compare the assessment of such characteristics between neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists. Sixty consecutive patients with a diagnosis of lumbago and appropriate imaging were selected for inclusion. Lumbar MRI were evaluated using the Tufts Degenerative Disc Classification by two neurosurgeons and two neuroradiologists. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using Cohen's κ values both within and between specialties. A sensitivity analysis was performed for a modified grading system, which excluded high intensity zones (HIZ), due to poor cross-specialty inter-rater reliability of HIZ between specialties. The reliability of HIZ between neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists was fair in two of the four cross-specialty comparisons in this study (neurosurgeon 1 versus both radiologists κ=0.364 and κ=0.290). Removing HIZ from the classification improved inter-rater reliability for all comparisons within and between specialties (0.465⩽κ⩽0.576). In addition, intra-rater reliability remained in the moderate to substantial range (0.523⩽κ⩽0.649). Given our findings and corroboration with previous studies, identification of HIZ seems to have a markedly variable reliability. Thus we recommend modification of the original Tufts Degenerative Disc Classification by removing HIZ in order to make the overall grade provided by this classification more reproducible when scored by practitioners of different training backgrounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Single-Level Degenerative Cervical Disc Disease and Driving Disability: Results from a Prospective, Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Michael P.; Mitchell, M. David; Hacker, Robert J.; Riew, K. Daniel; Sasso, Rick C.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Post hoc analysis of prospective, randomized trial. Objective To investigate the disability associated with driving and single-level degenerative, cervical disc disease and to investigate the effect of surgery on driving disability. Methods Post hoc analysis of data obtained from three sites participating in a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial comparing cervical disc arthroplasty (TDA) with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The driving subscale of the Neck Disability Index (NDI) was analyzed for all patients. A dichotomous severity score was created from the NDI. Statistical comparisons were made within and between groups. Results Two-year follow-up was available for 118/135 (87%) patients. One half of the study population (49.6%) reported moderate or severe preoperative driving difficulty. This disability associated with driving was similar among the two groups (ACDF: 2.5 ± 1.1, TDA: 2.6 ± 1.0, p = 0.646). The majority of patients showed improvement, with no or little driving disability, at the sixth postoperative week (ACDF: 75%, TDA: 90%, p = 0.073). At no follow-up point did a difference exist between groups according to the severity index. Conclusions Many patients suffering from radiculopathy or myelopathy from cervical disc disease are limited in their ability to operate an automobile. Following anterior cervical spine surgery, most patients are able to return to comfortable driving at 6 weeks. PMID:24436875

  12. Therapeutic effects of naringin on degenerative human nucleus pulposus cells for discogenic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Li, Nianhu; Whitaker, Camden; Xu, Zhanwang; Heggeness, Michael; Yang, Shang-You

    2016-10-01

    Over half the population of the world will suffer from moderate or severe low back pain (LBP) during their life span. Studies have shown that naringin, a major flavonoid in grapefruit and an active compound extracted from a Chinese herbal medicine (Rhizoma Drynariae) possesses many pharmacological effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of naringin on the growth of degenerative human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, and its repair effects on protein and gene expressions of the cells. This was an in vitro investigation of the human NP cells isolated from degenerated intervertebral discs that were interacted with various concentrated of naringin. This study was exempted by the institutional Human Subjects Committee-2, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita. Degenerative human NP cells were isolated from intervertebral discs of patients with discogenic LBP and cultured at 37°C with 5% CO 2 . The proliferation of NP cells was determined following treatment with various concentrations of naringin. The protein expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Aggrecan and type II collagen levels were measured by immunohistological staining. Further examination of the gene expression of aggrecan, Sox6, and MMP3 was performed after intervention with naringin for 3 days. The human NP cells were successfully propagated in culture and stained positive with toluidine blue staining. Naringin effectively enhanced the cell proliferation at an optimal concentration of 20 µg/mL. Naringin treatment resulted in significant inhibition of TNF-α, but elevated protein expressions of BMP-2, collagen II, and aggrecan. Naringin also increased disc matrix gene activity including aggrecan and Sox6, and decreased the gene expression of MMP3. Naringin effectively promotes the proliferation of degenerative human NP cells and improves the recuperation of the cells from

  13. The "tract" of history in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Chedid, Khalil J; Chedid, Mokbel K

    2004-01-15

    In this paper past, present, and future treatments of degenerative disc disease (DDD) of the lumbar spine are outlined in a straight forward manner. This is done to review previous knowledge of the disease, define current treatment procedures, and discuss future perspectives. An analysis of a subject of this magnitude dictates that one describes as accurate a history as possible: an anatomical/historical "tract" with emphasis on all possible deviations. Although spinal disorders have been recognized for a long time, the view of DDD as a particular disease entity is a more recent development. In this paper, the authors attempt to outline the history of DDD of the lumbar spine in an unbiased and scientific fashion. Physiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications will all be addressed in this study.

  14. Can the pattern of vertebral marrow oedema differentiate intervertebral disc infection from degenerative changes?

    PubMed

    Shrot, S; Sayah, A; Berkowitz, F

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate whether various patterns of bone marrow oedema could be used to discriminate between infection and degenerative change. Seventy patients with imaging features suspicious for discitis and available clinical follow-up were blindly reviewed for vertebral marrow oedema on sagittal short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) images according to the following patterns: I, vertebra oedema is adjacent to the intervertebral space and sharply-marginated; II, vertebral oedema is adjacent to the intervertebral space but not sharply marginated from normal marrow or involves the entire vertebral body; and III, vertebral oedema is distant from the endplate with intervening hypointense marrow signal. Of 45 patients with a clinical diagnosis of discitis, pattern II was the most common oedema pattern (64%). Approximately 20% and 9% of discitis patients showed patterns I and III, respectively. In patients with degenerative changes, 44% patients showed pattern I, 32% showed pattern II, and 24% showed pattern III. Pattern II had a sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 0.64, 0.68, and 0.78 for diagnosing spine infection, respectively. Although bone marrow oedema in infective discitis most often extends from the disc space and has indistinct margins, the oedema may also have sharp margins or be remote from the involved intervertebral space. Bone marrow oedema patterns of infective discitis overlap with those of degenerative disease and are not sufficiently reliable to exclude infection in cases with magnetic resonance imaging findings suggestive of discitis. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The change in the diffusion of water in normal and degenerative lumbar intervertebral discs following joint mobilization compared to prone lying.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Paul F; Donley, Jonathan W; Arnot, Cathy F; Miller, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Prospective, repeated measures obtained under treatment and control conditions. The purposes of this study were to provide preliminary evidence regarding the immediate change in the diffusion of water in the nuclear region of normal and degenerative lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) following a single session of lumbar joint mobilization, and to compare these findings to the immediate change in the diffusion of water following a 10-minute session of prone lying. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness and efficacy of lumbar joint mobilization. Increased knowledge of the physiologic effects of lumbar joint mobilization can lead to refinement of its clinical application. A total of 24 people (15 males and 9 females), ranging in age from 22 to 58 years, participated in this study. All subjects had a history of activity-limiting low back pain. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DW-MRIs) were obtained immediately before and after a 10-minute session of lumbar joint mobilization. At least 1 month later, a second session was performed in which DW-MRIs were obtained immediately before and after a 10-minute session of prone lying. Following lumbar joint mobilization, a significant increase (P = .002) in the mean values for diffusion of water was observed within degenerative IVDs at L5-S1 (22.2% increase; effect size, 0.97). Degenerative IVDs at L1-2 to L4-5 and normal IVDs at L1-2 to L5-S1 did not demonstrate a change in diffusion following joint mobilization. Prone lying was not associated with a change in diffusion for normal or degenerative IVDs. The stimulus provided by lumbar joint mobilization may influence the diffusion of water in degenerative IVDs at L5-S1; however, these are preliminary findings and the relationship of these findings to pain and function needs further investigation.

  16. Anterior herniation of lumbar disc induces persistent visceral pain: discogenic visceral pain: discogenic visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuan-Zhang; Shannon, Moore-Langston; Lai, Guang-Hui; Li, Xuan-Ying; Li, Na; Ni, Jia-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Visceral pain is a common cause for seeking medical attention. Afferent fibers innervating viscera project to the central nervous system via sympathetic nerves. The lumbar sympathetic nerve trunk lies in front of the lumbar spine. Thus, it is possible for patients to suffer visceral pain originating from sympathetic nerve irritation induced by anterior herniation of the lumbar disc. This study aimed to evaluate lumbar discogenic visceral pain and its treatment. Twelve consecutive patients with a median age of 56.4 years were enrolled for investigation between June 2012 and December 2012. These patients suffered from long-term abdominal pain unresponsive to current treatment options. Apart from obvious anterior herniation of the lumbar discs and high signal intensity anterior to the herniated disc on magnetic resonance imaging, no significant pathology was noted on gastroscopy, vascular ultrasound, or abdominal computed tomography (CT). To prove that their visceral pain originated from the anteriorly protruding disc, we evaluated whether pain was relieved by sympathetic block at the level of the anteriorly protruding disc. If the block was effective, CT-guided continuous lumbar sympathetic nerve block was finally performed. All patients were positive for pain relief by sympathetic block. Furthermore, the average Visual Analog Scale of visceral pain significantly improved after treatment in all patients (P < 0.05). Up to 11/12 patients had satisfactory pain relief at 1 week after discharge, 8/12 at 4 weeks, 7/12 at 8 weeks, 6/12 at 12 weeks, and 5/12 at 24 weeks. It is important to consider the possibility of discogenic visceral pain secondary to anterior herniation of the lumbar disc when forming a differential diagnosis for seemingly idiopathic abdominal pain. Continuous lumbar sympathetic nerve block is an effective and safe therapy for patients with discogenic visceral pain.

  17. Influence of the mental health status on a new measure of objective functional impairment in lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Joswig, Holger; Snagowski, Jan; Corniola, Marco V; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2017-06-01

    The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test has recently been proposed as a simple and standardized measure for objective functional impairment (OFI) in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). The study aimed to explore the relationship between a patient's mental health status and both patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and TUG test results. This is a prospective institutional review board-approved two-center study. The sample was composed of 375 consecutive patients scheduled for lumbar spine surgery and a healthy cohort of 110 control subjects. Patients and control subjects were assessed with the TUG test and a comprehensive panel of subjective PROMs of pain intensity (visual analog scale [VAS]), functional impairment (Roland-Morris Disability Index [RMDI]), Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), as well as health-related quality of life (hrQoL; Euro-Qol [EQ]-5D). Standardized age- and sex-adjusted TUG test T-scores were calculated. The dependent variable was the short-form (SF)-12 mental component summary (MCS) quartiles, and the independent variables were the TUG T-scores and PROMs. Direct and adjusted analyses of covariance were performed to estimate the interaction between the SF-12 MCS quartiles and the independent variables. In patients, there was a significant decrease in the subjective PROMs, notably the VAS back pain (p=.001) and VAS leg pain (p=.035), as well as significant increase in the RMDI (p<.001), ODI (p<.001), and the EQ-5D index (p<.001) with every increase in the quartile of the SF-12 MCS. There were no significant group differences of OFI as measured by the TUG T-scores across the SF-12 MCS quartiles (p=.462). In the healthy control group, a significant decrease in VAS leg pain (p=.028), RMDI (p=.013), and ODI (p<.001), as well as a significant increase in the EQ-5D index (p<.001), was seen across the SF-12 MCS quartiles, whereas TUG T-scores remained stable (p=.897). There are significant influences of mental hrQoL on subjective measures

  18. Running Exercise Alleviates Pain and Promotes Cell Proliferation in a Rat Model of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Shuo; Wan, Qing; Luo, Haijie; Li, Xiao; Ke, Songjian; Lin, Caina; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shaoling; Ma, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Physical exercise, which is clinically recommended by international guidelines, has proven to be effective for degenerative disc disease (DDD) patients. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic effects of physical exercise on DDD remains largely unclear. The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls). The hindpaw withdrawal thresholds of the exercise group returned nearly to baseline at the end of experiment, but severe pain persisted in the control group. Histological examinations performed on day 70 revealed that running exercise restored the degenerative discs and increased the cell densities of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP). Furthermore, immunofluorescence labeling revealed significantly higher numbers of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the exercise group on days 28, 42, 56 and 70, which indicated more rapid proliferation compared to the control at the corresponding time points. Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use. PMID:25607736

  19. Current and future perspectives on lumbar degenerative disc disease: a UK survey exploring specialist multidisciplinary clinical opinion.

    PubMed

    Deane, Janet A; McGregor, Alison H

    2016-09-15

    Despite lumbar degenerative disc disease (LDDD) being significantly associated with non-specific low back pain and effective treatment remaining elusive, specialist multidisciplinary clinical stakeholder opinion remains unexplored. The present study examines the views of such experts. A reliable and valid electronic survey was designed to establish trends using theoretical constructs relating to current assessment and management practices. Clinicians from the Society of Back Pain Research (SBPR) UK were invited to take part. Quantitative data were collated and coded using Bristol Online Surveys (BOS) software, and content analysis was used to systematically code and categorise qualitative data. Specialist multidisciplinary spinal interest group in the UK. 38/141 clinically active, multidisciplinary SBPR members with specialist spinal interest participated. Among them, 84% had >9 years postgraduate clinical experience. None. Frequency distributions were used to establish general trends in quantitative data. Qualitative responses were coded and categorised in relation to each theme and percentage responses were calculated. LDDD symptom recurrence, in the absence of psychosocial influence, was associated with physical signs of joint stiffness (26%), weakness (17%) and joint hypermobility (6%), while physical factors (21%) and the ability to adapt (11%) were postulated as reasons why some experience pain and others do not. No one management strategy was supported exclusively or with consensus. Regarding effective modalities, there was no significant difference between allied health professional and medic responses (p=0.1-0.8). The future of LDDD care was expressed in terms of improvements in patient communication (35%), patient education (38%) and treatment stratification (24%). Results suggest that multidisciplinary expert spinal clinicians appear to follow UK-based assessment guidelines with regard to recurrent LDDD; there are, however, inconsistencies in the

  20. Evaluation of Serum Cytokines in Cats with and without Degenerative Joint Disease and Associated Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Messenger, Kristen M.; Thomson, Andrea E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Aldrich, Lauren A.; Vaden, Shelly; Lascelles, BDX

    2017-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease is common in cats, with signs of pain frequently found on orthopedic examination and radiographs often showing evidence of disease. However, understanding of the pathophysiology of degenerative joint disease and associated pain remains limited. Several cytokines have been identified as having a role in pain in humans, but this has not been investigated in cats. The present study was performed to use a multiplex platform to evaluate the concentration of 19 cytokines and chemokines in serum samples obtained from cats with and without degenerative joint disease and associated pain. Samples from a total of 186 cats were analyzed, with cats representing a range of severity on radiographic and orthopedic evaluations and categorized by degenerative joint disease scores and pain scores. Results showed that cats with higher radiographic degenerative joint disease scores have higher serum concentrations of IL-4 and IL-8, while cats with higher orthopedic exam pain scores have higher concentrations of IL-8, IL-2, and TNF-α increased concentration of IL-8 in degenerative joint disease and pain may be confounded by the association with age. Discriminant analysis was unable to identify one or more cytokines that distinguish between groups of cats classified based on degenerative joint disease score category or pain score category. Finally, cluster analysis driven by analyte concentrations show separation of groups of cats, but features defining the groups remain unknown. Further studies are warranted to investigate any changes in cytokine concentrations in response to analgesic therapies, and further evaluate the elevations in cytokine concentrations found here, particularly focused on studies of local cytokines present in synovial fluid. PMID:28063477

  1. [Pedicular dynamic stabilization system. Functional outcomes and implant-related complications for the treatment of degenerative lumbar disc disease with a minimum follow-up of 4 years].

    PubMed

    Segura-Trepichio, M; Ferrández-Sempere, D; López-Prats, F; Segura-Ibáñez, J; Maciá-Soler, L

    2014-01-01

    The Dynesys(®) system is a non-fusion pedicular dynamic stabilization system. The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with degenerative disc disease and/or stenosis, and to measure the prevalence of screw loosening and breakage after 4 years of follow up. All patients who underwent surgery with Dynesys(®) system in 2008 were reviewed. The surgery was performed in cases of low back pain of more than 6 months duration and a positive MRI for degenerative disc disease and/or stenosis. A total of 22 patients (11 females, 11 males) with a mean age of 44.40 ± 11 years were included, 20 patients (91%) underwent Dynesys(®) without any associated decompression maneuver. The evaluation of back and leg pain (0-10mm) showed a mean decrease of 2.4 ± 2.06 mm (P=.0001). The preoperative value of the Oswestry disability index was 52.36 ± 16.56% (severe functional limitation). After surgery, this value was 34.27 ± 17.87% (moderate functional limitation) (P=.001) with a decrease of 18.09 ± 16.03% (P=.001). A total of 4 (18%) patients showed signs of loosening screws. One patient (4.5%) had a screw breakage. Surgery with Dynesys(®) shows favorable long term clinical results, however the range of improvement in our series is lower than those reported in other studies. Comparative studies between Dynesys(®) and decompression need to be performed in order to isolate the benefit of the dynamic stabilization system. Implant-related complications are not uncommon. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiofrequency neurotomy for treatment of low back pain in patients with minor degenerative spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Klessinger, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis is one of the major causes for low back pain. Morphological abnormalities of the zygapophysial joints are a predisposing factor in the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis. Therefore, radiofrequency neurotomy seems to be a rational therapy. To determine if radiofrequency neurotomy is effective for patients with low back pain and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Retrospective practice audit. Single spine center Charts of all patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis who underwent treatment with radiofrequency neurotomy during a time period of 3 years were reviewed. Only patients with magnetic resonance imaging confirming the diagnosis were included. Patients with a lumbar spine operation in their history, patients with neurological deficits, and patients with a follow-up less than 3 months were excluded. Patients were treated with lumbar radiofrequency neurotomy. Positive treatment response was defined as at least a 50% reduction in pain. A radiofrequency neurotomy was only performed after positive diagnostic medial branch blocks. During a time period of 3 years, 1,490 patients were treated with lumbar radiofrequency neurotomy. Forty of these patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis were included. A significant pain reduction was achieved in 65 % of the patients. This audit is retrospective and observational, and therefore does not represent a high level of evidence. However, to our knowledge, since this information has not been previously reported and no specific nonoperative treatment for lumbar pain in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis exists, it appears to be the best available research upon which to recommend treatment and to plan higher quality studies. Zygapophysial joints are a possible source of pain in patients with spondylolisthesis. Radiofrequency neurotomy is a rational, specific nonoperative therapy in addition to other nonoperative therapy methods with a success rate of 65%. This is the first

  3. Cost Utility Analysis of the Cervical Artificial Disc vs Fusion for the Treatment of 2-Level Symptomatic Degenerative Disc Disease: 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ament, Jared D; Yang, Zhuo; Nunley, Pierce; Stone, Marcus B; Lee, Darrin; Kim, Kee D

    2016-07-01

    The cervical total disc replacement (cTDR) was developed to treat cervical degenerative disc disease while preserving motion. Cost-effectiveness of this intervention was established by looking at 2-year follow-up, and this update reevaluates our analysis over 5 years. Data were derived from a randomized trial of 330 patients. Data from the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey were transformed into utilities by using the SF-6D algorithm. Costs were calculated by extracting diagnosis-related group codes and then applying 2014 Medicare reimbursement rates. A Markov model evaluated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for both treatment groups. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the stability of the model. The model adopted both societal and health system perspectives and applied a 3% annual discount rate. The cTDR costs $1687 more than anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) over 5 years. In contrast, cTDR had $34 377 less productivity loss compared with ACDF. There was a significant difference in the return-to-work rate (81.6% compared with 65.4% for cTDR and ACDF, respectively; P = .029). From a societal perspective, the incremental cost-effective ratio (ICER) for cTDR was -$165 103 per QALY. From a health system perspective, the ICER for cTDR was $8518 per QALY. In the sensitivity analysis, the ICER for cTDR remained below the US willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000 per QALY in all scenarios (-$225 816 per QALY to $22 071 per QALY). This study is the first to report the comparative cost-effectiveness of cTDR vs ACDF for 2-level degenerative disc disease at 5 years. The authors conclude that, because of the negative ICER, cTDR is the dominant modality. ACDF, anterior cervical discectomy and fusionAWP, average wholesale priceCE, cost-effectivenessCEA, cost-effectiveness analysisCPT, Current Procedural TerminologycTDR, cervical total disc replacementCUA, cost-utility analysisDDD, degenerative disc disease

  4. Lumbar Facet Joint Motion in Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease at Affected and Adjacent Levels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weishi; Wang, Shaobai; Xia, Qun; Passias, Peter; Kozanek, Michal; Wood, Kirkham; Li, Guoan

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Objective To evaluate the effect of lumbar degenerative disc diseases (DDDs) on motion of the facet joints during functional weight-bearing activities. Summary of Background Data It has been suggested that DDD adversely affects the biomechanical behavior of the facet joints. Altered facet joint motion, in turn, has been thought to associate with various types of lumbar spine pathology including facet degeneration, neural impingement, and DDD progression. However, to date, no data have been reported on the motion patterns of the lumbar facet joint in DDD patients. Methods Ten symptomatic patients of DDD at L4–S1 were studied. Each participant underwent magnetic resonance images to obtain three-dimensional models of the lumbar vertebrae (L2–S1) and dual fluoroscopic imaging during three characteristic trunk motions: left-right torsion, left-right bending, and flexion-extension. In vivo positions of the vertebrae were reproduced by matching the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae to their outlines on the fluoroscopic images. The kinematics of the facet joints and the ranges of motion (ROMs) were compared with a group of healthy participants reported in a previous study. Results In facet joints of the DDD patients, there was no predominant axis of rotation and no difference in ROMs was found between the different levels. During left-right torsion, the ROMs were similar between the DDD patients and the healthy participants. During left-right bending, the rotation around mediolateral axis at L4–L5, in the DDD patients, was significantly larger than that of the healthy participants. During flexion-extension, the rotations around anterioposterior axis at L4–L5 and around craniocaudal axis at the adjacent level (L3–L4), in the DDD patients, were also significantly larger, whereas the rotation around mediolateral axis at both L2–L3 and L3–L4 levels in the DDD patients were significantly smaller than those of the

  5. The immediate effects of taping therapy on knee pain and depression in patients with degenerative arthritis.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji-Won; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Park, Chi-Bok

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to identify the immediate effects of taping therapy on knee pain and depression among patients with degenerative arthritis. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 32 patients with degenerative arthritis were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the experimental group that underwent taping therapy and the control group that underwent regular treatment (16 patients per group). In the experimental group, therapeutic tape was wrapped all around the knee joint. Pain and depression were measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively. [Results] The intra-group comparison showed significant differences in VAS and BDI for the experimental group. The intergroup comparison showed that the differences in VAS and BDI within the experimental group appeared significant relative to the control group. [Conclusion] It was observed that taping therapy showed an immediate effect in decreasing knee pain and depression among patients with degenerative arthritis.

  6. CT-guided ozone/steroid therapy for the treatment of degenerative spinal disease--effect of age, gender, disc pathology and multi-segmental changes.

    PubMed

    Oder, Bernhard; Loewe, Maria; Reisegger, Michael; Lang, Wilfried; Ilias, Wilfried; Thurnher, Siegfried A

    2008-09-01

    Oxygen-ozone nucleolysis (ONL) is a new, minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of discogenic low back pain with or without radicular symptoms. The aim of the present study was to determine associations between the morphology of the basic disease, patient-specific factors and the outcome of the treatment. Six hundred and twelve patients not responding to conservative therapy were divided into five groups (disc bulging, disc herniation, postoperative patients, osteochondrosis, others) and subjected to nucleolysis with ozone and to periradicular infiltration with steroids and local anaesthesia. The success of treatment was assessed by means of a visual analog pain scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). A significant reduction in the VAS was registered after 2 and 6 months (from 8.6 to 5.4 and 6.0; p < 0.001) in all patient groups; an excellent therapy response (VAS below 3.0) was achieved by about a third of the patients. A significant improvement in ODI was registered in all patients (46 to 31; p < 0.001), most pronounced in the herniation group (25.5, p = 0.015). Patients below 50 years had significantly better values in the VAS and ODI score 6 months after treatment. Final VAS and ODI scores for patients with a single diseased segment were 4.2 and 28.0, in two affected segments 6.5 and 32 and in three segments 6.7 and 38.5 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.051). ONL with periradicular steroid therapy might exert a functional and sustained analgesic effect in patients with degenerative changes in the lumbar spine not responding to conservative therapy and was most effective below 50 years with disc herniation in one segment.

  7. The Degenerative Spine.

    PubMed

    Clarençon, Frédéric; Law-Ye, Bruno; Bienvenot, Peggy; Cormier, Évelyne; Chiras, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    Degenerative disease of the spine is a leading cause of back pain and radiculopathy, and is a frequent indication for spine MR imaging. Disc degeneration, disc protrusion/herniation, discarhtrosis, spinal canal stenosis, and facet joint arthrosis, as well as interspinous processes arthrosis, may require an MR imaging workup. This review presents the MR imaging patterns of these diseases and describes the benefit of the MR imaging in these indications compared with the other imaging modalities like plain radiographs or computed tomography scan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of intervertebral motion using quantitative fluoroscopy: report of an international forum and proposal for use in the assessment of degenerative disc disease in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Breen, Alan C; Teyhen, Deydre S; Mellor, Fiona E; Breen, Alexander C; Wong, Kris W N; Deitz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) is an emerging technology for measuring intervertebral motion patterns to investigate problem back pain and degenerative disc disease. This International Forum was a networking event of three research groups (UK, US, Hong Kong), over three days in San Francisco in August 2009. Its aim was to reach a consensus on how best to record, analyse, and communicate QF information for research and clinical purposes. The Forum recommended that images should be acquired during regular trunk motion that is controlled for velocity and range, in order to minimise externally imposed variability as well as to correlate intervertebral motion with trunk motion. This should be done in both the recumbent passive and weight bearing active patient configurations. The main recommended outputs from QF were the true ranges of intervertebral rotation and translation, neutral zone laxity and the consistency of shape of the motion patterns. The main clinical research priority should initially be to investigate the possibility of mechanical subgroups of patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain by comparing their intervertebral motion patterns with those of matched healthy controls.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of cervical total disc replacement vs fusion for the treatment of 2-level symptomatic degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Ament, Jared D; Yang, Zhuo; Nunley, Pierce; Stone, Marcus B; Kim, Kee D

    2014-12-01

    Cervical total disc replacement (CTDR) was developed to treat cervical spondylosis, while preserving motion. While anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has been the standard of care for 2-level disease, a randomized clinical trial (RCT) suggested similar outcomes. Cost-effectiveness of this intervention has never been elucidated. To determine the cost-effectiveness of CTDR compared with ACDF. Data were derived from an RCT that followed up 330 patients over 24 months. The original RCT consisted of multi-institutional data including private and academic institutions. Using linear regression for the current study, health states were constructed based on the stratification of the Neck Disability Index and a visual analog scale. Data from the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey questionnaires were transformed into utilities values using the SF-6D mapping algorithm. Costs were calculated by extracting Diagnosis-Related Group codes from institutional billing data and then applying 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates. The costs of complications and return-to-work data were also calculated. A Markov model was built to evaluate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for both treatment groups. The model adopted a third-party payer perspective and applied a 3% annual discount rate. Patients included in the original RCT had to be diagnosed as having radiculopathy or myeloradiculopathy at 2 contiguous levels from C3-C7 that was unresponsive to conservative treatment for at least 6 weeks or demonstrated progressive symptoms. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CTDR compared with ACDF. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.6864; P < .001) was found by projecting a visual analog scale onto the Neck Disability Index. Cervical total disc replacement had an average of 1.58 QALYs after 24 months compared with 1.50 QALYs for ACDF recipients. Cervical total disc replacement was associated with $2139 greater average cost. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CTDR compared with ACDF

  10. Back pain and degenerative abnormalities in the spine of young elite divers: a 5-year follow-up magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Baranto, Adad; Hellström, Mikael; Nyman, Rickard; Lundin, Olof; Swärd, Leif

    2006-09-01

    Several studies have been published on disc degeneration among young athletes in sports with great demands on the back, but few on competitive divers; however, there are no long-term follow-up studies. Twenty elite divers between 10 and 21 years of age, with the highest possible national ranking, were selected at random without knowledge of previous or present back injuries or symptoms for an MRI study of the thoraco-lumbar spine in a 5-year longitudinal study. The occurrence of MRI abnormalities and their correlation with back pain were evaluated. Eighty-nine percent of the divers had a history of back pain and the median age at the first episode of back pain was 15 years. Sixty-five percent of the divers had MRI abnormalities in the thoraco-lumbar spine already at baseline. Only one diver without abnormalities at baseline had developed abnormalities at follow-up. Deterioration of any type of abnormality was found in 9 of 17 (53%) divers. Including all disc levels in all divers, the total number of abnormalities increased by 29% at follow-up, as compared to baseline. The most common abnormalities were reduced disc signal, Schmorl's nodes, and disc height reduction. Since almost all divers had previous or present back pain, a differentiated analysis of the relationship between pain and MRI findings was not possible. However, the high frequency of both back pain and MRI changes suggests a causal relationship. In conclusion, elite divers had high frequency of back pain at young ages and they run a high risk of developing degenerative abnormalities of the thoraco-lumbar spine, probably due to injuries to the spine during the growth spurt.

  11. SHH-dependent knockout of HIF-1 alpha accelerates the degenerative process in mouse intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Wu, W J; Zhang, X K; Zheng, X F; Yang, Y H; Jiang, S D; Jiang, L S

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1 alpha) has been reported to have an important role in the metabolism and synthesis of extracellular matrix of the nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and was assumed to be involved in the process of intervertebral disc degeneration. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of HIF-1alpha in disc degeneration in vivo using a conditional HIF-1alpha knockout (KO) mouse model. ShhCre transgenic mice were mated with HIF-1 alpha fl/fl mice to generate conditional HIF-1alpha KO mice (HIF-1alpha fl/fl-ShhCre+). Three mice of each genotype (Wide-type and HIF-1alpha KO) at the age of 3 days, 6, and 12 weeks were sacrificed after genotyping. Five lumbar disc samples were harvested from each mouse, with a total of 45 disc samples for each genotype. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis were used to check the efficacy of HIF-1alpha knockout. Histological grading of the disc degeneration was performed according to the classification system proposed by Boos et al. Picro-sirius red staining, Safranine O/fast green staining and immunohistochemical study were used to evaluate the expression of aggrecan, type-II collagen and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Histologic analysis revealed more NPC deaths and signs of degeneration in HIF-1alpha KO mice and the degeneration scores of HIF-1alpha KO mice were significantly higher than those of the Wide-type mice at the age of 6 weeks and 12 weeks. There were less expressions of aggrecan, type-II collagen and VEGF in the intervertebral discs of HIF1-alpha KO mice than in those of wild-type mice. Taken together, the results of our study indicated that HIF-1alpha is a pivotal contributor to NPC survival and the homeotasis of extracellular matrix through the HIF-1alpha/VEGF signaling pathway, and plays an important role in the development of disc degeneration.

  12. Prevalence of degenerative and spondyloarthritis-related magnetic resonance imaging findings in the spine and sacroiliac joints in patients with persistent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Arnbak, Bodil; Jensen, Tue S; Egund, Niels; Zejden, Anna; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Manniche, Claus; Jurik, Anne G

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of degenerative and spondyloarthritis (SpA)-related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the spine and sacroiliac joints (SIJs) and analyse their association with gender and age in persistent low back pain (LBP) patients. Degenerative and SpA-related MRI findings in the whole spine and SIJs were evaluated in Spine Centre patients aged 18-40 years with LBP. Among the 1,037 patients, the prevalence of disc degeneration, disc contour changes and vertebral endplate signal (Modic) changes were 87 % (±SEM 1.1), 82 % (±1.2) and 48 % (±1.6). All degenerative spinal findings were most frequent in men and patients aged 30-40 years. Spinal SpA-related MRI findings were rare. In the SIJs, 28 % (±1.4) had at least one MRI finding, with bone marrow oedema being the most common (21 % (±1.3)). SIJ erosions were most prevalent in patients aged 18-29 years and bone marrow oedema in patients aged 30-40 years. SIJ sclerosis and fatty marrow deposition were most common in women. SIJ bone marrow oedema, sclerosis and erosions were most frequent in women indicating pregnancy-related LBP. The high prevalence of SIJ MRI findings associated with age, gender, and pregnancy-related LBP need further investigation of their clinical importance in LBP patients. • The location of vertebral endplate signal changes supports a mechanical aetiology. • Several sacroiliac joint findings were associated with female gender and pregnancy-related back pain. • Sacroiliac joint bone marrow oedema was frequent and age-associated, indicating a possible degenerative aetiology. • More knowledge of the clinical importance of sacroiliac joint MRI findings is needed.

  13. Lumbar Disc Screening Using Back Pain Questionnaires: Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Yeon; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyung Chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of back pain questionnaires for lumbar disc screening among Korean young males. Methods We carried out a survey for lumbar disc screening through back pain questionnaires among the volunteers with or without back pain. Three types of back pain questionnaire (Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screeing Questionnaire) were randomly assigned to the examinees. The authors reviewed lumbar imaging studies (simple lumbar radiographs, lumbar computed tomography, and magnetic resolutional images), and the severity of lumbar disc herniation was categorized according to the guidelines issued by the Korean military directorate. We calculated the relationship between the back pain questionnaire scores and the severity of lumbar disc herniation. Results The scores of back pain questionnaires increased according to the severity of lumbar disc herniation. But, the range of scores was very vague, so it is less predictable to detect lumbar disc herniation using only back pain questionnaires. The sensitivity between the back pain questionnaires and the presence of lumbar disc herniation was low (16-64%). Conclusion Screening of lumbar disc herniation using only back pain questionnaires has limited value. PMID:25983807

  14. Descriptive epidemiology and prior healthcare utilization of patients in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial's (SPORT) three observational cohorts: disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Justin; Lurie, Jon D; Tosteson, Tor D; Hanscom, Brett; Abdu, William A; Birkmeyer, Nancy J O; Herkowitz, Harry; Weinstein, James

    2006-04-01

    Prospective observational cohorts. To describe sociodemographic and clinical features, and nonoperative (medical) resource utilization before enrollment, in patients who are candidates for surgical intervention for intervertebral disc herniation (IDH), spinal stenosis (SpS), and degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) according to SPORT criteria. Intervertebral disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative spondylolisthesis with stenosis are the three most common diagnoses of low back and leg symptoms for which surgery is performed. There is a paucity of descriptive literature examining large patient cohorts for the relationships among baseline characteristics and medical resource utilization with these three diagnoses. The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) conducts three randomized and three observational cohort studies of surgical and nonsurgical treatments for patients with IDH, SpS, and DS. Baseline data include demographic information, prior treatments received, and functional status measured by SF-36 and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI-AAOS/Modems version). The data presented represent all 1,411 patients (743 IDH, 365 SpS, 303 DS) enrolled in the SPORT observational cohorts. Multiple logistic regression was used to generate independent predictors of utilization adjusted for sociodemographic variables, diagnosis, and duration of symptoms. The average age was 41 years for the IDH group, 64 years for the SpS group, and 66 years for the DS group. At enrollment, IDH patients presented with the most pain as reported on the SF-36 (BP 26.3 vs. 33.2 SpS and 33.8 DS) and were the most impaired (ODI 51 vs. 42.3 SpS and 41.5 DS). IDH patients used more chiropractic treatment (42% vs. 33% SpS and 26% DS), had more Emergency Department (ED) visits (21% vs. 7% SpS and 4% DS), and used more opiate analgesics (49% vs. 29% SpS and 27% DS). After adjusting for age, gender, diagnosis, education, race, duration of symptoms, and compensation, Medicaid patients used

  15. Predictive factors associated with neck pain in patients with cervical disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingde; Tian, Weifeng; Cao, Peng; Wang, Haonan; Zhang, Bing; Shen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The predictive factors associated with neck pain remain unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess predictive factors, especially Modic changes (MCs), associated with the intensity and duration of neck pain in patients with cervical disc degenerative disease. We retrospectively reviewed patients in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2016. Severe neck pain (SNP) and persistent neck pain (PNP) were the 2 main outcomes, and were assessed based on the numerical rating scale (NRS). Basic data, and also imaging data, were collected and analyzed as potential predictive factors. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to assess the predictive factors for neck pain. In all, 381 patients (193 males and 188 females) with cervical degenerative disease were included in our study. The number of patients with SNP and PNP were 94 (24.67%) and 109 (28.61%), respectively. The NRS of neck pain in patients with type 1 MCs was significantly higher than type 2 MCs (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 3.9 ± 1.1; P = .004). The multivariate logistic analysis showed that kyphosis curvature (odds ratio [OR] 1.082, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.044–1.112), spondylolisthesis (OR 1.339, 95% CI 1.226–1.462), and annular tear (OR 1.188, 95% CI 1.021–1.382) were factors associated with SNP, whereas kyphosis curvature (OR 1.568, 95% CI 1.022–2.394), spondylolisthesis (OR 1.486, 95% CI 1.082–2.041), and MCs (OR 1.152, 95% CI 1.074–1.234) were associated with PNP. We concluded that kyphosis curvature, spondylolisthesis, and annular tear are associated with SNP, whereas kyphosis curvature, spondylolisthesis, and MCs are associated with PNP. This study supports the view that MCs can lead to a long duration of neck pain. PMID:29069048

  16. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) versus cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for two contiguous levels cervical disc degenerative disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shihua; Gao, Junyi; Xu, Bin; Lu, Xiangdong; Han, Yongbin; Meng, Hui

    2017-04-01

    and arm pain scores (P = 0.52, SMD = 0.06, 95 % CI = -0.13 to 0.25) reported on a visual analog scale and rate of postoperative complications [risk ratio (RR) = 0.79; 95 % CI = 0.50-1.25; P = 0.31]. The CDA group of sagittal range of motion (ROM) of the operated and adjacent levels, functional segment units (FSU) and C2-7 is superior to ACDF group by radiographic data of peroperation, postoperation and follow-up. We can learn from this meta-analysis that the cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) group is equivalent and in some aspects has more significant clinical outcomes than the ACDF group at two contiguous levels CDD.

  17. Correlation between MRI evidence of degenerative condylar surface changes, induction of articular disc displacement and pathological joint sounds in the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kosuke; Natsumi, Yoshiko; Urade, Masahiro

    2008-12-01

    The relationship of bony changes in the condylar surfaces in articular disc displacement without reduction in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was investigated using diagnostic imaging. The study also evaluated whether the bony changes in the condylar surfaces limit disc and condyle motion, and produce pathological joint sounds. Thirty-seven joints in 28 patients diagnosed with degenerative bony changes in the condylar surfaces radiographically and anterior disc displacement without reduction using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were studied. The bony changes were assessed by radiographic examination and classified into two types: pathological bone changes (PBCs) including erosion, osteophyte formation and deformity, and adaptive bone changes (ABCs) including flattening and concavity. MRI was performed on the TMJ to examine the configuration and position of the discs. Joint sounds in the TMJ were determined using electrovibratograghy with a joint vibration analysis. The articular disc motion to the condyle in the PBC group was smaller than in the ABC group irrespective of the configuration of the disc, even though there were no significant differences between the two types of bony changes in the disc position during jaw closing. The joint vibration analysis of the TMJ showed that joint sounds with a higher frequency were observed in the PBC group than in the ABC group. High energy levels needed to produce the higher frequencies (over 300 Hz) were observed only in the PBC group.

  18. Surgical outcomes of degenerative spondylolisthesis with L5-S1 disc degeneration: comparison between lumbar floating fusion and lumbosacral fusion at a minimum 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jen-Chung; Chen, Wen-Jer; Chen, Lih-Hui; Niu, Chi-Chien; Keorochana, Gun

    2011-09-01

    A retrospective clinical and radiographic study was performed. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis and a preexisting degenerative L5-S1 disc treated with a lumbar floating fusion (LFF) versus lumbosacral fusion (LSF). Fusion for treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis often ends at the L5 level. These patients usually had a preexisting L5-S1 disc degeneration; however, no literature mentions the role of prophylactic LSF in degenerative spondylolisthesis associated with L5-S1 disc degeneration. A total of 107 patients with a minimum 5-year follow-up who had lumbosacral or LFF with pedicle instrumentation for degenerative spondylolisthesis were included. UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) classification was used to evaluate the radiographic results of the L5-S1 segment. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and modified Brodsky's criteria were used to evaluate patients' clinical results. The incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD) (includes radiographic and clinical ASD) of both ends was recorded. There were no statistically significant differences in sex, age distribution, or amount of follow-up between the LFF and LSF groups. The LSF group had a higher percentage of patients that underwent total L5 laminectomy with loss of L5-S1 posterior ligament integrity (LSF = 92% vs. LFF = 67%, P = 0.019). The higher incidence of cephalic ASD in the LSF group was statistically significant (LSF = 25% vs. LFF = 9.7%, P = 0.049). Although no patient in the LSF group developed L5-S1 ASD, need for L5-S1 segment revision surgery was not prevented with LSF. Clinical outcomes on the basis of the success rate (LFF = 85.5% vs.LSF = 70.8%, P = 0.103) and ODI difference (LFF = 28.97 ± 15.82 vs. LSF = 23.04 ± 10.97, P = 0.109), there were no statistically significant difference between these two groups. Posterior instrumentation with posterolateral LFF for the treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis with

  19. Does 360° lumbar spinal fusion improve long-term clinical outcomes after failure of conservative treatment in patients with functionally disabling single-level degenerative lumbar disc disease? Results of 5-year follow-up in 75 postoperative patients.

    PubMed

    Zigler, Jack E; Delamarter, Rick B

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment of patients with mechanical degenerative disc disease has been controversial, but improvements in clinical outcomes have been shown in properly selected patients with disease-specific diagnoses, with fusion arguably now becoming the "gold standard" for surgical management of these patients. No published study thus far has been designed for prospective enrollment of patients with specific inclusion/exclusion criteria in whom at least 6 months of conservative therapy has failed and who are then offered a standardized surgical procedure and are followed up for 5 years. The study group was composed of the patients in the prospective, randomized Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trial comparing ProDisc-L (Synthes Spine, West Chester, Pennsylvania) with 360° fusion for the treatment of single-level symptomatic disc degeneration. Of 80 patients randomized to 360° fusion after failure of non-operative care, 75 were treated on protocol with single-level fusions. Follow-up of this treatment cohort was 97% at 2 years and 75% at 5 years and serves as the basis for this report. Patients in the trial were required to have failure of at least 6 months of nonoperative care and in fact had failure of an average of 9 months of nonoperative treatment. The mean Oswestry Disability Index score indicated greater than 60% impairment. The mean entry-level pain score on a visual analog scale was greater than 8 of 10. After fusion, not only did patients have significant improvements in measurable clinical outcomes such as the Oswestry Disability Index score and pain score on a visual analog scale but there were also substantial improvements in their functional status and quality of life. Specifically, over 80% of patients in this study had improvements in recreational status that was maintained 5 years after index surgery, indicating substantial improvements in life quality that were not afforded by months of conservative care. The percentage

  20. [The assessment of the impact of rehabilitation on the pain intensity level in patients with herniated nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc].

    PubMed

    Koszela, Kamil; Krukowska, Sylwia; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2017-05-23

    Back pain may be caused by many factors. In many cases it is difficult to unambiguously determine a cause of the pathology, which can involve various structures in the spine. In this paper we will discuss the symptoms associated with the degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc, which involve, among others, its bulging, dislocation and pressure on the surrounding structures. These problems require an adequate clinical and imaging diagnostics in order to implement an appropriate treatment. In the first place, it should be based on the conservative methods (such as: pharmacotherapy, rehabilitation and lifestyle changes). Only in the absence of improvement it is recommended to consider a surgical treatment. The aim of the study is to assess the impact of rehabilitation on the pain intensity level in patients with herniated nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. The study was performed in 46 patients (age range: 19-85), including 26 women and 20 men. On the basis of imaging, all patients showed the presence of a slipped disc with disc herniation. The patients were treated conservatively. For pain assessment was used the The Laitinen Modified Questionnaire Indicators of Pain and The Visual- Analogue Scale. The results were statistically analyzed. The results clearly demonstrate the analgesic efficacy of specialized rehabilitation in the spinal pain syndrome in a discopathy with a spinal disc herniation of an intervertebral disc. The rehabilitation of patients with a back pain due to the presence of herniated nucleus pulposus has a significant analgesic effect. In the case of a presence of the herniated nucleus pulposus, the rehabilitation should be considered in a first place. If no improvement, a possible surgery should be considered. An important element of a conservative treatment is an effective rehabilitation, which is of vital economic importance, because a therapy including surgery usually requires subsequent rehabilitation and is much more expensive.

  1. [Degenerative adult scoliosis].

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, C L; Obil-Chavarría, C A; Zárate-Kalfópulos, B; Rosales-Olivares, L M; Alpizar-Aguirre, A; Reyes-Sánchez, A A

    2015-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional rotational deformity of the spine, resulting from the progressive degeneration of the vertebral elements in middle age, in a previously straight spine; a Cobb angle greater than 10° in the coronal plane, which also alters the sagittal and axial planes. It originates an asymmetrical degenerative disc and facet joint, creating asymmetrical loads and subsequently deformity. The main symptom is axial, radicular pain and neurological deficit. Conservative treatment includes drugs and physical therapy. The epidural injections and facet for selectively blocking nerve roots improves short-term pain. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with intractable pain, radiculopathy and/ or neurological deficits. There is no consensus for surgical indications, however, it must have a clear understanding of the symptoms and clinical signs. The goal of surgery is to decompress neural elements with restoration, modification of the three-dimensional shape deformity and stabilize the coronal and sagittal balance.

  2. Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the age of 18, or are a student athlete, if you have a history of osteoporosis, ... bending to better determine the cause of your pain. Lateral flexion and extension (bending forward and ... Degenerative Disc Disease NSAIDs Radiographic Assessment ...

  3. Anserina Bursitis—A Treatable Cause of Knee Pain in Patients with Degenerative Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Brookler, Morton I.; Mongan, Edward S.

    1973-01-01

    The anserina bursa is located on the medial surface of the tibia deep to the tendons of the sartorius, gracilis, and semimembranosus muscles and superficial to the insertion of the tibial collateral ligament. Knee pain, a palpable swelling of the bursa, and tenderness over the medial anterior aspect of the tibia just below the knee are the hallmarks of anserina bursitis. In a three-year period, 24 patients with anserina bursitis were seen in a rheumatology clinic. All but one were women, 18 were obese, and only four were under 50 years old. Knee x-ray studies showed degenerative arthritis in 20 of the 24 patients. In ten, varus knee deformities were present, while three had valgus deformities. Ultrasound or local steroid injections gave dramatic relief in all but one patient. PMID:4731586

  4. Upregulation of BDNF and NGF in cervical intervertebral discs exposed to painful whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Kartha, Sonia; Zeeman, Martha E; Baig, Hassam A; Guarino, Benjamin B; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2014-09-01

    In vivo study defining expression of the neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), in cervical intervertebral discs after painful whole-body vibration (WBV). The goal of this study is to determine if BDNF and NGF are expressed in cervical discs after painful WBV in a rat model. WBV is a possible source of neck pain and has been implicated as increasing the risk for disc disorders. Typically, aneural regions of painful human lumbar discs exhibit hyperinnervation, suggesting nerve ingrowth as potentially contributing to disc degeneration and pain. BDNF and NGF are upregulated in painfully degenerate lumbar discs and hypothesized to contribute to this pathology. Male Holtzman rats underwent 7 days of repeated WBV (15 Hz, 30 min/d) or sham exposures, followed by 7 days of rest. Cervical discs were collected for analysis of BDNF and NGF expression through RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry also evaluated their regional expression in the disc. Vibration significantly increases BDNF messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels (P=0.036), as well as total-NGF mRNA (P=0.035). Protein expression of both BDNF (P=0.006) and the 75-kDa NGF (P=0.045) increase by nearly 4- and 10-fold, respectively. Both BDNF mRNA (R=0.396; P=0.012) and protein (R=0.280; P=0.035) levels are significantly correlated with the degree of behavioral sensitivity (i.e., pain) at day 14. Total-NGF mRNA is also significantly correlated with the extent of behavioral sensitivity (R=0.276; P=0.044). Both neurotrophins are most increased in the inner annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus. The increases in BDNF and NGF in the cervical discs after painful vibration are observed in typically aneural regions of the disc, consistent with reports of its hyperinnervation. Yet, the induction of nerve ingrowth into the disc was not explicitly investigated. Neurotrophin expression also correlates with behavioral sensitivity, suggesting a role for both

  5. Comparison of 6-year Follow-up Result of Hybrid Surgery and Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for the Treatment of Contiguous 2-segment Cervical Degenerative Disc Diseases.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yang; Xu, Lin; Yu, Xing; Yang, Yongdong; Zhao, Dingyan; Hu, Zhengguo; Li, Chuanhong; Zhao, He; Duan, Lijun; Zhang, Bingbing; Chen, Sixue; Liu, Tao

    2018-03-15

    A retrospective study. To compare the mid-term outcomes of hybrid surgery and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for the treatment of contiguous 2-segment cervical degenerative disc diseases. Hybrid surgery has become one of the most controversial subjects in spine communities, and the comparative studies of hybrid surgery and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in the mid- and long-term follow-up are rarely reported. From 2009 to 2012, 42 patients who underwent hybrid surgery (n = 20) or anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (n = 22) surgery for symptomatic contiguous 2-level cervical degenerative disc diseases were included. Clinical and radiological records, including Japanese Orthopedic Association, Neck Disability Index, Visual Analogue Scale, local cervical lordosis and range of motion, were reviewed retrospectively. Complications were recorded and evaluated. Mean follow-up were 77.25 and 79.68 months in HS group and ACDF group, respectively (p > 0.05). Both in HS group and ACDF group, significant improvement for the mean JOA, NDI and VAS scores was found at 2-week postoperation and at the last follow-up (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). At last follow-up, the ROM of superior adjacent segments in ACDF group was significantly larger than HS group (p < 0.05) while the ROM of C2-C7 was significantly smaller (p < 0.05). In HS group, 2(10%)sagittal wedge deformity, 1(5%) heterotopic ossification and 1(5%) anterior migration of the Byran disc prosthesis were found. No symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration occurred in two groups. Hybrid surgery appears to be an acceptable option in the management of contiguous 2-segment cervical degenerative disc diseases. It yielded similar mid-term clinical improvement to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and demonstrated better preservation of cervical ROM. The incidence of postoperative sagittal wedge deformity was low

  6. Interpedicular height as a predictor of radicular pain in adult degenerative scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Hawasli, Ammar H.; Chang, Jodie; Yarbrough, Chester K.; Steger-May, Karen; Lenke, Lawrence G.; Dorward, Ian G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Context Spine surgeons must correlate clinical presentation with radiographic findings in a patient-tailored approach. Despite the prevalence of adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS), there are few radiographic markers to predict presence of radiculopathy. Emerging data suggest that spondylolisthesis, obliquity, foraminal stenosis and curve concavity may be associated with radiculopathy in ADS. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if radicular pain in ADS is associated with reduced interpedicular heights (IPHs) as measured on routine radiographs. Study Design/Setting Retrospective case-controlled study. Patient Sample The authors carried out a retrospective chart review at a tertiary care referral center that included ADS patients referred to scoliosis surgeons between 2012 and 2014. Inclusion criteria included patients with ADS and no prior thoraco-lumbar surgery. Data were collected from initial spine surgeon clinic notes and radiographs. Outcome Measures Clinical outcome data included presence, side(s) and level(s) of radicular pain; presence of motor deficits; and presence of sensory deficits. Methods Variables included age, gender, Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire data, and radiographic measurements. Radiographic measurements included Cobb angles and L1 to S1 IPHs on upright and supine radiographs. Associations between variables and outcome measures were assessed with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Authors have no conflicts of interests relevant to this study. Results A total of 200 patients with an average age of 51 years met the inclusion criteria. 60/200 presented with radicular pain. Increased age was associated with radicular pain, weakness and sensory deficits. Patients that were 55 years or older were approximately 8 times more likely to have a radicular pain (OR = 7.96, 95% CI 3.73, 17.0; p <0.001), 5 times more likely to have a motor deficit (OR = 5, 95

  7. Fluoroscopic cervical epidural injections in chronic axial or disc-related neck pain without disc herniation, facet joint pain, or radiculitis

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Background While chronic neck pain is a common problem in the adult population, with a typical 12-month prevalence of 30%–50%, there is a lack of consensus regarding its causes and treatment. Despite limited evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic neck pain. Methods A randomized, double-blind, active, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of chronic neck pain with or without upper extremity pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Results One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, ie, injection of local anesthetic only (group 1) or local anesthetic mixed with nonparticulate betamethasone (group 2). The primary outcome of significant pain relief and improvement in functional status (≥50%) was demonstrated in 72% of group 1 and 68% of group 2. The overall average number of procedures per year was 3.6 in both groups with an average total relief per year of 37–39 weeks in the successful group over a period of 52 weeks. Conclusion Cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids may be effective in patients with chronic function-limiting discogenic or axial pain. PMID:22826642

  8. Impact of sacropelvic fixation on the development of postoperative sacroiliac joint pain following multilevel stabilization for degenerative spine disease.

    PubMed

    Finger, T; Bayerl, S; Bertog, M; Czabanka, M; Woitzik, J; Vajkoczy, P

    2016-11-01

    We hypothesised, that the inclusion of the ilium for multilevel lumbosacral fusions reduces the incidence of postoperative sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain. The primary objective of this study was to compare the frequency of postoperative SIJ pain in patients undergoing multilevel stabilization with and without sacropelvic fixation for multilevel degenerative spine disease. In addition, we aimed at identifying factors that may predict the worsening or new onset of postoperative SIJ pain. A total of 63 patients with multisegmental fusion surgery with a minimum follow up of 12 months were evaluated. 34 patients received sacral fixation (SF group) and 29 patients received an additional sacropelvic fixation device (SPF group). Primary outcome parameters were changes in SIJ pain between the groups and the influence of pelvic parameters, the patient́s age, the patient́s body mass index (BMI) and the length of the stabilization on the SIJ pain. Between the two surgical groups there were no differences concerning age (p=0.3), BMI (p=0.56), length of follow up (p=0.96), length of the construct (p=0.56). In total 31.7% of the patients had a worsening/new onset of SIJ pain after surgery. An additional fixation of the SIJ with iliac screws or iliosacral plate did not have an influence on the SIJ pain (p=0.67). Likewise, pelvic parameters were not predictive for the outcome of the SIJ pain. Only an increased preoperative BMI correlated with a higher chance of a new onset of SIJ pain (p=0.037). In our retrospective study there was no influence of a sacropelvic fixation techniques on the SIJ pain in patients with multilevel degenerative spine disease after multilevel stabilization surgeries. The patients' BMI is the only preoperative factor that correlated with a higher incidence to develop postoperative SIJ pain, independently of the implantation of a sacropelvic fixation device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biochemical validity of imaging techniques (X-ray, MRI, and dGEMRIC) in degenerative disc disease of the human cervical spine-an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Bostelmann, Richard; Bostelmann, Tamara; Nasaca, Adrian; Steiger, Hans Jakob; Zaucke, Frank; Schleich, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    On a molecular level, maturation or degeneration of human intervertebral disc is among others expressed by the content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). According to the degenerative status, the disc content can differ in nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF), respectively. Research in this area was conducted mostly on postmortem samples. Although several radiological classification systems exist, none includes biochemical features. Therefore, we focused our in vivo study on a widely spread and less expensive imaging technique for the cervical spine and the correlation of radiological patterns to biochemical equivalents in the intervertebral discs. The aim of this pilot study was to (1) measure the GAG content in human cervical discs, (2) to investigate whether a topographic biochemical GAG pattern can be found, and (3) whether there is a correlation between imaging data (X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] including delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage [dGEMRIC] as a special imaging technique of cartilage) and the biochemical data. We conducted a prospective experimental pilot study. Only non-responders to conservative therapy were included. All subjects were physically and neurologically examined, and they completed their questionnaires. Visual analogue scale neck and arm, Neck Disability Index score, radiological parameters (X-rays, MRI, dGEMRIC), and the content of GAG in the cervical disc were assessed. After surgical removal of 12 discs, 96 fractions of AF and NP were biochemically analyzed for the GAG content using dimethylmethylene blue assay. A quantitative pattern of GAGs in the human cervical disc was identified. There were (1) significantly (p<.001) higher values of GAGs (µg GAG/mg tissue) in the NP (169.9 SD 37.3) compared with the AF (132.4 SD 42.2), and (2) significantly (p<.005) higher values of GAGs in the posterior (right/left: 149.9/160.2) compared with the anterior (right/left: 112.0/120.2) part of the AF. Third, we found

  10. The effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the pain and function of patients with degenerative knee arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sangyong; Choi, SeokJoo; Choi, Yoon-Hee; Lee, Kwansub

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the pain and function of patients with degenerative knee arthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with degenerative knee arthritis were divided into a conservative physical therapy group (n=10) and an extracorporeal shock wave therapy group (n=10). Both groups received general conservative physical therapy, and the extracorporeal shock wave therapy was additionally treated with extracorporeal shock wave therapy after receiving conservative physical therapy. Both groups were treated three times a week over a four-week period. The visual analogue scale was used to evaluate pain in the knee joints of the subjects, and the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was used to evaluate the function of the subjects. [Results] The comparison of the visual analogue scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores within each group before and after the treatment showed statistically significant declines in scores in both the conservative physical therapy group and extracorporeal shock wave therapy group. A group comparison after the treatment showed statistically significant differences in these scores in the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group and the conservative physical therapy group. [Conclusion] extracorporeal shock wave therapy may be a useful nonsurgical intervention for reducing the pain of patients with degenerative knee arthritis and improving these patients' function.

  11. Comparison of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with the zero-profile device versus plate and cage in treating cervical degenerative disc disease: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuchen; Yang, Yunbei; Wang, Yayi; Liu, Hao; Hong, Ying; Gong, Quan; Song, Yueming

    2016-11-01

    Zero-profile device was applied to diminish the irritation of the esophagus in the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. However, the clinical application of the zero-profile device has not been testified with clinical evidence. The aim of the meta-analysis was to systematically compare the safety and effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with zero-profile device with plate and cage for the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. Electronic searches of PubMed and Embase were conducted up to May 2015. Relevant studies were included. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were assessed for continuous data. Risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI were assessed for dichotomous data. P value <0.05 was considered to be significant. Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with plate and cage, zero-p is associated with lower operation time of two-level surgery, less intraoperative blood loss, higher subsidence rate, higher JOA score, lower incidence of dysphagia in short-term (RR: 0.72, 95% CI [0.58, 0.90], P=0.005, I 2 =22%) and long-term (RR: 0.12, 95% CI [0.05, 0.30], P<0.00001, I 2 =0%) and lower Cobb angle of multilevel surgery (WMD: -3.16, 95% CI: [-4.35, -1.97], P<0.00001, I 2 =0%). No significant difference was found in one-level and two-level Cobb angle, fusion rate and operation time of one-level and three-level surgery. Both zero-p implantation and the plate and cage have respective advantages and disadvantages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of motion analysis to measure pain-related behaviour in a rat model of degenerative tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Sai-Chuen; Chan, Kai-Ming; Chan, Lai-Shan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Lui, Po-Yee Pauline

    2009-05-15

    Chronic tendinopathy is characterized with longstanding activity-related pain with degenerative tendon injuries. An objective tool to measure painful responses in animal models is essential for the development of effective treatment for tendinopathy. Gait analysis has been developed to monitor the inflammatory pain in small animals. We reported the use of motion analysis to monitor gait changes in a rat model of degenerative tendon injury. Intratendinous injection of collagenase into the left patellar tendon of Sprague Dawley rat was used to induce degenerative tendon injury, while an equal volume of saline was injected in the control groups. Motion analyses with a high speed video camera were performed on all rats at pre-injury, 2, 4, 8, 12 or 16 weeks post injection. In the end-point study, the rats were sacrificed to obtain tendon samples for histological examination after motion analyses. In the follow-up study, repeated motion analyses were performed on another group of collagenase-treated and saline-treated rats. The results showed that rats with injured patellar tendon exhibited altered walking gait as compared to the controls. The change in double stance duration in the collagenase-treated rats was reversible by administration of buprenorphrine (p=0.029), it suggested that the detected gait changes were associated with pain. Comparisons of end-point and follow-up studies revealed the confounding effects of training, which led to higher gait velocities and probably a different adaptive response to tendon pain in the trained rats. The results showed that motion analysis could be used to measure activity-related chronic tendon pain.

  13. Pain and mobility improvement and MDA plasma levels in degenerative osteoarthritis, low back pain, and rheumatoid arthritis after infrared A-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Siems, Werner; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Brenke, Rainer; Siems, Renate; Kitzing, Manfred; Harting, Heike; Eckl, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    Infrared (IR)-A irradiation can be useful in back and musculoskeletal pain therapy. In this study joint and vertebral column pain and mobility were measured during two weeks of IR-A irradiation treatment of patients suffering from degenerative osteoarthritis of hip and knee, low back pain, or rheumatoid arthritis. Additionally, before and after IR-A treatment MDA serum levels were measured to check if MDA variations accompany changes in pain intensity and mobility. Two-hundred and seven patients were divided into verum groups getting IR-irradiation, placebo groups getting visible, but not IR irradiation, and groups getting no irradiation. In osteoarthritis significant pain reduction according to Visual Analogue Scale and mobility improvements occurred in the verum group. Even though beneficial mean value changes occurred in the placebo group, the improvements in the placebo and No Irradiation groups were without statistical significance. In low back pain, pain and mobility improvements (by 35-40%) in the verum group were found, too. A delayed (2nd week) mobility improvement in rheumatoid arthritis was seen. However, pain relief was seen immediately. In patients suffering from low back pain or rheumatoid arthritis, the pain and mobility improvements were accompanied by significant changes of MDA serum levels. However, MDA appears not a sensitive biofactor for changes of the pain intensity in degenerative osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, unaffected or lowered MDA levels during intensive IR-A therapy argue against previous reports on free radical formation upon infrared. In conclusion, rapid beneficial effects of IR-A towards musculoskeletal pain and joint mobility loss were demonstrated.

  14. Comparison among perfect-C®, zero-P®, and plates with a cage in single-level cervical degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Noh, Sung Hyun; Zhang, Ho Yeol

    2018-01-25

    We intended to analyze the efficacy of a new integrated cage and plate device called Perfect-C for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) to cure single-level cervical degenerative disc disease. We enrolled 148 patients who were subjected to single-level ACDF with one of the following three surgical devices: a Perfect-C implant (41 patients), a Zero-P implant (36 patients), or a titanium plate with a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage (71 patients). We conducted a retrospective study to compare the clinical and radiological results among the three groups. The length of the operation, intraoperative blood loss, and duration of hospitalization were significantly lower in the Perfect-C group than in the Zero-P and plate-with-cage groups (P < 0.05). At the last follow-up visit, heterotopic ossification (HO) was not observed in any cases (0%) in the Perfect-C and Zero-P groups but was noted in 21 cases (30%) in the plate-with-cage group. The cephalad and caudal plate-to-disc distance (PDD) and the cephalad and caudal PDD/anterior body height (ABH) were significantly greater in the Perfect-C and Zero-P groups than in the plate-with-cage group (P < 0.05). Subsidence occurred in five cases (14%) in the Perfect-C group, in nine cases (25%) in the Zero-P group, and in 15 cases (21%) in the plate-with-cage group. Fusion occurred in 37 cases (90%) in the Perfect-C group, in 31 cases (86%) in the Zero-P group, and in 68 cases (95%) in the plate-with-cage group. The Perfect-C, Zero-P, and plate-with-cage devices are effective for treating single-level cervical degenerative disc disease. However, the Perfect-C implant has many advantages over both the Zero-P implant and conventional plate-cage treatments. The Perfect-C implant was associated with shorter operation times and hospitalization durations, less blood loss, and lower subsidence rates compared with the Zero-P implant or the titanium plate with a PEEK cage.

  15. Implantation of hyaluronic acid hydrogel prevents the pain phenotype in a rat model of intervertebral disc injury

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Daisuke; Dockery, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Painful intervertebral disc degeneration is mediated by inflammation that modulates glycosylation and induces hyperinnervation and sensory sensitization, which result in discogenic pain. Hyaluronic acid (HA) used as a therapeutic biomaterial can reduce inflammation and pain, but the effects of HA therapy on glycosylation and pain associated with disc degeneration have not been previously determined. We describe a novel rat model of pain induced by intervertebral disc injury, with validation of the pain phenotype by morphine treatment. Using this model, we assessed the efficacy of HA hydrogel for the alleviation of pain, demonstrating that it reduced nociceptive behavior, an effect associated with down-regulation of nociception markers and inhibition of hyperinnervation. Furthermore, HA hydrogel altered glycosylation and modulated key inflammatory and regulatory signaling pathways, resulting in attenuation of inflammation and regulation of matrix components. Our results suggest that HA hydrogel is a promising clinical candidate for the treatment of back pain caused by degenerated discs. PMID:29632893

  16. Item generation and design testing of a questionnaire to assess degenerative joint disease-associated pain in cats.

    PubMed

    Zamprogno, Helia; Hansen, Bernie D; Bondell, Howard D; Sumrell, Andrea Thomson; Simpson, Wendy; Robertson, Ian D; Brown, James; Pease, Anthony P; Roe, Simon C; Hardie, Elizabeth M; Wheeler, Simon J; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2010-12-01

    To determine the items (question topics) for a subjective instrument to assess degenerative joint disease (DJD)-associated chronic pain in cats and determine the instrument design most appropriate for use by cat owners. 100 randomly selected client-owned cats from 6 months to 20 years old. Cats were evaluated to determine degree of radiographic DJD and signs of pain throughout the skeletal system. Two groups were identified: high DJD pain and low DJD pain. Owner-answered questions about activity and signs of pain were compared between the 2 groups to define items relating to chronic DJD pain. Interviews with 45 cat owners were performed to generate items. Fifty-three cat owners who had not been involved in any other part of the study, 19 veterinarians, and 2 statisticians assessed 6 preliminary instrument designs. 22 cats were selected for each group; 19 important items were identified, resulting in 12 potential items for the instrument; and 3 additional items were identified from owner interviews. Owners and veterinarians selected a 5-point descriptive instrument design over 11-point or visual analogue scale formats. Behaviors relating to activity were substantially different between healthy cats and cats with signs of DJD-associated pain. Fifteen items were identified as being potentially useful, and the preferred instrument design was identified. This information could be used to construct an owner-based questionnaire to assess feline DJD-associated pain. Once validated, such a questionnaire would assist in evaluating potential analgesic treatments for these patients.

  17. Predictive factors associated with neck pain in patients with cervical disc degeneration: A cross-sectional study focusing on Modic changes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingde; Tian, Weifeng; Cao, Peng; Wang, Haonan; Zhang, Bing; Shen, Yong

    2017-10-01

    The predictive factors associated with neck pain remain unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess predictive factors, especially Modic changes (MCs), associated with the intensity and duration of neck pain in patients with cervical disc degenerative disease.We retrospectively reviewed patients in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2016. Severe neck pain (SNP) and persistent neck pain (PNP) were the 2 main outcomes, and were assessed based on the numerical rating scale (NRS). Basic data, and also imaging data, were collected and analyzed as potential predictive factors. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to assess the predictive factors for neck pain.In all, 381 patients (193 males and 188 females) with cervical degenerative disease were included in our study. The number of patients with SNP and PNP were 94 (24.67%) and 109 (28.61%), respectively. The NRS of neck pain in patients with type 1 MCs was significantly higher than type 2 MCs (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 3.9 ± 1.1; P = .004). The multivariate logistic analysis showed that kyphosis curvature (odds ratio [OR] 1.082, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.044-1.112), spondylolisthesis (OR 1.339, 95% CI 1.226-1.462), and annular tear (OR 1.188, 95% CI 1.021-1.382) were factors associated with SNP, whereas kyphosis curvature (OR 1.568, 95% CI 1.022-2.394), spondylolisthesis (OR 1.486, 95% CI 1.082-2.041), and MCs (OR 1.152, 95% CI 1.074-1.234) were associated with PNP.We concluded that kyphosis curvature, spondylolisthesis, and annular tear are associated with SNP, whereas kyphosis curvature, spondylolisthesis, and MCs are associated with PNP. This study supports the view that MCs can lead to a long duration of neck pain.

  18. Fusion-nonfusion hybrid construct versus anterior cervical hybrid decompression and fusion: a comparative study for 3-level cervical degenerative disc diseases.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fan; Jia, Zhiwei; Wu, Yaohong; Li, Chao; He, Qing; Ruan, Dike

    2014-11-01

    A retrospective analysis. This study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy between the fusion-nonfusion hybrid construct (HC: anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion plus artificial disc replacement, ACCF plus cADR) and anterior cervical hybrid decompression and fusion (ACHDF: anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion plus discectomy and fusion, ACCF plus ACDF) for 3-level cervical degenerative disc diseases (cDDD). The optimal anterior technique for 3-level cDDD remains uncertain. Long-segment fusion substantially induced biomechanical changes at adjacent levels, which may lead to symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration. Hybrid surgery consisting of ACDF and cADR has been reported with good results for 2-level cDDD. In this context, ACCF combining with cADR may be an alternative to ACHDF for 3-level cDDD. Between 2009 and 2012, 28 patients with 3-level cDDD who underwent HC (n=13) and ACHDF (15) were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical assessments were based on Neck Disability Index, Japanese Orthopedic Association disability scale, visual analogue scale, Japanese Orthopedic Association recovery rate, and Odom criteria. Radiological analysis included range of motion of C2-C7 and adjacent segments and cervical lordosis. Perioperative parameters, radiological adjacent-level changes, and the complications were also assessed. HC showed better Neck Disability Index improvement at 12 and 24 months, as well as Japanese Orthopedic Association and visual analogue scale improvement at 24 months postoperatively (P<0.05). HC had better outcome according to Odom criteria but not significantly (P>0.05). The range of motion of C2-C7 and adjacent segments was less compromised in HC (P<0.05). Both 2 groups showed significant lordosis recovery postoperatively (P<0.05), but no difference was found between groups (P>0.05). The incidence of adjacent-level degenerative changes and complications was higher in ACHDF but not significantly (P>0.05). HC may be an alternative to ACHDF for

  19. Phenotype variations affect genetic association studies of degenerative disc disease: conclusions of analysis of genetic association of 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms with highly specific phenotypes for disc degeneration in 332 subjects.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Senthil, Natesan; Raveendran, Muthuraja; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Chan, Danny; Subramaniam, Sakthikanal; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad

    2013-10-01

    Although the influence of genetics on the process of disc degeneration is well recognized, in recently published studies, there is a wide variation in the race and selection criteria for such study populations. More importantly, the radiographic features of disc degeneration that are selected to represent the disc degeneration phenotype are variable in these studies. The study presented here evaluates the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of candidate genes and three distinct radiographic features that can be defined as the degenerative disc disease (DDD) phenotype. The study objectives were to examine the allelic diversity of 58 SNPs related to 35 candidate genes related to lumbar DDD, to evaluate the association in a hitherto unevaluated ethnic Indian population that represents more than one-sixth of the world population, and to analyze how genetic associations can vary in the same study subjects with the choice of phenotype. A cross-sectional, case-control study of an ethnic Indian population was carried out. Fifty-eight SNPs in 35 potential candidate genes were evaluated in 342 subjects and the associations were analyzed against three highly specific markers for DDD, namely disc degeneration by Pfirrmann grading, end-plate damage evaluated by total end-plate damage score, and annular tears evaluated by disc herniations and hyperintense zones. Genotyping of cases and controls was performed on a genome-wide SNP array to identify potential associated disease loci. The results from the genome-wide SNP array were then used to facilitate SNP selection and genotype validation was conducted using Sequenom-based genotyping. Eleven of the 58 SNPs provided evidence of association with one of the phenotypes. For annular tears, rs1042631 SNP of AGC1 and rs467691 SNP of ADAMTS5 were highly significantly associated (p<.01) and SNPs in NGFB, IL1B, IL18RAP, and MMP10 were also significantly associated (p<.05). The rs4076018 SNP of NGFB was highly

  20. Neck pain and dysphagia associated to disc protrusion and reduced functional stability: A case report.

    PubMed

    Margelli, Michele; Vanti, Carla; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Andreotti, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Deglutition dysfunction like dysphagia may be associated with cervical symptoms. A young female complained of pain on the neck and swallowing dysfunction that was reduced by means of isometric contraction of cervical muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an anterior C5-C6 disc protrusion associated with a lesion of the anterior longitudinal ligament. Barium radiograph showed a small anterior cervical osteophyte at C6 level and dynamic X-ray excluded anatomical instability. The treatment included manual therapy and active exercises to improve muscular stability. Diagnostic hypothesis was a combination of cervical disc dysfunction associated with C6 osteophyte and reduced functional stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in managing chronic axial low back pain without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; McManus, Carla D; Pampati, Vidyasagar

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain without disc herniation is common. Various modalities of treatments are utilized in managing this condition, including epidural injections. However, there is continued debate on the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of any treatment modality utilized for managing axial or discogenic pain, including epidural injections. Methods A randomized, double-blind, actively controlled trial was conducted. The objective was to evaluate the ability to assess the effectiveness of caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for managing chronic low back pain not caused by disc herniation, radiculitis, facet joints, or sacroiliac joints. A total of 120 patients were randomized to two groups; one group did not receive steroids (group 1) and the other group did (group 2). There were 60 patients in each group. The primary outcome measure was at least 50% improvement in Numeric Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary outcome measures were employment status and opioid intake. These measures were assessed at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Results Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (primary outcome) defined as a 50% or more reduction in scores from baseline, were observed in 54% of patients in group 1 and 60% of patients in group 2 at 24 months. In contrast, 84% of patients in group 1 and 73% in group 2 saw significant pain relief and functional status improvement in the successful groups at 24 months. Conclusion Caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids are effective in patients with chronic axial low back pain of discogenic origin without facet joint pain, disc herniation, and/or radiculitis. PMID:23091395

  2. Management of chronic pain of cervical disc herniation and radiculitis with fluoroscopic cervical interlaminar epidural injections.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Wargo, Bradley W; Malla, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, active controlled trial. To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids in the management of chronic neck pain and upper extremity pain in patients with disc herniation and radiculitis. Epidural injections in managing chronic neck and upper extremity pain are commonly employed interventions. However, their long-term effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity, of their use and their role in various pathologies responsible for persistent neck and upper extremity pain continue to be debated, even though, neck and upper extremity pain secondary to disc herniation and radiculitis, is described as the common indication. There is also paucity of high quality literature. One-hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL); Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL of nonparticulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measure was ≥ 50 improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (≥ 50%) was demonstrated in 72% of patients who received local anesthetic only and 68% who received local anesthetic and steroids. In the successful group of participants, significant improvement was illustrated in 77% in local anesthetic group and 82% in local anesthetic with steroid group. Cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids may provide significant improvement in pain and function for patients with cervical disc herniation and radiculitis.

  3. Management of Chronic Pain of Cervical Disc Herniation and Radiculitis with Fluoroscopic Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injections

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Wargo, Bradley W.; Malla, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, active controlled trial. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids in the management of chronic neck pain and upper extremity pain in patients with disc herniation and radiculitis. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections in managing chronic neck and upper extremity pain are commonly employed interventions. However, their long-term effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity, of their use and their role in various pathologies responsible for persistent neck and upper extremity pain continue to be debated, even though, neck and upper extremity pain secondary to disc herniation and radiculitis, is described as the common indication. There is also paucity of high quality literature. Methods: One-hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL); Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL of nonparticulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measure was ≥ 50 improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Results: Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (≥ 50%) was demonstrated in 72% of patients who received local anesthetic only and 68% who received local anesthetic and steroids. In the successful group of participants, significant improvement was illustrated in 77% in local anesthetic group and 82% in local anesthetic with steroid group. Conclusions: Cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids may provide significant improvement in pain and function for patients with cervical disc herniation and radiculitis. PMID:22859902

  4. Balneotherapy in elderly patients: effect on pain from degenerative knee and spine conditions and on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Gaál, János; Varga, József; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Kurkó, Julia; Ficzere, Andrea; Bodolay, Edit; Bender, Tamás

    2008-05-01

    Balneotherapy is an established treatment modality for musculoskeletal disease, but few studies have examined the efficacy of spa therapy in elderly patients with degenerative spine and joint diseases. To assess the effects of balneotherapy on chronic musculoskeletal pain, functional capacity, and quality of life in elderly patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or with chronic low back pain. The 81 patients in the study group underwent a 1 day course of 30 minute daily baths in mineral water. Changes were evaluated in the following parameters: pain intensity, functional capacity, quality of life, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory or analgesic drugs, subjective disease severity perceived by the patients, investigator-rated disease severity, and severity of pain perceived by the patients. We analyzed the results of 76 subjects as 5 did not complete the study. Compared to baseline, all monitored parameters were significantly improved by balneotherapy in both investigated groups. Moreover, the favorable effect was prolonged for 3 months after treatment. This study showed that balneotherapy is an effective treatment modality in elderly patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or with chronic low back pain, and its benefits last for at least 3 months after treatment.

  5. Persistent axial neck pain after cervical disc arthroplasty: a radiographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Scott C; Formby, Peter M; Kang, Daniel G; Van Blarcum, Gregory S; Cody, John P; Tracey, Robert W; Lehman, Ronald A

    2016-07-01

    There is very little literature examining optimal radiographic parameters for placement of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA), nor is there substantial evidence evaluating the relationship between persistent postoperative neck pain and radiographic outcomes. We set out to perform a single-center evaluation of the radiographic outcomes, including associated complications, of CDA. This is a retrospective review. Two hundred eighty-five consecutive patients undergoing CDA were included in the review. The outcome measures were radiological parameters (preoperative facet arthrosis, disc height, CDA placement in sagittal and coronal planes, heterotopic ossification [HO] formation, etc.) and patient outcomes (persistent pain, recurrent pain, new-onset pain, etc.). We performed a retrospective review of all patients from a single military tertiary medical center from August 2008 to August 2012 undergoing CDA. Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and final follow-up films were evaluated. The clinical outcomes and complications associated with the procedure were also examined. The average radiographic follow-up was 13.5 months and the rate of persistent axial neck pain was 17.2%. For patients with persistent neck pain, the rate of HO formation per level studied was 22.6%, whereas the rate was significantly lower for patients without neck pain (11.7%, p=.03). There was no significant association between the severity of HO and the presence of neck pain. Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of cervicalgia, compared to those without cervicalgia, were significantly more likely to experience continued neck pain postoperatively (28.6% vs. 13.1%, p=.01). There were no differences in preoperative facet arthrosis, pre- or postoperative disc height, segmental range of motion, or placement of the device relative to the posterior edge of the vertebral body.However, patients with implants more centered between the uncovertebral joints were more likely to experience posterior neck pain

  6. Scalene Myofascial Pain Syndrome Mimicking Cervical Disc Prolapse: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Abd Jalil, Nizar; Awang, Mohammad Saufi; Omar, Mahamarowi

    2010-01-01

    Scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome wherein pain originates over the neck area and radiates down to the arm. This condition may present as primary or secondary to underlying cervical pathology. Although scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a well known medical entity, it is often misdiagnosed as being some other neck pain associated with radiculopathy, such as cervical disc prolapse, cervical spinal stenosis and thoracic outlet syndrome. Because scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimics cervical radiculopathy, this condition often leads to mismanagement, which can, in turn, result in persistent pain and suffering. In the worst-case scenarios, patients may be subjected to unjustifiable surgical intervention. Because the clinical findings in scalene myofascial pain syndrome are “pathognomonic”, clinicians should be aware of ways to recognize this disorder and be able to differentiate it from other conditions that present with neck pain and rediculopathy. We present two cases of unilateral scalene myofascial pain syndrome that significantly impaired the patients’ functioning and quality of life. This case report serves to create awareness about the existence of the syndrome and to highlight the potential morbidity due to clinical misdiagnosis. PMID:22135529

  7. Outcome of nucleoplasty in patients with radicular pain due to lumbar intervertebral disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Ogbonnaya, Sunny; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Qassim, Abdulla; O’Sullivan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nucleoplasty (percutaneous lumbar disc decompression) is a minimally invasive procedure that utilizes radiofrequency energy as a treatment for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation, against open microdiscectomy, which would be the mainstay treatment modality. The literature reports a favorable outcome in up to 77% of patients at 6 months. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of nucleoplasty in the management of discogenic radicular pain. Materials and Methods: The medical notes of 33 patients, admitted for nucleoplasty between June 2006 and September 2007, were reviewed retrospectively. All had radicular pain, and contained herniated disc as seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbosacral spine. Patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months post-procedure. The outcome measures employed in this study were satisfaction with symptoms and self-reported improvement. Results: Thirty-three cases were examined (18 males and 15 females). Twenty-seven procedures were performed with no complications and six were abandoned due to anatomical reasons. There were 18 and 15 cases of disc herniation at L5/S1 and L4/5 levels, respectively. Four weeks following the procedure, 13 patients reported improvement in symptoms, and 14 remained symptomatically the same and subsequently had open microdiscectomy. Conclusion: Nucleoplasty has been shown to be a safe and minimal-access procedure. Less than half of our selected cohort of patients reported symptomatic improvement at 1-month follow-up. We no longer offer this procedure to our patients. Possible reasons are discussed. PMID:23633860

  8. Destructive discovertebral degenerative disease of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Charran, A K; Tony, G; Lalam, R; Tyrrell, P N M; Tins, B; Singh, J; Eisenstein, S M; Balain, B; Trivedi, J M; Cassar-Pullicino, V N

    2012-09-01

    The uncommon variant of degenerative hip joint disease, termed rapidly progressive osteoarthritis, and highlighted by severe joint space loss and osteochondral disintegration, is well established. We present a similar unusual subset in the lumbar spine termed destructive discovertebral degenerative disease (DDDD) with radiological features of vertebral malalignment, severe disc resorption, and "bone sand" formation secondary to vertebral fragmentation. Co-existing metabolic bone disease is likely to promote the development of DDDD of the lumbar spine, which presents with back pain and sciatica due to nerve root compression by the "bone sand" in the epidural space. MRI and CT play a complimentary role in making the diagnosis.

  9. The activL® Artificial Disc: a next-generation motion-preserving implant for chronic lumbar discogenic pain

    PubMed Central

    Yue, James J; Garcia, Rolando; Miller, Larry E

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral discs is a leading cause of chronic low back pain in adults. Treatment options for patients with chronic lumbar discogenic pain unresponsive to conservative management include total disc replacement (TDR) or lumbar fusion. Until recently, only two lumbar TDRs had been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration − the Charité Artificial Disc in 2004 and the ProDisc-L Total Disc Replacement in 2006. In June 2015, a next-generation lumbar TDR received Food and Drug Administration approval − the activL® Artificial Disc (Aesculap Implant Systems). Compared to previous-generation lumbar TDRs, the activL® Artificial Disc incorporates specific design enhancements that result in a more precise anatomical match and allow a range of motion that better mimics the healthy spine. The results of mechanical and clinical studies demonstrate that the activL® Artificial Disc results in improved mechanical and clinical outcomes versus earlier-generation artificial discs and compares favorably to lumbar fusion. The purpose of this report is to describe the activL® Artificial Disc including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, postoperative care, mechanical testing, and clinical experience to date. PMID:27274317

  10. ISSLS PRIZE IN BASIC SCIENCE 2018: Growth differentiation factor-6 attenuated pro-inflammatory molecular changes in the rabbit anular-puncture model and degenerated disc-induced pain generation in the rat xenograft radiculopathy model.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Shingo; Diwan, Ashish D; Kato, Kenji; Cheng, Kevin; Bae, Won C; Sun, Yang; Yamada, Junichi; Muehleman, Carol; Lenz, Mary E; Inoue, Nozomu; Sah, Robert L; Kawakami, Mamoru; Masuda, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    To elucidate the effects of growth differentiation factor-6 (GDF6) on: (i) gene expression of inflammatory/pain-related molecules and structural integrity in the rabbit intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration model, and (ii) sensory dysfunction and changes in pain-marker expression in dorsal nerve ganglia (DRGs) in the rat xenograft radiculopathy model. Forty-six adolescent rabbits received anular-puncture in two non-consecutive lumbar IVDs. Four weeks later, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or GDF6 (1, 10 or 100 µg) was injected into the nucleus pulposus (NP) of punctured discs and followed for 4 weeks for gene expression analysis and 12 weeks for structural analyses. For pain assessment, eight rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-injection and NP tissues of injected discs were transplanted onto L5 DRGs of 16 nude rats to examine mechanical allodynia. The rat DRGs were analyzed immunohistochemically. In GDF6-treated rabbit NPs, gene expressions of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, and nerve growth factor were significantly lower than those in the PBS group. GDF6 injections resulted in partial restoration of disc height and improvement of MRI disc degeneration grades with statistical significance in rabbit structural analyses. Allodynia induced by xenograft transplantation of rabbit degenerated NPs onto rat DRGs was significantly reduced by GDF6 injection. Staining intensities for ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide in rat DRGs of the GDF6 group were significantly lower than those of the PBS group. GDF6 injection may change the pathological status of degenerative discs and attenuate degenerated IVD-induced pain.

  11. CRISPR Epigenome Editing of AKAP150 in DRG Neurons Abolishes Degenerative IVD-Induced Neuronal Activation.

    PubMed

    Stover, Joshua D; Farhang, Niloofar; Berrett, Kristofer C; Gertz, Jason; Lawrence, Brandon; Bowles, Robby D

    2017-09-06

    Back pain is a major contributor to disability and has significant socioeconomic impacts worldwide. The degenerative intervertebral disc (IVD) has been hypothesized to contribute to back pain, but a better understanding of the interactions between the degenerative IVD and nociceptive neurons innervating the disc and treatment strategies that directly target these interactions is needed to improve our understanding and treatment of back pain. We investigated degenerative IVD-induced changes to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron activity and utilized CRISPR epigenome editing as a neuromodulation strategy. By exposing DRG neurons to degenerative IVD-conditioned media under both normal and pathological IVD pH levels, we demonstrate that degenerative IVDs trigger interleukin (IL)-6-induced increases in neuron activity to thermal stimuli, which is directly mediated by AKAP and enhanced by acidic pH. Utilizing this novel information on AKAP-mediated increases in nociceptive neuron activity, we developed lentiviral CRISPR epigenome editing vectors that modulate endogenous expression of AKAP150 by targeted promoter histone methylation. When delivered to DRG neurons, these epigenome-modifying vectors abolished degenerative IVD-induced DRG-elevated neuron activity while preserving non-pathologic neuron activity. This work elucidates the potential for CRISPR epigenome editing as a targeted gene-based pain neuromodulation strategy. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical and Functional Outcomes After Multilevel Cervical Fusion for Degenerative Disc Disease Compared With Fusion for Radiculopathy: A Study of Workers' Compensation Population.

    PubMed

    Faour, Mhamad; Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2017-05-01

    Retrospective cohort comparative study. To evaluate presurgical and surgical factors that affect return to work (RTW) status after multilevel cervical fusion, and to compare outcomes after multilevel cervical fusion for degenerative disc disease (DDD) versus radiculopathy. Cervical fusion provides more than 90% of symptomatic relief for radiculopathy and myelopathy. However, cervical fusion for DDD without radiculopathy is considered controversial. In addition, multilevel fusion is associated with poorer surgical outcomes with increased levels fused. Data of cervical comorbidities was collected from Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation for subjects with work-related injuries. The study population included subjects who underwent multilevel cervical fusion. Patients with radiculopathy or DDD were identified. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors that affect RTW status. Surgical and functional outcomes were compared between groups. Stable RTW status within 3 years after multilevel cervical fusion was negatively affected by: fusion for DDD, age > 55 years, preoperative opioid use, initial psychological evaluation before surgery, injury-to-surgery > 2 years and instrumentation.DDD group had lower rate of achieving stable RTW status (P= 0.0001) and RTW within 1 year of surgery (P= 0.0003) compared with radiculopathy group. DDD patients were less likely to have a stable RTW status [odds ratio, OR = 0.63 (0.50-0.79)] or RTW within 1 year after surgery [OR = 0.65 (0.52-0.82)].DDD group had higher rate of opioid use (P= 0.001), and higher rate of disability after surgery (P= 0.002). Multiple detriments affect stable RTW status after multilevel cervical fusion including DDD. DDD without radiculopathy was associated with lower RTW rates, less likelihood to return to work, higher disability, and higher opioid use after surgery. Multilevel cervical fusion for DDD may be counterproductive. Future studies should investigate further

  13. Kinematic Evaluation of Association between Disc Bulge Migration, Lumbar Segmental Mobility, and Disc Degeneration in the Lumbar Spine Using Positional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jonathan K.; Morishita, Yuichiro; Montgomery, Scott R.; Hymanson, Henry; Taghavi, Cyrus E.; Do, Duc; Wang, Jeff C.

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative disc disease and disc bulge in the lumbar spine are common sources of lower back pain. Little is known regarding disc bulge migration and lumbar segmental mobility as the lumbar spine moves from flexion to extension. In this study, 329 symptomatic (low back pain with or without neurological symptoms) patients with an average age of 43.5 years with varying degrees of disc degeneration were examined to characterize the kinematics of the lumbar intervertebral discs through flexion, neutral, and extension weight-bearing positions. In this population, disc bulge migration associated with dynamic motion of the lumbar spine significantly increased with increased grade of disk degeneration. Although no obvious trends relating the migration of disc bulge and angular segmental mobility were seen, translational segmental mobility tended to increase with disc bulge migration in all of the degenerative disc states. It appears that many factors, both static (intervertebral disc degeneration or disc height) and dynamic (lumbar segmental mobility), affect the mechanisms of lumbar disc bulge migration. PMID:24353937

  14. Intervertebral Disc Cells Produce Interleukins Found in Patients with Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yejia; Chee, Ana; Shi, Peng; Adams, Sherrill L; Markova, Dessislava Z; Anderson, David Greg; Smith, Harvey E; Deng, Youping; Plastaras, Christopher T; An, Howard S

    2016-06-01

    To examine the link between cytokines in intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues and axial back pain. In vitro study with human IVD cells cultured from cadaveric donors and annulus fibrosus (AF) tissues from patients. Cultured nucleus pulposus (NP) and AF cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β. IL-8 and IL-7 gene expression was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. IL-8 protein was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After IL-1β stimulation, IL-8 gene expression increased 26,541 fold in NP cells and 22,429 fold in AF cells, whereas protein released by the NP and AF cells increased 2,389- and 1,784-fold, respectively. IL-7 gene expression increased 3.3-fold in NP cells (P < 0.05).Cytokine profiles in AF tissues collected from patients undergoing surgery for back pain (painful group) or scoliosis (controls) were compared by cytokine array. IL-8 protein in the AF tissues from patients with back pain was 1.81-fold of that in controls. IL-7 and IL-10 in AF tissues from the painful group were 6.87 and 4.63 times greater than the corresponding values in controls, respectively (P < 0.05). Inflammatory mediators found in AF tissues from patients with discogenic back pain are likely produced by IVD cells and may play a key role in back pain.

  15. Predominant Leg Pain Is Associated With Better Surgical Outcomes in Degenerative Spondylolisthesis and Spinal Stenosis: Results from the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Adam; Blood, Emily; Lurie, Jon; Abdu, William; Sengupta, Dilip; Frymoyer, John W.; Weinstein, James

    2010-01-01

    Study Design As-treated analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). Objective To compare baseline characteristics and surgical and nonoperative outcomes in degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients stratified by predominant pain location (i.e. leg vs. back). Summary of Background Data Evidence suggests that degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients with predominant leg pain may have better surgical outcomes than patients with predominant low back pain (LBP). Methods The DS cohort included 591 patients (62% underwent surgery), and the SpS cohort included 615 patients (62% underwent surgery). Patients were classified as leg pain predominant, LBP predominant or having equal pain according to baseline pain scores. Baseline characteristics were compared between the three predominant pain location groups within each diagnostic category, and changes in surgical and nonoperative outcome scores were compared through two years. Longitudinal regression models including baseline covariates were used to control for confounders. Results Among DS patients at baseline, 34% had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 40% had equal pain. Similarly, 32% of SpS patients had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 42% had equal pain. DS and SpS patients with predominant leg pain had baseline scores indicative of less severe symptoms. Leg pain predominant DS and SpS patients treated surgically improved significantly more than LBP predominant patients on all primary outcome measures at one and two years. Surgical outcomes for the equal pain groups were intermediate to those of the predominant leg pain and LBP groups. The differences in nonoperative outcomes were less consistent. Conclusions Predominant leg pain patients improved significantly more with surgery than predominant LBP patients. However, predominant LBP patients still improved significantly more with surgery than with

  16. Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Meij, Björn P; Bergknut, Niklas

    2010-09-01

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) is the most common disorder of the caudal lumbar spine in dogs. This article reviews the management of this disorder and highlights the most important new findings of the last decade. Dogs with DLSS are typically neuro-orthopedic patients and can be presented with varying clinical signs, of which the most consistent is lumbosacral pain. Due to the availability of advanced imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging that allow visualization of intervertebral disc degeneration, cauda equina compression, and nerve root entrapment, tailor-made treatments can be adopted for the individual patient. Current therapies include conservative treatment, decompressive surgery, and fixation-fusion of the L7-S1 junction. New insight into the biomechanics and pathobiology of DLSS and developments in minimally invasive surgical techniques will influence treatment options in the near future. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescent disc degeneration--no headache association.

    PubMed

    Laimi, K; Erkintalo, M; Metsähonkala, L; Vahlberg, T; Mikkelsson, M; Sonninen, P; Parkkola, R; Aromaa, M; Sillanpäa, M; Rautava, P; Anttila, P; Salminen, J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether adolescents with headache have more disc degeneration in the cervical spine than headache-free controls. This study is part of a population-based follow-up study of adolescents with and without headache. At the age of 17 years, adolescents with headache at least three times a month (N = 47) and adolescents with no headache (N = 22) participated in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the cervical spine. Of the 47 headache sufferers, 17 also had weekly neck pain and 30 had neck pain less than once a month. MRI scans were interpreted independently by three neuroradiologists. Disc degeneration was found in 67% of participants, with no difference between adolescents with and without headache. Most of the degenerative changes were located in the lower cervical spine. In adolescence, mild degenerative changes of the cervical spine are surprisingly common but do not contribute to headache.

  18. Improvement of pain and disability in elderly patients with degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee treated with narrow-band light therapy.

    PubMed

    Stelian, J; Gil, I; Habot, B; Rosenthal, M; Abramovici, I; Kutok, N; Khahil, A

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of low-power light therapy on pain and disability in elderly patients with degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee. Partially double-blinded, fully randomized trial comparing red, infrared, and placebo light emitters. Fifty patients with degenerative osteoarthritis of both knees were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: red (15 patients), infrared (18 patients), and placebo (17 patients). Infrared and placebo emitters were double-blinded. Self-applied treatment to both sides of the knee for 15 minutes twice a day for 10 days. Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, Present Pain Intensity, and Visual Analogue Scale for pain and Disability Index Questionnaire for disability were used. We evaluated pain and disability before and on the tenth day of therapy. The period from the end of the treatment until the patient's request to be retreated was summed up 1 year after the trial. Pain and disability before treatment did not show statistically significant differences between the three groups. Pain reduction in the red and infrared groups after the treatment was more than 50% in all scoring methods (P less than 0.05). There was no significant pain improvement in the placebo group. We observed significant functional improvement in red- and infrared-treated groups (p less than 0.05), but not in the placebo group. The period from the end of treatment until the patients required treatment was longer for red and infrared groups than for the placebo group (4.2 +/- 3.0, 6.1 +/- 3.2, and 0.53 +/- 0.62 months, for red, infrared, and placebo, respectively). Low-power light therapy is effective in relieving pain and disability in degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee.

  19. The role of cyclooxygenase-2 and inflammatory cytokines in pain induction of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, H; Saura, R; Harada, T; Doita, M; Mizuno, K

    2000-04-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is the disease which is the major cause of radiculopathy. In terms of the pathogenesis of disease, it is reported that prostaglandinE2 (PGE2) plays an important role to induce radiculopathy. Arachidonate cascade, which is the process of PGE2 synthesis, is mainly regulated by two kinds of enzymes, phospholipaseA2 (PLA2) and cyclooxy genase (COX). Previously, PLA2 was recognized as the rate-limiting enzyme of this cascade, and some authors reported the clinical significance of PLA2 at the site of LDH concerning the radicular pain. Recently, COX was elucidated to consist of 2 types of isoform, a constitutive form of COX-1 and an inducible form of COX-2. COX-2 has been focused as a key enzyme to regulate PGE2 synthesis and plays an important role in inflammation, because COX-2 was induced in many types of cells by the stimulation of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). However, it is not fully discussed whether or not, COX-2 is induced in lumbar disc tissue and if it plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of LDH. To clarify the role of COX-2 in the pathomechanism of radiculopathy of LDH, we have investigated the expression of COX-2, IL-1 beta and TNF alpha in herniated lumbar disc tissue. Immunohistologically, they were detected in the cytosol of chondrocytes constituting the disc tissue. RT-PCR showed that herniated lumbar disc-derived cells expressed mRNA of COX-2, IL-1 beta and TNF alpha in the presence of inflammatory cytokines in vitro. The disc-derived cells also produced much PGE2 by stimulating of inflammatory cytokines at the same time and this PGE2 production was distinctly suppressed by a selective inhibitor of COX-2, 6-methoxy-2-naphtyl acetic acids (6MNA). These results suggest that COX-2 and inflammatory cytokines might play a causative role in the radiculopathy of LDH through upregulating PGE2 synthesis.

  20. Therapeutic relevance of ozone therapy in degenerative diseases: Focus on diabetes and spinal pain.

    PubMed

    Braidy, Nady; Izadi, Morteza; Sureda, Antoni; Jonaidi-Jafari, Nematollah; Banki, Abdolali; Nabavi, Seyed F; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2018-04-01

    Ozone, one of the most important air pollutants, is a triatomic molecule containing three atoms of oxygen that results in an unstable form due to its mesomeric structure. It has been well-known that ozone has potent ability to oxidize organic compounds and can induce respiratory irritation. Although ozone has deleterious effects, many therapeutic effects have also been suggested. Since last few decades, the therapeutic potential of ozone has gained much attention through its strong capacity to induce controlled and moderated oxidative stress when administered in precise therapeutic doses. A plethora of scientific evidence showed that the activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1a), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE), and activated protein-1 (AP-1) pathways are the main molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of ozone therapy. Activation of these molecular pathways leads to up-regulation of endogenous antioxidant systems, activation of immune functions as well as suppression of inflammatory processes, which is important for correcting oxidative stress in diabetes and spinal pain. The present study intended to review critically the available scientific evidence concerning the beneficial properties of ozone therapy for treatment of diabetic complications and spinal pain. It finds benefit for integrating the therapy with ozone into pharmacological procedures, instead of a substitutive or additional option to therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with low-back pain.

    PubMed

    van der Windt, Daniëlle Awm; Simons, Emmanuel; Riphagen, Ingrid I; Ammendolia, Carlo; Verhagen, Arianne P; Laslett, Mark; Devillé, Walter; Deyo, Rick A; Bouter, Lex M; de Vet, Henrica Cw; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2010-02-17

    Low-back pain with leg pain (sciatica) may be caused by a herniated intervertebral disc exerting pressure on the nerve root. Most patients will respond to conservative treatment, but in carefully selected patients, surgical discectomy may provide faster relief of symptoms. Primary care clinicians use patient history and physical examination to evaluate the likelihood of disc herniation and select patients for further imaging and possible surgery. (1) To assess the performance of tests performed during physical examination (alone or in combination) to identify radiculopathy due to lower lumbar disc herniation in patients with low-back pain and sciatica;(2) To assess the influence of sources of heterogeneity on diagnostic performance. We searched electronic databases for primary studies: PubMed (includes MEDLINE), EMBASE, and CINAHL, and (systematic) reviews: PubMed and Medion (all from earliest until 30 April 2008), and checked references of retrieved articles. We considered studies if they compared the results of tests performed during physical examination on patients with back pain with those of diagnostic imaging (MRI, CT, myelography) or findings at surgery. Two review authors assessed the quality of each publication with the QUADAS tool, and extracted details on patient and study design characteristics, index tests and reference standard, and the diagnostic two-by-two table. We presented information on sensitivities and specificities with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for all aspects of physical examination. Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were computed for subsets of studies showing sufficient clinical and statistical homogeneity. We included 16 cohort studies (median N = 126, range 71 to 2504) and three case control studies (38 to100 cases). Only one study was carried out in a primary care population. When used in isolation, diagnostic performance of most physical tests (scoliosis, paresis or muscle weakness, muscle wasting, impaired

  2. A canine-specific anti-nerve growth factor antibody alleviates pain and improves mobility and function in dogs with degenerative joint disease-associated pain.

    PubMed

    Lascelles, B Duncan X; Knazovicky, David; Case, Beth; Freire, Mila; Innes, John F; Drew, Alexander C; Gearing, David P

    2015-04-30

    There is a critical need for proven drugs other than non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for treatment of degenerative joint disease (DJD) pain in dogs. Antibodies against nerve growth factor (NGF) are analgesic in rodent models and in humans with DJD. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel caninised anti-NGF antibody (NV-01) for the treatment of DJD pain in dogs. In a randomized, parallel group, stratified, double masked, placebo controlled, proof of principle clinical pilot study design, 26 dogs with DJD received NV-01 (200 mcg/kg IV) or placebo on day 0 (D0). In addition to objective accelerometry measures, owners completed clinical metrology instruments (Client-Specific Outcome Measures [CSOM], Canine Brief Pain Inventory [CBPI] and Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs Index [LOAD]) on D0, D14 and D28. CBPI subscales (pain severity [PS] and pain interference [PI]), CSOM and LOAD scores were evaluated within and between groups for change over time. Recognized success/failure criteria were applied and success compared between groups. CBPI PS and PI scores significantly improved in the NV-01 group (PS: D0-14, P = 0.012 and D0-28, P = 0.019; PI: D0-14, P = 0.012 and D0-28, P = 0.032) but not in the placebo group. CSOM scores showed similar patterns with a significant difference between within-group changes at D14 and D28 (P = 0.038 and P = 0.009, respectively), and significantly more successes at D28 (P = 0.047). LOAD scores significantly improved in the NV-01 group (D0-14, P = 0.004 and D0-28, P = 0.002) but not in the placebo group. There were significant differences between the groups for change in LOAD score at D14 (P = 0.014) and D28 (P = 0.033). No side effects were noted. Activity in the NV-01 group increased over the study period compared to placebo (P = 0.063) and the difference between the groups for change in activity over the time period 9am-5pm (8 hours) was significant (P = 0

  3. Kinesiophobia in pre-operative patients with cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes in relation to pain-related variables, psychological state and sports activity.

    PubMed

    Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Głowacki, Jakub; Shadi, Milud; Walczak, Michał; Głowacki, Maciej

    2015-01-14

    No research group has ever investigated the level of kinesiophobia in a well defined group of preoperative patients treated due to cervical discopathy and degenerative spine disease, confirmed by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. We aimed to investigate the degree of kinesiophobia and the differences in pain-related and psychosocial characteristics between patients with high and low levels of kinesiophobia, in relation to factors commonly associated with neck pain. Sixty-five consecutive patients with cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes were assessed pre-surgically. The mean pain duration was 31.7 SD 34.0 months. Patients completed the Polish versions of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-PL) on 2 occasions, and the following once: Neck Disability Index (NDI-PL), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-PL), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-PL), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS-PL). A high level of kinesiophobia was indicated in 81.5% and 87.7% of patients in first and second completion, respectively. Patients with high and low kinesiophobia differ in regards to the recreation section of NDI-PL (p=0.012), gender (p=0.043), and sports activity (p=0.024). Correlations were identified between TSK-PL and marital status (p=0.023) and sports activity (p=0.024). Kinesiophobia levels are higher in patients with chronic cervical pain before surgical treatment. Fear of movement tends to be higher in women and among patients avoiding sports recreation before surgical treatment. Although sports activity and socio-demographic data are predictors of kinesiophobia, psychological, pain-related, and clinical data are not. These findings should be considered when planning rehabilitation after surgical treatment of cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes.

  4. Associations between disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and disability in chronic mechanical low back pain: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Perera, Romain Shanil; Dissanayake, Poruwalage Harsha; Senarath, Upul; Wijayaratne, Lalith Sirimevan; Karunanayake, Aranjan Lional; Dissanayake, Vajira Harshadeva Weerabaddana

    2017-05-15

    Radiographic features of lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) are common findings in patients with chronic mechanical low back pain; however, its role in disability and intensity of pain is debatable. This study aims to investigate the associations of the x-ray features of LDD and lumbar spondylolisthesis with severity of disability and intensity of pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 439 patients with chronic mechanical low back pain who attended the rheumatology clinic, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, from May 2012 to May 2014. Severity of disability was measured using Modified Oswestry Disability Index and intensity of pain was assessed using numeric rating scale (0-100). X-ray features of LDD (disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and overall LDD) and spondylolisthesis were assessed in lateral recumbent lumbar x-rays (L1/L2 to L5/S1) and graded by a consultant radiologist blinded to clinical data. Generalised linear model with linear response was used to assess the associations of x-ray features of LDD with severity of disability and intensity of pain adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and pain radiating into legs. Mean age was 48.99 ± 11.21 and 323 (73.58%) were females. 87 (19.82%) were obese. Mean severity of disability was 30.95 ± 13.67 and mean intensity of pain was 45.50 ± 20.37. 69 (15.72%), 26 (5.92%) and 85 (19.36%) patients had grade 2 disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and overall LDD, respectively. 51 (11.62%) patients had lumbar spondylolisthesis. Grade of disc space narrowing and overall LDD were not associated with severity of disability or intensity of pain. The presence of lumbar spondylolisthesis was associated with severity of disability. Female gender and pain radiating into legs were associated with severity of disability and intensity of pain. Advancing age was associated with x-ray features of LDD and lumbar spondylolisthesis. Lumbar spondylolisthesis is associated with severity of

  5. Detection of degenerative change in lateral projection cervical spine x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebri, Beyrem; Phillips, Michael; Knapp, Karen; Appelboam, Andy; Reuben, Adam; Slabaugh, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Degenerative changes to the cervical spine can be accompanied by neck pain, which can result from narrowing of the intervertebral disc space and growth of osteophytes. In a lateral x-ray image of the cervical spine, degenerative changes are characterized by vertebral bodies that have indistinct boundaries and limited spacing between vertebrae. In this paper, we present a machine learning approach to detect and localize degenerative changes in lateral x-ray images of the cervical spine. Starting from a user-supplied set of points in the center of each vertebral body, we fit a central spline, from which a region of interest is extracted and image features are computed. A Random Forest classifier labels regions as degenerative change or normal. Leave-one-out cross-validation studies performed on a dataset of 103 patients demonstrates performance of above 95% accuracy.

  6. The impact of generalized joint laxity (GJL) on the posterior neck pain, cervical disc herniation, and cervical disc degeneration in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Oh, Su Chan; Yeom, Jin S; Shin, Ji-Hoon; Park, Sam-Guk; Shin, Duk-Seop; Ahn, Myun-Whan; Lee, Gun Woo

    2016-12-01

    Generalized joint laxity (GJL) can have a negative impact on lumbar spine pathology, including low back pain, disc degeneration, and disc herniation, but the relationship between GJL and cervical spine conditions remains unknown. To investigate the relationship between GJL and cervical spine conditions, including the prevalence of posterior neck pain (PNP), cervical disc herniation (CDH), and cervical disc degeneration (CDD), in a young, active population. Retrospective 1:2 matched cohort (case-control) study from prospectively collected data PATIENT SAMPLE: Of a total of 1853 individuals reviewed, 73 individuals with GJL (study group, gruop A) and 146 without GJL (control group, Group B) were included in the study according to a 1:2 case-control matched design for age, sex, and body mass index. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence and intensity of PNP at enrollment based on a visual analogue scale score for pain. The secondary outcome measures were (1) clinical outcomes as measured with the neck disability index (NDI) and 12-item short form health survey (SF-12) at enrollment, and (2) radiological outcomes of CDH and CDD at enrollment. We compared baseline data between groups. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed to compare the 2 groups in terms of the outcome measures. The prevalence and intensity of PNP were significantly greater in group A (patients with GJL) than in group B (patients without GJL) (prevalence: p=.02; intensity: p=.001). Clinical outcomes as measured with NDI and SF-12 did not differ significantly between groups. For radiologic outcomes, the prevalence of CDD was significantly greater in group A than in group B (p=.04), whereas the prevalence of CDH did not differ significantly between groups (p=.91). The current study revealed that GJL was closely related to the prevalence and intensity of PNP, suggesting that GJL may be a causative factor for PNP. In addition, GJL may contribute to the occurrence of CDD, but not CDH. Spine

  7. Transforaminal epidural steroid injections influence Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) pain response classification in candidates for lumbar herniated disc surgery.

    PubMed

    van Helvoirt, Hans; Apeldoorn, Adri T; Knol, Dirk L; Arts, Mark P; Kamper, Steven J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Ostelo, Raymond W

    2016-04-27

    Prospective cohort study. Although lumbar radiculopathy is regarded as a specific diagnosis, the most effective treatment strategy is unclear. Commonly used treatments include transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TESIs) and Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy (MDT), but no studies have investigated the effectiveness of this combination. MDT differentiates pain centralization (C) from non-centralization (NC), which indicates good vs. poor prognostic validity respectively. The main aims were 1) to determine changes in Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) pain response classifications after transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TESIs) in candidates for lumbar herniated disc surgery and 2) to evaluate differences in short and long term outcomes for patients with different pain response classifications. Candidates for lumbar herniated disc surgery were assessed with a MDT protocol and their pain response classified as centralizing or peripheralizing. For this study,only patients were eligible who showed a peripheralizing pain response at intake. All patients then received TESIs and were reassessed and classified using the MDT protocol, into groups according to pain response (resolved, centralizing, peripheralizing with less pain and peripheralising with severe pain). After receiving targeted treatment based on pain response after TESIs, ranging from advice, MDT or surgery, follow-up assessments were completed at discharge and at 12 months. The primary outcomes were disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire [RMDQ] for Sciatica), pain severity in leg (visual analogue scale [VAS], 0-100) and global perceived effect (GPE). Linear mixed-models were used to determine between-groups differences in outcome. A total of 77 patients with lumbar disc herniation and peripheralizing symptoms were included. Patients received an average of 2 (SD 0.7) TESIs. After TESIs, 17 patients (22%) were classified as peripheralizing with continuing severe pain.These patients

  8. Effects of Lumbar Fusion Surgery with ISOBAR Devices Versus Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery on Pain and Disability in Patients with Lumbar Degenerative Diseases: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Shu-Fen; Wu, Meng-Shan; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Liao, Ying-Chin

    2018-06-01

    Purpose/Aim: Lumbar degenerative diseases (LDDs) cause pain and disability and are treated with lumbar fusion surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lumbar fusion surgery with ISOBAR devices versus posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery for alleviating LDD-associated pain and disability. We performed a literature review and meta-analysis conducted in accordance with Cochrane methodology. The analysis included Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation assessments, Jadad Quality Score evaluations, and Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions assessments. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Cochrane Library, ProQuest, the Airiti Library, and the China Academic Journals Full-text Database for relevant randomized controlled trials and cohort studies published in English or Chinese between 1997 and 2017. Outcome measures of interest included general pain, lower back pain, and disability. Of the 18 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 16 examined general pain (802 patients), 5 examined lower back pain (274 patients), and 15 examined disability (734 patients). General pain, lower back pain, and disability scores were significantly lower after lumbar fusion surgery with ISOBAR devices compared to presurgery. Moreover, lumbar fusion surgery with ISOBAR devices was more effective than PLIF for decreasing postoperative disability, although it did not provide any benefit in terms of general pain or lower back pain. Lumbar fusion surgery with ISOBAR devices alleviates general pain, lower back pain, and disability in LDD patients and is superior to PLIF for reducing postoperative disability. Given possible publication bias, we recommend further large-scale studies.

  9. Assessment and exercise in low back pain. With special reference to the management of pain and disability following first time lumbar disc surgery.

    PubMed

    Manniche, C

    1995-09-01

    Eight articles including 555 low back pain patients have been published. They included the following topics: 1) A ratio interval rating scale (Low Back Pain Rating Scale (RS)) was introduced. The possibility of registering the actual status in low back pain patients including; Back Pain, Sciatica, Functional Disability and Physical Impairment was studied. Methods of evaluating index-scales developed in the field of psychometry were applied in the validation process of RS. RS was found to be both valid and user friendly. 2) Using Low Back Pain Rating Scale the general outcome following first-time lumbar disc surgery was analysed through a survey. The results showed that more than half of the patients still suffered from considerable Back Pain, Sciatica, and Functional Disabilities. Approximately 25% of the patients risked reduced work capabilities, and many receive pensions. 3) By means of a comprehensive statistical analysis of 18 studied preoperative demographic and physical findings, sex, hypoalgesia, smoking and Finneson-index were found to have prognostic value. 4) Attempts at influencing the results obtained from lumbar disc surgery have been tested in 3 randomized trials, including back training and peroperative glucocorticoid administration. 5) Three randomized trials including patients suffering from chronic low back pain (with or without previous lumbar disc surgery) attempted to convey which elements of a training programme provide patients with the greatest effect and the least risk of side-effects. It was concluded that Low Back Pain Rating Scale is a useable assessment instrument in both clinical trials and as a daily quality control instrument of back patients. There is a need of increased patient scrutiny in patient selection prior to lumbar disc surgery. Postoperative rehabilitation should include intensive back training, which has been shown to be of value in behavioural support and restoration of functional deficits. This has resulted in increased

  10. [Can epidemiological factors affect the 2-year outcomes after surgery for degenerative lumbar disease in terms of quality of life, disability and post-surgical pain?].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Álvarez, C; Pérez-Prieto, D; Saló-Bru, G; Molina, A; Lladó, A; Cáceres, E; Ramírez, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of epidemiological factors on the outcomes of surgery for degenerative lumbar disease in terms of quality of life, disability and chronic pain. A total of 263 patients who received surgery for degenerative lumbar disease (2005-2008) were included in the study. The epidemiological data collected were age, gender, employment status, and co-morbidity. The SF-36, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Core Outcomes Measures Index (COMI), and VAS score for lumbar and sciatic pain were measure before and 2 years after surgery. The correlation between epidemiological data and questionnaire results, as well as any independent prognostic factors, were assessed in the data analysis. The mean age of the patients was 54.0 years (22-86), and 131 were female (49.8%). There were 42 (16%) lost to follow-up. Statistically significant correlations (P<.05) were observed between age, gender, co-morbidity, permanent sick leave, and pre-operative pain with changes in the ODI, COMI, physical and SF-36 mental scales, and lumbar and sciatic VAS. Linear regression analysis showed permanent sick leave and age as predictive factors of disability (β=14.146; 95% CI: 9.09 - 29.58; P<.01 and β=0.334; 95% CI: 0.40 - 0.98, P<.05, respectively), and change in quality of life (β=-8.568; 95% CI: -14.88 - -2.26; p<.01 and β=-0.228, IC 95% CI: -0.40 - -0.06, P<.05, respectively). Based on our findings, age and permanent sick leave have to be considered as negative epidemiologic predictive factors of the outcome of degenerative lumbar disease surgery. Copyright © 2012 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporary Segmental Distraction in a Dog with Degenerative Lumbosacral Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Willems, Nicole; Kersten, Roel F M R; van Gaalen, Steven M; Öner, F Cumhur; Strijkers, Gustav J; Veraa, Stefanie; Beukers, Martijn; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Meij, Björn P

    2018-06-02

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) is characterized by intervertebral disc degeneration and causes lower back pain in dogs. Temporary distraction in rabbit models with induced intervertebral disc degeneration showed signs of intervertebral disc repair. In the present study, we assessed safety and efficacy of temporary segmental distraction in a dog with clinical signs of DLSS.  Distraction of the lumbosacral junction by pedicle screw-rod fixation was applied in a 5-year-old Greyhound with DLSS and evaluated by radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and force plate analysis before and after distraction.  Safe distraction of the lumbosacral junction was demonstrated, with improvement of clinical signs after removal of the distraction device. Signal intensity of the intervertebral disc showed no changes over time. T2 value was highest directly after removal of the distraction device but decreased by 10% of the preoperative value at 9 months of follow-up. Disc height decreased (8%) immediately after removal of the distraction device, but recovered to the initial value. A decrease in the pelvic/thoracic propulsive force during pedicle screw-rod fixation and distraction was demonstrated, which slowly increased by 4% compared with the initial value.  Temporary pedicle screw-rod fixation in combination with distraction in a dog with DLSS was safe, improved clinical signs and retained disc height at 9 months of follow-up. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  12. Construction Strategy and Progress of Whole Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Xu, Hai-wei; Hurday, Sookesh; Xu, Bao-shan

    2016-02-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is the major cause of low back pain, which usually leads to work absenteeism, medical visits and hospitalization. Because the current conservative procedures and surgical approaches to treatment of DDD only aim to relieve the symptoms of disease but not to regenerate the diseased disc, their long-term efficiency is limited. With the rapid developments in medical science, tissue engineering techniques have progressed markedly in recent years, providing a novel regenerative strategy for managing intervertebral disc disease. However, there are as yet no ideal methods for constructing tissue-engineered intervertebral discs. This paper reviews published reports pertaining to intervertebral disc tissue engineering and summarizes data concerning the seed cells and scaffold materials for tissue-engineered intervertebral discs, construction of tissue-engineered whole intervertebral discs, relevant animal experiments and effects of mechanics on the construction of tissue-engineered intervertebral disc and outlines the existing problems and future directions. Although the perfect regenerative strategy for treating DDD has not yet been developed, great progress has been achieved in the construction of tissue-engineered intervertebral discs. It is believed that ongoing research on intervertebral disc tissue engineering will result in revolutionary progress in the treatment of DDD. © 2016 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Comparison of occlusal discomfort in patients with temporomandibular disorders between myofascial pain and disc displacement.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Toshihisa; Kino, Koji; Sugisaki, Masashi; Sato, Fumiaki; Haketa, Tadasu; Nishiyama, Akira; Takaoka, Michiko; Ota, Takenobu; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Narita, Noriyuki

    2009-12-01

    We compared occlusal discomfort in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) between myofascial pain (MFP) and disc displacement (DD) using a database created from Sep, 2003 to Aug, 2005. We selected 71 patients with MFP and 170 patients with DD to construct a null model of structural equation modeling (SEM) in which anxiety influenced depressive mood, depressive mood aggravated occlusal discomfort and sleep complaints, and sleep complaints or an onset event caused by another person aggravated occlusal discomfort. We performed a simultaneous analysis of patients with MFP and DD. The estimated parameter of the path from depressive mood to occlusal discomfort was significant for patients with MFP, but not for patients with DD. The path from an onset event caused by another person, such as dental treatment to occlusal discomfort was significant in patients with MFP and those with DD. The Goodness of Fit Index (=0.909), The Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (=0.867), and The Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (=0.039) indicated good acceptability. These results suggested that an increase in depressive mood may aggravate occlusal discomfort in patients with MFP, and an onset event caused by another person, such as dental treatment, also may aggravate occlusal discomfort in patients with MFP and those with DD.

  14. Comparison of Clinical Efficacy Between Interlaminar and Transforaminal Epidural Injection in Patients With Axial Pain due to Cervical Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Transforaminal (TF) approach is preferred by physician to interlaminar (IL) approach because it can deliver injectates directly around nerve root and dorsal root ganglion, which is regarded as main pain sources. Axial neck pain is originated from sinuvertebral nerve located in ventral epidural spaces, which has been described to be related to central or paramedian disc herniation. It is very questionable that TF injection is also more effective than IL injection in the patients with axial neck or interscapular pain. This study was to evaluate clinical efficacy of cervical epidural injection in patients with axial pain due to cervical disc herniation and to compare the clinical outcomes between TF and IL approaches. Fifty-six and 52 patients who underwent IL and TF epidural injections, respectively, for axial neck/interscapular pain due to central or paramedian cervical disc herniation were included. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) were compared between both groups at 2 and 8 weeks after treatment. Successful pain relief was defined if a 50% or more reduction of NRS score was achieved in comparison with pretreatment one. Successful functional improvement was defined if at least a 40% reduction of NDI was obtained. Overall, 79 (73.1%) and 57 (52.8%) among 108 patients showed successful pain relief at 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. Seventy-six (70.4%) and 52 (48.1%) had successful functional improvement at 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. The IL and TF groups showed no significant difference in proportion of successful results of NRS 2 weeks (73.2% vs 67.3%) and 8 weeks (48.2% vs 48.1%). Also, no significant difference was obtained in proportion of successful NDI between 2 groups at 2 weeks (75.0% vs 71.2%) and 8 weeks (53.6% vs 51.9%). Cervical epidural injection showed favorable results in 2 weeks and moderate results in 8 weeks in patients with axial pain due to cervical disc herniation. IL and TF showed no significant difference in clinical

  15. Comparative Effectivenesses of Pulsed Radiofrequency and Transforaminal Steroid Injection for Radicular Pain due to Disc Herniation: a Prospective Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Gyu; Ahn, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jungwon

    2016-08-01

    Transforaminal Epidural steroid injections (TFESI) have been widely adopted to alleviate and control radicular pain in accord with current guidelines. However, sometimes repeated steroid injections have adverse effects, and thus, this prospective randomized trial was undertaken to compare the effectivenesses of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) administered to a targeted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and TFESI for the treatment of radicular pain due to disc herniation. Subjects were recruited when first proved unsuccessful (defined as a score of > 4 on a visual analogue scale (VAS; 0-10 mm) and of > 30% according to the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) or the Neck Disability Index (NDI)). Forty-four patients that met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. The 38 subjects were randomly assigned to receive either PRF (PRF group; n = 19) or additional TFESI (TFESI group; n = 19) and were then followed for 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. To evaluate pain intensity were assessed by VAS. ODI and NDI were applied to evaluate functional disability. Mean VAS scores for cervical and lumbar radicular pain were significantly lower 12 weeks after treatment in both study groups. NDI and ODI scores also declined after treatment. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between the PRF and TFESI groups in terms of VAS, ODI, or NDI scores at any time during follow-up. PRF administered to a DRG might be as effective as TFESI in terms of attenuating radicular pain caused by disc herniation, and its use would avoid the adverse effects of steroid.

  16. Does football cause an increase in degenerative disease of the lumbar spine?

    PubMed

    Gerbino, Peter G; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A

    2002-02-01

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is exceedingly common. Whether any specific activity increases the likelihood of developing degenerative disc disease (DDD) or facet degeneration (FD) has enormous implications. Within the field of occupational medicine there are specific activities, occupations, and morphologic characteristics that have been related to low back pain. Several specific risk factors have been conclusively linked to low back pain, and in particular DDD and FD. Within the sport of American football, there has long been the feeling that many athletes have or will develop low back pain, DDD, and FD. Proving that certain risk factors present in football will predictably lead to an increase in LBP, DDD, and FD is more difficult. At this time, it can be said that football players, in general, increase their risk of developing low back pain, DDD, and FD as their years of involvement with their sport increase. Because specific spine injuries like fracture, disc herniation, and spondylolysis are more frequent in football players, the resulting DDD and FD are greater than that of the general population. The weightlifting and violent hyperextension that are part of American football are independent risk factors for degenerative spine disease.

  17. Back pain was less explained than leg pain: a cross-sectional study using magnetic resonance imaging in low back pain patients with and without radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ole Kudsk; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Sørensen, Joan Solgaard; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian

    2015-12-03

    Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between lumbar degenerative manifestations on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and low back pain (LBP). Disc herniations and other degenerative manifestations, however, frequently occur in asymptomatic individuals. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to analyze for associations between pain intensity and degenerative manifestations and other pain variables in patients for whom prognostic factors have been published previously. Included were 141 consecutive patients with and without radiculopathy, all sick-listed 1-4 months due to low back pain and subsequently examined by MRI of the lumbar spine. Using different methods of grouping the degenerative manifestations, linear regression analyses were performed with the intensity of back + leg pain, back pain and leg pain as dependent variables covering actual pain and pain the preceding 2 weeks. The clinical classification into +/- radiculopathy was established before and independently of the standardised description of MRI findings. Radiculopathy was present in 43 % of the patients. Pain was best explained using rank-ordered degenerative manifestations on MRI. Back pain and leg pain were differently associated, and back pain was less explained than leg pain in the multivariate analyses (15 % vs. 31 % of the variation). Back pain intensity was higher in patients with type 1 Modic changes and in some patients with nerve root touch, but was not associated with disc herniations. Leg pain intensity was well explained by disc herniations causing MRI nerve root compromise and radiculopathy. In patients with radiculopathy, nerve root touch caused as much leg pain as nerve root displacement or compression. High intensity zones and osteophytes were not associated with back pain, but only associated with leg pain in patients with radiculopathy. Tender points explained some of the back pain, and widespread pain explained leg pain in some of the patients without

  18. Notochord Cells in Intervertebral Disc Development and Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Matthew R.; Séguin, Cheryle A.

    2016-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is a complex structure responsible for flexibility, multi-axial motion, and load transmission throughout the spine. Importantly, degeneration of the intervertebral disc is thought to be an initiating factor for back pain. Due to a lack of understanding of the pathways that govern disc degeneration, there are currently no disease-modifying treatments to delay or prevent degenerative disc disease. This review presents an overview of our current understanding of the developmental processes that regulate intervertebral disc formation, with particular emphasis on the role of the notochord and notochord-derived cells in disc homeostasis and how their loss can result in degeneration. We then describe the role of small animal models in understanding the development of the disc and their use to interrogate disc degeneration and associated pathologies. Finally, we highlight essential development pathways that are associated with disc degeneration and/or implicated in the reparative response of the tissue that might serve as targets for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:27252900

  19. Bilateral versus unilateral interlaminar approach for bilateral decompression in patients with single-level degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: a multicenter retrospective study of 175 patients on postoperative pain, functional disability, and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    den Boogert, Hugo F; Keers, Joost C; Marinus Oterdoom, D L; Kuijlen, Jos M A

    2015-09-01

    The bilateral and unilateral interlaminar techniques for bilateral decompression both demonstrate good results for the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS). Although there is some discussion about which approach is more effective, studies that directly compare these two popular techniques are rare. To address this shortcoming, this study compares postoperative functional disability, pain, and patient satisfaction among patients with single-level DLSS who underwent bilateral decompression using either a bilateral or unilateral approach. This retrospective study included patients who underwent operations between November 1, 2009, and October 1, 2011. These patients underwent single-level bilateral decompressive surgery using either the bilateral or unilateral interlaminar approach at one of 5 participating hospitals. Exclusion criteria included previous lumbar surgery, additional disc surgery, and spondylolisthesis requiring fusion surgery. Primary outcome measures included bodily pain (as reported using the visual analog scale [VAS]), the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). In addition, reductions in leg and back symptoms and the patient's general evaluation of the procedure were queried. Finally, patient satisfaction and surgical parameters were evaluated. Questionnaires were sent to each patient's home, and electronic patient files were used to collect the data. One hundred and seventy-five patients returned the questionnaire (74.4% response rate; 68 and 107 patients who underwent the bilateral or unilateral approach, respectively). Mean age at surgery was 68 years (range 34-89 years), and the mean follow-up period was 14.2 months (range 3.3-27.4 years). There were no significant differences in ODI (20.3 vs 22.6 for the bilateral and unilateral approaches, respectively), RMDQ (3.99 vs 4.8, respectively), or pain scores between treatment groups. Back symptoms were reduced in 74.8% (bilateral: 74

  20. Clinical and Radiologic Features of 3 Reconstructive Procedures for the Surgical Management of Patients with Bilevel Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease at a Minimum Follow-Up Period of 5 Years: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Feng; Duan, Shuo; Zhu, Zhen-Qi; Liu, Hai-Ying; Liu, Chen-Jun; Xu, Shuai

    2018-05-01

    To assess the mid-long-term follow-up of the safety and efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), cervical artificial disc replacement (CADR) and hybrid surgery (HS) for bilevel cervical degenerative disc disease (cDDD). 77 patients who underwent ACDF, HS, and CADR were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical effects were evaluated based on Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores and the Odom criteria. Radiographic outcomes were evaluated, including cervical range of motion (ROM), ROM in the operative and adjacent segments, incidence of degeneration in the adjacent segments (ASD), and heterotopic ossification (HO). NDI, VAS, and JOA scores significantly improved in all patients after surgery without significant differences between groups. The excellent-to-good ratio in the Odom scale was 28/30 for the HS group, 30/33 for the ACDF group, and 13/14 for the CADR group. No significant differences in clinical outcomes or complication were found between groups (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the HS and CADR groups had less decreased ROM in the cervical and operative segments and less compensatory ROM in adjacent segments (P < 0.05). By contrast, the ACDF group had decreased ROM in the cervical and operative segments and significantly increased ROM in adjacent segments (P < 0.05). Moreover, the incidence of ASD was higher in the ACDF group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). HO was found in 10 patients (33.3%) in the HS group and 5 patients (35.7%) in the CADR group. HS was superior to ACDF with regard to equivalent clinical outcomes in the mid-long-term follow-up. Furthermore, HS was superior in the maintenance of ROM and had less impact on its adjacent segments. The efficacy of HS is similar to that of CADR. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative Cohort Study of Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Implantation without Versus with Navigation in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Degenerative Lumbar Disc Disease.

    PubMed

    Fomekong, Edward; Pierrard, Julien; Raftopoulos, Christian

    2018-03-01

    The major limitation of computer-based three-dimensional fluoroscopy is increased radiation exposure of patients and operating room staff. Combining spine navigation with intraoperative three-dimensional fluoroscopy (io3DF) can likely overcome this shortcoming, while increasing pedicle screw accuracy rate. We compared data from a cohort of patients undergoing lumbar percutaneous pedicle screw placement using io3DF alone or in combination with spine navigation. This study consisted of 168 patients who underwent percutaneous pedicle screw implantation between 2009 and 2016. The primary endpoint was to compare pedicle screw accuracy between the 2 groups. Secondary endpoints were to compare radiation exposure of patients and operating room staff, duration of surgery, and postoperative complications. In group 1, 438 screws were placed without navigation guidance; in group 2, 276 screws were placed with spine navigation. Mean patient age in both groups was 58.6 ± 14.1 years. The final pedicle accuracy rate was 97.9% in group 1 and 99.6% in group 2. Average radiation dose per patient was significantly larger in group 1 (571.9 mGym 2 ) than in group 2 (365.6 mGym 2 ) (P = 0.000088). Surgery duration and complication rate were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). io3DF with spine navigation minimized radiation exposure of patients and operating room staff and provided an excellent percutaneous pedicle screw accuracy rate with no permanent complications compared with io3DF alone. This setup is recommended, especially for patients with a complex degenerative spine condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of chronic pain on oral health related quality of life in patients with anterior disc displacement with reduction.

    PubMed

    Karacayli, U; Mumcu, G; Cimilli, H; Sisman, N; Sur, H; Gunaydin, Y

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic pain on oral health related quality of life (oral QoL) in patients with anterior disc displacement with reduction (DDwR). Thirty-seven patients who had disc displacement with reduction (DDwR, F/M: 23/14, median age: 29, range: 23-49) were selected. These patients had chronic pain and had not been undergoing any treatment protocols for the previous six months. Age- and gender-matched healthy subjects healthy control, F/M: 23/14, mean age: 33.0 +/- 15.7 years) were used as a control group. Data were collected by means of a clinical examination and a questionnaire about pain status which included a jaw disability checklist RDC/TMD (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders). Pain status was scored between 0 (no pain) and 10 (poor pain status) by the patients. Oral health related quality of life (oral QoL) over the previous six months was evaluated by an oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14) questionnaire. OHIP-14 score was significantly higher in patients with DDwR (median:17, min-max:6-39) than healthy controls (9, 0-18) (p = 0.000). The median duration of orofacial pain was 12 (range 7-120) months. Statistically significant correlations were observed between OHIP-14 score and the worst pain intensity in the past six months (7, 0-10) (r = 0.5 p = 0.007) and average pain intensity in the past six months (5.5, 1-10) (r = 0.4 p = 0.018). In addition, an increase in OHIP-14 score was observed in patients experiencing difficulty in smiling/laughing, cleaning their teeth or face, swallowing or talking, according to the jaw disability checklist (p = 0.042, p = 0.001, p = 0.023 and p = 0.007, respectively). Poor oral QoL was related to chronic pain and limitations in jaw function in patients with DDwR.

  3. The effect of preoperative dexamethasone on pain 1 year after lumbar disc surgery: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Rikke Vibeke; Fomsgaard, Jonna; Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2016-11-16

    It has been hypothesized that dexamethasone can inhibit persistent postoperative pain, but data on humans is lacking and results from animal studies are conflicting. We explored the effect of 16 mg dexamethasone IV administered preoperatively on persistent pain 1 year after lumbar discectomy. This is a prospective 1-year follow-up on a single-centre, randomized, and blinded trial exploring the analgesic effect of 16 mg IV dexamethasone or placebo after lumbar discectomy. One year follow-up was a written questionnaire including back and leg pain (VAS 0-100 mm), Short Form 36 survey (SF-36), EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D), OSWESTRY Low Back Pain Questionnaire, duration of sick leave, working capability, contentment with surgical result. Response rate was 71% (55 patients) in the dexamethasone group, 58% (44 patients) in the placebo group. Leg pain (VAS) was significantly lower in the placebo group compared to the dexamethasone group: 17 (95% CI 10-26) vs 26 (95% CI 19-33) mm, respectively (mean difference 9 mm (95% CI -1 to 0), (P = 0.03). No difference regarding back pain. The placebo group reported significantly more improvement of leg pain and were significantly more satisfied with the surgical result. Patients in the dexamethasone group reported significantly higher pain levels in EQ-5D- and Oswestry questionnaires. No difference in the SF-36 survey or daily analgesic consumption. We found significantly higher pain levels in the dexamethasone group compared to placebo 1 year after lumbar disc surgery. Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT01953978 ). Registered 26 Sep 2013.

  4. Intradiscal pressure study of percutaneous disc decompression with nucleoplasty in human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung C; Lee, Sang-heon; Chen, Darwin

    2003-04-01

    Intradiscal pressure was measured after percutaneous disc decompression by nucleoplasty in human cadavers with different degrees of disc degeneration. To assess intradiscal pressure change after disc decompression, and to analyze the influence of degeneration on the intradiscal pressure change. Partial removal of the nucleus has been shown to decompress herniated discs, relieving pressure on nerve roots and, in some cases, offering relief from disc pain. Nucleoplasty, a new minimally invasive procedure using patented Coblation technology, combines coagulation and ablation for partial removal of the nucleus. Coblated channels remove the tissue volume and may decrease the disc pressure. Three fresh human cadaver spinal specimens (T8-L5; age, 54-84 years; mean age, 70.7 years) were used in this investigation. The intradiscal pressure was measured at three points: before treatment, after each channel was created, and after treatment using a 25-guage 6-inch needle connected to a Merit Medical Systems Intellisystem Inflation Monitor. The needles were calibrated initially to approximately 30 pounds per square inch. For the control, the change in disc pressure was recorded by the same procedure without using Coblation energy. To evaluate the effectiveness of nucleoplasty, disc pressure changes were compared between treatment with and without Coblation energy. Intradiscal pressure was markedly reduced in the younger, healthy disc cadaver. In the older, degenerative disc cadavers, the change in intradiscal pressure after nucleoplasty was very small. There was an inverse correlation between the degree of disc degeneration and the change in intradiscal pressure. Pressure reduction through nucleoplasty is highly dependent on the degree of spine degeneration. Nucleoplasty markedly reduced intradiscal pressure in nondegenerative discs, but had a negligible effect on highly degenerative discs.

  5. Are specific gene expressions of extracellular matrix and nucleus pulposus affected by primary cell cultures prepared from intact or degenerative intervertebral disc tissues?

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Numan; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Ozbek, Hanefi; Sirin Yasar, Duygu; Kaplan, Necati; Akyuva, Yener; Gonultas, Aylin; Ates, Ozkan

    2018-01-22

    In this scientific research project, the researchers aimed to determine the gene expression patterns of nucleus pulposus (NP) in cell cultures obtained from degenerated or intact tissues. Whereas 12 of the cases were diagnosed with lumbar disc hernia and had undergone lumbar microdiscectomy, 12 cases had undergone traumatic intervertebral discectomy and corpectomy, along with discectomy after spinal trauma. NP-specific markers and gene expressions of the reagents of the extracellular matrix in the experimental setup were tested at the 0th, 24th, and 48th hours by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Visual evaluations were simultaneously made in all samples using invert and fluorescence microscopy. Vitality and proliferation analyses were evaluated by UV spectrophotometer. As a method of statistical evaluation, Spearman was used for categorical variants, and the Pearson correlation was used for variants with numerical and plain distribution. No association was found either between the tissue type and times (r=0.000; p=1.000) or between the region that the tissue was obtained from and hypoxia transcription factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) gene expression (r=0.098; p=0.245). There was no correlation between cell proliferation and chondroadherin (CHAD) expression or between type II collagen (COL2A1) and CHAD gene expressions. It was found that CHAD and HIF-1α gene expressions and HIF-1α and COL2A1 gene expressions affected cell proliferation. Cell culture setups are of paramount importance because they may influence the pattern of changes in the gene expressions of the cells used in these setups.

  6. Angiogenesis in the degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral disc

    PubMed Central

    David, Gh; Iencean, SM; Mohan, A

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the study is to show the histological and biochemical changes that indicate the angiogenesis of the intervertebral disc in lumbar intervertebral disc hernia and the existence of epidemiological correlations between these changes and the risk factors of lumbar intervertebral disc hernia, as well as the patient's quality of life (QOL). We have studied 50 patients aged between 18 and 73 years old, who have undergone lumbar intervertebral disc hernia surgery, making fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor level measurements, as elements in the process of appreciating the disc angiogenesis. Also, pre–surgery and post–surgery QOL has been measured, as well as the intensity of the pain syndrome. We have identified factors capable of stimulating vascular endothelial growth (VEGF, FGF–2) for the examined disc material, but histological examination did not show angiogenesis. The process of angiogenesis at the degenerated intervertebral disc level affects the patient's quality of life both pre and postoperatively, and may be a predictive factor for the post–operative results. Patients can prevent the appearance of angiogenesis type degenerative processes of the intervertebral disc by avoiding angiogenesis correlated factors (weight control, physical effort, and smoking). PMID:20968201

  7. Defining the Ideal Lumbar Total Disc Replacement Patient and Standard of Care.

    PubMed

    Gornet, Matthew; Buttermann, Glenn; Guyer, Richard; Yue, James; Ferko, Nicole; Hollmann, Sarah

    2017-12-15

    : Lumbar total disc replacement, now in use since 2004, was determined by the panel to be a standard of care for the treatment of symptomatic single-level lumbar degenerative disc disease in the active patient subpopulation as outlined by the investigational device exemption study criteria. The large body of evidence supporting this statement, including surgeons' experiences, was presented and discussed. Consensus statements focusing on decision-making criteria reflected that efficacy, long-term safety, clinical outcomes with validated measures, and cost-effectiveness should form the basis of decision-making by payers. Diagnostic challenges with lumbar degenerative disc disease patients were discussed among the panel, and it was concluded that although variably used among surgeons, reliable tools exist to appropriately diagnose discogenic back pain.

  8. Disc extrusions and bulges in nonspecific low back pain and sciatica: Exploratory randomised controlled trial comparing yoga therapy and normal medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Monro, Robin; Bhardwaj, Abhishek Kumar; Gupta, Ram Kumar; Telles, Shirley; Allen, Beth; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Previous trials of yoga therapy for nonspecific low back pain (nsLBP) (without sciatica) showed beneficial effects. To test effects of yoga therapy on pain and disability associated with lumbar disc extrusions and bulges. Parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial. Sixty-one adults from rural population, aged 20-45, with nsLBP or sciatica, and disc extrusions or bulges. Randomised to yoga (n=30) and control (n=31). Yoga: 3-month yoga course of group classes and home practice, designed to ensure safety for disc extrusions. normal medical care. OUTCOME MEASURES (3-4 months) Primary: Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ); worst pain in past two weeks. Secondary: Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale; straight leg raise test; structural changes. Disc projections per case ranged from one bulge or one extrusion to three bulges plus two extrusions. Sixty-two percent had sciatica. Intention-to-treat analysis of the RMDQ data, adjusted for age, sex and baseline RMDQ scores, gave a Yoga Group score 3.29 points lower than Control Group (0.98, 5.61; p=0.006) at 3 months. No other significant differences in the endpoints occurred. No adverse effects of yoga were reported. Yoga therapy can be safe and beneficial for patients with nsLBP or sciatica, accompanied by disc extrusions and bulges.

  9. The degenerative cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Llopis, E; Belloch, E; León, J P; Higueras, V; Piquer, J

    2016-04-01

    Imaging techniques provide excellent anatomical images of the cervical spine. The choice to use one technique or another will depend on the clinical scenario and on the treatment options. Plain-film X-rays continue to be fundamental, because they make it possible to evaluate the alignment and bone changes; they are also useful for follow-up after treatment. The better contrast resolution provided by magnetic resonance imaging makes it possible to evaluate the soft tissues, including the intervertebral discs, ligaments, bone marrow, and spinal cord. The role of computed tomography in the study of degenerative disease has changed in recent years owing to its great spatial resolution and its capacity to depict osseous components. In this article, we will review the anatomy and biomechanical characteristics of the cervical spine, and then we provide a more detailed discussion of the degenerative diseases that can affect the cervical spine and their clinical management. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Nursing review of diagnosis and treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.; Hollingsworth, Renee D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the lumbar spine, degenerative spondylolisthesis or degenerative (not traumatic) slippage of one vertebral body over another is divided into 4 grades – grade I (25%), grade II (50%), grade III (75%), and grade IV (100%). Dynamic X-rays, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomography (CT) scans document the slip secondary to arthritic changes of the facet joint plus stenosis, ossification of the yellow ligament, disc herniations, and synovial cysts. MR best demonstrates soft tissue pathology whereas CT better delineates ossific/calcified disease. Methods: Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis, typically found at the L4–L5 level followed by L3–L4 and L5S1, is more common in females (ratio 2:1) over the age of 65. Symptoms include radiculopathy (root pain) and neurogenic claudication (e.g., pain with ambulation, requiring the patient to stop, rest, sit down). Symptoms/signs may include unilateral/bilateral radiculopathy and uni/multifocal motor, reflex, and sensory deficits in. Some may also present with a cauda equina syndrome (e.g., paraparesis/sphincter dysfunction). Results: Surgery for grade I-II spondylolisthesis may include laminectomy alone, laminectomy/noninstrumented fusion or with an instrumented fusion. Older patients with osteoporosis are more likely to have no fusion or a noninstrumented fusion. All fusions utilize autograft harvested from the laminectomy that may or may not be combined with a bone graft expander (to increase the fusion mass) combined with autogenous bone marrow aspirate. The fusion mass is placed over the transverse processes following decortication. Conclusions: Patients with multilevel spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis may require decompressive lumbar laminectomies alone or in combination with noninstrumented or instrumented fusions. PMID:29119044

  11. Self-reported data on sleep quality and psychologic characteristics in patients with myofascial pain and disc displacement versus asymptomatic controls.

    PubMed

    Sener, Sevgi; Guler, Ozkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the differences between patients with myofascial pain and disc displacement and asymptomatic individuals based on aspects of psychologic status and sleep quality. One hundred thirty patients (81 women, 49 men; mean ages: 30.0 and 31.0 years, respectively) with temporomandibular disorder were selected, and 64 control subjects (32 women, 32 men; mean ages: 27.2 and 27.5 years, respectively) were included in the investigation over a period of 1 year. Clinical diagnosis of 65 patients with myofascial pain and 65 patients with disc displacement with or without limitation and joint pain was determined according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. Psychologic status was assessed using Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference post hoc multiple comparison or Tamhane T2 tests were used for statistical analysis. There was a significant difference between patients with myofascial pain and disc displacement regarding somatization and paranoid ideation. No statistically significant difference was found between patients with disc displacements and controls in all dimensions of the SCL-90-R. Total score for the PSQI was statistically significantly different between patients with myofascial pain and controls; no significant differences were found between patients with disc displacement and those with myofascial pain or controls regarding the PSQI. To manage patients with myofascial pain, psychologic assessments including sleep quality should be considered.

  12. The Effects of Manual Therapy Using Joint Mobilization and Flexion-distraction Techniques on Chronic Low Back Pain and Disc Heights

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jioun; Hwangbo, Gak; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of manual therapy using joint mobilization and flexion-distraction techniques on chronic low back pain and disc heights. [Subjects] This study was conducted with 31 chronic low back pain patients who were divided into a manual therapy group (MTG; n=16) and a spinal decompression therapy group (SDTG; n=15). [Methods] The MTG was treated using joint mobilization techniques and flexion-distraction techniques, and the SDTG was treated using spinal decompression therapeutic apparatuses. Conservative physical therapy was used in both groups, and the therapy was implemented three times per week for 6 weeks. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to measure patient’s low back pain scores, and a picture archiving and communication system was used to measure disc height by comparing and analyzing the images. [Results] In comparisons of the VAS within each of the two groups, both the MTG and the SDTG showed significant decreases. In comparisons of disc height within each of the two groups, the MTG showed statistically significant increases. [Conclusion] Manual therapy using joint mobilization techniques and flexion-distraction techniques is considered an effective intervention for addressing low back pain and disc heights in patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:25202191

  13. Lumbar subcutaneous edema and degenerative spinal disease in patients with low back pain: a retrospective MRI study.

    PubMed

    Quattrocchi, C C; Giona, A; Di Martino, A; Gaudino, F; Mallio, C A; Errante, Y; Occhicone, F; Vitali, M A; Zobel, B B; Denaro, V

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the association between LSE, spondylolisthesis, facet arthropathy, lumbar canal stenosis, BMI, radiculopathy and bone marrow edema at conventional lumbar spine MR imaging. This is a retrospective radiological study; 441 consecutive patients with low back pain (224 men and 217 women; mean age 57.3 years; mean BMI 26) underwent conventional lumbar MRI using a 1.5-T magnet (Avanto, Siemens). Lumbar MR images were reviewed by consensus for the presence of LSE, spondylolisthesis, facet arthropathy, lumbar canal stenosis, radiculopathy and bone marrow edema. Descriptive statistics and association studies were conducted using STATA software 11.0. Association studies have been performed using linear univariate regression analysis and multivariate regression analysis, considering LSE as response variable. The overall prevalence of LSE was 40%; spondylolisthesis (p = 0.01), facet arthropathy (p < 0.001), BMI (p = 0.008) and lumbar canal stenosis (p < 0.001) were included in the multivariate regression model, whereas bone marrow edema, radiculopathy and age were not. LSE is highly associated with spondylolisthesis, facet arthropathy and BMI, suggesting underestimation of its clinical impact as an integral component in chronic lumbar back pain. Longitudinal simultaneous X-ray/MRI studies should be conducted to test the relationship of LSE with lumbar spinal instability and low back pain.

  14. Randomized sham-controlled, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial on the effect of percutaneous radiofrequency at the ramus communicans for lumbar disc pain.

    PubMed

    van Tilburg, C W J; Stronks, D L; Groeneweg, J G; Huygen, F J P M

    2017-03-01

    Investigate the effect of percutaneous radiofrequency compared to a sham procedure, applied to the ramus communicans for treatment of lumbar disc pain. Randomized sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover, multicenter clinical trial. Multidisciplinary pain centres of two general hospitals. Sixty patients aged 18 or more with medical history and physical examination suggestive for lumbar disc pain and a reduction of two or more on a numerical rating scale (0-10) after a diagnostic ramus communicans test block. Treatment group: percutaneous radiofrequency treatment applied to the ramus communicans; sham: same procedure except radiofrequency treatment. pain reduction. Secondary outcome measure: Global Perceived Effect. No statistically significant difference in pain level over time between the groups, as well as in the group was found; however, the factor period yielded a statistically significant result. In the crossover group, 11 out of 16 patients experienced a reduction in NRS of 2 or more at 1 month (no significant deviation from chance). No statistically significant difference in satisfaction over time between the groups was found. The independent factors group and period also showed no statistically significant effects. The same applies to recovery: no statistically significant effects were found. The null hypothesis of no difference in pain reduction and in Global Perceived Effect between the treatment and sham group cannot be rejected. Post hoc analysis revealed that none of the investigated parameters contributed to the prediction of a significant pain reduction. Interrupting signalling through the ramus communicans may interfere with the transition of painful information from the discs to the central nervous system. Methodological differences exist in studies evaluating the efficacy of radiofrequency treatment for lumbar disc pain. A randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial on the effect of radiofrequency at the ramus

  15. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-10, nerve growth factor and substance P in the painful degenerate intervertebral disc

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stephen M; Doyle, Paul; Minogue, Ben M; Gnanalingham, Kanna; Hoyland, Judith A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be involved in the degradation of the nucleus pulposus (NP) during intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. This study investigated MMP-10 (stromelysin-2) expression in the NP during IVD degeneration and correlated its expression with pro-inflammatory cytokines and molecules involved in innervation and nociception during degeneration which results in low back pain (LBP). Methods Human NP tissue was obtained at postmortem (PM) from patients without a history of back pain and graded as histologically normal or degenerate. Symptomatic degenerate NP samples were also obtained at surgery for LBP. Expression of MMP-10 mRNA and protein was analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Gene expression for pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nerve growth factor (NGF) and the pain-associated neuropeptide substance P were also analysed. Correlations between MMP-10 and IL-1, TNF-α and NGF were assessed along with NGF with substance P. Results MMP-10 mRNA was significantly increased in surgical degenerate NP when compared to PM normal and PM degenerate samples. MMP-10 protein was also significantly higher in degenerate surgical NP samples compared to PM normal. IL-1 and MMP-10 mRNA demonstrated a significant correlation in surgical degenerate samples, while TNF-α was not correlated with MMP-10 mRNA. NGF was significantly correlated with both MMP-10 and substance P mRNA in surgical degenerate NP samples. Conclusions MMP-10 expression is increased in the symptomatic degenerate IVD, where it may contribute to matrix degradation and initiation of nociception. Importantly, this study suggests differences in the pathways involved in matrix degradation between painful and pain-free IVD degeneration. PMID:19695094

  16. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-10, nerve growth factor and substance P in the painful degenerate intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Stephen M; Doyle, Paul; Minogue, Ben M; Gnanalingham, Kanna; Hoyland, Judith A

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be involved in the degradation of the nucleus pulposus (NP) during intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. This study investigated MMP-10 (stromelysin-2) expression in the NP during IVD degeneration and correlated its expression with pro-inflammatory cytokines and molecules involved in innervation and nociception during degeneration which results in low back pain (LBP). Human NP tissue was obtained at postmortem (PM) from patients without a history of back pain and graded as histologically normal or degenerate. Symptomatic degenerate NP samples were also obtained at surgery for LBP. Expression of MMP-10 mRNA and protein was analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Gene expression for pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), nerve growth factor (NGF) and the pain-associated neuropeptide substance P were also analysed. Correlations between MMP-10 and IL-1, TNF-alpha and NGF were assessed along with NGF with substance P. MMP-10 mRNA was significantly increased in surgical degenerate NP when compared to PM normal and PM degenerate samples. MMP-10 protein was also significantly higher in degenerate surgical NP samples compared to PM normal. IL-1 and MMP-10 mRNA demonstrated a significant correlation in surgical degenerate samples, while TNF-alpha was not correlated with MMP-10 mRNA. NGF was significantly correlated with both MMP-10 and substance P mRNA in surgical degenerate NP samples. MMP-10 expression is increased in the symptomatic degenerate IVD, where it may contribute to matrix degradation and initiation of nociception. Importantly, this study suggests differences in the pathways involved in matrix degradation between painful and pain-free IVD degeneration.

  17. Change in Function, Pain, and Quality of Life Following Structured Nonoperative Treatment in Patients With Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tetreault, Lindsay A.; Rhee, John; Prather, Heidi; Kwon, Brian K.; Wilson, Jefferson R.; Martin, Allan R.; Andersson, Ian B.; Dembek, Anna H.; Pagarigan, Krystle T.; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Systematic review. Objectives: The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine (1) change in function, pain, and quality of life following structured nonoperative treatment for degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM); (2) variability of change in function, pain, and quality of life following different types of structured nonoperative treatment; (3) differences in outcomes observed between certain subgroups (eg, baseline severity score, duration of symptoms); and (4) negative outcomes and harms resulting from structured nonoperative treatment. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Collaboration for articles published between January 1, 1950, and February 9, 2015. Studies were included if they evaluated outcomes following structured nonoperative treatment, including therapeutic exercise, manual therapy, cervical bracing, and/or traction. The quality of each study was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and strength of the overall body of evidence was rated using guidelines outlined by the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group. Results: Of the 570 retrieved citations, 8 met inclusion criteria and were summarized in this review. Based on our results, there is very low evidence to suggest that structured nonoperative treatment for DCM results in either a positive or negative change in function as evaluated by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. Conclusion: There is a lack of evidence to determine the role of nonoperative treatment in patients with DCM. However, in the majority of studies, patients did not achieve clinically significant gains in function following structured nonoperative treatment. Furthermore, 23% to 54% of patients managed nonoperatively subsequently underwent surgical treatment. PMID:29164032

  18. The Use of Functional Data Analysis to Evaluate Activity in a Spontaneous Model of Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Pain in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Alfaro-Córdoba, Marcela; Thomson, Andrea E.; Worth, Alicia C.; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Accelerometry is used as an objective measure of physical activity in humans and veterinary species. In cats, one important use of accelerometry is in the study of therapeutics designed to treat degenerative joint disease (DJD) associated pain, where it serves as the most widely applied objective outcome measure. These analyses have commonly used summary measures, calculating the mean activity per-minute over days and comparing between treatment periods. While this technique has been effective, information about the pattern of activity in cats is lost. In this study, functional data analysis was applied to activity data from client-owned cats with (n = 83) and without (n = 15) DJD. Functional data analysis retains information about the pattern of activity over the 24-hour day, providing insight into activity over time. We hypothesized that 1) cats without DJD would have higher activity counts and intensity of activity than cats with DJD; 2) that activity counts and intensity of activity in cats with DJD would be inversely correlated with total radiographic DJD burden and total orthopedic pain score; and 3) that activity counts and intensity would have a different pattern on weekends versus weekdays. Results and conclusions Results showed marked inter-cat variability in activity. Cats exhibited a bimodal pattern of activity with a sharp peak in the morning and broader peak in the evening. Results further showed that this pattern was different on weekends than weekdays, with the morning peak being shifted to the right (later). Cats with DJD showed different patterns of activity from cats without DJD, though activity and intensity were not always lower; instead both the peaks and troughs of activity were less extreme than those of the cats without DJD. Functional data analysis provides insight into the pattern of activity in cats, and an alternative method for analyzing accelerometry data that incorporates fluctuations in activity across

  19. A selective inhibition of c-Fos/activator protein-1 as a potential therapeutic target for intervertebral disc degeneration and associated pain.

    PubMed

    Makino, Hiroto; Seki, Shoji; Yahara, Yasuhito; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Aikawa, Yukihiko; Motomura, Hiraku; Nogami, Makiko; Watanabe, Kenta; Sainoh, Takeshi; Ito, Hisakatsu; Tsumaki, Noriyuki; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2017-12-05

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a major cause of low back pain. The transcription factor c-Fos/Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) controls the expression of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that contribute to the pathogenesis IVD degeneration. We investigated the effects of inhibition of c-Fos/AP-1 on IVD degeneration and associated pain. A selective inhibitor, T-5224, significantly suppressed the interleukin-1β-induced up-regulation of Mmp-3, Mmp-13 and Adamts-5 transcription in human nucleus pulposus cells and in a mouse explant culture model of IVD degeneration. We used a tail disc percutaneous needle puncture method to further assess the effects of oral administration of T-5224 on IVD degeneration. Analysis of disc height, T2-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and histology revealed that IVD degeneration was significantly mitigated by T-5224. Further, oral administration of T-5224 ameliorated pain as indicated by the extended tail-flick latency in response to heat stimulation of rats with needle-puncture-induced IVD degeneration. These findings suggest that the inhibition of c-Fos/AP-1 prevents disc degeneration and its associated pain and that T-5224 may serve as a drug for the prevention of IVD degeneration.

  20. Physical inactivity is associated with narrower lumbar intervertebral discs, high fat content of paraspinal muscles and low back pain and disability.

    PubMed

    Teichtahl, Andrew J; Urquhart, Donna M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; O'Sullivan, Richard; Jones, Graeme; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2015-05-07

    Although physical inactivity has been associated with numerous chronic musculoskeletal complaints, few studies have examined its associations with spinal structures. Moreover, previously reported associations between physical activity and low back pain are conflicting. This study examined the associations between physical inactivity and intervertebral disc height, paraspinal fat content and low back pain and disability. Seventy-two community-based volunteers not selected for low back pain underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their lumbosacral spine (L1 to S1) between 2011 and 2012. Physical activity was assessed between 2005 and 2008 by questionnaire, while low back pain and disability were assessed by the Chronic Pain Grade Scale at the time of MRI. Intervertebral disc height and cross-sectional area and fat content of multifidus and erector spinae were assessed from MRI. Lower physical activity levels were associated with a more narrow average intervertebral disc height (β -0.63 mm, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.17 mm to -0.08 mm, P = 0.026) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index (BMI). There were no significant associations between physical activity levels and the cross-sectional area of multifidus or erector spinae. Lower levels of physical activity were associated with an increased risk of high fat content in multifidus (odds ratio (OR) 2.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 6.7, P = 0.04) and high-intensity pain/disability (OR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.5 to 16.4, P = 0.008) after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. Physical inactivity is associated with narrower intervertebral discs, high fat content of the multifidus and high-intensity low back pain and disability in a dose-dependent manner among community-based adults. Longitudinal studies will help to determine the cause and effect nature of these associations.

  1. Lower thoracic degenerative spondylithesis with concomitant lumbar spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Po-Chuan; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Chen, Jyi-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis of the spine is less common in the lower thoracic region than in the lumbar and cervical regions. However, lower thoracic degenerative spondylolisthesis may develop secondary to intervertebral disc degeneration. Most of our patients are found to have concomitant lumbar spondylosis. By retrospective review of our cases, current diagnosis and treatments for this rare disease were discussed. We present a series of 5 patients who experienced low back pain, progressive numbness, weakness and even paraparesis. Initially, all of them were diagnosed with lumbar spondylosis at other clinics, and 1 patient had even received prior decompressive lumbar surgery. However, their symptoms continued to progress, even after conservative treatments or lumbar surgeries. These patients also showed wide-based gait, increased deep tendon reflex (DTR), and urinary difficulty. All these clinical presentations could not be explained solely by lumbar spondylosis. Thoracolumbar spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurophysiologic studies such as motor evoked potential (MEP) or somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP), and dynamic thoracolumbar lateral radiography were performed, and a final diagnosis of lower thoracic degenerative spondylolisthesis was made. Bilateral facet effusions, shown by hyperintense signals in T2 MRI sequence, were observed in all patients. Neurophysiologic studies revealed conduction defect of either MEP or SSEP. One patient refused surgical management because of personal reasons. However, with the use of thoracolumbar orthosis, his symptoms/signs stabilized, although partial lower leg myelopathy was present. The other patients received surgical decompression in association with fixation/fusion procedures performed for managing the thoracolumbar lesions. Three patients became symptom-free, whereas in 1 patient, paralysis set in before the operation; this patient was able to walk with assistance 6 months after surgical decompression

  2. Cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive versus open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative spondylolisthesis associated low-back and leg pain over two years.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; Adogwa, Owoicho; Bydon, Ali; Cheng, Joseph; McGirt, Matthew J

    2012-07-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) for lumbar spondylolisthesis allows for surgical treatment of back and leg pain while theoretically minimizing tissue injury and accelerating overall recovery. Although the authors of previous studies have demonstrated shorter length of hospital stay and reduced blood loss with MIS versus open-TLIF, short- and long-term outcomes have been similar. No studies to date have evaluated the comprehensive health care costs associated with TLIF procedures or assessed the cost-utility of MIS- versus open-TLIF. As such, we set out to assess previously unstudied end points of health care cost and cost-utility associated with MIS- versus open-TLIF. Thirty patients undergoing MIS-TLIF (n=15) or open-TLIF (n=15) for grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis associated back and leg pain were prospectively studied. Total back-related medical resource use, missed work, and health-state values (quality-adjusted life years [QALYs], calculated from EQ-5D with U.S. valuation) were assessed after two-year follow-up. Two-year resource use was multiplied by unit costs on the basis of Medicare national allowable payment amounts (direct cost) and work-day losses were multiplied by the self-reported gross-of-tax wage rate (indirect cost). Difference in mean total cost per QALY gained for MIS- versus open-TLIF was assessed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER: COSTmis-COSTopen/QALYmis-QALYopen). MIS versus open-TLIF cohorts were similar at baseline. By two years postoperatively, patients undergoing MIS- versus open-TLIF reported similar mean QALYs gained (0.50 vs. 0.41, P=0.17). Mean total two-year cost of MIS- and open-TLIF was $35,996 and $44,727, respectively. The $8,731 two-year cost savings of MIS- versus open-TLIF did not reach statistical significance (P=0.18) for this sample size. Although our limited sample size prevented statistical significance, MIS- versus open-TLIF was associated with reduced costs over

  3. Intervertebral disc degeneration-induced expression of pain-related molecules: glial cell-derived neurotropic factor as a key factor.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woon-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Shon, Jong-Ryeul; Lee, Min; Lee, Sang-Heon; Sul, Donggeun; Na, Heung Sik; Kim, Joo Han; Kim, Byung-Jo

    2011-10-01

    Discogenic low back pain has been shown to develop into chronic intractable pain due to an unknown pathogenesis. To study the mechanism of discogenic pain, we analyzed the serial expression of pain-related molecules in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and thalamus using a newly developed rat model of disc degeneration. Ten microliters of complete Freund's adjuvant was injected into the L5-6 disc of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 10 minutes using a 26-gauge needle. Using a behavioral test, rats with significant pain were selected and subsequently serial gene expression of pain-related molecules in the DRG and the thalamus was analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β significantly increased at 4 and 8 weeks in the DRG of rats with pain. Furthermore, interleukin-6 was significantly increased at 4 weeks in the DRG; however, these cytokines did not show a significant change in the thalamus. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P were significantly increased in DRG at 4 and 8 weeks and in the thalamus at 2 and 4 weeks. The level of nerve growth factor-β did not significantly increase in the DRG or thalamus, whereas glial cell line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) was significantly increased at 2 weeks and was sustained through 8 weeks in both the DRG and thalamus. The disc degeneration rat model described herein led to significant pain of a chronic nature. The gradual and persistent increase of GDNF in both the thalamus and DRG suggests that GDNF might be a key factor in the development of intractable, chronic discogenic pain.

  4. Platelet-rich plasma injections: an emerging therapy for chronic discogenic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Suja; Yu, James

    2018-03-01

    Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have been investigated in recent years as an emerging therapy for various musculoskeletal conditions, including lumbar degenerative disc disease. Although PRP has received increasing attention from medical science experts, comprehensive clinical reports of its efficacy are limited to those treating knee osteoarthritis and epicondylitis. Use of PRP is gaining popularity in the area of degenerative disc disease, but there is a clear need for reliable clinical evidence of its applications and effectiveness. In this article, we review the current literature on PRP therapy and its potential use in the treatment of chronic discogenic low back pain, with a focus on evidence from clinical trials.

  5. [Intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid for anterior disc displacement of temporomandibular joint].

    PubMed

    Long, X

    2017-03-09

    Anterior disc displacement (ADD) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is regarded as one of the major findings in temporomandibular disorders (TMD). It is related to joint noise, pain, mandibular dysfunction, degenerative change and osteoarthritis. In the mean time, the pathological changes were found in synovial membrane and synovial fluid. Hyaluronic acid is a principal component of the synovial fluid which plays an important role in nutrition, lubrication, anti-inflammation and cartilage repair. The synthesis, molecule weight, and concentration of hyaluronic acid are decreased during TMD and cause TMJ degenerative changes. The clinical conditions, pathological changes, the mechanism of action for hyaluronic acid and the treatment of anterior disc displacement of TMJ are discussed in this article.

  6. Lumbar degenerative spinal deformity: Surgical options of PLIF, TLIF and MI-TLIF

    PubMed Central

    Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis; Hee, Hwan Tak

    2010-01-01

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is common in ageing populations. It causes disturbing back pain, radicular symptoms and lowers the quality of life. We will focus our discussion on the surgical options of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for lumbar degenerative spinal deformities, which include symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative scoliosis. Through a description of each procedure, we hope to illustrate the potential benefits of TLIF over PLIF. In a retrospective study of 53 ALIF/PLIF patients and 111 TLIF patients we found reduced risk of vessel and nerve injury in TLIF patients due to less exposure of these structures, shortened operative time and reduced intra-operative bleeding. These advantages could be translated to shortened hospital stay, faster recovery period and earlier return to work. The disadvantages of TLIF such as incomplete intervertebral disc and vertebral end-plate removal and potential occult injury to exiting nerve root when under experienced hands are rare. Hence TLIF remains the mainstay of treatment in degenerative deformities of the lumbar spine. However, TLIF being a unilateral transforaminal approach, is unable to decompress the opposite nerve root. This may require contralateral laminotomy, which is a fairly simple procedure. The use of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) to treat degenerative lumbar spinal deformity is still in its early stages. Although the initial results appear promising, it remains a difficult operative procedure to master with a steep learning curve. In a recent study comparing 29 MI-TLIF patients and 29 open TLIF, MI-TLIF was associated with longer operative time, less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, with no difference in SF-36 scores at six months and two years. Whether it can replace traditional TLIF as the surgery of choice for

  7. A Novel, Minimally-Invasive Approach to Repair Degenerative Disk Disease in an Ovine Model Using Injectable Polymethyl-Methacrylate and Bovine Collagen (PMMA/BC)

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Erica; Narayan, Anisha; Taylor, William

    2016-01-01

    Background : The natural, inflammatory repair processes of an injured intervertebral degenerative disc can propagate further injury and destruction. While there are many different treatment modalities of the pain related to degenerative disc disease, none are actually reparative in nature. Treatment strategies to repair a degenerative disc without inducing a destructive inflammatory milieu have been elusive.  Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to discover the feasibility of reconstructing an injured intervertebral disc using an injected, inert polymer as the foundation for endogenous collagen growth. Study Design: In this ovine model of six subjects in total, we introduce a modality where a large inert polymer, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), in conjunction bovine collagen (BC) is injected into the intervertebral disc. Following six months of observation, histologic specimens were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically for evidence of a benefit of the injectable PMMA/BC. Methods: We obtained six merino sheep for this study. Concentric injuries were made to four of their lumbar intervertebral discs. Two of those levels were treated with a percutaneous injection of 0.3 cc of PMMA/BC. The remaining lumbar levels were left untreated and were our controls. After six months, all subjects were sacrificed. Their four levels were extracted and were examined macroscopically and microscopically. Results: All subjects tolerated the lumbar injury and percutaneous injection of PMMA/BC well. After the six month interval, all subjects have demonstrated an intact architecture of their lumbar disc height at the macroscopic and microscopic level. Microscopically, there was no evidence of external migration of the PMMA/BC microspheres, nor was there any evidence of an inflammatory response by its presence. Notably, the PMMA/BC microspheres were well-incorporated into the concentric disc tears and had undergone endogenous collagen formation in its environment

  8. Degenerative spinal disease in large felids.

    PubMed

    Kolmstetter, C; Munson, L; Ramsay, E C

    2000-03-01

    Degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. In contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions (Panthera leo), 16 tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 leopards (Panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (Panthera onca) from the Knoxville Zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal disease is an important problem in large nondomestic felids. The medical record, radiographic data, and the necropsy report of each animal were examined for evidence of intervertebral disc disease or spondylosis. Eight (three lions, four tigers, and one leopard) animals were diagnosed with degenerative spinal disease. Clinical signs included progressively decreased activity, moderate to severe rear limb muscle atrophy, chronic intermittent rear limb paresis, and ataxia. The age at onset of clinical signs was 10-19 yr (median = 18 yr). Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column was useful in assessing the severity of spinal lesions, and results were correlated with necropsy findings. Lesions were frequently multifocal, included intervertebral disc mineralization or herniation with collapsed intervertebral disc spaces, and were most common in the lumbar area but also involved cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Marked spondylosis was present in the cats with intervertebral disc disease, presumably subsequent to vertebral instability. Six of the animals' spinal cords were examined histologically, and five had acute or chronic damage to the spinal cord secondary to disc protrusion. Spinal disease should be suspected in geriatric large felids with decreased appetite or activity. Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column is the most useful method to assess the type and severity of spinal lesions.

  9. Preliminary results of a randomized, equivalence trial of fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain: Part 2--Disc herniation and radiculitis.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Boswell, Mark V

    2008-01-01

    The pathophysiology of lumbar radicular pain is a subject of ongoing research. The prevalence of sciatica or radiculitis ranges from 1.2% to 43%. Epidural injections are one of the most commonly performed interventions in the United States in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain secondary to disc herniation and radiculitis. There is a paucity of evidence with contemporary methodology used in performing epidural injections under fluoroscopy and based on pain relief and functional status improvement. A randomized, double-blind, equivalence trial. An interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center, a private practice setting in the United States. To evaluate the effectiveness of caudal epidural injections with or without steroids in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain secondary to disc herniation or radiculitis in providing effective and long-lasting pain relief and evaluate the differences between local anesthetic with or without steroids. Patients were assigned to one of 2 groups; Group I patients received caudal epidural injections with an injection of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%), whereas, Group II patients received caudal epidural injections with 0.5% lidocaine 9 mL mixed with 1 mL of steroid. Randomization was performed by computer-generated random allocations sequence by simple randomization. Multiple outcome measures were utilized which included the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI), employment status, and opioid intake with assessment at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months post-treatment. Significant pain relief was defined as 50% or more, whereas significant improvement in disability score was defined as a reduction of 40% or more. The percentage of patients with significant pain relief of 50% or greater at 12 months was 79% in Group I and 81% in Group II. Reduction of Oswestry scores of at least 40% was seen in 83% of the patients in Group I and 91% in Group II. The

  10. Cost utility analysis of caudal epidural injections in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation, axial or discogenic low back pain, central spinal stenosis, and post lumbar surgery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Falco, Frank J E; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Cash, Kimberly A; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2013-01-01

    In this era of escalating health care costs and the questionable effectiveness of multiple interventions, cost effectiveness or cost utility analysis has become the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, and has an influence coverage decisions. Even though multiple cost effectiveness analysis studies have been performed over the years, extensive literature is lacking for interventional techniques. Cost utility analysis studies of epidural injections for managing chronic low back pain demonstrated highly variable results including a lack of cost utility in randomized trials and contrasting results in observational studies. There has not been any cost utility analysis studies of epidural injections in large randomized trials performed in interventional pain management settings. To assess the cost utility of caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain secondary to lumbar disc herniation, axial or discogenic low back pain, lumbar central spinal stenosis, and lumbar post surgery syndrome. This analysis is based on 4 previously published randomized trials. A private, specialty referral interventional pain management center in the United States. Four randomized trials were conducted assessing the clinical effectiveness of caudal epidural injections with or without steroids for lumbar disc herniation, lumbar discogenic or axial low back pain, lumbar central spinal stenosis, and post surgery syndrome. A cost utility analysis was performed with direct payment data for a total of 480 patients over a period of 2 years from these 4 trials. Outcome included various measures with significant improvement defined as at least a 50% improvement in pain reduction and disability status. The results of 4 randomized controlled trials of low back pain with 480 patients with a 2 year follow-up with the actual reimbursement data showed cost utility for one year of quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of $2,206 for disc herniation, $2,136 for axial or discogenic pain without

  11. Quantitative T2 evaluation at 3.0T compared to morphological grading of the lumbar intervertebral disc: a standardized evaluation approach in patients with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Stelzeneder, David; Welsch, Goetz Hannes; Kovács, Balázs Krisztián; Goed, Sabine; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Vlychou, Marianna; Friedrich, Klaus; Mamisch, Tallal Charles; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to compare quantitative T2 relaxation time measurement evaluation of lumbar intervertebral discs with morphological grading in young to middle-aged patients with low back pain, using a standardized region-of-interest evaluation approach. Three hundred thirty lumbar discs from 66 patients (mean age, 39 years) with low back pain were examined on a 3.0T MR unit. Sagittal T1-FSE, sagittal, coronal, and axial T2-weighted FSE for morphological MRI, as well as a multi-echo spin-echo sequence for T2 mapping, were performed. Morphologically, all discs were classified according to Pfirrmann et al. Equally sized rectangular regions of interest (ROIs) for the annulus fibrosus were selected anteriorly and posteriorly in the outermost 20% of the disc. The space between was defined as the nucleus pulposus. To assess the reproducibility of this evaluation, inter- and intraobserver statistics were performed. The Pfirrmann scoring of 330 discs showed the following results: grade I: six discs (1.8%); grade II: 189 (57.3%); grade III: 96 (29.1%); grade IV: 38 (11.5%); and grade V: one (0.3%). The mean T2 values (in milliseconds) for the anterior and the posterior annulus, and the nucleus pulposus for the respective Pfirrmann groups were: I: 57/30/239; II: 44/67/129; III: 42/51/82; and IV: 42/44/56. The nucleus pulposus T2 values showed a stepwise decrease from Pfirrmann grade I to IV. The posterior annulus showed the highest T2 values in Pfirrmann group II, while the anterior annulus showed relatively constant T2 values in all Pfirrmann groups. The inter- and intraobserver analysis yielded intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for average measures in a range from 0.82 (anterior annulus) to 0.99 (nucleus). Our standardized method of region-specific quantitative T2 relaxation time evaluation seems to be able to characterize different degrees of disc degeneration quantitatively. The reproducibility of our ROI measurements is sufficient to

  12. Effects of segmental traction therapy on lumbar disc herniation in patients with acute low back pain measured by magnetic resonance imaging: A single arm clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Noureddin; Akbarov, Parvin; Rahnama, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Low Back Pain (LBP) is considered as one of the most frequent disorders, which about 80% of adults experience in their lives. Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a cause for acute LBP. Among conservative treatments, traction is frequently used by clinicians to manage LBP resulting from LDH. However, there is still a lack of consensus about its efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of segmental traction therapy on lumbar discs herniation, pain, lumbar range of motion (ROM), and back extensor muscles endurance in patients with acute LBP induced by LDH. Fifteen patients with acute LBP diagnosed by LDH participated in the present study. Participants undertook 15 sessions of segmental traction therapy along with conventional physiotherapy, 5 times a week for 3 weeks. Lumbar herniated mass size was measured before and after the treatment protocol using magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, pain, lumbar ROM and back muscle endurance were evaluated before and after the procedure using clinical outcome measures. Following the treatment protocol, herniated mass size and patients' pain were reduced significantly. In addition, lumbar flexion ROM showed a significant improvement. However, no significant change was observed for back extensor muscle endurance after the treatment procedure. The result of the present study showed segmental traction therapy might play an important role in the treatment of acute LBP stimulated by LDH.

  13. Role of vitamin D3 in treatment of lumbar disc herniation--pain and sensory aspects: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Mahsa; Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2014-09-25

    Vitamin D receptors have been identified in the spinal cord, nerve roots, dorsal root ganglia and glial cells, and its genetic polymorphism association with the development of lumbar disc degeneration and herniation has been documented. Metabolic effects of active vitamin D metabolites in the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells have been studied. Lumbar disc herniation is a process that involves immune and inflammatory cells and processes that are targets for immune regulatory actions of vitamin D as a neurosteroid hormone. In addition to vitamin D's immune modulatory properties, its receptors have been identified in skeletal muscles. It also affects sensory neurons to modulate pain. In this study, we aim to study the role of vitamin D3 in discogenic pain and related sensory deficits. Additionally, we will address how post-treatment 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level influences pain and sensory deficits severity. The cut-off value for serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 that would be efficacious in improving pain and sensory deficits in lumbar disc herniation will also be studied. We will conduct a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Our study population will include 380 cases with one-level and unilateral lumbar disc herniation with duration of discogenic pain less than 8 weeks. Individuals who do not have any contraindications, will be divided into three groups based on serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level, and each group will be randomized to receive either a single-dose 300,000-IU intramuscular injection of vitamin D3 or placebo. All patients will be under conservative treatment. Pre-treatment and post-treatment assessments will be performed with the McGill Pain Questionnaire and a visual analogue scale. For the 15-day duration of this study, questionnaires will be filled out during telephone interviews every 3 days (a total of five times). The initial and final interviews will be scheduled at our clinic. After 15 days, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D

  14. Does hybrid fixation prevent junctional disease after posterior fusion for degenerative lumbar disorders? A minimum 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Baioni, Andrea; Di Silvestre, Mario; Greggi, Tiziana; Vommaro, Francesco; Lolli, Francesco; Scarale, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Medium- to long-term retrospective evaluation of clinical and radiographic outcome in the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases with hybrid posterior fixation. Thirty patients were included with the mean age of 47.8 years (range 35 to 60 years). All patients underwent posterior lumbar instrumentation using hybrid fixation for lumbar stenosis with instability (13 cases), degenerative spondylolisthesis Meyerding grade I (6 cases), degenerative disc disease of one or more adjacent levels in six cases and mild lumbar degenerative scoliosis in five patients. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using Oswestry disability index (ODI), Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), and the visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. All patients were assessed by preoperative, postoperative and follow-up standing plain radiographs and lateral X-rays with flexion and extension. Adjacent disc degeneration was also evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at follow-up. At a mean follow-up of 6.1 years, we observed on X-rays and/or MRI 3 cases of adjacent segment disease (10.0 %): two of them (6.6 %) presented symptoms and recurred a new surgery. The last patient (3.3 %) developed asymptomatic retrolisthesis of L3 not requiring revision surgery. The mean preoperative ODI score was 67.6, RMDQ score was 15.1, VAS back pain score was 9.5, and VAS leg pain score was 8.6. Postoperatively, these values improved to 28.1, 5.4, 3.1, and 2.9, respectively, and remained substantially unchanged at the final follow-up: (27.7, 5.2, 2.9, and 2.7, respectively). After 5-year follow-up, hybrid posterior lumbar fixation presented satisfying clinical outcomes in the treatment of degenerative disease.

  15. MRI Quantification of Human Spine Cartilage Endplate Geometry: Comparison With Age, Degeneration, Level, and Disc Geometry

    PubMed Central

    DeLucca, John F.; Peloquin, John M.; Smith, Lachlan J.; Wright, Alexander C.; Vresilovic, Edward J.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2017-01-01

    Geometry is an important indicator of disc mechanical function and degeneration. While the geometry and associated degenerative changes in the nucleus pulposus and the annulus fibrosus are well-defined, the geometry of the cartilage endplate (CEP) and its relationship to disc degeneration are unknown. The objectives of this study were to quantify CEP geometry in three dimensions using an MRI FLASH imaging sequence and evaluate relationships between CEP geometry and age, degeneration, spinal level, and overall disc geometry. To do so, we assessed the MRI-based measurements for accuracy and repeatability. Next, we measured CEP geometry across a larger sample set and correlated CEP geometric parameters to age, disc degeneration, level, and disc geometry. The MRI-based measures resulted in thicknesses (0.3–1 mm) that are comparable to prior measurements of CEP thickness. CEP thickness was greatest at the anterior/posterior (A/P) margins and smallest in the center. The CEP A/P thickness, axial area, and lateral width decreased with age but were not related to disc degeneration. Age-related, but not degeneration-related, changes in geometry suggest that the CEP may not follow the progression of disc degeneration. Ultimately, if the CEP undergoes significant geometric changes with aging and if these can be related to low back pain, a clinically feasible translation of the FLASH MRI-based measurement of CEP geometry presented in this study may prove a useful diagnostic tool. PMID:27232974

  16. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... may include toxins, chemicals, and viruses. Sometimes the cause is not known. Degenerative nerve diseases include Alzheimer's disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Friedreich's ataxia Huntington's disease ...

  17. The role of fluoroscopic interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic pain of lumbar disc herniation or radiculitis: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Falco, Frank J E

    2013-09-01

    There is continued debate on the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of epidural injections in managing pain and disability from lumbar disc herniation, despite extensive utilization. There is paucity of literature on interlaminar epidural injections in managing lumbar disc herniation or radiculitis in contemporary interventional pain management settings utilizing fluoroscopy. A randomized, double-blind, active-control trial was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids for disc herniation and radiculitis. The primary outcome was defined as pain relief and functional status improvement of ≥ 50%. One hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups. Group I patients received lumbar interlaminar injections containing a local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 6 mL), whereas Group II patients received lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of 0.5% lidocaine, 5 mL, mixed with 1 mL of non-particulate betamethasone. In the patients who responded with initial 2 procedures with at least 3 weeks of relief, significant improvement was seen in 80% of the patients in the local anesthetic group and 86% of the patients in the local anesthetic and steroid group. The overall average procedures per year were 3.6 in the local anesthetic group and 4.1 in the local anesthetic and steroid group, with an average relief of 33.7 ± 18.1 weeks in the local anesthetic group and 39.1 ± 12.2 weeks in the local anesthetic and steroid group over a period of 52 weeks in the overall population. Lumbar interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids might be effective in patients with disc herniation or radiculitis, with potential superiority of steroids compared with local anesthetic alone at 1 year follow-up. © 2012 The Authors Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

  18. Quantitative Discomanometry: Correlation of Intradiscal Pressure Values to Pain Reduction in Patients With Intervertebral Disc Herniation Treated With Percutaneous, Minimally Invasive, Image-Guided Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Filippiadis, Dimitrios K., E-mail: dfilippiadis@yahoo.gr; Mazioti, A., E-mail: argyromazioti@yahoo.gr; Papakonstantinou, O., E-mail: sogofianol@gmail.com

    Purpose: To illustrate quantitative discomanometry's (QD) diagnostic efficacy and predictive value in discogenic-pain evaluation in a prospective study correlating intradiscal pressure values with pain reduction after percutaneous image-guided technique (i.e., percutaneous decompression, PD). Materials and Methods: During the last 3 years, 36 patients [21 male and 15 female (mean age 36 {+-} 5.8 years)] with intervertebral disc hernia underwent QD before PD. Under absolute sterilization and fluoroscopy, a mixture of contrast medium and normal saline (3:1 ratio) was injected. A discmonitor performed a constant rate injection and recorded pressure and volume values, thus producing the relative pressure-volume curve. PD wasmore » then performed. Pain reduction and improved mobility were recorded at 3, 12, and 24 months after PD using clinical evaluation and a numeric visual scale (NVS; 0 to 10 units). Results: Mean pain values of 7.5 {+-} 1.9 (range 4 to 8) NVS units were recorded before PD; these decreased to 2.9 {+-} 2.44 at 3 months, 1.0 {+-} 1.9 at 12 months, and 1.0 {+-} 1.9 NVS units at 24 months after PD. Recorded correlations (pressure, volume, significant pain-reduction values) with bilateral statistical significance included a maximum injected volume of 2.4 ml (p = 0.045), P{sub o} < 14 psi [initial pressure required to inject 0.1 ml of the mixture inside the disc (p = 0.05)], P{sub max} {<=} 65 psi [greatest pressure value on the curve (p = 0.018)], and P{sub max} - P{sub o} {<=} 47 psi (p = 0.038). Patients meeting these pressure or volume cut-off points, either independently or as a total, had significant pain reduction (>4 NVS units) after PD. No complications were noted. Conclusions: QD is an efficient technique that may have predictive value for discogenic pain evaluation. It might serve as a useful tool for patient selection for intervertebral disc therapies.« less

  19. Cervical epidural injections in chronic discogenic neck pain without disc herniation or radiculitis: preliminary results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Wargo, Bradley W; Malla, Yogesh

    2010-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a common problem in the adult population with a typical 12-month prevalence of 30% to 50%. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the causes and treatments of chronic neck pain. Despite limited evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the commonly performed non-surgical interventions in the management of chronic neck pain. A randomized, double-blind, active control trial. An interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center, a private practice setting in the United States. To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections with local anesthetic with or without steroids in the management of chronic neck pain with or without upper extremity pain in patients without disc herniation or radiculitis or facet joint pain. Patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: injection of local anesthetic only or local anesthetic mixed with non-particulate betamethasone. Seventy patients were included in this analysis. Randomization was performed by computer-generated random allocation sequence by simple randomization. Multiple outcome measures were utilized including the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Neck Disability Index (NDI), employment status, and opioid intake with assessment at 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. Significant pain relief or functional status was defined as a 50% or more reduction. Significant pain relief (> or = 50%) was demonstrated in 80% of patients in both groups and functional status improvement (> or = 50%) in 69% of Group I and 80% of Group II. The overall average procedures per year were 3.9 +/- 1.01 in Group I and 3.9 +/- 0.8 in Group II with an average total relief per year of 40.3 +/- 14.1 weeks in Group I and 42.1 +/- 9.9 weeks in Group II over a period of 52 weeks in the successful group. The results of this study are limited by the

  20. The role of PET/CT in evaluation of Facet and Disc abnormalities in patients with low back pain using (18)F-Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Gamie, Sherief; El-Maghraby, Tarek

    2008-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy including Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is known for its role in the diagnosis of low back pain disorders. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with (18)F (Flouride-18) as a tracer can be used to carry out bone scans with improved image quality. With the addition of CT, simultaneous PET/CT fused images provide more accurate anatomical details. The objectives of this work are to assess the use of (18)F-PET/CT in patients with back pain and suspected facetogenic pain, and to find the frequency of facet arthropathy versus disc disease abnormalities. 67 patients who presented with back pain underwent routine X-ray, CT and/or MRI, which failed to identify a clear cause, were referred to (18)F-PET/CT. Among the main group, a subset of 25 patients had previous spine surgery consisting of laminectomy or discectomy (17 patients) and lumbar fusion (8 patients). The PET/CT scan was acquired on a GE VCT 64-Slice combined scanner. Imaging started 45-60 minutes after administration of 12-15 mCi (444-555 MBq) of (18)F-Fluoride. The PET scan was acquired from the skull base through the inguinal region in 3D mode at 2 minutes/bed. A lowresolution, non-contrast CT scan was also acquired for anatomic localization and attenuation correction. The (18)F-PET/CT showed abnormal uptake in the spine in 56 patients, with an overall detection ability of 84%. Facet joints as a cause of back pain was much more frequent (25 with abnormal scans). One-third (36%) of the patients showed multiple positive uptake in both facet joints and disc areas (20/56). The patients were further divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 42 patients (63%) with back pain and no previous operative procedures, and the (18)F-PET/CT showed a high sensitivity (88%) in identifying the source of pain in 37/42 patients. Group B included 25 patients (37%) with prior lumbar fusion or laminectomy, in which the PET/CT showed positive uptake in 76% (19/25 patients). (18)F-PET/CT showed

  1. Altered Helical Axis Patterns of the Lumbar Spine Indicate Increased Instability with Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Arin M.; Nuckley, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Although the causes of low back pain are poorly defined and indistinct, degeneration of the intervertebral disc is most often implicated as the origin of pain. The biochemical and mechanical changes associated with degeneration result in the discs’ inability to maintain structure and function, leading to spinal instability and ultimately pain. Traditionally, a clinical exam assessing functional range-of-motion coupled with T2-weighted MRI revealing disc morphology are used to evaluate spinal health; however, these subjective measures fail to correlate well with pain or provide useful patient stratification. Therefore, improved quantification of spinal motion and objective MRI measures of disc health are necessary. An instantaneous helical axis (IHA) approach provides rich temporal three-dimensional data describing the pathway of motion, which is easily visualized. Eighteen cadaveric osteoligamentous lumbar spines (L4-5) from throughout the degenerative spectrum were tested in a pure moment fashion. IHA were calculated for flexion-extension and lateral bending. A correlational study design was used to determine the relationship between disc measurements from quantitative T2* MRI and IHA metrics. Increased instability and out-of-plane rotation with diminished disc health was observed during lateral bending, but not flexion-extension. This new analysis strategy examines the entire pathway of motion, rather than simplifying spinal kinematics to its terminal ends of motion and provides a more sensitive kinematic measurement of disc health. Ultimately, through the use of 3D dynamic fluoroscopy or similar methods, a patient's functional IHA in lateral bending may be measured and used to assess their disc health for diagnosis, progression tracking, and treatment evaluation. PMID:25481221

  2. Integrating MRI-based geometry, composition and fiber architecture in a finite element model of the human intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Stadelmann, Marc A; Maquer, Ghislain; Voumard, Benjamin; Grant, Aaron; Hackney, David B; Vermathen, Peter; Alkalay, Ron N; Zysset, Philippe K

    2018-05-17

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is a common disease that is often related to impaired mechanical function, herniations and chronic back pain. The degenerative process induces alterations of the disc's shape, composition and structure that can be visualized in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Numerical tools such as finite element analysis (FEA) have the potential to relate MRI-based information to the altered mechanical behavior of the disc. However, in terms of geometry, composition and fiber architecture, current FE models rely on observations made on healthy discs and might therefore not be well suited to study the degeneration process. To address the issue, we propose a new, more realistic FE methodology based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). For this study, a human disc joint was imaged in a high-field MR scanner with proton-density weighted (PD) and DTI sequences. The PD image was segmented and an anatomy-specific mesh was generated. Assuming accordance between local principal diffusion direction and local mean collagen fiber alignment, corresponding fiber angles were assigned to each element. Those element-wise fiber directions and PD intensities allowed the homogenized model to smoothly account for composition and fibrous structure of the disc. The disc's in vitro mechanical behavior was quantified under tension, compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending and rotation. The six resulting load-displacement curves could be replicated by the FE model, which supports our approach as a first proof of concept towards patient-specific disc modeling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of receptors for putative anabolic growth factors in human intervertebral disc: implications for repair and regeneration of the disc.

    PubMed

    Le Maitre, Christine L; Richardson, Stephen M A; Baird, Pauline; Freemont, Anthony J; Hoyland, Judith A

    2005-12-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common, debilitating and economically important disorder. Current evidence implicates loss of intervertebral disc (IVD) matrix consequent upon 'degeneration' as a major cause of LBP. Degeneration of the IVD involves increases in degradative enzymes and decreases in the extracellular matrix (ECM) component in a process that is controlled by a range of cytokines and growth factors. Studies have suggested using anabolic growth factors to regenerate the normal matrix of the IVD, hence restoring disc height and reversing degenerative disc disease. However, for such therapies to be successful it is vital that the target cells (i.e. the disc cells) express the appropriate receptors. This immunohistochemical study has for the first time investigated the expression and localization of four potentially beneficial growth factor receptors (i.e. TGFbetaRII, BMPRII, FGFR3 and IGFRI) in non-degenerate and degenerate human IVDs. Receptor expression was quantified across regions of the normal and degenerate disc and showed that cells of the nucleus pulposus (NP) and inner annulus fibrosus (IAF) expressed significantly higher levels of the four growth factor receptors investigated. There were no significant differences between the four growth factor expression in non-degenerate and degenerate biopsies. However, expression of TGFbetaRII, FGFR3 and IGFRI, but not BMP RII, were observed in the ingrowing blood vessels that characterize part of the disease aetiology. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated the expression of the four growth factor receptors at similar levels in the chondrocyte-like cells of the NP and IAF in both non-degenerate and degenerate discs, implicating a role in normal disc homeostasis and suggesting that the application of these growth factors to the degenerate human IVD would stimulate matrix production. However, the expression of some of the growth factor receptors on ingrowing blood vessels might be problematic in a therapeutic

  4. PREPARE: presurgery physiotherapy for patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lindbäck, Yvonne; Tropp, Hans; Enthoven, Paul; Abbott, Allan; Öberg, Birgitta

    2017-12-15

    Surgery because of disc herniation or spinal stenosis results mostly in large improvement in the short-term, but mild to moderate improvements for pain and disability at long-term follow-up. Prehabilitation has been defined as augmenting functional capacity before surgery, which may have beneficial effect on outcome after surgery. The aim was to study if presurgery physiotherapy improves function, pain, and health in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder scheduled for surgery. A single-blinded, two-arm, randomized controlled trial (RCT). A total of 197 patients were consecutively included at a spine clinic. The inclusion criteria were patients scheduled for surgery because of disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, or degenerative disc disease (DDD), 25-80 years of age. Primary outcome was Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Secondary outcomes were pain intensity, anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, fear avoidance, physical activity, and treatment effect. Patients were randomized to either presurgery physiotherapy or standardized information, with follow-up after the presurgery intervention as well as 3 and 12 months post surgery. The study was funded by regional research funds for US$77,342. No conflict of interest is declared. The presurgery physiotherapy group had better ODI, visual analog scale (VAS) back pain, EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), EQ-VAS, Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire-Physical Activity (FABQ-PA), Self-Efficacy Scale (SES), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) depression scores and activity level compared with the waiting-list group after the presurgery intervention. The improvements were small, but larger than the study-specific minimal clinical important change (MCIC) in VAS back and leg pain, EQ-5D, and FABQ-PA, and almost in line with MCIC in ODI and Physical Component Summary (PCS) in the physiotherapy group. Post surgery, the only difference between the groups was higher activity level in the physiotherapy group

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic pain of lumbar disc herniation or radiculitis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Falco, Frank J E; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of lumbar radicular pain is the subject of ongoing research, with a reported prevalence of sciatica or radiculitis ranging from 1.2% to 43%. Among the numerous non-surgical interventions available, epidural injections are the most commonly performed interventions in the United States in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. An interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center, a private practice setting in the United States. To evaluate the effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections with local anesthetic, with or without steroids, in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain secondary to disc herniation or radiculitis in providing effective and long-lasting pain relief. Patients were assigned to one of 2 groups with local anesthetic only or with local anesthetic mixed with non-particulate betamethasone. Randomization was performed by computer-generated random allocations sequence by simple randomization. Seventy patients were included in this analysis. Patient outcomes were measured at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment with the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI), employment status, and opioid intake. Decrease of > or = 50% of NRS scores and Oswestry scores were considered significant. Significant pain relief (> or = 50%) was seen at 12 months in 74% of patients in Group I and 86% in Group II, and 69% and 83% in ODI scores respectively. Significant differences were noted in pain relief characteristics at 6 months between Group I and Group II (p = 0.001) and functional status improvement was significantly better in Group II at 6 months and 12 months (p = 0.019 and 0.045). The overall average procedures per year were 4.3 in Group I and 4.2 in Group II with an average total relief per year of 42.2 +/- 10.5 weeks in Group I and 41.4 +/- 11.0 weeks in Group II over a period of 52 weeks in the successful

  6. Discover cervical disc arthroplasty versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in symptomatic cervical disc diseases: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Lei; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Tang, Yu; Wang, Zhe; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Zhou, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Symptomatic cervical disc disease (SCDD) is a common degenerative disease, and Discover artificial cervical disc, a new-generation nonconstrained artificial disk, has been developed and performed gradually to treat it. We performed this meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety between Discover cervical disc arthroplasty (DCDA) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for SCDD. An exhaustive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials that compared DCDA with ACDF for patients suffering SCDD. A random-effect model was used. Results were reported as standardized mean difference or risk ratio with 95% confidence interval. Of 33 articles identified, six studies were included. Compared with ACDF, DCDA demonstrated shorter operation time (P < 0.0001), and better range of motion (ROM) at the operative level (P < 0.00001). But no significant differences were observed in blood loss, neck disability index (NDI) scores, neck and arm pain scores, Japanese orthopaedic association (JOA) scores, secondary surgery procedures and adverse events (P > 0.05). Subgroup analyses did not demonstrated significant differences. In conclusion, DCDA presented shorter operation time, and better ROM at the operative level. However, no significant differences were observed in blood loss, NDI scores, neck and arm pain scores, JOA scores, secondary surgery procedures and adverse events between the two groups. Additionally, more studies of high quality with mid- to long-term follow-up are required in future.

  7. Degenerative Changes of the Spine of Pilots of the RNLAF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    views of the spine taken in standing 7-3 Table 2 Classification of disorders Disorder Levels General: Osteo-arthrosis / Spondylosis / Arthrosis...Deformans Cervical, thoracic, lumbar Scoliosis Cervical, thoracic, lumbar Abnormal alignment Cervical, lumbar Scheuermann’s disease / Enchondrosis Thoracic... lumbar Specific: Degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc / Discopathy Cervical, thoracic, lumbar Presence of Osteophyte’s / Osteophytic

  8. Psychometric properties of the Polish language version of the chronic pain coping inventory-42 for patients treated surgically due to herniated lumbar discs and spondylotic changes.

    PubMed

    Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Głowacki, Maciej

    2014-05-14

    The development of a pain-management program tailored to the specific needs of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) requires the proper assessment of psychosocial factors affecting each individual. The Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (CPCI-42) refers to coping strategies, which are commonly defined as the cognitive and behavioral techniques an individual may resort to in stressful or demanding situations. Evidence from a number of sources suggests that differences in pain coping strategies may significantly affect how an individual deals with chronic pain. We aimed to adapt the CPCI-42 to Polish cultural conditions (PL-CPCI-42) and then verify its psychometric properties based on a group of patients treated surgically due to herniated lumbar discs and coexisting spondylotic changes. The average age of the study participants (n=90) was 43.47 years (SD 10.21). The average duration of chronic low back pain (CLBP) was 49.37 months (SD 64.71). Lumbosacral spine X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed and all patients completed the PL-CPCI-42 and the Polish versions of the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS-PL) twice. Internal consistency of the PL-CPCI-42, floor and ceiling effects, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity were analyzed. Resting, guarding, and coping self-statements were frequently used as coping strategies both in the test and in the retest, in contrast to relaxation and exercise/stretch. The NPRS-PL result was 5.70 cm in the test and 5.66 in the retest. Cronbach's alpha values were recorded for the asking for assistance, coping self-statements, and seeking social support domains (0.83, 0.80, 0.83, respectively). Test-retest reliability of the PL-CPCI-42 varied from 0.53 (relaxation domain) to 0.84 (asking for assistance and coping self-statements domains). The present study provides evidence of the validity of the PL-CPCI-42 and supports its usefulness in assessing chronic pain coping strategies, which are especially

  9. Effect of Lumbar Disc Degeneration and Low-Back Pain on the Lumbar Lordosis in Supine and Standing: A Cross-Sectional MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Bendix, Tom; Grindsted, Jacob; Bliddal, Henning; Christensen, Robin; Hansen, Philip; Riis, Robert G C; Boesen, Mikael

    2015-11-01

    Cross-sectional study. To examine the influence of low-back pain (LBP) and lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) on the lumbar lordosis in weight-bearing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). The lumbar lordosis increases with a change of position from supine to standing and is known as an essential contributor to dynamic changes. However, the lordosis may be affected by disc degeneration and pain. Patients with LBP >40 on a 0 to 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) both during activity and rest and a sex and age-decade matching control group without LBP were scanned in the supine and standing position in a 0.25-T open MRI unit. LDD was graded using Pfirrmann's grading-scale. Subsequently, the L2-to-S1 lumbar lordosis angle (LA) was measured. Thirty-eight patients with an average VAS of 58 (±13.8) mm during rest and 75 (±5.0) mm during activities, and 38 healthy controls were included. MRI findings were common in both groups, whereas, the summation of the Pfirrmann's grades (LDD-score) was significantly higher in the patients [(MD 1.44; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.80 to 2.10; P < 0.001]. The patients were less lordotic than the controls in both the supine (MD -6.4°; 95% CI -11.4 to -1.3), and standing position (MD -5.6°; 95% CI -10.7 to -0.7); however, the changes between the positions (ΔLA) were the same (MD 0.8°; 95% CI -1.8 to 3.3). Using generalized linear model the LDD-score was associated with age (P < 0.001) for both groups. The LDD-score and ΔLA were negatively associated in the control group (P < 0.001), also after adjustments for gender and age (β-coefficient: -2.66; 95% CI -4.3 to -1.0; P = 0.002). Patients may be less lordotic in both the supine and standing position, whereas, change in the lordosis between the positions may be independent of pain. Decreasing lordosis change seems to be associated with age-related increasing disc degeneration in healthy individuals. 2.

  10. Effects of Artcure Diffusional Patch application on pain and functional status in lumbar disc herniation patients: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Mahmut; Aksekili, Mehmet Atıf Erol; Alkan, Berat Meryem; Kara, Halil; Çağlar, Ceyhun

    2017-06-12

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Artcure Diffusional Patch, which contains a mixture of 6 herbal oils (oleum thymi, oleum limonis, oleum nigra, oleum rosmarini, oleum chamomilla, oleum lauriexpressum) and has a hypoosmolar lipid structure, in the conservative treatment of lumbar disc herniation patients and to show the advantages and/or possibility of using this as an alternative method to surgery. Of the 120 patients enrolled, 79 clinically diagnosed patients were included in the study. Clinical evaluations were performed on patients who had findings of protrusion or extrusion in their magnetic resonance results. The treatment group was treated with the Artcure Diffusional Patch while the control group received a placebo transdermal diffusional patch. The functional state of patients was measured using the Oswestry Disability Index and pain intensity was measured with a visual analog scale as primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes of the study were Lasegue's sign, the femoral stretching test, and paravertebral muscle spasm. The treatment group showed a dramatic recovery in the first month following the application in regards to Oswestry Disability Index scores and visual analog scale values. The patients treated with the Artcure Diffusional Patch showed a statistically significant difference in recovery as compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the Artcure Diffusional Patch may be an alternative for the conservative treatment of lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy.

  11. Kinematic relationship between missed ligamentum flavum bulge and degenerative factors in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guibin; Buser, Zorica; Lao, Lifeng; Yin, Ruofeng; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-01

    Bulging of ligamentum flavum can happen with the aging process and can lead to compression of the spinal cord and nerves. However, the distribution and the risk factors associated with a missed ligamentum flavum bulge (LFB) are unknown. The aim was to evaluate the distribution and risk factors associated with missed LFB in the cervical spine. This was a retrospective analysis of kinematic magnetic resonance images (kMRI). Patients diagnosed with symptomatic neck pain or radiculopathy between March 2011 and October 2012 were included. The outcome measures were missed LFB and degenerative factors. A total of 200 patients (1,000 cervical segments) underwent upright kMRI in neutral, flexion, and extension postures. The LFB, sagittal cervical angles, disc herniation, disc degeneration, disc height, angular motion, translational motion, age, and gender were recorded. After excluding segments with LFB in neutral and flexion position, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relation between the risk factors and missed LFB in the extension position. The average depth of LFB was 0.24±0.71 mm at C2-C3, 1.02±1.42 mm at C3-C4, 1.65±1.48 mm at C4-C5, 2.13±1.37 mm at C5-C6, and 1.05±1.54 mm at C6-C7. The distribution of LFB was the most frequent at C5-C6 level (76.58%) followed by C4-C5 (63.06%). Disc herniation, disc degeneration, angular variation, and translational motion were significantly correlated with missed LFB at C4-C5 andC5-C6. Disc degeneration was the only factor significantly correlated with missed LFB at all cervical segments. Occurrence and depth of missed LFB was the highest at C4-C5 and C5-C6 compared with other cervical levels. Disc degeneration, disc herniation, angular variation, and translational motion could play a role in the development of LFB at C4-C5 andC5-C6. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Review and retrospective analysis of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in 156 dogs treated by dorsal laminectomy.

    PubMed

    Suwankong, N; Meij, B P; Voorhout, G; de Boer, A H; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2008-01-01

    The medical records of 156 dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLS) that underwent decompressive surgery were reviewed for signalment, history, clinical signs, imaging and surgical findings. The German Shepherd Dog (GSD) was most commonly affected (40/156, 25.6%). Pelvic limb lameness, caudal lumbar pain and pain evoked by lumbosacral pressure were the most frequent clinical findings. Radiography showed lumbosacral step formation in 78.8% (93/118) of the dogs which was associated with elongation of the sacral lamina in 18.6% (22/118). Compression of the cauda equina was diagnosed by imaging (epidurography, CT, or MRI) in 94.2% (147/156) of the dogs. Loss of the bright nucleus pulposus signal of the L7-S1 disc was found on T2-weighted MR images in 73.5% (25/34) of the dogs. The facet joint angle at L7-S1 was significantly smaller, and the tropism greater in GSD than in the other dog breeds. The smaller facet joint angle and higher incidence of tropism seen in the GSD may predispose this breed to DLS. Epidurography, CT, and MRI allow adequate visualization of cauda equina compression. During surgery, disc protrusion was found in 70.5% (110/156) of the dogs. Overall improvement after surgery was recorded in the medical records in 79.0% (83/105) of the dogs. Of the 38 owners that responded to questionnaires up to five years after surgery, 29 (76%) perceived an improvement.

  13. Effect of total lumbar disc replacement on lumbosacral lordosis.

    PubMed

    Kasliwal, Manish K; Deutsch, Harel

    2012-10-01

    Original article : To study effect of lumbar disc replacement on lumbosacral lordosis. There has been a growing interest in total disc replacement (TDR) for back pain with the rising concern of adjacent segment degeneration. Lumbar fusion surgery has been shown to lead to decrease in lumbar lordosis, which may account for postfusion pain resulting in less acceptable clinical outcome after successful fusion. TDR has recently emerged as an alternative treatment for back pain. There have been very few studies reporting lumbar sagittal outcome after TDR. Retrospective study of radiographic data of 17 patients who underwent TDR for single level degenerative disc disease at the author's institution was carried out. Study included measurement of preoperative and postoperative segmental and global lumbar lordosis and angle of lordosis. Patients age varied from 19 to 54 (mean, 35) years. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 24 months. TDR was performed at L4-5 level in 3 patients and L5-S1 level in 14 patients. The average values for segmental lordosis, global lordosis, and angle of lordosis at the operated level before and after surgery were 17.3, 49.7, and 8.6 degrees and 21.6, 54, and 9.5 degrees, respectively. There was a trend toward significant (P=0.02) and near significant (P=0.057) increase in segmental and global lordosis, respectively after TDR. Although prosthesis increased angle of lordosis at the level implanted in majority of the patients, the difference in preoperative and postoperative angle of lordosis was not significant (P=0.438). In addition, there was no correlation between the angle of implant of chosen and postoperative angle of lordosis at the operated level. The effect of TDR on sagittal balance appears favorable with an increase in global and segmental lumbar lordosis after single level TDR for degenerative disc disease. The degree of postoperative angle of lordosis was not affected by the angle of implant chosen at the operated level and varied

  14. Hybrid Surgery Combined with Dynamic Stabilization System and Fusion for the Multilevel Degenerative Disease of the Lumbosacral Spine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Eon; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun Jib

    2015-01-01

    As motion-preserving technique has been developed, the concept of hybrid surgery involves simultaneous application of two different kinds of devices, dynamic stabilization system and fusion technique. In the present study, the application of hybrid surgery for lumbosacral degenerative disease involving two-segments and its long-term outcome were investigated. Fifteen patients with hybrid surgery (Hybrid group) and 10 patients with two-segment fusion (Fusion group) were retrospectively compared. Preoperative grade for disc degeneration was not different between the two groups, and the most common operated segment had the most degenerated disc grade in both groups; L4-5 and L5-S1 in the Hybrid group, and L3-4 and L4-5 in Fusion group. Over 48 months of follow-up, lumbar lordosis and range of motion (ROM) at the T12-S1 global segment were preserved in the Hybrid group, and the segmental ROM at the dynamic stabilized segment maintained at final follow-up. The Fusion group had a significantly decreased global ROM and a decreased segmental ROM with larger angles compared to the Hybrid group. Defining a 2-mm decrease in posterior disc height (PDH) as radiologic adjacent segment pathology (ASP), these changes were observed in 6 and 7 patients in the Hybrid and Fusion group, respectively. However, the last PDH at the above adjacent segment had statistically higher value in Hybrid group. Pain score for back and legs was much reduced in both groups. Functional outcome measured by Oswestry disability index (ODI), however, had better improvement in Hybrid group. Hybrid surgery, combined dynamic stabilization system and fusion, can be effective surgical treatment for multilevel degenerative lumbosacral spinal disease, maintaining lumbar motion and delaying disc degeneration.

  15. Hybrid Surgery Combined with Dynamic Stabilization System and Fusion for the Multilevel Degenerative Disease of the Lumbosacral Spine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Eon; Kim, Hyun Jib

    2015-01-01

    Background As motion-preserving technique has been developed, the concept of hybrid surgery involves simultaneous application of two different kinds of devices, dynamic stabilization system and fusion technique. In the present study, the application of hybrid surgery for lumbosacral degenerative disease involving two-segments and its long-term outcome were investigated. Methods Fifteen patients with hybrid surgery (Hybrid group) and 10 patients with two-segment fusion (Fusion group) were retrospectively compared. Results Preoperative grade for disc degeneration was not different between the two groups, and the most common operated segment had the most degenerated disc grade in both groups; L4-5 and L5-S1 in the Hybrid group, and L3-4 and L4-5 in Fusion group. Over 48 months of follow-up, lumbar lordosis and range of motion (ROM) at the T12-S1 global segment were preserved in the Hybrid group, and the segmental ROM at the dynamic stabilized segment maintained at final follow-up. The Fusion group had a significantly decreased global ROM and a decreased segmental ROM with larger angles compared to the Hybrid group. Defining a 2-mm decrease in posterior disc height (PDH) as radiologic adjacent segment pathology (ASP), these changes were observed in 6 and 7 patients in the Hybrid and Fusion group, respectively. However, the last PDH at the above adjacent segment had statistically higher value in Hybrid group. Pain score for back and legs was much reduced in both groups. Functional outcome measured by Oswestry disability index (ODI), however, had better improvement in Hybrid group. Conclusion Hybrid surgery, combined dynamic stabilization system and fusion, can be effective surgical treatment for multilevel degenerative lumbosacral spinal disease, maintaining lumbar motion and delaying disc degeneration. PMID:26484008

  16. Determination of the intervertebral disc space from CT images of the lumbar spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korez, Robert; Å tern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2014-03-01

    Degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc are among the most common causes of low back pain, where for individuals with significant symptoms surgery may be needed. One of the interventions is the total disc replacement surgery, where the degenerated disc is replaced by an artificial implant. For designing implants with good bone contact and continuous force distribution, the morphology of the intervertebral disc space and vertebral body endplates is of considerable importance. In this study we propose a method for the determination of the intervertebral disc space from three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images of the lumbar spine. The first step of the proposed method is the construction of a model of vertebral bodies in the lumbar spine. For this purpose, a chain of five elliptical cylinders is initialized in the 3D image and then deformed to resemble vertebral bodies by introducing 25 shape parameters. The parameters are obtained by aligning the chain to the vertebral bodies in the CT image according to image intensity and appearance information. The determination of the intervertebral disc space is finally achieved by finding the planes that fit the endplates of the obtained parametric 3D models, and placing points in the space between the planes of adjacent vertebrae that enable surface reconstruction of the intervertebral disc space. The morphometric analysis of images from 20 subjects yielded 11:3 +/- 2:6, 12:1 +/- 2:4, 12:8 +/- 2:0 and 12:9 +/- 2:7 cm3 in terms of L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5 intervertebral disc space volume, respectively.

  17. Are animal models useful for studying human disc disorders/degeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, Stephen M.; Ito, Keita; Little, Christopher; Kettler, A. Annette; Masuda, Koichi; Melrose, James; Ralphs, Jim; Stokes, Ian; Wilke, Hans Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is an often investigated pathophysiological condition because of its implication in causing low back pain. As human material for such studies is difficult to obtain because of ethical and government regulatory restriction, animal tissue, organs and in vivo models have often been used for this purpose. However, there are many differences in cell population, tissue composition, disc and spine anatomy, development, physiology and mechanical properties, between animal species and human. Both naturally occurring and induced degenerative changes may differ significantly from those seen in humans. This paper reviews the many animal models developed for the study of IVD degeneration aetiopathogenesis and treatments thereof. In particular, the limitations and relevance of these models to the human condition are examined, and some general consensus guidelines are presented. Although animal models are invaluable to increase our understanding of disc biology, because of the differences between species, care must be taken when used to study human disc degeneration and much more effort is needed to facilitate research on human disc material. PMID:17632738

  18. Factors affecting disability and physical function in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis of L4-5: evaluation with axially loaded MRI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Lin, Ruey-Mo; Lee, Yung-Ling; Li, Jenq-Daw

    2009-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the factors related to the disability and physical function in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis using axially loaded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of axial loading on the morphology of the spine and the spinal canal in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis of L4-5 and to correlate morphologic changes to their disability and physical functions. From March 2003 to January 2004, 32 consecutive cases (26 females, 6 males) with degenerative L4-5 spondylolisthesis, grade 1-2, intermittent claudication, and low back pain without sciatica were included in this study. All patients underwent unloaded and axially loaded MRI of the lumbo-sacral spine in supine position to elucidate the morphological findings and to measure the parameters of MRI, including disc height (DH), sagittal translation (ST), segmental angulation (SA), dural sac cross-sectional area (DCSA) at L4-5, and lumbar lordotic angles (LLA) at L1-5 between the unloaded and axially loaded condition. Each patient's disability was evaluated by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire, and physical functioning (PF) was evaluated by the Physical Function scale proposed by Stucki et al. (Spine 21:796-803, 1996). Three patients were excluded due to the presence of neurologic symptoms found with the axially loaded MRI. Finally, a total of 29 (5 males, 24 females) consecutive patients were included in this study. Comparisons and correlations were done to determine which parameters were critical to the patient's disability and PF. The morphologies of the lumbar spine changed after axially loaded MRI. In six of our patients, we observed adjacent segment degeneration (4 L3-L4 and 2 L5-S1) coexisting with degenerative spondylolisthesis of L4-L5 under axially loaded MRI. The mean values of the SA under pre-load and post-load were 7.14 degrees and 5.90 degrees at L4-L5 (listhetic level), respectively. The mean values of the LLA

  19. CT morphometry of adult thoracic intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Justin G R; Stringer, Mark D; Briggs, Christopher A; Davies, Tilman M; Woodley, Stephanie J

    2015-10-01

    Despite being commonly affected by degenerative disorders, there are few data on normal thoracic intervertebral disc dimensions. A morphometric analysis of adult thoracic intervertebral discs was, therefore, undertaken. Archival computed tomography scans of 128 recently deceased individuals (70 males, 58 females, 20-79 years) with no known spinal pathology were analysed to determine thoracic disc morphometry and variations with disc level, sex and age. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Anterior and posterior intervertebral disc heights and axial dimensions were significantly greater in men (anterior disc height 4.0±1.4 vs 3.6±1.3 mm; posterior disc height 3.6±0.90 vs 3.4±0.93 mm; p<0.01). Disc heights and axial dimensions at T4-5 were similar or smaller than at T2-3, but thereafter increased caudally (mean anterior disc height T4-5 and T10-11, 2.7±0.7 and 5.4±1.2 mm, respectively, in men; 2.6±0.8 and 5.1±1.3 mm, respectively, in women; p<0.05). Except at T2-3, anterior disc height decreased with advancing age and anteroposterior and transverse disc dimensions increased; posterior and middle disc heights and indices of disc shape showed no consistent statistically significant changes. Most parameters showed substantial to almost perfect agreement for intra- and inter-rater reliability. Thoracic disc morphometry varies significantly and consistently with disc level, sex and age. This study provides unique reference data on adult thoracic intervertebral disc morphometry, which may be useful when interpreting pathological changes and for future biomechanical and functional studies.

  20. The nerve supply of the lumbar intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Edgar, M A

    2007-09-01

    The anatomical studies, basic to our understanding of lumbar spine innervation through the sinu-vertebral nerves, are reviewed. Research in the 1980s suggested that pain sensation was conducted in part via the sympathetic system. These sensory pathways have now been clarified using sophisticated experimental and histochemical techniques confirming a dual pattern. One route enters the adjacent dorsal root segmentally, whereas the other supply is non-segmental ascending through the paravertebral sympathetic chain with re-entry through the thoracolumbar white rami communicantes. Sensory nerve endings in the degenerative lumbar disc penetrate deep into the disrupted nucleus pulposus, insensitive in the normal lumbar spine. Complex as well as free nerve endings would appear to contribute to pain transmission. The nature and mechanism of discogenic pain is still speculative but there is growing evidence to support a 'visceral pain' hypothesis, unique in the muscloskeletal system. This mechanism is open to 'peripheral sensitisation' and possibly 'central sensitisation' as a potential cause of chronic back pain.

  1. [Degenerative rupture of the hip abductors. Missed diagnosis with therapy-resistant trochanteric pain of the hips and positive Trendelenburg sign in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Aepli-Schneider, N; Treumann, T; Müller, U; Schmid, L

    2012-01-01

    The cases of four elderly patients with persistent trochanteric pain and tears of the gluteus medius and/or gluteus minimus tendons detected in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are presented. There was no history of local trauma in any patient but three patients had a positive Trendelenburg sign. Magnetic resonance imaging showed either an obvious discontinuity of the affected tendon or an increased T2 signal above, or less specifically lateral to the greater trochanter. The presence of an elongated tendon on MRI is most likely indicative of a partial rupture of the tendon. Pain and local tenderness over the lateral aspect of the hip in clinical examination is commonly attributed to trochanteric bursitis or trochanteric pain syndrome. Partial or complete tears of the gluteus medius and/or gluteus minimus tendons are thought to represent an unusual finding. However, the true incidence and the clinical significance of hip abductor degeneration and rupture remain to be determined. More studies are needed to examine the prevalence of ruptures in asymptomatic patients, to evaluate the subsequent risk for developing osteoarthritis of the hip (caused by impaired protective reflexes originating from proprioceptive nerve endings in muscle spindles) and to determine the risk for falls related to weakness of hip abduction. Furthermore, no data exist regarding the success rate of conservative treatment. Tears of the gluteus medius and minimus tendons in the elderly population are likely to be a more common cause of pain in the greater trochanteric region than previously thought. In patients who do not respond to conservative treatment, weakness of hip abduction (positive Trendelenburg sign) and new limping should point to the possibility of hip abductor ruptures. The most useful examination technique for diagnosis is MRI.

  2. Total disc replacement using a tissue-engineered intervertebral disc in vivo: new animal model and initial results

    PubMed Central

    Gebhard, Harry; Bowles, Robby; Dyke, Jonathan; Saleh, Tatianna; Doty, Stephen; Bonassar, Lawrence; Härtl, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Study type: Basic science Introduction: Chronic back pain due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is among the most important medical conditions causing morbidity and significant health care costs. Surgical treatment options include disc replacement or fusion surgery, but are associated with significant short- and long-term risks.1 Biological tissue-engineering of human intervertebral discs (IVD) could offer an important alternative.2 Recent in vitro data from our group have shown successful engineering and growth of ovine intervertebral disc composites with circumferentially aligned collagen fibrils in the annulus fibrosus (AF) (Figure 1).3 Figure 1 Tissue-engineered composite disc a Experimental steps to generate composite tissue-engineered IVDs3 b Example of different AF formulations on collagen alignment in the AF. Second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence images of seeded collagen gels (for AF) of 1 and 2.5 mg/ml over time. At seeding, cells and collagen were homogenously distributed in the gels. Over time, AF cells elongated and collagen aligned parallel to cells. Less contraction and less alignment is noted after 3 days in the 2.5 mg/mL gel. c Imaging-based creation of a virtual disc model that will serve as template for the engineered disc. Total disc dimensions (AF and NP) were retrieved from micro-computer tomography (CT) (left images), and nucleus pulposus (NP) dimensions alone were retrieved from T2-weighted MRI images (right images). Merging of MRI and micro-CT models revealed a composite disc model (middle image)—Software: Microview, GE Healthcare Inc., Princeton, NJ; and slicOmatic v4.3, TomoVision, Montreal, Canada. d Flow chart describing the process for generating multi-lamellar tissue engineered IVDs. IVDs are produced by allowing cell-seeded collagen layers to contract around a cell-seeded alginate core (NP) over time Objective: The next step is to investigate if biological disc implants survive, integrate, and

  3. Total disc replacement using a tissue-engineered intervertebral disc in vivo: new animal model and initial results.

    PubMed

    Gebhard, Harry; Bowles, Robby; Dyke, Jonathan; Saleh, Tatianna; Doty, Stephen; Bonassar, Lawrence; Härtl, Roger

    2010-08-01

     Basic science Introduction:  Chronic back pain due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is among the most important medical conditions causing morbidity and significant health care costs. Surgical treatment options include disc replacement or fusion surgery, but are associated with significant short- and long-term risks.1 Biological tissue-engineering of human intervertebral discs (IVD) could offer an important alternative.2 Recent in vitro data from our group have shown successful engineering and growth of ovine intervertebral disc composites with circumferentially aligned collagen fibrils in the annulus fibrosus (AF) (Figure 1).3 Figure 1 Tissue-engineered composite disc a Experimental steps to generate composite tissue-engineered IVDs3b Example of different AF formulations on collagen alignment in the AF. Second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence images of seeded collagen gels (for AF) of 1 and 2.5 mg/ml over time. At seeding, cells and collagen were homogenously distributed in the gels. Over time, AF cells elongated and collagen aligned parallel to cells. Less contraction and less alignment is noted after 3 days in the 2.5 mg/mL gel. c Imaging-based creation of a virtual disc model that will serve as template for the engineered disc. Total disc dimensions (AF and NP) were retrieved from micro-computer tomography (CT) (left images), and nucleus pulposus (NP) dimensions alone were retrieved from T2-weighted MRI images (right images). Merging of MRI and micro-CT models revealed a composite disc model (middle image)-Software: Microview, GE Healthcare Inc., Princeton, NJ; and slicOmatic v4.3, TomoVision, Montreal, Canada. d Flow chart describing the process for generating multi-lamellar tissue engineered IVDs. IVDs are produced by allowing cell-seeded collagen layers to contract around a cell-seeded alginate core (NP) over time Objective:  The next step is to investigate if biological disc implants survive, integrate, and restore function

  4. Degenerative changes of the canine cervical spine after discectomy procedures, an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Peter; Moriguchi, Yu; Grossbard, Brian P; Ricart Arbona, Rodolfo J; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Härtl, Roger

    2017-06-23

    Discectomies are a common surgical treatment for disc herniations in the canine spine. However, the effect of these procedures on intervertebral disc tissue is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to assess degenerative changes of cervical spinal segments undergoing discectomy procedures, in vivo. Discectomies led to a 60% drop in disc height and 24% drop in foraminal height. Segments did not fuse but showed osteophyte formation as well as endplate sclerosis. MR imaging revealed terminal degenerative changes with collapse of the disc space and loss of T2 signal intensity. The endplates showed degenerative type II Modic changes. Quantitative MR imaging revealed that over 95% of Nucleus Pulposus tissue was extracted and that the nuclear as well as overall disc hydration significantly decreased. Histology confirmed terminal degenerative changes with loss of NP tissue, loss of Annulus Fibrosus organization and loss of cartilage endplate tissue. The bony endplate displayed sclerotic changes. Discectomies lead to terminal degenerative changes. Therefore, these procedures should be indicated with caution specifically when performed for prophylactic purposes.

  5. Visuo-proprioceptive interactions in degenerative cervical spine diseases requiring surgery.

    PubMed

    Freppel, S; Bisdorff, A; Colnat-Coulbois, S; Ceyte, H; Cian, C; Gauchard, G; Auque, J; Perrin, P

    2013-01-01

    Cervical proprioception plays a key role in postural control, but its specific contribution is controversial. Postural impairment was shown in whiplash injuries without demonstrating the sole involvement of the cervical spine. The consequences of degenerative cervical spine diseases are underreported in posture-related scientific literature in spite of their high prevalence. No report has focused on the two different mechanisms underlying cervicobrachial pain: herniated discs and spondylosis. This study aimed to evaluate postural control of two groups of patients with degenerative cervical spine diseases with or without optokinetic stimulation before and after surgical treatment. Seventeen patients with radiculopathy were recruited and divided into two groups according to the spondylotic or discal origin of the nerve compression. All patients and a control population of 31 healthy individuals underwent a static posturographic test with 12 recordings; the first four recordings with the head in 0° position: eyes closed, eyes open without optokinetic stimulation, with clockwise and counter clockwise optokinetic stimulations. These four sensorial situations were repeated with the head rotated 30° to the left and to the right. Patients repeated these 12 recordings 6weeks postoperatively. None of the patients reported vertigo or balance disorders before or after surgery. Prior to surgery, in the eyes closed condition, the herniated disc group was more stable than the spondylosis group. After surgery, the contribution of visual input to postural control in a dynamic visual environment was reduced in both cervical spine diseases whereas in a stable visual environment visual contribution was reduced only in the spondylosis group. The relative importance of visual and proprioceptive inputs to postural control varies according to the type of pathology and surgery tends to reduce visual contribution mostly in the spondylosis group. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by

  6. Cervical arthroplasty for moderate to severe disc degeneration: clinical and radiological assessments after a minimum follow-up of 18 months--Pfirrmann grade and cervical arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Kim, Do Yeon; Ji, Gyu Yeul; Kim, Yeo Ju; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Hyun, Dongkeun; Kim, Eun Young; Park, Hyeonseon; Park, Hyeong-Chun

    2014-07-01

    Clinical outcomes and radiologic results after cervical arthroplasty have been reported in many articles, yet relatively few studies after cervical arthroplasty have been conducted in severe degenerative cervical disc disease. Sixty patients who underwent cervical arthroplasty (Mobi-C®) between April 2006 and November 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 18 months were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to Pfirrmann classification on preoperative cervical MR images: group A (Pfirrmann disc grade III, n=38) and group B (Pfirrmann disc grades IV or V, n=22). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of neck and arm pain, modified Oswestry Disability Index (mODI) score, and radiological results including cervical range of motion (ROM) were assessed before and after surgery. VAS and mean mODI scores decreased after surgery from 5.1 and 57.6 to 2.7 and 31.5 in group A and from 6.1 and 59.9 to 3.7 and 38.4 in group B, respectively. In both groups, VAS and mODI scores significantly improved postoperatively (p<0.001), although no significant intergroup differences were found. Also, cervical dynamic ROM was preserved or gradually improved up to 18 months after cervical arthroplasty in both groups. Global, segmental and adjacent ROM was similar for both groups during follow-up. No cases of device subsidence or extrusion were recorded. Clinical and radiological results following cervical arthroplasty in patients with severe degenerative cervical disc disease were no different from those in patients with mild degenerative cervical disc disease after 18 months of follow-up.

  7. PREPARE: Pre-surgery physiotherapy for patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Lindbäck, Yvonne; Tropp, Hans; Enthoven, Paul; Abbott, Allan; Öberg, Birgitta

    2016-07-11

    Current guidelines for the management of patients with specific low back pain pathology suggest non-surgical intervention as first-line treatment, but there is insufficient evidence to make recommendations of the content in the non-surgical intervention. Opinions regarding the dose of non-surgical intervention that should be trialled prior to decision making about surgery intervention vary. The aim of the present study is to investigate if physiotherapy administrated before surgery improves function, pain and health in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder scheduled for surgery. The patients are followed over two years. A secondary aim is to study what factors predict short and long term outcomes. This study is a single blinded, 2-arm, randomized controlled trial with follow-up after the completion of pre-surgery intervention as well as 3, 12 and 24 months post-surgery. The study will recruit men and women, 25 to 80 years of age, scheduled for surgery due to; disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease. A total of 202 patients will be randomly allocated to a pre-surgery physiotherapy intervention or a waiting list group for 9 weeks. The waiting-list group will receive standardized information about surgery, post-surgical rehabilitation and advice to stay active. The pre-surgery physiotherapy group will receive physiotherapy 2 times per week, consisting of a stratified classification treatment, based on assessment findings. One of the following treatments will be selected; a) Specific exercises and mobilization, b) Motor control exercises or c) Traction. The pre-surgery physiotherapy group will also be prescribed a tailor-made general supervised exercise program. The physiotherapist will use a behavioral approach aimed at reducing patient fear avoidance and increasing activity levels. They will also receive standardized information about surgery, post-surgical rehabilitation and advice to stay active. Primary

  8. Comparative charge analysis of one- and two-level lumbar total disc arthroplasty versus circumferential lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Levin, David A; Bendo, John A; Quirno, Martin; Errico, Thomas; Goldstein, Jeffrey; Spivak, Jeffrey

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective, independent study comparing 2 groups of patients treated surgically for discogenic low back pain associated with degenerative disc disease (DDD) in the lumbosacral spine. To compare the surgical and hospitalization charges associated with 1- and 2-level lumbar total disc replacement and circumferential lumbar fusion. Reported series of lumbar total disc replacement have been favorable. However, economic aspects of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) have not been published or studied. This information is important considering the recent widespread utilization of new technologies. Recent studies have demonstrated comparable short-term clinical results between TDR and lumbar fusion recipients. Relative charges may be another important indicator of the most appropriate procedure. We report a hospital charge-analysis comparing ProDisc lumbar disc replacement with circumferential fusion for discogenic low back pain. In a cohort of 53 prospectively selected patients with severe, disabling back pain and lumbar disc degeneration, 36 received Synthes ProDisc TDR and 17 underwent circumferential fusion for 1- and 2-level degenerative disc disease between L3 and S1. Randomization was performed using a 2-to-1 ratio of ProDisc recipients to control spinal fusion recipients. Charge comparisons, including operating room charges, inpatient hospital charges, and implant charges, were made from hospital records using inflation-corrected 2006 U.S. dollars. Operating room times, estimated blood loss, and length of stay were obtained from hospital records as well. Surgeon and anesthesiologist fees were, for the purposes of comparison, based on Medicare reimbursement rates. Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-tailed Student t test. For patients with 1-level disease, significant differences were noted between the TDR and fusion control group. The mean total charge for the TDR group was $35,592 versus $46,280 for the fusion group (P = 0.0018). Operating

  9. Optical methods for diagnostics and feedback control in laser-induced regeneration of spine disc and joint cartilages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, Emil; Sviridov, Alexander; Omeltchenko, Alexander; Baum, Olga; Baskov, Andrey; Borchshenko, Igor; Golubev, Vladimir; Baskov, Vladimir

    2011-03-01

    In 1999 we have introduced a new approach for treatment of spine diseases based on the mechanical effect of nondestructive laser radiation on the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. Laser reconstruction of spine discs (LRD) involves puncture of the disc and non-destructive laser irradiation of the nucleus pulposus to activate reparative processes in the disc tissues. In vivo animal study has shown that LRD allows activate the growth of hyaline type cartilage in laser affected zone. The paper considers physical processes and mechanisms of laser regeneration, presents results of investigations aimed to optimize laser settings and to develop feedback control system for laser reparation in cartilages of spine and joints. The results of laser reconstruction of intervertebral discs for 510 patients have shown substantial relief of back pain for 90% of patients. Laser technology has been experimentally tested for reparation of traumatic and degenerative diseases in joint cartilage of 20 minipigs. It is shown that laser regeneration of cartilage allows feeling large (more than 5 mm) defects which usually never repair on one's own. Optical techniques have been used to promote safety and efficacy of the laser procedures.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of total disc replacement versus multidisciplinary rehabilitation in patients with chronic low back pain: a Norwegian multicenter RCT.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Lars Gunnar; Hellum, Christian; Storheim, Kjersti; Nygaard, Øystein P; Brox, Jens Ivar; Rossvoll, Ivar; Rø, Magne; Andresen, Hege; Lydersen, Stian; Grundnes, Oliver; Pedersen, Marit; Leivseth, Gunnar; Olafsson, Gylfi; Borgström, Fredrik; Fritzell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Randomized clinical trial with 2-year follow-up. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of total disc replacement (TDR) versus multidisciplinary rehabilitation (MDR) in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). The existing studies on CLBP report cost-effectiveness of fusion surgery versus disc replacement and fusion versus rehabilitation. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of TDR versus MDR. Between April 2004 and May 2007, 173 patients with CLBP (>1 yr) were randomized to TDR (n = 86) or MDR (n = 87). Treatment effects (Euro Qol 5D [EQ-5D] and Short Form 6D [SF-6D]) and relevant direct and indirect costs at 6 weeks and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment were assessed. Gain in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) after 2 years was estimated. Cost-effectiveness was expressed as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The mean QALYs gained (standard deviation) using EQ-5D was 1.29 (0.53) in the TDR group and 0.95 (0.52) in the MDR group, a significant difference of 0.34 (95% confidence interval 0.18-0.50). The mean total cost per patient in the TDR group was &OV0556;87,622 (58,351) compared with &OV0556;74,116 (58,237) in the MDR group, which was not significantly different (95% confidence interval: -4041 to 31,755). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the TDR procedure varied from &OV0556;39,748 using EQ-5D (TDR cost-effective) to &OV0556;128,328 using SF-6D (TDR not cost-effective). The dropout rate was 20% (15% TDR group, 24% MDR group). Five patients moved from the MDR to the TDR group, whereas 9 patients randomized to TDR declined surgery. Using per-protocol analysis instead of intention-to-treat analysis indicated that TDR was not cost-effective, irrespective of the use of EQ-5D or SF-6D. In this study, TDR was cost-effective compared with MDR after 2 years when using EQ-5D for assessing QALYs gained and a willingness to pay of &OV0556;74,600 (kr500,000/QALY). TDR was not cost-effective when SF-6D was used; therefore, our results should

  11. Alterations in intervertebral disc composition, matrix homeostasis and biomechanical behavior in the UCD-T2DM rat model of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Aaron J.; Berg-Johansen, Britta; Metz, Lionel N.; Miller, Stephanie; La, Brandan; Liebenberg, Ellen C.; Coughlin, Dezba G.; Graham, James L.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.; Lotz, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) adversely affects many tissues, and the greater incidence of discogenic low back pain among diabetic patients suggests that the intervertebral disc is affected too. Using a rat model of polygenic obese T2D, we demonstrate that diabetes compromises several aspects of disc composition, matrix homeostasis and biomechanical behavior. Coccygeal motion segments were harvested from 6-month-old lean Sprague-Dawley rats, obese Sprague-Dawley rats, and diabetic obese UCD-T2DM rats (diabetic for 69 ± 7 days). Findings indicated that diabetes but not obesity reduced disc glycosaminoglycan and water contents, and these degenerative changes correlated with increased vertebral endplate thickness and decreased endplate porosity, and with higher levels of the advanced glycation end-product (AGE) pentosidine. Consistent with their diminished glycosaminoglycan and water contents and their higher AGE levels, discs from diabetic rats were stiffer and exhibited less creep when compressed. At the matrix level, elevated expression of hypoxia-inducible genes and catabolic markers in the discs from diabetic rats coincided with increased oxidative stress and greater interactions between AGEs and one of their receptors (RAGE). Taken together, these findings indicate that endplate sclerosis, increased oxidative stress and AGE/RAGE-mediated interactions could be important factors for explaining the greater incidence of disc pathology in T2D. PMID:25641259

  12. The role of rigid vs. dynamic instrumentation for stabilization of the degenerative lumbosacral spine.

    PubMed

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Papazisis, Zisis; Lambiris, Elias

    2002-01-01

    vertebrae. Rigid instrumentation increased the lordotic inclination of L5 (P=0.03) and of S1 (P=0.03). Rigid instrumentation increased (P=0.04) the intervertebral angulation at the uppermost instrumented level L3-L4 The most significant change in vertebral angulation was achieved at the instrumented level L4-L5 by the dynamic (P=0.007) and rigid (0.05). The disc index at the level L2-L3 was increased by both instrumentation [dynamic P=0.007 and rigid (P=0.02)]. The index L3-L4 was increased following dynamic fixation (P=0.0007). The disc index L4-L5 was postoperatively increased by both types of instrumentation (rigid P=0.006, dynamic P=0.02). The disc index L5-S1 did not significantly change postoperatively by either system. Both rigid and dynamic instrumentations restored lumbar lordosis, sacral tilt, distal lordosis and increased the foraminal diameter at the level L4-L5 resulting in an indirect decompression of the nerve roots at this level . Both rigid and dynamic instrumentations applied in the lumbosacral spine to treat degenerative disease secured L3 to S1 sagittal spine profile close to preoperative levels, that should theoretically guarantee a pain-free postoperative course. This study supports the belief that the dynamic system can be used with the same indications with the rigid in degenerative lumbar spine because it can offer equally good short-term results regarding sagittal spine alignment while simultaneously it has the previously mentioned advantages (avoidance stress shielding etc).

  13. Neck Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vomiting Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath ... worse or doesn’t get better. Start OverDiagnosisYour pain may be from DEGENERATIVE CERVICAL ARTHRITIS, a disorder that affects the bones and ...

  14. Posterior cervical fixation for fracture and degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    An, H S; Coppes, M A

    1997-02-01

    There are numerous newer techniques that have been developed for the internal fixation of the cervical spine in recent years. Wiring techniques are still appropriate for posterior stabilization of the cervical spine. The halo vest is still widely used for the conservative management of cervical fractures and for postoperative external immobilization. The authors stress that the surgical indications for more modern rigid implants should be adhered to strictly. These implants also should be selected by weighing their advantages versus potential risks. In the upper cervical spine, the surgeon may choose traditional wiring methods and newer C1-C2 screw fixation, occipitocervical plate fixation. For the lower cervical spine, triple wiring technique or lateral mass plating may be used. The surgeon must choose an appropriate device based on the mechanism of injury, pathoanatomy of the lesion, and familiarity with the device, keeping in mind that the goals of internal fixation are stabilization, reduction and maintenance of alignment, early rehabilitation and perhaps enhancement of fusion rates, and avoidance of use of an external halo vest.

  15. MRI features of cervical articular process degenerative joint disease in Great Dane dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Penderis, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylomyelopathy or Wobbler syndrome commonly affects the cervical vertebral column of Great Dane dogs. Degenerative changes affecting the articular process joints are a frequent finding in these patients; however, the correlation between these changes and other features of cervical spondylomyelopathy are uncertain. We described and graded the degenerative changes evident in the cervical articular process joints from 13 Great Danes dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy using MR imaging, and evaluated the relationship between individual features of cervical articular process joint degeneration and the presence of spinal cord compression, vertebral foraminal stenosis, intramedullary spinal cord changes, and intervertebral disc degenerative changes. Degenerative changes affecting the articular process joints were common, with only 13 of 94 (14%) having no degenerative changes. The most severe changes were evident between C4-C5 and C7-T1 intervertebral spaces. Reduction or loss of the hyperintense synovial fluid signal on T2-weighted MR images was the most frequent feature associated with articular process joint degenerative changes. Degenerative changes of the articular process joints affecting the synovial fluid or articular surface, or causing lateral hypertrophic tissue, were positively correlated with lateral spinal cord compression and vertebral foraminal stenosis. Dorsal hypertrophic tissue was positively correlated with dorsal spinal cord compression. Disc-associated spinal cord compression was recognized less frequently. © 2011 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  16. Degenerative meniscus: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Richard; Kumar, Neil S; Patel, Nimit; Tom, James

    2014-01-01

    The symptomatic degenerative meniscus continues to be a source of discomfort for a significant number of patients. With vascular penetration of less than one-third of the adult meniscus, healing potential in the setting of chronic degeneration remains low. Continued hoop and shear stresses upon the degenerative meniscus results in gross failure, often in the form of complex tears in the posterior horn and midbody. Patient history and physical examination are critical to determine the true source of pain, particularly with the significant incidence of simultaneous articular pathology. Joint line tenderness, a positive McMurray test, and mechanical catching or locking can be highly suggestive of a meniscal source of knee pain and dysfunction. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging are frequently utilized to examine for osteoarthritis and to verify the presence of meniscal tears, in addition to ruling out other sources of pain. Non-operative therapy focused on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy may be able to provide pain relief as well as improve mechanical function of the knee joint. For patients refractory to conservative therapy, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy can provide short-term gains regarding pain relief, especially when combined with an effective, regular physiotherapy program. Patients with clear mechanical symptoms and meniscal pathology may benefit from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, but surgery is not a guaranteed success, especially with concomitant articular pathology. Ultimately, the long-term outcomes of either treatment arm provide similar results for most patients. Further study is needed regarding the short and long-term outcomes regarding conservative and surgical therapy, with a particular focus on the economic impact of treatment as well. PMID:25405088

  17. Cervical degenerative disease: systematic review of economic analyses.

    PubMed

    Alvin, Matthew D; Qureshi, Sheeraz; Klineberg, Eric; Riew, K Daniel; Fischer, Dena J; Norvell, Daniel C; Mroz, Thomas E

    2014-10-15

    Systematic review. To perform an evidence-based synthesis of the literature assessing the cost-effectiveness of surgery for patients with symptomatic cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD). Cervical DDD is a common cause of clinical syndromes such as neck pain, cervical radiculopathy, and myelopathy. The appropriate surgical intervention(s) for a given problem is controversial, especially with regard to quality-of-life outcomes, complications, and costs. Although there have been many studies comparing outcomes and complications, relatively few have compared costs and, more importantly, cost-effectiveness of the interventions. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration Library, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis registry database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database for full economic evaluations published through January 16, 2014. Identification of full economic evaluations that were explicitly designed to evaluate and synthesize the costs and consequences of surgical procedures or surgical intervention with nonsurgical management in patients with cervical DDD were considered for inclusion, based on 4 key questions. Five studies were included, each specific to 1 or more of our focus questions. Two studies suggested that cervical disc replacement may be more cost-effective compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Two studies comparing anterior with posterior surgical procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy suggested that anterior surgery was more cost-effective than posterior surgery. One study suggested that posterior cervical foraminotomy had a greater net economic benefit than anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in a military population with unilateral cervical radiculopathy. No studies assessed the cost-effectiveness of surgical intervention compared with nonoperative treatment of cervical myelopathy or radiculopathy, although it is acknowledged that existing studies

  18. Noninvasive Assessment of Biochemical and Mechanical Properties of Lumbar Discs Through Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Asymptomatic Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Mary H; Kage, Craig C; Johnson, Casey P; Ellingson, Arin M

    2017-11-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is a prevalent phenomenon associated with back pain. It is of critical clinical interest to discriminate disc health and identify early stages of degeneration. Traditional clinical T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), assessed using the Pfirrmann classification system, is subjective and fails to adequately capture initial degenerative changes. Emerging quantitative MRI techniques offer a solution. Specifically, T2* mapping images water mobility in the macromolecular network, and our preliminary ex vivo work shows high predictability of the disc's glycosaminoglycan content (s-GAG) and residual mechanics. The present study expands upon this work to predict the biochemical and biomechanical properties in vivo and assess their relationship with both age and Pfirrmann grade. Eleven asymptomatic subjects (range: 18-62 yrs) were enrolled and imaged using a 3T MRI scanner. T2-weighted images (Pfirrmann grade) and quantitative T2* maps (predict s-GAG and residual stress) were acquired. Surface maps based on the distribution of these properties were generated and integrated to quantify the surface volume. Correlational analyses were conducted to establish the relationship between each metric of disc health derived from the quantitative T2* maps with both age and Pfirrmann grade, where an inverse trend was observed. Furthermore, the nucleus pulposus (NP) signal in conjunction with volumetric surface maps provided the ability to discern differences during initial stages of disc degeneration. This study highlights the ability of T2* mapping to noninvasively assess the s-GAG content, residual stress, and distributions throughout the entire disc, which may provide a powerful diagnostic tool for disc health assessment.

  19. [Partial nucleotomy of the ovine disc as an in vivo model for disc degeneration].

    PubMed

    Guder, E; Hill, S; Kandziora, F; Schnake, K J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a suitable animal model for the clinical situation of progressive disc degeneration after microsurgical nucleotomy. Twenty sheep underwent standardised partial anterolateral nucleotomy at lumbar segment 3/4. After randomisation, 10 animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks (group 1). The remainder was sacrificed after 48 weeks (group 2). For radiological examination X-rays, MRI and post-mortem CT scans were performed. Lumbar discs L 3/4 with adjacent subchondral trabecular bone were harvested and analysed macroscopically and histologically. An image-analysing computer program was used to measure histomorphometric indices of bone structure. 17 segments could be evaluated. After 12 weeks (group 1) histological and radiological degenerative disc changes were noted. After 48 weeks (group 2), radiological signs in MRI reached statistical significance. Furthermore, group 2 showed significantly more osteophyte formations in CT scans. Histomorphometric changes of the disc and the adjacent vertebral bone structure suggest a significant progressive degenerative remodelling. The facet joints did not show any osteoarthrosis after 48 weeks. Partial nucleotomy of the ovine lumbar disc leads to radiological and histological signs of disc degeneration similar to those seen in humans after microsurgical nucleotomy. The presented in vivo model may be useful to evaluate new orthopaedic treatment strategies.

  20. The relationship between quantitative measures of disc height and disc signal intensity with Pfirrmann score of disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Salamat, Sara; Hutchings, John; Kwong, Clemens; Magnussen, John; Hancock, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the relationship between quantitative measures of disc height and signal intensity with the Pfirrmann disc degeneration scoring system and to test the inter-rater reliability of the quantitative measures. Participants were 76 people who had recently recovered from their last episode of acute low back pain and underwent MRI scan on a single 3T machine. At all 380 lumbar discs, quantitative measures of disc height and signal intensity were made by 2 independent raters and compared to Pfirrmann scores from a single radiologist. For quantitative measures of disc height and signal intensity a "raw" score and 2 adjusted ratios were calculated and the relationship with Pfirrmann scores was assessed. The inter-tester reliability of quantitative measures was also investigated. There was a strong linear relationship between quantitative disc signal intensity and Pfirrmann scores for grades 1-4, but not for grades 4 and 5. For disc height only, Pfirrmann grade 5 had significantly reduced disc height compared to all other grades. Results were similar regardless of whether raw or adjusted scores were used. Inter-rater reliability for the quantitative measures was excellent (ICC > 0.97). Quantitative measures of disc signal intensity were strongly related to Pfirrmann scores from grade 1 to 4; however disc height only differentiated between grade 4 and 5 Pfirrmann scores. Using adjusted ratios for quantitative measures of disc height or signal intensity did not significantly alter the relationship with Pfirrmann scores.

  1. Detection of low back pain using pH level-dependent imaging of the intervertebral disc using the ratio of R1ρ dispersion and -OH chemical exchange saturation transfer (RROC).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Tawackoli, Wafa; Pelled, Gadi; Fan, Zhaoyang; Jin, Ning; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Bi, Xiaoming; Gart, Avrom; Bae, Hyun; Gazit, Dan; Li, Debiao

    2015-03-01

    Low pH is associated with intervertebral disc (IVD)-generated low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this work was to develop an in vivo pH level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for detecting discogenic LBP, without using exogenous contrast agents. The ratio of R1ρ dispersion and chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) (RROC) was used for pH-level dependent imaging of the IVD while eliminating the effect of labile proton concentration. The technique was validated by numerical simulations and studies on phantoms and ex vivo porcine spines. Four male (ages 42.8 ± 18.3) and two female patients (ages 55.5 ± 2.1) with LBP and scheduled for discography were examined with the method on a 3.0 Tesla MR scanner. RROC measurements were compared with discography outcomes using paired t-test. Simulation and phantom results indicated RROC is a concentration independent and pH level-dependent technique. Porcine spine study results found higher RROC value was related to lower pH level. Painful discs based on discography had significant higher RROC values than those with negative diagnosis (P < 0.05). RROC imaging is a promising pH level dependent MRI technique that has the potential to be a noninvasive imaging tool to detect painful IVDs in vivo. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Disc cell clusters in pathological human intervertebral discs are associated with increased stress protein immunostaining.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Christopher A; Roberts, Sally; Evans, Helena; Brown, Sharon J

    2009-11-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) cells within the annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) maintain distinct functional extracellular matrices and operate within a potentially noxious and stressful environment. How disc cells respond to stress and whether stress is responsible for triggering degeneration is unknown. Disc cell proliferation and cluster formation are most marked in degenerate IVDs, possibly indicating attempts at matrix repair. In other tissues, stress proteins increase rapidly after stress protecting cell function and, although implicated in degeneration of articular cartilage, have received little attention in degenerative IVD pathologies. We have compared the distribution of stress protein immunolocalization in pathological and control IVDs. Disc tissues were obtained at surgery from 43 patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD) and herniation, and 12 controls at postmortem. Tissues were immunostained with a polyclonal antibody for heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and monoclonal antibodies for the heat shock proteins, Hsp27 and Hsp72, using an indirect immunoperoxidase method. Positively stained cells were expressed as a percentage of the total. Cell cluster formation was also assessed. The proportion of cells in clusters was similar in the AF (both 2%) and NP (8 and 9%) of control and DDD samples, whereas in herniated tissues this was increased (AF 12%, NP 14%). Stress antigen staining tended to be more frequent in clustered rather than in single/doublet cells, and this was significant (P < 0.005) in both the AF and NP of herniated discs. Clustered cells, which are most common in herniated discs, may be mounting a protective response to abnormal environmental factors associated with disc degeneration. A better understanding of the stress response in IVD cells may allow its utilization in disc cell therapies.

  3. Comparison of Clinical and Radiologic Results of Mini-Open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Indirect Decompression for Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gen, Hogaku; Sakuma, Yoshio; Koshika, Yasuhide

    2018-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose In this study, we compared the postoperative outcomes of extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) indirect decompression with that of mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. Overview of Literature There are very few reports examining postoperative results of XLIF and minimally invasive TLIF for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, and no reports comparing XLIF and mini-open TLIF. Methods Forty patients who underwent 1-level spinal fusion, either by XLIF indirect decompression (X group, 20 patients) or by mini-open TLIF (T group, 20 patients), for treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis were included in this study. Invasiveness of surgery was evaluated on the basis of surgery time, blood loss, hospitalization period, and perioperative complications. The Japanese Orthopedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ), disc angle (DA), disc height (DH), and slipping length (SL) were evaluated before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at 12 months after surgery. Cross-sectional spinal canal area (CSA) was also measured before surgery and at 1 month after surgery. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of surgery time or hospitalization period; however, X group showed a significant decrease in blood loss (p<0.001). Serious complications were not observed in either group. In clinical assessment, no significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to the JOABPEQ results. The change in DH at 12 months after surgery increased significantly in the X group (p<0.05), and the changes in DA and SL were not significantly different between the two groups. The change in CSA was significantly greater in the T group (p<0.001). Conclusions Postoperative clinical results were equally favorable for both procedures; however, in comparison with mini-open TLIF, less blood loss and greater

  4. Comparison of Clinical and Radiologic Results of Mini-Open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Indirect Decompression for Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yutaka; Gen, Hogaku; Sakuma, Yoshio; Koshika, Yasuhide

    2018-04-01

    Retrospective study. In this study, we compared the postoperative outcomes of extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) indirect decompression with that of mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. There are very few reports examining postoperative results of XLIF and minimally invasive TLIF for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, and no reports comparing XLIF and mini-open TLIF. Forty patients who underwent 1-level spinal fusion, either by XLIF indirect decompression (X group, 20 patients) or by mini-open TLIF (T group, 20 patients), for treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis were included in this study. Invasiveness of surgery was evaluated on the basis of surgery time, blood loss, hospitalization period, and perioperative complications. The Japanese Orthopedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ), disc angle (DA), disc height (DH), and slipping length (SL) were evaluated before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at 12 months after surgery. Cross-sectional spinal canal area (CSA) was also measured before surgery and at 1 month after surgery. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of surgery time or hospitalization period; however, X group showed a significant decrease in blood loss ( p <0.001). Serious complications were not observed in either group. In clinical assessment, no significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to the JOABPEQ results. The change in DH at 12 months after surgery increased significantly in the X group ( p <0.05), and the changes in DA and SL were not significantly different between the two groups. The change in CSA was significantly greater in the T group ( p <0.001). Postoperative clinical results were equally favorable for both procedures; however, in comparison with mini-open TLIF, less blood loss and greater correction of DH were observed in XLIF.

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess Pain and Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based (MRI-Based) Structural Spine Changes in Low Back Pain Patients After Yoga Practice

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Shirley; Bhardwaj, Abhishek K.; Gupta, Ram K.; Sharma, Sachin K.; Monro, Robin; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at determining whether 12 weeks of yoga practice in patients with chronic LBP and MRI-based degenerative changes would result in differences in: (i) self-reported pain, anxiety, and spinal flexibility; and (ii) the structure of the discs or vertebrae. Material/Methods Sixty-two persons with MRI-proven degenerative intervertebral discs (group mean ±S.D., 36.2±6.4 years; 30 females) were randomly assigned to yoga and control groups. However, testing was conducted on only 40 subjects, so only their data are included in this study. The assessments were: self-reported pain, state anxiety, spinal flexibility, and MRI of the lumbosacral spine, performed using a 1.5 Tesla system with a spinal surface column. The yoga group was taught light exercises, physical postures, breathing techniques, and yoga relaxation techniques for 1 hour daily for 3 months. No intervention was given to the control group except for routine medical care. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc analyses (which was Bonferroni-adjusted) was used. The Ethics Committee of Patanjali Research Foundation had approved the study which had been registered in the Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI/2012/11/003094). Results The yoga group showed a significant reduction in self-reported pain and state anxiety in a before/after comparison at 12 weeks. A few patients in both groups showed changes in the discs and vertebrae at post-intervention assessment. Conclusions Within 12 weeks, yoga practice reduced pain and state anxiety but did not alter MRI-proven changes in the intervertebral discs and in the vertebrae.

  6. Dysregulation of YAP by the Hippo pathway is involved in intervertebral disc degeneration, cell contact inhibition, and cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Wang, Feng; Xie, Zhiyang; Chen, Lu; Sinkemani, Arjun; Yu, Haomin; Wang, Kun; Mao, Lu; Wu, Xiaotao

    2018-01-05

    The Hippo pathway plays important roles in wound healing, tissue repair and regeneration, and in the treatment of degenerative diseases, by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in mammals. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is one of the major causes of low back pain, a widespread issue associated with a heavy economic burden. However, the mechanism underlying how the Hippo pathway regulates IDD is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the Hippo pathway is involved in natural IDD. Activation and dephosphorylation of yes-associated protein (YAP) were observed in younger rat discs, and decreased gradually with age. Surprisingly, Hippo pathway suppression was accompanied by overexpression of YAP, caused by acute disc injury, suggesting a limited ability for self-repair in IDD. We also demonstrated that YAP is inhibited by cell-to-cell contact via the Hippo pathway in vitro . Phosphorylation by large tumor suppressor kinases 1/2 (LATS1/2) led to cytoplasmic translocation and inactivation of YAP. YAP dephosphorylation was mainly localized in the nucleus and regulated by the Hippo pathway, whereas YAP dephosphorylation occurred in the cytoplasm and was associated with nucleus pulposus cell (NPC) senescence. Moreover, NPCs were transfected with shYAP and it accelerates the premature senescence of cells by interfered Hippo pathway through YAP. Therefore, our results indicate that the Hippo pathway plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of intervertebral discs and controlling NPC proliferation.

  7. Prognostic indicators of the outcome of arthrocentesis with and without sodium hyaluronate injection for the treatment of disc displacement without reduction: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Aktas, I; Yalcin, S; Sencer, S

    2010-11-01

    This study analysed the prognostic factors for successful arthrocentesis with and without sodium hyaluronate (SH) injection for the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement without reduction (DDwoR) using clinical and radiological results. 29 TMJs in 25 patients with DDwoR were included. Patients were treated with arthrocentesis or arthrocentesis followed by intra-articular (i.a.) injection of SH. Treatment was evaluated for postoperative range of maximum mouth opening and the degree of postoperative pain on a VAS. Prognostic factors analysed were age, sex, duration of locking, trauma history, previous TMJ treatment, depression, bruxism, malocclusion and missing teeth. Degenerative changes were evaluated as probable prognostic factors. After treatment, 24 joints (83%) fulfilled the criteria for success. Duration of locking and present preoperative degenerative changes were the most significant factors for treatment outcome. The results suggest it is sufficient to use only arthrocentesis in patients without preoperative degenerative changes and arthrocentesis with SH in patients with degenerative changes on their preoperative MRIs, but because there were some significant differences between the two groups preventing the authors from comparing them statistically, they cannot come to that conclusion. To clarify the use of SH in such cases, standardized study groups are necessary for future studies. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative Study Between M6-C and Mobi-C Cervical Artificial Disc Replacement: Biomechanical Outcomes and Comparison with Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Pham, My; Phan, Kevin; Teng, Ian; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2018-05-01

    Cervical spondylosis affects a huge proportion of the middle-aged population. Degenerative changes can occur in multiple regions of the cervical spine typically affecting the joints, intervertebral discs and endplates. These changes lead to compression of adjacent nervous structures, which results in radiculopathic and myelopathic pain. Various treatment modalities are currently available with non-surgical approaches the initial go to if there is no symptomatic cord compression. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, or arthroplasty are the two common surgical approaches if non-surgical treatments fail to relieve symptoms of the patients or there are signs of central cord compression. However, studies have shown that there is an increased risk of adjacent segment disease related to fusion. Cervical disc arthroplasty aims to restore normal range of motion (ROM) in patients with pain and disability due to degenerative disc disease resistant to conservative care. Two common disc prostheses used include M6-C and Mobi-C. Both prostheses comprise a mobile polymer segment sandwiched between two metal endplates with mechanisms resembling an actual intervertebral disc. This study aims to compare the kinematics associated with these prostheses, against the normal range of motion in the non-degenerative population. Patients who underwent M6-C or Mobi-C disc replacements by the senior author from 2012 to 2015 were identified at a single tertiary institution. Routine 3-month postoperative lateral radiographs were analyzed for flexion and extension ROM angles at the involved vertebral level by two independent authors. Data was compared to previous published studies investigating cervical spine ROM of asymptomatic patients. There was no statistical significance in the difference of overall flexion range between M6-C and Mobi-C prostheses. However, overall range of extension of Mobi-C was greater compared to M6-C (P = 0.028). At C 5-6 , the range of flexion for both implants

  9. Low Back Pain in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Javad; Zebardast, Jayran; Mirzashahi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Context: Low Back Pain (LBP) in athletes is common and has a broad spectrum of differential diagnoses that must be taken in to account when a clinician approaches the patient with LBP. The physicians should take into account spinal and extra spinal causes of low back pain in athletes. Evidence Acquistion: A literature review was performed for the years 1951 through 2013. Keywords used were Low Back Pain and Athletes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID, PUBMED, the Cochrane Library, ELSEVIER, and the references of reviewed articles, for English-language of Low Back Pain in Athletes. Results: The two most common causes of LBP arising from spine in athletes are degenerative disc disease and spondylolysis with or without listhesis. Although most athletes, respond well to conservative treatment, surgical treatment is indicated when conservative treatment failes. Conclusions: The major concern in athletes with LBP is return to play and previous level of their activity after treatment. There is insufficient evidence regarding this issue in literature to define the optimal time of return to play following treatment. PMID:26448841

  10. Finite element based nonlinear normalization of human lumbar intervertebral disc stiffness to account for its morphology.

    PubMed

    Maquer, Ghislain; Laurent, Marc; Brandejsky, Vaclav; Pretterklieber, Michael L; Zysset, Philippe K

    2014-06-01

    Disc degeneration, usually associated with low back pain and changes of intervertebral stiffness, represents a major health issue. As the intervertebral disc (IVD) morphology influences its stiffness, the link between mechanical properties and degenerative grade is partially lost without an efficient normalization of the stiffness with respect to the morphology. Moreover, although the behavior of soft tissues is highly nonlinear, only linear normalization protocols have been defined so far for the disc stiffness. Thus, the aim of this work is to propose a nonlinear normalization based on finite elements (FE) simulations and evaluate its impact on the stiffness of human anatomical specimens of lumbar IVD. First, a parameter study involving simulations of biomechanical tests (compression, flexion/extension, bilateral torsion and bending) on 20 FE models of IVDs with various dimensions was carried out to evaluate the effect of the disc's geometry on its compliance and establish stiffness/morphology relations necessary to the nonlinear normalization. The computed stiffness was then normalized by height (H), cross-sectional area (CSA), polar moment of inertia (J) or moments of inertia (Ixx, Iyy) to quantify the effect of both linear and nonlinear normalizations. In the second part of the study, T1-weighted MRI images were acquired to determine H, CSA, J, Ixx and Iyy of 14 human lumbar IVDs. Based on the measured morphology and pre-established relation with stiffness, linear and nonlinear normalization routines were then applied to the compliance of the specimens for each quasi-static biomechanical test. The variability of the stiffness prior to and after normalization was assessed via coefficient of variation (CV). The FE study confirmed that larger and thinner IVDs were stiffer while the normalization strongly attenuated the effect of the disc geometry on its stiffness. Yet, notwithstanding the results of the FE study, the experimental stiffness showed consistently

  11. Two-level total lumbar disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Di Silvestre, Mario; Bakaloudis, Georgios; Lolli, Francesco; Vommaro, Francesco; Parisini, Patrizio

    2009-06-01

    Total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) has been widely used as a treatment option for 2-level symptomatic degenerative disc disease. However, recent studies have presented conflicting results and some authors concluded that outcome deteriorated when disc replacement was performed bisegmentally, with an increase of complications for bisegmental replacements in comparison with monosegmental disc arthroplasty. The goal of the present retrospective study is to investigate results in a group of patients who have received bisegmental TDR with SB Charitè III artificial disc for degenerative disc disease with a minimum follow-up of 3 years, and to compare the results of 2-level disc replacement versus 1-level patients treated with the same prosthesis. A total of 32 patients had at least 3-years follow-up and were reviewed. The average age of the patients was 38.5 years. There were 11 males and 21 females. About 16 patients received 2-level TDR (SB Charitè III) and 16 received 1-level TDR (SB Charitè III). Both radiographic and functional outcome analysis, including patient's satisfaction, was performed. There were no signs of degenerative changes of the adjacent segments in any case of the 2- or 1-level TDR. There was no statistically significant difference between 2- and 1-level TDR both at 12 months and at 3-years follow-up on functional outcome scores. There was a statistically insignificant difference concerning the patients satisfaction between 1- and 2-level surgeries at the last follow-up (P = 0.46). In the 2-level TDR patients, there were 5 minor complications (31.25%), whereas major complications occurred in 4 more patients (25%) and required a new surgery in 2 cases (12.5%). In the 1-level cases there were 2 minor complications (12.5%) and 2 major complications (12.5%) and a new revision surgery was required in 1 patient (6.25%). In conclusion, the use of 2-level disc replacement at last follow-up presented a higher incidence of complications than in cases with 1

  12. Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCIH Researchers Describe Specialized Neurons That Play a Unique Role in Mechanical Pain ( August 16, 2017 ) ... Funding for Pain Initiatives Current Funding Opportunities Research on the Impact of Creative Arts in Military ...

  13. Foreword: Proceedings From the First Annual Lumbar Total Disc Replacement Summit.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Scott; Buttermann, Glenn; Garcia, Rolando; Gornet, Matthew; Grunch, Betsy; Guyer, Richard; Janssen, Michael; Kimball, Brent; Lewis, Adam; Mesiwala, Ali; Miller, Lynn; Morreale, Joseph; Reed, William; Sandhu, Faheem; Shackleford, Ian; Yue, James; Zigler, Jack; OConnell, Brent; Ferko, Nicole; Hollmann, Sarah

    2017-12-15

    : This publication focuses on proceedings from the First Annual Lumbar Total Disc Replacement Summit, held October 25, 2016 in Boston, MA. The Summit brought together 17 thought leading surgeons who employed a modified-Delphi method to determine where consensus existed pertaining to the utilization of lumbar total disc replacement as a standard of care for a subpopulation of patients suffering from degenerative disc disease.

  14. Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, F M; Arana, E

    2016-04-01

    In the last 25 years, scientific research has brought about drastic changes in the concept of low back pain and its management. Most imaging findings, including degenerative changes, reflect anatomic peculiarities or the normal aging process and turn out to be clinically irrelevant; imaging tests have proven useful only when systemic disease is suspected or when surgery is indicated for persistent spinal cord or nerve root compression. The radiologic report should indicate the key points of nerve compression, bypassing inconsequential findings. Many treatments have proven inefficacious, and some have proven counterproductive, but they continue to be prescribed because patients want them and there are financial incentives for doing them. Following the guidelines that have proven effective for clinical management improves clinical outcomes, reduces iatrogenic complications, and decreases unjustified and wasteful healthcare expenditures. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The immediate reduction in low back pain intensity following lumbar joint mobilization and prone press-ups is associated with increased diffusion of water in the L5-S1 intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Paul F; Arnot, Cathy F; Donley, Jonathan W; Noda, Harmony; Bailey, Lane

    2010-05-01

    Single-group, prospective, repeated-measures design. To determine differences in the changes of diffusion of water in the L5-S1 intervertebral disc between subjects with nonspecific low back pain (LBP) who reported an immediate reduction in pain intensity of 2 or greater on an 11-point (0-10) numeric rating scale after a 10-minute session of lumbar joint mobilization, followed by prone press-up exercises, compared to those who did not report an immediate reduction in pain intensity of 2 or greater on the pain scale. Combining lumbar joint mobilization and prone press-up exercises is a common intervention for patients with LBP; however, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness and efficacy of this approach. Increased knowledge of the physiologic effects of the combined use of these treatments, and the relationship to pain reports, can lead to refinement of their clinical application. Twenty adults, aged 22 to 54, participated in this study. All subjects reported LBP of at least 2 on an 11-point (0-10) verbally administered numeric rating scale at the time of enrollment in the study and were classified as being candidates for the combination of joint mobilization and prone press-ups. Subjects underwent T2- and diffusion-weighted lumbar magnetic resonance imaging scans before and immediately after receiving a 10-minute session of lumbar pressures in a posterior-to-anterior direction and prone press-up exercises. Subjects who reported a decrease in current pain intensity of 2 or greater immediately following treatment were classified as immediate responders, while the remainder were classified as not-immediate responders. The apparent diffusion coefficient, representing the diffusion of water in the nucleus pulposis, was calculated from the midsagittal diffusion-weighted images. Following treatment, immediate responders (n = 10) had a mean increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient in the middle portion of the L5-S1 intervertebral disc of 4

  16. Low back pain caused by a duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Weiss, D J; Conliffe, T; Tata, N

    1998-09-01

    The common diagnoses in low back pain are lumbar strain, lumbosacral radiculopathy, osteoarthritis, degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, and sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Unusual causes of low back pain that have been previously identified include abdominal aortic aneurysms, pelvic neoplasms, and retroperitoneal hemorrhages. This report describes a case of back pain that was apparently caused by a duodenal ulcer. A 54-year-old man with no significant medical history presented with a complaint of mid to low back pain (T10-L2), which was diagnosed as joint dysfunction. A comprehensive treatment program was prescribed and the patient was instructed to return to clinic in 4 weeks. Three weeks later, he experienced a syncopal episode followed by coffee ground emesis. He immediately sought medical attention at an emergency room, where he was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleed. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a large duodenal ulcer, and the patient underwent vagotomy and pyloroplasty. He returned to his physiatrist's office 3 weeks after hospital discharge with minimal back pain. The cause of the back pain proved to be referred visceral pain from his duodenal ulcer. This case is presented to reemphasize the need to include the uncommon phenomena in the differential diagnosis of low back pain.

  17. [The assessment of the impact of rehabilitation on the pain intensity level in patients with herniated nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc].

    PubMed

    Koszela, Kamil; Krukowska, Sylwia; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2017-06-23

    Back disorders are very common phenomena in modern society. One of the methods of spinal pain treatment is performing surgery. Unfortunately, this method is not one hundred percent effective. Some patients show no improvement after surgery, the pain persists and even increases. In these cases, it is reasonable to use the term Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS), i.e. back pain syndrome after unsuccessful spine surgery. The aim of the study is to assess the impact of rehabilitation on the pain intensity level in patients with FBSS. The study was conducted in a group of 38 patients aged from 32 to 87 (mean age 61 years), including 20 women and 18 men. All patients were operated for spinal pain syndrome. Afterwards, they underwent rehabilitation because of persisting pain after the surgery. For the pain assessment was used The Visual- Analogue Scale and The Laitinen Modified Questionnaire Indicators of Pain. The results were statistically analyzed. The study showed the high efficacy of specialized rehabilitation in patients with FBSS. The rehabilitation in patients with FBSS has a significant analgesic effect. Rehabilitation should be a gold standard in patients with FBSS.

  18. T1 hyperintense disc in alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Sag, Alan A; Silbergleit, Richard; Olson, Rick E; Wilson, Jon; Krishnan, Anant

    2012-10-01

    Case report. To report a rare case of alkaptonuria presenting as a T1-hyperintense disc herniation. A 46-year-old man without previous diagnosis of alkaptonuria underwent evaluation for progressive back pain revealing a T1-hyperintense disc herniation at the L3-L4 level. Discectomy recovered a blackened disc that was pathologically confirmed to be nucleus pulposus with alkaptonuric involvement. The differential diagnosis of a T1-hyperintense, T2-hypointense disc on magnetic resonance imaging is discussed, with emphasis on the pathophysiology of alkaptonuria. A single patient is reported. Pathologically proven patient presentation with radiological and pathological images. We report a rare case of alkaptonuria presenting as a T1-hyperintense disc herniation.

  19. MRI evaluation of spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the alpaca cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Stolworthy, Dean K; Bowden, Anton E; Roeder, Beverly L; Robinson, Todd F; Holland, Jacob G; Christensen, S Loyd; Beatty, Amanda M; Bridgewater, Laura C; Eggett, Dennis L; Wendel, John D; Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Taylor, Meredith D

    2015-12-01

    Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding human pathology, treatment, and healing, but few animals are known to naturally develop intervertebral disc degeneration. The study of degenerative disc disease and its treatment would greatly benefit from a more comprehensive, and comparable animal model. Alpacas have recently been presented as a potential large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration due to similarities in spinal posture, disc size, biomechanical flexibility, and natural disc pathology. This research further investigated alpacas by determining the prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration among an aging alpaca population. Twenty healthy female alpacas comprised two age subgroups (5 young: 2-6 years; and 15 older: 10+ years) and were rated according to the Pfirrmann-grade for degeneration of the cervical intervertebral discs. Incidence rates of degeneration showed strong correlations with age and spinal level: younger alpacas were nearly immune to developing disc degeneration, and in older animals, disc degeneration had an increased incidence rate and severity at lower cervical levels. Advanced disc degeneration was present in at least one of the cervical intervertebral discs of 47% of the older alpacas, and it was most common at the two lowest cervical intervertebral discs. The prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration encourages further investigation and application of the lower cervical spine of alpacas and similar camelids as a large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A patient with thoracic intradural disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Robert G; Williams, Brian J; Lega, Bradley C; Sanborn, Matthew R; Marcotte, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Intradural disc herniation is a rare disease that occurs most commonly in the lumbar region, while fewer than 5% occur in the thoracic and cervical regions. We report a patient with thoracic intradural disc herniation at T12-L1 who presented with radiculopathy and motor weakness. The preoperative MRI did not demonstrate an intradural lesion, and it was identified intraoperatively by inspection and palpation of the thecal sac. The disc was removed, and the patient experienced good neurological recovery and remains pain free 1 year after surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stress in Lumbar Intervertebral Discs during Distraction

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Ralph E.; Ilharreborde, Brice; Zhao, Kristin D.; Berglund, Lawrence J.; Bronfort, Gert; An, Kai-Nan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT The intervertebral disc is a common source of low back pain. Prospective studies suggest that treatments that intermittently distract the disc might be beneficial for chronic low back pain. Although the potential exists for distraction therapies to affect the disc biomechanically their effect on intradiscal stress is debated. PURPOSE To determine if distraction alone, distraction combined with flexion or distraction combined with extension can reduce nucleus pulposus pressure and posterior anulus compressive stress in cadaveric lumbar discs compared to simulated standing or lying. STUDY DESIGN Laboratory study using single cadaveric motion segments. OUTCOME MEASURES Strain gauge measures of nucleus pulposus pressure and compressive stress in the anterior and posterior annulus fibrosus METHODS Intradiscal stress profilometry was performed on 15 motion segments during 5 simulated conditions: standing, lying, and 3 distracted conditions. Disc degeneration was graded by inspection from 1 (normal) to 4 (severe degeneration). RESULTS All distraction conditions markedly reduced nucleus pressure compared to either simulated standing or lying. There was no difference between distraction with flexion and distraction with extension in regard to posterior annulus compressive stress. Discs with little or no degeneration appeared to distributed compressive stress differently than those with moderate or severe degeneration. CONCLUSIONS Distraction appears to predictably reduce nucleus pulposus pressure. The effect of distraction therapy on the distribution of compressive stress may be dependent in part on the health of the disc. PMID:17981092

  2. Hybrid Corpectomy and Disc Arthroplasty for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Caused by Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament and Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huang-Chou; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Fay, Li-Yu; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Wu, Ching-Lan; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich

    2016-11-01

    The combination of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) has been demonstrated to be effective for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, the combination of ACCF and cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for 3-level CSM has never been addressed. Consecutive patients (>18 years of age) with CSM caused by segmental ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and degenerative disc disease (DDD) were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were patients who underwent hybrid ACCF and CDA surgery for symptomatic 3-level CSM with OPLL and DDD. Medical and radiologic records were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 15 patients were analyzed with a mean follow-up of 18.1 ± 7.42 months. Every patient had hybrid surgery composed of 1-level ACCF (for segmental-type OPLL causing spinal stenosis) and 1-level CDA at the adjacent level (for DDD causing stenosis). All clinical outcomes, including visual analogue scale of neck and arm pain, Neck Disability Index, Japanese Orthopedic Association scores, and Nurick scores of myelopathy, demonstrated significant improvement at 12 months after surgery. All patients (100%) achieved arthrodesis for the ACCF (instrumented) and preserved mobility for CDA (preoperation 6.2 ± 3.81° vs. postoperation 7.0 ± 4.18°; P = 0.579). For patients with multilevel CSM caused by segmental OPLL and DDD, the hybrid surgery of ACCF and CDA demonstrated satisfactory clinical and radiologic outcomes. Moreover, although located next to each other, the instrumented ACCF construct and CDA still achieved solid arthrodesis and preserved mobility, respectively. Therefore, hybrid surgery may be a reasonable option for the management of CSM with OPLL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Design limitations of Bryan disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shee Yan; DuPlessis, Stephan J; Casha, Steven; Hurlbert, R John

    2006-01-01

    Disc arthroplasty is gaining momentum as a surgical procedure in the treatment of spinal degenerative disease. Results must be carefully scrutinized to recognize benefits as well as limitations. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with segmental kyphosis after Bryan disc replacement. Prospective study of a consecutively enrolled cohort of 10 patients treated in a single center using the Bryan cervical disc prosthesis for single-level segmental reconstruction in the surgical treatment of cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. Radiographic and quality of life outcome measures. Static and dynamic lateral radiographs were digitally analyzed in patients undergoing Bryan disc arthroplasty throughout a minimum 3-month follow-up period. Observations were compared with preoperative studies looking for predictive factors of postoperative spinal alignment. Postoperative end plate angles through the Bryan disc in the neutral position were kyphotic in 9 of 10 patients. Compared with preoperative end plate angulation there was a mean change of -7 degrees (towards kyphosis) in postoperative end plate alignment (p=.007, 95% confidence interval [CI] -6 degrees to -13 degrees). This correlated significantly with postoperative reduction in posterior vertebral body height of the caudal segment (p=.011, r2=.575) and postoperative functional spine unit (FSU) kyphosis (p=.032, r2=.46). Despite intraoperative distraction, postoperative FSU height was significantly reduced, on average by 1.7 mm (p=.040, 95% CI 0.5-2.8 mm). Asymmetrical end plate preparation occurs because of suboptimal coordinates to which the milling jig is referenced. Although segmental motion is preserved, Bryan disc arthroplasty demonstrates a propensity towards kyphotic orientation through the prosthesis likely as a result of intraoperative lordotic distraction. FSU angulation tends towards kyphosis and FSU height is decreased in the postoperative state from lack of anterior column support

  4. Higher Improvement in Patient-Reported Outcomes Can Be Achieved After Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Clinical and Radiographic Degenerative Spondylolisthesis Classification Type D Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Liang; Qiu, Yong; Chen, Zhong-Hui; Zhou, Qing-Shuang; Li, Song; Sun, Xu

    2018-06-01

    Clinical and radiographic degenerative spondylolisthesis (CARDS) classification defines a distinct subset of patients with kyphotic angulation at the involved segment (type D). Research using CARDS classification to investigate motion characteristics at involved segments or patient-related outcomes (PROs) following surgical intervention is sparse. We investigated the relationship between CARDS type D spondylolisthesis and dynamic instability and PROs in type D versus non-type D spondylolisthesis. We reviewed consecutive patients who received transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for L4-5 spondylolisthesis between 2009 and 2015. Patients were assigned into type D and non-type D groups. Translational motion was determined by upright lumbar lateral radiography with supine sagittal magnetic resonance imaging or flexion and extension radiography. Demographics, radiographic parameters, and PROs were evaluated. Type D and non-type D groups comprised 34 and 163 patients, respectively. Compared with non-type D, type D group was characterized by lordotic angulation loss and higher degree of olisthesis on upright radiographs and demonstrated higher translational motion on upright lumbar lateral radiography with supine sagittal magnetic resonance imaging analysis. After surgery, mean reduction rate was significantly higher in type D group; type D had less slippage, but differences in slip angle and disc height were not significant. Preoperative Oswestry Disability Index and visual analog scale for back pain scores were higher in type D group. Type D spondylolisthesis and dynamic instability were associated with achieving minimal clinically important differences in PROs. CARDS type D spondylolisthesis is a distinct subset associated with dynamic instability and worse PROs. Higher improvement in PROs can be achieved in CARDS type D spondylolisthesis after surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Indications for spine surgery: validation of an administrative coding algorithm to classify degenerative diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Deyo, Richard A.; Tosteson, Tor; Weinstein, James; Mirza, Sohail K.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis of Medicare claims linked to a multi-center clinical trial. Objective The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) provided a unique opportunity to examine the validity of a claims-based algorithm for grouping patients by surgical indication. SPORT enrolled patients for lumbar disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative spondylolisthesis. We compared the surgical indication derived from Medicare claims to that provided by SPORT surgeons, the “gold standard”. Summary of Background Data Administrative data are frequently used to report procedure rates, surgical safety outcomes, and costs in the management of spinal surgery. However, the accuracy of using diagnosis codes to classify patients by surgical indication has not been examined. Methods Medicare claims were link to beneficiaries enrolled in SPORT. The sensitivity and specificity of three claims-based approaches to group patients based on surgical indications were examined: 1) using the first listed diagnosis; 2) using all diagnoses independently; and 3) using a diagnosis hierarchy based on the support for fusion surgery. Results Medicare claims were obtained from 376 SPORT participants, including 21 with disc herniation, 183 with spinal stenosis, and 172 with degenerative spondylolisthesis. The hierarchical coding algorithm was the most accurate approach for classifying patients by surgical indication, with sensitivities of 76.2%, 88.1%, and 84.3% for disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative spondylolisthesis cohorts, respectively. The specificity was 98.3% for disc herniation, 83.2% for spinal stenosis, and 90.7% for degenerative spondylolisthesis. Misclassifications were primarily due to codes attributing more complex pathology to the case. Conclusion Standardized approaches for using claims data to accurately group patients by surgical indications has widespread interest. We found that a hierarchical coding approach correctly classified over 90

  6. Evaluation of lumbar segmental instability in degenerative diseases by using a new intraoperative measurement system.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Kitahara, Ko; Hara, Toshiaki; Takano, Ko; Shimoda, Haruka; Homma, Takao

    2008-03-01

    In vivo quantitative measurement of lumbar segmental stability has not been established. The authors developed a new measurement system to determine intraoperative lumbar stability. The objective of this study was to clarify the biomechanical properties of degenerative lumbar segments by using the new method. Twenty-two patients with a degenerative symptomatic segment were studied and their measurements compared with those obtained in normal or asymptomatic degenerative segments (Normal group). The measurement system produces cyclic flexion-extension through spinous process holders by using a computer-controlled motion generator with all ligamentous structures intact. The following biomechanical parameters were determined: stiffness, absorption energy (AE), and neutral zone (NZ). Discs with degeneration were divided into 2 groups based on magnetic resonance imaging grading: degeneration without collapse (Collapse[-]) and degeneration with collapse (Collapse[+]). Biomechanical parameters were compared among the groups. Relationships among the biomechanical parameters and age, diagnosis, or radiographic parameters were analyzed. The mean stiffness value in the Normal group was significantly greater than that in Collapse(-) or Collapse(+) group. There was no significant difference in the average AE value among the Normal, Collapse(-), and Collapse(+) groups. The NZ in the Collapse(-) was significantly higher than in the Normal or Collapse(+) groups. Stiffness was negatively and NZ was positively correlated with age. Stiffness demonstrated a significant negative and NZ a significant positive relationship with disc height, however. There were no significant differences in stiffness between spines in the Collapse(-) and Collapse(+) groups. The values of a more sensitive parameter, NZ, were higher in Collapse(-) than in Collapse(+) groups, demonstrating that degenerative segments with preserved disc height have a latent instability compared to segments with collapsed

  7. Case Study: The Use of Massage Therapy to Relieve Chronic Low-Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Allen, Laura

    2016-09-01

    To study the effects of massage on chronic low-back pain in a patient with four different diagnoses: osteoarthritis, scoliosis, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease. The patient's goal was to cut down on the amount of pain medication he takes. A 63-year-old man with chronic back pain received four massages across a twenty-day period. Progress was recorded using the Oswestry Low Back Pain Scale, as he self-reported on levels of pain and interference with his activities of daily living. Improvement was noted in 9 out of 10 measurements of self-reported pain and activities of daily living, with the only exception being his ability to lift heavy objects, which remained unchanged. The most dramatic differences were improvements in his ability to walk, and in the changing degrees of pain. The client also self-reported being able to decrease his pain medication and the ability to ride his bicycle for the first time in years. Massage therapy is a promising treatment for chronic low-back pain for patients who may have multiple pathologies, any one of which could be responsible for the condition. Further study is encouraged to determine the efficacy of massage therapy as a readily accessible, lower-cost alternative to more invasive therapies and as an adjunct to regular medical care, when appropriate.

  8. [In situ analysis of pathomechanisms of human intervertebral disc degeneration].

    PubMed

    Weiler, C

    2013-11-01

    Low back pain is one of the major causes of pain and disability in the western world, with a constantly rising life-time prevalence of approximately 60-85 %. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc is believed to be a major cause of low back pain. Semiquantitative macroscopic and microscopic changes of the intervertebral disc were assessed and classified. Furthermore additional methods, such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and in situ zymography were used to analyze phenotypic cellular and matrix changes. We have developed and tested a practicable, valid and reliable histological classification system for lumbar discs which can serve as a morphological reference framework to allow more sophisticated molecular biological studies on the pathogenesis of ageing and degeneration of discs. Secondly, we were able to demonstrate that intrinsic (genetic) and extrinsic (e.g. overweight) factors have a profound effect on the process of disc degeneration. Cells with a notochord-like phenotype are present in a considerable fraction of adult lumbar intervertebral discs. The presence of these cells is associated with distinct features of (early) age-related disc degeneration. During the process of disc degeneration, the intervertebral disc shows a progressive and significant reduction in height due to tissue resorption. This matrix loss is related to an imbalance between matrix synthesis and degradation. During this process an inflammatory reaction takes place and resident disc cells are causatively involved. In summary, disc degeneration is a multifactorial disease with a strong intrinsic (hereditary) and extrinsic (e.g. mechanical factors) background. The process starts as early as in the second decade of life and shows high interindividual differences. The loss of regenerative capacity in the intervertebral disc is probably related to the loss of stem cells, e.g. notochord-like cells. Resident disc cells are involved in the inflammatory reaction with increased

  9. Developments in intervertebral disc disease research: pathophysiology, mechanobiology, and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kathryn T; Jacobsen, Timothy D; Maidhof, Robert; Virojanapa, Justin; Overby, Chris; Bloom, Ona; Quraishi, Shaheda; Levine, Mitchell; Chahine, Nadeen O

    2015-03-01

    Low back pain is a leading cause of disability worldwide and the second most common cause of physician visits. There are many causes of back pain, and among them, disc herniation and intervertebral disc degeneration are the most common diagnoses and targets for intervention. Currently, clinical treatment outcomes are not strongly correlated with diagnoses, emphasizing the importance for characterizing more completely the mechanisms of degeneration and their relationships with symptoms. This review covers recent studies elucidating cellular and molecular changes associated with disc mechanobiology, as it relates to degeneration and regeneration. Specifically, we review findings on the biochemical changes in disc diseases, including cytokines, chemokines, and proteases; advancements in disc disease diagnostics using imaging modalities; updates on studies examining the response of the intervertebral disc to injury; and recent developments in repair strategies, including cell-based repair, biomaterials, and tissue engineering. Findings on the effects of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid, on nucleus pulposus tissue engineering are presented. Studies described in this review provide greater insights into the pathogenesis of disc degeneration and may define new paradigms for early or differential diagnostics of degeneration using new techniques such as systemic biomarkers. In addition, research on the mechanobiology of disease enriches the development of therapeutics for disc repair, with potential to diminish pain and disability associated with disc degeneration.

  10. High-resolution ultrasonography in assessing temporomandibular joint disc position.

    PubMed

    Talmaceanu, Daniel; Lenghel, Lavinia Manuela; Bolog, Nicolae; Popa Stanila, Roxana; Buduru, Smaranda; Leucuta, Daniel Corneliu; Rotar, Horatiu; Baciut, Mihaela; Baciut, Grigore

    2018-02-04

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasonography (US) in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacements. A number of 74 patients (148 TMJs) with signs and symptoms of TMJ disorders, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, were included in this study. All patients received US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both TMJs 1 to 5 days after the clinical examination. MRI examinations were performed using 1.5 T MRI equipment (Siemens Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen). Ultrasonographic examination was performed on a Hitachi EUB 8500 (Hitachi Medical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) scanner with L 54 M6.5-13 MHz linear transducer. MRI depicted 68 (45.95%) normal joints, 47 (31.76%) with disc displacement with reduction, 33 (22.3%) with disc displacement without reduction and 34 (22.97%) with degenerative changes. US detected 78 (52.7%) normal joints, 37 (25%) with disc displacement with reduction, 33 (22.3%) with disc displacement without reduction and 21 (14.19%) with degenerative changes. Compared to MRI, US showed a sensitivity of 93.1%, specificity of 87.88%, accuracy of 90.32%, a positive predictive value of 87.1% and a negative predictive value of 93.55% for overall diagnosis of disc displacement. The Youden index was 0.81. Based on our results, high-resolution ultrasonography showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in the diagnosis of TMJ disc displacement. It could be a valuable imaging technique in assessing TMJ disc position. The diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasonography depends strictly on the examiner's skills and on the equipment used.

  11. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  12. Lumbar disc herniation in young children.

    PubMed

    Haidar, R; Ghanem, I; Saad, S; Uthman, I

    2010-01-01

    This article explores lumbar disc herniation in young children through focusing on matters relevant to patient presentation, physical examination, differential diagnosis, imaging and treatment. Major databases were searched for studies that addressed lumbar disc herniation in young children. Diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation in young children is usually delayed because of the rarity and lack of experience with this entity and the difficulty in extracting a reliable medical history. Nevertheless, lumbar disc herniation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any young child presenting with a chief complaint of back pain and/or radiculopathy, especially in the setting of recent trauma. This should be coupled with a directed physical examination to elicit signs and narrow the differential diagnosis. Imaging studies, mainly magnetic resonance imaging, will help establish a diagnosis; yet radiographs are still required to exclude other spinal lesions. The initial management of lumbar disc herniation in children is the same as that in adults and consists of conservative treatment unless lumbar disc herniation affects the patient's motor and neurological functions in which case, early surgical treatment must be undertaken. Although the latter remains more difficult, current experience suggests a favourable outcome. Awareness of lumbar disc herniation will help the paediatrician extract a relevant medical history, perform a directed physical examination, and order appropriate imaging studies. This will aid in initiating early intervention, be it conservative or operative, and achieving a favourable outcome.

  13. Arthroscopic meniscectomy for degenerative meniscal tears reduces knee pain but is not cost-effective in a routine health care setting: a multi-center longitudinal observational study using data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    PubMed

    Rongen, J J; Govers, T M; Buma, P; Rovers, M M; Hannink, G

    2018-02-01

    It is disputed whether arthroscopic meniscectomy is an (cost-) effective treatment for degenerative meniscus tears in day-to-day clinical practice. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic meniscectomy in subjects with knee osteoarthritis, in routine clinical practice, while taking into account the increased risk for future knee replacement surgery. We compared cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic meniscectomy compared to no surgery. We used a state transition (Markov) simulation model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic meniscectomy compared to no surgery in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (age range 45-79 years). Data used in the preparation of the current study were obtained from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (AOI) database. We applied a 9 years' time horizon (which is equal to the current OAI study follow up period), and evaluated cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective. The main outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (Euros per quality adjusted life-year (QALY) gained). Arthroscopic meniscectomy was associated with 8.09 (SD ± 0.07) QALYs at a cost of € 21,345 (SD ± 841), whereas the no surgery was associated with 8.05 (SD ± 0.07) QALYs at a cost of € 16,284 (SD ± 855). For arthroscopic meniscectomy, the incremental cost per QALY gained was € 150,754. In day-to-day clinical practice, arthroscopic meniscectomy in subjects with knee osteoarthritis is associated with € 150,754 per QALY gained, which exceeds the generally accepted willingness to pay (WTP) (range € 20,000-€ 80,000). Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contralateral radiculopathy after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong-Tao; Ren, Liang; Sun, Xian-Ze; Liu, Feng-Yu; Yu, Jin-He; Gu, Zhen-Fang

    2018-04-01

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is an effective treatment for patients with degenerative lumbar disc disorder. Contralateral radiculopathy, as a complication of TLIF, has been recognized in this institution, but is rarely reported in the literature. In this article, we report 2 cases of contralateral radiculopathy after TLIF in our institution and its associated complications. In the 2 cases, the postoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed obvious upward movement of the superior articular process, leading to contralateral foraminal stenosis. Revision surgery was done at once to partially resect the opposite superior facet and to relieve nerve root compression. After revision surgery, the contralateral radiculopathy disappeared. Contralateral radiculopathy is an avoidable potential complication. It is very important to create careful preoperative plans and to conscientiously plan the use of intraoperative techniques. In case of postoperative contralateral leg pain, the patients should be examined by CT and MRI. If CT and MRI show that the superior articular process significantly migrated upwards, which leads to contralateral foraminal stenosis, revision surgery should be done at once to partially resect the contralateral superior facet so as to relieve nerve root compression and avoid possible long-term impairment.

  15. Modeling and optimization of an elastic arthroplastic disc for a degenerated disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouchani, Azadeh; Ravari, Mohammad; Mahmoudi, Farid

    2011-10-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the L3-L4 motion segment using ABAQUS v 6.9 has been developed. The model took into account the material nonlinearities and is imposed different loading conditions. In this study, we validated the model by comparison of its predictions with several sets of experimental data. Disc deformation under compression and segmental rotational motions under moment loads for the normal disc model agreed well with the corresponding in vivo studies. By linking ABAQUS with MATLAB 2010.a, we determined the optimal Young s modulus as well as the Poisson's ratio for the artificial disc under different physiologic loading conditions. The results of the present study confirmed that a well-designed elastic arthroplastic disc preferably has an annulus modulus of 19.1 MPa and 1.24 MPa for nucleus section and Poisson ratio of 0.41 and 0.47 respectively. Elastic artificial disc with such properties can then achieve the goal of restoring the disc height and mechanical function of intact disc under different loading conditions and so can reduce low back pain which is mostly caused due to disc degeneration.

  16. The development of biomarkers for degenerative musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Prakash; Sowa, Gwendolyn A

    2014-02-01

    With an aging population, degenerative musculoskeletal conditions will become more prevalent with significantly increasing costs to society over the next several decades. The majority of these conditions are diagnosed radiographically, at which point the disease process is often more advanced and challenging to treat. The commonly available radiographic studies also do not adequately provide information as to the exact pain generator and findings often do not correlate either to patient symptoms or function. Personalized medicine involves formulating treatments based on a patient's own biology. The development of biological markers (biomarkers) pertaining to disease is a rapidly growing area within this field of medicine. For degenerative musculoskeletal conditions, biomarkers have the potential to provide an early non-invasive method of assessing the location and severity of tissue damage and presence of inflammation. By outlining mechanisms of disease they could allow the formulation of further treatment targets and through sub-categorizing patients into different groups based on their biomarker profile, one could provide more efficacious treatments for patients. The present article is a review of the development of biomarkers for these purposes specifically as they pertain to degenerative musculoskeletal conditions.

  17. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Clinical Trial Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    ending in blindness. In the United States, the total number of individuals affected by retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and other forms of rare inherited...AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-07-1-0720 TITLE: Inherited Retinal Degenerative...Final 3. DATES COVERED 27 Sep 2007 – 29 Sep 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Inherited Retinal Degenerative Clinical Trial Network

  18. Clinical experience and two-year follow-up with a one-piece viscoelastic cervical total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kingsley Richard; Lubinski, Jacob Ryan; Zimmers, Kari Bracher; Sands, Barry Eugene; Pencle, Fabio

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to present clinical outcome data from a 2-year post-market study of a viscoelastic one-piece cervical total disc replacement (TDR) in Europe. Thirty-nine patients were implanted at five surgical sites in an European post-market clinical study. Clinical outcomes included improvement of neck disability index (NDI) and visual analog scale scores for neck and arm pain from baseline to 2-year follow-up, neurological examinations, patients view on the success of surgery, complications, and subsequent surgical interventions. Thirty patients had the Freedom ® Cervical Disc (FCD) implanted at a single level, and nine patients were implanted at two adjacent levels. The population had a similar distribution of male [20] and female [19] subjects, with a mean age of 45 years. All self-administered outcome measures showed significant clinically important improvements from baseline to the 2-year follow-up. Mean preoperative NDI score improved from 48% to 20%, 13%, 8%, 6% and 4% at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Average preoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores of the neck, right and left arm pain intensity and frequency showed significant improvement. All neurological outcome measurements showed immediate improvement from preoperative values and continued improvement throughout 2 years follow-up. From pre-op to 24 months, neurological deficits declined in the population from 21% to 6% for reflex function, 62% to 17% for sensory function, and 38% to 3% for motor function. No patients experienced a deterioration in any measured outcomes compared with the preoperative situation. Patient satisfaction increased over 2 years post-op, with 83% of patients responding that they would "definitely" choose to have the same treatment for their neck/arm condition and another 11% responding that they would "probably" choose to have the same treatment. The FCD performs as expected in patients with single-level and two-level degenerative disc

  19. Intervertebral disc segmentation in MR images with 3D convolutional networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korez, Robert; Ibragimov, Bulat; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2017-02-01

    The vertebral column is a complex anatomical construct, composed of vertebrae and intervertebral discs (IVDs) supported by ligaments and muscles. During life, all components undergo degenerative changes, which may in some cases cause severe, chronic and debilitating low back pain. The main diagnostic challenge is to locate the pain generator, and degenerated IVDs have been identified to act as such. Accurate and robust segmentation of IVDs is therefore a prerequisite for computer-aided diagnosis and quantification of IVD degeneration, and can be also used for computer-assisted planning and simulation in spinal surgery. In this paper, we present a novel fully automated framework for supervised segmentation of IVDs from three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) spine images. By considering global intensity appearance and local shape information, a landmark-based approach is first used for the detection of IVDs in the observed image, which then initializes the segmentation of IVDs by coupling deformable models with convolutional networks (ConvNets). For this purpose, a 3D ConvNet architecture was designed that learns rich high-level appearance representations from a training repository of IVDs, and then generates spatial IVD probability maps that guide deformable models towards IVD boundaries. By applying the proposed framework to 15 3D MR spine images containing 105 IVDs, quantitative comparison of the obtained against reference IVD segmentations yielded an overall mean Dice coefficient of 92.8%, mean symmetric surface distance of 0.4 mm and Hausdorff surface distance of 3.7 mm.

  20. Can cantilever transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (C-TLIF) maintain segmental lordosis for degenerative spondylolisthesis on a long-term basis?

    PubMed

    Kida, Kazunobu; Tadokoro, Nobuaki; Kumon, Masashi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Kawazoe, Tateo; Tani, Toshikazu

    2014-03-01

    To determine if cantilever transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (C-TLIF) using the crescent-shaped titanium interbody spacer (IBS) favors acquisition of segmental and lumbar lordosis even for degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) on a long-term basis. We analyzed 23 consecutive patients who underwent C-TLIF with pedicle screw instrumentations fixed with compression for a single-level DS. Measurements on the lateral radiographs taken preoperatively, 2 weeks postoperatively and at final follow-up included disc angle (DA), segmental angle (SA), lumbar lordosis (LL), disc height (%DH) and slip rate (%slip). There was a good functional recovery with 100 % fusion rate at the mean follow-up of 62 months. Segmental lordosis (DA and SA) and %DH initially increased, but subsequently decreased with the subsidence of the interbody spacer, resulting in a significant increase (p = 0.046) only in SA from 13.2° ± 5.5° preoperatively to 14.7° ± 6.4° at the final follow-up. Changes of LL and %slip were more consistent without correction loss finally showing an increase of LL by 3.6° (p = 0.005) and a slip reduction by 6.7 % (p < 0.001). Despite the inherent limitation of placing the IBS against the anterior endplate of the upper vertebra in the presence of DS, the C-TLIF helped significantly restore segmental as well as lumbar lordosis on a long-term basis, which would be of benefit in preventing hypolordosis-induced back pain and the adjacent level disc disease.

  1. Bay11-7082 attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome activation in dorsal root ganglions in a rat model of lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ailiang; Wang, Kun; Ding, Lianghua; Bao, Xinnan; Wang, Xuan; Qiu, Xubin; Liu, Jinbo

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is an important cause of radiculopathy, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Many studies suggested that local inflammation, rather than mechanical compression, results in radiculopathy induced by LDH. On the molecular and cellular level, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome have been implicated in the regulation of neuroinflammation formation and progression. In this study, the autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) was implanted in the left L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to mimic LDH in rats. We investigated the expression of NF-κB and the components of NLRP3 inflammasome in the DRG neurons in rats. Western blotting and immunofluorescence for the related molecules, including NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase-1 activator domain (ASC), caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, IκBα, p-IκBα, p65, p-p65, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were examined. In the NP-treated group, the activations of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65 in DRG neurons in rats were elevated at 1 day after surgery, and the peak occurred at 7 days. Treatment with Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of the actions of IKK-β, was able to inhibit expression and activation of the molecules (NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, p-IκBα, and p-p65) and relieve the pain in rats. Our study shows that NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the maintenance of NP-induced pain, and that Bay11-7082 could alleviate mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia by inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. PMID:28243141

  2. [Influence of disc height on outcome of posterolateral fusion].

    PubMed

    Drain, O; Lenoir, T; Dauzac, C; Rillardon, L; Guigui, P

    2008-09-01

    Experimentally, posterolateral fusion only provides incomplete control of flexion-extension, rotation and lateral inclination forces. The stability deficit increases with increasing height of the anterior intervertebral space, which for some warrants the adjunction of an intersomatic arthrodesis in addition to the posterolateral graft. Few studies have been devoted to the impact of disc height on the outcome of posterolateral fusion. The purpose of this work was to investigate the spinal segment immobilized by the posterolateral fusion: height of the anterior intervertebral space, the clinical and radiographic impact of changes in disc height, and the short- and long-term impact of disc height measured preoperatively on clinical and radiographic outcome. In order to obtain a homogeneous group of patients, the series was limited to patients undergoing posterolateral arthrodesis for degenerative spondylolisthesis, in combination with radicular release. This was a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 66 patients with mean 52 months follow-up (range 3-63 months). A dedicated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on pre- and postoperative function, the SF-36 quality of life score, and patient satisfaction. Pre- and postoperative (early, one year, last follow-up) radiographic data were recorded: olisthesic level, disc height, intervertebral angle, intervertebral mobility (angular, anteroposterior), and global measures of sagittal balance (thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, T9 sagittal tilt, pelvic version, pelvic incidence, sacral slope). SpineView was used for all measures. Univariate analysis searched for correlations between variation in disc height and early postoperative function and quality of fusion at last follow-up. Multivariate analysis was applied to the following preoperative parameters: intervertebral angle, disc height, intervertebral mobility, sagittal balance parameters, use of osteosynthesis or not. At the olisthesic

  3. Pedicle screw-rod fixation: a feasible treatment for dogs with severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tellegen, Anna R; Willems, Nicole; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Meij, Björn P

    2015-12-07

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis is a common problem in large breed dogs. For severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis, conservative treatment is often not effective and surgical intervention remains as the last treatment option. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the middle to long term outcome of treatment of severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis with pedicle screw-rod fixation with or without evidence of radiological discospondylitis. Twelve client-owned dogs with severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis underwent pedicle screw-rod fixation of the lumbosacral junction. During long term follow-up, dogs were monitored by clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, force plate analysis, and by using questionnaires to owners. Clinical evaluation, force plate data, and responses to questionnaires completed by the owners showed resolution (n = 8) or improvement (n = 4) of clinical signs after pedicle screw-rod fixation in 12 dogs. There were no implant failures, however, no interbody vertebral bone fusion of the lumbosacral junction was observed in the follow-up period. Four dogs developed mild recurrent low back pain that could easily be controlled by pain medication and an altered exercise regime. Pedicle screw-rod fixation offers a surgical treatment option for large breed dogs with severe degenerative lumbosacral stenosis with or without evidence of radiological discospondylitis in which no other treatment is available. Pedicle screw-rod fixation alone does not result in interbody vertebral bone fusion between L7 and S1.

  4. The relationship between chronic type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation and cervical spine pain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This study was aimed at evaluating whether or not patients with chronic type III acromioclavicular dislocation develop cervical spine pain and degenerative changes more frequently than normal subjects. Methods The cervical spine of 34 patients with chronic type III AC dislocation was radiographically evaluated. Osteophytosis presence was registered and the narrowing of the intervertebral disc and cervical lordosis were evaluated. Subjective cervical symptoms were investigated using the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ). One-hundred healthy volunteers were recruited as a control group. Results The rate and distribution of osteophytosis and narrowed intervertebral disc were similar in both of the groups. Patients with chronic AC dislocation had a lower value of cervical lordosis. NPQ score was 17.3% in patients with AC separation (100% = the worst result) and 2.2% in the control group (p < 0.05). An inverse significant nonparametric correlation was found between the NPQ value and the lordosis degree in the AC dislocation group (p = 0.001) wheras results were not correlated (p = 0.27) in the control group. Conclusions Our study shows that chronic type III AC dislocation does not interfere with osteophytes formation or intervertebral disc narrowing, but that it may predispose cervical hypolordosis. The higher average NPQ values were observed in patients with chronic AC dislocation, especially in those that developed cervical hypolordosis. PMID:20015356

  5. [The influence of kinesiotaping on lumbar spine pain].

    PubMed

    Ciosek, Zaneta; Kopacz, Lukasz; Samulak, Lukasz; Kaźmierczak, Agata; Rotter, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Pain in the lumbosacral spine is currently one of the most common pain complaints among the elderly. About 72% of the Polish population younger than 40 years have at least once been treated by a doctor for back pain. Degenerative changes of intervertebral joints, overloads, intervertebral disc diseases, and dysfunction of spinal ligaments are very often responsible for the formation of back pain, which is basically a problem of the elderly, The study was conducted among 60 residents of a Nursing Home in Szczecin with chronic lumbar pain. The age range was 56-85 years. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 30 (study group, where KinesioTaping was used, and a control group without KinesioTaping application). To assess the degree of pain experienced by the patient a visual analogue scale (VAS) in the horizontal format from 0-10 was used, on which subjects scored the severity of pain. Flexion, extension, tilt and rotation were measured with a tape to assess spinal and trunk mobility. In all patients, who had a KinesioTaping patch applied on the lumbosacral spine pain measured by VAS reduced (p ≤ 0.001). Considering respondents' sex, the spine mobility in the tilting position improved in men in the study group in terms of tilting to both sides. In all patients, the application of a KinesioTaping patch significantly improved the rotation to the right side (p ≤ 0.05), scores in the "finger-floor" flexion test (p ≤ 0.01), and the extension range (p ≤ 0.01). KinesioTaping is a beneficial method reducing pain and improving the mobility in the lumbosacral spine. The improvement was independent of the sex of the respondents.

  6. A new in vivo animal model to create intervertebral disc degeneration characterized by MRI, radiography, CT/discogram, biochemistry, and histology.

    PubMed

    Zhou, HaoWei; Hou, ShuXun; Shang, WeiLin; Wu, WenWen; Cheng, Yao; Mei, Fang; Peng, BaoGan

    2007-04-15

    A new in vivo sheep model was developed that produced disc degeneration through the injection of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into the intervertebral disc. This process was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiography, CT/discogram, histology, and biochemistry. To develop a sheep model of intervertebral disc degeneration that more faithfully mimics the pathologic hallmarks of human intervertebral disc degeneration. Recent studies have shown age-related alterations in proteoglycan structure and organization in human intervertebral discs. An animal model that involves the use of age-related changes in disc cells can be beneficial over other more invasive degenerative models that involves directly damaging the matrix of disc tissue. Twelve sheep were injected with BrdU or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) into the central region of separate lumbar discs. Intact discs were used as controls. At the 2-, 6-, 10-, and 14-week time points, discs underwent MRI, radiography, histology, and biochemical analyses. A CT/discogram study was performed at the 14-week time point. MRI demonstrated a progressive loss of T2-weighted signal intensity at BrdU-injected discs over the 14-week study period. Radiograph findings included osteophyte and disc space narrowing formed by 10 weeks post-BrdU treatment. CT discography demonstrated internal disc disruption in several BrdU-treated discs at the 14-week time point. Histology showed a progressive loss of the normal architecture and cell density of discs from the 2-week time point to the 14-week time point. A progressive loss of cell proliferation capacity, water content, and proteoglycans was also documented. BrdU injection into the central region of sheep discs resulted in degeneration of intervertebral discs. This progressive, degenerative process was confirmed using MRI, histology, and by observing changes in biochemistry. Degeneration occurred in a manner that was similar to that observed in human disc degeneration.

  7. Shh signaling from the nucleus pulposus is required for the postnatal growth and differentiation of the mouse intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Dahia, Chitra Lekha; Mahoney, Eric; Wylie, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVD) are essential components of the vertebral column. They maintain separation, and provide shock absorbing buffers, between adjacent vertebrae, while also allowing movements between them. Each IVD consists of a central semi-liquid nucleus pulposus (NP) surrounded by a multi-layered fibrocartilagenous annulus fibrosus (AF). Although the IVDs grow and differentiate after birth along with the vertebral column, little is known about the mechanism of this. Understanding the signals that control normal IVD growth and differentiation would also provide potential therapies for degenerative disc disease, which is the major cause of lower back pain and affects a large proportion of the population. In this work, we show that during postnatal growth of the mouse, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling from the NP cells controls many aspects of growth and differentiation of both the NP cells themselves and of the surrounding AF, and that it acts, at least partly, by regulating other signaling pathways in the NP and AF. Recent studies have shown that the NP cells arise from the embryonic notochord, which acts as a major signaling center in the embryo. This work shows that this notochord-derived tissue continues to carry out a major signaling function in the postnatal body and that the IVDs are signaling centers, in addition to their already known functions in the mechanics of vertebral column function.

  8. Advances in surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Silber, Jeff S; Anderson, D Greg; Hayes, Victor M; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2002-07-01

    The past several years have seen many advances in spine technology. Some of these advances have improved the quality of life of patients suffering from disabling low back pain from degenerative disk disease. Traditional fusion procedures are trending toward less invasive approaches with less iatrogenic soft-tissue morbidity. The diversity of bone graft substitutes is increasing with the potential for significant improvements in fusion success with the future introduction of several well tested bone morphogenic proteins to the spinal market. Biologic solutions to modify the natural history of disk degeneration are being investigated. Recently, electrothermal modulation of the posterior annulus fibrosis has been published as a semi-invasive technique to relieve low back pain generated by fissures in the outer annulus and ingrowing nociceptors (intradiskal electrothermal therapy, and intradiskal electrothermal annuloplasty). Initial results are promising, however, prospective randomized studies comparing this technique with conservative therapy are still lacking. The same is true for artificial nucleus pulposus replacement using hydrogel cushions implanted in the intervertebral space after removal of the nucleus pulposus posterior or through an anterior approach. Intervertebral disk prostheses are presently being studied in small prospective patient cohorts. As with all new developments, careful prospective, long-term trials are needed to fully define the role of these technologies in the management of symptomatic lumbar degenerative disk disease.

  9. Kinematics of a selectively constrained radiolucent anterior lumbar disc: comparisons to hybrid and circumferential fusion.

    PubMed

    Daftari, Tapan K; Chinthakunta, Suresh R; Ingalhalikar, Aditya; Gudipally, Manasa; Hussain, Mir; Khalil, Saif

    2012-10-01

    Despite encouraging clinical outcomes of one-level total disc replacements reported in literature, there is no compelling evidence regarding the stability following two-level disc replacement and hybrid constructs. The current study is aimed at evaluating the multidirectional kinematics of a two-level disc arthroplasty and hybrid construct with disc replacement adjacent to rigid circumferential fusion, compared to two-level fusion using a novel selectively constrained radiolucent anterior lumbar disc. Nine osteoligamentous lumbosacral spines (L1-S1) were tested in the following sequence: 1) Intact; 2) One-level disc replacement; 3) Hybrid; 4) Two-level disc replacement; and 5) Two-level fusion. Range of motion (at both implanted and adjacent level), and center of rotation in sagittal plane were recorded and calculated. At the level of implantation, motion was restored when one-level disc replacement was used but tended to decrease with two-level disc arthroplasty. The findings also revealed that both one-level and two-level disc replacement and hybrid constructs did not significantly change adjacent level kinematics compared to the intact condition, whereas the two-level fusion construct demonstrated a significant increase in flexibility at the adjacent level. The location of center of rotation in the sagittal plane at L4-L5 for the one-level disc replacement construct was similar to that of the intact condition. The one-level disc arthroplasty tended to mimic a motion profile similar to the intact spine. However, the two-level disc replacement construct tended to reduce motion and clinical stability of a two-level disc arthroplasty requires additional investigation. Hybrid constructs may be used as a surgical alternative for treating two-level lumbar degenerative disc disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Long-term Evaluation of Cervical Disc Arthroplasty with the Mobi-C© Cervical Disc: A Randomized, Prospective, Multicenter Clinical Trial with Seven-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Radcliff, Kris; Davis, Reginald J; Hisey, Michael S; Nunley, Pierce D; Hoffman, Gregory A; Jackson, Robert J; Bae, Hyun W; Albert, Todd; Coric, Dom

    2017-01-01

    Cervical total disc replacement (TDR) is an increasingly accepted procedure for the treatment of symptomatic cervical degenerative disc disease. Multiple Level I evidence clinical trials have established cervical TDR to be a safe and effective procedure in the short-term. The objective of this study is to provide a long-term assessment of TDR versus anterior discectomy and fusion for the treatment of one- and two-level disc disease. This study was a continuation of a prospective, multicenter, randomized, US FDA IDE clinical trial comparing cervical TDR with the Mobi-C © Cervical Disc versus ACDF through 7 years follow-up. Inclusion criteria included a diagnosis of symptomatic cervical degenerative disc disease at one or two cervical levels. TDR patients were treated using a Mobi-C © artificial disc (Zimmer Biomet, Austin TX, USA). ACDF with allograft and anterior plate was used as a control treatment. Outcome measures were collected preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, at 3, 6, 12, 18 months, annually through 60 months, and at 84 months. Measured outcomes included Overall success, Neck Disability Index (NDI), VAS neck and arm pain, segmental range of motion (ROM), patient satisfaction, SF-12 MCS/PCS, major complications, and subsequent surgery rate. The primary endpoint was an FDA composite definition of success comprising clinical improvement and an absence of major complications and secondary surgery events. A total of 599 patients were enrolled and treated, with 164 treated with one-level TDR, 225 treated with two-level TDR, 81 treated with one-level ACDF, and 105 treated with two-level ACDF. At seven years, follow-up rates ranged from 73.5% to 84.4% (overall 80.2%).The overall success rates of two level TDR and ACDF patients were 60.8% and 34.2%, respectively (p<0.0001). The overall success rates of one level TDR and ACDF patients were 55.2% and 50%, respectively (p>0.05). Both the single and two level TDR and ACDF groups showed significant

  11. Long-term Evaluation of Cervical Disc Arthroplasty with the Mobi-C© Cervical Disc: A Randomized, Prospective, Multicenter Clinical Trial with Seven-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Reginald J.; Hisey, Michael S.; Nunley, Pierce D.; Hoffman, Gregory A.; Jackson, Robert J.; Bae, Hyun W.; Albert, Todd; Coric, Dom

    2017-01-01

    Background Cervical total disc replacement (TDR) is an increasingly accepted procedure for the treatment of symptomatic cervical degenerative disc disease. Multiple Level I evidence clinical trials have established cervical TDR to be a safe and effective procedure in the short-term. The objective of this study is to provide a long-term assessment of TDR versus anterior discectomy and fusion for the treatment of one- and two-level disc disease. Methods This study was a continuation of a prospective, multicenter, randomized, US FDA IDE clinical trial comparing cervical TDR with the Mobi-C© Cervical Disc versus ACDF through 7 years follow-up. Inclusion criteria included a diagnosis of symptomatic cervical degenerative disc disease at one or two cervical levels. TDR patients were treated using a Mobi-C© artificial disc (Zimmer Biomet, Austin TX, USA). ACDF with allograft and anterior plate was used as a control treatment. Outcome measures were collected preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, at 3, 6, 12, 18 months, annually through 60 months, and at 84 months. Measured outcomes included Overall success, Neck Disability Index (NDI), VAS neck and arm pain, segmental range of motion (ROM), patient satisfaction, SF-12 MCS/PCS, major complications, and subsequent surgery rate. The primary endpoint was an FDA composite definition of success comprising clinical improvement and an absence of major complications and secondary surgery events. Results A total of 599 patients were enrolled and treated, with 164 treated with one-level TDR, 225 treated with two-level TDR, 81 treated with one-level ACDF, and 105 treated with two-level ACDF. At seven years, follow-up rates ranged from 73.5% to 84.4% (overall 80.2%). The overall success rates of two level TDR and ACDF patients were 60.8% and 34.2%, respectively (p<0.0001). The overall success rates of one level TDR and ACDF patients were 55.2% and 50%, respectively (p>0.05). Both the single and two level TDR and ACDF groups

  12. Transforaminal Endoscopic Decompression for Foot Drop Twelve Years After Lumbar Total Disc Replacment: Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Telfeian, Albert E; Oyelese, Adetokunbo; Fridley, Jared; Gokaslan, Ziya L

    2018-05-19

    Lumbar total disc replacement (LTDR) is considered for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disease with the hope that by preserving motion the long-term fusion complication of adjacent segment disease can be avoided. The complications of LTDR can be divided into approach-related and long-term complications. Very little has been described about the complications and treatment for complications more than 10 years after the device has been implanted. Here we describe a tranforaminal endoscopic discectomy procedure for a patient presenting with foot drop twelve years after a L5-S1 total disc replacement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Stereotypic behaviors in degenerative dementias.

    PubMed

    Prioni, S; Fetoni, V; Barocco, F; Redaelli, V; Falcone, C; Soliveri, P; Tagliavini, F; Scaglioni, A; Caffarra, P; Concari, L; Gardini, S; Girotti, F

    2012-11-01

    Stereotypies are simple or complex involuntary/unvoluntary behaviors, common in fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), but not studied in other types of degenerative dementias. The aim was to investigate stereotypy frequency and type in patients with FTD, Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) in a multicenter observational study; and to investigate the relation of stereotypies to cognitive, behavioral and motor impairment. One hundred fifty-five consecutive outpatients (45 AD, 40 FTD, 35 PSP and 35 PDD) were studied in four hospitals in northern Italy. Stereotypies were examined by the five-domain Stereotypy Rating Inventory. Cognition was examined by the Mini Mental State and Frontal Assessment Battery, neuropsychiatric symptoms by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and motor impairment and invalidity by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III, and activities of daily living. Stereotypies were present in all groups. FTD and PDD had the greatest frequency of one-domain stereotypies; FTD also had the greatest frequency of two-or-more domain stereotypies; movement stereotypies were the most common stereotypies in all groups. AD patients had fewer stereotypies than the other groups. Stereotypies are not exclusive to FTD, but are also fairly common in PSP and PDD, though less so in AD. Stereotypies may be underpinned by dysfunctional striato-frontal circuits, known to be damaged in PSP and PDD, as well as FTD.

  14. Instability of warped discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doǧan, S.; Nixon, C. J.; King, A. R.; Pringle, J. E.

    2018-05-01

    Accretion discs are generally warped. If a warp in a disc is too large, the disc can `break' apart into two or more distinct planes, with only tenuous connections between them. Further, if an initially planar disc is subject to a strong differential precession, then it can be torn apart into discrete annuli that precess effectively independently. In previous investigations, torque-balance formulae have been used to predict where and when the disc breaks into distinct parts. In this work, focusing on discs with Keplerian rotation and where the shearing motions driving the radial communication of the warp are damped locally by turbulence (the `diffusive' regime), we investigate the stability of warped discs to determine the precise criterion for an isolated warped disc to break. We find and solve the dispersion relation, which, in general, yields three roots. We provide a comprehensive analysis of this viscous-warp instability and the emergent growth rates and their dependence on disc parameters. The physics of the instability can be understood as a combination of (1) a term that would generally encapsulate the classical Lightman-Eardley instability in planar discs (given by ∂(νΣ)/∂Σ < 0) but is here modified by the warp to include ∂(ν1|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0, and (2) a similar condition acting on the diffusion of the warp amplitude given in simplified form by ∂(ν2|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0. We discuss our findings in the context of discs with an imposed precession, and comment on the implications for different astrophysical systems.

  15. A Large Animal Model that Recapitulates the Spectrum of Human Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gullbrand, Sarah E.; Malhotra, Neil R.; Schaer, Thomas P.; Zawacki, Zosia; Martin, John T.; Bendigo, Justin R.; Milby, Andrew H.; Dodge, George R.; Vresilovic, Edward J.; Elliott, Dawn M.; Mauck, Robert L.; Smith, Lachlan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to establish a large animal model that recapitulates the spectrum of intervertebral disc degeneration that occurs in humans and which is suitable for pre-clinical evaluation of a wide range of experimental therapeutics. Design Degeneration was induced in the lumbar intervertebral discs of large frame goats by either intradiscal injection of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) over a range of dosages (0.1U, 1U or 5U) or subtotal nucleotomy. Radiographs were used to assess disc height changes over 12 weeks. Degenerative changes to the discs and endplates were assessed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), semi-quantitative histological grading, micro-computed tomography (µCT), and measurement of disc biomechanical properties. Results Degenerative changes were observed for all interventions that ranged from mild (0.1U ChABC) to moderate (1U ChABC and nucleotomy) to severe (5U ChABC). All groups showed progressive reductions in disc height over 12 weeks. Histological scores were significantly increased in the 1U and 5U ChABC groups. Reductions in T2 and T1ρ, and increased Pfirrmann grade were observed on MRI. Resorption and remodeling of the cortical boney endplate adjacent to ChABC injected discs also occurred. Spine segment range of motion was greater and compressive modulus was lower in 1U ChABC and nucleotomy discs compared to intact. Conclusions A large animal model of disc degeneration was established that recapitulates the spectrum of structural, compositional and biomechanical features of human disc degeneration. This model may serve as a robust platform for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutics targeted towards varying degrees of disc degeneration. PMID:27568573

  16. [Comparison of the effect of laser and magnetic therapy for pain level and the range of motion of the spine of people with osteoarthritis lower back].

    PubMed

    Zdrodowska, Beata; Leszczyńska-Filus, Magdalena; Leszczyński, Ryszard; Błaszczyk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Increased expression of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is an onerous task, which reduces the efficiency of the activity and life of many populations. It is the most common cause of medical visits. In 95% of cases the cause of complaints is a destructive process in the course of degenerative intervertebral disc called a lumbar disc herniation. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus causes severe pain and impaired muscle tone, often more chronic and difficult to master. Successful treatment of lumbar disc herniation constitutes a serious interdisciplinary problem. It is important to properly planned and carried out physiotherapy. Based on the number of non-invasive methods, to reduce muscle tension, mute pain and alleviation of inflammation. It is the treatment safe, effective, and at the same time, which is their big advantage, readily available and cheap. It is worth noting that not every method has the same efficiency. The question that the methods are effective in relieving pain and helping to effectively increase the range of motion led to a comparison of two methods - Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and pulsating magnetic field therapy. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of LLLT and pulsating magnetic field therapy in combating pain and increase range of motion of the spine of people with degenerative spine disease of the lower back. 120 patients with diagnose lumbar disc herniation whit no nerve roots symptoms. Patients were divided into two Groups: A and B. Group A of 60 patients were subjected to laser therapy (λ=820nm, P=400mW, Ed=6-12 J/cm²) and the second Group B of 60 patients too, to pulsating magnetic fields procedures (5mT, 30 Hz, 15 minutes). Every patient before rehabilitation started and right after it has finished has undergone examination. Subjective pain assessment was carried out using a modified Laitinen questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scale of Pain intensity. Spine mobility was evaluated whit the Schober test and the

  17. Clinical and radiographic outcomes of bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis with stenosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaofei; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Xiaojiang; Zhao, Changqing; Li, Hua; Ni, Bin; Zhao, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Laminectomy with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) has been shown to achieve satisfactory clinical outcomes, but it leads to potential adverse consequences associated with extensive disruption of posterior bony and soft tissue structures. This study aimed to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach (BDUA) with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and laminectomy with PLIF in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS) with stenosis. This is a prospective cohort study. This study compared 43 patients undergoing BDUA+TLIF and 40 patients undergoing laminectomy+PLIF. Visual analog scale (VAS) for low back pain and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) score. The clinical outcomes were assessed, and intraoperative data and complications were collected. Radiographic outcomes included slippage of the vertebra, disc space height, segmental lordosis, and final fusion rate. This study was supported by a grant from The National Natural Science Foundation of China (81572168). There were significant improvements in clinical and radiographic outcomes from before surgery to 3 months and 2 years after surgery within each group. Analysis of leg pain VAS and ZCQ scores showed no significant differences in improvement between groups at either follow-up. The mean improvements in low back pain VAS and ODI scores were significantly greater in the BDUA+TLIF group than in the laminectomy+PLIF group. No significant difference was found in the final fusion rate at 2-year follow-up. The BDUA+TLIF group had significantly less blood loss, shorter length of postoperative hospital stay, and lower complication rate compared with the laminectomy+PLIF group. When compared with the conventional laminectomy+PLIF procedure, the BDUA+TLIF procedure achieves similar and satisfactory effects of decompression and fusion for DLS with stenosis. The BDUA+TLIF procedure

  18. Prospective, Randomized Comparison of One-level Mobi-C Cervical Total Disc Replacement vs. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: Results at 5-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Zigler, Jack E.; Jackson, Robert; Nunley, Pierce D.; Bae, Hyun W.; Kim, Kee D.; Ohnmeiss, Donna D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing interest in the role of cervical total disc replacement (TDR) as an alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Multiple prospective randomized studies with minimum 2 year follow-up have shown TDR to be at least as safe and effective as ACDF in treating symptomatic degenerative disc disease at a single level. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of cervical TDR using the Mobi-C® with ACDF at 5-year follow-up. Methods This prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted as a Food and Drug Administration regulated Investigational Device Exemption trial across 23 centers with 245 patients randomized (2:1) to receive TDR with Mobi-C® Cervical Disc Prosthesis or ACDF with anterior plate and allograft. Outcome assessments included a composite overall success score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), visual analog scales (VAS) assessing neck and arm pain, Short Form-12 (SF-12) health survey, patient satisfaction, major complications, subsequent surgery, segmental range of motion, and adjacent segment degeneration. Results The 60-month follow-up rate was 85.5% for the TDR group and 78.9% for the ACDF group. The composite overall success was 61.9% with TDR vs. 52.2% with ACDF, demonstrating statistical non-inferiority. Improvements in NDI, VAS neck and arm pain, and SF-12 scores were similar between groups and were maintained from earlier follow-up through 60 months. There was no significant difference between TDR and ACDF in adverse events or major complications. Range of motion was maintained with TDR through 60 months. Device-related subsequent surgeries (TDR: 3.0%, ACDF: 11.1%, p<0.02) and adjacent segment degeneration at the superior level (TDR: 37.1%, ACDF: 54.7%, p<0.03) were significantly lower for TDR patients. Conclusions Five-year results demonstrate the safety and efficacy of TDR with the Mobi-C as a viable alternative to ACDF with the potential advantage of lower rates of reoperation and

  19. Percutaneous treatment of intervertebral disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Buy, Xavier; Gangi, Afshin

    2010-06-01

    Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of symptomatic intervertebral disc herniations. In the absence of significant pain relief with conservative treatment including oral pain killers and anti-inflammatory drugs, selective image-guided periradicular infiltrations are generally indicated. The precise control of needle positioning allows optimal distribution of steroids along the painful nerve root. After 6 weeks of failure of conservative treatment including periradicular infiltration, treatment aiming to decompress or remove the herniation is considered. Conventional open surgery offers suboptimal results and is associated with significant morbidity. To achieve minimally invasive discal decompression, different percutaneous techniques have been developed. Their principle is to remove a small volume of nucleus, which results in an important reduction of intradiscal pressure and subsequently reduction of pressure inside the disc herniation. However, only contained disc herniations determined by computed tomography or magnetic resonance are indicated for these techniques. Thermal techniques such as radiofrequency or laser nucleotomy seem to be more effective than purely mechanical nucleotomy; indeed, they achieve discal decompression but also thermal destruction of intradiscal nociceptors, which may play a major role in the physiopathology of discal pain. The techniques of image-guided spinal periradicular infiltration and percutaneous nucleotomy with laser and radiofrequency are presented with emphasis on their best indications.

  20. Degenerative Changes of Spine in Helicopter Pilots

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Joo Hyeon; Kim, Jung Won; Jeong, Ho Joong; Sim, Young Joo; Kim, Dong Kyu; Choi, Jong Kyoung; Im, Hyoung June

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between whole body vibration (WBV) induced helicopter flights and degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spine. Methods We examined 186 helicopter pilots who were exposed to WBV and 94 military clerical workers at a military hospital. Questionnaires and interviews were completed for 164 of the 186 pilots (response rate, 88.2%) and 88 of the 94 clerical workers (response rate, 93.6%). Radiographic examinations of the cervical and the lumbar spines were performed after obtaining informed consent in both groups. Degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spines were determined using four radiographs per subject, and diagnosed by two independent, blinded radiologists. Results There was no significant difference in general and work-related characteristics except for flight hours and frequency between helicopter pilots and clerical workers. Degenerative changes in the cervical spine were significantly more prevalent in the helicopter pilots compared with control group. In the cervical spine multivariate model, accumulated flight hours (per 100 hours) was associated with degenerative changes. And in the lumbar spine multivariate model, accumulated flight hours (per 100 hours) and age were associated with degenerative changes. Conclusion Accumulated flight hours were associated with degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spines in helicopter pilots. PMID:24236259

  1. Prediction of Postoperative Clinical Recovery of Drop Foot Attributable to Lumbar Degenerative Diseases, via a Bayesian Network.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Shota; Aono, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Drop foot resulting from degenerative lumbar diseases can impair activities of daily living. Therefore, predictors of recovery of this symptom have been investigated using univariate or/and multivariate analyses. However, the conclusions have been somewhat controversial. Bayesian network models, which are graphic and intuitive to the clinician, may facilitate understanding of the prognosis of drop foot resulting from degenerative lumbar diseases. (1) To show a layered correlation among predictors of recovery from drop foot resulting from degenerative lumbar diseases; and (2) to develop support tools for clinical decisions to treat drop foot resulting from lumbar degenerative diseases. Between 1993 and 2013, we treated 141 patients with decompressive lumbar spine surgery who presented with drop foot attributable to degenerative diseases. Of those, 102 (72%) were included in this retrospective study because they had drop foot of recent development and had no diseases develop that affect evaluation of drop foot after surgery. Specifically, 28 (20%) patients could not be analyzed because their records were not available at a minimum of 2 years followup after surgery and 11 (8%) were lost owing to postoperative conditions that affect the muscle strength evaluation. Eight candidate variables were sex, age, herniated soft disc, duration of the neurologic injury (duration), preoperative tibialis anterior muscle strength (pretibialis anterior), leg pain, cauda equina syndrome, and number of involved levels. Manual muscle testing was used to assess the tibialis anterior muscle strength. Drop foot was defined as a tibialis anterior muscle strength score of less than 3 of 5 (5 = movement against gravity and full resistance, 4 = movement against gravity and moderate resistance, 3 = movement against gravity through full ROM, 3- = movement against gravity through partial ROM, 2 = movement with gravity eliminated through full ROM, 1 = slight contraction but no movement, and 0 = no

  2. Age-related carbonylation of fibrocartilage structural proteins drives tissue degenerative modification.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Brian; Clement, Cristina C; Yodmuang, Supansa; Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Suadicani, Sylvia O; Aphkhazava, David; Thi, Mia M; Perino, Giorgio; Hardin, John A; Cobelli, Neil; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Santambrogio, Laura

    2013-07-25

    Aging-related oxidative stress has been linked to degenerative modifications in different organs and tissues. Using redox proteomic analysis and illustrative tandem mass spectrometry mapping, we demonstrate oxidative posttranslational modifications in structural proteins of intervertebral discs (IVDs) isolated from aging mice. Increased protein carbonylation was associated with protein fragmentation and aggregation. Complementing these findings, a significant loss of elasticity and increased stiffness was measured in fibrocartilage from aging mice. Studies using circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence revealed a significant loss of secondary and tertiary structures of purified collagens following oxidation. Collagen unfolding and oxidation promoted both nonenzymatic and enzymatic degradation. Importantly, induction of oxidative modification in healthy fibrocartilage recapitulated the biochemical and biophysical modifications observed in the aging IVD. Together, these results suggest that protein carbonylation, glycation, and lipoxidation could be early events in promoting IVD degenerative changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Virtual clinical diagnosis support system of degenerative stenosis of the lumbar spinal canal].

    PubMed

    Shevelev, I N; Konovalov, N A; Cherkashov, A M; Molodchenkov, A A; Sharamko, T G; Asiutin, D S; Nazarenko, A G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a virtual clinical diagnostic support system of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis on database of spine registry. Choice of criteria's for diagnostic system was made on symptom analysis of 298 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Also was analysed a group of patient with disc herniation's for sensitivity and specify assessment of developed diagnostic support system. Represented clinical diagnostic support system allows identifying patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis on stage of patient's primary visit. System sensitivity and specify are 90 and 71% respectively. "Online" mode of diagnostic system in structure of spine registry provides maximal availability for specialists, regardless of their locations. Development of tools "medicine 2.0" is the actual direction for carrying out further researches with which carrying out the centralized baea collection by means of specialized registers helps.

  4. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. Results: The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years). Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%). On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Conclusion: Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis. PMID:27217655

  5. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy.

    PubMed

    Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit

    2016-01-01

    The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years). Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%). On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis.

  6. Cervical intradural disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Iwamura, Y; Onari, K; Kondo, S; Inasaka, R; Horii, H

    2001-03-15

    A case report of anterior en bloc resected cervical intradural disc herniation and a review of the literature. To discuss the pathogenesis of cervical intradural disc herniation. Including this study case, only 17 cases of cervical intradural disc herniation have been reported. There have been few detailed reports concerning the pathogenesis of cervical intradural disc herniation. A cervical intradural disc herniation at C6-C7, with localized hypertrophy and segmentally ossified posterior longitudinal ligament, is reported in a 45-year-old man who had Brown-Sequard syndrome diagnosed on neurologic examination. Neuroradiologic, operative, and histologic findings, particularly the pathology of the anterior en bloc resected posterior vertebral portion of C6 and C7, were evaluated for discussion of the pathogenesis. Adhesion of dura mater and hypertrophic posterior longitudinal ligament was observed around a perforated portion of the herniated disc, and histologic study showed irregularity in fiber alignment accompanied by scattered inflammatory cell infiltration and hypertrophy in the posterior longitudinal ligament. The cervical intradural disc herniation was removed successfully and followed by C5-Th1 anterior interbody fusion with fibular strut graft. Neurologic recovery was complete except for minor residual sensory disturbance in the leg 7 years after the surgery. Cervical intradural disc herniation is an extremely rare condition. The pathogenesis remains obscure. Only 16 cases have been reported in the literature, and there has been little discussion concerning the local pathology of the herniated portion. The pathogenesis of the disease in the patient reported here was considered to be the adhesion and fragility of dura mater and posterior longitudinal ligament. This was caused by hypertrophy, with chronic inflammation and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament sustaining chronic mechanical irritation to the dura mater, leading to perforation of

  7. Back pain in space and post-flight spine injury: Mechanisms and countermeasure development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayson, Jojo V.; Lotz, Jeffrey; Parazynski, Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

    2013-05-01

    During spaceflight many astronauts experience moderate to severe lumbar pain and deconditioning of paraspinal muscles. There is also a significant incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) in astronauts post-flight being most prevalent in cervical discs. Relief of in-flight lumbar back pain is facilitated by assuming a knee-to-chest position. The pathogenesis of lumbar back pain during spaceflight is most likely discogenic and somatic referred (from the sinuvertebral nerves) due to supra-physiologic swelling of the lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) due to removal of gravitational compressive loads in microgravity. The knee-to-chest position may reduce lumbar back pain by redistributing stresses through compressive loading to the IVDs, possibly reducing disc volume by fluid outflow across IVD endplates. IVD stress redistribution may reduce Type IV mechanoreceptor nerve impulse propagation in the annulus fibrosus and vertebral endplate resulting in centrally mediated pain inhibition during spinal flexion. Countermeasures for lumbar back pain may include in-flight use of: (1) an axial compression harness to prevent excessive IVD expansion and spinal column elongation; (2) the use of an adjustable pulley exercise developed to prevent atrophy of spine muscle stabilisers; and (3) other exercises that provide Earth-like annular stress with low-load repetitive active spine rotation movements. The overall objective of these countermeasures is to promote IVD health and to prevent degenerative changes that may lead to HNPs post-flight. In response to "NASA's Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions" regarding disc injury and higher incidence of HNPs after space flight (Integrated Research Plan Gap-B4), future studies will incorporate pre- and post-flight imaging of International Space Station long-duration crew members to investigate mechanisms of lumbar back pain as well as degeneration and damage to spinal structures. Quantitative results on morphological, biochemical

  8. Holographic optical disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Gan; An, Xin; Pu, Allen; Psaltis, Demetri; Mok, Fai H.

    1999-11-01

    The holographic disc is a high capacity, disk-based data storage device that can provide the performance for next generation mass data storage needs. With a projected capacity approaching 1 terabit on a single 12 cm platter, the holographic disc has the potential to become a highly efficient storage hardware for data warehousing applications. The high readout rate of holographic disc makes it especially suitable for generating multiple, high bandwidth data streams such as required for network server computers. Multimedia applications such as interactive video and HDTV can also potentially benefit from the high capacity and fast data access of holographic memory.

  9. [Low back pain vs. leg dominant pain].

    PubMed

    Kovac, Ida

    2011-01-01

    There are two patterns of back pain: 1) back-dominant pain and 2) leg pain dominant, greater than back pain. The causes of back pain are very different and numerous, but mostly are due to vertebral, mechanical etiology, and rarely because of non vertebral, visceral etiology. Leg pain greater than back pain is mostly disease of spinal nerve root, generally presented by radicular pain in a dermatomal distribution. Mechanical compression of spinal roots, caused by disc herniation or by spinal stenosis, results in radicular symptoms. Rarely, in about 1% of patients, there are some other reasons except vertebral mechanical cause, like infection, tumor or fracture. There are several causes of pseudoradicular pain like periferal neuropathy, myifascial syndromes, vascular diseases, osteoarthritis. Spondylarthropathies should be taken in cosideration as well. A complete history and physical examination is important to determine further diagnostic evaluation and to provide eficient therapy.

  10. Finite Element Study of a Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Nucleus Replacement Device.

    PubMed

    Coogan, Jessica S; Francis, W Loren; Eliason, Travis D; Bredbenner, Todd L; Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Nicolella, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus replacement technologies are a minimally invasive alternative to spinal fusion and total disc replacement that have the potential to reduce pain and restore motion for patients with degenerative disc disease. Finite element modeling can be used to determine the biomechanics associated with nucleus replacement technologies. The current study focuses on a new nucleus replacement device designed as a conforming silicone implant with an internal void. A validated finite element model of the human lumbar L3-L4 motion segment was developed and used to investigate the influence of the nucleus replacement device on spine biomechanics. In addition, the effect of device design changes on biomechanics was determined. A 3D, L3-L4 finite element model was constructed from medical imaging data. Models were created with the normal intact nucleus, the nucleus replacement device, and a solid silicone implant. Probabilistic analysis was performed on the normal model to provide quantitative validation metrics. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the silicone Shore A durometer of the device. Models were loaded under axial compression followed by flexion/extension, lateral bending, or axial rotation. Compressive displacement, endplate stresses, reaction moment, and annulus stresses were determined and compared between the different models. The novel nucleus replacement device resulted in similar compressive displacement, endplate stress, and annulus stress and slightly higher reaction moment compared with the normal nucleus. The solid implant resulted in decreased displacement, increased endplate stress, decreased annulus stress, and decreased reaction moment compared with the novel device. With increasing silicone durometer, compressive displacement decreased, endplate stress increased, reaction moment increased, and annulus stress decreased. Finite element analysis was used to show that the novel nucleus replacement device results in similar biomechanics compared with the

  11. Finite Element Study of a Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Nucleus Replacement Device

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Jessica S.; Francis, W. Loren; Eliason, Travis D.; Bredbenner, Todd L.; Stemper, Brian D.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Nicolella, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus replacement technologies are a minimally invasive alternative to spinal fusion and total disc replacement that have the potential to reduce pain and restore motion for patients with degenerative disc disease. Finite element modeling can be used to determine the biomechanics associated with nucleus replacement technologies. The current study focuses on a new nucleus replacement device designed as a conforming silicone implant with an internal void. A validated finite element model of the human lumbar L3–L4 motion segment was developed and used to investigate the influence of the nucleus replacement device on spine biomechanics. In addition, the effect of device design changes on biomechanics was determined. A 3D, L3–L4 finite element model was constructed from medical imaging data. Models were created with the normal intact nucleus, the nucleus replacement device, and a solid silicone implant. Probabilistic analysis was performed on the normal model to provide quantitative validation metrics. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the silicone Shore A durometer of the device. Models were loaded under axial compression followed by flexion/extension, lateral bending, or axial rotation. Compressive displacement, endplate stresses, reaction moment, and annulus stresses were determined and compared between the different models. The novel nucleus replacement device resulted in similar compressive displacement, endplate stress, and annulus stress and slightly higher reaction moment compared with the normal nucleus. The solid implant resulted in decreased displacement, increased endplate stress, decreased annulus stress, and decreased reaction moment compared with the novel device. With increasing silicone durometer, compressive displacement decreased, endplate stress increased, reaction moment increased, and annulus stress decreased. Finite element analysis was used to show that the novel nucleus replacement device results in similar biomechanics compared with

  12. Whole-body vibration of mice induces progressive degeneration of intervertebral discs associated with increased expression of Il-1β and multiple matrix degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    McCann, Matthew R; Veras, Matthew A; Yeung, Cynthia; Lalli, Gurkeet; Patel, Priya; Leitch, Kristyn M; Holdsworth, David W; Dixon, S Jeffrey; Séguin, Cheryle A

    2017-05-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a popular fitness trend based on claims of increased muscle mass, weight loss and reduced joint pain. Following its original implementation as a treatment to increase bone mass in patients with osteoporosis, WBV has been incorporated into clinical practice for musculoskeletal disorders, including back pain. However, our recent studies revealed damaging effects of WBV on joint health in a murine model. In this report, we examined potential mechanisms underlying disc degeneration following exposure of mice to WBV. Ten-week-old male mice were exposed to WBV (45 Hz, 0.3 g peak acceleration, 30 min/day, 5 days/week) for 4 weeks, 8 weeks, or 4 weeks WBV followed by 4 weeks recovery. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histological, and gene expression analyses were used to assess the effects of WBV on spinal tissues. Exposure of mice to 4 or 8 weeks of WBV did not alter total body composition or induce significant changes in vertebral bone density. On the other hand, WBV-induced intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, associated with decreased disc height and degenerative changes in the annulus fibrosus (AF) that did not recover within 4 weeks after cessation of WBV. Gene expression analysis showed that WBV for 8 weeks induced expression of Mmp3, Mmp13, and Adamts5 in IVD tissues, changes preceded by increased expression of Il-1β. Progressive IVD degeneration induced by WBV was associated with increased expression of Il-1β within the IVD that preceded Mmp and Adamts gene induction. Moreover, WBV-induced IVD degeneration is not reversed following cessation of vibration. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonsurgically managed patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis: a 10- to 18-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, S; Ijiri, K; Hayashi, K

    2000-10-01

    Controversy exists concerning the indications for surgery and choice of surgical procedure for patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis. The goals of this study were to determine the clinical course of nonsurgically managed patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis as well as the indications for surgery. A total of 145 nonsurgically managed patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis were examined annually for a minimum of 10 years follow-up evaluation. Radiographic changes, changes in clinical symptoms, and functional prognosis were surveyed. Progressive spondylolisthesis was observed in 49 patients (34%). There was no correlation between changes in clinical symptoms and progression of spondylolisthesis. The intervertebral spaces of the slipped segments were decreased significantly in size during follow-up examination in patients in whom no progression was found. Low-back pain improved following a decrease in the total intervertebral space size. A total of 84 (76%) of 110 patients who had no neurological deficits at initial examination remained without neurological deficit after 10 years of follow up. Twenty-nine (83%) of the 35 patients who had neurological symptoms, such as intermittent claudication or vesicorectal disorder, at initial examination and refused surgery experienced neurological deterioration. The final prognosis for these patients was very poor. Low-back pain was improved by restabilization. Conservative treatment is useful for patients who have low-back pain with or without pain in the lower extremities. Surgical intervention is indicated for patients with neurological symptoms including intermittent claudication or vesicorectal disorder, provided that a good functional outcome can be achieved.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration by axial T2* mapping.

    PubMed

    Huang, Leitao; Liu, Yuan; Ding, Yi; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Ning; Lai, Qi; Zeng, Xianjun; Wan, Zongmiao; Dai, Min; Zhang, Bin

    2017-12-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the clinical value and demonstrate the potential benefits of biochemical axial T2* mapping-based grading of early stages of degenerative disc disease (DDD) using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a clinical setting.Fifty patients with low back pain and 20 healthy volunteers (control) underwent standard MRI protocols including axial T2* mapping. All the intervertebral discs (IVDs) were classified morphologically. Lumbar IVDs were graded using Pfirrmann score (I to IV). The T2* values of the anterior annulus fibrosus (AF), posterior AF, and nucleus pulposus (NP) of each lumbar IVD were measured. The differences between groups were analyzed regarding specific T2* pattern at different regions of interest.The T2* values of the NP and posterior AF in the patient group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < .01). The T2* value of the anterior AF was not significantly different between the patients and the controls (P > .05). The mean T2*values of the lumbar IVD in the patient group were significantly lower, especially the posterior AF, followed by the NP, and finally, the anterior AF. In the anterior AF, comparison of grade I with grade III and grade I with grade IV showed statistically significant differences (P = .07 and P = .08, respectively). Similarly, in the NP, comparison of grade I with grade III, grade I with grade IV, grade II with grade III, and grade II with grade IV showed statistically significant differences (P < .001). In the posterior AF, comparison of grade II with grade IV showed a statistically significant difference (P = .032). T2 values decreased linearly with increasing degeneration based on the Pfirrmann scoring system (ρ < -0.5, P < .001).Changes in the T2* value can signify early degenerative IVD diseases. Hence, T2* mapping can be used as a diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of IVD degeneration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters

  15. Quantitative evaluation of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration by axial T2∗ mapping

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Leitao; Liu, Yuan; Ding, Yi; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Ning; Lai, Qi; Zeng, Xianjun; Wan, Zongmiao; Dai, Min; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To quantitatively evaluate the clinical value and demonstrate the potential benefits of biochemical axial T2∗ mapping-based grading of early stages of degenerative disc disease (DDD) using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a clinical setting. Fifty patients with low back pain and 20 healthy volunteers (control) underwent standard MRI protocols including axial T2∗ mapping. All the intervertebral discs (IVDs) were classified morphologically. Lumbar IVDs were graded using Pfirrmann score (I to IV). The T2∗ values of the anterior annulus fibrosus (AF), posterior AF, and nucleus pulposus (NP) of each lumbar IVD were measured. The differences between groups were analyzed regarding specific T2∗ pattern at different regions of interest. The T2∗ values of the NP and posterior AF in the patient group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < .01). The T2∗ value of the anterior AF was not significantly different between the patients and the controls (P > .05). The mean T2∗values of the lumbar IVD in the patient group were significantly lower, especially the posterior AF, followed by the NP, and finally, the anterior AF. In the anterior AF, comparison of grade I with grade III and grade I with grade IV showed statistically significant differences (P = .07 and P = .08, respectively). Similarly, in the NP, comparison of grade I with grade III, grade I with grade IV, grade II with grade III, and grade II with grade IV showed statistically significant differences (P < .001). In the posterior AF, comparison of grade II with grade IV showed a statistically significant difference (P = .032). T2∗ values decreased linearly with increasing degeneration based on the Pfirrmann scoring system (ρ < −0.5, P < .001). Changes in the T2∗ value can signify early degenerative IVD diseases. Hence, T2∗ mapping can be used as a diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of IVD degeneration. PMID:29390547

  16. Short-term results of physiotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed degenerative cervical spine disease.

    PubMed

    Hey, H W; Lau, P H; Hee, H T

    2012-03-01

    Degenerative cervical spine diseases are common, and physiotherapy is widely used as an initial form of treatment. We aimed to analyse the effects of the initial sessions of physiotherapy for patients who were newly diagnosed with degenerative cervical spine disorders. A prospective series of 30 patients with newly diagnosed degenerative cervical spine disease were referred to our department and followed up for the initial two sessions of physiotherapy. The patients were assessed after each session. Outcome parameters studied included pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS), neck range of movements and activities of daily living (ADL). Our study subjects comprised mainly females (60%) in their fifties (46.7%) who worked as clerks or secretaries (53.3%). There was an improvement in the patients' pain score (VAS) from a median of 8 to 4 after two visits to the physiotherapists. Slight improvement in the neck range of movements was also observed. Marked improvement was seen in ADL, especially in the ability to carry heavy objects. Physiotherapy is an effective initial option for patients with newly presented degenerative cervical spine disease. The results of this study can be used to advise patients on the short-term benefits of physiotherapy.

  17. A prospective clinical and radiographic 12-month outcome study of patients undergoing single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for symptomatic cervical degenerative disc disease utilizing a novel viable allogeneic, cancellous, bone matrix (trinity evolution™) with a comparison to historical controls.

    PubMed

    Vanichkachorn, Jed; Peppers, Timothy; Bullard, Dennis; Stanley, Scott K; Linovitz, Raymond J; Ryaby, James T

    2016-07-01

    This multicenter clinical study was performed to assess the safety and effectiveness of Trinity Evolution(®) (TE), a viable cellular bone allograft, in combination with a PEEK interbody spacer and supplemental anterior fixation in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). In a prospective, multi-center study, 31 patients that presented with symptomatic cervical degeneration at one vertebral level underwent ACDF with a PEEK interbody spacer (Orthofix, Inc., Lewisville, TX, USA) and supplemental anterior fixation. In addition all patients had the bone graft substitute, Trinity Evolution (Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation, Edison, NJ, USA), placed within the interbody spacer. At 6 and 12 months, radiographic fusion was evaluated as determined by independent radiographic review of angular motion (≤4°) from flexion/extension X-rays combined with presence of bridging bone across the adjacent endplates on thin cut CT scans. In addition other metrics were measured including function as assessed by the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and neck and arm pain as assessed by individual Visual Analog Scales (VAS). The fusion rate for patients using a PEEK interbody spacer in combination with TE was 78.6 % at 6 months and 93.5 % at 12 months. When considering high risk factors, 6-month fusion rates for patients that were current or former smokers, diabetic, overweight or obese/extremely obese were 70 % (7/10), 100 % (1/1), 70 % (7/10), and 82 % (9/11), respectively. At 12 months, the fusion rates were 100 % (12/12), 100 % (2/2), 100 % (11/11) and 85 % (11/13), respectively. Neck function, and neck/arm pain were found to significantly improve at both time points. No serious allograft related adverse events occurred and none of the 31 patients had subsequent additional cervical surgeries. Patients undergoing single-level ACDF with TE in combination with a PEEK interbody spacer and supplemental anterior fixation had a high rate of fusion

  18. Lumbar scoliosis associated with spinal stenosis in idiopathic and degenerative cases.

    PubMed

    Le Huec, J C; Cogniet, A; Mazas, S; Faundez, A

    2016-10-01

    Degenerative de novo scoliosis is commonly present in older adult patients. The degenerative process including disc bulging, facet arthritis, and ligamentum flavum hypertrophy contributes to the appearance of symptoms of spinal stenosis. Idiopathic scoliosis has also degenerative changes that can lead to spinal stenosis. The aetiology, prevalence, biomechanics, classification, symptomatology, and treatment of idiopathic and degenerative lumbar scoliosis in association with spinal stenosis are reviewed. Review study is based on a review of pertinent but non-exhaustive literature of the last 20 years in PubMed in English language. Retrospective analysis of studies focused on all parameters concerning scoliosis associated with stenosis. Very few publications have focused specifically on idiopathic scoliosis and stenosis, and this was before the advent of modern segmental instrumentation. On the other hand, many papers were found for degenerative scoliosis and stenosis with treatment methods based on aetiology of spinal canal stenosis and analysis of global sagittal and frontal parameters. Satisfactory clinical results after operative treatment range from 83 to 96 % but with increased percentage of complications. Recent literature analysed the importance of stabilizing or not the spine after decompression in such situation knowing the increasing risk of instability after facet resection. No prospective randomized studies were found to support short instrumentation. Long instrumentation and fusion to prevent distabilization after decompression were always associated with higher complication rates. Imbalance patients with unsatisfactory compensation capacities were at risk of complications. Operative treatment using newly proposed classification system of lumbar scoliosis with associated canal stenosis is useful. Sagittal balance and rotatory dislocation are the main parameters to analyse to determine the length of fusion.

  19. Clinical outcomes, radiologic kinematics, and effects on sagittal balance of the 6 df LP-ESP lumbar disc prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Lazennec, Jean-Yves; Even, Julien; Skalli, Wafa; Rakover, Jean-Patrick; Brusson, Adrien; Rousseau, Marc-Antoine

    2014-09-01

    Surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease remains a controversial subject. Lumbar fusion has been associated with a potential risk of segmental junctional disease and sagittal balance misalignment. Motion preservation devices have been developed as an alternative to fusion. The LP-ESP disc is a one-piece deformable device achieving 6 df, including shock absorption and elastic return. This is the first clinical report on its use. To assess clinical outcomes and radiologic kinematics in the first 2 years after implantation. Prospective cohort of patients with LP-ESP total disc replacement (TDR) at the lumbar spine. Forty-six consecutive patients. Clinical outcomes were the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the Oswestry disability index (ODI), and the GHQ28 (General Health Questionnaire) psychological score. Radiologic data were the range of motion (ROM), sagittal balance parameters, and mean center of rotation (MCR). Patients had single-level TDR at L4-L5 or L5-S1. Outcomes were prospectively recorded for 2 years (before and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery). The SpineView software was used for computed analysis of the radiographic data. Paired t tests were used for statistical comparisons. No intraoperative complication occurred. All clinical scores improved significantly at 24 months: the back pain VAS scores by a mean of 4.1 points and the ODI by 33 points. The average ROM of the instrumented level was 5.4°±4.8° at 2 years and more than 2° for 76% of prostheses. The MCR was in a physiological area in 73% of cases. The sagittal balance (pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and segmental lordosis) did not change significantly at any point of the follow-up. Results from the 2-year follow-up indicate that LP-ESP prosthesis recreates lumbar spine function similar to that of the healthy disc in terms of ROM, quality of movement, effect on sagittal balance, and absence of modification in the kinematics of the upper adjacent level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  20. Surgical versus nonsurgical treatment of lumbar degenerative kyphosis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Tae Sik; Shin, Jong Ki; Youn, Myung Soo; Lee, Hong Seok; Kim, Taek Hoon; Lee, Jung Sub

    2017-08-01

    Surgery is widely performed for lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK), but its effectiveness as compared with nonsurgical treatment has not been demonstrated. In this prospective study, surgical candidates with LDK were enrolled at three spine centres. Two treatment options were performed either surgery using a pedicle subtraction osteotomy or nonsurgical care. Outcomes were measured using a Visual analogue scale (VAS) of back pain as a primary endpoint, the Oswestry disability index (ODI), the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36), sagittal vertical axis (SVA) and treatment-related complications. Of the 126 LDK patients treated during the reference period, 97 patients were enrolled (47 in the surgical group and 50 in the nonsurgical group). Surgical group produced statistically reduced VAS of back pain and better functional outcomes than nonsurgical group since 12 months after treatment, but the rate of serious complications was higher after surgery. Interestingly, both surgical and nonsurgical groups had improved outcomes in terms of pain intensity and function at the 2-year follow-up period. Surgery might be a preferred treatment option for LDK, but great caution is needed. And conservative treatment could be the considerable treatment option for LDK who is unwilling or has poor medical condition to operate.

  1. Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in working dogs: current concepts and review.

    PubMed

    Worth, A J; Thompson, D J; Hartman, A C

    2009-12-01

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) is characterised by intervertebral disc degeneration, with secondary bony and soft-tissue changes leading to compression of the cauda equina. Large-breed, active and working dogs are the most commonly affected by DLSS. Specific manipulative tests allow the clinician to form a high suspicion of DLSS, and initiate investigation. Changes seen using conventional radiography are unreliable, and although contrast radiography represents an improvement, advanced imaging is accepted as the diagnostic method of choice. Treatment involves decompression and/or stabilisation procedures in working dogs, although conservative management may be acceptable in pet dogs with mild signs. Prognosis for return to work is only fair, and there is a high rate of recurrence following conventional surgery. Stabilisation procedures are associated with the potential for failure of the implant, and their use has not gained universal acceptance. A new surgical procedure, dorsolateral foramenotomy, offers a potential advance in the management of DLSS. everal aspects of the pathogenesis, heritability and optimal treatment approach remain uncertain.

  2. Cervical Radiculopathy due to Cervical Degenerative Diseases : Anatomy, Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae

    2010-01-01

    A cervical radiculopathy is the most common symptom of cervical degenerative disease and its natural course is generally favorable. With a precise diagnosis using appropriate tools, the majority of patients will respond well to conservative treatment. Cervical radiculopathy with persistent radicular pain after conservative treatment and progressive or profound motor weakness may require surgery. Options for surgical management are extensive. Each technique has strengths and weaknesses, so the choice will depend on the patient's clinical profile and the surgeon's judgment. PMID:21430971

  3. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Disease Clinical Trial Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    strategies can be designed , tested and adopted as standard care. 2 While repeat evaluation and study of affected patients are vital to rigorously...following document is a summary of our experience and research in testing retinal structure and function in eyes with degenerative retinal diseases...Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Patricia Zilliox, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: National Neurovision Research Institute Owings

  4. Percutaneous endoscopic intra-annular subligamentous herniotomy for large central disc herniation: a technical case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Baek, Oon Ki; Kim, Ho Jin; Yoo, Seung-Hwa

    2014-04-01

    Technical case report. To describe the novel technique of percutaneous endoscopic herniotomy using a unilateral intra-annular subligamentous approach for the treatment of large centrally herniated discs. Open discectomy for large central disc herniations may have poor long-term prognosis due to heavy loss of intervertebral disc tissue, segmental instability, and recurrence of pain. Six consecutive patients who presented with back and leg pain, and/or weakness due to a large central disc herniation were treated using percutaneous endoscopic herniotomy with a unilateral intra-annular subligamentous approach. The patients experienced relief of symptoms and intervertebral disc spaces were well maintained. The annular defects were noted to be in the process of healing and recovery. Percutaneous endoscopic unilateral intra-annular subligamentous herniotomy was an effective and affordable minimally invasive procedure for patients with large central disc herniations, allowing preservation of nonpathological intradiscal tissue through a concentric outer-layer annular approach.

  5. Cartilage repair in the degenerative ageing knee

    PubMed Central

    Brittberg, Mats; Gomoll, Andreas H; Canseco, José A; Far, Jack; Lind, Martin; Hui, James

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Cartilage damage can develop due to trauma, resulting in focal chondral or osteochondral defects, or as more diffuse loss of cartilage in a generalized organ disease such as osteoarthritis. A loss of cartilage function and quality is also seen with increasing age. There is a spectrum of diseases ranging from focal cartilage defects with healthy surrounding cartilage to focal lesions in degenerative cartilage, to multiple and diffuse lesions in osteoarthritic cartilage. At the recent Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS) 2015, regenerative challenges in an ageing population were discussed by clinicians and basic scientists. A group of clinicians was given the task of discussing the role of tissue engineering in the treatment of degenerative cartilage lesions in ageing patients. We present the outcomes of our discussions on current treatment options for such lesions, with particular emphasis on different biological repair techniques and their supporting level of evidence. Results and interpretation Based on the studies on treatment of degenerative lesions and early OA, there is low-level evidence to suggest that cartilage repair is a possible treatment for such lesions, but there are conflicting results regarding the effect of advanced age on the outcome. We concluded that further improvements are needed for direct repair of focal, purely traumatic defects before we can routinely use such repair techniques for the more challenging degenerative lesions. Furthermore, we need to identify trigger mechanisms that start generalized loss of cartilage matrix, and induce subchondral bone changes and concomitant synovial pathology, to maximize our treatment methods for biological repair in degenerative ageing joints. PMID:27910738

  6. Pain and pain management in haemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Auerswald, Günter; Dolan, Gerry; Duffy, Anne; Hermans, Cedric; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Ljung, Rolf; Morfini, Massimo; Lambert, Thierry; Šalek, Silva Zupančić

    2016-01-01

    Joint pain is common in haemophilia and may be acute or chronic. Effective pain management in haemophilia is essential to reduce the burden that pain imposes on patients. However, the choice of appropriate pain-relieving measures is challenging, as there is a complex interplay of factors affecting pain perception. This can manifest as differences in patients’ experiences and response to pain, which require an individualized approach to pain management. Prophylaxis with factor replacement reduces the likelihood of bleeds and bleed-related pain, whereas on-demand therapy ensures rapid bleed resolution and pain relief. Although use of replacement or bypassing therapy is often the first intervention for pain, additional pain relief strategies may be required. There is an array of analgesic options, but consideration should be paid to the adverse effects of each class. Nevertheless, a combination of medications that act at different points in the pain pathway may be beneficial. Nonpharmacological measures may also help patients and include active coping strategies; rest, ice, compression, and elevation; complementary therapies; and physiotherapy. Joint aspiration may also reduce acute joint pain, and joint steroid injections may alleviate chronic pain. In the longer term, increasing use of prophylaxis or performing surgery may be necessary to reduce the burden of pain caused by the degenerative effects of repeated bleeds. Whichever treatment option is chosen, it is important to monitor pain and adjust patient management accordingly. Beyond specific pain management approaches, ongoing collaboration between multidisciplinary teams, which should include physiotherapists and pain specialists, may improve outcomes for patients. PMID:27439216

  7. The cervical spine of professional front-row rugby players: correlation between degenerative changes and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hogan, B A; Hogan, N A; Vos, P M; Eustace, S J; Kenny, P J

    2010-06-01

    Injuries to the cervical spine (C-spine) are among the most serious in rugby and are well documented. Front-row players are particularly at risk due to repetitive high-intensity collisions in the scrum. This study evaluates degenerative changes of the C-spine and associated symptomatology in front-row rugby players. C-spine radiographs from 14 professional rugby players and controls were compared. Players averaged 23 years of playing competitive rugby. Two consultant radiologists performed a blind review of radiographs evaluating degeneration of disc spaces and apophyseal joints. Clinical status was assessed using a modified AAOS/NASS/COSS cervical spine outcomes questionnaire. Front-row rugby players exhibited significant radiographic evidence of C-spine degenerative changes compared to the non-rugby playing controls (P < 0.005). Despite these findings the rugby players did not exhibit increased symptoms. This highlights the radiologic degenerative changes of the C-spine of front-row rugby players. However, these changes do not manifest themselves clinically or affect activities of daily living.

  8. Analysis of Reasons for Failure of Surgery for Degenerative Disease of Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Baranowska, Alicja; Baranowska, Joanna; Baranowski, Paweł

    2016-03-23

    In the aging society, there is a growing number of patients with advanced degenerative disease of the spine. These patients frequently require surgical treatment. This paper aims to analyse the reasons for failure of surgery for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Histories of patients operated on by one group of surgeons in the Neuroorthopaedic Department of "STOCER" in 2014 and 2015 due to degenerative disease of the lumbar spine were analysed retrospectively. Out of the cohort, patients who had undergone a revision surgery were selected for the study and divided into two groups: group A (60) of patients previously operated on in another centre and group B (47) of patients previously operated on in "STOCER". The reasons for failure of the surgery were analysed in detail based on history, physical examination, imaging studies and surgery reports. Surgery was performed in 601 patients, of whom 107 patients had been previously operated on. The most frequent reasons for revision surgery of the same motor segment were recurrent disc herniation, inadequate decompression and inappropriate surgical technique. In the group of patients who had implants inserted to stabilise the spine, the revision surgery in most cases was due to adjacent segment disease. Use of implants and spinal fusion is always associated with a risk of complications and is frequently independent of the surgeon. 2. In order to reduce the rate of revision surgeries, it is important to perform complete decompression and select an adequate surgical technique.

  9. Kozai-Lidov disc instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2017-08-01

    Recent results by Martin et al. showed in 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that tilted discs in binary systems can be unstable to the development of global, damped Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations in which the discs exchange tilt for eccentricity. We investigate the linear stability of KL modes for tilted inviscid discs under the approximations that the disc eccentricity is small and the disc remains flat. By using 1D equations, we are able to probe regimes of large ratios of outer to inner disc edge radii that are realistic for binary systems of hundreds of astronomical unit separations and are not easily probed by multidimensional simulations. For order unity binary mass ratios, KL instability is possible for a window of disc aspect ratios H/r in the outer parts of a disc that roughly scale as (nb/n)2 ≲ H/r ≲ nb/n, for binary orbital frequency nb and orbital frequency n at the disc outer edge. We present a framework for understanding the zones of instability based on the determination of branches of marginally unstable modes. In general, multiple growing eccentric KL modes can be present in a disc. Coplanar apsidal-nodal precession resonances delineate instability branches. We determine the range of tilt angles for unstable modes as a function of disc aspect ratio. Unlike the KL instability for free particles that involves a critical (minimum) tilt angle, disc instability is possible for any non-zero tilt angle depending on the disc aspect ratio.

  10. Assessing the clinical utility of combined movement examination in symptomatic degenerative lumbar spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Monie, A P; Price, R I; Lind, C R P; Singer, K P

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to report the development and validation of a low back computer-aided combined movement examination protocol in normal individuals and record treatment outcomes of cases with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spondylosis. Test-retest, following intervention. Self-report assessments and combined movement examination were used to record composite spinal motion, before and following neurosurgical and pain medicine interventions. 151 normal individuals aged from 20 years to 69 years were assessed using combined movement examination between L1 and S1 spinal levels to establish a reference range. Cases with degenerative low back pain and sciatica were assessed before and after therapeutic interventions with combined movement examination and a battery of self-report pain and disability questionnaires. Change scores for combined movement examination and all outcome measures were derived. Computer-aided combined movement examination validation and intraclass correlation coefficient with 95% confidence interval and least significant change scores indicated acceptable reliability of combined movement examination when recording lumbar movement in normal subjects. In both clinical cases lumbar spine movement restrictions corresponded with self-report scores for pain and disability. Post-intervention outcomes all showed significant improvement, particularly in the most restricted combined movement examination direction. This study provides normative reference data for combined movement examination that may inform future clinical studies of the technique as a convenient objective surrogate for important clinical outcomes in lumbar degenerative spondylosis. It can be used with good reliability, may be well tolerated by individuals in pain and appears to change in concert with validated measures of lumbar spinal pain, functional limitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitating Human Optic Disc Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graebel, William P.; Cohan, Bruce E.; Pearch, Andrew C.

    1980-07-01

    A method is presented for quantitatively expressing the topography of the human optic disc, applicable in a clinical setting to the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. Pho-tographs of the disc illuminated by a pattern of fine, high contrast parallel lines are digitized. From the measured deviation of the lines as they traverse the disc surface, disc topography is calculated, using the principles of optical sectioning. The quantitators applied to express this topography have the the following advantages : sensitivity to disc shape; objectivity; going beyond the limits of cup-disc ratio estimates and volume calculations; perfect generality in a mathematical sense; an inherent scheme for determining a non-subjective reference frame to compare different discs or the same disc over time.

  12. The Teddy Bears' Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurillard, Diana

    1985-01-01

    Reports an evaluation of the Teddy Bear disc, an interactive videodisc developed at the Open University for a second-level course in metallurgy and materials technology. Findings from observation of students utilizing the videodisc are reviewed; successful design features and design problems are considered; and development costs are outlined. (MBR)

  13. The DISC Quotient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John R.; Baxter, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    D.I.S.C: Decipherment Impact of a Signal's Content. The authors present a numerical method to characterise the significance of the receipt of a complex and potentially decipherable signal from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). The purpose of the scale is to facilitate the public communication of work on any such claimed signal, as such work proceeds, and to assist in its discussion and interpretation. Building on a "position" paper rationale, this paper looks at the DISC quotient proposed and develops the algorithmic steps and comprising measures that form this post detection strategy for information dissemination, based on prior work on message detection, decipherment. As argued, we require a robust and incremental strategy, to disseminate timely, accurate and meaningful information, to the scientific community and the general public, in the event we receive an "alien" signal that displays decipherable information. This post-detection strategy is to serve as a stepwise algorithm for a logical approach to information extraction and a vehicle for sequential information dissemination, to manage societal impact. The "DISC Quotient", which is based on signal analysis processing stages, includes factors based on the signal's data quantity, structure, affinity to known human languages, and likely decipherment times. Comparisons with human and other phenomena are included as a guide to assessing likely societal impact. It is submitted that the development, refinement and implementation of DISC as an integral strategy, during the complex processes involved in post detection and decipherment, is essential if we wish to minimize disruption and optimize dissemination.

  14. Characterization of Degenerative Changes in the Temporomandibular Joint of the Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, M. K.; Arzi, B.; Vapniarsky-Arzi, N.; Athanasiou, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The articulation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is composed of the temporal bone dorsally, the mandibular condyle ventrally and a fibrous articular disc. The TMJ disc plays an essential role in distributing load between the two articular surfaces. Degeneration of the disc in the presence of joint pathology has been shown in man; however, TMJ pathology has not been documented previously in tigers (Panthera tigris). The mandibular condyle and TMJ disc of a Bengal tiger (P. tigris tigris) and a Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica) were evaluated grossly and the TMJ disc was characterized biochemically and mechanically. Characterization of the TMJ disc verified region- and direction-dependent biochemical and mechanical properties, reflective of the functional demands on the joint. Degenerative joint disease was observed in both cases and this was more severe in the Siberian tiger. Simultaneous evaluation of joint pathology, biochemical composition and mechanical properties of the TMJ disc revealed a loss in functional properties (tensile anisotropy) of the disc as joint pathology advanced from moderate to severe. TMJ degeneration may compromise the ability of the animal to eat and thrive and may be a factor contributing to the endangered status of these species. PMID:23809909

  15. Characterization of degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint of the bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    PubMed

    Murphy, M K; Arzi, B; Vapniarsky-Arzi, N; Athanasiou, K A

    2013-11-01

    The articulation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is composed of the temporal bone dorsally, the mandibular condyle ventrally and a fibrous articular disc. The TMJ disc plays an essential role in distributing load between the two articular surfaces. Degeneration of the disc in the presence of joint pathology has been shown in man; however, TMJ pathology has not been documented previously in tigers (Panthera tigris). The mandibular condyle and TMJ disc of a Bengal tiger (P. tigris tigris) and a Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica) were evaluated grossly and the TMJ disc was characterized biochemically and mechanically. Characterization of the TMJ disc verified region- and direction-dependent biochemical and mechanical properties, reflective of the functional demands on the joint. Degenerative joint disease was observed in both cases and this was more severe in the Siberian tiger. Simultaneous evaluation of joint pathology, biochemical composition and mechanical properties of the TMJ disc revealed a loss in functional properties (tensile anisotropy) of the disc as joint pathology advanced from moderate to severe. TMJ degeneration may compromise the ability of the animal to eat and thrive and may be a factor contributing to the endangered status of these species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How do accretion discs break?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  17. The Chemistry of Optical Discs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkett, David

    2002-01-01

    Explains the chemistry used in compact discs (CD), digital versatile discs (DVD), and magneto-optical (MO) discs focusing on the steps of initial creation of the mold, the molding of the polycarbonate, the deposition of the reflective layers, the lacquering of the CDs, and the bonding of DVDs. (Contains 15 references.) (YDS)

  18. Revival of the Jumping Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H-J.

    2009-01-01

    Snap discs made of bimetal have many technical applications as thermostats. Jumping discs are a toy version of such snap discs. Besides giving technical information, we describe physical investigations. We show especially how, through simple measurements and calculations, you can determine the initial speed ([approximately equal to]3.5 m…

  19. Characterisation of the correlation between standing lordosis and degenerative joint disease in the lower lumbar spine in women and men: a radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kelvin J; Le Grande, Michael R; Ortega de Mues, Arantxa; Azari, Michael F

    2017-08-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) in the lumbar spine is a common condition that is associated with chronic low back pain. Excessive loading of lumbar joints is a risk factor for DJD. Changes in lumbar lordosis significantly redistribute the forces of weight-bearing on the facet joints and the intervertebral discs. However, the relationship between lumbar lordosis and DJD has not been characterized in men and women. We characterised the correlation between standing lumbar lordosis and DJD in standing radiographic images from 301 adult female and male chiropractic patients. DJD was rated using the Kellgren-Lawrence scale, and lordosis was measured using the Cobb angle. Linear and curvilinear correlations were investigated while controlling for age and sex. We found a highly significant curvilinear correlation between lordosis and DJD of the lower lumbar spine in both sexes, but especially in women, irrespective of the effects of age. We found the effect size of lordosis on lower lumbar DJD to be between 17.4 and 18.1% in women and 12.9% in older men. In addition, lordosis of 65 (95% CI 55.3-77.7) and 68 (98% CI 58.7-73.3) degrees were associated with minimal DJD in the lower lumbar spine of women and men respectively, and were therefore considered 'optimal'. This optimal lordotic angle was 73 (95% CI 58.8-87.2) degrees in older men. Both hypo- and hyper-lordosis correlate with DJD in the lumbar spine, particularly in women and in older men. These findings may well be of relevance to spinal pain management and spinal rehabilitation.

  20. Clinical and radiological outcomes of endoscopic partial facetectomy for degenerative lumbar foraminal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Youn, Myung Soo; Shin, Jong Ki; Goh, Tae Sik; Lee, Jung Sub

    2017-06-01

    Several different techniques exist to treat degenerative lumbar foraminal stenosis. Failure to adequately decompress the lumbar foramen may lead to failed back surgery syndrome. However, wide decompression often causes spinal instabilities or may require an additional fusion surgery. The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of endoscopic partial facetectomy (EPF) performed on patients with degenerative lumbar foraminal stenosis. Between 2012 and 2014, 25 consecutive patients (12 women and 13 men) who underwent EPF were included in the study. The patients were assessed before surgery and followed-up regularly during outpatient visits (preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively). The clinical outcomes were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) outcome questionnaire. The radiological outcome was measured using the lumbar Cobb angle, disc wedging angle, lumbar lordosis (LL), slip percentage, and disc height index (DHI) in plain standing radiographs. The VAS, ODI, and SF-36 scores significantly improved at 1 month of follow-up compared with the baseline mean values and were maintained within the 2-year follow-up period. There was no radiologic progression in the lumbar Cobb's angle, disc wedging angle, LL, slip percentage, and DHI between preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. In addition, the EPF with discectomy group and the EPF group were not significantly different in terms of clinical and radiological outcomes. EPF is an effective option in decompressing the lumbar exiting nerve root without causing spinal instabilities for the treatment of patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis.

  1. Stem cells in degenerative orthopaedic pathologies: effects of aging on therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Atesok, Kivanc; Fu, Freddie H; Sekiya, Ichiro; Stolzing, Alexandra; Ochi, Mitsuo; Rodeo, Scott A

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the current evidence on the use of stem cells in the elderly population with degenerative orthopaedic pathologies and to highlight the pathophysiologic mechanisms behind today's therapeutic challenges in stem cell-based regeneration of destructed tissues in the elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA), degenerative disc disease (DDD), and tendinopathies. Clinical and basic science studies that report the use of stem cells in the elderly patients with OA, DDD, and tendinopathies were identified using a PubMed search. The studies published in English have been assessed, and the best and most recent evidence was included in the current study. Evidence suggests that, although short-term results regarding the effects of stem cell therapy in degenerative orthopaedic pathologies can be promising, stem cell therapies do not appear to reverse age-related tissue degeneration. Causes of suboptimal outcomes can be attributed to the decrease in the therapeutic potential of aged stem cell populations and the regenerative capacity of these cells, which might be negatively influenced in an aged microenvironment within the degenerated tissues of elderly patients with OA, DDD, and tendinopathies. Clinical protocols guiding the use of stem cells in the elderly patient population are still under development, and high-level randomized controlled trials with long-term outcomes are lacking. Understanding the consequences of age-related changes in stem cell function and responsiveness of the in vivo microenvironment to stem cells is critical when designing cell-based therapies for elderly patients with degenerative orthopaedic pathologies.

  2. Correlation between degenerative spine disease and bone marrow density: a retrospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Grams, Astrid Ellen; Rehwald, Rafael; Bartsch, Alexander; Honold, Sarah; Freyschlag, Christian Franz; Knoflach, Michael; Gizewski, Elke Ruth; Glodny, Bernhard

    2016-02-24

    Spondylosis leads to an overestimation of bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) but not with quantitative computed tomography (QCT). The correlation between degenerative changes of the spine and QCT-BMD was therefore investigated for the first time. One hundred thirty-four patients (66 female and 68 male) with a mean age of 49.0 ± 14.6 years (range: 19-88 years) who received a CT scan and QCT-BMD measurements of spine and hip were evaluated retrospectively. The occurrence and severity of spondylosis, osteochondrosis, and spondylarthrosis and the height of the vertebral bodies were assessed. A negative correlation was found between spinal BMD and number of spondylophytes (ρ = -0.35; p < 0.01), disc heights (r = -0.33; p < 0.01), number of discal air inclusions (ρ = -0.34; p < 0.01), the number of Schmorl nodules (ρ = -0.25; p < 0.01), the number (ρ = -0.219; p < 0.05) and the degree (ρ = -0.220; p < 0.05) of spondylarthrosis. Spinal and hip BMD correlated moderately, but the latter did not correlate with degenerative changes of the spine. In linear regression models age, osteochondrosis and spondylarthrosis were factors influencing spinal BMD. Degenerative spinal changes may be associated with reduced regional spinal mineralization. This knowledge could lead to a modification of treatment of degenerative spine disease with early treatment of osteopenia to prevent secondary fractures.

  3. Translation of an Engineered Nanofibrous Disc-like Angle Ply Structure for Intervertebral Disc Replacement in a Small Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Martin, John T.; Milby, Andrew H.; Chiaro, Joseph A.; Kim, Dong Hwa; Hebela, Nader M.; Smith, Lachlan J.; Elliott, Dawn M.; Mauck, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration has been implicated in the etiology of low back pain; however the current surgical strategies for treating symptomatic disc disease are limited. A variety of materials have been developed to replace disc components, including the nucleus pulposus (NP), the annulus fibrosus (AF), and their combination into disc-like engineered constructs. We have previously shown that layers of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold, mimicking the hierarchical organization of the native AF, have functional parity with native tissue. Likewise, we have combined these structures with cell-seeded hydrogels (as an NP replacement) to form disc-like angle ply structures (DAPS). The objective of this study was to develop a model for the evaluation of DAPS in vivo. Through a series of studies, we developed a surgical approach to replace the rat caudal disc with an acellular DAPS and then stabilize the motion segment by external fixation. We then optimized cell infiltration into DAPS by including sacrificial poly(ethylene oxide) layers interspersed throughout the angle-ply structure. Our findings illustrate that DAPS are stable in the caudal spine, are infiltrated by cells from the peri-implant space, and that infiltration is expedited by providing additional routes for cell migration. These findings establish a new in vivo platform in which to evaluate and optimize the design of functional disc replacements. PMID:24560621

  4. Planet-disc interaction in laminar and turbulent discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Moritz H. R.; Picogna, Giovanni; Kley, Wilhelm

    2017-07-01

    In weakly ionised discs turbulence can be generated through the vertical shear instability (VSI). Embedded planets are affected by a stochastic component in the torques acting on them, which can impact their migration. In this work we study the interplay between a growing planet embedded in a protoplanetary disc and the VSI turbulence. We performed a series of 3D hydrodynamical simulations for locally isothermal discs with embedded planets in the mass range from 5 to 100 Earth masses. We study planets embedded in an inviscid disc that is VSI unstable, becomes turbulent, and generates angular momentum transport with an effective α = 5 × 10-4. This is compared to the corresponding viscous disc using exactly this α-value. In general we find that the planets have only a weak impact on the disc turbulence. Only for the largest planet (100 M⊕) does the turbulent activity become enhanced inside of the planet. The depth and width of a gap created by the more massive planets (30,100 M⊕) in the turbulent disc equal exactly that of the corresponding viscous case, leading to very similar torque strengths acting on the planet, with small stochastic fluctuations for the VSI disc. At the gap edges vortices are generated that are stronger and longer-lived in the VSI disc. Low mass planets (with Mp ≤ 10 M⊕) do not open gaps in the disc in either case, but generate for the turbulent disc an overdensity behind the planet that exerts a significant negative torque. This can boost the inward migration in VSI turbulent discs well above the Type I rate. Owing to the finite turbulence level in realistic 3D discs the gap depth will always be limited and migration will not stall in inviscid discs.

  5. Outer Retinal Tubulation in Degenerative Retinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Naomi R.; Greenberg, Jonathan P.; Laud, Ketan; Tsang, Stephen; Freund, K. Bailey

    2013-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate outer retinal tubulation (ORT) in various degenerative retinal disorders. Methods This was a retrospective review of the multimodal imaging of 29 eyes of 15 patients with various retinal dystrophies and inflammatory maculopathies manifesting ORT. The morphologic features of ORT and its evolution over time were analyzed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) data. Results Outer retinal tubulation was identified as round or ovoid structures with hyper-reflective borders in pattern dystrophy (6 eyes), acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (5 eyes), retinitis pigmentosa (4 eyes), Stargardt disease (4 eyes), gyrate atrophy (2 eyes), choroideremia (2 eyes), and various other degenerative conditions. These structures appeared to develop from the invagination of photoreceptors at the junction of intact and atrophic outer retina. During follow-up, the number and distribution of ORT largely remained stable. As zones of atrophy enlarged, the frequency of ORT appeared to increase. The ORT structures were found in fewer than 10% of patients with retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt, or pattern dystrophy. Conclusion Outer retinal tubulation is found in various degenerative retinal disorders that share in common damage to the outer retina and/or retinal pigment epithelium. The presence of ORT may be in an indicator of underlying disease stage and severity. PMID:23676993

  6. Degenerative disease affecting the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Eadie, M J

    1974-03-01

    The term "degenerative disease" is one which is rather widely used in relation to the nervous system and yet one which is rarely formally and carefully defined. The term appears to be applied to disorders of the nervous system which often occur in later life and which are of uncertain cause. In the Shorter Oxford Dictionary the word degeneration is defined as "a change of structure by which an organism, or an organ, assumes the form of a lower type". However this is not quite the sense in which the word is applied in human neuropathology, where it is conventional to restrict the use of the word to those organic disorders which are of uncertain or poorly understood cause and in which there is a deterioration or regression in the level of functioning of the nervous system. The concept of degenerative disorder is applied to other organs as well as to the brain, and as disease elsewhere in the body may affect the nervous system, it seems reasonable to include within the topic of degenerative disorder affecting the nervous system those conditions in which the nervous system is involved as a result of primary degenerations in other parts of the body. Copyright © 1974 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  7. Is there any relationship between proinflammatory mediator levels in disc material and myelopathy with cervical disc herniation and spondylosis? A non-randomized, prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Asir, Alparslan; Cetinkal, Ahmet; Gedik, Nursal; Kutlay, Ahmet Murat; Çolak, Ahmet; Kurtar, Sedat; Simsek, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    The proinflammatory mediator (PIM) levels were assessed in surgically removed samples of herniated cervical intervertebral discs. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between the levels of PIMs in disc material and myelopathy associated with cervical intervertebral disc herniation and spondylosis. The role of proinflammatory mediators in the degeneration of intervertebral disc and the inflammatory effects of disc herniations on radicular pain has been previously published. However, the possible relationship between PIMs and myelopathy related to cervical disc herniation and spondylosis has not been investigated before. Thirty-two patients undergoing surgery for cervical disc herniation and spondylosis were investigated. Surgically obtained disc materials, stored at 70°C, were classified into two groups: cervical disc herniation alone or with myelopathy. Biochemical preparation and solid phase enzyme amplified sensitivity immunoassay (ELISIA) analysis of the samples were performed to assess the concentration of mediators in the samples. Very similar values of interleukin-6 were found in both groups whereas the concentrations of mediators were significantly higher in myelopathy group. This study has demonstrated that PIMs are involved in cervical intervertebral disc degeneration with higher concentrations in the samples associated with myelopathy. PMID:17476536

  8. [Surgical treatment of thoracic disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Hrabálek, L; Kalita, O; Langová, K

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of different surgical approaches to thoracic disc herniation, and to show the role of segmental fusion and selection of an appropriate microsurgical decompression technique for the successful outcome of surgery. A group of 27 patients, 10 men and 17 women, between 31 and 70 years (average age, 49.33 years) were included in this prospective study. They underwent surgery for thoracic degeneration disc disease in the period from June 1994 to August 2008. In all patients, the severity of myelopathy was assessed using the grading Frankel system and JOA score, axial and radicular pain intensity was evaluated with VAS and ODI rating systems. The diagnosis was established on the basis of thoracic spine radiography, thoracic spine MRI and a CT scan of the segment. A total of 30 thoracic segments, in the range of Th4/Th5 to Th12/L1, were indicated for surgery. Localisation of the hernia was medial at 19 segments, mediolateral at three and lateral at eight segments. Soft disc herniation was found in 17 cases and hard disc protrusion at the remaining 13 segments. Surgery for significant myelopathy was carried out in 23 patients and for pain in four patients. According to the surgical procedure used, the patients were allocated to two groups: group A comprised 10 patients treated without disc replacement through a laminectomy or a costotransversectomy exposure, and group B consisted of 17 patients undergo- ing intersomatic fusion via a thoracotomy. Clinical and radiographic examinations were made at regular intervals for at least 1 year of follow-up. The results of clinical assessment, including JOA scores, JOA Recovery Rate, VAS scores at rest and after exercise and ODI, were statistically analysed for each group and compared. There was a statistically significant difference in JOA evaluation of myelopathy between the groups in group A, the mean JOA score declined from 7.9 to 7.0, i.e., -0.9 point, while in group B it

  9. The Pfirrmann classification of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration: an independent inter- and intra-observer agreement assessment.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Julio; Besa, Pablo; Campos, Mauricio; Cikutovic, Pablo; Cabezon, Mario; Molina, Marcelo; Cruz, Juan Pablo

    2016-09-01

    Grading inter-vertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is important in the evaluation of many degenerative conditions, including patients with low back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the best imaging instrument to evaluate IDD. The Pfirrmann classification is commonly used to grade IDD; the authors describing this classification showed an adequate agreement using it; however, there has been a paucity of independent agreement studies using this grading system. The aim of this study was to perform an independent inter- and intra-observer agreement study using the Pfirrmann classification. T2-weighted sagittal images of 79 patients consecutively studied with lumbar spine MRI were classified using the Pfirrmann grading system by six evaluators (three spine surgeons and three radiologists). After a 6-week interval, the 79 cases were presented to the same evaluators in a random sequence for repeat evaluation. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the weighted kappa (wκ) were used to determine the inter- and intra-observer agreement. The inter-observer agreement was excellent, with an ICC = 0.94 (0.93-0.95) and wκ = 0.83 (0.74-0.91). There were no differences between spine surgeons and radiologists. Likewise, there were no differences in agreement evaluating the different lumbar discs. Most differences among observers were only of one grade. Intra-observer agreement was also excellent with ICC = 0.86 (0.83-0.89) and wκ = 0.89 (0.85-0.93). In this independent study, the Pfirrmann classification demonstrated an adequate agreement among different observers and by the same observer on separate occasions. Furthermore, it allows communication between radiologists and spine surgeons.

  10. Wave disc engine apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Muller, Norbert; Piechna, Janusz; Sun, Guangwei; Parraga, Pablo-Francisco

    2018-01-02

    A wave disc engine apparatus is provided. A further aspect employs a constricted nozzle in a wave rotor channel. A further aspect provides a sharp bend between an inlet and an outlet in a fluid pathway of a wave rotor, with the bend being spaced away from a peripheral edge of the wave rotor. A radial wave rotor for generating electricity in an automotive vehicle is disclosed in yet another aspect.

  11. Wnt signaling activates Shh signaling in early postnatal intervertebral discs, and re-activates Shh signaling in old discs in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Tamara; Mahoney, Eric J; Sinner, Debora; Wylie, Christopher C; Dahia, Chitra Lekha

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are strong fibrocartilaginous joints that connect adjacent vertebrae of the spine. As discs age they become prone to failure, with neurological consequences that are often severe. Surgical repair of discs treats the result of the disease, which affects as many as one in seven people, rather than its cause. An ideal solution would be to repair degenerating discs using the mechanisms of their normal differentiation. However, these mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse as a model, we previously showed that Shh signaling produced by nucleus pulposus cells activates the expression of differentiation markers, and cell proliferation, in the postnatal IVD. In the present study, we show that canonical Wnt signaling is required for the expression of Shh signaling targets in the IVD. We also show that Shh and canonical Wnt signaling pathways are down-regulated in adult IVDs. Furthermore, this down-regulation is reversible, since re-activation of the Wnt or Shh pathways in older discs can re-activate molecular markers of the IVD that are lost with age. These data suggest that biological treatments targeting Wnt and Shh signaling pathways may be feasible as a therapeutic for degenerative disc disease.

  12. [Analysis of the results of total cervical disc arthroplasty using a M6-C prosthesis: a multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Byval'tsev, V A; Kalinin, A A; Stepanov, I A; Pestryakov, Yu Ya; Shepelev, V V

    Cervical spondylosis and intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration are the most common cause for compression of the spinal cord and/or its roots. Total IVD arthroplasty, as a modern alternative to surgical treatment of IVD degeneration, is gaining popularity in many neurosurgical clinics around the world. Aim - the study aim was to conduct a multicenter analysis of cervical spine arthroplasty with an IVD prosthesis M6-C ('Spinal Kinetics', USA). The study included 112 patients (77 males and 35 females). All patients underwent single-level discectomy with implantation of the artificial IVD prosthesis M6-C. The follow-up period was up to 36 months. Dynamic assessment of the prosthesis was based on clinical parameters (pain intensity in the cervical spine and upper extremities (visual analog scale - VAS); quality of life (Neck Disability Index - NDI)); and subjective satisfaction with the results of surgical treatment (Macnab scale) and instrumental data (range of motion in the operated spinal motion segment, degree of heterotopic ossification (McAfee-Suchomel classification), and time course of degenerative changes in the adjacent segments).

  13. 'Lumbar Degenerative Kyphosis' Is Not Byword for Degenerative Sagittal Imbalance: Time to Replace a Misconception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee; Jang, Jee-Soo; Kim, Sung-Min; Chin, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Jung-Kil

    2017-03-01

    Lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) is a subgroup of the flat-back syndrome and is most commonly caused by unique life styles, such as a prolonged crouched posture during agricultural work and performing activities of daily living on the floor. Unfortunately, LDK has been used as a byword for degenerative sagittal imbalance, and this sometimes causes confusion. The aim of this review was to evaluate the exact territory of LDK, and to introduce another appropriate term for degenerative sagittal deformity. Unlike what its name suggests, LDK does not only include sagittal balance disorder of the lumbar spine and kyphosis, but also sagittal balance disorder of the whole spine and little lordosis of the lumbar spine. Moreover, this disease is closely related to the occupation of female farmers and an outdated Asian life style. These reasons necessitate a change in the nomenclature of this disorder to prevent misunderstanding. We suggest the name "primary degenerative sagittal imbalance" (PDSI), which encompasses degenerative sagittal misalignments of unknown origin in the whole spine in older-age patients, and is associated with back muscle wasting. LDK may be regarded as a subgroup of PDSI related to an occupation in agriculture. Conservative treatments such as exercise and physiotherapy are recommended as first-line treatments for patients with PDSI, and surgical treatment is considered only if conservative treatments failed. The measurement of spinopelvic parameters for sagittal balance is important prior to deformity corrective surgery. LDK can be considered a subtype of PDSI that is more likely to occur in female farmers, and hence the use of LDK as a global term for all degenerative sagittal imbalance disorders is better avoided. To avoid confusion, we recommend PDSI as a newer, more accurate diagnostic term instead of LDK.

  14. Anti-inflammatory Chitosan/Poly-γ-glutamic acid nanoparticles control inflammation while remodeling extracellular matrix in degenerated intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Graciosa Q; Leite Pereira, Catarina; Castro, Flávia; Ferreira, Joana R; Gomez-Lazaro, Maria; Aguiar, Paulo; Barbosa, Mário A; Neidlinger-Wilke, Cornelia; Goncalves, Raquel M

    2016-09-15

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is one of the most common causes of low back pain (LBP), the leading disorder in terms of years lived with disability. Inflammation can play a role in LPB, while impairs IVD regeneration. In spite of this, different inflammatory targets have been purposed in the context of IVD regeneration. Anti-inflammatory nanoparticles (NPs) of Chitosan and Poly-(γ-glutamic acid) with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac (Df), were previously shown to counteract a pro-inflammatory response of human macrophages. Here, the effect of intradiscal injection of Df-NPs in degenerated IVD was evaluated. For that, Df-NPs were injected in a bovine IVD organ culture in pro-inflammatory/degenerative conditions, upon stimulation with needle-puncture and interleukin (IL)-1β. Df-NPs were internalized by IVD cells, down-regulating IL-6, IL-8, MMP1 and MMP3, and decreasing PGE2 production, compared with IL-1β-stimulated IVD punches. Interestingly, at the same time, Df-NPs promoted an up-regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, namely collagen type II and aggrecan. Allover, this study suggests that IVD treatment with Df-NPs not only reduces inflammation, but also delays and/or decreases ECM degradation, opening perspectives to new intradiscal therapies for IVD degeneration, based on the modulation of inflammation. Degeneration of the IVD is an age-related progressive process considered to be the major cause of spine disorders. The pro-inflammatory environment and biomechanics of the degenerated IVD is a challenge for regenerative therapies. The novelty of this work is the intradiscal injection of an anti-inflammatory therapy based on Chitosan (Ch)/Poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with an anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac, Df), previously developed by us. This drug delivery system was tested in a pro-inflammatory/degenerative intervertebral disc ex vivo model. The main findings support the success of an anti

  15. Concordant pressure paresthesia during interlaminar lumbar epidural steroid injections correlates with pain relief in patients with unilateral radicular pain.

    PubMed

    Candido, Kenneth D; Rana, Maunak V; Sauer, Ruben; Chupatanakul, Lalida; Tharian, Antony; Vasic, Vladimir; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2013-01-01

    life scores and improvement in everyday functionality; they also used less pain medications than patients receiving LESI using a midline approach. Furthermore, patients in the PIL group described significantly higher rates of concordant moderate-to-severe pressure paresthesia in the distributions of their "usual and customary pain" compared to the MIL group. In addition, patients who had concordant pressure paresthesia and no discordant pressure paresthesia (i.e., "opposite side or atypical") during interventional treatment had better and longer pain relief after LESI. Two patients from each group required discectomy surgery in the one-year observation period. The major limitation of this study is that we did not include a transforaminal epidural steroid injection group, since that is one of the approaches still commonly used in contemporary pain practices for the treatment of low back pain with unilateral radicular pain. This study showed that the lateral parasagittal interlaminar approach was more effective than the midline interlaminar approach in targeting low back pain with unilateral radicular pain secondary to degenerative lumbar disc disease. It also showed that pressure paresthesia occurring ipsilaterally during an LESI correlates with pain relief and may therefore be used as a prognostic factor.

  16. Cytokine Involvement in Biological Inflammation Related to Degenerative Disorders of the Intervertebral Disk: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    De Geer, Christopher M

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this narrative literature review is to discuss the literature regarding the potential role that cytokines play in degenerative disk disease. The inclusion criteria were studies that used inflammatory mediators in advancing disk disease processes. Research studies were limited to the last 3 decades that had free full-text available online in English. Exclusion criteria were review articles and articles pertaining to temporomandibular joints and other joints of the body other than the intervertebral disk. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar through March 13, 2017. A total of 82 studies were included in this review. The papers were reviewed for complex mechanisms behind the degenerative cascade, emphasizing the role of proinflammatory cytokines, which may be instrumental in processes of inflammation, neurologic pain, and disk degeneration. Interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α were among the more notable cytokines involved in this cascade. Because monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 stimulates and activates macrophages in the event of infiltration, additional proinflammatory cytokines are released to act on molecules to promote blood and nerve ingrowth, resulting in pain signaling and tissue degradation. Excessive inflammation and/or tissue damage initiates a pathologic imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes. This literature review describes how inflammatory and biochemical changes may trigger disk degeneration. Proinflammatory cytokines stimulate microvascular blood and nerve ingrowth, resulting in pain signaling and tissue degradation. This may sensitize a person to chemical and/or mechanical stimuli, contributing to severe low back pain.

  17. Counter-rotating accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyda, S.; Lovelace, R. V. E.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Romanova, M. M.; Koldoba, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud on to the surface of an existing corotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inwards to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc centre. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of viscous counter-rotating discs for the cases where the two components are vertically separated and radially separated. The viscosity is described by an isotropic α-viscosity including all terms in the viscous stress tensor. For the vertically separated components, a shear layer forms between them and the middle part of this layer free-falls to the disc centre. The accretion rates are increased by factors of ˜102-104 over that for a conventional disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity. The vertical width of the shear layer and the accretion rate are strongly dependent on the viscosity and the mass fraction of the counter-rotating gas. In the case of radially separated components where the inner disc corotates and the outer disc rotates in the opposite direction, a gap between the two components opens and closes quasi-periodically. The accretion rates are ≳25 times larger than those for a disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity.

  18. Comparing surgical repair with conservative treatment for degenerative rotator cuff tears: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lambers Heerspink, Frederik O; van Raay, Jos J A M; Koorevaar, Rinco C T; van Eerden, Pepijn J M; Westerbeek, Robin E; van 't Riet, Esther; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Diercks, Ronald L

    2015-08-01

    Good clinical results have been reported for both surgical and conservative treatment of rotator cuff tears. The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare functional and radiologic improvement after surgical and conservative treatment of degenerative rotator cuff tears. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that included 56 patients with a degenerative full-thickness rotator cuff tear between January 2009 and December 2012; 31 patients were treated conservatively, and rotator cuff repair was performed in 25 patients. Outcome measures, including the Constant-Murley score (CMS), visual analog scale (VAS) pain and VAS disability scores, were assessed preoperatively and after 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively. At 12 months postoperatively, the mean CMS was 81.9 (standard deviation [SD], 15.6) in the surgery group vs 73.7 (SD, 18.4) in the conservative group (P = .08). VAS pain (P = .04) and VAS disability (P = .02) were significantly lower in the surgery group at the 12-month follow-up. A subgroup analysis showed postoperative CMS results were significantly better in surgically treated patients without a retear compared with conservatively treated patients (88.5 [SD, 6.2] vs 73.7 [SD, 18.4]). In our population of patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears who were randomly treated by surgery or conservative protocol, we did not observe differences in functional outcome as measured with the CMS 1 year after treatment. However, significant differences in pain and disabilities were observed in favor of surgical treatment. The best outcomes in function and pain were seen in patients with an intact rotator cuff postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Simple versus complex degenerative mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Javadikasgari, Hoda; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Suri, Rakesh M; Svensson, Lars G; Navia, Jose L; Wang, Robert Z; Tappuni, Bassman; Lowry, Ashley M; McCurry, Kenneth R; Blackstone, Eugene H; Desai, Milind Y; Mick, Stephanie L; Gillinov, A Marc

    2018-07-01

    At a center where surgeons favor mitral valve (MV) repair for all subsets of leaflet prolapse, we compared results of patients undergoing repair for simple versus complex degenerative MV disease. From January 1985 to January 2016, 6153 patients underwent primary isolated MV repair for degenerative disease, 3101 patients underwent primary isolated MV repair for simple disease (posterior prolapse), and 3052 patients underwent primary isolated MV repair for complex disease (anterior or bileaflet prolapse), based on preoperative echocardiographic images. Logistic regression analysis was used to generate propensity scores for risk-adjusted comparisons (n = 2065 matched pairs). Durability was assessed by longitudinal recurrence of mitral regurgitation and reoperation. Compared with patients with simple disease, those undergoing repair of complex pathology were more likely to be younger and female (both P values < .0001) but with similar symptoms (P = .3). The most common repair technique was ring/band annuloplasty (3055/99% simple vs 3000/98% complex; P = .5), followed by leaflet resection (2802/90% simple vs 2249/74% complex; P < .0001). Among propensity-matched patients, recurrence of severe mitral regurgitation 10 years after repair was 6.2% for simple pathology versus 11% for complex pathology (P = .007), reoperation at 18 years was 6.3% for simple pathology versus 11% for complex pathology, and 20-year survival was 62% for simple pathology versus 61% for complex pathology (P = .6). Early surgical intervention has become more common in patients with degenerative MV disease, regardless of valve prolapse complexity or symptom status. Valve repair was associated with similarly low operative risk and time-related survival but less durability in complex disease. Lifelong annual echocardiographic surveillance after MV repair is recommended, particularly in patients with complex disease. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery

  20. Interrater and intrarater agreements of magnetic resonance imaging findings in the lumbar spine: significant variability across degenerative conditions.

    PubMed

    Fu, Michael C; Buerba, Rafael A; Long, William D; Blizzard, Daniel J; Lischuk, Andrew W; Haims, Andrew H; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in the evaluation of degenerative conditions in the lumbar spine. The relative interrater and intrarater agreements of MRI findings across different pathologic conditions are underexplored, as most studies are focused on specific findings. The purpose of this study was to characterize the interrater and intrarater agreements of MRI findings used to assess the degenerative lumbar spine. A retrospective diagnostic study at a large academic medical center was undertaken with a panel of orthopedic surgeons and musculoskeletal radiologists to assess lumbar MRIs using standardized criteria. Seventy-five subjects who underwent routine lumbar spine MRI at our institution were included. Each MRI study was assessed for 10 lumbar degenerative findings using standardized criteria. Lumbar vertebral levels were assessed independently, where applicable, for a total of 52 data points collected per study. T2-weighted axial and sagittal MRI sequences were presented in random order to the four reviewers (two orthopedic spine surgeons and two musculoskeletal radiologists) independently to determine interrater agreement. The first 10 studies were reevaluated at the end to determine intrarater agreement. Images were assessed using standardized and pilot-tested criteria to assess disc degeneration, stenosis, and other degenerative changes. Interrater and intrarater absolute percent agreements were calculated. To highlight the most clinically important MRI disagreements, a modified agreement analysis was also performed (in which disagreements between the lowest two severity grades for applicable conditions were ignored). Fleiss kappa coefficients for interrater agreement were determined. The overall absolute and modified interrater agreements were 76.9% and 93.5%, respectively. The absolute and modified intrarater agreements were 81.3% and 92.7%, respectively. Average Fleiss kappa coefficient was 0.431, suggesting moderate overall

  1. Do MRI findings identify patients with low back pain or sciatica who respond better to particular interventions? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Daniel; Hancock, Mark J; Pereira, Leani S M; Kent, Peter M; Latimer, Jane; Maher, Chris G

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal a range of degenerative findings and anatomical abnormalities; however, the clinical importance of these remains uncertain and controversial. We aimed to investigate if the presence of MRI findings identifies patients with low back pain (LBP) or sciatica who respond better to particular interventions. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases were searched. We included RCTs investigating MRI findings as treatment effect modifiers for patients with LBP or sciatica. We excluded studies with specific diseases as the cause of LBP. Risk of bias was assessed using the criteria of the Cochrane Back Review Group. Each MRI finding was examined for its individual capacity for effect modification. Eight published trials met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of trials was inconsistent. Substantial variability in MRI findings, treatments and outcomes across the eight trials prevented pooling of data. Patients with Modic type 1 when compared with patients with Modic type 2 had greater improvements in function when treated by Diprospan (steroid) injection, compared with saline. Patients with central disc herniation when compared with patients without central disc herniation had greater improvements in pain when treated by surgery, compared with rehabilitation. Although individual trials suggested that some MRI findings might be effect modifiers for specific interventions, none of these interactions were investigated in more than a single trial. High quality, adequately powered trials investigating MRI findings as effect modifiers are essential to determine the clinical importance of MRI findings in LBP and sciatica ( CRD42013006571).

  2. Rethinking Black Hole Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg

    Accretion discs are staples of astrophysics. Tapping into the gravitational potential energy of the accreting material, these discs are highly efficient machines that produce copious radiation and extreme outflows. While interesting in their own right, accretion discs also act as tools to study black holes and directly influence the properties of the Universe. Black hole X-ray binaries are fantastic natural laboratories for studying accretion disc physics and black hole phenomena. Among many of the curious behaviors exhibited by these systems are black hole state transitions -- complicated cycles of dramatic brightening and dimming. Using X-ray observations with high temporal cadence, we show that the evolution of the accretion disc spectrum during black hole state transitions can be described by a variable disc atmospheric structure without invoking a radially truncated disc geometry. The accretion disc spectrum can be a powerful diagnostic for measuring black hole spin if the effects of the disc atmosphere on the emergent spectrum are well-understood; however, properties of the disc atmosphere are largely unconstrained. Using statistical methods, we decompose this black hole spin measurement technique and show that modest uncertainties regarding the disc atmosphere can lead to erroneous spin measurements. The vertical structure of the disc is difficult to constrain due to our ignorance of the contribution to hydrostatic balance by magnetic fields, which are fundamental to the accretion process. Observations of black hole X-ray binaries and the accretion environments near supermassive black holes provide mounting evidence for strong magnetization. Performing numerical simulations of accretion discs in the shearing box approximation, we impose a net vertical magnetic flux that allows us to effectively control the level of disc magnetization. We study how dynamo activity and the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability depend on the

  3. Is cervical disc arthroplasty good for congenital cervical stenosis?

    PubMed

    Chang, Peng-Yuan; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Fay, Li-Yu; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Wu, Ching-Lan; Cheng, Henrich

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) has been demonstrated to be as safe and effective as anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in the management of 1- and 2-level degenerative disc disease (DDD). However, there has been a lack of data to address the fundamental discrepancy between the two surgeries (CDA vs ACDF), and preservation versus elimination of motion, in the management of cervical myelopathy associated with congenital cervical stenosis (CCS). Although younger patients tend to benefit more from motion preservation, it is uncertain if CCS caused by multilevel DDD can be treated safely with CDA. METHODS Consecutive patients who underwent 3-level anterior cervical discectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were age less than 50 years, CCS (Pavlov ratio ≤ 0.82), symptomatic myelopathy correlated with DDD, and stenosis limited to 3 levels of the subaxial cervical (C3-7) spine. Exclusion criteria were ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, previous posterior decompression surgery (e.g., laminoplasty or laminectomy), osteoporosis, previous trauma, or other rheumatic diseases that might have caused the cervical myelopathy. All these patients who underwent 3-level discectomy were divided into 2 groups according to the strategies of management: preservation or elimination of motion (the hybrid-CDA group and the ACDF group). The hybrid-CDA group underwent 2-level CDA plus 1-level ACDF, whereas the ACDF group underwent 3-level ACDF. Clinical assessment was measured by the visual analog scales (VAS) for neck and arm pain, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, and Nurick grades. Radiographic outcomes were measured using dynamic radiographs for evaluation of range of motion (ROM). RESULTS Thirty-seven patients, with a mean (± SD) age of 44.57 ± 5.10 years, were included in the final analysis. There was a male predominance in this series (78.4%, 29 male patients), and the mean follow-up duration was 2.37 ± 1

  4. Automatic diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation with shape and appearance features from MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Raja'S.; Corso, Jason J.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2010-03-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation is a major reason for lower back pain (LBP), which is the second most common neurological ailment in the United States. Automation of herniated disc diagnosis reduces the large burden on radiologists who have to diagnose hundreds of cases each day using clinical MRI. We present a method for automatic diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation using appearance and shape features. We jointly use the intensity signal for modeling the appearance of herniated disc and the active shape model for modeling the shape of herniated disc. We utilize a Gibbs distribution for classification of discs using appearance and shape features. We use 33 clinical MRI cases of the lumbar area for training and testing both appearance and shape models. We achieve over 91% accuracy in detection of herniation in a cross-validation experiment with specificity of 91% and sensitivity of 94%.

  5. Intra-discal injection of autologous, hypoxic cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in five patients with chronic lower back pain: a long-term safety and feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Elabd, Christian; Centeno, Christopher J; Schultz, John R; Lutz, Gregory; Ichim, Thomas; Silva, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    Chronic low back pain due to disc degeneration represents a major social and economic burden worldwide. The current standard of care is limited to symptomatic relief and no current approved therapy promotes disc regeneration. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily accessible and well characterized. These MSCs are multipotent and exhibit great tissue regenerative potential including bone, cartilage, and fibrous tissue regeneration. The use of this cell-based biologic for treating protruding disc herniation and/or intervertebral disc degeneration is a promising therapeutic strategy, due to their known regenerative, immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Five patients diagnosed with degenerative disc disease received an intra-discal injection of autologous, hypoxic cultured, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (15.1-51.6 million cells) as part of a previous study. These patients were re-consented to participate in this study in order to assess long-term safety and feasibility of intra-discal injection of autologous, hypoxic cultured, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells 4-6 years post mesenchymal stem cell infusion. The follow-up study consisted of a physical examination, a low back MRI, and a quality of life questionnaire. Patients' lower back MRI showed absence of neoplasms or abnormalities surrounding the treated region. Based on the physical examination and the quality of life questionnaire, no adverse events were reported due to the procedure or to the stem cell treatment 4-6 years post autologous, hypoxic cultured mesenchymal stem cell infusion. All patients self-reported overall improvement, as well as improvement in strength, post stem cell treatment, and four out of five patients reported improvement in mobility. This early human clinical data suggests the safety and feasibility of the clinical use of hypoxic cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of lower back pain due to

  6. Histological Identification of Propionibacterium acnes in Nonpyogenic Degenerated Intervertebral Discs.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Zhou, Zezhu; Jiao, Yucheng; Li, Changwei; Zheng, Yuehuan; Lin, Yazhou; Xiao, Jiaqi; Chen, Zhe; Cao, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Purpose . Low-virulence anaerobic bacteria, especially the Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) , have been thought to be a new pathogeny for a series of disc diseases. However, until now, there has been no histological evidence to confirm this link. The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of P. acnes in nonpyogenic intervertebral discs via histological observation. Method . Degenerated intervertebral discs were harvested from 76 patients with low back pain and/or sciatica but without any symptoms of discitis or spondylodiscitis. The samples were cultured under anaerobic conditions and then examined using 16S rDNA PCR to screen for P. acnes . Samples found to be positive for P. acnes were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and modified Brown-Brenn staining and observed under a microscope. Results . Here, 16 intervertebral discs were found to be positive for P. acnes via 16S rDNA PCR and the prevalence was 21.05% (16/76). Among them, 7 samples had visible microbes stained with HE and modified Brown-Brenn staining. Morphological examination showed the bacteria to be Gram-positive and rod-shaped, so they were considered P. acnes . Conclusion . P. acnes is capable of colonizing some degenerated intervertebral discs without causing discitis, and its presence could be further confirmed by histological evidence. Targeting these bacteria may be a promising therapy method for some disc diseases.

  7. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  8. Myeloradicular damage in traumatic cervical disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Bucciero, A; Carangelo, B; Cerillo, A; Gammone, V; Panagiotopoulos, K; Vizioli, L

    1998-12-01

    The literature on pure traumatic disc herniation is now voluminous but diversity of opinion exists regarding frequency, pathogenesis and management of this type of lesion. As a further contribution to the solution of the question it is thus justified to report our series of cervical traumatic disc herniation. During the period from January 1986 to December 1994, 41 patients (25 males and 16 females, between the ages of 24 and 51 years) with traumatic cervical disc herniations were operated on by anterior approach. Twenty-six (63.4%) patients presented with radicular syndrome, 3 (7.3%) with medullary symptoms and signs, and 12 (29.3%) with myeloradiculopathy. Disc herniation was at the C3/4 level in 4 (9.7%) cases, at the C4/5 level in 7 (17.1%) cases, at the C5/6 level in 24 (58.5%) cases, and at the C6/7 level in 8 (19.5%) cases. In 6 (40%) patients suffering from myelopathy (with or without radiculopathy) an area of high MR signal intensity was observed within the cervical cord on T2-weighted images; such area corresponded at the level of cord compression by disc and was not demonstrated on T1-weighted images. All patients underwent discectomy without bone grafting. Among patients with radiculopathy, 27 (71%) experienced complete relief of preoperative symptomatology, and 11 (29%) minor pain and/or neurological deficits without interference with work activities. The myelopathy completely disappeared in 11 (73.3%) cases whereas remained unchanged in 3 (20%); 1 patient with myelopathy experienced amelioration of preoperative specific symptoms and signs. The results of surgery for cervical radiculopathy due to traumatic disc herniation are satisfactory since 92 to 100% of the patients postoperatively regain prior activities, an observation we have confirmed with our own series. The results in cases of myelopathy are less satisfactory: although approximately 73% of our patients with myelopathy reported total relief of preoperative symptomatology, published reports

  9. Degenerative joint disease in weight-lifters. Fact or fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, B.; McLatchie, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    A clinical and radiological study of upper and lower limb joints was carried out on 25 experienced weight-lifters to identify the extent of degenerative joint disease (Osteoarthrosis) produced by this sport. Although significant degenerative changes were found in five lifters (20%). This figure is not greater than that found in the general population within the age group studied. There were more degenerative changes found in Olympic style weight-lifters (30.7%) than in power lifters (8.3%). The significance of these figures is discussed. The upper limb joints were almost completely free of degenerative changes. Images p97-a p97-b PMID:7407459

  10. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease.

    PubMed

    Mead, Ben; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Scott, Robert A H; Leadbeater, Wendy; Scheven, Ben A

    2015-05-01

    Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs) and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and restore vision in the diseased eye, whereas treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) has so far been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Here, we review the properties of non-retinal-derived adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells (NSCs), MSC derived from bone marrow (BMSC), adipose tissues (ADSC) and dental pulp (DPSC), together with ESC/iPSC and discuss and compare their potential advantages as therapies designed to provide trophic support, repair and replacement of retinal neurons, RPE and glia in degenerative retinal diseases. We conclude that ESCs/iPSCs have the potential to replace lost retinal cells, whereas MSC may be a useful source of paracrine factors that protect RGC and stimulate regeneration of their axons in the optic nerve in degenerate eye disease. NSC may have potential as both a source of replacement cells and also as mediators of paracrine treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of the human lumbar intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Marini, Giacomo; Huber, Gerd; Püschel, Klaus; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2015-02-05

    Systems with a quasi-static response similar to the axial response of the intervertebral disc (i.e. progressive stiffening) often present complex dynamics, characterized by peculiar nonlinearities in the frequency response. However, such characteristics have not been reported for the dynamic response of the disc. The accurate understanding of disc dynamics is essential to investigate the unclear correlation between whole body vibration and low back pain. The present study investigated the dynamic response of the disc, including its potential nonlinear response, over a range of loading conditions. Human lumbar discs were tested by applying a static preload to the top and a sinusoidal displacement at the bottom of the disc. The frequency of the stimuli was set to increase linearly from a low frequency to a high frequency limit and back down. In general, the response showed nonlinear and asymmetric characteristics. For each test, the disc had different response in the frequency-increasing compared to the frequency-decreasing sweep. In particular, the system presented abrupt changes of the oscillation amplitude at specific frequencies, which differed between the two sweeps. This behaviour indicates that the system oscillation has a different equilibrium condition depending on the path followed by the stimuli. Preload and amplitude of the oscillation directly influenced the disc response by changing the nonlinear dynamics and frequency of the jump-phenomenon. These results show that the characterization of the dynamic response of physiological systems should be readdressed to determine potential nonlinearities. Their direct effect on the system function should be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Do Turkish patients with lumbar disc herniation know body mechanics?

    PubMed

    Topcu, Sacide Yildizeli

    2017-01-01

    Most common and important cause of the low back pain is lumbar disc herniation. Patients with lumbar disc herniation face with difficulties during daily activities due to the reduction of physical functions. In order to maintain daily activities without pain and discomfort, the patients should be informed about proper positions and body mechanics. The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge and the applications of the patients with lumbar disc herniation about body mechanics. This descriptive study was conducted with 75 patients with lumbar disc herniation in Edirne, Turkey. The population consisted of 75 patients who accepted to participate in the study. In the collection of data the questionnaire, which was developed according to literature by the researcher, was used. Descriptive statistics, student t-test, variance and correlation analysis were used for assessment of the data. The significance level was accepted at 0.05. It was found that 53.3% of the patients experienced awful/very severe pain. and there were some points that the patients have enough information about; mobilisation, standing, carrying the goods, leaning back while sitting, leaning somewhere while standing, getting support from the chair when standing up, avoiding sudden position changes, changing feet frequently while standing. It was detected that a statistical relation between educational level and knowledge about body mechanics exists. This study shows that individuals with lumbar disc herniation have not enough information about body mechanics and they experienced long-term severe pain. Nurses and other health care workers have important role in explaining the importance of body mechanics to the patients and should encourage them to use that in daily life.

  13. Preparation of ormetoprim sulfadimethoxine medicated discs for disc diffusion assay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Romet (a blend of ormetoprim and sulfadimethoxine) is a typeA medicated article for the manufacture of medicated feed in the catfish industry. Recently, the commercial manufacture of ormetoprim–sulfadimethoxine susceptibility discs was discontinued. Ormetoprim–sulfadimethoxine discs were prepared at...

  14. Intradiscal application of a PCLA-PEG-PCLA hydrogel loaded with celecoxib for the treatment of back pain in canines: What's in it for humans?

    PubMed

    Tellegen, Anna R; Willems, Nicole; Beukers, Martijn; Grinwis, Guy C M; Plomp, Saskia G M; Bos, Clemens; van Dijk, Maarten; de Leeuw, Mike; Creemers, Laura B; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Meij, Björn P

    2018-03-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common clinical problem in both the human and canine population. Current pharmaceutical treatment often consists of oral anti-inflammatory drugs to alleviate pain. Novel treatments for degenerative disc disease focus on local application of sustained released drug formulations. The aim of this study was to determine safety and feasibility of intradiscal application of a poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-bpoly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) PCLA-PEG-PCLA hydrogel releasing celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor. Biocompatibility was evaluated after subcutaneous injection in mice, and safety of intradiscal injection of the hydrogel was evaluated in experimental dogs with early spontaneous intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. COX-2 expression was increased in IVD samples surgically obtained from canine patients, indicating a role of COX-2 in clinical IVD disease. Ten client-owned dogs with chronic low back pain related to IVD degeneration received an intradiscal injection with the celecoxib-loaded hydrogel. None of the dogs showed adverse reactions after intradiscal injection. The hydrogel did not influence magnetic resonance imaging signal at long-term follow-up. Clinical improvement was achieved by reduction of back pain in 9 of 10 dogs, as was shown by clinical examination and owner questionnaires. In 3 of 10 dogs, back pain recurred after 3 months. This study showed the safety and effectiveness of intradiscal injections in vivo with a thermoresponsive PCLA-PEG-PCLA hydrogel loaded with celecoxib. In this set-up, the dog can be used as a model for the development of novel treatment modalities in both canine and human patients with chronic low back pain. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Risk factors for degenerative spondylolisthesis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    DeVine, John G.; Schenk-Kisser, Jeannette M.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic literature review. Rationale: Many authors have postulated on various risk factors associated with the pathogenesis of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), yet controversies regarding those risk factors still exist. Objective: To critically appraise and summarize evidence on risk factors for DS. Methods: Articles published before October 15, 2011, were systematically reviewed using PubMed and bibliographies of key articles. Each article was subject to quality rating and was analyzed by two independent reviewers. Results: From 382 citations, 30 underwent full-text review. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria. All but two were considered poor quality. Female gender and higher facet joint angle were consistently associated with an increased risk of DS across multiple studies. Multiple studies also consistently reported no association between back pain and prolonged occupational sitting. Associations between age, parity, lumbosacral angle, lumbar lordosis, facet joint tropism, and pelvic inclination angles were inconsistent. Conclusions: There appears to be consistent evidence to suggest that the risk of DS increases with increasing age and is greater for females and people with a greater facet joint angle. PMID:23230415

  16. Glucosamine Supplementation Demonstrates a Negative Effect On Intervertebral Disc Matrix in an Animal Model of Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Lloydine; Vo, Nam; Coehlo, J. Paulo; Dong, Qing; Bechara, Bernard; Woods, Barrett; Hempen, Eric; Hartman, Robert; Preuss, Harry; Balk, Judith; Kang, James; Sowa, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Laboratory based controlled in vivo study Objective To determine the in vivo effects of oral glucosamine sulfate on intervertebral disc degeneration Summary of Background Data Although glucosamine has demonstrated beneficial effect in articular cartilage, clinical benefit is uncertain. A CDC report from 2009 reported that many patients are using glucosamine supplementation for low back pain (LBP), without significant evidence to support its use. Because disc degeneration is a major contributor of LBP, we explored the effects of glucosamine on disc matrix homeostasis in an animal model of disc degeneration. Methods Eighteen skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups: control, annular puncture, glucosamine, and annular puncture+glucosamine. Glucosamine treated rabbits received daily oral supplementation with 107mg/day (weight based equivalent to human 1500mg/day). Annular puncture surgery involved puncturing the annulus fibrosus (AF) of 3 lumbar discs with a 16G needle to induce degeneration. Serial MRIs were obtained at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 20 weeks. Discs were harvested at 20 weeks for determination of glycosaminoglycan(GAG) content, relative gene expression measured by RT-PCR, and histological analyses. Results The MRI index and NP area of injured discs of glucosamine treated animals with annular puncture was found to be lower than that of degenerated discs from rabbits not supplemented with glucosamine. Consistent with this, decreased glycosaminoglycan was demonstrated in glucosamine fed animals, as determined by both histological and GAG content. Gene expression was consistent with a detrimental effect on matrix. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the net effect on matrix in an animal model in vivo, as measured by gene expression, MRI, histology, and total proteoglycan is anti-anabolic. This raises concern over this commonly used supplement, and future research is needed to establish the clinical relevance of these

  17. Comparison between two pedicle screw augmentation instrumentations in adult degenerative scoliosis with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The operative treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis combined with osteoporosis increase following the epidemiological development. Studies have confirmed that screws in osteoporotic spines have significant lower-screw strength with more frequent screw movements within the vertebra than normal spines. Screws augmented with Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or with autogenous bone can offer more powerful corrective force and significant advantages. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 31 consecutive patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis combined with osteoporosis who had surgery from December 2000. All had a minimum of 2-year follow-up. All patients had posterior approach surgery. 14 of them were fixed with pedicle screw by augmentation with Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and the other 17 patients with autogenous bone. Age, sex and whether smoking were similar between the two groups. Surgical time, blood loss, blood transfusion, medical cost, post surgery ICU time, hospital day, length of oral pain medicines taken, Pre-and postoperative Oswestry disability index questionnaire and surgical revision were documented and compared. Preoperative, postoperative and final follow up Cobb angle, sagittal lumbar curve, correction rate, and Follow up Cobb loss were also compared. Results No significant differences were found between the autogenous bone group and Polymethylmethacrylate group with regards to all the targets above except for length of oral pain medicines taken and surgery cost. 2 patients were seen leakage during operation, but there is neither damage of nerve nor symptom after operation. No revision was needed. Conclusion Both augmentation pedicle screw with Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and autogenous bone treating degenerative lumbar scoliosis combined with osteoporosis can achieve a good surgical result. Less oral pain medicines taken are the potential benefits of Polymethylmethacrylate augmentation, but that is at the cost of more

  18. Comparison between two pedicle screw augmentation instrumentations in adult degenerative scoliosis with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Zi-qiang; Shi, Zhi-cai; Zhu, Xiao-dong; Wang, Chuan-feng; Li, Ming

    2011-12-21

    The operative treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis combined with osteoporosis increase following the epidemiological development. Studies have confirmed that screws in osteoporotic spines have significant lower-screw strength with more frequent screw movements within the vertebra than normal spines. Screws augmented with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or with autogenous bone can offer more powerful corrective force and significant advantages. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 31 consecutive patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis combined with osteoporosis who had surgery from December 2000. All had a minimum of 2-year follow-up. All patients had posterior approach surgery. 14 of them were fixed with pedicle screw by augmentation with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and the other 17 patients with autogenous bone. Age, sex and whether smoking were similar between the two groups. Surgical time, blood loss, blood transfusion, medical cost, post surgery ICU time, hospital day, length of oral pain medicines taken, Pre-and postoperative Oswestry disability index questionnaire and surgical revision were documented and compared. Preoperative, postoperative and final follow up Cobb angle, sagittal lumbar curve, correction rate, and Follow up Cobb loss were also compared. No significant differences were found between the autogenous bone group and polymethylmethacrylate group with regards to all the targets above except for length of oral pain medicines taken and surgery cost. 2 patients were seen leakage during operation, but there is neither damage of nerve nor symptom after operation. No revision was needed. Both augmentation pedicle screw with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and autogenous bone treating degenerative lumbar scoliosis combined with osteoporosis can achieve a good surgical result. Less oral pain medicines taken are the potential benefits of polymethylmethacrylate augmentation, but that is at the cost of more medical spending.

  19. Optic Disc Drusen in Children

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Melinda Y.; Pineles, Stacy L.

    2016-01-01

    Optic disc drusen occur in 0.4% of children and consist of acellular intracellular and extracellular deposits that often become calcified over time. They are typically buried early in life and generally become superficial, and therefore visible, later in childhood, at the average age of 12 years. Their main clinical significance lies in the ability of optic disc drusen, particularly when buried, to simulate true optic disc edema. Misdiagnosing drusen as true disc edema may lead to an invasive and unnecessary workup for elevated intracranial pressure. Ancillary testing, including ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography, may aid in the correct diagnosis of optic disc drusen. Complications of optic disc drusen in children include visual field defects, hemorrhages, choroidal neovascular membrane, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and retinal vascular occlusions. Treatment options for these complications include ocular hypotensive agents for visual field defects and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents for choroidal neovascular membranes. In most cases, however, children with optic disc drusen can be managed by observation with serial examinations and visual field testing, once true optic disc edema has been excluded. PMID:27033945

  20. [Locomotive syndrome and frailty. Locomotive syndrome due to the underlying disease of degenerative arthritis].

    PubMed

    Chosa, Etsuo

    2012-04-01

    Japan became a superaging society. We have been putting a new focus on locomotive syndrome and frailty. The prevention and treatment of locomotive syndromes, such as osteoarthritis, degenerative spondylosis, lumbar canal stenosis, osteoporosis, upper extremity diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and many other disorders of the locomotive organs are important. Because, the locomotive syndrome results in deterioration of the exercise function and loss of mental and physical health. The aim of locomotive syndrome exercises are: to reduce pain, to restore and improve joint function. We need to take a comprehensive approach to locomotive syndrome, including lifestyle modification, muscle exercise, stretching and therapeutic exercise.

  1. Is it possible to preserve lumbar lordosis after hybrid stabilization? Preliminary results of a novel rigid-dynamic stabilization system in degenerative lumbar pathologies.

    PubMed

    Formica, Matteo; Cavagnaro, Luca; Basso, Marco; Zanirato, Andrea; Felli, Lamberto; Formica, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the results of a novel rigid-dynamic stabilization technique in lumbar degenerative segment diseases (DSD), expressly pointing out the preservation of postoperative lumbar lordosis (LL). Forty-one patients with one level lumbar DSD and initial disc degeneration at the adjacent level were treated. Circumferential lumbar arthrodesis and posterior hybrid instrumentation were performed to preserve an initial disc degeneration above the segment that has to be fused. Clinical and spino-pelvic parameters were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. At 2-year follow-up, a significant improvement of clinical outcomes was reported. No statistically significant difference was noted between postoperative and 2-year follow-up in LL and in disc/vertebral body height ratio at the upper adjacent fusion level. When properly selected, this technique leads to good results. A proper LL should be achieved after any hybrid stabilization to preserve the segment above the fusion.

  2. Titanium cages versus autogenous iliac crest bone grafts in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion treatment of patients with cervical degenerative diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ming-Hao; Zhang, Fan; Yin, Jun; Xu, Hao-Cheng; Lyu, Fei-Zhou

    2017-05-01

    A systematic review and partial meta-analysis is conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of anterior cervical decompression and fusion procedures employing either rectangular titanium cages or iliac crest autografts in patients suffering from cervical degenerative disc diseases. Medline, PubMed, CENTRAL, and Google Scholar databases were searched up to June 2015, using the key words cervical discectomy; bone transplantation; titanium cages; and iliac crest autografts. Outcomes of interbody fusion rates were compared using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Values of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score, and visual analog scale before and after operation were also compared. The rate of interbody fusion was similar between patients in the iliac crest autograft and titanium cage groups (pooled OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.66, P = .178). The overall analysis showed that patients in the two groups did not have significantly different post-surgery Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (pooled difference in means = -0.05, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.63, P = .876). Improvement in arm and neck pain scores were assessed with a visual analog scale and differed significantly between patients in the iliac crest autograft and titanium cage groups (pooled difference in means = 0.16, 95% CI = -0.44 to 0.76, P = .610; and pooled difference in means = -0.44, 95% CI = -2.23 to 1.36, P = .634, respectively). Our results suggest that the use of titanium cages constitutes a safe and efficient alternative to iliac crest bone autografts for anterior cervical discectomy with fusion.

  3. The predisposing factors for the heterotopic ossification after cervical artificial disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Yi, Seong; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Choi, Gwihyun; Shin, Hyun Chul; Kim, Keun Su; Yoon, Do Heum

    2013-09-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is defined as a formation of bone outside the skeletal system. The reported HO occurrence rate in cervical artificial disc replacement (ADR) is unexpectedly high and is known to vary. However, the predisposing factors for HO in cervical ADR have not yet been elucidated. Investigation of the predisposing factors of HO in cervical arthroplasty and the relationship between degeneration of the cervical spine and HO occurrence. Retrospective study to discover predisposing factors of HO in cervical arthroplasty. A total of 170 patients who underwent cervical ADR were enrolled including full follow-up clinical and radiologic data. Radiologic outcomes were assessed by identification of HOs according to McAfee's classifications. This study enrolled a total of 170 patients who underwent cervical ADR. Pre-existing degenerative change included anterior or posterior osteophytes, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, or ligamentum nuchae. The relationships between basic patient data, pre-existing degenerative change, and HO were investigated using linear logistic regression analysis. Among all 170 patients, HO was found in 69 patients (40.6%). Among the postulated predisposing factors, only male gender and artificial disc device type were shown to be statistically significant. Unexpectedly, preoperative degenerative changes in the cervical spine exerted no significant influence on the occurrence of HOs. The odds ratio of male gender compared with female gender was 2.117. With regard to device type, the odds ratios of Mobi-C (LDR medical, Troyes, France) and ProDisc-C (Synthes, Inc., West Chester, PA, USA) were 5.262 and 7.449, respectively, compared with the Bryan disc. Definite differences in occurrence rate according to the gender of patients and the prosthesis type were identified in this study. Moreover, factors indefinably expected to influence HO in the past were not shown to be risk factors

  4. [3-Tesla MRI vs. arthroscopy for diagnostics of degenerative knee cartilage diseases: preliminary clinical results].

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, L V; Schmitz, A; Burian, B; Pennekamp, P H; Schild, H H; Kraft, C N; von Falkenhausen, M

    2008-09-01

    The literature contains only a few studies investigating the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostics of degenerative cartilage diseases. Studies on MRI diagnostics of the cartilage using field strengths of 3-Tesla demonstrate promising results. To assess the value of 3-Tesla MRI for decision making regarding conservative or operative treatment possibilities, this study focused on patients with degenerative cartilage diseases. Thirty-two patients with chronic knee pain, a minimum age of 40 years, a negative history of trauma, and at least grade II degenerative cartilage disease were included. Cartilage abnormalities detected at preoperative 3-Tesla MRI (axial/koronar/sagittal PD-TSE-SPAIR, axial/sagittal 3D-T1-FFE, axial T2-FFE; Intera 3.0T, Philips Medical Systems) were classified (grades I-IV) and compared with arthroscopic findings. Thirty-six percent (70/192) of the examined cartilage surfaces demonstrated no agreement between MRI and arthroscopic grading. In most of these cases, grades II and III cartilage lesions were confounded with each other. Regarding the positive predictive values, the probability that a positive finding in MRI would be exactly confirmed by arthroscopy was 39-72%. In contrast, specificities and negative predictive values of different grades of cartilage diseases were 85-95%. Regarding the high specificities and negative predictive values, 3-Tesla MRI is a reliable method for excluding even slight cartilage degeneration. In summary, in degenerative cartilage diseases, 3-Tesla MRI is a supportive, noninvasive method for clinical decision making regarding conservative or operative treatment possibilities. However, the value of diagnostic arthroscopy for a definitive assessment of the articular surfaces and for therapeutic planning currently cannot be replaced by 3-Tesla MRI. This applies especially to treatment options in which a differentiation between grade II and III cartilage lesions is of interest.

  5. A RCT comparing 7-year clinical outcomes of one level symptomatic cervical disc disease (SCDD) following ProDisc-C total disc arthroplasty (TDA) versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).

    PubMed

    Loumeau, Thomas P; Darden, Bruce V; Kesman, Thomas J; Odum, Susan M; Van Doren, Bryce A; Laxer, Eric B; Murrey, Daniel B

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to compare the safety and efficacy of TDA using the ProDisc-C implant to ACDF in patients with single-level SCDD between C3 and C7. We report on the single-site results from a larger multicenter trial of 13 sites using an approved US Food and Drug Administration protocol (prospective, randomized controlled non-inferiority design). Patients were randomized one-to-one to either the ProDisc-C device or ACDF. All enrollees were evaluated pre- and post-operatively at regular intervals through month 84. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for neck and arm pain/intensity, Neck Disability Index (NDI), Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and satisfaction were assessed. Twenty-two patients were randomized to each arm of the study. Nineteen additional patients received the ProDisc-C via continued access. NDI improved with the ProDisc-C more than with ACDF. Total range of motion was maintained with the ProDisc-C, but diminished with ACDF. Neck and arm pain improved more in the ProDisc-C than ACDF group. Patient satisfaction remained higher in the ProDisc-C group at 7 years. SF-36 scores were higher in the TDA group than ACDF group at 7 years; the difference was not clinically significant. Six additional operations (two at the same level; four at an adjacent level) were performed in the ACDF, but none in the ProDisc-C group. The ProDisc-C implant appears to be safe and effective for the treatment of SCDD. Patients with the implant retained motion at the involved segment and had a lower reoperation rate than those with an ACDF.

  6. Herniated Lumbar Disc

    MedlinePlus

    ... and, with the help of a nurse or physical therapist, begin education and training about performing the activities of daily ... Treatments Discectomy Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise MRI NSAIDs Physical Therapy Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain Traction Watchful Waiting & Education ... {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  7. Adult Degenerative Scoliosis with Spinal Stenosis Treated with Stand-Alone Cage via an Extreme Lateral Transpsoas Approach; a Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    von Keudell, Arvind; Alimi, Marjan; Gebhard, Harry; Härtl, Roger

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 73-year-old female with severe degenerative scoliosis and back and leg pain that was successfully treated with stand- alone cages via an extreme lateral transpsoas approach. This patient had declined open surgery and instrumentation due to her advanced age concerns about potential side effects. PMID:26110180

  8. Overview: the role of Propionibacterium acnes in nonpyogenic intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Cao, Peng; Zhou, Zezhu; Yuan, Ye; Jiao, Yucheng; Zheng, Yuehuan

    2016-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), an important opportunistic anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium, causes bone and joint infections, discitis and spondylodiscitis. Accumulated evidence suggested that this microbe can colonise inside intervertebral discs without causing symptoms of discitis. Epidemiological investigation shows that the prevalence ranges from 13 % to 44 %. Furthermore, colonisation by P. acnes inside nonpyogenic intervertebral discs is thought to be one pathogen causing sciatica, Modic changes and nonspecific low back pain. Specially, patients can attain significant relief of low back pain, amelioration of Modic changes and alleviation of sciatica after antibiotic therapy, indicating the role of P. acnes in these pathological changes. However, until now, there were hypotheses only to explain problems such as how P. acnes access intervertebral discs and what the exact pathological mechanism it employs during its latent infection period. In addition, research regarding diagnostic procedures and treatment strategies were also rare. Overall, the prevalence and possible pathological role that P. acnes plays inside nonpyogenic intervertebral discs is summarised in this paper.

  9. Developmental mechanisms of intervertebral disc and vertebral column formation.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Lisa Y; Harfe, Brian D

    2017-11-01

    The vertebral column consists of repeating units of ossified vertebrae that are adjoined by fibrocartilagenous intervertebral discs. These structures form from the embryonic notochord and somitic mesoderm. In humans, congenital malformations of the vertebral column include scoliosis, kyphosis, spina bifida, and Klippel Feil syndrome. In adulthood, a common malady affecting the vertebral column includes disc degeneration and associated back pain. Indeed, recent reports estimate that low back pain is the number one cause of disability worldwide. Our review provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms underlying vertebral column morphogenesis and intervertebral disc development and maintenance, with an emphasis on what has been gleaned from recent genetic studies in mice. The aim of this review is to provide a developmental framework through which vertebral column formation can be understood so that ultimately, research scientists and clinicians alike can restore disc health with appropriately designed gene and cell-based therapies. WIREs Dev Biol 2017, 6:e283. doi: 10.1002/wdev.283 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Comparison of animal discs used in disc research to human lumbar disc: torsion mechanics and collagen content.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Brent L; Beckstein, Jesse C; Martin, John T; Beattie, Elizabeth E; Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A; Schaer, Thomas P; Vresilovic, Edward J; Elliott, Dawn M

    2012-07-01

    Experimental measurement and normalization of in vitro disc torsion mechanics and collagen content for several animal species used in intervertebral disc research and comparing these with the human disc. To aid in the selection of appropriate animal models for disc research by measuring torsional mechanical properties and collagen content. There is lack of data and variability in testing protocols for comparing animal and human disc torsion mechanics and collagen content. Intervertebral disc torsion mechanics were measured and normalized by disc height and polar moment of inertia for 11 disc types in 8 mammalian species: the calf, pig, baboon, goat, sheep, rabbit, rat, and mouse lumbar discs, and cow, rat, and mouse caudal discs. Collagen content was measured and normalized by dry weight for the same discs except the rat and the mouse. Collagen fiber stretch in torsion was calculated using an analytical model. Measured torsion parameters varied by several orders of magnitude across the different species. After geometric normalization, only the sheep and pig discs were statistically different from human discs. Fiber stretch was found to be highly dependent on the assumed initial fiber angle. The collagen content of the discs was similar, especially in the outer annulus where only the calf and goat discs were statistically different from human. Disc collagen content did not correlate with torsion mechanics. Disc torsion mechanics are comparable with human lumbar discs in 9 of 11 disc types after normalization by geometry. The normalized torsion mechanics and collagen content of the multiple animal discs presented are useful for selecting and interpreting results for animal disc models. Structural organization of the fiber angle may explain the differences that were noted between species after geometric normalization.

  11. Medical Information on Optical Disc*

    PubMed Central

    Schipma, Peter B.; Cichocki, Edward M.; Ziemer, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    Optical discs may permit a revolutionary change in the distribution and use of medical information. A single compact disc, similar in size to that used for digital audio recording, can contain over 500 million characters of information that is accessible by a Personal Computer. These discs can be manufactured at a cost lower than that of print on paper, at reasonable volumes. Software can provide the health care professional with nearly instantaneous access to the information. Thus, for the first time, the opportunity exists to have large local medical information collections. This paper describes an application of this technology in the field of Oncology.

  12. Foraminoplastic transfacet epidural endoscopic approach for removal of intraforaminal disc herniation at the L5-S1 level

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarczyk, Jacek; Nowakowski, Andrzej; Sulewski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Transforaminal endoscopic disc removal in the L5-S1 motion segment of the lumbar spine creates a technical challenge due to anatomical reasons and individual variability. The majority of surgeons prefer a posterior classical or minimally invasive approach. There is only one foraminoplastic modification of the technique in the literature so far. In this paper we present a new technique with a foraminoplastic transfacet approach that may be suitable in older patients with advanced degenerative disease of the spine. PMID:24729817

  13. Accelerated cellular senescence in degenerate intervertebral discs: a possible role in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Le Maitre, Christine Lyn; Freemont, Anthony John; Hoyland, Judith Alison

    2007-01-01

    Current evidence implicates intervertebral disc degeneration as a major cause of low back pain, although its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Numerous characteristic features of disc degeneration mimic those seen during ageing but appear to occur at an accelerated rate. We hypothesised that this is due to accelerated cellular senescence, which causes fundamental changes in the ability of disc cells to maintain the intervertebral disc (IVD) matrix, thus leading to IVD degeneration. Cells isolated from non-degenerate and degenerate human tissue were assessed for mean telomere length, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), and replicative potential. Expression of P16INK4A (increased in cellular senescence) was also investigated in IVD tissue by means of immunohistochemistry. RNA from tissue and cultured cells was used for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis for matrix metalloproteinase-13, ADAMTS 5 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs 5), and P16INK4A. Mean telomere length decreased with age in cells from non-degenerate tissue and also decreased with progressive stages of degeneration. In non-degenerate discs, there was an age-related increase in cellular expression of P16INK4A. Cells from degenerate discs (even from young patients) exhibited increased expression of P16INK4A, increased SA-β-gal staining, and a decrease in replicative potential. Importantly, there was a positive correlation between P16INK4A and matrix-degrading enzyme gene expression. Our findings indicate that disc cell senescence occurs in vivo and is accelerated in IVD degeneration. Furthermore, the senescent phenotype is associated with increased catabolism, implicating cellular senescence in the pathogenesis of IVD degeneration. PMID:17498290

  14. Short-term results after local application of steroids and anesthetics in patients with painful spine conditions.

    PubMed

    Hadziahmetovic, Narcisa Vavra; Aganovic, Damir; Kadic, Aldijana; Biscevic, Mirza

    2014-01-01

    Spinal pain is the most common of all chronic pain disorders. Imaging studies can be used to determine whether a pathological process is associated with the patient's symptoms. To determine the short-term efficiency of local instillation of steroids in patients with painful spine conditions. A prospective study included 35 patients with diagnosis of lumbar or cervical radiculopathy, or cervical and lumbar syndrome at the Department for the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department for the Orthopedics and Traumatology, and Department for the Neurosurgery, Clinical Canter University of Sarajevo (KCUS). A clinical examination, visual pain scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were performed prior to the needle procedure and seven days after it. Descriptive and comparative statistics were used for comparison of pre and post-interventional results. This procedure was done for the first time in our region. The males and females were equally represented in this study (17:18). The patients were 29 to 80 years old. The highest number of patients have been between 40-60 years, older then that have been 44.2% of patients, and younger only 8.5%. Patients have complained about the radicular pain along the legs or arms or back or neck pain. Most of them had disc herniation-57.14%, 8.57% had bulging disc, 8.57% had spinal canal stenosis, 5.71% had fasetarthrosis, rest of them had combination of those conditions. There was a statistically significant difference between the value of ODI score before procedure and 7 days later (26 +/- 10:16 +/- 12; p < 0.001). The difference was also statistically significant in VAS values (7 +/- 1:1 +/- 1; p < 0.001). Our study suggests that needle instillation of steroid and lidocaine is effective in short-term pain occurs in different painful spine conditions (Sy cervicale, lumbare and radiculopathy). It is valuable alternative to the classic methods of physical and drug therapy. It can also postpone surgical treatment, and it is

  15. A potential role for cell-based therapeutics in the treatment of intervertebral disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Ganey, Timothy M; Meisel, Hans Joerg

    2002-10-01

    Lower back pain and disc degeneration negatively affect quality of life and impose an enormous financial burden. An extensive body of scientific work has evolved that characterizes the disc, demonstrating spinal anatomy and morphology that contribute to risk and likely promote failure. Ultimately, matrix failure is responsible for mechanical failure, which in turn results in spinal compromise anatomically and subsequent pain. One intervening approach to breaking this sequence has been to repopulate the anatomy with autologous disc chondrocytes--cells capable of restoring the matrix and retaining the mechanical balance by which the disc functions. This strategy has been implemented both in patients and in animal models, and early results, although preliminary, support the premise as a positive approach.

  16. Total disc arthroplasty versus anterior cervical interbody fusion: use of the Spine Tango registry to supplement the evidence from randomized control trials.

    PubMed

    Staub, Lukas P; Ryser, Christoph; Röder, Christoph; Mannion, Anne F; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Aebi, Max; Aghayev, Emin

    2016-02-01

    Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared patient outcomes of anterior (cervical) interbody fusion (AIF) with those of total disc arthroplasty (TDA). Because RCTs have known limitations with regard to their external validity, the comparative effectiveness of the two therapies in daily practice remains unknown. This study aimed to compare patient-reported outcomes after TDA versus AIF based on data from an international spine registry. A retrospective analysis of registry data was carried out. Inclusion criteria were degenerative disc or disc herniation of the cervical spine treated by single-level TDA or AIF, no previous surgery, and a Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) completed at baseline and at least 3 months' follow-up. Overall, 987 patients were identified. Neck and arm pain relief and COMI score improvement were the outcome measures. Three separate analyses were performed to compare TDA and AIF surgical outcomes: (1) mimicking an RCT setting, with admission criteria typical of those in published RCTs, a 1:1 matched analysis was carried out in 739 patients; (2) an analysis was performed on 248 patients outside the classic RCT spectrum, that is, with one or more typical RCT exclusion criteria; (3) a subgroup analysis of all patients with additional follow-up longer than 2 years (n=149). Matching resulted in 190 pairs with an average follow-up of 17 months that had no residual significant differences for any patient characteristics. Small but statistically significant differences in outcome were observed in favor of TDA, which are potentially clinically relevant. Subgroup analyses of atypical patients and of patients with longer-term follow-up showed no significant differences in outcome between the treatments. The results of this observational study were in accordance with those of the published RCTs, suggesting substantial pain reduction both after AIF and TDA, with slightly greater benefit after arthroplasty. The analysis of atypical patients

  17. Low rate loading-induced convection enhances net transport into the intervertebral disc in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gullbrand, Sarah E; Peterson, Joshua; Mastropolo, Rosemarie; Roberts, Timothy T; Lawrence, James P; Glennon, Joseph C; DiRisio, Darryl J; Ledet, Eric H

    2015-05-01

    The intervertebral disc primarily relies on trans-endplate diffusion for the uptake of nutrients and the clearance of byproducts. In degenerative discs, diffusion is often diminished by endplate sclerosis and reduced proteoglycan content. Mechanical loading-induced convection has the potential to augment diffusion and enhance net transport into the disc. The ability of convection to augment disc transport is controversial and has not been demonstrated in vivo. To determine if loading-induced convection can enhance small molecule transport into the intervertebral disc in vivo. Net transport was quantified via postcontrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into the discs of the New Zealand white rabbit lumbar spine subjected to in vivo cyclic low rate loading. Animals were administered the MRI contrast agent gadodiamide intravenously and subjected to in vivo low rate loading (0.5 Hz, 200 N) via a custom external loading apparatus for either 2.5, 5, 10, 15, or 20 minutes. Animals were then euthanized and the lumbar spines imaged using postcontrast enhanced MRI. The T1 constants in the nucleus, annulus, and cartilage endplates were quantified as a measure of gadodiamide transport into the loaded discs compared with the adjacent unloaded discs. Microcomputed tomography was used to quantify subchondral bone density. Low rate loading caused the rapid uptake and clearance of gadodiamide in the nucleus compared with unloaded discs, which exhibited a slower rate of uptake. Relative to unloaded discs, low rate loading caused a maximum increase in transport into the nucleus of 16.8% after 5 minutes of loading. Low rate loading increased the concentration of gadodiamide in the cartilage endplates at each time point compared with unloaded levels. Results from this study indicate that forced convection accelerated small molecule uptake and clearance in the disc induced by low rate mechanical loading. Low rate loading may, therefore, be therapeutic to the disc as it

  18. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  19. Enlivening Physics, a Local Video Disc Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how to make and use an inexpensive video disc of physics demonstrations. Discusses the background, production of the disc, subject of the disc including angular momentum, "monkey and the hunter" experiment, Doppler shift, pressure of a constant volume of gas thermometer, and wave effects, and using the disc in classroom. (YP)

  20. Disc Golf: Teaching a Lifetime Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastham, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Disc golf is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed by students of varying skill levels and abilities. Disc golf follows the principles of ball golf but is generally easier for students to play and enjoy success. The object of disc golf is similar to ball golf and involves throwing a disc from the teeing area to the target in as few throws as…

  1. Radiological and Radionuclide Imaging of Degenerative Disease of the Facet Joints

    PubMed Central

    Shur, Natalie; Corrigan, Alexis; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Desai, Amidevi; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    The facet joint has been increasingly implicated as a potential source of lower back pain. Diagnosis can be challenging as there is not a direct correlation between facet joint disease and clinical or radiological features. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis, treatment, and current imaging modality options in the context of degenerative facet joint disease. We describe each modality in turn with a pictorial review using current evidence. Newer hybrid imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provide additional information relative to the historic gold standard magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnostic benefits of SPECT/CT include precise localization and characterization of spinal lesions and improved diagnosis for lower back pain. It may have a role in selecting patients for local therapeutic injections, as well as guiding their location with increased precision. PMID:26170560

  2. Surgical results of dynamic nonfusion stabilization with the Segmental Spinal Correction System for degenerative lumbar spinal diseases with instability: Minimum 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Hideki; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki; Morishita, Yuichirou; Sakai, Tsubasa; Huang, George; Kida, Hirotaka; Takemitsu, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Background When spinal fusion is applied to degenerative lumbar spinal disease with instability, adjacent segment disorder will be an issue in the future. However, decompression alone could cause recurrence of spinal canal stenosis because of increased instability on operated segments and lead to revision surgery. Covering the disadvantages of both procedures, we applied nonfusion stabilization with the Segmental Spinal Correction System (Ulrich Medical, Ulm, Germany) and decompression. Methods The surgical results of 52 patients (35 men and 17 women) with a minimum 2-year follow-up were analyzed: 10 patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis, 15 with lumbar canal stenosis with disc herniation, 20 with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 6 with disc herniation, and 1 with lumbar discopathy. Results The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score was improved, from 14.4 ± 5.3 to 25.5 ± 2.8. The improvement rate was 76%. Range of motion of the operated segments was significantly decreased, from 9.6° ± 4.2° to 2.0° ± 1.8°. Only 1 patient had adjacent segment disease that required revision surgery. There was only 1 screw breakage, but the patient was asymptomatic. Conclusions Over a minimum 2-year follow-up, the results of nonfusion stabilization with the Segmental Spinal Correction System for unstable degenerative lumbar disease were good. It is necessary to follow up the cases with a focus on adjacent segment disorders in the future. PMID:25802671

  3. Criterion Validation Testing of Clinical Metrology Instruments for Measuring Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Mobility Impairment in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Thomson, Andrea E.; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Methods Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Results Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p<0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042). Conclusions Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease. PMID:26162101

  4. Topical Treatment of Degenerative Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zengdong; Huang, Rongzhong

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews topical management strategies for degenerative osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A search of Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane library using MeSH terms including "topical," "treatment," "knee" and "osteoarthritis" was carried out. Original research and review articles on the effectiveness and safety, recommendations from international published guidelines and acceptability studies of topical preparations were included. Current topical treatments included for the management of knee OA include topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, capsaicin, salicylates and physical treatments such as hot or cold therapy. Current treatment guidelines recommend topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as an alternative and even first-line therapy for OA management, especially among elderly patients. Guidelines on other topical treatments vary, from recommendations against their use, to in favor as alternative or simultaneous therapy, especially for patients with contraindications to other analgesics. Although often well-tolerated and preferred by many patients, clinical care still lags in the adoption of topical treatments. Aspects of efficacy, safety and patient quality of life data require further research. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA linkage studies of degenerative retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Daiger, S P; Heckenlively, J R; Lewis, R A; Pelias, M Z

    1987-01-01

    DNA linkage studies of human genetic diseases have led to rapid characterization of a number of otherwise intractable disease loci. Detection of a linked DNA marker, the first step in "reverse genetics", has permitted cloning of the genes for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, retinoblastoma and chronic granulomatosis disease, among others. Thus, the case for applying these techniques to retinitis pigmentosa and related diseases, and the urgency in capitalizing on molecular developments, is justified and compelling. The first major success regarding RP was in demonstrating linkage of the DNA marker DXS7 (L1.28) to XRP. For autosomal forms of the disease, conventional linkage studies have provided tentative evidence for linkage of ADRP to the Rh blood group on chromosome lp and for linkage of Usher's syndrome to Gc and 4q. These provisional assignments are, at least, an important starting point for DNA analysis. The Support Program for DNA Linkage Studies of Degenerative Retinal Diseases was established to provide access for the scientific community to appropriate families, using the resources of the Human Genetic Mutant Cell Repository to prepare, store and distribute lymphoblast lines. To date, two extensive, well-characterized families are included in the program: the autosomal dominant RP family UCLA-RP01, and the Usher's syndrome families LSU-US01. It is highly likely that rapid progress will be made in mapping and characterizing the inherited retinal dystrophies. We believe the support program will facilitate this progress.

  6. Correlation between Clinical Features and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Lumbar Disc Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S S; Lakhey, R B; Sharma, P; Pokhrel, R K

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is routinely done for diagnosis of lumbar disc prolapse. Many abnormalities of disc are observed even in asymptomatic patient.This study was conducted tocorrelate these abnormalities observed on Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical features of lumbar disc prolapse. A This prospective analytical study includes 57 cases of lumbar disc prolapse presenting to Department of Orthopedics, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital from March 2011 to August 2012. All patientshad Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine and the findings regarding type, level and position of lumbar disc prolapse, any neural canal or foraminal compromise was recorded. These imaging findings were then correlated with clinical signs and symptoms. Chi-square test was used to find out p-value for correlation between clinical features and Magnetic resonance imaging findings using SPSS 17.0. This study included 57 patients, with mean age 36.8 years. Of them 41(71.9%) patients had radicular leg pain along specific dermatome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed 104 lumbar disc prolapselevel. Disc prolapse at L4-L5 and L5-S1 level constituted 85.5%.Magnetic resonance imaging findings of neural foramina compromise and nerve root compression were fairly correlated withclinical findings of radicular pain and neurological deficit. Clinical features and Magnetic resonance imaging findings of lumbar discprolasehad faircorrelation, but all imaging abnormalities do not have a clinical significance.

  7. The comparison of measurement between ultrasound and computed tomography for abnormal degenerative facet joints: A STROBE-compliant article.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen; Tian, Dan; Liu, Da; Yin, Jing; Huang, Ying

    2017-08-01

    Besides the study on examining facet joints of lumbar spine by ultrasound in normal population, there has not been any related report about examining normal facet joints of lumbar spine by ultrasound so far. This study was aimed to explore the feasibility of ultrasound assessment of lumber spine facet joints by comparing ultrasound measure values of normal and degenerative lumber spine facet joints, and by comparing measure values of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) of degenerative lumber spine facet joints.This study included 15 patients who had chronic low back pain because of degenerative change in lumbar vertebrae, and 19 volunteers who did not have low back pain or pain in the lower limb. The ultrasound measure values (height [H] and width [W]) of normal and degenerative lumber spine facet joints were compared. And the differentiation between measure values (H and W) of ultrasound and CT of degenerative lumber spine facet joints was also analyzed.The ultrasound clearly showed abnormal facet joints lesion, which was characterized by hyperostosis on the edge of joints, bone destruction under joints, and thinner or thicker articular cartilage. There were significant differences between the ultrasound measure values of the normal (H: 1.26 ± 0.03 cm, W: 0.18 ± 0.01 cm) and abnormal facet joints (H: 1.43 ± 0.05 cm, W: 0.15 ± 0.02 cm) (all P < .05). However, there were no significant differences between the measure values of the ultrasound (H: 1.43 ± 0.17 cm, W: 0.15 ± 0.03 cm) and CT (H: 1.42 ± 0.16, W: 0.14 ± 0.03) of the degenerative lumber spine facet joints (all P > .05).Ultrasound can clearly show the structure of facet joints of lumbar spine. It is precise and feasible to assess facet joints of lumbar spine by ultrasound. This study has important significance for the diagnosis of lumbar facet joint degeneration.

  8. Evolution of protoplanetary discs with magnetically driven disc winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takeru K.; Ogihara, Masahiro; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Crida, Aurélien; Guillot, Tristan

    2016-12-01

    Aims: We investigate the evolution of protoplanetary discs (PPDs) with magnetically driven disc winds and viscous heating. Methods: We considered an initially massive disc with 0.1 M⊙ to track the evolution from the early stage of PPDs. We solved the time evolution of surface density and temperature by taking into account viscous heating and the loss of mass and angular momentum by the disc winds within the framework of a standard α model for accretion discs. Our model parameters, turbulent viscosity, disc wind mass-loss, and disc wind torque, which were adopted from local magnetohydrodynamical simulations and constrained by the global energetics of the gravitational accretion, largely depends on the physical condition of PPDs, particularly on the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux in weakly ionized PPDs. Results: Although there are still uncertainties concerning the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux that remains, the surface densities show a large variety, depending on the combination of these three parameters, some of which are very different from the surface density expected from the standard accretion. When a PPD is in a wind-driven accretion state with the preserved vertical magnetic field, the radial dependence of the surface density can be positive in the inner region <1-10 au. The mass accretion rates are consistent with observations, even in the very low level of magnetohydrodynamical turbulence. Such a positive radial slope of the surface density strongly affects planet formation because it inhibits the inward drift or even causes the outward drift of pebble- to boulder-sized solid bodies, and it also slows down or even reversed the inward type-I migration of protoplanets. Conclusions: The variety of our calculated PPDs should yield a wide variety of exoplanet systems.

  9. Cervical disc arthroplasty with the Prestige LP disc versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, at 2 levels: results of a prospective, multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial at 24 months.

    PubMed

    Gornet, Matthew F; Lanman, Todd H; Burkus, J Kenneth; Hodges, Scott D; McConnell, Jeffrey R; Dryer, Randall F; Copay, Anne G; Nian, Hui; Harrell, Frank E

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors compared the efficacy and safety of arthroplasty using the Prestige LP cervical disc with those of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD) at 2 adjacent levels. METHODS Patients from 30 investigational sites were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: investigational patients (209) underwent arthroplasty using a Prestige LP artificial disc, and control patients (188) underwent ACDF with a cortical ring allograft and anterior cervical plate. Patients were evaluated preoperatively, intraoperatively, and at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Efficacy and safety outcomes were measured according to the Neck Disability Index (NDI), Numeric Rating Scales for neck and arm pain, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), gait abnormality, disc height, range of motion (investigational) or fusion (control), adverse events (AEs), additional surgeries, and neurological status. Treatment was considered an overall success when all 4 of the following criteria were met: 1) NDI score improvement of ≥ 15 points over the preoperative score, 2) maintenance or improvement in neurological status compared with preoperatively, 3) no serious AE caused by the implant or by the implant and surgical procedure, and 4) no additional surgery (supplemental fixation, revision, or nonelective implant removal). Independent statisticians performed Bayesian statistical analyses. RESULTS The 24-month rates of overall success were 81.4% for the investigational group and 69.4% for the control group. The posterior mean for overall success in the investigational group exceeded that in the control group by 0.112 (95% highest posterior density interval = 0.023 to 0.201) with a posterior probability of 1 for noninferiority and 0.993 for superiority, demonstrating the superiority of the investigational group for overall success. Noninferiority of the investigational group was demonstrated for all individual components of overall

  10. Facet orientation and tropism: Associations with asymmetric lumbar paraspinal and psoas muscle parameters in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Xu, W B; Chen, S; Fan, S W; Zhao, F D; Yu, X J; Hu, Z J

    2016-08-10

    Many studies have explored the relationship between facet tropism and facet joint osteoarthritis, disc degeneration and degenerative spondylolisthesis. However, the associations between facet orientation and tropism, and paraspinal muscles have not been studied. To analyze the associations between facet orientation and tropism, and parameters of paraspinal muscles in patients with chronic low back pain. Ninety-five patients with chronic low back pain were consecutively enrolled. Their facet joint angles were measured on computed tomography (CT) while gross cross-sectional area (GCSA), functional cross-sectional area (FCSA) and T2 signal intensity of lumbar paraspinal and psoas muscle were evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The GCSA and FCSA were significantly smaller for multifidus muscle (P< 0.001), but significantly larger for erector spinae and psoas muscles (P< 0.001), in coronally-orientated group than those in sagittally-orientated group. The differences of bilateral GCSA and FCSA of multifidus muscle were significantly larger in facet tropism group than those in no facet tropism group (P= 0.009 and P= 0.019). Muscular asymmetries may develop in the lumbar region of the spine, which are associated with facet asymmetry in patients with chronic low back pain. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand the causal relationship between facet orientation and tropism and muscular asymmetry in future.

  11. Evaluation of intervertebral disc regeneration with implantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) using quantitative T2 mapping: a study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Cai, Feng; Wu, Xiao-Tao; Xie, Xin-Hui; Wang, Feng; Hong, Xin; Zhuang, Su-Yang; Zhu, Lei; Rui, Yun-Feng; Shi, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the curative effects of transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on intervertebral disc regeneration and to investigate the feasibility of the quantitative T2 mapping method for evaluating repair of the nucleus pulposus after implantation of BMSCs. Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were used to establish the lumber disc degenerative model by stabbing the annulus fibrosus and then randomly divided into four groups, i.e. two weeks afterwards, BMSCs or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were transplanted into degenerative discs (BMSCs group and PBS group), while the operated rabbits without implantation of BMSCs or PBS served as the sham group and the rabbits without operation were used as the control group. At weeks two, six and ten after operation, the T2 values and disc height indices (DHI) were calculated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI 3.0 T), and the gene expressions of type II collagen (COL2) and aggrecan (ACAN) in degenerative discs were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). T2 values for the nucleus pulposus were correlated with ACAN or COL2 expression by regression analysis. Cell clusters, disorganised fibres, interlamellar glycosaminoglycan (GAG) matrix and vascularisation were observed in lumber degenerative discs. BMSCs could be found to survive in intervertebral discs and differentiate into nucleus pulposus-like cells expressing COL2 and ACAN. The gene expression of COL2 and ACAN increased during ten weeks after transplantation as well as the T2 signal intensity and T2 value. The DHI in the BMSCs group decreased more slowly than that in PBS and sham groups. The T2 value correlated significantly with the gene expression of ACAN and COL2 in the nucleus pulposus. Transplantation of BMSCs was able to promote the regeneration of degenerative discs. Quantitative and non-invasive T2 mapping could be used to evaluate the regeneration of the nucleus

  12. Comparison of Animal Discs Used in Disc Research to Human Lumbar Disc: Torsion Mechanics and Collagen Content

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Brent L.; Beckstein, Jesse C.; Martin, John T.; Beattie, Elizabeth E.; Orías, Alejandro A. Espinoza; Schaer, Thomas P.; Vresilovic, Edward J.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Experimental measurement and normalization of in vitro disc torsion mechanics and collagen content for several animal species used in intervertebral disc research and comparing these to the human disc. Objective To aid in the selection of appropriate animal models for disc research by measuring torsional mechanical properties and collagen content. Summary of Background Data There is lack of data and variability in testing protocols for comparing animal and human disc torsion mechanics and collagen content. Methods Intervertebral disc torsion mechanics were measured and normalized by disc height and polar moment of inertia for 11 disc types in 8 mammalian species: the calf, pig, baboon, goat, sheep, rabbit, rat, and mouse lumbar, and cow, rat, and mouse caudal. Collagen content was measured and normalized by dry weight for the same discs except the rat and mouse. Collagen fiber stretch in torsion was calculated using an analytical model. Results Measured torsion parameters varied by several orders of magnitude across the different species. After geometric normalization, only the sheep and pig discs were statistically different from human. Fiber stretch was found to be highly dependent on the assumed initial fiber angle. The collagen content of the discs was similar, especially in the outer annulus where only the calf and goat discs were statistically different from human. Disc collagen content did not correlate with torsion mechanics. Conclusion Disc torsion mechanics are comparable to human lumbar discs in 9 of 11 disc types after normalization by geometry. The normalized torsion mechanics and collagen content of the multiple animal discs presented is useful for selecting and interpreting results for animal models of the disc. Structural composition of the disc, such as initial fiber angle, may explain the differences that were noted between species after geometric normalization. PMID:22333953

  13. Mechanical Characterization of the Human Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Subjected to Impact Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamison, David, IV

    Low back pain is a large and costly problem in the United States. Several working populations, such as miners, construction workers, forklift operators, and military personnel, have an increased risk and prevalence of low back pain compared to the general population. This is due to exposure to repeated, transient impact shocks, particularly while operating vehicles or other machinery. These shocks typically do not cause acute injury, but rather lead to pain and injury over time. The major focus in low back pain is often the intervertebral disc, due to its role as the major primary load-bearing component along the spinal column. The formation of a reliable standard for human lumbar disc exposure to repeated transient shock could potentially reduce injury risk for these working populations. The objective of this project, therefore, is to characterize the mechanical response of the lumbar intervertebral disc subjected to sub-traumatic impact loading conditions using both cadaveric and computational models, and to investigate the possible implications of this type of loading environment for low back pain. Axial, compressive impact loading events on Naval high speed boats were simulated in the laboratory and applied to human cadaveric specimen. Disc stiffness was higher and hysteresis was lower than quasi-static loading conditions. This indicates a shift in mechanical response when the disc is under impact loads and this behavior could be contributing to long-term back pain. Interstitial fluid loss and disc height changes were shown to affect disc impact mechanics in a creep study. Neutral zone increased, while energy dissipation and low-strain region stiffness decreased. This suggests that the disc has greater clinical instability during impact loading with progressive creep and fluid loss, indicating that time of day should be considered for working populations subjected to impact loads. A finite element model was developed and validated against cadaver specimen

  14. Injection of AAV2-BMP2 and AAV2-TIMP1 into the nucleus pulposus slows the course of intervertebral disc degeneration in an in vivo rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Leckie, Steven K; Bechara, Bernard P; Hartman, Robert A; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Woods, Barrett I; Coelho, Joao P; Witt, William T; Dong, Qing D; Bowman, Brent W; Bell, Kevin M; Vo, Nam V; Wang, Bing; Kang, James D

    2012-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a common cause of back pain. Patients who fail conservative management may face the morbidity of surgery. Alternative treatment modalities could have a significant impact on disease progression and patients' quality of life. To determine if the injection of a virus vector carrying a therapeutic gene directly into the nucleus pulposus improves the course of IDD. Prospective randomized controlled animal study. Thirty-four skeletally mature New Zealand white rabbits were used. In the treatment group, L2-L3, L3-L4, and L4-L5 discs were punctured in accordance with a previously validated rabbit annulotomy model for IDD and then subsequently treated with adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vector carrying genes for either bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1). A nonoperative control group, nonpunctured sham surgical group, and punctured control group were also evaluated. Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies at 0, 6, and 12 weeks were obtained, and a validated MRI analysis program was used to quantify degeneration. The rabbits were sacrificed at 12 weeks, and L4-L5 discs were analyzed histologically. Viscoelastic properties of the L3-L4 discs were analyzed using uniaxial load-normalized displacement testing. Creep curves were mathematically modeled according to a previously validated two-phase exponential model. Serum samples obtained at 0, 6, and 12 weeks were assayed for biochemical evidence of degeneration. The punctured group demonstrated MRI and histologic evidence of degeneration as expected. The treatment groups demonstrated less MRI and histologic evidence of degeneration than the punctured group. The serum biochemical marker C-telopeptide of collagen type II increased rapidly in the punctured group, but the treated groups returned to control values by 12 weeks. The treatment groups demonstrated several viscoelastic properties that were distinct from control

  15. Contribution of Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation to Retinal Degenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Maria H.; Boia, Raquel; Santos, Paulo F.; Ambrósio, António F.; Santiago, Ana R.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases are major causes of vision loss and blindness worldwide and are characterized by chronic and progressive neuronal loss. One common feature of retinal degenerative diseases and brain neurodegenerative diseases is chronic neuroinflammation. There is growing evidence that retinal microglia, as in the brain, become activated in the course of retinal degenerative diseases, having a pivotal role in the initiation and propagation of the neurodegenerative process. A better understanding of the events elicited and mediated by retinal microglia will contribute to the clarification of disease etiology and might open new avenues for potential therapeutic interventions. This review aims at giving an overview of the roles of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in major retinal degenerative diseases like glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25873768

  16. Posterior Epidural Migration of an Extruded Lumbar Disc Mimicking a Facet Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young Sun; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Dong Min

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal extradural migration of extruded disc material is clinically uncommon. We report a rare case of posterior epidural migration of an extruded lumbar disc mimicking a facet cyst. A 32-year-old man was admitted to our institute with a 2-week history of severe low back pain and radiating pain in the left leg. The magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed a dorsally located, left-sided extradural cystic mass at the L2-3 level. The initial diagnosis was an epidural facet cyst because of the high signal intensity on MR images and its location adjacent to the facet joint. Intraoperatively, an encapsulated mass of soft tissue adherent to the dural sac was observed and excised. The pathological diagnosis was degenerated disc material. After surgery, the patient experienced complete relief from leg pain. PMID:25883662

  17. Translation of an engineered nanofibrous disc-like angle-ply structure for intervertebral disc replacement in a small animal model.

    PubMed

    Martin, John T; Milby, Andrew H; Chiaro, Joseph A; Kim, Dong Hwa; Hebela, Nader M; Smith, Lachlan J; Elliott, Dawn M; Mauck, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration has been implicated in the etiology of low back pain; however, the current surgical strategies for treating symptomatic disc disease are limited. A variety of materials have been developed to replace disc components, including the nucleus pulposus (NP), the annulus fibrosus (AF) and their combination into disc-like engineered constructs. We have previously shown that layers of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold, mimicking the hierarchical organization of the native AF, can achieve functional parity with native tissue. Likewise, we have combined these structures with cell-seeded hydrogels (as an NP replacement) to form disc-like angle-ply structures (DAPS). The objective of this study was to develop a model for the evaluation of DAPS in vivo. Through a series of studies, we developed a surgical approach to replace the rat caudal disc with an acellular DAPS and then stabilized the motion segment via external fixation. We then optimized cell infiltration into DAPS by including sacrificial poly(ethylene oxide) layers interspersed throughout the angle-ply structure. Our findings illustrate that DAPS are stable in the caudal spine, are infiltrated by cells from the peri-implant space and that infiltration is expedited by providing additional routes for cell migration. These findings establish a new in vivo platform in which to evaluate and optimize the design of functional disc replacements. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Subcutaneous Stimulation as an Additional Therapy to Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Treatment of Low Back Pain and Leg Pain in Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: Four-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Hamm-Faber, Tanja E; Aukes, Hans; van Gorp, Eric-Jan; Gültuna, Ismail

    2015-10-01

    (VAS46: 40 ± 21, p46 = 0.013). At 12 months, the Quebec Pain Disability Scale (QPDS) was 49 ± 12 and after 46 months, 53 ± 15. Both at 12 and 46 months, the QPDS values were statistically significantly better (p12 = 0.001, p46 = 0.04) compared with baseline values (QPDSbl: 61 ± 15). In one patient, the pain suppressive effect of SCS/SubQ had disappeared completely over time and the pain scores returned to prestimulation values. In four, patients back pain scores increased over time due to new issues (SI-joint problems, degenerative spine problems, disc problems, and hip pain) unrelated to FBSS and for which SCS/SubQ was not targeted or a reason for implantation at the start of the pilot study. This is the first prospective report on the combined use of SCS and SubQ with a follow-up period of four years. These data show that SCS and/or SubQ provide persistent long-term pain relief for leg and back pain in patients with FBSS. One should also take into account that new back/leg pain problems may evolve over time and increase the pain score which impact overall pain treatment. SCS combined with SubQ can be considered an effective long term treatment for low back pain in patients with FBSS for whom SCS alone is insufficient in alleviating their pain symptoms. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  19. Slow deformation of intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Broberg, K B

    1993-01-01

    Intervertebral discs exhibit pronounced time-dependent deformations when subjected to load variations. These deformations are caused by fluid flow to and from the disc and by viscoelastic deformation of annulus fibres. The fluid flow is caused by differences between mechanical and osmotic pressure. A mechanical model of lumbar disc functions allows one to calculate both the extent of fluid flow and its implications for disc height as well as the role played by viscoelastic deformation of annulus fibres. From such calculations changes in body height are estimated. Experimental results already documented in the literature offer bases for the determination of the parameters involved. Body height variations are studied, both those related to normal diurnal rhythmicity and those related to somewhat exceptional circumstances. The normal diurnal fluid flow is found to be about +/- 40% of the disc fluid content late in the evening. Viscoelastic deformation of annulus fibres contributes approximately one quarter of the height change obtained after several hours normal activity, but dominates during the first hour.

  20. Vertebral Augmentation can Induce Early Signs of Degeneration in the Adjacent Intervertebral Disc: Evidence from a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhiyun; Chen, Lunhao; Hu, Xiaojian; Yang, Ge; Wang, Yue; Chen, Zhong

    2018-04-11

    An experimental study. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) augmentation on the adjacent disc. Vertebral augmentation with PMMA reportedly may predispose the adjacent vertebra to fracture. The influence of PMMA augmentation on the adjacent disc, however, remains unclear. Using a retroperitoneal approach, PMMA augmentation was performed for 23 rabbits. For each animal, at least one vertebra was augmented with 0.2 to 0.3 mL PMMA. The disc adjacent to the augmented vertebra and a proximal control disc were studied using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, histological and molecular level evaluation at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Marrow contact channels in the endplate were quantified in histological slices and number of invalid channels (those without erythrocytes inside) was rated. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) was performed to determine disc cell apoptosis. On MR images, the signal and height of the adjacent disc did not change 6 months after vertebral augmentation. Histological scores of the adjacent disc increased over time, particularly for the nucleus pulposus. The adjacent disc had greater nucleus degeneration score than the control disc at 3 months (5.7 vs. 4.5, P < 0.01) and 6 months (6.9 vs. 4.4, P < 0.001). There were more invalid marrow contact channels in the endplate of augmented vertebra than the control (43.3% vs. 11.1%, P < 0.01). mRNA of ADAMTS-5, MMP-13, HIF-1α, and caspase-3 were significantly upregulated in the adjacent disc at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05 for all). In addition, there were more TUNEL-positive cells in the adjacent disc than in the control disc (43.4% vs. 24.0%, P < 0.05) at 6 months postoperatively. Vertebral augmentation can induce early degenerative signs in the adjacent disc, which may be due to impaired nutrient supply to the disc. N/A.

  1. Cost-benefit value of microscopic examination of intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Grzybicki, D M; Callaghan, E J; Raab, S S

    1998-09-01

    Given the virtual absence of histologically detected, clinically unsuspected disease in intervertebral disc specimens, some authors have advocated that histological examination be discontinued. However, the examination of intervertebral disc specimens remains common practice in most pathology laboratories. No cost-benefit analysis of this practice has been made; therefore, the authors' goal in this study was perform such an analysis. Using the University of Iowa surgical pathology database, 1109 patients who had undergone a laminectomy were identified retrospectively. These cases were classified into four categories based on the patients' preoperative clinical diagnosis and final histopathological diagnosis: insignificant clinical diagnosis/insignificant pathological diagnosis (ICIP), significant clinical diagnosis/insignificant pathological diagnosis (SCIP), significant clinical diagnosis/significant pathological diagnosis (SCSP), and insignificant clinical diagnosis/significant pathological diagnosis (ICSP). A significant clinical diagnosis was defined as one other than a benign, noninfectious indication for laminectomy. A significant pathological diagnosis was a diagnosis other than degenerative changes. The cost-benefit value of performing a histological examination in cases with significant or insignificant clinical diagnoses was examined. The cases were classified as: 1068 ICIP, 17 SCIP, 21 SCSP, and three ICSP. On chart review, in all three cases of ICSP an epidural abscess was identified perioperatively and the subsequent histological diagnosis did not affect patient care. The costs per case of identifying a significant pathological diagnosis with a significant and an insignificant clinical diagnosis were $44.79 and $8811, respectively. Histological examination of intervertebral disc specimens is cost beneficial only if there is a significant preoperative clinical diagnosis.

  2. Cervical artificial disc extrusion after a paragliding accident

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Tianyi; Hoffman, Haydn; Lu, Daniel C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cervical total disc replacement (TDR) is an established alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with excellent long-term outcomes and low failure rates. Cases of implant failure and migration are scarce and primarily limited to several years postoperatively. The authors report a case of anterior extrusion of a C4-C5 ProDisc-C (DePuy Synthes, West Chester, PA, USA) cervical artificial disc (CAD) 14 months after placement due to minor trauma. Case Description: A 33-year-old female who had undergone C4-C5 CAD implantation presented with neck pain and spasm after experiencing a paragliding accident. A 4 mm anterior protrusion of the CAD was seen on x-ray. She underwent removal of the CAD followed by anterior fusion. Other cases of CAD extrusion in the literature are discussed and the device's durability and testing are considered. Conclusion: Overall, CAD extrusion is a rare event. This case is likely the result of insufficient osseous integration. Patients undergoing cervical TDR should avoid high-risk activities to prevent trauma that could compromise the disc's placement, and future design/research should focus on how to enhance osseous integration at the interface while minimizing excessive heterotopic ossification. PMID:28781915

  3. Cervical artificial disc extrusion after a paragliding accident.

    PubMed

    Niu, Tianyi; Hoffman, Haydn; Lu, Daniel C

    2017-01-01

    Cervical total disc replacement (TDR) is an established alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with excellent long-term outcomes and low failure rates. Cases of implant failure and migration are scarce and primarily limited to several years postoperatively. The authors report a case of anterior extrusion of a C4-C5 ProDisc-C (DePuy Synthes, West Chester, PA, USA) cervical artificial disc (CAD) 14 months after placement due to minor trauma. A 33-year-old female who had undergone C4-C5 CAD implantation presented with neck pain and spasm after experiencing a paragliding accident. A 4 mm anterior protrusion of the CAD was seen on x-ray. She underwent removal of the CAD followed by anterior fusion. Other cases of CAD extrusion in the literature are discussed and the device's durability and testing are considered. Overall, CAD extrusion is a rare event. This case is likely the result of insufficient osseous integration. Patients undergoing cervical TDR should avoid high-risk activities to prevent trauma that could compromise the disc's placement, and future design/research should focus on how to enhance osseous integration at the interface while minimizing excessive heterotopic ossification.

  4. Biological treatment strategies for disc degeneration: potentials and shortcomings

    PubMed Central

    Nerlich, Andreas G.; Boos, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology, cell biology and material sciences have opened a new emerging field of techniques for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. These new treatment modalities aim for biological repair of the affected tissues by introducing cell-based tissue replacements, genetic modifications of resident cells or a combination thereof. So far, these techniques have been successfully applied to various tissues such as bone and cartilage. However, application of these treatment modalities to cure intervertebral disc degeneration is in its very early stages and mostly limited to experimental studies in vitro or in animal studies. We will discuss the potential and possible shortcomings of current approaches to biologically cure disc degeneration by gene therapy or tissue engineering. Despite the increasing number of studies examining the therapeutic potential of biological treatment strategies, a practicable solution to routinely cure disc degeneration might not be available in the near future. However, knowledge gained from these attempts might be applied in a foreseeable future to cure the low back pain that often accompanies disc degeneration and therefore be beneficial for the patient. PMID:16983559

  5. Biomechanical Effects of the Geometry of Ball-and-Socket Artificial Disc on Lumbar Spine: A Finite Element Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jisoo; Shin, Dong-Ah; Kim, Sohee

    2017-03-15

    A three-dimensional finite element model of intact lumbar spine was constructed and four surgical finite element models implanted with ball-and-socket artificial discs with four different radii of curvature were compared. To investigate biomechanical effects of the curvature of ball-and-socket artificial disc using finite element analysis. Total disc replacement (TDR) has been accepted as an alternative treatment because of its advantages over spinal fusion methods in degenerative disc disease. However, the influence of the curvature of artificial ball-and-socket discs has not been fully understood. Four surgical finite element models with different radii of curvature of ball-and-socket artificial discs were constructed. The range of motion (ROM) increased with decreasing radius of curvature in extension, flexion, and lateral bending, whereas it increased with increasing radius of curvature in axial torsion. The facet contact force was minimum with the largest radius of curvature in extension, flexion, and lateral bending, whereas it was maximum with the largest radius in axial torsion. It was also affected by the disc placement, more with posterior placement than anterior placement. The stress in L4 cancellous bone increased when the radius of curvature was too large or small. The geometry of ball-and-socket artificial disc significantly affects the ROM, facet contact force, and stress in the cancellous bone at the surgical level. The implication is that in performing TDR, the ball-and-socket design may not be ideal, as ROM and facet contact force are sensitive to the disc design, which may be exaggerated by the individual difference of anatomical geometry. N/A.

  6. Atomic gas in debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Antonio S.; Barlow, M. J.; Crawford, I. A.; Casassus, S.

    2017-04-01

    We have conducted a search for optical circumstellar absorption lines in the spectra of 16 debris disc host stars. None of the stars in our sample showed signs of emission line activity in either Hα, Ca II or Na I, confirming their more evolved nature. Four stars were found to exhibit narrow absorption features near the cores of the photospheric Ca II and Na I D lines (when Na I D data were available). We analyse the characteristics of these spectral features to determine whether they are of circumstellar or interstellar origins. The strongest evidence for circumstellar gas is seen in the spectrum of HD 110058, which is known to host a debris disc observed close to edge-on. This is consistent with a recent ALMA detection of molecular gas in this debris disc, which shows many similarities to the β Pictoris system.

  7. Basic science of pain.

    PubMed

    DeLeo, Joyce A

    2006-04-01

    The origin of the theory that the transmission of pain is through a single channel from the skin to the brain can be traced to the philosopher and scientist René Descartes. This simplified scheme of the reflex was the beginning of the development of the modern doctrine of reflexes. Unfortunately, Descartes' reflex theory directed both the study and treatment of pain for more than 330 years. It is still described in physiology and neuroscience textbooks as fact rather than theory. The gate control theory proposed by Melzack and Wall in 1965 rejuvenated the field of pain study and led to further investigation into the phenomena of spinal sensitization and central nervous system plasticity, which are the potential pathophysiologic correlates of chronic pain. The processing of pain takes place in an integrated matrix throughout the neuroaxis and occurs on at least three levels-at peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal sites. Basic strategies of pain control monopolize on this concept of integration by attenuation or blockade of pain through intervention at the periphery, by activation of inhibitory processes that gate pain at the spinal cord and brain, and by interference with the perception of pain. This article discusses each level of pain modulation and reviews the mechanisms of action of opioids and potential new analgesics. A brief description of animal models frames a discussion about recent advances regarding the role of glial cells and central nervous system neuroimmune activation and innate immunity in the etiology of chronic pain states. Future investigation into the discovery and development of novel, nonopioid drug therapy may provide needed options for the millions of patients who suffer from chronic pain syndromes, including syndromes in which the pain originates from peripheral nerve, nerve root, spinal cord, bone, muscle, and disc.

  8. Spine Degenerative Conditions and Their Treatments: National Trends in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Buser, Zorica; Ortega, Brandon; D'Oro, Anthony; Pannell, William; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Wang, Justin; Golish, Ray; Reed, Michael; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2018-02-01

    Retrospective database study. Low back and neck pain are among the top leading causes of disability worldwide. The aim of our study was to report the current trends on spine degenerative disorders and their treatments. Patients diagnosed with lumbar or cervical spine conditions within the orthopedic subset of Medicare and Humana databases (PearlDiver). From the initial cohorts we identified subgroups based on the treatment: fusion or nonoperative within 1 year from diagnosis. Poisson regression was used to determine demographic differences in diagnosis and treatment approaches. Within the Medicare database there were 6 206 578 patients diagnosed with lumbar and 3 156 215 patients diagnosed with cervical degenerative conditions between 2006 and 2012, representing a 16.5% (lumbar) decrease and 11% (cervical) increase in the number of diagnosed patients. There was an increase of 18.5% in the incidence of fusion among lumbar patients. For the Humana data sets there were 1 160 495 patients diagnosed with lumbar and 660 721 patients diagnosed with cervical degenerative disorders from 2008 to 2014. There was a 33% (lumbar) and 42% (cervical) increases in the number of diagnosed patients. However, in both lumbar and cervical groups there was a decrease in the number of surgical and nonoperative treatments. There was an overall increase in both lumbar and cervical conditions, followed by an increase in lumbar fusion procedures within the Medicare database. There is still a burning need to optimize the spine care for the elderly and people in their prime work age to lessen the current national economic burden.

  9. The clinical study of percutaneous disc decompression of treating herniation of cervical disc with Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dianxue; Cheng, Hefu; Wang, Jindong

    2005-07-01

    Objective: The possibility of PLDD (percutaneous laser disc decompression) and an ideal non-operative method which is long everlasting effect for PLDD was investigated. Methods: 159 patients of Cervical Disc Herniation with PLDD were studied. All the herniated discs were irradiated with 10­15J/S Nd:YAG laser quantum through optical-fiber under the supervision of C-arm X-ray. Results: All the patients were followed and reexamined CT or MRI after one to six months of PLDD. The result of cured (67.92%), excellent (24.53%), moderation (5.66%), non-effect (1.88%) was got. The excellent rate was 88.24%. The effective rate was 97.65%. Non-effective rate was 2.35%. Conclusion: When irradiated with Nd:YAG laser, the nucleus pulposus was vapouring, charring and coagulating. The volume and inner-pressure of the disc decreased. So the symptoms and signs improved. The main value of this methods were micro-damage, non-operation, no bleeding, no bone injury, good therapy effect, quick recovery, lesser pain, safety and excellent long everlasting effect. It is an ideal non-operative method of treating PLDD.

  10. Propionibacterium acnes infected intervertebral discs cause vertebral bone marrow lesions consistent with Modic changes.

    PubMed

    Dudli, Stefan; Liebenberg, Ellen; Magnitsky, Sergey; Miller, Steve; Demir-Deviren, Sibel; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2016-08-01

    Modic type I change (MC1) are vertebral bone marrow lesions adjacent to degenerated discs that are specific for discogenic low back pain. The etiopathogenesis is unknown, but occult discitis, in particular with Propionibacteria acnes (P. acnes), has been suggested as a possible etiology. If true, antibiotic therapy should be considered for patients with MC1. However, this hypothesis is controversial. While some studies report up to 40% infection rate in herniated discs, others fail to detect infected discs and attribute reports of positive cultures to contamination during sampling procedure. Irrespective of the clinical controversy, whether it is biologically plausible for P. acnes to cause MC1 has never been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test if P. acnes can proliferate within discs and cause reactive changes in the adjacent bone marrow. P. acnes was aseptically isolated from a symptomatic human L4/5 disc with MC1 and injected into rat tail discs. We demonstrate proliferation of P. acnes and up-regulation of IL-1 and IL-6 within three days of inoculation. At day-7, disc degeneration was apparent along with fibrotic endplate erosion. TNF-α immunoreactivity was enhanced within the effected endplates along with cellular infiltrates. The bone marrow appeared normal. At day-14, endplates and trabecular bone close to the disc were almost completely resorbed and fibrotic tissue extended into the bone marrow. T-cells and TNF-α immunoreactivity were identified at the disc/marrow junction. On MRI, bone marrow showed MC1-like changes. In conclusion, P. acnes proliferate within the disc, induce degeneration, and cause MC1-like changes in the adjacent bone marrow. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1447-1455, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Why do some intervertebral discs degenerate, when others (in the same spine) do not?

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael A; Lama, Polly; Zehra, Uruj; Dolan, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    This review suggests why some discs degenerate rather than age normally. Intervertebral discs are avascular pads of fibrocartilage that allow movement between vertebral bodies. Human discs have a low cell density and a limited ability to adapt to mechanical demands. With increasing age, the matrix becomes yellowed, fibrous, and brittle, but if disc structure remains intact, there is little impairment in function, and minimal ingrowth of blood vessels or nerves. Approximately half of old lumbar discs degenerate in the sense of becoming physically disrupted. The posterior annulus and lower lumbar discs are most affected, presumably because they are most heavily loaded. Age and genetic inheritance can weaken discs to such an extent that they are physically disrupted during everyday activities. Damage to the endplate or annulus typically decompresses the nucleus, concentrates stress within the annulus, and allows ingrowth of nerves and blood vessels. Matrix disruption progresses by mechanical and biological means. The site of initial damage leads to two disc degeneration "phenotypes": endplate-driven degeneration is common in the upper lumbar and thoracic spine, and annulus-driven degeneration is common at L4-S1. Discogenic back pain can be initiated by tissue disruption, and amplified by inflammation and infection. Healing is possible in the outer annulus only, where cell density is highest. We conclude that some discs degenerate because they are disrupted by excessive mechanical loading. This can occur without trauma if tissues are weakened by age and genetic inheritance. Moderate mechanical loading, in contrast, strengthens all spinal tissues, including discs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for spondylolisthesis and degenerative spondylosis: 5-year results.

    PubMed

    Park, Yung; Ha, Joong Won; Lee, Yun Tae; Sung, Na Young

    2014-06-01

    and degenerative lumbar diseases treated with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion at minimum 5-year followup. We suggest this procedure is reasonable for properly selected patients with these indications; however, traditional approaches should still be performed for patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis, patients with a severely collapsed disc space and no motion seen on the dynamic radiographs, patients who need multilevel decompression and arthrodesis, and patients with kyphoscoliosis needing correction. Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. Automated volumetric evaluation of stereoscopic disc photography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Juan; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A; Kagemann, Larry; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W; Schuman, Joel S

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a fully automated algorithm (AP) to perform a volumetric measure of the optic disc using conventional stereoscopic optic nerve head (ONH) photographs, and to compare algorithm-produced parameters with manual photogrammetry (MP), scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements. METHODS: One hundred twenty-two stereoscopic optic disc photographs (61 subjects) were analyzed. Disc area, rim area, cup area, cup/disc area ratio, vertical cup/disc ratio, rim volume and cup volume were automatically computed by the algorithm. Latent variable measurement error models were used to assess measurement reproducibility for the four techniques. RESULTS: AP had better reproducibility for disc area and cup volume and worse reproducibility for cup/disc area ratio and vertical cup/disc ratio, when the measurements were compared to the MP, SLO and OCT methods. CONCLUSION: AP provides a useful technique for an objective quantitative assessment of 3D ONH structures. PMID:20588996

  14. Diagnostic value of clinical tests for degenerative rotator cuff disease in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Lasbleiz, S; Quintero, N; Ea, K; Petrover, D; Aout, M; Laredo, J D; Vicaut, E; Bardin, T; Orcel, P; Beaudreuil, J

    2014-06-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of clinical tests for degenerative rotator cuff disease (DRCD) in medical practice. Patients with DRCD were prospectively included. Eleven clinical tests of the rotator cuff have been done. One radiologist performed ultrasonography (US) of the shoulder. Results of US were expressed as normal tendon, tendinopathy or full-thickness tear (the reference). For each clinical test and each US criteria, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value, accuracy, negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and positive likelihood ratio (PLR) were calculated. Clinical relevance was defined as PLR ≥2 and NLR ≤0.5. For 35 patients (39 shoulders), Jobe (PLR: 2.08, NLR: 0.31) and full-can (2, 0.5) test results were relevant for diagnosis of supraspinatus tears and resisted lateral rotation (2.42, 0.5) for infraspinatus tears, with weakness as response criteria. The lift-off test (8.50, 0.27) was relevant for subscapularis tears with lag sign as response criteria. Yergason's test (3.7, 0.41) was relevant for tendinopathy of the long head of the biceps with pain as a response criterion. There was no relevant clinical test for diagnosis of tendinopathy of supraspinatus, infraspinatus or subscapularis. Five of 11 clinical tests were relevant for degenerative rotator cuff disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field…

  16. Optical Disc Applications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Pamela Q. J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a variety of library applications of optical disc storage technology, including CD-ROM, digital videodisc, and WORM. Research and development projects at the Library of Congress, National Library of Medicine, and National Agricultural Library are described, products offered by library networks are reviewed, and activities in academic and…

  17. Interference of Detection Rate of Lumbar Disc Herniation by Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Jung, Nak-Yong; An, Seong Dae; Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Jung Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the detection rate of lumbar disc herniation and socioeconomic status. Overview of Literature Income is one important determinant of public health. Yet, there are no reports about the relationship between socioeconomic status and the detective rate of disc herniation. Methods In this study, 443 cases were checked for lumbar computed tomography for lumbar disc herniation, and they reviewed questionnaires about their socioeconomic status, the presence of back pain or radiating pain and the presence of a medical certificate (to check the medical or surgical treatment for the pain) during the Korean conscription. Results Without the consideration for the presence of a medical certificate, there was no difference in spinal physical grade according to socioeconomic status (p=0.290). But, with the consideration of the presence of a medical certificate, the significant statistical differences were observed according to socioeconomic status in 249 cases in the presence of a medical certificate (p=0.028). There was a lower detection rate in low economic status individuals than those in the high economic class. The common reason for not submitting a medical certificate is that it is neither necessary for the people of lower socioeconomic status nor is it financially affordable. Conclusions The prevalence of lumbar disc herniation is not different according to socioeconomic status, but the detective rate was affected by socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status is an important factor for detecting lumbar disc herniation. PMID:23508288

  18. Interference of detection rate of lumbar disc herniation by socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Jung, Nak-Yong; An, Seong Dae; Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Jung Hoon

    2013-03-01

    Retrospective study. The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the detection rate of lumbar disc herniation and socioeconomic status. Income is one important determinant of public health. Yet, there are no reports about the relationship between socioeconomic status and the detective rate of disc herniation. In this study, 443 cases were checked for lumbar computed tomography for lumbar disc herniation, and they reviewed questionnaires about their socioeconomic status, the presence of back pain or radiating pain and the presence of a medical certificate (to check the medical or surgical treatment for the pain) during the Korean conscription. Without the consideration for the presence of a medical certificate, there was no difference in spinal physical grade according to socioeconomic status (p=0.290). But, with the consideration of the presence of a medical certificate, the significant statistical differences were observed according to socioeconomic status in 249 cases in the presence of a medical certificate (p=0.028). There was a lower detection rate in low economic status individuals than those in the high economic class. The common reason for not submitting a medical certificate is that it is neither necessary for the people of lower socioeconomic status nor is it financially affordable. The prevalence of lumbar disc herniation is not different according to socioeconomic status, but the detective rate was affected by socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status is an important factor for detecting lumbar disc herniation.

  19. Pathophysiology of Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation: New 3-Dimensional Imaging Insights.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Clemence; Mantovani, Francesca; Benfari, Giovanni; Mankad, Sunil V; Maalouf, Joseph F; Michelena, Hector I; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2018-01-01

    Despite its high prevalence, little is known about mechanisms of mitral regurgitation in degenerative mitral valve disease apart from the leaflet prolapse itself. Mitral valve is a complex structure, including mitral annulus, mitral leaflets, papillary muscles, chords, and left ventricular walls. All these structures are involved in physiological and pathological functioning of this valvuloventricular complex but up to now were difficult to analyze because of inherent limitations of 2-dimensional imaging. The advent of 3-dimensional echocardiography, computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging overcoming these limitations provides new insights into mechanistic analysis of degenerative mitral regurgitation. This review will detail the contribution of quantitative and qualitative dynamic analysis of mitral annulus and mitral leaflets by new imaging methods in the understanding of degenerative mitral regurgitation pathophysiology. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Return to Sports After Cervical Total Disc Replacement.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Andreas; Behr, Michael; Preuss, Alexander; Villard, Jimmy; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) is typically indicated in young patients with a cervical soft disc herniation. There are few data on the activity level of patients after cervical TDR, in particular from young patients who are expected to have a high activity level with frequent exercising. The expectation is that returning to active sports after cervical TDR is not restricted. Fifty patients were treated with a monosegmental cervical TDR at our department between May 2006 and March 2012. Clinical status and radiographic parameters were evaluated preoperatively and during follow-up. In addition, information was gathered regarding neck disability index, pain, a questionnaire concerning athletic aspects, and a modified Tegner activity score. The study design was a prospective case series. All patients were treated with the Prestige artificial cervical disc for a single-level soft disc herniation with radiculopathy. The average age was 40 years, and the mean follow-up period was 53 months (range, 26-96). The median neck disability index during follow-up was 5, and median visual analog scale for pain was 2. Two professional athletes, 20 semiprofessionals, 24 hobby athletes, and 5 patients with a very low activity level were treated. The median time to resumption of sporting activity was 4 weeks after surgery. All professionals and semiprofessionals recovered to their previous activity level. All of the 20 hobby athletes recovered to resume their sport participation. The modified Tegner preoperative score was 4 and the postoperative score was 3.5 (P = 0.806). We found that cervical TDR did not prohibit sporting activities. All patients recovered and were able to take part in their previous activities at an appropriate intensity level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Knee arthroscopy versus conservative management in patients with degenerative knee disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Guyatt, Gordon H; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Poolman, Rudolf W; Chang, Yaping; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Evaniew, Nathan; Vandvik, Per O

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects and complications of arthroscopic surgery compared with conservative management strategies in patients with degenerative knee disease. Design Systematic review. Main outcome measures Pain, function, adverse events. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Google Scholar and Open Grey up to August 2016. Eligibility criteria For effects, randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing arthroscopic surgery with a conservative management strategy (including sham surgery) in patients with degenerative knee disease. For complications, RCTs and observational studies. Review methods Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias for patient-important outcomes. A parallel guideline committee (BMJ Rapid Recommendations) provided input on the design and interpretation of the systematic review, including selection of patient-important outcomes. We used the GRADE approach to rate the certainty (quality) of the evidence. Results We included 13 RCTs and 12 observational studies. With respect to pain, the review identified high-certainty evidence that knee arthroscopy results in a very small reduction in pain up to 3 months (mean difference =5.4 on a 100-point scale, 95% CI 2.0 to 8.8) and very small or no pain reduction up to 2 years (mean difference =3.1, 95% CI −0.2 to 6.4) when compared with conservative management. With respect to function, the review identified moderate-certainty evidence that knee arthroscopy results in a very small improvement in the short term (mean difference =4.9 on a 100-point scale, 95% CI 1.5 to 8.4) and very small or no improved function up to 2 years (mean difference =3.2, 95% CI −0.5 to 6.8). Alternative presentations of magnitude of effect, and associated sensitivity analyses, were consistent with the findings of the primary analysis. Low-quality evidence suggested a very low probability of serious complications after knee arthroscopy

  2. Knee arthroscopy versus conservative management in patients with degenerative knee disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Guyatt, Gordon H; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Poolman, Rudolf W; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Chang, Yaping; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Evaniew, Nathan; Vandvik, Per O

    2017-05-11

    To determine the effects and complications of arthroscopic surgery compared with conservative management strategies in patients with degenerative knee disease. Systematic review. Pain, function, adverse events. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Google Scholar and Open Grey up to August 2016. For effects, randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing arthroscopic surgery with a conservative management strategy (including sham surgery) in patients with degenerative knee disease. For complications, RCTs and observational studies. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias for patient-important outcomes. A parallel guideline committee ( BMJ Rapid Recommendations) provided input on the design and interpretation of the systematic review, including selection of patient-important outcomes. We used the GRADE approach to rate the certainty (quality) of the evidence. We included 13 RCTs and 12 observational studies. With respect to pain, the review identified high-certainty evidence that knee arthroscopy results in a very small reduction in pain up to 3 months (mean difference =5.4 on a 100-point scale, 95% CI 2.0 to 8.8) and very small or no pain reduction up to 2 years (mean difference =3.1, 95% CI -0.2 to 6.4) when compared with conservative management. With respect to function, the review identified moderate-certainty evidence that knee arthroscopy results in a very small improvement in the short term (mean difference =4.9 on a 100-point scale, 95% CI 1.5 to 8.4) and very small or no improved function up to 2 years (mean difference =3.2, 95% CI -0.5 to 6.8). Alternative presentations of magnitude of effect, and associated sensitivity analyses, were consistent with the findings of the primary analysis. Low-quality evidence suggested a very low probability of serious complications after knee arthroscopy. Over the long term, patients who undergo knee arthroscopy versus those who receive conservative

  3. C-reactive protein in degenerative aortic valve stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro L; Mazzone, AnnaMaria

    2006-01-01

    Degenerative aortic valve stenosis includes a range of disorder severity from mild leaflet thickening without valve obstruction, "aortic sclerosis", to severe calcified aortic stenosis. It is a slowly progressive active process of valve modification similar to atherosclerosis for cardiovascular risk factors, lipoprotein deposition, chronic inflammation, and calcification. Systemic signs of inflammation, as wall and serum C-reactive protein, similar to those found in atherosclerosis, are present in patients with degenerative aortic valve stenosis and may be expression of a common disease, useful in monitoring of stenosis progression. PMID:16774687

  4. Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery for Degenerative Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    SUGAWARA, Taku

    Anterior cervical spine surgery is an established surgical intervention for cervical degenerative disease and high success rate with excellent long-term outcomes have been reported. However, indications of surgical procedures for certain conditions are still controversial and severe complications to cause neurological dysfunction or deaths may occur. This review is focused mainly on five widely performed procedures by anterior approach for cervical degenerative disease; anterior cervical discectomy, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion, anterior cervical foraminotomy, and arthroplasty. Indications, procedures, outcomes, and complications of these surgeries are discussed. PMID:26119899

  5. Lumbar disc herniation with contralateral radiculopathy: do we neglect the epidural fat?

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Song; Zhang, Dong-Jie; Hao, Ding-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is the most common cause of radiculopathy, whose pathological entity underlying nerve root compression is usually on the same side as the symptoms. However, LDH causing contralateral radiculopathy are sometimes encountered by pain physicians. There have been tremendous developments in the treatment options for LDH; the situation of LDH causing contralateral radiculopathy is indeed a dilemma for some pain physicians. We will report a case of a patient with a L4-5 disc herniation whose left herniated disc caused radiculopathy on the right side. After a percutaneous lumbar endoscopic discectomy via the side ipsilateral to the symptomatic side, this case obtained a significant symptom remission. The migrated epidural fat is discussed as a cause of associated contralateral neurological deficit. Only via a surgical approach ipsilateral to the herniated side, could there be a clinical improvement postoperatively.

  6. Single transverse-orientation cage via MIS-TLIF approach for the treatment of degenerative lumbar disease: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Jin; Han, Ying-Chao; Pan, Fu-Min; Ma, Bin; Tan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Single transverse cage placed in the anterior vertebral column can better maintain lumbar lordosis and sagittal alignment and is frequently used via the lateral transpsoas approach. However, there is no clear description in the literature of the steps required to place the single transverse cage during the instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure for the treatment of degenerative lumbar disease. The objective of this study is to describe the technique using single transverse-orientation cage when performing TLIF procedures. We present 18 illustrative cases in which single transverse-orientation cage was placed according to a step-by-step technique that can be used during the TLIF procedure. Information acquired included procedure time, intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications. The preoperative and postoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were recorded. Changes in disc height and segmental lordosis were measured at radiographs. The single transverse-orientation cage was successfully placed in 18 patients in a stepwise technique to achieve lumbar fusion. Using this technique, the patients significantly improved clinically and radiographically at postoperative visits. This is the first report demonstrating the safety and efficacy of instrumented TLIF with single transverse-orientation cage for the treatment of degenerative lumbar disease. Single transverse-orientation cage via MIS-TLIF approach can maintain greater lumbar lordosis and avoid the unique complications of lateral transpsoas approach. Understanding the options for cage placement is important for surgeons considering the use of this technique.

  7. Intradiscal and intra-articular facet infiltrations with plasma rich in growth factors reduce pain in patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Fernando; Anitua, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Context: Low back pain (LBP) is a complex and disabling condition, and its treatment becomes a challenge. Aims: The aim of our study was to assess the clinical outcome of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) infiltrations (one intradiscal, one intra-articular facet, and one transforaminal epidural injection) under fluoroscopic guidance-control in patients with chronic LBP. PRGF-Endoret which has been shown to be an efficient treatment to reduce joint pain. Settings and Design: The study was designed as an observational retrospective pilot study. Eighty-six patients with a history of chronic LBP and degenerative disease of the lumbar spine who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited between December 2010 and January 2012. Subjects and Methods: One intradiscal, one intra-articular facet, and one transforaminal epidural injection of PRGF-Endoret under fluoroscopic guidance-control were carried out in 86 patients with chronic LBP in the operating theater setting. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were performed using absolute and relative frequency distributions for qualitative variables and mean values and standard deviations for quantitative variables. The nonparametric Friedman statistical test was used to determine the possible differences between baseline and different follow-up time points on pain reduction after treatment. Results: Pain assessment was determined using a visual analog scale (VAS) at the first visit before (baseline) and after the procedure at 1, 3, and 6 months. The pain reduction after the PRGF-Endoret injections showed a statistically significant drop from 8.4 ± 1.1 before the treatment to 4 ± 2.6, 1.7 ± 2.3, and 0.8 ± 1.7 at 1, 3, and 6 months after the treatment, respectively, with respect to all the time evaluations (P < 0.0001) except for the pain reduction between the 3rd and 6th month whose signification was lower (P < 0.05). The analysis of the VAS over time showed that at the end point of the

  8. Intradiscal and intra-articular facet infiltrations with plasma rich in growth factors reduce pain in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Fernando; Anitua, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a complex and disabling condition, and its treatment becomes a challenge. The aim of our study was to assess the clinical outcome of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) infiltrations (one intradiscal, one intra-articular facet, and one transforaminal epidural injection) under fluoroscopic guidance-control in patients with chronic LBP. PRGF-Endoret which has been shown to be an efficient treatment to reduce joint pain. The study was designed as an observational retrospective pilot study. Eighty-six patients with a history of chronic LBP and degenerative disease of the lumbar spine who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited between December 2010 and January 2012. One intradiscal, one intra-articular facet, and one transforaminal epidural injection of PRGF-Endoret under fluoroscopic guidance-control were carried out in 86 patients with chronic LBP in the operating theater setting. Descriptive statistics were performed using absolute and relative frequency distributions for qualitative variables and mean values and standard deviations for quantitative variables. The nonparametric Friedman statistical test was used to determine the possible differences between baseline and different follow-up time points on pain reduction after treatment. Pain assessment was determined using a visual analog scale (VAS) at the first visit before (baseline) and after the proc