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Sample records for painless palpable mass

  1. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of palpable abdominal masses in children.

    PubMed

    Annuar, Z; Sakijan, A S; Annuar, N; Kooi, G H

    1990-12-01

    Ultrasound examinations were done to evaluate clinically palpable abdominal masses in 125 children. The examinations were normal in 21 patients. In 15 patients, the clinically palpable masses were actually anterior abdominal wall abscesses or hematomas. Final diagnosis was available in 87 of 89 patients with intraabdominal masses detected on ultrasound. The majority (71%) were retroperitoneal masses where two-thirds were of renal origin. Ultrasound diagnosis was correct in 68 patients (78%). All cases of hydronephrosis were correctly diagnosed based on characteristic ultrasound appearances. Correct diagnoses of all cases of adrenal hematoma, psoas abscess, liver hematoma, liver abscess and one case of liver metastases were achieved with correlation of relevant clinical information.

  2. Diagnostic performance and color overlay pattern in shear wave elastography (SWE) for palpable breast mass.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoon; Woo, Ok Hee; Shin, Hye Seon; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Kang, Eun Young

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of SWE in palpable breast mass and to compare with color overlay pattern in SWE with conventional US and quantitative SWE for assessing palpable breast mass. SWE and conventional breast US were performed in 133 women with 156 palpable breast lesions (81 benign, 75 malignant) between August 2013 to June 2014. Either pathology or periodic imaging surveillance more than 2 years was a reference standard. Existence of previous image was blinded to performing radiologists. US BI-RADS final assessment, qualitative and quantitative SWE measurements were evaluated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, SWE and US combined to SWE were calculated and compared. Correlation between pattern classification and quantitative SWE was evaluated. Both color overlay pattern and quantitative SWE improved the specificity of conventional US, from 81.48% to 96.30% (p=0.0005), without improvement in sensitivity. Color overlay pattern was significantly related to all quantitative SWE parameters and malignancy rate (p<0.0001.). The optimal cutoff of color overlay pattern was between 2 and 3. Emax with optimal cutoff at 45.1 kPa showed the highest Az value, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy among other quantitative SWE parameters (p<0.0001). Echogenic halo on grayscale US showed significant correlation with color overlay pattern and pathology (p<0.0001). In evaluation of palpable breast mass, conventional US combine to SWE improves specificity and reduces the number of biopsies that ultimately yield a benign result. Color overlay pattern classification is more quick and easy and may represent quantitative SWE measurements with similar diagnostic performances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Image guided versus palpation guided core needle biopsy of palpable breast masses: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Smriti; Kumari, Swati; Srivastava, Anurag; Thulkar, Sanjay; Mathur, Sandeep; Veedu, Prasad Thotton

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Biopsy of palpable breast masses can be performed manually by palpation guidance or under imaging guidance. Based on retrospective studies, image guided biopsy is considered more accurate than palpation guided breast biopsy; however, these techniques have not been compared prospectively. We conducted this prospective study to verify the superiority and determine the size of beneficial effect of image guided biopsy over palpation guided biopsy. Methods: Over a period of 18 months, 36 patients each with palpable breast masses were randomized into palpation guided and image guided breast biopsy arms. Ultrasound was used for image guidance in 33 patients and mammographic (stereotactic) guidance in three patients. All biopsies were performed using 14 gauge automated core biopsy needles. Inconclusive, suspicious or imaging-histologic discordant biopsies were repeated. Results: Malignancy was found in 30 of 36 women in palpation guided biopsy arm and 27 of 36 women in image guided biopsy arm. Palpation guided biopsy had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 46.7, 100, 100, 27.3 per cent, respectively, for diagnosing breast cancer. Nineteen of 36 women (52.8%) required repeat biopsy because of inadequate samples (7 of 19), suspicious findings (2 of 19) or imaging-histologic discordance (10 of 19). On repeat biopsy, malignancy was found in all cases of imaging-histologic discordance. Image guided biopsy had 96.3 per cent sensitivity and 100 per cent specificity. There was no case of inadequate sample or imaging-histologic discordance with image guided biopsy. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in palpable breast masses, image guided biopsy was superior to palpation guided biopsy in terms of sensitivity, false negative rate and repeat biopsy rates. PMID:27488003

  4. Use of Simulators to Explore Specialty Recommendation for a Palpable Breast Mass

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Shlomi; Ray, Rebecca D.; D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D.; Jones, Grace F.; Pugh, Carla M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study aim was to evaluate recommendation patterns of different specialties for the work-up of a palpable breast mass using simulated scenarios and clinical breast examination (CBE) models. Methods Study participants were a convenience sample of physicians (n=318) attending annual surgical, family practice and obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) conferences. Two different silicone-based breast models (superficial mass vs chest wall mass) were used to test CBE skills and recommendation patterns (imaging, tissue sampling, and follow-up). Results Participants were more likely to recommend mammography (p<.001) and core biopsy (p<.0001) and less likely to recommend needle aspiration (p<.043) and 1-month follow up (p<.001) for the chest wall mass compared to the superficial mass. Family practitioners were less likely to recommend ultrasound (p<.001) and OB/GYNs were less likely to recommend mammogram (p<.006) across models. Surgeons were more likely to recommend core biopsy and less likely to recommend needle aspiration across models (p<.001) Conclusions Recommendation patterns differed across the two models in line with existing practice guidelines. Additionally, differences in practice patterns between primary care and specialty providers may represent varying clinician capabilities, health care resources, and individual preferences. Our work shows that simulation may be used to track adherence to practice guidelines for breast masses. PMID:26198334

  5. Shear-wave elastography and greyscale assessment of palpable probably benign masses: is biopsy always required?

    PubMed

    Giannotti, Elisabetta; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Thomson, Kim; McLean, Dennis; Purdie, Colin; Jordan, Lee; Evans, Andy

    2016-06-01

    To establish if palpable breast masses with benign greyscale ultrasound features that are soft on shear-wave elastography (SWE) (mean stiffness <50 kPa) have a low enough likelihood of malignancy to negate the need for biopsy or follow-up. The study group comprised 694 lesions in 682 females (age range 17-95 years, mean age 56 years) presenting consecutively to our institution with palpable lesions corresponding to discrete masses at ultrasound. All underwent ultrasound, SWE and needle core biopsy. Static greyscale images were retrospectively assigned Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) scores by two readers blinded to the SWE and pathology findings, but aware of the patient's age. A mean stiffness of 50 kPa was used as the SWE cut-off for calling a lesion soft or stiff. Histological findings were used to establish ground truth. No cancer had benign characteristics on both modalities. 466 (99.8%) of the 467 cancers were classified BI-RADS 4a or above. The one malignant lesion classified as BI-RADS 3 was stiff on SWE. 446 (96%) of the 467 malignancies were stiff on SWE. No cancer in females under 40 years had benign SWE features. 74 (32.6%) of the 227 benign lesions were BI-RADS 3 and soft on SWE; so, biopsy could potentially have been avoided in this group. Lesions which appear benign on greyscale ultrasound and SWE do not require percutaneous biopsy or short-term follow-up, particularly in females under 40 years. None of the cancers had benign characteristics on both greyscale ultrasound and SWE, and 32% of benign lesions were BI-RADS 3 and soft on SWE; lesions that are benign on both ultrasound and SWE may not require percutaneous biopsy or short-term follow-up.

  6. [Painless thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Okamura, Ken; Fujikawa, Megumi; Bandai, Sachiko

    2006-12-01

    Painless thyroiditis is characterized by painless low-uptake thyrotoxicosis (thyrotoxicosis without hyperthyroidism). Destructive damage of the thyroid has been thought to be the mechanism for self-limited thyrotoxicosis. However, hydrolysis of thyroglobulin must be responsible for the release of excessive thyroid hormone. Low-uptake of iodine and excessive release of thyroid hormone suggest the uncoupling of hormone synthesis and hormone secretion in the thyroid gland. Suppressed serum TSH level, various cytokines or growth factors including TGFbeta1, and thyroglobulin itself may be responsible for the suppressed hormone synthesis. The mechanism for persistent hormone release despite suppressed hormone synthesis should be clarified. Quantitative TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin assay is helpful for the differential diagnosis of painless thyroiditis and Graves' hyperthyroidism.

  7. Shear-wave elastography quantitative assessment of the male breast: added value to distinguish benign and malignant palpable masses.

    PubMed

    Crombé, Amandine; Hurtevent-Labrot, Gabrielle; Asad-Syed, Maryam; Palussière, Jean; MacGrogan, Gaetan; Kind, Michèle; Ferron, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the ability of shear-wave elastography (SWE) to distinguish between benign and malignant palpable masses of the adult male breast. Clinical examination, mammography, B-mode and Doppler ultrasound findings and SWE quantitative parameters were compared in 50 benign lesions (including 40 gynaecomastias) and 15 malignant lesions (invasive ductal carcinomas) from 65 patients who were consecutively addressed for specialized advice at our comprehensive cancer centre. Mean elasticity (El mean), maximum elasticity (El max), El mean of the surrounding fatty tissue and lesion to fat ratio (El ratio) were reported for each patient. Malignant masses displayed significantly higher El mean (p < 0.0001), El max (p < 0.0001) and El ratio (p < 0.0001) compared to benign masses without overlap of values between the two groups. By adding SWE to clinical examination, mammography and ultrasound, all the lesions would have been retrospectively correctly diagnosed as benign or malignant. One false positive could have been downstaged, 14/65 undetermined masses could have been correctly reclassified as 4 malignant and 10 benign lesions, for which biopsies could have consequently been avoided. Evaluation of male breast palpable masses by SWE demonstrates that malignant masses are significantly stiffer lesions and may improve diagnostic management when clinical examination, mammography and conventional ultrasound are doubtful. Advances in knowledge: Quantitative SWE is feasible in male breast and could be of great interest to help classify doubtful lesions after classical clinical and radiological evaluations, probably because of different anatomy and different tumours epidemiology compared with female breast.

  8. Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification in 51 excised palpable pediatric breast masses.

    PubMed

    Koning, Jeffrey L; Davenport, Katherine P; Poole, Patricia S; Kruk, Peter G; Grabowski, Julia E

    2015-10-01

    The American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification was developed to risk stratify breast lesions and guide surgical management based on imaging. Previous studies validating BI-RADS for US do not include pediatric patients. Most pediatric breast masses present as palpable lesions and frequently undergo ultrasound, which is often accompanied with a BI-RADS classification. Our study aimed to correlate BI-RADS with pathology findings to assess applicability of the classification system to pediatric patients. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent excision of a breast mass at a single center from July 2010 to November 2013. We identified all patients who underwent preoperative ultrasound with BI-RADS classification. Demographic data, imaging results, and surgical pathology were analyzed and correlated. A total of 119 palpable masses were excised from 105 pediatric patients during the study period. Of 119 masses, 81 had preoperative ultrasound, and BI-RADS categories were given to 51 masses. Of these 51, all patients were female and the average age was 15.9 years. BI-RADS 4 was given to 25 of 51 masses (49%), and 100% of these lesions had benign pathology, the most common being fibroadenoma. Treatment algorithm based on BI-RADS classification may not be valid in pediatric patients. In this study, all patients with a BI-RADS 4 lesion had benign pathology. BI-RADS classification may overstate the risk of malignancy or need for biopsy in this population. Further validation of BI-RADS classification with large scale studies is needed in pediatric and adolescent patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Unilateral mastitis obliterans presented as a palpable breast mass in a patient with long-standing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Blay, J; Medina, R; Rausell, N; Fonfria, C; Atares, M; Requeni, L; Vilar, J

    2012-01-01

    Mastitis obliterans is an uncommon and late manifestation of ductal ectasia. We report a case of a woman with a long-term type 2 diabetes, referred to us because of a palpable right breast mass. Mammography showed an asymmetry in the palpated area. Ultrasonography was consistent with a an irregular, hypoechoic mass with indistinct margins and linear tracts to the skin. The biopsy showed a fibrotic component surrounding dilated galactophore ducts, which were collapsed by an infiltrate of lymphocytes and histiocytes corresponding to mastitis obliterans. The differential diagnosis should be made between diabetic fibrous mastopathy, granulomatous mastitis and lobular carcinoma. In our opinion, the therapeutic approach should depend on the symptomatology and should be individualized for each patient owing to the lack of information on this pathology, adopting therefore a conservative attitude.

  10. Postmenopausal palpable ovary and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gojnić, M; Branković, M; Maksimović, M; Parapid, B; Dugalić, V; Jeremić, K; Gutić, B

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) examination is a much more reliable method for evaluation of potential ovarian cancer risk than gynecologic palpation. The aim of our study was to analyze the US characteristics of patients with palpable ovaries in light of potential for malignancy. We analyzed 70 women ten years after menopause without increased CA 125 values. They underwent clinical and US exams (abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound), with special emphasis on US Doppler exam. Bimanuel gynecological examination showed palpable ovaries in 14 patients (palpable ovary group), and the remaining 56 patients were defined as the control group. US showed increased dimensions of palpable ovaries. Atypical follicular activity, deviation from verticalization, atypical ovaries and hyperechogenic punctations classified under germ cell cysts occurred statistically significantly more often in the palpable ovary group. Doppler flow showed pathological vascularization in five patients with palpable ovaries and the estrogen level was increased. After four to six months in these five patients we found a mild increase of estrogen levels and higher Doppler abnormality. Six months later, two patients had irregular bleeding and underwent surgical treatment. Every adnexal mass after menopausis demands special attention. Bimanuel gynecological exams should be used liberally. It is necessary to follow the dimensions of the ovary, describe the echostructure, as well as the edges of the ovary and other anatomical structures. Doppler flow measurement and estrogen levels are predictive and give more information. Controls should be in three to six month intervals in order to make a decision for surgical treatment.

  11. Painless thyroiditis associated to thyroid carcinoma: role of initial ultrasonography evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Raisa Bressan; Macedo, Bruno Mussoi de; Izquierdo, Rogério Friedrich; Meyer, Erika Laurini Souza

    2016-04-01

    Even though it is a rare event, most associations of thyroid carcinoma with subacute thyroiditis described in the literature are related to its granulomatous form (Quervain's thyroiditis). We present a patient with subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis (painless thyroiditis) and papillary thyroid cancer that was first suspected in an initial ultrasound evaluation. A 30-year old female patient who was referred to the emergency room due to hyperthyroidism symptoms was diagnosed with painless thyroiditis established by physical examination and laboratory findings. With the presence of a palpable painless thyroid nodule an ultrasound was prescribed and the images revealed a suspicious thyroid nodule, microcalcification focus in the heterogeneous thyroid parenquima and cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was taken from this nodule; cytology was assessed for compatibility with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Postsurgical pathology evaluation showed a multicentric papillary carcinoma and lymphocytic infiltration. Subacute thyroiditis, regardless of type, may produce transitory ultrasound changes that obscure the coexistence of papillary carcinoma. Due to this, initial thyroid ultrasound evaluation should be delayed until clinical recovery. We recommended a thyroid ultrasound exam for initial evaluation of painless thyroiditis, particularly in patients with palpable thyroid nodule. Further cytological examination is recommended in cases presenting with suspect thyroid nodule and/or non-nodular hypoechoic (> 1 cm) or heterogeneous areas with microcalcification focus.

  12. Lessons from mosquitoes' painless piercing.

    PubMed

    Gurera, Dev; Bhushan, Bharat; Kumar, Navin

    2018-05-18

    Arthropods are the largest group of the living organisms. They attack other organisms by biting, stinging, or piercing and sucking. Among various medically important arthropods, which feed on living hosts, mosquitoes' piercing spread viruses which have been reported to cause the highest number of deaths annually. The primary cause of the deaths is malaria, which is spread by infected mosquitoes' piercing. This study aims at elucidating lessons from mosquitoes' painless piercing. Mosquitoes pierce using their fascicle, which is a bundle of coherently functioning six stylets. Based on experiments and available literature, it is presented that mosquitoes painlessly pierce using a combination of the numbing, the fascicle's serrated design, the vibratory actuation, and the graded and frequency-dependent mechanical properties of the labrum. Based on this understanding, a mosquito-inspired microneedle design has also been proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Leishmania infection: painful or painless?

    PubMed

    Borghi, Sergio M; Fattori, Victor; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Pavanelli, Wander R; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2017-02-01

    The complex life cycle and immunopathological features underpinning the interaction of Leishmania parasites and their mammalian hosts poses frequent poorly explored and inconclusively resolved questions. The altered nociceptive signals over the course of leishmaniasis remain an intriguing issue for nociceptive and parasitology researchers. Experimental investigations have utilized behavioral, morphological, and neuro-immune approaches in the study of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The data generated indicates new venues for the study of the pathological characteristics of nociceptive processing in this parasitic disease. Leishmania-induced pain may be easily observed in mice and rats. However, nociceptive data is more complex in human investigations, including the occurrence of painless lesions in mucocutaneous and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Data from recent decades indicate that humans can also be affected by pain-related symptoms, often distinct from the region of body infection. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such variable nociceptive states in humans during the course of leishmaniasis are an active area of research. The present article reviews nociception in leishmaniasis, including in experimental models of CL and clinical reports.

  14. Painless thyroiditis complicating with hypercalcemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Thewjitcharoen, Yotsapon; Lumlertgul, Nuttha

    2012-01-01

    Severe hypercalcemia has rarely been reported in patients with hyperthyroidism. Although the pathogenesis is not clear; it is believed to be due to activation of osteoclasts resulting in excessive bone resorption. To recognize the unusual cause of hypercalcemia from painless thyroiditis, which could manifest with transient hyperthyroidism in the early stage. A 70-year-old woman presented with watery diarrhea, nausea and vomiting and significant weight loss for two months. Initially, she was misdiagnosed as having Graves'disease from her clinical presentation and thyroid function tests. Oral propylthiouracil was given to treat hyperthyroidism. However two weeks after discharge, she developed altered consciousness due to severe hypercalcemia. After combined treatment of hypercalcemia and severe hyperthyroidism, her symptoms resolved quickly. Later on, her thyroid function tests switched to subclinical hypothyroid at two months after initial presentation. No concurrent pathological conditions could be found to explain the other causes of hypercalcemia. Therefore, painless thyroiditis complicated with severe hypercalcemia was subsequently diagnosed based on her clinical course. Hypercalcemic encephalopathy is an uncommon manifestation of hyperthyroidism that should be kept in mind in patients who demonstrated clinical pictures of hyperthyroidism and alteration of consciousness. Moreover the present case emphasizes the consideration of painless thyroiditis as a differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism because anti-thyroid medications were not indicated in this condition.

  15. Giant Malignant Pheochromocytoma with Palpable Rib Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Gokhan; Kilicli, Fatih; Elagoz, Sahande; Ayan, Semih; Gultekin, Emin Yener

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare and usually benign neuroendocrine neoplasm. Only 10% of all these tumors are malignant and there are no definitive histological or cytological criteria of malignancy. Single malignancy criteria are the presence of advanced locoregional disease or metastases. We report a case, with a giant retroperitoneal tumor having multiple metastases including palpable rib metastases, who was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma. The patient was treated with surgery. The literature was reviewed to evaluate tumor features and current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic or potentially malignant pheochromocytoma. PMID:25152826

  16. Painless acute myocardial infarction on Mount Kilimanjaro

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Nasiruddin; Rajhy, Mubina; Bapumia, Mustaafa

    2016-01-01

    An individual experiencing dyspnoea or syncope at high altitude is commonly diagnosed to have high-altitude pulmonary edema or cerebral edema. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis. There have been very rare cases of AMI reported only from Mount Everest. We report a case of painless ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that occurred while climbing Mount Kilimanjaro. A 51-year-old man suffered dyspnoea and loss of consciousness near the mountain peak, at about 5600 m. At a nearby hospital, he was treated as a case of high-altitude pulmonary edema. ECG was not obtained. Two days after the incident, he presented to our institution with continued symptoms of dyspnoea, light-headedness and weakness, but no pain. He was found to have inferior wall and right ventricular STEMI complicated by complete heart block. He was successfully managed with coronary angioplasty, with good recovery. PMID:26989121

  17. Large palpable ductal carcinoma in situ is Her-2 positive with high nuclear grade.

    PubMed

    Monabati, Ahmad; Sokouti, Ali-Reza; Noori, Sadat Noori; Safaei, Akbar; Talei, Abd-Rasul; Omidvari, Shapoor; Azarpira, Negar

    2015-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a heterogeneous group with variable clinical presentation. The exact molecular mechanism is not known why some ductal carcinomas may reach to such a large size but still remains in situ. Although, molecular classification of DCIS lesions and nuclear grading are important for identification of more aggressive lesions but it is not sufficient. Our aim was to examine the expression pattern of immunohistochemical (IHC) markers of ER, PR, HER-2 in palpable DCIS lesions and compare with clinicopathological findings. Our center is referral hospital from South of Iran. Samples were obtained from fifty four patients with a diagnosis of palpable DCIS. Equivocal (2+) case in HER-2 IHC testing was more characterized by chromogenic in situ hybridization. The positive frequency of HER2, ER, and PR was 92%, 48%, and 37% respectively. Palpable DCIS lesions were significantly more HER-2 positive (92%). The DCIS cases were more likely to be of high nuclear grade (grade III) and Her-2 positive cases were more likely to be of high nuclear grade than intermediate grade. All ER negative tumors had high nuclear grade. The Her-2 positivity is suggested as the most important factor responsible for marked in situ proliferation and production of palpable mass.

  18. Large palpable ductal carcinoma in situ is Her-2 positive with high nuclear grade

    PubMed Central

    Monabati, Ahmad; Sokouti, Ali-Reza; Noori, Sadat Noori; Safaei, Akbar; Talei, Abd-Rasul; Omidvari, Shapoor; Azarpira, Negar

    2015-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a heterogeneous group with variable clinical presentation. The exact molecular mechanism is not known why some ductal carcinomas may reach to such a large size but still remains in situ. Although, molecular classification of DCIS lesions and nuclear grading are important for identification of more aggressive lesions but it is not sufficient. Our aim was to examine the expression pattern of immunohistochemical (IHC) markers of ER, PR, HER-2 in palpable DCIS lesions and compare with clinicopathological findings. Our center is referral hospital from South of Iran. Samples were obtained from fifty four patients with a diagnosis of palpable DCIS. Equivocal (2+) case in HER-2 IHC testing was more characterized by chromogenic in situ hybridization. The positive frequency of HER2, ER, and PR was 92%, 48%, and 37% respectively. Palpable DCIS lesions were significantly more HER-2 positive (92%). The DCIS cases were more likely to be of high nuclear grade (grade III) and Her-2 positive cases were more likely to be of high nuclear grade than intermediate grade. All ER negative tumors had high nuclear grade. The Her-2 positivity is suggested as the most important factor responsible for marked in situ proliferation and production of palpable mass. PMID:26097582

  19. A Case of Severe and Recurrent Painless Thyroiditis Requiring Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Hiroaki; Takei, Masahiro; Sato, Yoshihiko; Ito, Tokiko; Ito, Ken-ichi; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Yumita, Wataru; Suzuki, Satoru; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To report a case of severe and recurrent painless thyroiditis requiring thyroidectomy. Clinical Presentation and Intervention A 47-year-old man who presented with severe thyrotoxicosis was found to have extremely low radioactive iodine uptake, negative TSH receptor antibodies, and normal C-reactive protein; these findings suggested a diagnosis of painless thyroiditis. Due to the severity and recurrence of thyrotoxicosis, surgical resection of the thyroid gland was performed to prevent a thyrotoxic storm. Histological examination revealed typical lymphoid infiltration of the thyroid gland. Conclusion This case illustrates that a patient with painless thyroiditis was successfully treated with surgery. PMID:23182952

  20. A patient with a painless neck tumour revealed as a carotid paraganglioma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Peric, Barbara; Marinsek, Ziva Pohar; Skrbinc, Breda; Music, Maja; Zagar, Ivana; Hocevar, Marko

    2014-08-20

    Carotid paragangliomas are usually slowly enlarging and painless lateral neck masses. These mostly benign lesions are recognized due to their typical location, vessel displacement and specific blood supply, features that are usually seen on different imaging modalities. Surgery for carotid paraganglioma can be associated with immediate cerebrovascular complications or delayed neurological impairment.We are reporting the case of a 36-year-old man who presented with a painless mass on the right side of his neck 11 months after being treated for testicular cancer. After a fine-needle aspiration biopsy, he was diagnosed with a testicular cancer lymph node metastasis. Neck US and fluorine [F-18]-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET-CT showed no signs of hypervascularity or vessel displacement. The patient underwent a level II to V functional neck dissection. During the procedure, suspicion of a carotid paraganglioma was raised and the tumour was carefully dissected from the walls of the carotid arteries with minimal blood loss and no cranial nerve dysfunction.The histology report revealed carotid paraganglioma with no metastasis in the rest of the lymph nodes. The patient's history of testicular germ cell tumour led to a functional neck dissection during which a previously unrecognized carotid paraganglioma was removed.Surgery for carotid PG can be associated with complications that have major impact on quality of life. A thorough assessment of the patient and neck mass must therefore be performed preoperatively in order to perform the surgical procedure under optimal conditions.

  1. Thyrotoxicosis-induced acute myocardial infarction due to painless thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Jung, Tae Sik; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Lee, Sang Min; Jung, Jung Hwa; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Chung, Soon Il

    2011-10-01

    Thyrotoxicosis influences cardiovascular hemodynamics and can induce coronary vasospasm. Patients with thyrotoxicosis-induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are unusual and almost all reported cases have been associated with Graves' disease. Patients with painless thyroiditis show a thyrotoxic phase during the early stages. Here we describe a very rare case of thyrotoxicosis with painless thyroiditis-induced AMI. A 35-year-old Korean man visited the emergency room for a 2-hour duration of typical AMI chest pain. The patient did not have any coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The electrocardiogram showed 3 mm of ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVF, which is consistent with inferior AMI. We immediately treated the patient with aspirin, clopidogrel, and nitroglycerine and performed emergent coronary angiography. Coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries without any stenotic lesions. Consistent with AMI, cardiac enzyme levels of serum creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB, and troponin-I were also elevated. Laboratory findings showed thyrotoxicosis without any thyroid autoantibodies. A 99m-technetium scintigraphy showed markedly decreased thyroid uptake compatible with thyroiditis. We treated the patient with calcium channel blockers and nitrates. The patient spontaneously recovered normal thyroid function after 6 weeks of observation and did not complain of chest pain. Thyrotoxicosis due to painless thyroiditis provoked AMI in a young man who had no atherosclerotic coronary lesions and no CAD risk factors.

  2. Reed-Sternberg cells in breast FNA of a patient with left breast mass.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaemin; Rizzo, Monica; Jackson, Simona; Bates, Sandra R; Green, Victoria; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela

    2010-09-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma is a potentially curable malignancy of the lymphatic system characterized by a variable number of scattered and large mononucleated and multinucleated tumor cells, the Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells residing in an abundant heterogeneous admixture of non-neoplastic inflammatory cells. It represents approximately 30% of all lymphomas according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma typically present with painless peripheral adenopathy, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. We report a rare case of Hodgkin's lymphoma presented as a breast mass in a 23-year-old woman diagnosed on fine needle aspiration (FNA). At presentation, she had no B symptoms, or palpable lymphadenopathy. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Acute bilateral painless radiculitis with abnormal Borrelia burgdorferi immunoblot.

    PubMed

    Almodovar, Jorge L; Hehir, Michael K; Nicholson, Katharine A; Stommel, Elijah W

    2012-12-01

    A 57-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and hypothyroidism presented with painless left arm weakness and numbness 2 weeks before evaluation. Nerve conduction studies of the left arm revealed normal motor and sensory responses. Needle examination revealed acute denervation changes in all myotomes of the affected extremity, including cervical paraspinals on the left, and several myotomes on the contralateral side. The laboratory evaluation revealed normal anti-GM1 antibodies and 3 IgM/5 IgG bands on Lyme Western Blot. The patient began treatment with 28 days of intravenous ceftriaxone. On follow-up, patient had regained full strength of her extremities with no sensory deficits. Inflammatory borrelia radiculitis usually presents with pain in the distribution of the affected nerves and nerve roots. The novelty of this case report rests on (1) the absence of primary borreliosis symptomatology preceding the radiculitis and (2) the painless and bilateral clinical presentation in a patient with suspected Lyme radiculitis.

  4. An optimal painless treatment for early hemorrhoids; our experience in Government Medical College and Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Singal, R; Gupta, S; Dalal, AK; Dalal, U; Attri, AK

    2013-01-01

    Objective - To evaluate the efficacy of Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) for hemorrhoids. IRC is a painless, safe and successful procedure. Place and duration of study - Department of Surgery, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector-32, Chandigarh, India, from August 2006 to October 2008. The choice of procedure depends on the patient's symptoms, the extent of the hemorrhoidal disease, and the experience of the surgeon along with the availability of the techniques/instruments. Materials and methods - This is a prospective study done from August 2006 to October 2008. Total number of 155 patients was included in the study. Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) was performed through a special designed proctoscope. Patients excluded were with coagulopathy disorders, fissure in ano, and anal ulcers. Results - It is an outpatient Department (OPD), non-surgical, ambulatory, painless and bloodless procedure, without any hospital stay. Early recovery and minimal recurrence of hemorrhoids were noted without any morbidity or mortality. We have studied 155 patients, treated with IRC on OPD basis. Surgery was required in few patients in whom IRC failed or was contraindicated. Out of the total 155 patients, 127 came for follow up. After the 1st sitting of IRC therapy: out of 127; 43 patients got a total relief, mass shrinkage was of > 75% in 57 cases and < 50% in 14 cases. Twenty-eight cases did not come for follow-up. In the 2nd sitting, out of 84/127; 58 patients got a total relief, >75% relief in 15 cases and >50 % relief in 11 patients. In the 3rd sitting out of 26/84 cases: 13 cases got a total relief and 13 cases refused to take the third sitting; however, in 7 cases the hemorrhoidal mass shrank up to 50% after the two sittings. These 14 were operated as there was no relief from bleeding after giving two sittings of IRC. Our opinion is that, in the above 14 cases, the patient might have not followed the instructions properly for dietary habits. Conclusion - IRC is a

  5. An optimal painless treatment for early hemorrhoids; our experience in Government Medical College and Hospital.

    PubMed

    Singal, R; Gupta, S; Dalal, A K; Dalal, U; Attri, A K

    2013-09-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) for hemorrhoids. IRC is a painless, safe and successful procedure. Department of Surgery, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector-32, Chandigarh, India, from August 2006 to October 2008. The choice of procedure depends on the patient's symptoms, the extent of the hemorrhoidal disease, and the experience of the surgeon along with the availability of the techniques/instruments. This is a prospective study done from August 2006 to October 2008. Total number of 155 patients was included in the study. Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) was performed through a special designed proctoscope. Patients excluded were with coagulopathy disorders, fissure in ano, and anal ulcers. Results - It is an outpatient Department (OPD), non-surgical, ambulatory, painless and bloodless procedure, without any hospital stay. Early recovery and minimal recurrence of hemorrhoids were noted without any morbidity or mortality. We have studied 155 patients, treated with IRC on OPD basis. Surgery was required in few patients in whom IRC failed or was contraindicated. Out of the total 155 patients, 127 came for follow up. After the 1st sitting of IRC therapy: out of 127; 43 patients got a total relief, mass shrinkage was of > 75% in 57 cases and < 50% in 14 cases. Twenty-eight cases did not come for follow-up. In the 2nd sitting, out of 84/127; 58 patients got a total relief, >75% relief in 15 cases and >50 % relief in 11 patients. In the 3rd sitting out of 26/84 cases: 13 cases got a total relief and 13 cases refused to take the third sitting; however, in 7 cases the hemorrhoidal mass shrank up to 50% after the two sittings. These 14 were operated as there was no relief from bleeding after giving two sittings of IRC. Our opinion is that, in the above 14 cases, the patient might have not followed the instructions properly for dietary habits. IRC is a safe, simple and effective procedure for early hemorrhoids without any

  6. Painless Parker's legacy: ethics, commerce, and advertising in the professions.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This presentation will review the life and contributions of Dr. Edgar Parker, the infamous and controversial pioneer who specialized in a precarious straddling of the ethics of the commercial marketplace and the ethics of care. Something of a Rorschach test, he was alternatively referred to as a charlatan, the first people's dentist, a renegade, a crusader, a quack, the Henry Ford of dentistry, and "a menace to the dignity of the profession". He eventually owned and managed thirty dental offices, several in San Francisco, as well as the Parker Dental Circus. Because many young, twenty-first century practitioners have little problem with slick advertising, it seems appropriate to revisit Painless Parker's career and contribution to the current state of affairs.

  7. Dual modality surgical guidance of non-palpable breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judy, Patricia Goodale

    Although breast conserving therapy has some advantages over the traditional mastectomy procedure, the biggest disadvantage is the chance of local re-occurrence in which a second surgery is often required. Adequate surgical removal of breast tumors requires accurate tumor localization in order to ensure a balance between optimal cosmetic results and minimization of the risk for local re-occurrence. These challenges have motivated the search for alternative, more accurate methods for intraoperative localization of non-palpable breast lesions. The overall goal of this project was to develop an innovative technique for radioguided localization of non-palpable breast lesions that is more accurate, easier for the breast surgeon, and more comfortable for the patient than the current practice of wire localization. The technique uses a dual modality breast imaging system to place a marker composed of radiolabeled albumin (99mTc-MAA or 111ln-MAA) into the lesion. Preliminary studies were made to evaluate the localization accuracy of the system, which showed that the dual modality breast scanner is capable of accurate 3-dimensional localization using either X-ray or gamma ray imaging. A 3-axis needle positioning system was built and integrated into the dual modality breast scanner and its accuracy tested. A pilot clinical trial to evaluate the dual-modality surgical guidance technique was designed and preliminary clinical data collected. Detailed results were presented on the first three subjects; although a total of seven subjects have been recruited to the study to date. So far, it has been demonstrated that the radioguided surgery technique can be performed with approximately 10 times less radiomarker activity than is currently being used by other researchers employing 99mTc-MAA as a radiomarker, while maintaining comparable localization accuracy. Although the DMSG technique has not been tested in a large cohort of subjects, the preliminary data on the first few are

  8. Management of palpable breast lumps. Consensus guideline for family physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Heisey, R.; Mahoney, L.; Watson, B.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe an approach to managing women who present with palpable breast lumps. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Databases were searched from 1990 to 1998 using the search terms breast lumps, breast diseases, and breast cysts. Bibliographies of the articles obtained were searched for further relevant titles. Most evidence on management of breast cysts was obtained from cohort studies. Evidence on family physicians' approach to managing breast lumps is based on a review of the 1998 Canadian consensus guidelines and a review of a 1998 consensus guideline by 12 University of Toronto surgical oncologists (U of T guidelines). MAIN MESSAGE: Family physicians can manage women presenting with breast lumps if they have skill in breast cyst aspiration. Most breast cysts can be cured in minutes, thus avoiding unwarranted anxiety and eliminating unnecessary additional investigations and referrals. Women presenting with solid lesions should be referred to a surgeon. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cyst aspiration is a simple technique family physicians can use to either cure breast lumps or define appropriate cases for referral. PMID:10463093

  9. [Clinicopathological study of purpura: Is a skin biopsy necessary for palpable purpura?].

    PubMed

    Jung, A-J; Schaeffer, M; Mitcov, M; Scrivener, Y; Cribier, B; Lipsker, D

    2016-05-01

    For many physicians, palpable purpura is synonymous with vasculitis. However, a skin biopsy is almost always performed in common clinical practice in order to confirm the diagnosis. The aim of our study was to assess whether palpable purpura is always indicative of an inflammatory infiltrate in a vessel wall. Eighty-seven patients were included in this prospective monocentric study, 45 of whom were presenting a palpable purpura. Patients were classified in two categories: "leukocytoclastic vasculitis" or "other diagnosis". The clinical and histopathological features of patients with a palpable purpura were studied. The mean age of patients presenting a palpable purpura was 69 years. There were 26 men and 19 women. Of the 43 patients biopsied, 37 were included in the vasculitis group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for a diagnosis of vasculitis in patients with palpable purpura were respectively 82, 65, 86 and 58 %. The Odds ratio was 8.48 (95 % CI, 2.52-31.80; P<0.05). Most of the palpable purpuras examined were indeed related to leukocytoclastic vasculitis. In the remaining cases, biopsy did not contribute to the diagnosis since it only showed purpura without vessel wall inflammation. In our opinion, a skin biopsy is thus not essential where the clinical presentation is typical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [A 65-year-old man with history of claudication, palpable purpura and livedo reticularis].

    PubMed

    Braun, N; Kimmel, M; Grabner, A; Ott, G; Alscher, M D

    2010-04-01

    A 65-year-old man was admitted with history of claudication symptoms and painful skin lesions of the lower legs. Physical examination showed palpable purpura of the lower legs and livedo reticularis, most marked at the forefoot and toes. Computed tomography (CT) showed an aortic mass 2 cm above the bifurcation. This was treated after angiography with a covered stent. Biopsy of the skin lesions showed no sign of vasculitis and no cholesterol crystals. The patient was discharged and remained symptom-free for 9 months. He was readmitted at that time with recurrent complaints. CT revealed a subtotal stenosis of the aortic stent. A skin biopsy showed CD31-positive tumor cells in small arteries. Biopsy of a new osteolytic lesion in the ileum confirmed the diagnosis of angiosarcoma of the aorta. The patient decided in favor of palliative care and was discharged from the hospital. Primary tumors of the aorta, although they are rare, should be considered in the presence of an intravascular mass with stenosis to blood flow. A skin biopsy is easy to conduct and often leads to the final diagnosis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  11. Characteristics of patients with graves disease and intrathyroid hypovascularity compared to painless thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Toyoyoshi; Shigihara, Nayumi; Takeno, Kageumi; Komiya, Koji; Goto, Hiromasa; Abe, Hiroko; Sato, Junko; Honda, Akira; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and sonographic and laboratory characteristics of Graves disease with intrathyroid hypovascularity in Japanese patients and to compare these characteristics in patients with painless thyroiditis. A total of 194 consecutive patients with Graves disease and 21 patients with painless thyroiditis were enrolled. The patients underwent thyroid volume measurement, mean superior thyroid artery peak systolic velocity (PSV) measurement, power Doppler sonography, and proper blood testing to discriminate between Graves disease and painless thyroiditis. Based on the power Doppler sonographic findings, they were divided into 4 groups: from pattern 0 (most hypovascular thyroid) to pattern III (most hypervascular thyroid). Comparisons of multiple thyroid parameters were made among the groups. The prevalence of Graves disease with pattern 0 (n = 27) was 13.9% among the patients with Graves disease. The sonographic and laboratory data for patients with Graves disease and pattern 0 were compared to those of the 21 patients with painless thyroiditis, which typically shows intrathyroid hypovascularity. Free triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels and the superior thyroid artery PSV were significantly lower in patients with Graves disease and pattern 0 than those with patterns I, II, and III (P < .05). The thyroid volume and thyrotropin receptor antibody level were significantly lower in patients with Graves disease and pattern 0 than those with pattern III. In the comparison between patients with Graves disease and pattern 0 and those with painless thyroiditis and pattern 0, apart from thyrotropin receptor antibody, only the superior thyroid artery PSV was different. Although the clinical features of patients with Graves disease and intrathyroid hypovascularity were similar to those patients with painless thyroiditis, the superior thyroid artery PSV showed a moderate ability to discriminate these patients. © 2014 by the American

  12. Magnetic air capsule robotic system: proof of concept of a novel approach for painless colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Valdastri, P; Ciuti, G; Verbeni, A; Menciassi, A; Dario, P; Arezzo, A; Morino, M

    2012-05-01

    Despite being considered the most effective method for colorectal cancer diagnosis, colonoscopy take-up as a mass-screening procedure is limited mainly due to invasiveness, patient discomfort, fear of pain, and the need for sedation. In an effort to mitigate some of the disadvantages associated with colonoscopy, this work provides a preliminary assessment of a novel endoscopic device consisting in a softly tethered capsule for painless colonoscopy under robotic magnetic steering. The proposed platform consists of the endoscopic device, a robotic unit, and a control box. In contrast to the traditional insertion method (i.e., pushing from behind), a "front-wheel" propulsion approach is proposed. A compliant tether connecting the device to an external box is used to provide insufflation, passing a flexible operative tool, enabling lens cleaning, and operating the vision module. To assess the diagnostic and treatment ability of the platform, 12 users were asked to find and remove artificially implanted beads as polyp surrogates in an ex vivo model. In vivo testing consisted of a qualitative study of the platform in pigs, focusing on active locomotion, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities, safety, and usability. The mean percentage of beads identified by each user during ex vivo trials was 85 ± 11%. All the identified beads were removed successfully using the polypectomy loop. The mean completion time for accomplishing the entire procedure was 678 ± 179 s. No immediate mucosal damage, acute complications such as perforation, or delayed adverse consequences were observed following application of the proposed method in vivo. Use of the proposed platform in ex vivo and preliminary animal studies indicates that it is safe and operates effectively in a manner similar to a standard colonoscope. These studies served to demonstrate the platform's added advantages of reduced size, front-wheel drive strategy, and robotic control over locomotion and orientation.

  13. Circumcision-incision orchidopexy: A novel technique for palpable, low inguinal undescended testis.

    PubMed

    Chua, Michael E; Silangcruz, Jan Michael A; Gomez, Odina; Dy, Jun S; Morales, Marcelino L

    2017-11-01

    Given that both orchidopexy and circumcision are commonly done in a single operative setting, we adopted a technique of combined orchidopexy and circumcision using a single circumcision incision. We applied this new technique to boys with palpable, low inguinal cryptorchidism. Here we describe a case series of 7 boys who underwent concurrent orchidopexy via the circumcision site. We present this novel technique and discuss our preliminary outcomes, including the anatomic basis and feasibility. The technique appears to be an alternative for concurrent circumcision and cryptorchid cases with palpable, low inguinal testes.

  14. Circumcision-incision orchidopexy: A novel technique for palpable, low inguinal undescended testis

    PubMed Central

    Silangcruz, Jan Michael A.; Gomez, Odina; Dy, Jun S.; Morales, Marcelino L.

    2017-01-01

    Given that both orchidopexy and circumcision are commonly done in a single operative setting, we adopted a technique of combined orchidopexy and circumcision using a single circumcision incision. We applied this new technique to boys with palpable, low inguinal cryptorchidism. Here we describe a case series of 7 boys who underwent concurrent orchidopexy via the circumcision site. We present this novel technique and discuss our preliminary outcomes, including the anatomic basis and feasibility. The technique appears to be an alternative for concurrent circumcision and cryptorchid cases with palpable, low inguinal testes. PMID:29124248

  15. Survey of parental willingness to pay and willingness to stay for "painless" intravenous catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Brooks Myrick; Bartfield, Joel Michael

    2006-11-01

    This study examined how much parents are willing to pay and/or willing to stay to make their child's intravenous (IV) catheter placement painless. A prospective survey was conducted using a questionnaire administered to a consecutive sample of parents presenting to an emergency department (ED). Eligible subjects were parents accompanying a child 8 years of age or younger. A hypothetical visit to the ED, requiring an IV for their child, was described. Parents were asked if they would prefer to make the IV catheter placement painless and if so, how much of an increase in out-of-pocket cost (none, 15 dollars, and 100 dollars) and/or length of stay they would be willing to incur (no time, 15 minutes, 1 hour). Statistics were chiefly descriptive. Associations of demographic elements with willingness to pay and willingness to stay were analyzed using chi and t tests, where appropriate. One hundred eight subjects were available for analysis. Most parents were mothers (71%), white (53%), and with previous IVs (70%). Most children were boys (55%) with no previous IV placements (55%). The choice of a painless IV placement was independent of demographics and IV experience. Most parents (89%) chose a painless IV placement. Of these parents, 65% chose a willingness to stay of 1 extra hour, and 77% a willingness to pay at least 15 dollars; 37% of parents would pay 100 dollars. Willingness to pay was dependent on both income (P = 0.014) and ethnicity (P = 0.0013). Willingness to stay was independent of both income (P = 0.24) and ethnicity (P = 0.07). Parents are willing to spend both time and money to make their child's IV placement painless. This information should be considered when choosing therapies to reduce the pain of IV placement.

  16. Misuse of ultrasound for palpable undescended testis by primary care providers: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Nathan C.; Bansal, Rahul K.; Lorenzo, Armando J.; DeMaria, Jorge; Braga, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although previous evidence has shown that ultrasound is unreliable to diagnose undescended testis, many primary care providers (PCP) continue to misuse it. We assessed the performance of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for palpable undescended testis, as well as the diagnostic agreement between PCP and pediatric urologists. Methods: We performed a prospective observational cohort study between 2011 and 2013 for consecutive boys referred with a diagnosis of undescended testis to our tertiary pediatric hospital. Patients referred without an ultrasound and those with non-palpable testes were excluded. Data on referring diagnosis, pediatric urology examination and ultrasound reports were analyzed. Results: Our study consisted of 339 boys. Of these, patients without an ultrasound (n = 132) and those with non-palpable testes (n = 38) were excluded. In the end, there were 169 pateints in this study. Ultrasound was performed in 50% of referred boys showing 256 undescended testis. The mean age at time of referral was 45 months. When ultrasound was compared to physical examination by the pediatric urologist, agreement was only 34%. The performance of ultrasound for palpable undescended testis was: sensitivity = 100%; specificity = 16%; positive predictive value = 34%; negative predictive value = 100%; positive likelihood ratio = 1.2; and negative likelihood ratio = 0. Diagnosis of undescended testis by PCP was confirmed by physical examination in 30% of cases, with 70% re-diagnosed with normal or retractile testes. Conclusion: Ultrasound performed poorly to assess for palpable undescended testis in boys and should not be used. Although the study has important limitations, there is an increasing need for education and evidence-based guidelines for PCP in the management of undescended testis. PMID:26788226

  17. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis associated with transient thyrotoxicosis due to painless thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang Bo; Ahn, Jinhee; Oh, Min Young; Choi, Bo Gwang; Kang, Ji Hyun; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Sang Soo; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Joo

    2012-07-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare manifestation of hyperthyroidism characterized by muscle weakness and hypokalemia. All ethnicities can be affected, but TPP typically presents in men of Asian descent. The most common cause of TPP in thyrotoxicosis is Graves' disease. However, TPP can occur with any form of thyrotoxicosis. Up to our knowledge, very few cases ever reported the relationship between TPP and painless thyroiditis. We herein report a 25-yr-old Korean man who suffered from flaccid paralysis of the lower extremities and numbness of hands. The patient was subsequently diagnosed as having TPP associated with transient thyrotoxicosis due to painless thyroiditis. The paralytic attack did not recur after improving the thyroid function. Therefore, it is necessary that early diagnosis of TPP due to transient thyrotoxicosis is made to administer definite treatment and prevent recurrent paralysis.

  18. Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis Associated with Transient Thyrotoxicosis Due to Painless Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sang Bo; Ahn, Jinhee; Oh, Min Young; Choi, Bo Gwang; Kang, Ji Hyun; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Sang Soo; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Joo

    2012-01-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare manifestation of hyperthyroidism characterized by muscle weakness and hypokalemia. All ethnicities can be affected, but TPP typically presents in men of Asian descent. The most common cause of TPP in thyrotoxicosis is Graves' disease. However, TPP can occur with any form of thyrotoxicosis. Up to our knowledge, very few cases ever reported the relationship between TPP and painless thyroiditis. We herein report a 25-yr-old Korean man who suffered from flaccid paralysis of the lower extremities and numbness of hands. The patient was subsequently diagnosed as having TPP associated with transient thyrotoxicosis due to painless thyroiditis. The paralytic attack did not recur after improving the thyroid function. Therefore, it is necessary that early diagnosis of TPP due to transient thyrotoxicosis is made to administer definite treatment and prevent recurrent paralysis. PMID:22787383

  19. [Clinical study on painless labor under drugs combined with acupuncture analgesia].

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Wu, L; Xia, Y

    1996-01-01

    To study the analgesia efficacy of drugs combined with acupuncture analgesia for painless labor, 462 normal pregnancy women were observed. During the latent phase in labor, several analgesia methods: acupuncture analgesia, analgesics, magnetotherapy and auricular acupressure, TENS combined with dihydroetorphine were used respectively. While the intrauterine pressure and the peripheral content of beta-EP were measured during labor, the experiments of SEPS were also performed on healthy adults to demonstrate the analgesia efficacy of those analgesia methods. The combination of drugs with acupuncture is an excellent method for painless labor without any complications and all the mothers and babies are safety. The effectiveness is 97.5%. The results demonstrate that the mechanism of analgesia efficacy should be regulated the incoordinate uterine action and improve the hypertonic status of uterus, but also can decrease the pain threshold and elevate the tolerance of uterine contractions during labor.

  20. Awareness that early cancer lump is painless could decrease breast cancer mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj

    2016-06-10

    There are several factors which contribute to patients' reporting late to healthcare facility even after detecting the breast lump (patient delay). Amongst these, one of the important factors in low- and middle-income countries is lack of awareness that early cancer lump is painless (ECLIPs). Pain is often taken as a danger sign and absence of pain is often not taken seriously. The studies have shown that up to 98% of women in low-income countries are unaware that a painless lump could be a warning sign of early breast cancer. This fact is significant because this could be one of the prime reasons for the women having discovered a painless lump in the breast, accidentally or by breast self-examination, presume it to be harmless and don't report early to health care facility. Therefore, creating awareness about ECLIPs could be an effective strategy to reduce mortality due to breast cancer in low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, unlike modifying risk factors which requires long term behavior modification, creating awareness about ECLIPs is easy and cost effective.

  1. Simultaneous occurrence of transient resolving thyrotoxicosis due to painless thyroiditis, hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus following pituitary apoplexy

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Haruka; Ohnishi, Osamu; Okudera, Toshio; Okumura, Makoto

    1991-01-01

    A rare case of concomitant association of transient thyrotoxicosis due to painless thyroiditis, hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus following spontaneous pituitary apoplexy is presented. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:2057436

  2. Carcinoid Tumour of Caecum: an Unusual Palpable Mass in the Right Iliac Fossa.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Mohit M; Sude, Nandkishor S

    2016-04-01

    Carcinoid tumour represents 0.8-1.5 % of malignant digestive tumours. Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoids account for 95 % of all the carcinoids, and caecal carcinoids account for 5 % of all the carcinoids. These tumours are frequent in women (2-4:1) as reported by Spallitta and Termine (Minerva Chir 55:77-87, 2002). In order of frequency, they may occur in the appendix (35 %), ileum (28 %), rectum (13 %) and bronchi. Incidence is less than 1 % in the pancreas, gall bladder, liver, larynx, testes and ovaries. The colon and ileocaecal region are rare sites of origin for gastrointestinal carcinoids as reported by Soga (J Exp Clin Cancer Res 17:139-48, 1998). They remain asymptomatic for years and many a times are diagnosed endoscopically, intraoperatively or during autopsy, based on their histopathological findings. We present a rare case of caecal carcinoid.

  3. Effect of painless diabetic neuropathy on pressure pain hypersensitivity (hyperalgesia) after acute foot trauma

    PubMed Central

    Wienemann, Tobias; Chantelau, Ernst A.; Koller, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and objective Acute injury transiently lowers local mechanical pain thresholds at a limb. To elucidate the impact of painless (diabetic) neuropathy on this post-traumatic hyperalgesia, pressure pain perception thresholds after a skeletal foot trauma were studied in consecutive persons without and with neuropathy (i.e. history of foot ulcer or Charcot arthropathy). Design and methods A case–control study was done on 25 unselected clinical routine patients with acute unilateral foot trauma (cases: elective bone surgery; controls: sprain, toe fracture). Cases were 12 patients (11 diabetic subjects) with severe painless neuropathy and chronic foot pathology. Controls were 13 non-neuropathic persons. Over 1 week after the trauma, cutaneous pressure pain perception threshold (CPPPT) and deep pressure pain perception threshold (DPPPT) were measured repeatedly, adjacent to the injury and at the opposite foot (pinprick stimulators, Algometer II®). Results In the control group, post-traumatic DPPPT (but not CPPPT) at the injured foot was reduced by about 15–25%. In the case group, pre- and post-operative CPPPT and DPPPT were supranormal. Although DPPPT fell post-operatively by about 15–20%, it remained always higher than the post-traumatic DPPPT in the control group: over musculus abductor hallucis 615 kPa (kilopascal) versus 422 kPa, and over metatarsophalangeal joint 518 kPa versus 375 kPa (medians; case vs. control group); CPPPT did not decrease post-operatively. Conclusion Physiological nociception and post-traumatic hyperalgesia to pressure are diminished at the foot with severe painless (diabetic) neuropathy. A degree of post-traumatic hypersensitivity required to ‘pull away’ from any one, even innocuous, mechanical impact in order to avoid additional damage is, therefore, lacking. PMID:25397867

  4. Noninvasive metabolic profiling for painless diagnosis of human diseases and disorders.

    PubMed

    Mal, Mainak

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic profiling provides a powerful diagnostic tool complementary to genomics and proteomics. The pain, discomfort and probable iatrogenic injury associated with invasive or minimally invasive diagnostic methods, render them unsuitable in terms of patient compliance and participation. Metabolic profiling of biomatrices like urine, breath, saliva, sweat and feces, which can be collected in a painless manner, could be used for noninvasive diagnosis. This review article covers the noninvasive metabolic profiling studies that have exhibited diagnostic potential for diseases and disorders. Their potential applications are evident in different forms of cancer, metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, rheumatic diseases and pulmonary diseases. Large scale clinical validation of such diagnostic methods is necessary in future.

  5. Nivolumab causing painless thyroiditis in a patient with adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Verma, Isha; Modi, Anar; Tripathi, Hemantkumar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-05

    Thyroiditis is characterised by transient hyperthyroidism, followed sometimes by hypothyroidism, and then recovery. We report a case of painless drug-induced thyroiditis-in a patient with no history of any thyroid disorder-treated with Nivolumab (an IgG4 monoclonal antibody against Programmed Death Receptor 1). The purpose of this case report is to increase awareness among clinicians regarding this possible adverse effect from Nivolumab, and discuss the possible pathophysiology and management strategies in such patients. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Significance of palpable tendon friction rubs in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Doré, Adam; Lucas, Mary; Ivanco, Dana; Medsger, Thomas A; Domsic, Robyn T

    2013-08-01

    Palpable tendon friction rubs (TFRs) in systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) have been associated with diffuse skin thickening, increased disability, and poor survival. Our objective was to quantify the prognostic implications of palpable TFRs on the development of disease complications and longer-term mortality in an incident cohort of early diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) patients. We identified early dcSSc patients (disease duration <2 years from the first SSc symptom) first evaluated at the University of Pittsburgh Scleroderma Center between 1980 and 2006 and found to have palpable TFRs. These patients were matched 1:1 with the next consecutive early dcSSc patient without TFRs as a control. All had ≥2 clinic visits and 5 years of followup from the first visit. A total of 287 early dcSSc patients with TFR were identified and matched to 287 controls. The median disease duration was 0.83 years in TFR patients and 1.04 years in controls. The median followup was 10.1 years in TFR patients and 7.9 years in controls. Over the course of their illness, patients with TFRs had a >2-fold risk of developing renal crisis and cardiac and gastrointestinal disease complications, even after adjustment for other known risk factors. Patients with TFRs had poorer 5- and 10-year survival rates. Patients with early dcSSc having ≥1 TFRs are at an increased risk of developing renal, cardiac, and gastrointestinal involvement before and after their first Scleroderma Center visit and have reduced survival. Patients presenting with TFRs should be carefully monitored for serious internal organ involvement. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Thyroid profiles in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone and episodes of thyrotoxicosis, including repeated painless thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Taniyama, Matsuo; Otsuka, Fumiko; Tozaki, Teruaki; Ban, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Thyrotoxic disease can be difficult to recognize in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) because the clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis cannot be observed, and thyrotropin (TSH) may not be suppressed because of hormone resistance. Painless thyroiditis is a relatively common cause of thyrotoxicosis, but its occurrence in RTH has not been reported. We assessed the thyroid profile in a patient with RTH and episodes of thyrotoxicosis who experienced repeated painless thyroiditis. A 44-year-old Japanese woman with RTH, which was confirmed by the presence of a P453A mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) gene, showed a slight elevation of the basal levels of thyroid hormones, which indicated that her pituitary RTH was mild. She experienced a slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia concomitant with TSH suppression. A diagnosis of painless thyroiditis was made because of the absence of TSH receptor antibodies, low Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake by the thyroid gland, and transient suppression followed by a slight elevation of TSH following the elevation of thyroid hormones. The patient's complaints of general malaise and occasional palpitations did not change throughout the course of painless thyroiditis. Three years later, painless thyroiditis occurred again without any deterioration of the clinical manifestations. Mild pituitary RTH can be overcome by slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia during mild thyrotoxicosis. When pituitary resistance is severe and TSH is not suppressed, thyrotoxicosis may be overlooked.

  8. Response of Drosophila to wasabi is mediated by painless, the fly homolog of mammalian TRPA1/ANKTM1.

    PubMed

    Al-Anzi, Bader; Tracey, W Daniel; Benzer, Seymour

    2006-05-23

    A number of repellent compounds produced by plants elicit a spicy or pungent sensation in mammals . In several cases, this has been found to occur through activation of ion channels in the transient receptor potential (TRP) family . We report that isothiocyanate (ITC), the pungent ingredient of wasabi, is a repellent to the insect Drosophila melanogaster, and that the painless gene, previously known to be required for larval nociception, is required for this avoidance behavior. A painless reporter gene is expressed in gustatory receptor neurons of the labial palpus, tarsus, and wing anterior margin, but not in olfactory receptor neurons, suggesting a gustatory role. Indeed, painless expression overlaps with a variety of gustatory-receptor gene reporters. Some, such as Gr66a, are known to be expressed in neurons that mediate gustatory repulsion . painless mutants are not taste blind; they show normal aversive gustatory behavior with salt and quinine and attractive responses to sugars and capsaicin. The painless gene is an evolutionary homolog of the mammalian "wasabi receptor" TRPA1/ANKTM1 , also thought to be involved in nociception. Our results suggest that the stinging sensation of isothiocyanate is caused by activation of an evolutionarily conserved molecular pathway that is also used for nociception.

  9. A case of palpable purpura and nephropathy: Occam's Razor or Hickam's Dictum.

    PubMed

    Mandhadi, Ranadeep; Kodumuri, Vamsi; Arora, Rohit; Puneet Singh, Param; Adigopula, Shashi; Chua, Serafin

    2013-01-01

    Vasculitis causing palpable purpura, nephropathy, and hematologic abnormalities is a well-known entity. However, sometimes, vasculitis may not be the primary cause but is part of a systemic disease. Literature suggests that infections like HIV can induce nephropathy and antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis, which is different from the well-known entity of "antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis." We present a 46-year-old female patient with a history of intravenous drug abuse who reported with a rash, swelling, and palpable purpura of the lower extremities. Peripheral smear showed no evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; metabolic profile showed acute kidney injury. She was found to be HIV- and hepatitis C-positive. Immunologic workup was positive for both MPO and PR3 antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies and negative for cryoglobulins; complement levels were low. Skin biopsy showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis but kidney biopsy was negative for any immunologic involvement; it showed only glomerulosclerosis. Thus, it was thought that nephropathy and vasculitis, in this case, are two distinct pathologic processes, both induced by infection (HIV and/or hepatitis C). The patient responded to low-dose steroid therapy. She was later started on the definitive therapy, the highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen. This case illustrates the fact that low-dose steroids can still be a good alternative in acute situations in patients at risk from immunosuppression.

  10. Noninvasive and Painless Urine Glucose Detection by Using Computer-based Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutrisno; Laksono, Y. A.; Hidayat, N.

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes kills millions of people worldwide each year. It challenges us as researchers to give contribution in early diagnosis to ensure a healthy life. As a matter of fact, common glucose testing devices that have been widely used so far are, at least, glucose meter and urine glucose test strip. The glucose meter ordinarily requires blood taken from patient’s finger. The glucose test strip uses patient’s urine but records unspecific urine glucose level, since the strip only provides the glucose level in some particular ranges. Instead of detecting the glucose level in blood and using the non-specific technique, a noninvasive and painless technique that can detect glucose level accurately will provide a more feasible approach for diabetes diagnosis. The noninvasive and painless urine glucose level monitoring by means of computer-based polarimeter is presented in this paper. The instrument consisted of a power source, a sample box, a light sensor, a polarizer, an analyzer, an analog to digital converter (ADC), and a computer. The concentration of urine glucose concentration was evaluated from the curve of the change in detected optical rotation angle and output potential by the computer-based polarimeter. Statistical analyses by means of Gaussian fitting and linear regression were applied to investigate the rotation angle and urine glucose concentration, respectively. From our experiment, the urine glucose level, measured by glucose test strips, of the normal patient was 100 mg/dl, and the diabetic patient was 500 mg/dl. Our polarimeter even read more precise values for the urine glucose concentrations of those normal and diabetic of the same patients, i.e. 50.61 mg/dl and 502.41 mg/dl, respectively. In other words, the results showed that our polarimeter was able to quantitatively measure the urine glucose level more accurate than urine glucose test strips. Hence, this computer-based polarimeter could be used as an alternative for early detection of urine

  11. [Anesthetic effect of preemptive analgesia of frequency acupoint electrical stimulation on painless-induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hong; Zhu, Hong-Xia; Su, Xin-Jing; Hao, Wen-Bin

    2014-07-01

    To explore the anesthetic effect of preemptive analgesia of frequency acupoint electrical stimulation on painless-induced abortion as well as its effect on anesthetics dosage. Ninety cases of early pregnancy who selected painless-induced abortion were randomly divided into two groups, 45 cases in each group. Frequency acupoint electrical stimulation at Ciliao (BL 32) and Shenshu (BL 23), disperse-densewave, 2 Hz/100 Hz in frequency for 15 to 20 min, was applied in the group A, which was followed by intravenous anesthesia of propofol. The intravenous anesthesia of propofol was applied in the group B. The blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and SpO2 before, during and after surgery, anesthetic effect and dosage, waking time and adverse events were observed in the two groups. The BP and HR during and after the surgery in the group A were not statistically different from those before the surgery (all P > 0.05). The BP was reduced and HR was slowed down during the surgery in the group B, which was significantly different from those before the surgery as well as those in the group A (all P < 0.05). The dosage of propofol was (114. 3-+6. 1) mg in the group A. obviously less than (193.2 +/- 8.9) mg in the group B (P < 0.05). The waking time was (5.6 +/- 1.2) min in the group A, obviously less than (10.1 +/- 3.9) min in the group B (P < 0.05). As for anesthetic effect, the incidence of Grade I in the group A was more than the group B (P < 0.05). The adverse events, including nausea, vomiting and contractions pain in the group A were evidently less than those in the group B (all P < 0.05). The preemptive analgesia of frequency acupoint electrical stimulation could significantly improve anesthetic effect of painless-induced abortion, reduce dosage of anesthetics, shorten waking time of surgery and guarantee the safety of surgery.

  12. Noninvasive metabolic profiling for painless diagnosis of human diseases and disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mal, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic profiling provides a powerful diagnostic tool complementary to genomics and proteomics. The pain, discomfort and probable iatrogenic injury associated with invasive or minimally invasive diagnostic methods, render them unsuitable in terms of patient compliance and participation. Metabolic profiling of biomatrices like urine, breath, saliva, sweat and feces, which can be collected in a painless manner, could be used for noninvasive diagnosis. This review article covers the noninvasive metabolic profiling studies that have exhibited diagnostic potential for diseases and disorders. Their potential applications are evident in different forms of cancer, metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, rheumatic diseases and pulmonary diseases. Large scale clinical validation of such diagnostic methods is necessary in future. PMID:28031956

  13. Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Palpable Melanoma Metastases to the Groin: When to Irradiate?

    SciTech Connect

    Gojkovic-Horvat, Andreja; Jancar, Boris; Blas, Mateja

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of and criteria for postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with palpable melanoma metastases to the groin. Methods and Materials: Patients with palpable metastases to the groin who were treated with therapeutic nodal dissection during 2000 to 2006 were identified in a prospective institutional database. Results: In 101 patients, 103 therapeutic nodal dissections were performed; 37 of these were treated with PORT to a median equivalent dose (eqTD{sub 2}) of 50.6 Gy (range, 50-72 Gy). In the surgery-only and PORT groups, 2-year regional control rates were 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 76-95%) and 91% (95% CI,more » 81-100%), respectively (p = 0.395). Of five recurrences in radiation-treated patients, four were of dermal type, and in three of these cases, no bolus over the operative scar was used. PORT improved 2-year regional control (46% [95% CI, 11-82%] vs. 82% [95% CI, 63-100%], p = 0.022) among patients in which the sum of risk factors present (i.e., risk factor score) was {>=}2. In multivariate analysis, risk-factor score (<2 vs. {>=}2: HR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.00-8.56; p < 0.0001) and PORT (yes vs. no: HR, 7.81; 95% CI, 2.83-21.74; p = 0.050) was predictive for regional control and on logistic-regression testing, number of involved lymph nodes was predictive for systemic dissemination (p = 0.011). Conclusions: PORT should follow therapeutic nodal dissection in cases with two or more adverse factors. More conventional fractionation ({<=}2.5 Gy), cumulative eqTD{sub 2} <60 Gy and use of bolus over the operative scar are recommended.« less

  14. Localization techniques for guided surgical excision of non-palpable breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Benjamin K Y; Wiseberg-Firtell, Jill A; Jois, Ramesh H S; Jensen, Katrin; Audisio, Riccardo A

    2015-12-31

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of death amongst women in Europe. Amongst five invasive cancers per 1000 women detected in screening, 2.7 were < 15 mm in diameter; and others reported that over one third of excised breast lesions were clinically occult. The challenge is to accurately locate small non-palpable lesions intraoperatively for optimal therapeutic outcome. A secondary important goal is to remove the smallest amount possible of healthy glandular tissue for optimal cosmesis. Currently the most widely adopted approach (80% in one survey) in guided breast-conserving surgery for excising non-palpable breast lesions is wire-guided localization (WGL). With the clinical setting shifting towards earlier non-palpable breast lesions being detected through screening, we investigated whether the current standard in assisting surgical excision of these lesions, WGL, yields the best therapeutic outcome for women with breast cancer. To assess the therapeutic outcomes of any new form of guided surgical intervention for non-palpable breast lesions against wire-guided localization, the current gold standard. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group's (CBCG) Specialized Register, MEDLINE (via PubMed), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal from the earliest available date up to 30 March 2015. We also handsearched recent conference proceedings and sought information from experts in the field. Two review authors, BC and RJ, independently screened by title and abstract the studies we had identified through the search strategy; when this was inconclusive, they examined the full-text article for inclusion. We resolved any discrepancies regarding eligibility by discussion with a third review author, RA. Three review authors, BC, JW, and RJ, independently extracted data using a standardized data sheet

  15. Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging in Differentiation Between Graves’ Disease and Painless Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; El-Said, Amr Abd El-hamid

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background To assess the role of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in differentiation between Graves’ disease and painless thyroiditis. Material/Methods A prospective study was conducted among 37 consecutive patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis (25 female and 12 male; mean age of 44 years) and 15 ageand sex-matched controls. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the thyroid gland was performed in patients and controls. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the thyroid gland was calculated and correlated with Tc-99m uptake and thyroid function tests of the patients. Results There was a significant difference in the ADC value of the thyroid gland between patients and the control group (P=0.001). The mean ADC value of the thyroid gland in Graves’ disease was 2.03±0.28×10–3 mm2/sec, and in patients with painless thyroiditis 1.46±0.22×10–3 mm2/sec, respectively. There was a significant difference in the ADC values between Graves’ disease and painless thyroiditis (P=0.001). When the ADC value of 1.45×10–3 mm2/sec was used as a threshold value for differentiating Graves’ disease from painless thyroiditis, the best result was obtained with area under the curve of 0.934, accuracy of 83.8%, sensitivity of 95.8%, and specificity of 61.5%. The mean ADC value of the thyroid gland in patients positively correlated with serum TRAb and Tc-99m uptake (r=0.57, P=0.001 and r=0.74, P=0.001, respectively). Conclusions We concluded that ADC values of the thyroid gland can be used to differentiate Graves’ disease from painless thyroiditis in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis. PMID:29662585

  16. Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging in Differentiation Between Graves' Disease and Painless Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Abd Allah, Sieza Samir; El-Said, Amr Abd El-Hamid

    2017-01-01

    To assess the role of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in differentiation between Graves' disease and painless thyroiditis. A prospective study was conducted among 37 consecutive patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis (25 female and 12 male; mean age of 44 years) and 15 ageand sex-matched controls. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the thyroid gland was performed in patients and controls. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the thyroid gland was calculated and correlated with Tc-99m uptake and thyroid function tests of the patients. There was a significant difference in the ADC value of the thyroid gland between patients and the control group ( P =0.001). The mean ADC value of the thyroid gland in Graves' disease was 2.03±0.28×10 -3 mm 2 /sec, and in patients with painless thyroiditis 1.46±0.22×10 -3 mm 2 /sec, respectively. There was a significant difference in the ADC values between Graves' disease and painless thyroiditis ( P =0.001). When the ADC value of 1.45×10 -3 mm 2 /sec was used as a threshold value for differentiating Graves' disease from painless thyroiditis, the best result was obtained with area under the curve of 0.934, accuracy of 83.8%, sensitivity of 95.8%, and specificity of 61.5%. The mean ADC value of the thyroid gland in patients positively correlated with serum TRAb and Tc-99m uptake ( r =0.57, P =0.001 and r =0.74, P =0.001, respectively). We concluded that ADC values of the thyroid gland can be used to differentiate Graves' disease from painless thyroiditis in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis.

  17. Toxoplasmosis presenting as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast and a palpable axillary lymph node mimicking malignancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Siriwardana, Hp Priyantha; Teare, Louise; Kamel, Dia; Inwang, E Reggie

    2011-08-04

    Lymphadenopathy is a common finding in toxoplasmosis. A breast mass due to toxoplasmosis is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of toxoplasmosis that presented as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast with a palpable axillary lymph node which mimicked breast cancer. A 45-year-old otherwise healthy Caucasian woman presented with a lump on the lateral aspect of her left breast. Her mother had breast cancer that was diagnosed at the age of 66 years. During an examination, we discovered that our patient had a discrete, firm lump in the axillary tail of her left breast and an enlarged, palpable lymph node in her left axilla. Her right breast and axilla were normal. The clinical diagnosis was malignancy in the left breast. Ultrasound and mammographic examinations of her breast suggested a pathological process but were not conclusive. She had targeted fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core biopsy of the lesions. FNAC was indeterminate (C3) but suggested a possibility of toxoplasmosis. The core biopsy was not suggestive of malignancy but showed granulomatous inflammation. She had a wide local excision of the breast lump and an axillary lymph node biopsy. Histopathology and immunohistochemical studies excluded carcinoma or lymphoma but suggested the possibility of intramammary and axillary toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. The results of Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG serology tests were positive, supporting a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis rarely presents as a pseudotumor of the breast. FNAC and histology are valuable tools for a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and serology is an important adjunct for confirmation.

  18. Toxoplasmosis presenting as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast and a palpable axillary lymph node mimicking malignancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Lymphadenopathy is a common finding in toxoplasmosis. A breast mass due to toxoplasmosis is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of toxoplasmosis that presented as a swelling in the axillary tail of the breast with a palpable axillary lymph node which mimicked breast cancer. Case presentation A 45-year-old otherwise healthy Caucasian woman presented with a lump on the lateral aspect of her left breast. Her mother had breast cancer that was diagnosed at the age of 66 years. During an examination, we discovered that our patient had a discrete, firm lump in the axillary tail of her left breast and an enlarged, palpable lymph node in her left axilla. Her right breast and axilla were normal. The clinical diagnosis was malignancy in the left breast. Ultrasound and mammographic examinations of her breast suggested a pathological process but were not conclusive. She had targeted fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core biopsy of the lesions. FNAC was indeterminate (C3) but suggested a possibility of toxoplasmosis. The core biopsy was not suggestive of malignancy but showed granulomatous inflammation. She had a wide local excision of the breast lump and an axillary lymph node biopsy. Histopathology and immunohistochemical studies excluded carcinoma or lymphoma but suggested the possibility of intramammary and axillary toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. The results of Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG serology tests were positive, supporting a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Conclusions Toxoplasmosis rarely presents as a pseudotumor of the breast. FNAC and histology are valuable tools for a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and serology is an important adjunct for confirmation. PMID:21816047

  19. Ratio of serum free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine in Graves' hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis caused by painless thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura Noh, Jaeduk; Momotani, Naoko; Fukada, Shuji; Ito, Koichi; Miyauchi, Akira; Amino, Nobuyuki

    2005-10-01

    The serum T3 to T4 ratio is a useful indicator for differentiating destruction-induced thyrotoxicosis from Graves' thyrotoxicosis. However, the usefulness of the serum free T3 (FT3) to free T4 (FT4) ratio is controversial. We therefore systematically evaluated the usefulness of this ratio, based on measurements made using two widely available commercial kits in two hospitals. Eighty-two untreated patients with thyrotoxicosis (48 patients with Graves' disease and 34 patients with painless thyroiditis) were examined in Kuma Hospital, and 218 patients (126 with Graves' disease and 92 with painless thyroiditis) and 66 normal controls were examined in Ito Hospital. The FT3 and FT4 values, as well as the FT3/FT4 ratios, were significantly higher in the patients with Graves' disease than in those with painless thyroiditis in both hospitals, but considerable overlap between the two disorders was observed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the FT3 and FT4 values and the FT3/FT4 ratios of patients with Graves' disease and those with painless thyroiditis seen in both hospitals were prepared, and the area under the curves (AUC), the cut-off points for discriminating Graves' disease from painless thyroiditis, the sensitivity, and the specificity were calculated. AUC and sensitivity of the FT(3)/FT(4) ratio were smaller than those of FT(3) and FT(4) in both hospitals. The patients treated at Ito hospital were then divided into 4 groups according to their FT4 levels (A: < or =2.3, B: >2.3 approximately < or =3.9, C: 3.9 approximately < or =5.4, D: >5.4 ng/dl), and the AUC, cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity of the FT(3)/FT(4) ratios were calculated. The AUC and sensitivity of each group increased with the FT4 levels (AUC: 57.8%, 72.1%, 91.1%, and 93.4%, respectively; sensitivity: 62.6%, 50.0%, 77.8%, and 97.0%, respectively). The means +/- SE of the FT3/FT4 ratio in the Graves' disease groups were 3.1 +/- 0.22, 3.1 +/- 0.09, 3.2 +/- 0.06, and 3.1 +/- 0

  20. Induction of painless thyroiditis in patients receiving programmed death 1 receptor immunotherapy for metastatic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Orlov, Steven; Salari, Farnaz; Kashat, Lawrence; Walfish, Paul G

    2015-05-01

    Immunotherapies against immune checkpoints that inhibit T cell activation [cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)] are emerging and promising treatments for several metastatic malignancies. However, the precise adverse effects of these therapies on thyroid gland function have not been well described. We report on 10 cases of painless thyroiditis syndrome (PTS) from a novel etiology, following immunotherapy with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) during treatment for metastatic malignancies. Six patients presented with transient thyrotoxicosis in which thyrotropin binding inhibitory immunoglobulins (TBII) were absent for all, whereas four patients had evidence of positive antithyroid antibodies. All thyrotoxic patients required temporary beta-blocker therapy and had spontaneous resolution of thyrotoxicosis with subsequent hypothyroidism. Four patients presented with hypothyroidism without a detected preceding thyrotoxic phase, occurring 6-8 weeks after initial drug exposure. All of these patients had positive antithyroid antibodies and required thyroid hormone replacement therapy for a minimum of 6 months. Patients receiving anti-PD-1 mAb therapy should be monitored for signs and symptoms of PTS which may require supportive treatment with beta-blockers or thyroid hormone replacement. The anti-PD-1 mAb is a novel exogenous cause of PTS and provides new insight into the possible perturbations of the immune network that may modulate the development of endogenous PTS, including cases of sporadic and postpartum thyroiditis.

  1. A longitudinal study of painless and painful intercostobrachial neuropathy after breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    La Cesa, S; Sammartino, P; Mollica, C; Cascialli, G; Cruccu, G; Truini, A; Framarino-Dei-Malatesta, M

    2018-04-29

    Intercostobrachial neuropathy, often resulting in neuropathic pain, is a common complication of breast cancer surgery. In this 1-year longitudinal study, we aimed at seeking information on the frequency, clinical features, and course of painless and painful intercostobrachial neuropathy. We enrolled 40 women previously undergoing breast cancer surgery. In these patients, we collected, at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery, clinical and quantitative sensory testing (QST) variables to diagnose intercostobrachial neuropathy, DN4 questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory to assess the different neuropathic pain symptoms, the Beck Depression Inventory to assess depressive symptoms, and SF36 to assess quality of life and Patient Global Impression of Change. Clinical and QST examination showed an intercostobrachial neuropathy in 23 patients (57.5%). Out of the 23 patients, five experienced neuropathic pain, as assessed with clinical examination and DN4. Axillary surgery clearance was associated with an increased risk of intercostobrachial neuropathy. Whereas sensory disturbances improved during the 1-year observation, neuropathic pain did not. Nevertheless, Beck Depression Inventory, SF36, and the Patient Global Impression of Change scores significantly improved over time. Our study shows that although intercostobrachial neuropathy is a common complication of breast cancer surgery, neuropathic pain affects only a minor proportion of patients. After 1 year, sensory disturbances partially improve and have only a mild impact on mood and quality of life.

  2. The Drosophila TRPA channel, Painless, regulates sexual receptivity in virgin females

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Takaomi; Kasuya, Junko; Kitamoto, Toshihiro; Aigaki, Toshiro

    2009-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play crucial roles in sensory perception. Expression of the Drosophila painless (pain) gene, a homolog of the mammalian TRPA1/ANKTM1 gene, in the peripheral nervous system is required for avoidance behavior of noxious heat or wasabi. Here we report a novel role of the Pain TRP channel expressed in the nervous system in the sexual receptivity in Drosophila virgin females. Compared with wild-type females, pain mutant females copulated with wild-type males significantly earlier. Wild-type males showed comparable courtship latency and courtship index toward wild-type and pain mutant females. Therefore, the early copulation observed in wild-type male and pain mutant female pairs is the result of enhanced sexual receptivity in pain mutant females. Involvement of pain in enhanced female sexual receptivity was confirmed by rescue experiments in which expression of a pain transgene in a pain mutant background restored the female sexual receptivity to the wild-type level. Targeted expression of pain RNAi in putative cholinergic or GABAergic neurons phenocopied the mutant phenotype of pain females. On the other hand, target expression of pain RNAi in dopaminergic neurons did not affect female sexual receptivity. In addition, conditional suppression of neurotransmission in putative GABAergic neurons resulted in a similar enhanced sexual receptivity. Our results suggest that Pain TRP channels expressed in cholinergic and/or GABAergic neurons are involved in female sexual receptivity. PMID:19531155

  3. The Drosophila TRPA channel, Painless, regulates sexual receptivity in virgin females.

    PubMed

    Sakai, T; Kasuya, J; Kitamoto, T; Aigaki, T

    2009-07-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play crucial roles in sensory perception. Expression of the Drosophila painless (pain) gene, a homolog of the mammalian TRPA1/ANKTM1 gene, in the peripheral nervous system is required for avoidance behavior of noxious heat or wasabi. In this study, we report a novel role of the Pain TRP channel expressed in the nervous system in the sexual receptivity in Drosophila virgin females. Compared with wild-type females, pain mutant females copulated with wild-type males significantly earlier. Wild-type males showed comparable courtship latency and courtship index toward wild-type and pain mutant females. Therefore, the early copulation observed in wild-type male and pain mutant female pairs is the result of enhanced sexual receptivity in pain mutant females. Involvement of pain in enhanced female sexual receptivity was confirmed by rescue experiments in which expression of a pain transgene in a pain mutant background restored the female sexual receptivity to the wild-type level. Targeted expression of pain RNA interference (RNAi) in putative cholinergic or GABAergic neurons phenocopied the mutant phenotype of pain females. However, target expression of pain RNAi in dopaminergic neurons did not affect female sexual receptivity. In addition, conditional suppression of neurotransmission in putative GABAergic neurons resulted in a similar enhanced sexual receptivity. Our results suggest that Pain TRP channels expressed in cholinergic and/or GABAergic neurons are involved in female sexual receptivity.

  4. Laser microporation of the skin: prospects for painless application of protective and therapeutic vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Thalhamer, Josef; Weiss, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In contrast to muscle and subcutaneous tissue, the skin is easily accessible and provides unique immunological properties. Increasing knowledge about the complex interplay of skin-associated cell types in the development of cutaneous immune responses has fueled efforts to target the skin for vaccination as well as for immunotherapy. Areas covered: This review provides an overview on skin layers and their resident immunocompetent cell types. Advantages and shortcomings of standard methods and innovative technologies to circumvent the outermost skin barrier are addressed. Studies employing fractional skin ablation by infrared lasers for cutaneous delivery of drugs, as well as high molecular weight molecules such as protein antigens or antibodies, are reviewed, and laserporation is introduced as a versatile transcutaneous vaccination platform. Specific targeting of the epidermis or the dermis by different laser settings, the resulting kinetics of uptake and transport and the immune response types elicited are discussed, and the potential of this transcutaneous delivery platform for allergen-specific immunotherapy is demonstrated. Expert opinion: Needle-free and painless vaccination approaches have the potential to replace standard methods due to their improved safety and optimal patient compliance. The use of fractional laser devices for stepwise ablation of skin layers might be advantageous for both vaccination against microbial pathogens, as well as immunotherapeutic approaches, such as allergen-specific immunotherapy. Thorough investigation of the underlying immunological mechanisms will help to provide the knowledge for a rational design of transcutaneous protective/therapeutic vaccines. PMID:23425032

  5. The Psychoprophylactic Method of Painless Childbirth in Socialist Czechoslovakia: from State Propaganda to Activism of Enthusiasts

    PubMed Central

    Hrešanová, Ema

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the history of the ‘psychoprophylactic method of painless childbirth’ in socialist Czechoslovakia, in particular, in the Czech and Moravian regions of the country, showing that it substantially differs from the course that the method took in other countries. This non-pharmacological method of pain relief originated in the USSR and became well known as the Lamaze method in western English-speaking countries. Use of the method in Czechoslovakia, however, followed a very different path from both the West, where its use was refined mainly outside the biomedical frame, and the USSR, where it ceased to be pursued as a scientific method in the 1950s after Stalin’s death. The method was imported to Czechoslovakia in the early 1950s and it was politically promoted as Soviet science’s gift to women. In the 1960s the method became widespread in practice but research on it diminished and, in the 1970s, its use declined too. However, in the 1980s, in the last decade of the Communist regime, the method resurfaced in the pages of Czechoslovak medical journals and underwent an exciting renaissance, having been reintroduced by a few enthusiastic individuals, most of them women. This article explores the background to the renewed interest in the method while providing insight into the wider social and political context that shaped socialist maternity and birth care in different periods. PMID:27628861

  6. [Painless skin nodules and ecchymosis in a school-aged girl].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Ting; Yang, Ming-Hua; Cao, Li-Zhi; Huang, Ye-Hong; Xie, Min; Yang, Liang-Chun; Yang, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2015-10-01

    A 7-year-old girl was admitted to Xiangya Hospital due to systemic lymphadenectasis for 2 months and skin ecchymosis for 3 days. Nine months ago, the girl experienced painless nodules in the left lower extremity with no apparent causes. Three months later, dermatorrhagia and ecchymosis occurred in many regions such as the periocular areas, conjunctiva, oral mucosa, perineal area, and groin, with a "raccoon sign" in both eyes; superficial lymphadenectasis and hepatosplenomegaly were also observed in many regions. The pathological sections for the skin nodules showed malignant tumors in lymphohematopoietic cells, and in combination with clinical manifestations, immunohistochemistry, and positive results for CD4, CD56, and CD123 by bone marrow flow cytometry, the girl was diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Then high-risk ALL regimen was applied as the chemotherapy for this girl. At present, the girl has been followed up for 3 months; ecchymosis has disappeared, and the enlarged lymph nodes have shrunk. No abnormal cells have been found in bone marrow morphological examination, and bone marrow flow cytometry has shown that primitive precursor cells account for 1.5% and express CD33, CD34, CD123, and CD117.

  7. The Psychoprophylactic Method of Painless Childbirth in Socialist Czechoslovakia: from State Propaganda to Activism of Enthusiasts.

    PubMed

    Hrešanová, Ema

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores the history of the 'psychoprophylactic method of painless childbirth' in socialist Czechoslovakia, in particular, in the Czech and Moravian regions of the country, showing that it substantially differs from the course that the method took in other countries. This non-pharmacological method of pain relief originated in the USSR and became well known as the Lamaze method in western English-speaking countries. Use of the method in Czechoslovakia, however, followed a very different path from both the West, where its use was refined mainly outside the biomedical frame, and the USSR, where it ceased to be pursued as a scientific method in the 1950s after Stalin's death. The method was imported to Czechoslovakia in the early 1950s and it was politically promoted as Soviet science's gift to women. In the 1960s the method became widespread in practice but research on it diminished and, in the 1970s, its use declined too. However, in the 1980s, in the last decade of the Communist regime, the method resurfaced in the pages of Czechoslovak medical journals and underwent an exciting renaissance, having been reintroduced by a few enthusiastic individuals, most of them women. This article explores the background to the renewed interest in the method while providing insight into the wider social and political context that shaped socialist maternity and birth care in different periods.

  8. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of darkmore » matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.« less

  9. Feasibility of spatial frequency-domain imaging for monitoring palpable breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Constance M.; Raghavan, Guruprasad; Antaki, James F.; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.

    2017-12-01

    In breast cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring, there is a need for frequent, noninvasive disease progression evaluation. Breast tumors differ from healthy tissue in mechanical stiffness as well as optical properties, which allows optical methods to detect and monitor breast lesions noninvasively. Spatial frequency-domain imaging (SFDI) is a reflectance-based diffuse optical method that can yield two-dimensional images of absolute optical properties of tissue with an inexpensive and portable system, although depth penetration is limited. Since the absorption coefficient of breast tissue is relatively low and the tissue is quite flexible, there is an opportunity for compression of tissue to bring stiff, palpable breast lesions within the detection range of SFDI. Sixteen breast tissue-mimicking phantoms were fabricated containing stiffer, more highly absorbing tumor-mimicking inclusions of varying absorption contrast and depth. These phantoms were imaged with an SFDI system at five levels of compression. An increase in absorption contrast was observed with compression, and reliable detection of each inclusion was achieved when compression was sufficient to bring the inclusion center within ˜12 mm of the phantom surface. At highest compression level, contrasts achieved with this system were comparable to those measured with single source-detector near-infrared spectroscopy.

  10. Painless Urethral Bleeding During Penile Erection in an Adult Man With Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongen; Guan, Xing; Han, Hu; Qian, Xiaosong; Zhou, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tian, Long

    2018-06-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare congenital vascular disorder characterized by a triad of cutaneous port wine capillary malformations, varicose veins, and hemihypertrophy of bone and soft tissues. To report on a rare case of KTS in an adult man manifested by painless urethral bleeding during penile erection briefly review the clinical presentation and management of the genitourinary forms of this syndrome. On presentation, the clinical features of this patient, including medical history, signs and symptoms, and imaging examinations, were recorded. After diagnosis and initial treatment, a literature review of the urethral features of KTS was performed and is discussed in this report. A 35-year-old man with KTS presented with painless urethral bleeding during penile erection that was associated with posterior urethral vascular malformations. The coagulation method was used to treat the malformation, and no urethral bleeding or gross hematuria occurred during a postoperative follow-up period of 6 months. This case demonstrates that coagulation therapy and careful follow-up can be adequate treatment approaches for urethral features of KTS. However, the long-term efficacy of coagulation for this disorder should be investigated further. Lei H, Guan X, Han H, et al. Painless Urethral Bleeding During Penile Erection in an Adult Man With Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome: A Case Report. Sex Med 2018;6:180-183. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The chemokine CXCL12 mediates the anti-amyloidogenic action of painless human nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Capsoni, Simona; Malerba, Francesca; Carucci, Nicola Maria; Rizzi, Caterina; Criscuolo, Chiara; Origlia, Nicola; Calvello, Mariantonietta; Viegi, Alessandro; Meli, Giovanni; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    Nerve growth factor is a therapeutic candidate for Alzheimer's disease. Due to its pain-inducing activity, in current clinical trials nerve growth factor is delivered locally into the brain by neurosurgery, but data on the efficacy of local nerve growth factor delivery in decreasing amyloid-β deposition are not available. To reduce the nerve growth factor pain-inducing side effects, thus avoiding the need for local brain injection, we developed human painless nerve growth factor (hNGFp), inspired by the human genetic disease hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V. hNGFp has identical neurotrophic potency as wild-type human nerve growth factor, but a 10-fold lower pain sensitizing activity. In this study we first mimicked, in the 5xFAD mouse model, the intraparenchymal delivery of hNGFp used in clinical trials and found it to be ineffective in decreasing amyloid-β plaque load. On the contrary, the same dose of hNGFp delivered intranasally, which was widely biodistributed in the brain and did not induce pain, showed a potent anti-amyloidogenic action and rescued synaptic plasticity and memory deficits. We found that hNGFp acts on glial cells, modulating inflammatory proteins such as the soluble TNFα receptor II and the chemokine CXCL12. We further established that the rescuing effect by hNGFp is mediated by CXCL12, as pharmacological inhibition of CXCL12 receptor CXCR4 occludes most of hNGFp effects. These findings have significant therapeutic implications: (i) we established that a widespread exposure of the brain is required for nerve growth factor to fully exert its neuroprotective actions; and (ii) we have identified a new anti-neurodegenerative pathway as a broad target for new therapeutic opportunities for neurodegenerative diseases. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  12. Inter-Rater Agreement of Auscultation, Palpable Fremitus, and Ventilator Waveform Sawtooth Patterns Between Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Berry, Marc P; Martí, Joan-Daniel; Ntoumenopoulos, George

    2016-10-01

    Clinicians often use numerous bedside assessments for secretion retention in participants who are receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. This study aimed to evaluate inter-rater agreement between clinicians when using standard clinical assessments of secretion retention and whether differences in clinician experience influenced inter-rater agreement. Seventy-one mechanically ventilated participants were assessed by a research clinician and by one of 13 ICU clinicians. Each clinician conducted a standardized assessment of lung auscultation, palpation for chest-wall (rhonchal) fremitus, and ventilator inspiratory/expiratory flow-time waveforms for the sawtooth pattern. On the presence of breath sounds, agreement ranged from absolute to moderate in the upper zones and the lower zones, respectively. Kappa values for abnormal and adventitious lung sounds achieved moderate agreement in the upper zones, less than chance agreement to substantial agreement in the middle zones, and moderate agreement to almost perfect agreement in the lower zones. Moderate to almost perfect agreement was established for palpable fremitus in the upper zones, moderate to substantial agreement in the middle zones, and less than chance to moderate agreement in the lower zones. Inter-rater agreement on the presence of expiratory sawtooth pattern identification showed moderate agreement. The level of percentage agreement between the research and ICU clinicians for each respiratory assessment studied did not relate directly to level of clinical experience. Inter-rater agreement for all assessments showed variability between lung regions but maintained reasonable percentage agreement in mechanically ventilated participants. The level of percentage agreement achieved between clinicians did not directly relate to clinical experience for all respiratory assessments. Therefore, these respiratory assessments should not necessarily be viewed in isolation but interpreted within the context of a full

  13. [Meta analysis for the anesthesia effect and adverse reactions of etomidate and propofol on 
the painless abortion surgery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Wen; Xu, Rui; Long, Lihui

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the anesthesia effect of etomidate and propofol on painless abortion surgery. 
 After screening the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WANFANG, VIP database, the literatures regarding the anesthesia effect of etomidate and propofol on painless abortion surgery were collected from 1995 to 2014. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected, the quality evaluation was performed and the data was analyzed by using RevMan5.3 software.
 A total of 1 130 patients were included in 9 RCTs. The results of Meta analysis were as follows: the anesthesia induction time in the etomidate group was less than that in propofol group (MD=-0.14, 95% CI -0.24 to -0.04, P=0.004); there were more adverse reactions, such as myoclonus, nausea and vomiting, in the etomidate group compared with the propofol group (P<0.001); the incidence of pain in the etomidate group was less than that in the propofol group (P<0.001); there was no significant difference in the incidence of respiratory depression between the 2 groups (P>0.05); the surgery time, analgesia and duration from withdrawal to the wake-up was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P>0.05). 
 Etomidate had a shorter anesthesia induction time than propofol in the painless abortion surgery. The incidence of reverse reactions such as myoclonus, nausea and vomiting, was more common in application of etomidate, whereas the incidence of injection pain was more common in the use of propofol group. There was no significant difference in respiratory depression between the 2 drugs. The comprehensive efficacy of propofol is better than etomidate.

  14. Painless giant cell thyroiditis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration and associated with intense thyroidal uptake of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, L.R.; Moreno, A.J.; Pittman, D.L.

    1986-05-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with fever, goiter, and no evidence of pain or tenderness in the thyroid. A diagnosis of silent thyroiditis was made after obtaining evidence of biochemical thyrotoxicosis, intense gallium-67 citrate thyroidal localization, and cytologic thyroiditis. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid revealed numerous giant cells in all areas of the thyroid, typical of subacute thyroiditis. This is believed to be the first time painless thyroiditis is reported with the classic cytologic feature of painful subacute thyroiditis.

  15. Painless motor radiculopathy of the cervical spine: clinical and radiological characteristics and long-term outcomes after operative decompression.

    PubMed

    Siller, Sebastian; Kasem, Rami; Witt, Thomas-Nikolaus; Tonn, Joerg-Christian; Zausinger, Stefan

    2018-03-23

    OBJECTIVE Various neurological diseases are known to cause progressive painless paresis of the upper limbs. In this study the authors describe the previously unspecified syndrome of compression-induced painless cervical radiculopathy with predominant motor deficit and muscular atrophy, and highlight the clinical and radiological characteristics and outcomes after surgery for this rare syndrome, along with its neurological differential diagnoses. METHODS Medical records of 788 patients undergoing surgical decompression due to degenerative cervical spine diseases between 2005 and 2014 were assessed. Among those patients, 31 (3.9%, male to female ratio 4.8 to 1, mean age 60 years) presented with painless compressive cervical motor radiculopathy due to neuroforaminal stenosis without signs of myelopathy; long-term evaluation was available in 23 patients with 49 symptomatic foraminal stenoses. Clinical, imaging, and operative findings as well as the long-term course of paresis and quality of life were analyzed. RESULTS Presenting symptoms (mean duration 13.3 months) included a defining progressive flaccid radicular paresis (median grade 3/5) without any history of radiating pain (100%) and a concomitant muscular atrophy (78%); 83% of the patients were smokers and 17% patients had diabetes. Imaging revealed a predominantly anterior nerve root compression at the neuroforaminal entrance in 98% of stenoses. Thirty stenoses (11 patients) were initially decompressed via an anterior surgical approach and 19 stenoses (12 patients) via a posterior surgical approach. Overall reoperation rate due to new or recurrent stenoses was 22%, with time to reoperation shorter in smokers (p = 0.033). Independently of the surgical procedure chosen, long-term follow-up (mean 3.9 years) revealed a stable or improved paresis in 87% of the patients (median grade 4/5) and an excellent general performance and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS Painless cervical motor radiculopathy predominantly occurs

  16. Bilateral parotid gland enlargement and palpable nephromegaly in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Saha, Aniket; Dandekar, Smita; Milla, Sarah; Roman, Elizabeth; Bhatla, Teena

    2014-04-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants below 1 year of age accounts for 2.5% to 5% of childhood ALL. Most children with ALL present with fever, bruising, mucosal bleeding, bone pain, pallor, hepatosplenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy. Common sites of extramedullary involvement at diagnosis include liver, spleen, lymph nodes, brain, and testes. Nephromegaly has also been reported. We present a novel case of bilateral parotid enlargement along with bilateral palpable nephromegaly in a patient with newly diagnosed infant ALL. This unique presentation highlights the importance of considering ALL in the differential diagnosis of parotid enlargement especially when associated with abnormal blood counts.

  17. The nociception genes painless and Piezo are required for the cellular immune response of Drosophila larvae to wasp parasitization.

    PubMed

    Tokusumi, Yumiko; Tokusumi, Tsuyoshi; Schulz, Robert A

    2017-05-13

    In vertebrates, interaction between the nervous system and immune system is important to protect a challenged host from stress inputs from external sources. In this study, we demonstrate that sensory neurons are involved in the cellular immune response elicited by wasp infestation of Drosophila larvae. Multidendritic class IV neurons sense contacts from external stimuli and induce avoidance behaviors for host defense. Our findings show that inactivation of these sensory neurons impairs the cellular response against wasp parasitization. We also demonstrate that the nociception genes encoding the mechanosensory receptors Painless and Piezo, both expressed in class IV neurons, are essential for the normal cellular immune response to parasite challenge. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Acute painless monocular visual loss due to central retinal artery occlusion in a patient with Churg-Strauss vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Skrapari, Ioanna; Kagkelari, Eleftheria; Charitatos, Evangelos; Pantelidaki, Catherine; Gounaris, Theodoros; Sioula, Evagelia

    2008-01-01

    Ocular involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is infrequent. We describe a case of a 50-year-old woman, with blood eosinophilia, involvement of the respiratory tract, skin, and peripheral nervous system, fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology criteria for CSS, who presented with left foot drop followed by left acute painless visual loss. Central retinal artery occlusion was diagnosed by fundoscopic findings (retinal whitening with a cherry-red spot). CSS was confirmed by sural nerve biopsy. Despite treatment with high-dose corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, and anticoagulant therapy, visual acuity was not substantially improved. Acute blindness in CSS has been rarely described. Even more rarely, central retinal artery occlusion has been found to be the underlying cause of this infrequent clinical manifestation in CSS.

  19. Histologic work-up of non-palpable breast lesions classified as probably benign at initial mammography and/or ultrasound (BI-RADS category 3).

    PubMed

    Gruber, R; Jaromi, S; Rudas, M; Pfarl, G; Riedl, C C; Flöry, D; Graf, O; Sickles, E A; Helbich, T H

    2013-03-01

    To determine the accuracy of a probably benign assessment of non-palpable breast lesions (BI-RADS category 3) at mammography and/or ultrasound with immediate histological work-up. Stereotactic or ultrasound guided core needle breast biopsy (NBB) was performed to evaluate 288 lesions, which were prospectively assessed as BI-RADS category 3. Imaging findings included 195 masses, 73 calcification cases, 16 focal asymmetries, and four architectural distortion cases. After NBB, patients underwent either open surgical biopsy (OSB) (n=204) or mammographic follow-up (n=84) for at least 24 months. Histological results of NBB were compared with those of OSB. Three of the 288 lesions (1.0%) proved to be malignant at histological work-up, two of them were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and one of them was an invasive carcinoma. NBB revealed invasive carcinoma in 1/288 (0.35%) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) in 13/288 (4.5%) lesions. OSB revealed DCIS in 2/204 (1%) and invasive carcinoma in 1/204 (0.5%) lesions. The two DCIS were underestimated as ADH by NBB. The remaining 285 (99%) lesions proved to be benign at OSB or remained stable during follow-up. Confirmed by tissue diagnosis, the low likelihood of malignancy of prospectively assessed probably benign lesions is below the 2% threshold established for BI-RADS category 3. Imaging follow-up is a safe and effective alternative to immediate histological work-up for such lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening for thyroid cancer according to French recommendations with thyroid ultrasound in newly diagnosed Graves' disease without palpable nodule is not useful.

    PubMed

    Nys, Pierre; Cordray, Jean-Pierre; Sarafian, Véronique; Lefort-Mossé, Ève; Merceron, Robert-Édouard

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate systematic thyroid ultrasonography (US) relevance in newly diagnosed Graves' disease among patients presenting without palpable nodules. We consecutively recruited 208 cases of Graves' disease without palpable nodule. All patients were screened for thyroid antibodies and underwent a thyroid US. Ultrasonically guided biopsy was proposed for the assessment of all nodules upper or equal to 10mm in diameter. Two third of patients had an abnormal thyroid at palpation requiring an US. One third of patients had a normal thyroid at palpation and US was consequently unwarranted. Among all patients, US detected non-palpable nodules in 26% of cases. We found no smears suspected to be cancerous. In newly diagnosed Graves' disease, the US relevance is only questionable in patients without abnormal thyroid at palpation. Ultrasonography detected non-palpable nodules and none was suspected to be cancerous. These data suggest that US is not useful in patients without abnormal thyroid at palpation. Nevertheless, the recent Thyroid Imaging-Reporting And Data System classification (TI-RADS) might change our conclusions. The TI-RADS classification indeed improves the selection of nodules lower than 10mm in diameter requiring a biopsy. Nodules lower than 10mm in diameter were not biopsied in the present study. The other US data presented herein (echogenicity, vascularisation) provide no further relevance for systematic US in newly diagnosed patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Palpable Pedagogy: Expressive Arts, Leadership, and Change in Social Justice Teacher Education (An Ethnographic/Auto-Ethnographic Study of the Classroom Culture of an Arts-Based Teacher Education Course)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbera, Lucy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    "Palpable Pedagogy: Expressive Arts, Leadership, and Change in Social Justice Teacher Education" is an arts-informed ethnographic study of the pedagogy and culture engendered when the expressive arts are employed in social justice teacher education. "Palpable Pedagogy" is a qualitative study that examines the power of the expressive arts to…

  2. Noninvasive and painless magnetic stimulation of nerves improved brain motor function and mobility in a cerebral palsy case.

    PubMed

    Flamand, Véronique H; Schneider, Cyril

    2014-10-01

    Motor deficits in cerebral palsy disturb functional independence. This study tested whether noninvasive and painless repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation could improve motor function in a 7-year-old boy with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Stimulation was applied over different nerves of the lower limbs for 5 sessions. We measured the concurrent aftereffects of this intervention on ankle motor control, gait (walking velocity, stride length, cadence, cycle duration), and function of brain motor pathways. We observed a decrease of ankle plantar flexors resistance to stretch, an increase of active dorsiflexion range of movement, and improvements of corticospinal control of ankle dorsiflexors. Joint mobility changes were still present 15 days after the end of stimulation, when all gait parameters were also improved. Resistance to stretch was still lower than prestimulation values 45 days after the end of stimulation. This case illustrates the sustained effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation on brain plasticity, motor function, and gait. It suggests a potential impact for physical rehabilitation in cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis: Case report with history of urticaria, petechiae and palpable pinpoint purpura triggered by medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Mbonile, Lumuli

    2016-03-17

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is a rare autoimmune response to raised endogenous progesterone levels that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Cutaneous, mucosal lesions and other systemic manifestations develop cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when progesterone levels are elevated. APD symptoms usually start 3 - 10 days before menstruation and resolve 1 - 2 days after menstruation ceases. A 30-year-old woman presented with urticaria, petechiae and palpable pinpoint purpura lesions of the legs, forearms, neck and buttocks 1 week prior to her menses starting and 2 months after a medical abortion. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis and topical steroids were prescribed. Her skin conditions did not improve and were associated with her menstrual cycle. We performed an intradermal test using progesterone, which was positive. She was treated with oral contraceptive pills and the symptoms were resolved. This is a typical case of APD triggered by increased sensitivity to endogenous progesterone induced a few months after medical abortion.

  4. Longitudinal (4 year) change of thigh muscle and adipose tissue distribution in chronically painful vs. painless knees – data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Dannhauer, Torben; Eckstein, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate 4-year longitudinal change in thigh muscle and adipose tissue content in chronically painful versus painless knees. Methods Knees from Osteoarthritis Initiative participants with non-acceptable symptom status (numerical rating scale ≥4) and frequent pain (≥6 months at baseline, year 2 and year 4 follow-up) were studied. These were matched with painless controls (bilateral NRS pain intensity≤1 and ≤infrequent pain at all 3 timepoints). 4-year longitudinal changes in thigh muscle anatomical cross-sectional areas (CSAs), isometric muscle strength, and in subcutaneous (SCF) and intermuscular fat (IMF) CSAs were obtained from magnetic resonance images (MRI) and were compared between groups (paired t-tests). Results 43 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria of chronic pain, had complete thigh muscle MRI acquisitions and strength measurements, and a matched control. Quadriceps CSAs, but not extensor strength, showed a significant longitudinal decrease in chronically painful knees (-3.9%; 95%confidence interval [95 CI] -6.3%,-1.5%) and in painless controls (-2.4%; 95% CI -4.1%, -0.7%); the difference in change was not statistically significant (p=0.33). There was a significant 4-year gain in SCF in painful knees (8.1%; 95% CI 3.1%, 13%) but not in controls (0.0%; 95%CI -4.4%, +4.4%) with the difference in change being significant (p=0.03). The gain in IMF (∼5.2%) was similar between painful and painless knees. Conclusion This is the first paper to show a significant impact of (chronic) knee pain on longitudinal change in local subcutaneous adipose tissue. The effect of pain on subcutaneous fat appeared stronger than that on intermuscular adipose tissue and on muscle status. PMID:25887367

  5. Cutoff value of thyroid uptake of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate to discriminate between Graves' disease and painless thyroiditis: a single center retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Toyoyoshi; Suzuki, Ruriko; Kasai, Takatoshi; Onose, Hiroyuki; Komiya, Koji; Goto, Hiromasa; Takeno, Kageumi; Ishii, Shinya; Sato, Junko; Honda, Akira; Kawano, Yui; Himuro, Miwa; Yamada, Emiko; Yamada, Tetsu; Watada, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid uptake of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate is a useful way to determine the cause of thyrotoxicosis. In daily clinical practice, (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake is used to discriminate between Graves' disease and painless thyroiditis when clinical information is not enough to make the distinction. However, since the optimal cutoff value of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake has not yet been elucidated, our aim was to determine this value. We recruited patients with thyrotoxicosis in whom (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake was measured in clinical settings between 2009 and 2013. Three experienced endocrinologists (who were blinded to the value of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake and initial treatment) diagnosed the cause of thyrotoxicosis based on thyrotropin, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyrotropin receptor antibody levels, and by ultrasound findings and using images of thyroid uptake of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate without the actual values. Ninety-four patients diagnosed as having Graves' disease or painless thyroiditis were finally included. According to the diagnosis, the optimal cutoff value of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake was determined by receiver operating characteristics analysis. A cutoff value of 1.0% provided optimal sensitivity and specificity of 96.6% and 97.1%, respectively. Then, its validity was confirmed in 78 patients with confirmed Graves' disease or painless thyroiditis diagnosed at another institute. Applying this cutoff value to the patients with thyrotoxicosis revealed positive and negative predictive values for Graves' disease of 100% and 88.9%, respectively. In conclusion, a cutoff value for (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake of 1.0% was useful to discriminate between Graves' disease and painless thyroiditis.

  6. Incidence rate of symptomatic painless thyroiditis presenting with thyrotoxicosis in Denmark as evaluated by consecutive thyroid scintigraphies.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Frederik; Bergmann, Natasha; Zerahn, Bo; Faber, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Painless thyroiditis (PT) is a transient kind of thyrotoxicosis, with lack of uptake on a thyroid scintigraphy in a non-tender thyroid gland, elevated anti-TPO antibodies, no fever, no history of increased iodine intake, and a normal sedimentation rate. The prevalence of PT varies hugely in the literature. To establish the incidence rate of PT in Denmark as well as to describe the phenotype of PT in more detail. Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphies were performed over a period of 9.75 years on 6022 consecutive patients (2349 had a thyrotoxic episode), and were divided into high or normal (5528), reduced (300) or lack of uptake (194). Patient records were evaluated: 292 with reduced, and 186 with lack of uptake. As a control measure, 230 consecutive thyrotoxic patients were also analyzed. Based on scintigraphies, 12 patients had PT, 10 with lack of uptake and two with reduced, corresponding to an incidence rate of 0.49/100,000 person years. It was predicted, that only one patient among the newly diagnosed consecutive thyrotoxic cohort had PT. This patient was identified. The prevalence of PT among thyrotoxic patients was 0.51% as evaluated by scintigraphy, and 0.43% among the biochemically thyrotoxic patient cohort. Twenty-five percent had more than one thyrotoxic episode, 75% had at least one subsequent hypothyroid episode, and 33% developed permanent hypothyroidism. PT presenting with symptomatic thyrotoxicosis is an extremely rare disease in Denmark. Symptomatic PT presents most often with no uptake on a Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy. Clinical follow-up is essential.

  7. [Non-palpable testicular tumors in adults: A management based on imaging? Issue from the French Urologic Association Genital Cancer committee's edit].

    PubMed

    Rocher, L; Feretti, L; Camparo, P; Savoie, P H; Morel-Journel, N; Murez, T; Sebe, P; Flechon, A; Méjean, A; Durand, X

    2018-04-09

    Help in management of non-palpable testicular tumors. French Urologic Association Genital cancer committee's Edit. To review their characterization at imaging findings of non-palpable testicular tumors. Literature review (PubMed, Medline) of urological and radiological studies dealing with testicular tumors using keywords: non-palpable/incidental testicular tumors; color Doppler ultrasound; US elastography; magnetic resonance imaging; contrast enhanced sonography; partial surgery. Color Doppler is the basic exam. The size, the presence of microlithts/microlithiasis/macrocalcifications, the vascular architecture are major semiological findings to suggest the benign or the malignant nature of the lesion. Other techniques like multiparametric MRI, contrast-enhanced sonography, sonographic elastography are still in evaluation. The frequency of benign tumors such as Leydig cell tumors lead to preservation management, through improved characterization, monitoring or tumorectomy. Non-randomized study - a very few prospective studies. The era of total orchiectomy for any uncertain testicular lesion is over. We try the challenge of characterization, and define management's algorithms based on the suspected nature of the tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Non-palpable breast cancer malignant on needle core biopsy and no malignancy in surgical excision: how to manage?].

    PubMed

    Cheurfa, N; Giard, S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the standard management of non-palpable breast cancer (needle core biopsy diagnostic, accurate preoperative localization), there are differences in some cases between the malignant histo-pathological finding in diagnostic biopsy results and negative histo-pathological finding after surgical excision. The aim of this study is to evaluate this incidence and classifying them under three category: failure of surgical excision after preoperative identification; removal of the tumor was already completed by percutaneous biopsy; percutaneous biopsy true false positive. We conducted a study based on prospective database, all patients included in this study had partial mastectomy for ductal carcinoma in-situ or invasive cancer which was diagnosed by needle core biopsy and normal/benign after surgery. Regarding the partial mastectomy, 1863 was performed in the last three years in our center. Thirty-seven patients (2%) correspond our study criteria. After discussion of cases in our multidisciplinary reunion, 6 patients (16%) were considered as failure of surgical excision, 26 patients (70%) as true removal of the whole lesion in the core, and 5 patients (13%) as true false-positive cores. This is the first study witch investigate all factors that influence the results of negative final histo-pathological finding of surgical excision of the tumor after malignant diagnostic needle core biopsy. This rare situation need a multidisciplinary meeting to analyse all the steps of management and to determine causes of those false results and try to find adequate management to solve this problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Thoracoscopic anatomical lung segmentectomy using 3D computed tomography simulation without tumour markings for non-palpable and non-visualized small lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirohisa; Oizumi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Jun; Hamada, Akira; Watarai, Hikaru; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki

    2017-09-01

    Although wedge resection can be curative for small lung tumours, tumour marking is sometimes required for resection of non-palpable or visually undetectable lung nodules as a method for identification of tumours. Tumour marking sometimes fails and occasionally causes serious complications. We have performed many thoracoscopic segmentectomies using 3D computed tomography simulation for undetectable small lung tumours without any tumour markings. The aim of this study was to investigate whether thoracoscopic segmentectomy planned with 3D computed tomography simulation could precisely remove non-palpable and visually undetectable tumours. Between January 2012 and March 2016, 58 patients underwent thoracoscopic segmentectomy using 3D computed tomography simulation for non-palpable, visually undetectable tumours. Surgical outcomes were evaluated. A total of 35, 14 and 9 patients underwent segmentectomy, subsegmentectomy and segmentectomy combined with adjacent subsegmentectomy, respectively. All tumours were correctly resected without tumour marking. The median tumour size and distance from the visceral pleura was 14 ± 5.2 mm (range 5-27 mm) and 11.6 mm (range 1-38.8 mm), respectively. Median values related to the procedures were operative time, 176 min (range 83-370 min); blood loss, 43 ml (range 0-419 ml); duration of chest tube placement, 1 day (range 1-8 days); and postoperative hospital stay, 5 days (range 3-12 days). Two cases were converted to open thoracotomy due to bleeding. Three cases required pleurodesis for pleural fistula. No recurrences occurred during the mean follow-up period of 44.4 months (range 5-53 months). Thoracoscopic segmentectomy using 3D computed tomography simulation was feasible and could be performed to resect undetectable tumours with no tumour markings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of subcutaneously infiltrated nitroglycerin on diameter, palpability, ease-of-puncture and pre-cannulation spasm of radial artery during transradial coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Ezhumalai, Babu; Satheesh, Santhosh; Jayaraman, Balachander

    2014-01-01

    The success of transradial catheterization depends on meticulous access of radial artery which in turn depends on palpating a good radial pulse. Our objectives were to analyze the effects of subcutaneously infiltrated nitroglycerin on diameter of radial artery, palpability of radial pulse, ease-of-puncture and pre-cannulation spasm of radial artery during transradial coronary angiography. Patients undergoing transradial coronary angiography were randomized to Group NL or Group SL. In Group NL, 3 ml of solution containing nitroglycerin and lignocaine was infiltrated subcutaneously at the site intended for puncture of radial artery. Similarly, saline and lignocaine were infiltrated in Group SL. Diameter of radial artery was objectively assessed by ultrasonography. Measurements were performed at baseline and repeated at 1 min after injecting the solutions. The ease-of-puncture was evaluated by the number of punctures and the time needed for successful access of radial artery. Both groups had 100 patients each. Baseline diameter of radial artery was similar between two groups. The post-injection diameter of radial artery increased by 26.3% in Group NL and 11.4% in Group SL. Nitroglycerin significantly improved the palpability of radial pulse, reduced the number of punctures and shortened the time needed for successful access of radial artery. Pre-cannulation spasm of radial artery occurred in 1% of Group NL and 8% of Group SL. Subcutaneously infiltrated nitroglycerin leads to significant vasodilation of radial artery. This avoids pre-cannulation spasm of radial artery, enhances palpability of the radial pulse and thus makes the puncture of radial artery easier. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of subcutaneously infiltrated nitroglycerin on diameter, palpability, ease-of-puncture and pre-cannulation spasm of radial artery during transradial coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Ezhumalai, Babu; Satheesh, Santhosh; Jayaraman, Balachander

    2014-01-01

    Background The success of transradial catheterization depends on meticulous access of radial artery which in turn depends on palpating a good radial pulse. Objectives Our objectives were to analyze the effects of subcutaneously infiltrated nitroglycerin on diameter of radial artery, palpability of radial pulse, ease-of-puncture and pre-cannulation spasm of radial artery during transradial coronary angiography. Methods Patients undergoing transradial coronary angiography were randomized to Group NL or Group SL. In Group NL, 3 ml of solution containing nitroglycerin and lignocaine was infiltrated subcutaneously at the site intended for puncture of radial artery. Similarly, saline and lignocaine were infiltrated in Group SL. Diameter of radial artery was objectively assessed by ultrasonography. Measurements were performed at baseline and repeated at 1 min after injecting the solutions. The ease-of-puncture was evaluated by the number of punctures and the time needed for successful access of radial artery. Results Both groups had 100 patients each. Baseline diameter of radial artery was similar between two groups. The post-injection diameter of radial artery increased by 26.3% in Group NL and 11.4% in Group SL. Nitroglycerin significantly improved the palpability of radial pulse, reduced the number of punctures and shortened the time needed for successful access of radial artery. Pre-cannulation spasm of radial artery occurred in 1% of Group NL and 8% of Group SL. Conclusions Subcutaneously infiltrated nitroglycerin leads to significant vasodilation of radial artery. This avoids pre-cannulation spasm of radial artery, enhances palpability of the radial pulse and thus makes the puncture of radial artery easier. PMID:25634390

  12. The impact of extirpation of non-palpable/normal-sized regional lymph nodes on staging of canine cutaneous mast cell tumours: A multicentric retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, R; Marconato, L; Buracco, P; Boracchi, P; Giudice, C; Iussich, S; Grieco, V; Chiti, L E; Favretto, E; Stefanello, D

    2018-06-12

    Metastasis to regional lymph nodes (RLNs) in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumour (cMCT) has been correlated with shortened survival time and higher risk of spread to distant sites. In the present study, extirpation of non-palpable or normal-sized RLNs was included in the surgical management of cMCT in dogs. Correlations between histological nodal status (HN0-3) and tumour variables were analysed. Ninety-three dogs with single cMCT without distant metastasis that underwent wide surgical excision of the primary tumour and extirpation of non-palpable or normal-sized RLN were included. The association between HN (HN0 vs HN > 0; HN0-1 vs HN2-3) and tumour variables (site, longest diameter, ulceration, 3-tier and 2-tier histological grades) was analysed by a generalized linear model with multinomial error. Then, 33 (35.5%) RLNs were HN0, 14 (15%) were HN1, 26 (28%) were HN2 and 20 (21.5%) were HN3. The presence of positive (HN > 0) RLN was significantly associated with cMCT larger than 3 cm. No other association was statistically significant. Non-palpable/normal-sized RLN in dogs with cMCT can harbour histologically detectable metastatic disease in nearly half of the cases. Extirpation of the RLN should always perfomed to obtain a correct staging of the disease, even in the absence of clinical suspicion of metastasis. Further studies should evaluate the possible therapeutical effect of the tumour burden reduction obtained by exrtipartion of a positive RLN. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A case report of an unusual presentation of ocular rhinosporidiosis as a conjunctival cystic mass.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sangeeta; Lavaju, Poonam; Bharati, Priyanka; Joshi, Icchya

    2017-02-01

    Ocular involvement of rhinosporidiosis is seen in about 15% of cases and clinically appears as a freely mobile, granular, pink, fleshy sessile or pedunculated mass. The conjunctiva is the most common site of origin. A 25-year-old male presented with a painless mass in the lower part of the left eye for 6 months which was gradually progressive. Examination revealed a pedunculated mass of 15 mm x 15 mm arising from the lower palpebrae of the left eye retracting the lower lid. It appeared to be vascular with few white spots at the apex. Rest of the ocular examinations was within the normal limit. The presentations of ocular rhinosporidiosis vary. Though the conjunctival origin is very common, it may not have a classic pink fleshy appearance at all times. A vascular/cystic painless conjunctival mass should also be considered as a case of rhinosporidiosis in prone areas.

  14. Radioguided localisation of non-palpable lesions of the breast in Costa Rica: review of results of our first 800 patients in private practice.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Marisel; Alfaro, Sabrina; Aguilar, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Surgical treatment of non-palpable breast lesions is controversial. At the European Institute of Oncology in Milan, Italy, Prof Umberto Veronesi introduced a new technique called the radioguided occult lesion localisation (ROLL) in 1996 to replace conventional methods and their disadvantages (Zurrida S, Galimberti V, and Monti S et al (1998) Radioguided localization of occult breast lesions Breast 7 11-13 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-9776(98)90044-3). Given the success experienced in that institution, the method became the technique of choice for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, we will examine the technical aspects of ROLL and the results from a large series of patients treated in our private practice in Costa Rica. We analysed the first 816 patients with different non-palpable breast lesions detected by ultrasound or mammography within our private practice in Costa Rica. In 774 patients, technetium 99m labelled with human serum albumin (7-10 MBq) in 0.2 ml of saline solution was injected into the lesion under mammographic or ultrasound guidance. The excisional biopsy was done by means of a gamma-probe and complete excision of the lesion was verified by X-ray on the specimen in lesions that were visible by mammography and ultrasound 4 months after surgery. In the remaining 42 patients, the localisation of the lesion was carried out by wire. The tracer was correctly positioned in the first attempt in 772/816 (94.6%) of cases and in the second attempt in two other cases. In 42/816 (5.1%) cases, the localisation of the lesion had to be performed with the traditional method. X-rays showed that the lesion was entirely removed in 770/772 (99.74%) of cases. The ROLL is a simple and excellent option for the removal of hidden breast lesions in clinical practice. It offers the advantage of making resections safer and with tumour-free margins, in addition to reducing the number of reinterventions. Since it makes it possible to specify to the pathologist

  15. Evaluation of Masood’s and Modified Masood’s Scoring Systems in the Cytological Diagnosis of Palpable Breast Lump Aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Chithrabhanu, Savithri Moothiringode

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) has a leading role in the assessment of breast lesions. Masood’s Scoring Index (MSI) and its modification (Modified Masood’s scoring index; MMSI) has been proposed to aid in sub-grouping breast lesions and to help in subsequent management. Aim To assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of MSI and MMSI by subsequent correlation with histopathology. Materials and Methods The study was cross-sectional in nature and was conducted in a tertiary care setting. The study included 207 cases presenting as palpable breast lump, which had undergone FNAC and subsequent excision biopsy for histopathology. Statistical Analysis The cases were grouped into four categories as suggested by Masood et al., (MSI) and Nandini et al., (MMSI) and concordance analysis with reference to histopathological diagnosis was done. Results In comparison to MSI, MMSI showed better concordance with histopathological diagnosis and superior diagnostic accuracy in non-proliferative breast disease category (p-value = 0.046) as well as in proliferative breast disease without atypia category. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the cytological scoring was 97.5%, with 94.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Conclusion Though both MSI and MMSI were found effective in subcategorizing breast lesions, MMSI was found to have better concordance with histopathology. Inclusion of cellular pattern and background material may further help in increasing the accuracy. PMID:28571141

  16. Pelvic Myxoid Leiomyoma Mass between Vagina and Rectum.

    PubMed

    AlShalabi, Omar; Alahmar, Fadi Obaied; Aljasem, Hazem; Alsaid, Bayan; AlShalabi, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. About 20-30% of women older than 35 are affected. Rare conditions of leiomyomas have extrauterine locations. Myxoid degeneration is a rare type of leiomyoma degeneration. We report a case of solid-cystic myxoid leiomyoma in a 53-year-old woman complained of constipation, urinary hesitation, and malodorous vaginal discharge with palpable 17 × 12 cm mass between vagina and rectum. Regarding the inferior location of the mass, a perineal approach was used to enucleate it. This rare location has not been mentioned before. The woman was finally diagnosed by pathologists which was myxoid leiomyoma.

  17. Drosophila Nociceptors Mediate Larval Aversion to Dry Surface Environments Utilizing Both the Painless TRP Channel and the DEG/ENaC Subunit, PPK1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wayne A.; Carder, Justin W.

    2012-01-01

    A subset of sensory neurons embedded within the Drosophila larval body wall have been characterized as high-threshold polymodal nociceptors capable of responding to noxious heat and noxious mechanical stimulation. They are also sensitized by UV-induced tissue damage leading to both thermal hyperalgesia and allodynia very similar to that observed in vertebrate nociceptors. We show that the class IV multiple-dendritic(mdIV) nociceptors are also required for a normal larval aversion to locomotion on to a dry surface environment. Drosophila melanogaster larvae are acutely susceptible to desiccation displaying a strong aversion to locomotion on dry surfaces severely limiting the distance of movement away from a moist food source. Transgenic inactivation of mdIV nociceptor neurons resulted in larvae moving inappropriately into regions of low humidity at the top of the vial reflected as an increased overall pupation height and larval desiccation. This larval lethal desiccation phenotype was not observed in wild-type controls and was completely suppressed by growth in conditions of high humidity. Transgenic hyperactivation of mdIV nociceptors caused a reciprocal hypersensitivity to dry surfaces resulting in drastically decreased pupation height but did not induce the writhing nocifensive response previously associated with mdIV nociceptor activation by noxious heat or harsh mechanical stimuli. Larvae carrying mutations in either the Drosophila TRP channel, Painless, or the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel subunit Pickpocket1(PPK1), both expressed in mdIV nociceptors, showed the same inappropriate increased pupation height and lethal desiccation observed with mdIV nociceptor inactivation. Larval aversion to dry surfaces appears to utilize the same or overlapping sensory transduction pathways activated by noxious heat and harsh mechanical stimulation but with strikingly different sensitivities and disparate physiological responses. PMID:22403719

  18. Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the corpora cavernosa presented as a perineal mass

    PubMed Central

    Carlos, González-Satué; Ivanna, Valverde Vilamala; Gustavo, Tapia Melendo; Joan, Areal Calama; Javier, Sanchez Macias; Luis, Ibarz Servio

    2012-01-01

    Primary male genital lymphomas may appear rarely in testis, and exceptionally in the penis and prostate, but there is not previous evidence of a lymphoma arising from the corpora cavernosa. We report the first case in the literature of a primary diffuse cell B lymphoma of the corpora cavernosa presented with low urinary tract symptoms, perineal pain and palpable mass. Diagnosis was based on trucut biopsy, histopathological studies and computed tomographic images. PMID:22919138

  19. Comparison of intra-operative specimen mammography to standard specimen mammography for excision of non-palpable breast lesions: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cynthia L; Coopey, Suzanne B; Rafferty, Elizabeth; Gadd, Michele; Smith, Barbara L; Specht, Michelle C

    2016-02-01

    Standard specimen mammography (SSM) is performed in the radiology department after wire-localized excision of non-palpable breast lesions to confirm the presence of the target and evaluate margins. Alternatively, intra-operative specimen mammography (ISM) allows surgeons to view images in the operating room (OR). We conducted a randomized study comparing ISM and SSM. Women undergoing wire-localized excision for breast malignancy or imaging abnormality were randomized to SSM or ISM. For SSM, the specimen was transported to the radiology department for imaging and interpretation. For ISM, the specimen was imaged in the OR for interpretation by the surgeon and sent for SSM. Interpretation time was from specimen leaving OR until radiologist interpretation for SSM and from placement in ISM device until surgeon interpretation for ISM. Procedure and interpretation times were compared. Concordance between ISM and SSM for target and margins was evaluated. 72 patients were randomized, 36 ISM and 36 SSM. Median procedure times were similar, 48.5 (17-138) min for ISM, and 54 (17-40) min for SSM (p = 0.72), likely since specimens in both groups traveled to radiology for SSM. Median interpretation time was significantly shorter with ISM, 1 (0.5-2.0) and 9 (4-16) min for ISM and SSM, respectively (p < 0.0001). Among specimens with ISM and SSM, concordance was 100 % (35/35) for target and 93 % (14/15) for margins. In this randomized trial, use of ISM compared with SSM significantly reduced interpretation times, while accurately identifying the target. This could result in decreased operative costs from shorter OR times with use of ISM.

  20. Incidentally detected non-palpable testicular tumours in adults at scrotal ultrasound: impact of radiological findings on management Radiologic review and recommendations of the ESUR scrotal imaging subcommittee.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Laurence; Ramchandani, Parvati; Belfield, Jane; Bertolotto, Michele; Derchi, Lorenzo E; Correas, Jean Michel; Oyen, Raymond; Tsili, Athina C; Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Dogra, Vikram; Fizazi, Karim; Freeman, Simon; Richenberg, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The increasing detection of small testicular lesions by ultrasound (US) in adults can lead to unnecessary orchiectomies. This article describes their nature, reviews the available literature on this subject and illustrates some classical lesions. We also suggest recommendations to help characterization and management. The ESUR scrotal imaging subcommittee searched for original and review articles published before May 2015 using the Pubmed and Medline databases. Key words used were 'testicular ultrasound', 'contrast-enhanced sonography', 'sonoelastography', 'magnetic resonance imaging', 'testis-sparing surgery', 'testis imaging', 'Leydig cell tumour', 'testicular cyst'. Consensus was obtained amongst the members of the subcommittee, urologist and medical oncologist. Simple cysts are frequent and benign, and do not require follow up or surgery. Incidentally discovered small solid testicular lesions detected are benign in up to 80 %, with Leydig cell tumours being the most frequent. However, the presence of microliths, macrocalcifications and hypoechoic areas surrounding the nodule are findings suggestive of malignant disease. Asymptomatic small testicular lesions found on ultrasound are mainly benign, but findings such as microliths or hypoechoic regions surrounding the nodules may indicate malignancy. Colour Doppler US remains the basic examination for characterization. The role of newer imaging modalities in characterization is evolving. • Characterization of testicular lesions is primarily based on US examination. • The role of MRI, sonoelastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound is evolving. • Most small non-palpable testicular lesions seen on ultrasound are benign simple cysts. • Leydig cell tumours are the most frequent benign lesions. • Associated findings like microliths or hypoechoic regions may indicate malignancy.

  1. [Exploring a non-inflammatory clinical breast mass: Clinical practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Legendre, G; Guilhen, N; Nadeau, C; Brossard, A; Fauvet, R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic value of physical examination, radiologic explorations and percutaneous procedures of the breast in the exploration of a non-inflammatory palpable mass, in order to propose guidelines. A systematic literature review was conducted in the Medline and Cochrane library databases. International guidelines in French and English language were also consulted until April 30th 2015. Physical examination of a non-inflammatory palpable breast mass is not sufficient to eliminate a breast cancer (LE2). Mammography alone has a sensitivity between 70 and 95% for the diagnosis of breast cancer (LE3). Echography alone has a sensitivity of 98 to 100% for the diagnosis of breast cancer (LE2). The core needle biopsy has a better sensitivity and specificity than the fine-needle aspiration for breast cancer diagnosis (LE2). The association of mammography and 2D echography presents excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value (close to 100 %) to exclude a breast cancer (LE3). A double evaluation using mammography and echography is recommended in the exploration of a non-inflammatory palpable breast mass (grade B). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, and the adnexal mass.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, P

    1998-06-01

    Cancers of the endometrium, cervix, and ovaries account for nearly 25,000 annual deaths among women in the United States. In recent years, better understanding of the causes and risk factors associated with gynecologic malignancies has contributed to more effective screening and early diagnosis. Abnormal uterine bleeding, a palpable adnexal mass, or vague abdominal complaints in women older than 40 can be signs of cancer. Regular pelvic examination, combined with appropriate use of the Papanicolaou's smear, endometrial biopsy, transvaginal sonography, and other tests, is recommended.

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Non-palpable and Suspicious Axillary Lymph Nodes with Subsequent Removal after Tattooing: False-Negative Results and Concordance with Sentinel Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Hwa; Kim, Hye Jung; Jung, Jin Hyang; Park, Ho Yong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Wan Wook; Park, Ji Young; Cheon, Hyejin; Lee, So Mi; Cho, Seung Hyun; Shin, Kyung Min; Kim, Gab Chul

    2017-11-01

    Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-guided FNA) for axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) is currently used with various techniques for the initial staging of breast cancer and tagging of ALNs. With the implementation of the tattooing of biopsied ALNs, the rate of false-negative results of US-guided FNA for non-palpable and suspicious ALNs and concordance with sentinel lymph nodes were determined by node-to node analyses. A total of 61 patients with breast cancer had negative results for metastasis on US-guided FNA of their non-palpable and suspicious ALNs. The biopsied ALNs were tattooed with an injection of 1-3 mL Charcotrace (Phebra, Lane Cove West, Australia) ink and removed during sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary dissection. We determined the rate of false-negative results and concordance with the sentinel lymph nodes by a retrospective review of surgical and pathologic findings. The association of false-negative results with clinical and imaging factors was evaluated using logistic regression. Of the 61 ALNs with negative results for US-guided FNA, 13 (21%) had metastases on final pathology. In 56 of 61 ALNs (92%), tattooed ALNs corresponded to the sentinel lymph nodes. Among the 5 patients (8%) without correspondence, 1 patient (2%) had 2 metastatic ALNs of 1 tattooed node and 1 sentinel lymph node. In multivariate analysis, atypical cells on FNA results (odds ratio = 20.7, p = 0.040) was independently associated with false-negative FNA results. False-negative ALNs after US-guided FNA occur at a rate of 21% and most of the tattooed ALNs showed concordance with sentinel lymph nodes. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Management of common head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Thomas F; Muratore, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Head and neck masses are a common clinical concern in infants, children, and adolescents. The differential diagnosis for a head or neck mass includes congenital, inflammatory, and neoplastic lesions. An orderly and thorough examination of the head and neck with an appropriate directed workup will facilitate the diagnosis. The most common entities occur repeatedly within the various age groups and can be differentiated with a clear understanding of embryology and anatomy of the region, and an understanding of the natural history of a specific lesion. Congenital lesions most commonly found in the pediatric population include the thyroglossal duct cyst and the branchial cleft and arch anomalies. The inflammatory masses are secondary to local or systemic infections. The most common etiology for cervical adenopathy in children is reactive lymphadenopathy following a viral or bacterial illness. Persistent adenopathy raises more concerns, especially enlarged lymph nodes within the posterior triangle or supraclavicular space, nodes that are painless, firm, and not mobile, or a single dominant node that persists for more than 6 weeks should all heighten concern for malignancy. In this review, we discuss the current principles of surgical management of the most common head and neck masses that present to pediatricians and pediatric surgeons.

  5. Gastric trichobezoar: abdominal mass in a child with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Sciarretta, Jason D; Bond, Sheldon J

    2011-11-01

    Abdominal pain is a frequent occurrence among the pediatric population and can be a diagnostic challenge. Trichobezoar is a differential diagnosis that is often neglected. Different from previously reported cases, we present a 3-year-old girl with sickle cell disease with complaints of acute abdominal pain, suspecting sickle cell splenic sequestration. The child presented to the emergency department with sharp epigastric pain and an associated palpable upper abdominal mass. This case illustrates a large obstructing gastric trichobezoar and summarizes both the diagnostic modalities and treatment.

  6. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  7. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    ... lumpy mass in the right upper quadrant. Liver enlargement (hepatomegaly) can cause a firm, irregular mass below ... the kidney (usually only affects one kidney). Spleen enlargement (splenomegaly) can sometimes be felt in the left- ...

  8. Scrotal masses

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. A scrotal mass is a lump or bulge that can be ... sac that contains the testicles. Causes A scrotal mass can be noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Benign ...

  9. A Precious Diagnostic "Pearl": The Necklace Pattern in Germ Cell Tumors of the Testis.

    PubMed

    Snow, Justin; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Robinson, Brian D; Khani, Francesca

    2018-04-01

    Diffuse embryoma is a rare pattern of nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis originally described in 1983. We report a case with this predominant pattern in an 18-year-old male with a painless palpable testicular mass. Although it is relatively common to see a diffuse embryoma pattern focally in mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis, it is rarely the predominant pattern and can represent a diagnostic pitfall on routine hematoxylin and eosin stain. We emphasize the importance of recognizing the individual components within the diffuse embryoma pattern, review the literature, and briefly discuss the ancillary immunohistochemical stains that may be utilized to help support the diagnosis.

  10. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  11. Post thyroidectomy suture granuloma: a cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Javalgi, Anita P; Arakeri, Surekha U

    2013-04-01

    There are known post thyroidectomized complications, a suture granuloma being less frequent, with its late complication mimicking recurrent thyroid cancer. A suture granuloma is a benign, granulomatous inflammatory reaction that occurs due to the use of non absorbable suture. It constitutes one of the late complications which altogether make up less than 2% of its incidence. A suture granuloma is similar to a foreign body reaction and it usually develops slowly as a painless, palpable asymptomatic mass over the years. It mimics a cancer recurrence or a lymph node metastasis. Here, we are reporting a case of a post thyroidectomy suture granuloma in a 46 years old lady who presented with a painless swelling in the lateral neck, with a past history of thyroidectomy 5 years back.

  12. Post Thyroidectomy Suture Granuloma: A Cytological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Javalgi, Anita P.; Arakeri, Surekha U.

    2013-01-01

    There are known post thyroidectomized complications, a suture granuloma being less frequent, with its late complication mimicking recurrent thyroid cancer. A suture granuloma is a benign, granulomatous inflammatory reaction that occurs due to the use of non absorbable suture. It constitutes one of the late complications which altogether make up less than 2% of its incidence. A suture granuloma is similar to a foreign body reaction and it usually develops slowly as a painless, palpable asymptomatic mass over the years. It mimics a cancer recurrence or a lymph node metastasis. Here, we are reporting a case of a post thyroidectomy suture granuloma in a 46 years old lady who presented with a painless swelling in the lateral neck, with a past history of thyroidectomy 5 years back. PMID:23730655

  13. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  14. Inertial Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    The inertial balance is one device that can help students to quantify the quality of inertia--a body's resistance to a change in movement--in more generally understood terms of mass. In this hands-on activity, students use the inertial balance to develop a more quantitative idea of what mass means in an inertial sense. The activity also helps…

  15. Mass Deacidification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Carolyn

    1979-01-01

    Reviews methods being developed for mass deacidification of books to prevent deterioration of paper. The use of diethyl zinc, liquified gas, and morpholine, and the advantages, disadvantages, and cost of each are considered. A 26-item bibliography is included. (JD)

  16. Myofibroma as a Rapidly Growing Gingival Mass in a 4-year-old Boy: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Atarbashi-Moghadam, Saede; Lotfi, Ali; Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Atarbashi-Moghadam, Fazele

    2018-06-01

    Solitary myofibroma is an uncommon benign soft tissue neoplasm of myofibroblastic origin exhibiting head and neck region predilection but its presence in the jaws is rare. Myofibroma presents as painless mass and may demonstrate rapid enlargement and growth that clinically mimic malignancies. This report presents a 4-year-old male patient with a rapidly growing mandibular gingival mass with some evidence of underlying alveolar bone destruction. Incisional biopsy was performed and the specimen was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical antibodies for αSMA, CD34, S100 and desmin. The diagnosis of myofibroma was made and the lesion was completely excised. The knowledge about microscopic features of this rare neoplasm helps to have a proper diagnosis and avoid unnecessary treatment.

  17. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Nier, A.O.C.

    1959-08-25

    A voltage switching apparatus is described for use with a mass spectrometer in the concentratron analysis of several components of a gas mixture. The system automatically varies the voltage on the accelerating electrode of the mass spectrometer through a program of voltages which corresponds to the particular gas components under analysis. Automatic operation may be discontinued at any time to permit the operator to manually select any desired predetermined accelerating voltage. Further, the system may be manually adjusted to vary the accelerating voltage over a wide range.

  18. Evaluation of hybrids algorithms for mass detection in digitalized mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, José; Garzón Reyes, Johnson

    2011-01-01

    The breast cancer remains being a significant public health problem, the early detection of the lesions can increase the success possibilities of the medical treatments. The mammography is an image modality effective to early diagnosis of abnormalities, where the medical image is obtained of the mammary gland with X-rays of low radiation, this allows detect a tumor or circumscribed mass between two to three years before that it was clinically palpable, and is the only method that until now achieved reducing the mortality by breast cancer. In this paper three hybrids algorithms for circumscribed mass detection on digitalized mammograms are evaluated. In the first stage correspond to a review of the enhancement and segmentation techniques used in the processing of the mammographic images. After a shape filtering was applied to the resulting regions. By mean of a Bayesian filter the survivors regions were processed, where the characteristics vector for the classifier was constructed with few measurements. Later, the implemented algorithms were evaluated by ROC curves, where 40 images were taken for the test, 20 normal images and 20 images with circumscribed lesions. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages in the correct detection of a lesion of every algorithm are discussed.

  19. An unusual cause of paediatric abdominal pain: Mesenteric masses accompanied with volvulus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Shan; Zhang, Jun; Kong, Xiang Ru; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Li, Chang Chun

    2016-07-01

    Volvulus caused by mesenteric masses is rare and may result in serious consequences. This study aimed to better characterize volvulus caused by mesenteric masses in children. A retrospective study was conducted in 24 patients who underwent surgical treatment between January 1994 and January 2014 in one single institution. There were 10 boys and 14 girls. The most frequent findings were abdominal pain (100%), emesis (91.7%) and nausea (83.3%). Physical examination showed positive ileus signs in majority cases, and palpable mass was found in half of the patients. Ultrasound and CT scans revealed mesenteric masses in 21 and 24 patients, and 'whirlpool sign' was observed in 19 and 22 patients, respectively. Emergency laparotomy was performed in all patients. Histological examination revealed that 18 cystic masses were lymphangioma, 5 solid cases were lipoma and the remaining one was lipoblastoma. The postoperative course was uneventful in 22 patients, and postoperative obstruction and incision infection occurred in 2 patients. There was no evidence of recurrence at follow-up. Volvulus caused by mesenteric masses is a rare but potentially life-threatening cause of abdominal pain, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of paediatric acute abdominal pain.

  20. Mass Wasting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-06

    Mass Wasting is the term given to the process of change on a surface due to gravity things moving downhill due to the force of gravity. Dark streaks mark the slopes of craters and hills in this region of Amazonis Planitia.

  1. Mass Spectrometry for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

  2. Giant Extraluminal Leiomyoma of the Colon: Rare Cause of Symptomatic Pelvic Mass

    PubMed Central

    Sagnotta, Andrea; Sparagna, Alessandra; Uccini, Stefania; Mercantini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Leiomyomas (LMs) may appear throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract but are rarely seen in the colon-rectum and only 5 of those measured greater than 15 cm in diameter. Pain and palpable abdominal mass are the most common symptoms. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for most LMs. We here describe a case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with a 3-month history of abdominal pain associated with worsening constipation and abdominal distension. A pelvic solid, polylobulate, left-sided mass was noted on examination. Preoperative findings revealed a dishomogeneous sigmoid mass with calcified spots compressing small intestine and bladder. At laparotomy, a large polylobulate and well-circumscribed mass arising from the descending colon mesentery and displacing small intestine, uterus, and ovaries. A segmental colon resection was performed. An extraluminal 18- × 12- × 5-cm paucicellular sigmoid colon leiomyoma was histologically diagnosed. Our case is one of the few giant (>15 cm) sigmoid colon LMs reported in the literature. Although rare and benign in nature, LMs of the colon can cause life-threatening complications that could require emergency treatment and they should be included in the differential diagnosis of large abdominopelvic masses. Follow-up after surgery is necessary for tumors with any atypia or mitotic activity. PMID:26011198

  3. Giant extraluminal leiomyoma of the colon: rare cause of symptomatic pelvic mass.

    PubMed

    Sagnotta, Andrea; Sparagna, Alessandra; Uccini, Stefania; Mercantini, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Leiomyomas (LMs) may appear throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract but are rarely seen in the colon-rectum and only 5 of those measured greater than 15 cm in diameter. Pain and palpable abdominal mass are the most common symptoms. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for most LMs. We here describe a case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with a 3-month history of abdominal pain associated with worsening constipation and abdominal distension. A pelvic solid, polylobulate, left-sided mass was noted on examination. Preoperative findings revealed a dishomogeneous sigmoid mass with calcified spots compressing small intestine and bladder. At laparotomy, a large polylobulate and well-circumscribed mass arising from the descending colon mesentery and displacing small intestine, uterus, and ovaries. A segmental colon resection was performed. An extraluminal 18- × 12- × 5-cm paucicellular sigmoid colon leiomyoma was histologically diagnosed. Our case is one of the few giant (>15 cm) sigmoid colon LMs reported in the literature. Although rare and benign in nature, LMs of the colon can cause life-threatening complications that could require emergency treatment and they should be included in the differential diagnosis of large abdominopelvic masses. Follow-up after surgery is necessary for tumors with any atypia or mitotic activity.

  4. Concurrent BRAF and PTEN mutations in melanoma of unknown origin presenting as a breast mass

    PubMed Central

    Agosto-Arroyo, Emmanuel; Rosa, Marilin; Chau, Alec; Khazai, Laila

    2017-01-01

    Background: Metastases represent a small percentage of the malignancies affecting the breast, and only 5% of melanomas originate from non-cutaneous sites. Multiple genetic aberrations have been associated with the development of melanocytic lesions, including BRAF V600E mutation. Mutations in PTEN gene have also been related to the pathogenesis of multiple malignancies. Purpose/Method: This is the case of a 28-year-old female who presented with a tender, palpable mass in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. Ultrasound showed a 1-cm solid mass, initially diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma on biopsy. During pre-operative workup, a second mass was identified and biopsied. Immunohistochemical stains performed on the second mass biopsy demonstrated that the neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin AE1/3, pan-melanoma, tyrosinase, and SOX-10 and negative for CK7, CAM5.2, and GATA-3. Subsequent workup showed widespread metastatic disease involving the liver, lungs, bones, and brain. The brain metastasis tested positive for BRAF p.V600E and PTEN p.R130Efs*4 mutations. Thorough skin and eye examination did not reveal a primary melanoma. Conclusion: Only few reports have been published of melanoma presenting as a breast mass. This is an interesting case due to the clinical presentation, diagnostic challenges, and genetic mutations profile. PMID:28607685

  5. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, L.

    1962-01-01

    method is described for operating a mass spectrometer to improve its resolution qualities and to extend its period of use substantially between cleanings. In this method, a small amount of a beta emitting gas such as hydrogen titride or carbon-14 methane is added to the sample being supplied to the spectrometer for investigation. The additive establishes leakage paths on the surface of the non-conducting film accumulating within the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer, thereby reducing the effect of an accumulated static charge on the electrostatic and magnetic fields established within the instrument. (AEC)

  6. The effect of body mass index on the outcomes of varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Pham, Khanh N; Sandlow, Jay I

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a potential contributor to male factor infertility. There are no studies to date to our knowledge that have examined the success of varicocelectomy in obese men. We determined if body mass index significantly affects the outcome of varicocelectomy. Retrospective chart review was performed for all patients who underwent varicocelectomy from September 2003 to December 2009. Patients were placed into 3 groups based on body mass index, and categorized as normal weight (group 1-38 patients, body mass index 18.5 to 24.9), overweight (group 2-59 patients, body mass index 25 to 29.9) or obese (group 3-46 patients, body mass index 30 or greater). Significant improvement was defined as a greater than 50% increase in the total motile per ejaculate parameter on postoperative semen analysis. A total of 143 patients were available for analysis. There were no significant differences among patients in the 3 groups except for body mass index. Significant improvement in total motile/ejaculate on semen analyses was 71.1% (group 1), 61.0% (group 2) and 58.7% (group 3). Pregnancy rates were 43.8% (group 1), 43.5% (group 2) and 46.3% (group 3). There were no significant differences in improvement in total motile per ejaculate (p = 0.21, p = 0.17) or pregnancy rate (p = 0.60, p = 0.51) between the normal body mass index group, and the overweight and obese groups. Varicocelectomy for men with clinically palpable varicoceles has a significant chance of improving semen parameters and pregnancy rates regardless of preoperative body mass index. The outcomes of varicocelectomy in overweight and obese patients were similar to those of normal weight men. Therefore, varicocelectomy can be performed effectively and safely in overweight and obese men. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Giant mesenteric cystic lymphangioma presenting with abdominal pain and masquerading as a gynecologic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Maa, John; Wa, Christianne; Jaigirdir, Adnan; Cho, Soo-Jin; Corvera, Carlos U

    2009-01-01

    Lymphangiomas are congenital malformations of the lymphatic system that account for about 5% of all benign tumors in infants and children.1 The most common sites are the neck and axilla, which account for 95% of cases.2 Abdominal cystic lymphangiomas are quite rare, and can arise from either the retroperitoneum, gastrointestinal tract, or the mesentery of the abdominal viscera.3 The presenting symptoms are painless abdominal distension, a palpable mass, or secondary complications in the abdomen such as intestinal obstruction, volvulus, intestinal infarction, or bleeding.4 Typically diagnosed during childhood, these tumors prompt surgical intervention. We describe an atypical case of an abdominal cystic lymphangioma, which did not manifest until adulthood, with atypical symptoms of a rapidly expanding and symptomatic mass. PMID:21139927

  8. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  9. Mass spectrometer calibration standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Inert perfluorinated alkane and alkyl ethers mixture is used to calibrate mass spectrometer. Noncontaminating, commercially-available liquid provides series of reproducible reference peaks over broad mass spectrum that ranges over mass numbers from 1 to 200.

  10. Primary omental gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) presenting with a large abdominal mass and spontaneous haemoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Seow-En, Isaac; Seow-Choen, Francis; Lim, Tony Kiat Hon; Leow, Wei Qiang

    2014-11-03

    A 60-year-old Indonesian woman presented with a 9-day history of increasing abdominal distension, pain and tiredness. Physical examination revealed significant pallor with a palpable mass in the abdomen. CT of the abdomen reported a 22 cm complex mass in the peritoneal cavity with free intra-abdominal fluid. Laboratory results showed anaemia with a raised serum CA 125 level. At laparotomy a large haemorrhagic tumour with blood filled cystic cavities was found attached to both greater omentum and the transverse mesocolon with 2.2 L of blood in the peritoneal cavity. There was no invasion of any part of the stomach or intestines and there were no metastases seen. Histopathology of the resected specimen was consistent with that of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour arising from the omentum. Immunohistochemical studies revealed the tumour to be strongly positive for discovered on GIST-1 (DOG1) but negative for both CD117 and CD34. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) exon 18 mutation D842V was detected. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2007-12-04

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  12. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2013-07-16

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  13. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W.; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2005-12-13

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  14. Linear mass actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, Sidney E., III (Inventor); Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (Inventor); Jones, Irby W. (Inventor); Miller, James B. (Inventor); Davis, C. Calvin (Inventor); Behun, Vaughn D. (Inventor); Goodrich, Lewis R., Sr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A linear mass actuator includes an upper housing and a lower housing connectable to each other and having a central passageway passing axially through a mass that is linearly movable in the central passageway. Rollers mounted in the upper and lower housings in frictional engagement with the mass translate the mass linearly in the central passageway and drive motors operatively coupled to the roller means, for rotating the rollers and driving the mass axially in the central passageway.

  15. Heavy quark masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  16. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  17. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  18. [Painless course of chronic calcificated pancreatitis manifesting as hyperglycemia].

    PubMed

    Chernyshova, I V; Vinokurova, L V; Efremov, L I

    2011-01-01

    The clinical case of chronic calcifying pancreas (CCP) was described. It was reveal that obligate sign CCP as a painful syndrome can disappeared in some circumstances, in particular when the patient refused of smoking and alcohol intake.

  19. (Relatively) Painless Computer-Assisted Instruction with HyperStudio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Anthony A.

    The College of the Desert (California) has created a multi-station technology training and development facility for faculty. HyperStudio has been adopted as the introductory tool for multimedia/hypermedia authoring for the following reasons: (1) the card/stack metaphor used by HyperStudio is easy for novices to understand and familiar to users of…

  20. Painless Jaundice Caused by Clonorchis sinensis Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuhua; Bao, Wanguo; Jin, Meishan; Li, Yuxiang; Wang, Feng

    2016-06-01

    A man with only yellowing of the skin and eye sclera was diagnosed with clonorchiasis, which rarely manifested jaundice as the initial symptom. However, because of a lack of evidence for a diagnostic gold standard, the time until definitive diagnosis was more than a week. The diagnostic process relied on inquiring about the patient's history, including the place of residence, dietary habits, and symptoms, as well as on serological findings, an imaging examination, and pathological findings. MRCP and CT results showed mild dilatation of intrahepatic ducts and increased periductal echogenicity. The eggs were ultimately found in stool by water sedimentation method after the negative report through direct smear. DNA sequencing of PCR production of the eggs demonstrated 98-100% homology with ITS2 of Clonorchis sinensis. After anti-parasite medical treatment, the patient's symptoms were gradually relieved. Throughout the diagnostic procedure, besides routine examinations, the sedimentation method or concentration method could be used as a sensitive way for both light and heavy C. sinensis infection in the definite diagnosis.

  1. Painless needle insertion in regional anesthesia of the eye.

    PubMed

    Vaalamo, M O; Paloheimo, M P; Nikki, P H

    1995-04-01

    We examined a new technique of applying topical anesthetic with cotton tip sticks to the conjunctiva before needle insertion in regional anesthesia of the eye. Oxybuprocaine 0.4% and lidocaine 4% were compared with balanced salt solution (BSS) as topical anesthetics of the conjunctiva in Study 1. Ninety patients were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 30) to receive one of the three topical anesthetics in a double-blind manner. Pain of the needle insertions was measured with visual analog scale score (VAS) and quantitative surface electromography (qEMG). Both oxybuprocaine and lidocaine reduced pain significantly when compared to BSS. In Study 2, with healthy volunteers, we compared our previous practice of merely applying three consecutive drops of oxybuprocaine on the conjunctiva before needle insertions to the new technique of placing additional cotton tip sticks soaked in oxybuprocaine on the conjunctiva. We found the needle insertion virtually pain free when the cotton tip sticks were added to the topical anesthesia. The use of this simple method of topical anesthesia before the eye block increases patient comfort significantly.

  2. Doing Shakespeare: "Yo! A Hit! A Very Palpable Hit!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Peggy

    1993-01-01

    Describes the realities of current state of the teaching of William Shakespeare in U.S. schools. Compares these realities with the philosophy of teaching of the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, DC. Shows how the Folger Library's education program resonates with their proclaimed philosophy. (HB)

  3. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and management of residual mass post chemotherapy: Case report.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Troy D; Zepeda, Nubia; Moore, Ronald B

    2017-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a rare complication. It represents a spectrum of lymphoid proliferations which occur in the setting of immunosuppression and organ transplantation. There are no reported cases or recommendations for the treatment of residual masses post rituximab of PTLD. A patient with a long standing history of immunosuppression due to multiple kidney transplants starting in 1979, presented with a very large palpable hard abdominal mass (2004) after a fourth renal transplant. There was a past history of heavy immune suppression. CT scans revealed a conglomerate mass involving the right native kidney and two prior right sided renal allografts that crossed the midline. Biopsy of the large right retroperitoneal mass revealed large B cell lymphoma (CD 20 positive); consistent with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Management of bulky PTLD, in a highly sensitized, heavily immune suppressed patient is not well described in the literature. The mainstay of therapy is IR and Ritixumab (R) monotherapy and combination R-CHOP. CHOP chemotherapy has an associated mortality rate of up to 38%. Radiotherapy is often considered over surgery and surgery has been most frequently used when associated with bowel complications. In this case report we describe upfront Ritiximab followed by consolidation resection and cytotoxic chemotherapy as a management strategy to reduce toxicity. The approach taken by our surgical team illustrates the benefits of disease debulking in certain cases of PTLD, by guiding further therapy and spacing and reducing chemotherapy in immune suppressed patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor of pectoralis major muscle mimicking a breast mass

    PubMed Central

    Dragoumis, Dimitrios; Desiris, Klearchos; Kyropoulou, Aikaterini; Malandri, Maria; Assimaki, Anthoula; Tsiftsoglou, Aris

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hemangiopericytoma (HPC)/solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a very uncommon tumor of uncertain malignant behavior. In 1942, Stout and Murray first characterized these neoplasms as “vascular tumors arising from Zimmerman's pericytes” and till now hemangiopericytomas and solitary fibrous tumors of the soft tissues are regarded as features of the same entity in the soft tissue fascicle. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor of the pectoralis major muscle in a 33-year-old female. She first noticed a painless mass in her right breast. Ultrasound of the breast revealed a large heterogeneously hypoechoic lesion within the pectoralis major muscle. Fine needle aspiration of the tumor did not produce any meaningful result. The lesion was completely removed by surgical resection. Histologically, the tumor had staghorn-like vasculature and immunohistochemistry for CD34 was positive, whereas desmin, smooth-muscle actin, S-100 protein, cytokeratins (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) were all negative. A diagnosis of hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor was rendered. DISCUSSION Tumors comprising the HPC/SFT spectrum represent a small subset of soft tissue sarcomas and are found virtually at any site in the body. Wide surgical resection can achieve favorable long-term survival. CONCLUSION Due to the rarity and unpredictable biological potential of these tumors, long-term follow-up is mandatory even after radical resection, because recurrence or development of metastasis may be delayed many years. PMID:23416503

  5. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  6. Mass modeling for bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of modeling mass for bars are surveyed. A method for extending John Archer's concept of consistent mass beyond just translational inertia effects is included. Recommendations are given for various types of modeling situations.

  7. The origin of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froggatt*, C. D.

    2003-01-01

    The quark-lepton mass problem and the ideas of mass protection are reviewed. The hierarchy problem and suggestions for its resolution, including Little Higgs models, are discussed. The Multiple Point Principle (MPP) is introduced and used within the Standard Model (SM) to predict the top quark and Higgs particle masses. Mass matrix ansätze are considered; in particular we discuss the lightest family mass generation model, in which all the quark mixing angles are successfully expressed in terms of simple expressions involving quark mass ratios. It is argued that an underlying chiral flavour symmetry is responsible for the hierarchical texture of the fermion mass matrices. The phenomenology of neutrino mass matrices is briefly discussed.

  8. Body mass index

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  9. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  10. On Defining Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  11. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  12. Multimodal imaging of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation associated with an iris mass lesion.

    PubMed

    Naysan, Jonathan; Pang, Claudine E; Klein, Robert W; Freund, K Bailey

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) is a rare, paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by bilateral painless visual loss and proliferation of choroidal melanocytes in association with an underlying systemic malignancy. We report a case of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation associated with an underlying gynecological malignancy that also features the infrequent finding of an iris mass lesion, using multimodal imaging including ultra-widefield imaging, spectral domain and swept-source optical coherence tomography. A 59-year-old white female with a prior history of gynecological malignancy in remission presented with progressive bilateral visual loss over several weeks. The patient was noted to have a focal iris mass lesion in her right eye. Ultra-widefield color fundus photography showed a characteristic bilateral 'giraffe pattern' of pigmentary changes extending into the periphery as well as multiple discrete deeply pigmented lesions. Ultra-widefield autofluorescence was useful for visualizing the full extent of involvement. Indocyanine green angiography helped to demarcate the discrete pigmented choroidal lesions. Swept-source OCT clearly delineated the alternating zones of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) thickening and RPE loss, as well as the prominent choroidal infiltration and thickening. BDUMP is an important diagnosis to consider in the presence of multiple discrete melanocytic choroidal lesions, diffuse choroidal thickening, characteristic RPE changes, iris mass lesions and exudative retinal detachment. Ultra-widefield imaging may demonstrate more extensive lesions than that detected on clinical examination or standard field imaging. Imaging with SS-OCT shows choroidal and RPE characteristics that correlate well with known histopathology of this entity.

  13. Digital imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Casimir; Renz, Uwe; Bamberger, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Methods to visualize the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of molecules by mass spectrometric imaging evolve rapidly and yield novel applications in biology, medicine, and material surface sciences. Most mass spectrometric imagers acquire high mass resolution spectra spot-by-spot and thereby scan the object's surface. Thus, imaging is slow and image reconstruction remains cumbersome. Here we describe an imaging mass spectrometer that exploits the true imaging capabilities by ion optical means for the time of flight mass separation. The mass spectrometer is equipped with the ASIC Timepix chip as an array detector to acquire the position, mass, and intensity of ions that are imaged by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) directly from the target sample onto the detector. This imaging mass spectrometer has a spatial resolving power at the specimen of (84 ± 35) μm with a mass resolution of 45 and locates atoms or organic compounds on a surface area up to ~2 cm(2). Extended laser spots of ~5 mm(2) on structured specimens allows parallel imaging of selected masses. The digital imaging mass spectrometer proves high hit-multiplicity, straightforward image reconstruction, and potential for high-speed readout at 4 kHz or more. This device demonstrates a simple way of true image acquisition like a digital photographic camera. The technology may enable a fast analysis of biomolecular samples in near future.

  14. On Defining Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  15. Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook.

  16. Mass drivers. 3: Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, W.; Bowen, S.; Cohen, S.; Fine, K.; Kaplan, D.; Kolm, M.; Kolm, H.; Newman, J.; Oneill, G. K.; Snow, W.

    1979-01-01

    The last of a series of three papers by the Mass-Driver Group of the 1977 Ames Summer Study is presented. It develops the engineering principles required to implement the basic mass-driver. Optimum component mass trade-offs are derived from a set of four input parameters, and the program used to design a lunar launcher. The mass optimization procedures is then incorporated into a more comprehensive mission optimization program called OPT-4, which evaluates an optimized mass-driver reaction engine and its performance in a range of specified missions. Finally, this paper discusses, to the extent that time permitted, certain peripheral problems: heating effects in buckets due to magnetic field ripple; an approximate derivation of guide force profiles; the mechanics of inserting and releasing payloads; the reaction mass orbits; and a proposed research and development plan for implementing mass drivers.

  17. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  18. Issues and challenges associated with classifying neoplasms in percutaneous needle biopsies of incidentally found small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew J; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R

    2015-03-01

    Percutaneous needle core biopsy has become acceptable for classifying renal tumours and guiding patient management in the setting of an incidentally-detected small renal mass (SRM), defined as an asymptomatic, non-palpable mass <4cm in maximum dimension. Long-held concerns preventing the incorporation of biopsies into routine patient care, including the perception of poor diagnostic yield and risks of complications such as bleeding or biopsy tract seeding, have largely been disproven. While needle biopsies for SRMs have traditionally been performed in academic centres, pathologists based in non-academic centres can expect to encounter these specimens as urologists and/or interventional radiologist trainees complete their training programs and begin work in non-academic centres. This review covers the rationale for performing these biopsies, the expected diagnostic yield, relevant differential diagnoses and an approach to classifying SRMs based on limited samples as well as the use of immunohistochemical (IHC) staining panels to aid in this process. There is also an undeniable learning curve for pathologists faced with reporting these biopsies and a number of issues and potential pitfalls attributable to sampling must be kept in mind by pathologists and clinicians alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MassTRIX: mass translator into pathways.

    PubMed

    Suhre, Karsten; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2008-07-01

    Recent technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have brought the field of metabolomics to a point where large numbers of metabolites from numerous prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms can now be easily and precisely detected. The challenge today lies in the correct annotation of these metabolites on the basis of their accurate measured masses. Assignment of bulk chemical formula is generally possible, but without consideration of the biological and genomic context, concrete metabolite annotations remain difficult and uncertain. MassTRIX responds to this challenge by providing a hypothesis-driven approach to high precision MS data annotation. It presents the identified chemical compounds in their genomic context as differentially colored objects on KEGG pathway maps. Information on gene transcription or differences in the gene complement (e.g. samples from different bacterial strains) can be easily added. The user can thus interpret the metabolic state of the organism in the context of its potential and, in the case of submitted transcriptomics data, real enzymatic capacities. The MassTRIX web server is freely accessible at http://masstrix.org.

  20. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  1. Mass Storage Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Sanjay; Schraeder, Jeff

    1991-01-01

    Presents an overview of the mass storage market and discusses mass storage systems as part of computer networks. Systems for personal computers, workstations, minicomputers, and mainframe computers are described; file servers are explained; system integration issues are raised; and future possibilities are suggested. (LRW)

  2. The Origins of Mass

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2018-01-16

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  3. Proton mass decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Ying; Draper, Terrence; Liang, Jian; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2018-03-01

    We report the results on the proton mass decomposition and also on the related quark and glue momentum fractions. The results are based on overlap valence fermions on four ensembles of Nf = 2 + 1 DWF configurations with three lattice spacings and volumes, and several pion masses including the physical pion mass. With 1-loop pertur-bative calculation and proper normalization of the glue operator, we find that the u, d, and s quark masses contribute 9(2)% to the proton mass. The quark energy and glue field energy contribute 31(5)% and 37(5)% respectively in the MS scheme at µ = 2 GeV. The trace anomaly gives the remaining 23(1)% contribution. The u, d, s and glue momentum fractions in the MS scheme are consistent with the global analysis at µ = 2 GeV.

  4. Photon Mass, Graviton Mass: Zero or Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharff Goldhaber, Alfred; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2007-04-01

    Testing for deviations from simple laws is a time-honored part of physics research. In electricity and magnetism the first approach to such testing, from the eighteenth century well into the twentieth, was to look for departures from -2 of the power of distance between two electric charges or two magnetic poles determining the force between them. Absent a particular length scale, this was a natural choice for parameterizing possible deviations from the simple and esthetic inverse square law. With the advent of relativity and quantum mechanics, and the realization that certain phenomena of light can be described in terms of photon particles, it became appealing to ask if these particles might have a non-zero mass, and Proca found the appropriate modification of the Maxwell equations. Despite the particle-motion origin of this idea, the most powerful way to constrain the size of a possible photon mass is by setting a lower bound on the Compton wavelength, by looking at static electric and especially magnetic fields over increasing length scales. For gravity similar statements apply, but graviton mass is theoretically questionable, and observed phenomena imply either additional sources or departures from Einstein's general relativity.

  5. Mass Defect from Nuclear Physics to Mass Spectral Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pourshahian, Soheil

    2017-09-01

    Mass defect is associated with the binding energy of the nucleus. It is a fundamental property of the nucleus and the principle behind nuclear energy. Mass defect has also entered into the mass spectrometry terminology with the availability of high resolution mass spectrometry and has found application in mass spectral analysis. In this application, isobaric masses are differentiated and identified by their mass defect. What is the relationship between nuclear mass defect and mass defect used in mass spectral analysis, and are they the same? Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Origins of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Newtonian mechanics posited mass as a primary quality of matter, incapable of further elucidation. We now see Newtonian mass as an emergent property. That mass-concept is tremendously useful in the approximate description of baryon-dominated matter at low energy — that is, the standard "matter" of everyday life, and of most of science and engineering — but it originates in a highly contingent and non-trivial way from more basic concepts. Most of the mass of standard matter, by far, arises dynamically, from back-reaction of the color gluon fields of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Additional quantitatively small, though physically crucial, contributions come from the intrinsic masses of elementary quanta (electrons and quarks). The equations for massless particles support extra symmetries — specifically scale, chiral, and gauge symmetries. The consistency of the standard model relies on a high degree of underlying gauge and chiral symmetry, so the observed non-zero masses of many elementary particles ( W and Z bosons, quarks, and leptons) requires spontaneous symmetry breaking. Superconductivity is a prototype for spontaneous symmetry breaking and for mass-generation, since photons acquire mass inside superconductors. A conceptually similar but more intricate form of all-pervasive ( i.e. cosmic) superconductivity, in the context of the electroweak standard model, gives us a successful, economical account of W and Z boson masses. It also allows a phenomenologically successful, though profligate, accommodation of quark and lepton masses. The new cosmic superconductivity, when implemented in a straightforward, minimal way, suggests the existence of a remarkable new particle, the so-called Higgs particle. The mass of the Higgs particle itself is not explained in the theory, but appears as a free parameter. Earlier results suggested, and recent observations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may indicate, the actual existence of the Higgs particle, with mass m H

  7. Dynamical Mass Generation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendel Horwitz, Roberto Ruben

    1982-03-01

    In the framework of the Glashow-Weinberg-Salem model without elementary scalar particles, we show that masses for fermions and intermediate vector bosons can be generated dynamically. The mechanism is the formation of fermion-antifermion pseudoscalar bound states of zero total four momentum, which form a condensate in the physical vacuum. The force responsible for the binding is the short distance part of the net Coulomb force due to photon and Z exchange. Fermions and bosons acquire masses through their interaction with this condensate. The neutrinos remain massless because their righthanded components have no interactions. Also the charge -1/3 quarks remain massless because the repulsive force from the Z exchange dominates over the Coulomb force. To correct this, we propose two possible modifications to the theory. One is to cut off the Z exchange at very small distances, so that all fermions except the neutrinos acquire masses, which are then, purely electromagnetic in origin. The other is to introduce an additional gauge boson that couples to all quarks with a pure vector coupling. To make this vector boson unobservable at usual energies, at least two new fermions must couple to it. The vector boson squared masses receive additive contributions from all the fermion squared masses. The photon remains massless and the masses of the Z and W('(+OR -)) bosons are shown to be related through the Weinberg angle in the conventional way. Assuming only three families of fermions, we obtain estimates for the top quark mass.

  8. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments inmore » Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.« less

  9. Probabilistic Mass Growth Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumer, Eric; Elliott, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Mass has been widely used as a variable input parameter for Cost Estimating Relationships (CER) for space systems. As these space systems progress from early concept studies and drawing boards to the launch pad, their masses tend to grow substantially, hence adversely affecting a primary input to most modeling CERs. Modeling and predicting mass uncertainty, based on historical and analogous data, is therefore critical and is an integral part of modeling cost risk. This paper presents the results of a NASA on-going effort to publish mass growth datasheet for adjusting single-point Technical Baseline Estimates (TBE) of masses of space instruments as well as spacecraft, for both earth orbiting and deep space missions at various stages of a project's lifecycle. This paper will also discusses the long term strategy of NASA Headquarters in publishing similar results, using a variety of cost driving metrics, on an annual basis. This paper provides quantitative results that show decreasing mass growth uncertainties as mass estimate maturity increases. This paper's analysis is based on historical data obtained from the NASA Cost Analysis Data Requirements (CADRe) database.

  10. [Primary testicular rhabdomyosarcoma: A case report].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Salas, Jesús Alberto; Sánchez-Corona, Hugo; Priego-Niño, Alejandro; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Edgar; Sánchez-Galindo, José Antonio

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common sarcoma of soft tissues in childhood and adolescence, with an annual incidence of 4-7 cases per million children aged 15. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is common in adults younger than 30 years, and are usually presented as a large painless, palpable mass (> 5cm). Survival in the case of paratesticular sarcoma in men is approximately 50%. Male 27 years of age with no history of importance, was seen in a clinic with an increased, painless, left testicular volume 3 years onset. Intrascrotal left testicle increased volume, with dimensions of 20×12×8cm, a stone and left inguinal node in induratum measuring 2×2cm. Microscopically, it showed a pattern of an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with left inguinal node metastases. Early diagnosis of testicular tumours, and especially of primary intratesticular rhabdomyosarcomas, and aggressive surgical treatment in combination with chemotherapy reduces the incidence of local recurrence and may improve the rate of disease-free survival and overall survival in adult patients with metastases. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamical Mass Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, A.; Raya, A.

    2006-09-01

    Understanding the origin of mass, in particular that of the fermions, is one of the most uncanny problems which lie at the very frontiers of particle physics. Although the celebrated Standard Model accommodates these masses in a gauge invariant fashion, it fails to predict their values. Moreover, the mass thus generated accounts for only a very small percentage of the mass which permeates the visible universe. Most of the observed mass is accounted for by the strong interactions which bind quarks into protons and neutrons. How does that exactly happen in its quantitative details is still an unsolved mystery. Lattice formulation of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) or continuum studies of its Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDEs) are two of the non-perturbative means to try to unravel how quarks, starting from negligible current masses can acquire enormously large constituent masses to account for the observed proton and neutron masses. Analytical studies of SDEs in this context are extremely hard as one has to resort to truncation schemes whose quantitative reliability can be established only after a very careful analysis. Let alone the far more complicated realm of QCD, arriving at reliable truncation schemes in simpler scenarios such as quantum electrodynamics (QED) has also proved to be a hard nut to crack. In the last years, there has been an increasing group of physicists in Mexico which is taking up the challenge of understanding how the dynamical generation of mass can be understood in a reliable way through SDEs of gauge theories in various contexts such as (i) in arbitrary space-time dimensions d as well as d ⩽ 4, (ii) finite temperatures and (ii) in the presence of magnetic fields. In this article, we summarise some of this work.

  12. Micromechanical Oscillating Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, David A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A micromechanical oscillating mass balance and method adapted for measuring minute quantities of material deposited at a selected location, such as during a vapor deposition process. The invention comprises a vibratory composite beam which includes a dielectric layer sandwiched between two conductive layers. The beam is positioned in a magnetic field. An alternating current passes through one conductive layers, the beam oscillates, inducing an output current in the second conductive layer, which is analyzed to determine the resonant frequency of the beam. As material is deposited on the beam, the mass of the beam increases and the resonant frequency of the beam shifts, and the mass added is determined.

  13. SINTERED REFRACTORY MASS

    DOEpatents

    Williams, A.E.

    1955-09-01

    A method is given for joining sintered masses of refractory compounds. It consists in maintaining the masses in contact with each other by application of a moderate pressure, while they are at sintering temperature. The sintered masses are subjected to am applied pressure of about 1/2 to 1 ton per square inch of the surface in contact for about 10 minutes, and the temperature employed may be fropn about 1400 deg C to 2000 deg C. Refractory oxides to which the invention may be applied are beryllia, alumina, thoria, and magnesia.

  14. A question of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    We present a pedagogical discussion of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone theorem, and the Higgs mechanism. If the Higgs boson is found, it might provide an explanation of the origin of mass.

  15. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aim for a Healthy Weight » Healthy Weight Tools » BMI Calculator » Body Mass Index Table 1 Home Assessing ... Eat Right Be Physically Active Healthy Weight Tools BMI Calculator Menu Plans Portion Distortion Key Recommendations Healthy ...

  16. [Small renal mass].

    PubMed

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  17. AUTOMATIC MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, M.L.; Tabor, C.D. Jr.

    1961-12-01

    A mass spectrometer for analyzing the components of a gas is designed which is capable of continuous automatic operation such as analysis of samples of process gas from a continuous production system where the gas content may be changing. (AEC)

  18. Mass Separation by Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices. PMID:26912419

  19. Mass balance computation in SAGUARO

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.L.; Eaton, R.R.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes the development of the mass balance subroutines used with the finite-element code, SAGUARO, which models fluid flow in partially saturated porous media. Derivation of the basic mass storage and mass flux equations is included. The results of the SAGUARO mass-balance subroutine, MASS, are shown to compare favorably with the linked results of FEMTRAN. Implementation of the MASS option in SAGUARO is described. Instructions for use of the MASS option are demonstrated with the three sample cases.

  20. Solids mass flow determination

    DOEpatents

    Macko, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  1. Mass Spectrometers in Space!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system over several decades has benefitted greatly from the sensitive chemical analyses offered by spaceflight mass spectrometers. When dealing with an unknown environment, the broadband detection capabilities of mass analyzers have proven extremely valuable in determining the composition and thereby the basic nature of space environments, including the outer reaches of Earth s atmosphere, interplanetary space, the Moon, and the planets and their satellites. Numerous mass analyzer types, including quadrupole, monopole, sector, ion trap, and time-of-flight have been incorporated in flight instruments and delivered robotically to a variety of planetary environments. All such instruments went through a rigorous process of application-specific development, often including significant miniaturization, testing, and qualification for the space environment. Upcoming missions to Mars and opportunities for missions to Venus, Europa, Saturn, Titan, asteroids, and comets provide new challenges for flight mass spectrometers that push to state of the art in fundamental analytical technique. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the recently-launch Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission incorporates a quadrupole analyzer to support direct evolved gas as well as gas chromatograph-based analysis of martian rocks and atmosphere, seeking signs of a past or present habitable environment. A next-generation linear ion trap mass spectrometer, using both electron impact and laser ionization, is being incorporated into the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument, which will be flown to Mars in 2018. These and other mass spectrometers and mission concepts at various stages of development will be described.

  2. Deconstructed transverse mass variables

    DOE PAGES

    Ismail, Ahmed; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Virzi, Joseph S.; ...

    2015-04-02

    Traditional searches for R-parity conserving natural supersymmetry (SUSY) require large transverse mass and missing energy cuts to separate the signal from large backgrounds. SUSY models with compressed spectra inherently produce signal events with small amounts of missing energy that are hard to explore. We use this difficulty to motivate the construction of "deconstructed" transverse mass variables which are designed preserve information on both the norm and direction of the missing momentum. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of these variables in searches for the pair production of supersymmetric top-quark partners which subsequently decay into a final state with an isolated lepton,more » jets and missing energy. We show that the use of deconstructed transverse mass variables extends the accessible compressed spectra parameter space beyond the region probed by traditional methods. The parameter space can further be expanded to neutralino masses that are larger than the difference between the stop and top masses. In addition, we also discuss how these variables allow for novel searches of single stop production, in order to directly probe unconstrained stealth stops in the small stop-and neutralino-mass regime. We also demonstrate the utility of these variables for generic gluino and stop searches in all-hadronic final states. Overall, we demonstrate that deconstructed transverse variables are essential to any search wanting to maximize signal separation from the background when the signal has undetected particles in the final state.« less

  3. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  4. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  5. Mass discrimination during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment concerned with the ability of astronauts to discriminate between the mass of objects when both the objects and the astronauts are in weightless states is described. The main object of the experiment is to compare the threshold for weight-discrimination on Earth with that for mass-discrimination in orbit. Tests will be conducted premission and postmission and early and late during the mission while the crew is experiencing weightlessness. A comparison of early and late tests inflight and postflight will reveal the rate of adaptation to zero-gravity and 1-g. The mass discrimination box holds 24 balls which the astronaut will compare to one another in a random routine.

  6. Ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Inventor); Clay, D. R.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.

    1984-01-01

    An ion mass spectrometer is described which detects and indicates the characteristics of ions received over a wide angle, and which indicates the mass to charge ratio, the energy, and the direction of each detected ion. The spectrometer includes a magnetic analyzer having a sector magnet that passes ions received over a wide angle, and an electrostatic analyzer positioned to receive ions passing through the magnetic analyzer. The electrostatic analyzer includes a two dimensional ion sensor at one wall of the analyzer chamber, that senses not only the lengthwise position of the detected ion to indicate its mass to charge ratio, but also detects the ion position along the width of the chamber to indicate the direction in which the ion was traveling.

  7. Role of testis sparing surgery in the conservative management of small testicular masses: oncological and functional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Borghesi, M; Brunocilla, E; Schiavina, R; Gentile, G; Dababneh, H; Della Mora, L; del Prete, C; Franceschelli, A; Colombo, F; Martorana, G

    2015-01-01

    Radical orchiectomy (RO) is still considered the standard of care for malignant germ cell tumours, which represent the vast majority of the palpable testicular masses. In those patients diagnosed with small testicular masses (STMs), testis-sparing surgery (TSS) could be an alternative treatment to RO. The aim of this updated review is to evaluate the current indications for TSS, and discuss the oncological and functional results of patients who had undergone organ-sparing surgery for STMs. A non-systematic review of the Literature using the Medline database has been performed, including a free-text protocol using the terms "testis-sparing surgery", "testicular sparing surgery", "partial orchiectomy", "testis tumour", "sex cord tumour", and "testis function". Other significant studies cited in the reference lists of the selected papers were also evaluated. No randomized controlled trials comparing TSS with radical orchiectomy have been reported yet. In those patients with normal contra-lateral testis, the use of TSS is still controversial. In selected cases of gonadal masses < 2 cm, TSS seems to be a safe and feasible treatment option. Frozen section examination allows us to discriminate between benign and malignant neoplasms during TSS. Intermediate and long-term follow-up results showed no significant risk of local and distant recurrences in the main series reported in the literature. TSS is an effective treatment for STMs in selected patients, limiting the unnecessary surgical over-treatments, without compromising the oncological and functional outcomes. Further studies are needed in order to confirm the oncological safety. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. [Scrotal masses in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Markku; Ala-Lipasti, Mika; Marttila, Timo; Paaso, Ilkka; Raitanen, Mika

    2009-01-01

    GPs often encounter patients with scrotal masses. Most of these are easily diagnosed by means of palpation and transillumination. Scrotal ultrasound is the primary radiological investigation, and should be done in cases of uncertain clinical diagnosis or when a solid mass in the scrotum is suspected. Benign processes such as hydrocele, spermatocele and varicocele are the most common causes for scrotal abnormalities. Symptomatic cases are treated with surgery or percutaneous sclerotherapy/embolization. Malignant testicular tumours, although less frequently seen, need prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment. Radical orchidectomy is the primary treatment, followed by radiochemotherpy in selected cases.

  9. Ballistics/mass properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drendel, Albert S.; Richards, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    The propulsion performance and reconstructed mass properties data from Morton Thiokol's RSRM-4 motors, which were assigned to the STS-30R launch, are presented. The composite type solid propellant burn rates were close to predicted. The performance of the pair of motors were compared to some CEI Specification CPW1-3600 for compliance. Some aspects of the CEI Specification could not be compared because of low sampling of data. The performance of the motors were well within the CEI specification requirements. Post flight reconstructured RSRM mass properties are within expected values for the RSRM quarterweight and halfweight configurations.

  10. Primary Papillary Serous Carcinoma of the Fallopian Tube Presenting as a Vaginal Mass: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kadour-Peero, Einav; Sagi-Dain, Lena; Cohen, Gil; Korobochka, Roman; Agbarya, Abed; Bejar, Jacob; Sagi, Shlomi

    2018-05-07

    BACKGROUND There is now evidence to support that some cases of high-grade serous papillary carcinoma arise from the fallopian tubes rather than the ovaries. Common symptoms at presentation include abdominal pain and swelling, vomiting, altered bowel habit and urinary symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of serous papillary carcinoma presenting as a vaginal mass lesion. CASE REPORT A 41-year-old woman was referred to the Bnai-Zion Medical Center with the main complaint of irregular vaginal bleeding, vaginal mucous discharge, and suspected pelvic mass. Physical examination showed a soft, painless mass, measuring about 10 cm in diameter located mainly in the recto-vaginal septum, but not involving the uterus. Ultrasound examination showed no abnormal ovarian or uterine findings. Transvaginal biopsies of the mass showed a poorly differentiated serous papillary carcinoma of ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal origin. The physical examination and imaging findings strongly indicated an inoperable tumor, and the patient was treated with neoadjuvant (pre-surgical) chemotherapy. Pre-operative computed tomography (CT) imaging showed the partial involvement of the colon, and so surgical treatment included total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, partial vaginectomy, anterior rectal resection, and lymph node dissection. Histopathology of the surgical specimens showed a poorly differentiated serous carcinoma originating from the fimbria of the right fallopian tube. CONCLUSIONS To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe primary fallopian tube papillary serous carcinoma presenting as a vaginal mass. Therefore, physicians should be aware of this possible diagnosis.

  11. Plexiform schwannoma: an unusual clitoral mass.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Anne G; Abualnadi, Noor M; Andraska, Elizabeth A; Tracy, Paige V; Berger, Mitchell B; Haefner, Hope K

    2017-03-01

    Acquired clitoral enlargement is a rare condition resulting from a variety of etiologies, including tumors and excess androgens. Few cases of nonmalignant schwannoma, a benign tumor of the peripheral nerve sheath, have been reported in the literature as causes of clitoral enlargement in patients without known neurofibromatosis. These painless, slow-growing tumors rarely recur once excised. We present the initial investigation of a patient with a large clitoral schwannoma and subsequent treatment with partial vulvectomy. The workup, including advanced pelvic imaging for diagnosis and surgical planning, as well as removal of the clitoral tumor with preservation of functional tissue and restoration of normal vulvar anatomy despite a large excision, is demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stateline: Critical Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In Physics "critical mass" refers to the minimum amount of fissionable material required to sustain a chain reaction. The adoption of state education policy isn't often equated with this concept, but occasionally solutions and ideas seem to gather around a common problem. If the solution at hand is simple, easily understood, and…

  13. Mass Digitization of Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Mass digitization of the bound volumes that we generally call "books" has begun, and, thanks to the interest in Google and all that it does, it is getting widespread media attention. The Open Content Alliance (OCA), a library initiative formed after Google announced its library book digitization project, has brought library digitization projects…

  14. Leptons Masses and Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Terrence; Stephenson, Gerard J., Jr.

    2016-03-01

    We apply our successful modest revision of the quark mass sector of the Standard Model to leptons. We include the effects of the possibility of dark matter fermions, which appear as a number of sterile neutrinos. Email: tjgoldman@post.harvard.edu.

  15. Mass - Metric Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Diane

    This autoinstructional program, developed for high, medium and low level achievers, is directed toward a course in general science in middle schools. Mathematics of fractions and decimals is described as a prerequisite to the use of the packet. Two behavioral objectives are listed. Both involve the students' determining mass, first to the nearest…

  16. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  17. Mass Media and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Alan

    Designed to serve as a basic text for general liberal arts courses in mass communication, this book presents essays, largely from recent magazine articles, written from the layman (although there are a few more overtly scholarly articles). It begins with an examination of the media industries in the United States, treating them as complex…

  18. Is Relativistic Mass Real?

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    One of the oddest features of special relativity is the inability to go faster than the speed of light and this is absolutely true. The most common explanation is that the mass of an object increases with speed, but this particular explanation simply isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the truth behind this.

  19. "Magic" Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The systematic study of the temperature and pressure dependence of matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) led us to the discovery of the seemingly impossible, initially explained by some reviewers as either sleight of hand or the misinterpretation by an overzealous young scientist of results reported many years before and having little utility. The "magic" that we were attempting to report was that with matrix assistance, molecules, at least as large as bovine serum albumin (66 kDa), are lifted into the gas phase as multiply charged ions simply by exposure of the matrix:analyte sample to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Applied heat, a laser, or voltages are not necessary to achieve charge states and ion abundances only previously observed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The fundamentals of how solid phase volatile or nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions without added energy currently involves speculation providing a great opportunity to rethink mechanistic understanding of ionization processes used in mass spectrometry. Improved understanding of the mechanism(s) of these processes and their connection to ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may provide opportunities to further develop new ionization strategies for traditional and yet unforeseen applications of mass spectrometry. This Critical Insights article covers developments leading to the discovery of a seemingly magic ionization process that is simple to use, fast, sensitive, robust, and can be directly applied to surface characterization using portable or high performance mass spectrometers.

  20. Processes of Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channey, David

    This sociological treatment of mass communications analysis first discusses the theories of audience behavior, then turns to the organization of media production, and closes with a study of performance. The book covers audience needs and gratifications, the history of British press and broadcasting results of systems of media distribution, the…

  1. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    PubMed

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  2. Rotation and Mass Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, S.

    2008-06-01

    Stellar rotation can play an important role in structuring and enhancing the mass loss from massive stars. Initial 1D models focussed on the expected centrifugal enhancement of the line-driven mass flux from the equator of a rotating star, but the review here emphasizes that the loss of centrifugal support away from the stellar surface actually limits the steady mass flux to just the point-star CAK value, with models near critical rotation characterized by a slow, subcritical acceleration. Recent suggestions that such slow outflows might have high enough density to explain disks in Be or B[e] stars are examined in the context of 2D simulations of the ``Wind Compressed Disk'' (WCD) paradigm, together with a review of the tendency for poleward components of the line-driving force to inhibit WCD formation. When one accounts for equatorial gravity darkening, the net tendency is in fact for the relatively bright regions at higher latitude to drive a faster, denser ``bipolar'' outflow. I discuss the potential relevance for the bipolar form of nebulae from LBV stars like η Carinae, but emphasize that, since the large mass loss associated with the eruption of eta Carinae's Homunculus would heavily saturate line-driving, explaining its bipolar form requires development of analogous models for continuum-driven mass loss. I conclude with a discussion of how radiation seems inherently ill-suited to supporting or driving a geometrically thin, but optically thick disk or disk outflow. The disks inferred in Be and B[e] stars may instead be centrifugally ejected, with radiation inducing an ablation flow from the disk surface, and thus perhaps playing a greater role in destroying (rather than creating) an orbiting, circumstellar disk.

  3. Method for calibrating mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2002-12-24

    A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

  4. Nanoscale mass conveyors

    DOEpatents

    Regan, Brian C [Oakland, CA; Aloni, Shaul [Albany, CA; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, CA

    2008-03-11

    A mass transport method and device for individually delivering chargeable atoms or molecules from source particles is disclosed. It comprises a channel; at least one source particle of chargeable material fixed to the surface of the channel at a position along its length; a means of heating the channel; and a means for applying an controllable electric field along the channel, whereby the device transports the atoms or molecules along the channel in response to applied electric field. In a preferred embodiment, the mass transport device will comprise a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT), although other one dimensional structures may also be used. The MWNT or other structure acts as a channel for individual or small collections of atoms due to the atomic smoothness of the material. Also preferred is a source particle of a metal such as indium. The particles move by dissociation into small units, in some cases, individual atoms. The particles are preferably less than 100 nm in size.

  5. Desorption in Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek Tursunbayevich; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Chen, Lee Chuin; Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Sakai, Yuji; Takaishi, Rio; Habib, Ahsan; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Takeda, Sen; Wada, Hiroshi; Nonami, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In mass spectrometry, analytes must be released in the gas phase. There are two representative methods for the gasification of the condensed samples, i.e. , ablation and desorption. While ablation is based on the explosion induced by the energy accumulated in the condensed matrix, desorption is a single molecular process taking place on the surface. In this paper, desorption methods for mass spectrometry developed in our laboratory: flash heating/rapid cooling, Leidenfrost phenomenon-assisted thermal desorption (LPTD), solid/solid friction, liquid/solid friction, electrospray droplet impact (EDI) ionization/desorption, and probe electrospray ionization (PESI), will be described. All the methods are concerned with the surface and interface phenomena. The concept of how to desorb less-volatility compounds from the surface will be discussed.

  6. Desorption in Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek Tursunbayevich; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Chen, Lee Chuin; Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Sakai, Yuji; Takaishi, Rio; Habib, Ahsan; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Takeda, Sen; Wada, Hiroshi; Nonami, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In mass spectrometry, analytes must be released in the gas phase. There are two representative methods for the gasification of the condensed samples, i.e., ablation and desorption. While ablation is based on the explosion induced by the energy accumulated in the condensed matrix, desorption is a single molecular process taking place on the surface. In this paper, desorption methods for mass spectrometry developed in our laboratory: flash heating/rapid cooling, Leidenfrost phenomenon-assisted thermal desorption (LPTD), solid/solid friction, liquid/solid friction, electrospray droplet impact (EDI) ionization/desorption, and probe electrospray ionization (PESI), will be described. All the methods are concerned with the surface and interface phenomena. The concept of how to desorb less-volatility compounds from the surface will be discussed. PMID:28337398

  7. Fretted Terrain Mass Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    18 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of a small mass movement in a fretted terrain valley in the Coloe Fossae region of Mars (see upper right quarter of the image). The term, mass movement, is usually applied to landslides, although it is unclear in this case whether the landform resulted from a single, catastrophic landslide, or the slow creep of ice-rich debris.

    Location near: 35.3oN, 303.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Summer

  8. Single event mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, Robert J.

    1990-01-16

    A means and method for single event time of flight mass spectrometry for analysis of specimen materials. The method of the invention includes pulsing an ion source imposing at least one pulsed ion onto the specimen to produce a corresponding emission of at least one electrically charged particle. The emitted particle is then dissociated into a charged ion component and an uncharged neutral component. The ion and neutral components are then detected. The time of flight of the components are recorded and can be used to analyze the predecessor of the components, and therefore the specimen material. When more than one ion particle is emitted from the specimen per single ion impact, the single event time of flight mass spectrometer described here furnis This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG82 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

  9. Linear Proof Mass Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, Sidney E., III

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and lessons learned by developing a uniquely designed spaceflight-like actuator. The linear proof mass actuator (LPMA) was designed to attach to both a large space structure and a ground test model without modification. Previous designs lacked the power to perform in a terrestrial environment while other designs failed to produce the desired accelerations or frequency range for spaceflight applications. Thus, the design for a unique actuator was conceived and developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The basic design consists of four large mechanical parts (mass, upper housing, lower housing, and center support) and numerous smaller supporting components including an accelerometer, encoder, and four drive motors. Fabrication personnel were included early in the design phase of the LPMA as part of an integrated manufacturing process to alleviate potential difficulties in machining an already challenging design. Operating testing of the LPMA demonstrated that the actuator is capable of various types of load functions.

  10. Linear Proof Mass Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, S. E., III

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and lessons learned by developing a uniquely designed spaceflight-like actuator. The Linear Proof Mass Actuator (LPMA) was designed to attach to both a large space structure and a ground test model without modification. Previous designs lacked the power to perform in a terrestrial environment while other designs failed to produce the desired accelerations or frequency range for spaceflight applications. Thus, the design for a unique actuator was conceived and developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The basic design consists of four large mechanical parts (Mass, Upper Housing, Lower Housing, and Center Support) and numerous smaller supporting components including an accelerometer, encoder, and four drive motors. Fabrication personnel were included early in the design phase of the LPMA as part of an integrated manufacturing process to alleviate potential difficulties in machining an already challenging design. Operational testing of the LPMA demonstrated that the actuator is capable of various types of load functions.

  11. Experiments with probe masses

    PubMed Central

    Braginsky, V. B.

    2007-01-01

    It is reasonable to regard the experiments performed by C. Coulomb and H. Cavendish in the end of the 18th century as the beginning of laboratory experimental physics. These outstanding scientists have measured forces (accelerations) produced by electric charges and by gravitational “charges” on probe masses that were attached to torque balance. Among the variety of different research programs and projects existing today, experiments with probe masses are still playing an important role. In this short review, the achieved and planned sensitivities of very challenging LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) and LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antennae) projects are described, and a list of nonsolved problems is discussed as well. The role of quantum fluctuations in high precision measurements is also outlined. Apart from these main topics, the limitations of sensitivity caused by cosmic rays and the prospects of clock frequency stability are presented. PMID:17296944

  12. Buoyancy contribution to uncertainty of mass, conventional mass and force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malengo, Andrea; Bich, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The conventional mass is a useful concept introduced to reduce the impact of the buoyancy correction in everyday mass measurements, thus avoiding in most cases its accurate determination, necessary in measurements of ‘true’ mass. Although usage of conventional mass is universal and standardized, the concept is considered as a sort of second-choice tool, to be avoided in high-accuracy applications. In this paper we show that this is a false belief, by elucidating the role played by covariances between volume and mass and between volume and conventional mass at the various stages of the dissemination chain and in the relationship between the uncertainties of mass and conventional mass. We arrive at somewhat counter-intuitive results: the volume of the transfer standard plays a comparatively minor role in the uncertainty budget of the standard under calibration. In addition, conventional mass is preferable to mass in normal, in-air operation, as its uncertainty is smaller than that of mass, if covariance terms are properly taken into account, and the uncertainty over-stating (typically) resulting from neglecting them is less severe than that (always) occurring with mass. The same considerations hold for force. In this respect, we show that the associated uncertainty is the same using mass or conventional mass, and, again, that the latter is preferable if covariance terms are neglected.

  13. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mayne, Leland

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data. PMID:26791986

  14. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

    2014-06-13

    Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

  15. Cepheid Masses and Isochrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. R.

    Spectra of binary systems containing a Cepheid and a hot companion have been obtained with HST and IUE. Masses for 5 Cepheids are in agreement with evolutionary calculations using a moderate amount of convective overshoot. In another study of the HR diagram, half the systems with a Terminal Age Main Sequence (TAMS) companion do not match isochrones. Rotation in the companion is a possible explanation.

  16. Clinical protein mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scherl, Alexander

    2015-06-15

    Quantitative protein analysis is routinely performed in clinical chemistry laboratories for diagnosis, therapeutic monitoring, and prognosis. Today, protein assays are mostly performed either with non-specific detection methods or immunoassays. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a very specific analytical method potentially very well suited for clinical laboratories. Its unique advantage relies in the high specificity of the detection. Any protein sequence variant, the presence of a post-translational modification or degradation will differ in mass and structure, and these differences will appear in the mass spectrum of the protein. On the other hand, protein MS is a relatively young technique, demanding specialized personnel and expensive instrumentation. Many scientists and opinion leaders predict MS to replace immunoassays for routine protein analysis, but there are only few protein MS applications routinely used in clinical chemistry laboratories today. The present review consists of a didactical introduction summarizing the pros and cons of MS assays compared to immunoassays, the different instrumentations, and various MS protein assays that have been proposed and/or are used in clinical laboratories. An important distinction is made between full length protein analysis (top-down method) and peptide analysis after enzymatic digestion of the proteins (bottom-up method) and its implication for the protein assay. The document ends with an outlook on what type of analyses could be used in the future, and for what type of applications MS has a clear advantage compared to immunoassays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mass extinction: a commentary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    Four neocatastrophist claims about mass extinction are currently being debated; they are that: 1, the late Cretaceous mass extinction was caused by large body impact; 2, as many as five other major extinctions were caused by impact; 3, the timing of extinction events since the Permian is uniformly periodic; and 4, the ages of impact craters on Earth are also periodic and in phase with the extinctions. Although strongly interconnected the four claims are independent in the sense that none depends on the others. Evidence for a link between impact and extinction is strong but still needs more confirmation through bed-by-bed and laboratory studies. An important area for future research is the question of whether extinction is a continuous process, with the rate increasing at times of mass extinctions, or whether it is episodic at all scales. If the latter is shown to be generally true, then species are at risk of extinction only rarely during their existence and catastrophism, in the sense of isolated events of extreme stress, is indicated. This is line of reasoning can only be considered an hypothesis for testing. In a larger context, paleontologists may benefit from a research strategy that looks to known Solar System and Galactic phenomena for predictions about environmental effects on earth. The recent success in the recognition of Milankovitch Cycles in the late Pleistocene record is an example of the potential of this research area.

  18. Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Frank Q.

    2015-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an index of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299

  19. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  20. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Tonon, Thomas

    2007-09-18

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  1. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew [Princeton, NJ; Sibilia, Marc J [Princeton, NJ; Miller, Jeffrey A [Hopewell, NJ; Tonon, Thomas [Princeton, NJ

    2011-06-28

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  2. MASS SPECTROMETER LEAK

    DOEpatents

    Shields, W.R.

    1960-10-18

    An improved valve is described for precisely regulating the flow of a sample fluid to be analyzed, such as in a mass spectrometer, where a gas sample is allowed to "leak" into an evacuated region at a very low, controlled rate. The flow regulating valve controls minute flow of gases by allowing the gas to diffuse between two mating surfaces. The structure of the valve is such as to prevent the corrosive feed gas from contacting the bellows which is employed in the operation of the valve, thus preventing deterioration of the bellows.

  3. Polaris: Mass and Multiplicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    NW, Washington, D.C. 20392-5420, USA Abstract. Polaris, the nearest and brightest classical Cepheid, is a member of at least a triple system. It...has a wide (18′′) physical companion, the F-type dwarf Polaris B. Polaris itself is a single-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of ∼30...orbit, the Hipparcos parallax, and our measurement of the separation (0′′.176 ± 0′′.002), we find a preliminary mass of 5.0 ± 1.5 M for the Cepheid and

  4. Determination of effective thoracic mass.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-02-01

    Effective thoracic mass is a critical parameter in specifying mathematical and mechanical models (such as crash dummies) of humans exposed to impact conditions. A method is developed using a numerical optimizer to determine effective thoracic mass (a...

  5. Calculate the Top Quark Mass

    Science.gov Websites

    Searching for Top How do today's scientists use conservation of momentum? Particle physicists mass into energy and then energy into mass! You can use the principle of conservation of momentum which

  6. The Mass Distribution of Stellar-mass Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Will M.; Sravan, Niharika; Cantrell, Andrew; Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D.; Mandel, Ilya; Kalogera, Vicky

    2011-11-01

    We perform a Bayesian analysis of the mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes using the observed masses of 15 low-mass X-ray binary systems undergoing Roche lobe overflow and 5 high-mass, wind-fed X-ray binary systems. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, we model the mass distribution both parametrically—as a power law, exponential, Gaussian, combination of two Gaussians, or log-normal distribution—and non-parametrically—as histograms with varying numbers of bins. We provide confidence bounds on the shape of the mass distribution in the context of each model and compare the models with each other by calculating their relative Bayesian evidence as supported by the measurements, taking into account the number of degrees of freedom of each model. The mass distribution of the low-mass systems is best fit by a power law, while the distribution of the combined sample is best fit by the exponential model. This difference indicates that the low-mass subsample is not consistent with being drawn from the distribution of the combined population. We examine the existence of a "gap" between the most massive neutron stars and the least massive black holes by considering the value, M 1%, of the 1% quantile from each black hole mass distribution as the lower bound of black hole masses. Our analysis generates posterior distributions for M 1%; the best model (the power law) fitted to the low-mass systems has a distribution of lower bounds with M 1%>4.3 M sun with 90% confidence, while the best model (the exponential) fitted to all 20 systems has M 1%>4.5 M sun with 90% confidence. We conclude that our sample of black hole masses provides strong evidence of a gap between the maximum neutron star mass and the lower bound on black hole masses. Our results on the low-mass sample are in qualitative agreement with those of Ozel et al., although our broad model selection analysis more reliably reveals the best-fit quantitative description of the underlying mass

  7. Linear Proof-Mass Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, Sidney E., III; Crossley, Edward A.; Miller, James B.; Jones, Irby W.; Davis, C. Calvin; Behun, Vaughn D.; Goodrich, Lewis R., Sr.

    1995-01-01

    Linear proof-mass actuator (LPMA) is friction-driven linear mass actuator capable of applying controlled force to structure in outer space to damp out oscillations. Capable of high accelerations and provides smooth, bidirectional travel of mass. Design eliminates gears and belts. LPMA strong enough to be used terrestrially where linear actuators needed to excite or damp out oscillations. High flexibility designed into LPMA by varying size of motors, mass, and length of stroke, and by modifying control software.

  8. MASS SPECTROMETRY IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers applications of mass spectrometry to the environmental sciences. From the early applications of mass spectrometry to environmental research in the 1960s and 1970s, mass spectrometry has played an important role in aiding our understanding of environmental poll...

  9. Mass properties measurement system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Keith L.

    1993-01-01

    The MPMS mechanism possess two revolute degrees-of-freedom and allows the user to measure the mass, center of gravity, and the inertia tensor of an unknown mass. The dynamics of the Mass Properties Measurement System (MPMS) from the Lagrangian approach to illustrate the dependency of the motion on the unknown parameters.

  10. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCoursey, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the organization of a graduate course dealing with mass transfer, particularly as it relates to chemical reactions. Discusses the course outline, including mathematics models of mass transfer, enhancement of mass transfer rates by homogeneous chemical reaction, and gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction. (TW)

  11. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  12. Neutrino mass sum-rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanik, Asan

    2018-03-01

    Neutrino mass sum-rele is a very important research subject from theoretical side because neutrino oscillation experiment only gave us two squared-mass differences and three mixing angles. We review neutrino mass sum-rule in literature that have been reported by many authors and discuss its phenomenological implications.

  13. The double well mass filter

    DOE PAGES

    Gueroult, Renaud; Rax, Jean -Marcel; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-02-03

    Various mass filter concepts based on rotating plasmas have been suggested with the specific purpose of nuclear waste remediation. We report on a new rotating mass filter combining radial separation with axial extraction. Lastly, the radial separation of the masses is the result of a “double-well” in effective radial potential in rotating plasma with a sheared rotation profile.

  14. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, David J.; Nordholt, Jane E.

    1992-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field.

  15. The Discrepancy between Einstein Mass and Dynamical Mass for SIS and Power-law Mass Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Jiancheng; Shu, Yiping; Xu, Zhaoyi

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the discrepancy between the two-dimensional projected lensing mass and the dynamical mass for an ensemble of 97 strong gravitational lensing systems discovered by the Sloan Lens ACS Survey, the BOSS Emission-Line Lens Survey (BELLS), and the BELLS for GALaxy-Lyα EmitteR sYstems Survey. We fit the lensing data to obtain the Einstein mass and use the velocity dispersion of the lensing galaxies provided by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to get the projected dynamical mass within the Einstein radius by assuming the power-law mass approximation. The discrepancy is found to be obvious and quantified by Bayesian analysis. For the singular isothermal sphere mass model, we obtain that the Einstein mass is 20.7% more than the dynamical mass, and the discrepancy increases with the redshift of the lensing galaxies. For the more general power-law mass model, the discrepancy still exists within a 1σ credible region. We suspect the main reason for this discrepancy is mass contamination, including all invisible masses along the line of sight. In addition, the measurement errors and the approximation of the mass models could also contribute to the discrepancy.

  16. Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

  17. ON THE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND BIRTH MASSES OF NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Oezel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Santos Villarreal, Antonio

    We investigate the distribution of neutron star masses in different populations of binaries, employing Bayesian statistical techniques. In particular, we explore the differences in neutron star masses between sources that have experienced distinct evolutionary paths and accretion episodes. We find that the distribution of neutron star masses in non-recycled eclipsing high-mass binaries as well as of slow pulsars, which are all believed to be near their birth masses, has a mean of 1.28 M{sub Sun} and a dispersion of 0.24 M{sub Sun }. These values are consistent with expectations for neutron star formation in core-collapse supernovae. On the other hand,more » double neutron stars, which are also believed to be near their birth masses, have a much narrower mass distribution, peaking at 1.33 M{sub Sun }, but with a dispersion of only 0.05 M{sub Sun }. Such a small dispersion cannot easily be understood and perhaps points to a particular and rare formation channel. The mass distribution of neutron stars that have been recycled has a mean of 1.48 M{sub Sun} and a dispersion of 0.2 M{sub Sun }, consistent with the expectation that they have experienced extended mass accretion episodes. The fact that only a very small fraction of recycled neutron stars in the inferred distribution have masses that exceed {approx}2 M{sub Sun} suggests that only a few of these neutron stars cross the mass threshold to form low-mass black holes.« less

  18. Differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast masses using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Min, Qinghua; Shao, Kangwei; Zhai, Lulan; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Caisong; Yuan, Lixin; Yang, Jun

    2015-02-07

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is different from conventional diagnostic methods and has the potential to delineate the microscopic anatomy of a target tissue or organ. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the value of DW-MRI in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast masses, which would help the clinical surgeon to decide the scope and pattern of operation. A total of 52 female patients with palpable solid breast masses received breast MRI scans using routine sequences, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging at b values of 400, 600, and 800 s/mm(2), respectively. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were plotted, with a smaller ROI for the highest signal and a larger ROI for the overall lesion. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated at three different b values for all detectable lesions and from two different ROIs. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and positive likelihood ratio of DW-MRI were determined for comparison with histological results. A total of 49 (49/52, 94.2%) lesions were detected using DW-MRI, including 20 benign lesions (two lesions detected in the same patient) and 29 malignant lesions. Benign lesion had a higher mean ADC value than their malignant counterparts, regardless of b value. According to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the smaller-range ROI was more effective in differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. The area under the ROC curve was the largest at a b value of 800 s/mm(2). With a threshold ADC value at 1.23 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, DW-MRI achieved a sensitivity of 82.8%, specificity of 90.0%, positive predictive value of 92.3%, and positive likelihood ratio of 8.3 for differentiating benign and malignant lesions. DW-MRI is an accurate diagnostic tool for differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions, with an optimal b value of 800 s/mm(2). A smaller-range ROI focusing on the

  19. Spacecraft telecommunications system mass estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, J. H.; Sakamoto, L. L.

    1988-01-01

    Mass is the most important limiting parameter for present-day planetary spacecraft design, In fact, the entire design can be characterized by mass. The more efficient the design of the spacecraft, the less mass will be required. The communications system is an essential and integral part of planetary spacecraft. A study is presented of the mass attributable to the communications system for spacecraft designs used in recent missions in an attempt to help guide future design considerations and research and development efforts. The basic approach is to examine the spacecraft by subsystem and allocate a portion of each subsystem to telecommunications. Conceptually, this is to divide the spacecraft into two parts, telecommunications and nontelecommunications. In this way, it is clear what the mass attributable to the communications system is. The percentage of mass is calculated using the actual masses of the spacecraft parts, except in the case of CRAF. In that case, estimated masses are used since the spacecraft was not yet built. The results show that the portion of the spacecraft attributable to telecommunications is substantial. The mass fraction for Voyager, Galileo, and CRAF (Mariner Mark 2) is 34, 19, and 18 percent, respectively. The large reduction of telecommunications mass from Voyager to Galileo is mainly due to the use of a deployable antenna instead of the solid antenna on Voyager.

  20. Boundaries of mass resolution in native mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lössl, Philip; Snijder, Joost; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-06-01

    Over the last two decades, native mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a valuable tool to study intact proteins and noncovalent protein complexes. Studied experimental systems range from small-molecule (drug)-protein interactions, to nanomachineries such as the proteasome and ribosome, to even virus assembly. In native MS, ions attain high m/z values, requiring special mass analyzers for their detection. Depending on the particular mass analyzer used, instrumental mass resolution does often decrease at higher m/z but can still be above a couple of thousand at m/z 5000. However, the mass resolving power obtained on charge states of protein complexes in this m/z region is experimentally found to remain well below the inherent instrument resolution of the mass analyzers employed. Here, we inquire into reasons for this discrepancy and ask how native MS would benefit from higher instrumental mass resolution. To answer this question, we discuss advantages and shortcomings of mass analyzers used to study intact biomolecules and biomolecular complexes in their native state, and we review which other factors determine mass resolving power in native MS analyses. Recent examples from the literature are given to illustrate the current status and limitations.

  1. Holograms for the Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newswanger, Craig; Klug, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Traditional holography subject matter has been generally limited to small dead things (SMD). Pulse lasers and the advent of holographic stereography have made it easier to make holograms of scaled objects and those that live (un-SMD), at a cost of single dimensional parallax or monochromaticity. While stunning results have been produced, all of these required access to a lab, expensive lasers and optics, and infinite patience, care and skill to collect and record content. This complexity has generally kept holography out of reach for the masses. The recent introduction of new 3D data sources, free or inexpensive composition and editing software, and fast, consistent print services may make it possible to finally "democratize" holography, and enable image makers to focus on message rather than medium. This paper will outline several photogrammetry-based methods for producing 3D content for holograms (with a camera and mouse finger), software applications for editing, positioning and lighting, and production means that are usable by anyone, from novice to professional. We will present step-by-step examples and display results depicting various subject matter, from color holographic portraits made from smart phone input to holographic maps made from movies collected with remote control airplanes. The aim is to inspire image making, spontaneity, and maybe even social media-based collaboration to make EVERYONE a holographer.

  2. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Lung Mass in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Washko, George R.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Ross, James C.; San José Estépar, Raúl; Han, MeiLan K.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Kim, Victor; Hatabu, Hiroto; Come, Carolyn E.; Bowler, Russell P.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James; Lynch, David A.; Hokanson, John; Diaz, Alejandro A.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale and Objective Emphysema is characterized by airspace dilation, inflammation, and irregular deposition of elastin and collagen in the interstitium. Computed tomographic (CT) studies have reported that lung mass (LM) may be increased in smokers, a finding attributed to inflammatory and parenchymal remodeling processes observed on histopathology. We sought to examine the epidemiologic and clinical associations of LM in smokers. Materials and Methods Baseline epidemiologic, clinical, and CT data (n=8,156) from smokers enrolled into the COPDGene Study were analyzed. LM was calculated from the CT scan. Changes in lung function at five-year follow-up were available from 1,623 subjects. Regression analysis was performed to assess for associations of LM with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1 decline. Results Subjects with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 COPD had greater LM than either smokers with normal lung function or those with GOLD 2–4 COPD (P<0.001 for both comparisons). LM was predictive of rate of the decline in FEV1 (decline per 100 g, −4.7 ± 1.7 ml/yr, P=0.006). Conclusion Our cross sectional data suggest the presence of a biphasic radiologic remodeling process in smokers: the presence of such non-linearity must be accounted for in longitudinal CT studies. Baseline LM predicts the decline in lung function. PMID:27940230

  4. Optical mass memory investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The MASTER 1 optical mass storage system advanced working model (AWM) was designed to demonstrate recording and playback of imagery data and to enable quantitative data to be derived as to the statistical distribution of raw errors experienced through the system. The AWM consists of two subsystems, the recorder and storage and retrieval. The recorder subsystem utilizes key technologies such as an acoustic travelling wave lens to achieve recording of digital data on fiche at a rate of 30 Mbits/sec, whereas the storage and retrieval reproducer subsystem utilizes a less complex optical system that employs an acousto-optical beam deflector to achieve data readout at a 5 Mbits/sec rate. The system has the built in capability for detecting and collecting error statistics. The recorder and storage and retrieval subsystems operate independent of one another and are each constructed in modular form with each module performing independent functions. The operation of each module and its interface to other modules is controlled by one controller for both subsystems.

  5. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  6. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  7. The Neutron Star Mass Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiziltan, Bülent; Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria; Thorsett, Stephen E.

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M ⊙ and 1.55 M ⊙, suggesting significant mass accretion (Δm ≈ 0.22 M ⊙) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ~2.1 M ⊙ for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M ⊙ limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

  8. Survey of Mass Storage Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    software that Pre- cision Instruments can provide. System Name: IBM 3850 Mass Storage System Manufacturer and Location: International Business Machines...34 Datamation, pp. 52-58, October 1973. 15 17. International Business Machines, IBM 3850 Mass Storage System Facts Folder, White Plains, NY, n.d. 18... International Business Machines, Introduction to the IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS), White Plains, NY, n.d. 19. International Business Machines

  9. Lung Mass in Smokers.

    PubMed

    Washko, George R; Kinney, Gregory L; Ross, James C; San José Estépar, Raúl; Han, MeiLan K; Dransfield, Mark T; Kim, Victor; Hatabu, Hiroto; Come, Carolyn E; Bowler, Russell P; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John; Diaz, Alejandro A

    2017-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by airspace dilation, inflammation, and irregular deposition of elastin and collagen in the interstitium. Computed tomographic studies have reported that lung mass (LM) may be increased in smokers, a finding attributed to inflammatory and parenchymal remodeling processes observed on histopathology. We sought to examine the epidemiologic and clinical associations of LM in smokers. Baseline epidemiologic, clinical, and computed tomography (CT) data (n = 8156) from smokers enrolled into the COPDGene Study were analyzed. LM was calculated from the CT scan. Changes in lung function at 5 years' follow-up were available from 1623 subjects. Regression analysis was performed to assess for associations of LM with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 decline. Subjects with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had greater LM than either smokers with normal lung function or those with GOLD 2-4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < 0.001 for both comparisons). LM was predictive of the rate of the decline in FEV 1 (decline per 100 g, -4.7 ± 1.7 mL/y, P = 0.006). Our cross-sectional data suggest the presence of a biphasic radiological remodeling process in smokers: the presence of such nonlinearity must be accounted for in longitudinal computed tomographic studies. Baseline LM predicts the decline in lung function. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Luxury for the masses.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Michael J; Fiske, Neil

    2003-04-01

    Increasingly wide income disparities, higher levels of education, and greater awareness of other cultures' ideas of the good life have given rise to a new class of American consumer. And a new category of products and services, including automobiles, apparel, food, wine, and spirits, has sprung into being to cater to it. That category is called new luxury. America's middle-market consumers are trading up to higher levels of quality and taste than ever before. Members of the middle market (those earning $50,000 and above annually) collectively have around $1 trillion of disposable income. And they will pay premiums of 20% to 200% for well-designed, well-engineered, and well-crafted goods that can't be found in the mass middle market and that have the artisanal touches of traditional luxury items. Most important, even when they address basic necessities, such goods evoke and engage consumers' emotions while feeding their aspirations for a better life. Supply-side forces are essential to the rise of new luxury. Like the consumers of their goods, entrepreneurs are better educated and more sophisticated about their customers than ever before. In addition, global sourcing, falling trade barriers and transportation costs, and rising offshore manufacturing standards are making possible the economical production of alluring products of high quality. Unlike old-luxury goods, new-luxury products can generate high sales volumes despite their relatively high prices. As a result, new-luxury companies are achieving levels of profitability and growth beyond the reach of their conventional competitors. Whether the item in question is a $6 Panera sandwich or a $30,000 Mercedes, new luxury is a formula that middle-market companies, facing erosion of their market share by high-end and low-end producers, can ill afford to ignore.

  11. Negative effective mass in acoustic metamaterial with nonlinear mass-in-mass subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveticanin, L.; Zukovic, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper the dynamics of the nonlinear mass-in-mass system as the basic subsystem of the acoustic metamaterial is investigated. The excitation of the system is in the form of the Jacobi elliptic function. The corresponding model to this forcing is the mass-in-mass system with cubic nonlinearity of the Duffing type. Mathematical model of the motion is a system of two coupled strong nonlinear and nonhomogeneous second order differential equations. Particular solution to the system is obtained. The analytical solution of the problem is based on the simple and double integral of the cosine Jacobi function. In the paper the integrals are given in the form of series of trigonometric functions. These results are new one. After some modification the simplified solution in the first approximation is obtained. The result is convenient for discussion. Conditions for elimination of the motion of the mass 1 by connection of the nonlinear dynamic absorber (mass - spring system) are defined. In the consideration the effective mass ratio is introduced in the nonlinear mass-in-mass system. Negative effective mass ratio gives the absorption of vibrations with certain frequencies. The advantage of the nonlinear subunit in comparison to the linear one is that the frequency gap is significantly wider. Nevertheless, it has to be mentioned that the amplitude of vibration differs from zero for a small value. In the paper the analytical results are compared with numerical one and are in agreement.

  12. Vortex mass in a superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simula, Tapio

    2018-02-01

    We consider the inertial mass of a vortex in a superfluid. We obtain a vortex mass that is well defined and is determined microscopically and self-consistently by the elementary excitation energy of the kelvon quasiparticle localized within the vortex core. The obtained result for the vortex mass is found to be consistent with experimental observations on superfluid quantum gases and vortex rings in water. We propose a method to measure the inertial rest mass and Berry phase of a vortex in superfluid Bose and Fermi gases.

  13. Mass loss and stellar superwinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Jorick S.

    2017-09-01

    Mass loss bridges the gap between massive stars and supernovae (SNe) in two major ways: (i) theoretically, it is the amount of mass lost that determines the mass of the star prior to explosion and (ii) observations of the circumstellar material around SNe may teach us the type of progenitor that made the SN. Here, I present the latest models and observations of mass loss from massive stars, both for canonical massive O stars, as well as very massive stars that show Wolf-Rayet type features. This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'.

  14. Mass loss and stellar superwinds.

    PubMed

    Vink, Jorick S

    2017-10-28

    Mass loss bridges the gap between massive stars and supernovae (SNe) in two major ways: (i) theoretically, it is the amount of mass lost that determines the mass of the star prior to explosion and (ii) observations of the circumstellar material around SNe may teach us the type of progenitor that made the SN. Here, I present the latest models and observations of mass loss from massive stars, both for canonical massive O stars, as well as very massive stars that show Wolf-Rayet type features.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Atomic masses 1993. The 1993 atomic mass evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audi, G.; Wapstra, A. H.

    1993-11-01

    The 1993 atomic mass evaluation by G. Audi and A.H. Wapstra is documented. The resulting data files containing recommended values of atomic masses, obtained by experiment of systematics, and related data such as reaction and separation energies are described. The data files can be obtained through online services from several nuclear data centers or on magnetic tape, free of charge.

  16. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women Bones are the framework for ... that affect peak bone mass. Factors Affecting Peak Bone Mass A variety of genetic and environmental factors ...

  17. Imaging mass spectrometry statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emrys A; Deininger, Sören-Oliver; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Deelder, André M; McDonnell, Liam A

    2012-08-30

    Imaging mass spectrometry is increasingly used to identify new candidate biomarkers. This clinical application of imaging mass spectrometry is highly multidisciplinary: expertise in mass spectrometry is necessary to acquire high quality data, histology is required to accurately label the origin of each pixel's mass spectrum, disease biology is necessary to understand the potential meaning of the imaging mass spectrometry results, and statistics to assess the confidence of any findings. Imaging mass spectrometry data analysis is further complicated because of the unique nature of the data (within the mass spectrometry field); several of the assumptions implicit in the analysis of LC-MS/profiling datasets are not applicable to imaging. The very large size of imaging datasets and the reporting of many data analysis routines, combined with inadequate training and accessible reviews, have exacerbated this problem. In this paper we provide an accessible review of the nature of imaging data and the different strategies by which the data may be analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the assumptions of the data analysis routines to ensure that the reader is apprised of their correct usage in imaging mass spectrometry research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mass trapping for Anastrepha suspensa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mass trapping has been found to be highly effective for control of pest fruit flies when populations are low and a highly effective lure is available for the target species. Successful population control through mass trapping is an indicator that attract-and-kill bait stations may be equally succes...

  19. An Empirical Mass Function Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, S. G.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Power, C.

    2018-03-01

    The halo mass function, encoding the comoving number density of dark matter halos of a given mass, plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. As such, it is a key goal of current and future deep optical surveys to constrain the mass function down to mass scales that typically host {L}\\star galaxies. Motivated by the proven accuracy of Press–Schechter-type mass functions, we introduce a related but purely empirical form consistent with standard formulae to better than 4% in the medium-mass regime, {10}10{--}{10}13 {h}-1 {M}ȯ . In particular, our form consists of four parameters, each of which has a simple interpretation, and can be directly related to parameters of the galaxy distribution, such as {L}\\star . Using this form within a hierarchical Bayesian likelihood model, we show how individual mass-measurement errors can be successfully included in a typical analysis, while accounting for Eddington bias. We apply our form to a question of survey design in the context of a semi-realistic data model, illustrating how it can be used to obtain optimal balance between survey depth and angular coverage for constraints on mass function parameters. Open-source Python and R codes to apply our new form are provided at http://mrpy.readthedocs.org and https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/tggd/index.html respectively.

  20. Mass Notification for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Mass notification is a high priority in educational institutions. As the number of electronic communication devices has diversified, so has the complexity of designing an effective mass notification system. Picking the right system, with the right features, support services and price, can be daunting. This publication, updated quarterly due to…

  1. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to adult men and women. Enter your weight and height using standard or metric measures. Select "Compute BMI" and your ...

  2. A Tale of Two Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an application of standard undergraduate ODE techniques to a modern engineering problem, that of using a tuned mass damper to control the vibration of a skyscraper. This material can be used in any ODE course in which the students have been familiarized with basic spring-mass models, resonance, and linear systems of ODEs.…

  3. Accurate Mass Determination of Organotrifluoroborates

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Daniel E.; Kohli, Rakesh K.; Molander, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Exact mass measurements were obtained for a variety of potassium- and tetra-n-butylammonium organotrifluoroborates using commercially available organic sulfate salts as internal reference standards. Accuracies were determined within 5 ppm using a sector ESI mass spectrometer operating in the negative ionization mode. PMID:17112738

  4. Mass Extinctions Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allmon, Warren Douglas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some parallels that seem to exist between mass extinction recognizable in the geologic record and the impending extinction of a significant proportion of the earth's species due largely to tropical deforestation. Describes some recent theories of causal factors and periodicities in mass extinction. (Author/TW)

  5. Macro-microscopic mass formulae and nuclear mass predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, G.; Guilbaud, M.; Onillon, A.

    2010-12-01

    Different mass formulae derived from the liquid drop model and the pairing and shell energies of the Thomas-Fermi model have been studied and compared. They include or not the diffuseness correction to the Coulomb energy, the charge exchange correction term, the curvature energy, different forms of the Wigner term and powers of the relative neutron excess I=(N-Z)/A. Their coefficients have been determined by a least square fitting procedure to 2027 experimental atomic masses (G. Audi et al. (2003) [1]). The Coulomb diffuseness correction Z/A term or the charge exchange correction Z/A term plays the main role to improve the accuracy of the mass formula. The Wigner term and the curvature energy can also be used separately but their coefficients are very unstable. The different fits lead to a surface energy coefficient of around 17-18 MeV. A large equivalent rms radius ( r=1.22-1.24 fm) or a shorter central radius may be used. An rms deviation of 0.54 MeV can be reached between the experimental and theoretical masses. The remaining differences come probably mainly from the determination of the shell and pairing energies. Mass predictions of selected expressions have been compared to 161 new experimental masses and the correct agreement allows to provide extrapolations to masses of 656 selected exotic nuclei.

  6. Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Kiss, András; Smith, Donald F; Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-12-30

    Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high-speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyatomic primary ion sources, are required to exploit the full potential of microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging, i.e. to efficiently push the limits of ultra-high spatial resolution, sample throughput and sensitivity. In this work, a C60 primary source was combined with a commercial mass microscope for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The detector setup is a pixelated detector from the Medipix/Timepix family with high-voltage post-acceleration capabilities. The system's mass spectral and imaging performance is tested with various benchmark samples and thin tissue sections. The high secondary ion yield (with respect to 'traditional' monatomic primary ion sources) of the C60 primary ion source and the increased sensitivity of the high voltage detector setup improve microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The analysis time and the signal-to-noise ratio are improved compared with other microscope mode imaging systems, all at high spatial resolution. We have demonstrated the unique capabilities of a C60 ion microscope with a Timepix detector for high spatial resolution microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Small Business Innovations (Mass Microbalance)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Femtometrics of Costa Mesa, CA, developed the Model 200-1 SAW Mass Microbalance under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. The product is described as "the next generation of aerosol mass microbalance technology," because a new type of sensor, the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) piezoelectric crystal, offers mass resolution two orders of magnitude greater than the Quartz Crystal Microbalance cascade impactor (QCM) (used at Langley since 1979 for collection and measurement of aerosol particles in the upper atmosphere). The Model 200-1 SAW Mass Microbalance, which provides a 400-fold increase in mass sensitivity per unit area over the QCM, can be used for real-time particle monitoring in clean rooms, measuring chemical vapors in very low concentrations, measuring target chemicals in the stratosphere and in industry as a toxic vapor monitor.

  8. Top mass from asymptotic safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Held, Aaron

    2018-02-01

    We discover that asymptotically safe quantum gravity could predict the top-quark mass. For a broad range of microscopic gravitational couplings, quantum gravity could provide an ultraviolet completion for the Standard Model by triggering asymptotic freedom in the gauge couplings and bottom Yukawa and asymptotic safety in the top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic coupling. We find that in a part of this range, a difference of the top and bottom mass of approximately 170GeV is generated and the Higgs mass is determined in terms of the top mass. Assuming no new physics below the Planck scale, we construct explicit Renormalization Group trajectories for Standard Model and gravitational couplings which link the transplanckian regime to the electroweak scale and yield a top pole mass of Mt,pole ≈ 171GeV.

  9. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  10. Pediatric head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Gujar, Sachin; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Mukherji, Suresh K

    2004-04-01

    Most neck masses in the pediatric head and neck region are benign. Congenital, developmental, and inflammatory lesions make up most of the masses in the pediatric head and neck. For example, neck masses due to inflammatory lymphadenitis are common in children because of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections. Although many of the malignant tumors in children are found in the head and neck, they account for only a small portion of the neck masses. The choice of the imaging modality is based on a number of factors, several of which are unique to the pediatric population. Although the bulk of disease entities are adequately evaluated by CT, MRI can provide additional vital information in many cases. MRI provides better soft tissue characterization than CT, has multiplanar capabilities. In this article, we will attempt to provide an overview of conditions that present as neck masses.

  11. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  12. Dynamics of Variable Mass Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eke, Fidelis O.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of the effects of mass loss on the attitude behavior of spinning bodies in flight. The principal goal is to determine whether there are circumstances under which the motion of variable mass systems can become unstable in the sense that their transverse angular velocities become unbounded. Obviously, results from a study of this kind would find immediate application in the aerospace field. The first part of this study features a complete and mathematically rigorous derivation of a set of equations that govern both the translational and rotational motions of general variable mass systems. The remainder of the study is then devoted to the application of the equations obtained to a systematic investigation of the effect of various mass loss scenarios on the dynamics of increasingly complex models of variable mass systems. It is found that mass loss can have a major impact on the dynamics of mechanical systems, including a possible change in the systems stability picture. Factors such as nozzle geometry, combustion chamber geometry, propellant's initial shape, size and relative mass, and propellant location can all have important influences on the system's dynamic behavior. The relative importance of these parameters on-system motion are quantified in a way that is useful for design purposes.

  13. Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Ipekci, Tumay; Kazimoglu, Hatem

    2013-12-01

    Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis is a rare scrotal benign disease. Its distinct features are painless, non-pruritic, semi-soft palpable calcific transdermal nodules. We report a 42-year-old-man with asymptomatic multiple calcified scrotal skin nodules for 10 years. Under spinal anesthesia, the affected scrotal skin was excised and the nodules removed. We aim to explain the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment modalities of this rare disease.

  14. Mass Properties for Space Systems Standards Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Current Verbiage in S-120 Applies to Dry Mass. Mass Margin is difference between Required Mass and Predicted Mass. Performance Margin is difference between Predicted Performance and Required Performance. Performance estimates and corresponding margin should be based on Predicted Mass (and other inputs). Contractor Mass Margin reserved from Performance Margin. Remaining performance margin allocated according to mass partials. Compliance can be evaluated effectively by comparison of three areas (preferably on a single sheet). Basic and Predicted Mass (including historical trend). Aggregate potential changes (threats and opportunities) which gives Mass Forecast. Mass Maturity by category (Estimated/Calculated/Actual).

  15. Neutrino mass as the probe of intermediate mass scales

    SciTech Connect

    Senjanovic, G.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the calculability of neutrino mass is presented. The possibility of neutrinos being either Dirac or Majorana particles is analyzed in detail. Arguments are offered in favor of the Majorana case: the smallness of neutrino mass is linked to the maximality of parity violation in weak interactions. It is shown how the measured value of neutrino mass would probe the existence of an intermediate mass scale, presumably in the TeV region, at which parity is supposed to become a good symmetry. Experimental consequences of the proposed scheme are discussed, in particular the neutrino-less double ..beta.. decay, where observationmore » would provide a crucial test of the model, and rare muon decays such as ..mu.. ..-->.. e..gamma.. and ..mu.. ..-->.. ee anti e. Finally, the embedding of this model in an O(10) grand unified theory is analyzed, with the emphasis on the implications for intermediate mass scales that it offers. It is concluded that the proposed scheme provides a distinct and testable alternative for understanding the smallness of neutrino mass. 4 figures.« less

  16. Mass spectrometry and renal calculi

    PubMed Central

    Purcarea, VL; Sisu, I; Sisu, E

    2010-01-01

    The present review represents a concise and complete survey of the literature covering 2004–2009, concerning the mass spectrometric techniques involved in the structural investigation of renal calculi. After a short presentation of the fundamental mass spectrometric techniques (MALDI–TOF, QTOF, MS–MS) as well as hyphenated methods (GC–MS, LC–MS, CE–MS), an extensive study of the urinary proteome analysis as well as the detection and quantification by mass spectrometry of toxins, drugs and metabolites from renal calculi is presented. PMID:20968197

  17. Solid renal masses in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Mahesh Kumar; Sureka, Binit

    2016-01-01

    With the ever increasing trend of using cross-section imaging in today's era, incidental detection of small solid renal masses has dramatically multiplied. Coincidentally, the number of asymptomatic benign lesions being detected has also increased. The role of radiologists is not only to identify these lesions, but also go a one step further and accurately characterize various renal masses. Earlier detection of small renal cell carcinomas means identifying at the initial stage which has an impact on prognosis, patient management and healthcare costs. In this review article we share our experience with the typical and atypical solid renal masses encountered in adults in routine daily practice. PMID:28104933

  18. The mass-lifetime relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2018-05-01

    In a recent "AstroNote," I described a simple exercise on the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars as an example of exposing students in a general education science course of lower mathematical level to the use of quantitative skills such as collecting and analyzing data. Here I present another attempt at a meaningful experience for such students that again involves both the gathering and analysis of numerical data and comparison with accepted result, this time on the relationship of the mass and lifetimes of main sequence stars. This experiment can stand alone or be used as an extension of the previous mass-luminosity relationship experiment.

  19. Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

  20. Mass Media and Political Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewellen, James R.

    1976-01-01

    Research reviews and statistical analysis of a specific study suggest that the mass media play a direct role in the political socialization of adolescents insofar as overt political behavior is concerned. (Author/AV)

  1. Modular space station mass properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An update of the space station mass properties is presented. Included are the final status update of the Initial Space Station (ISS) modules and logistic module plus incorporation of the Growth Space Station (GSS) module additions.

  2. On the hadron mass decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2018-02-01

    We argue that the standard decompositions of the hadron mass overlook pressure effects, and hence should be interpreted with great care. Based on the semiclassical picture, we propose a new decomposition that properly accounts for these pressure effects. Because of Lorentz covariance, we stress that the hadron mass decomposition automatically comes along with a stability constraint, which we discuss for the first time. We show also that if a hadron is seen as made of quarks and gluons, one cannot decompose its mass into more than two contributions without running into trouble with the consistency of the physical interpretation. In particular, the so-called quark mass and trace anomaly contributions appear to be purely conventional. Based on the current phenomenological values, we find that in average quarks exert a repulsive force inside nucleons, balanced exactly by the gluon attractive force.

  3. What Caused the Mass Extinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Walter; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the arguments of two different points of view on the mass extinction of the dinosaurs. Evidence of extraterrestrial impact theory and massive volcanic eruption theory are discussed. (CW)

  4. Mass-Selective Chiral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesl, Ulrich; Kartouzian, Aras

    2016-06-01

    Three ways of realizing mass-selective chiral analysis are reviewed. The first is based on the formation of diastereomers that are of homo- and hetero- type with respect to the enantiomers of involved chiral molecules. This way is quite well-established with numerous applications. The other two ways are more recent developments, both based on circular dichroism (CD). In one, conventional or nonlinear electronic CD is linked to mass spectrometry (MS) by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. The other is based on CD in the angular distribution of photoelectrons, which is measured in combination with MS via photoion photoelectron coincidence. Among the many important applications of mass-selective chiral analysis, this review focuses on its use as an analytical tool for the development of heterogeneous enantioselective chemical catalysis. There exist other approaches to combine chiral analysis and mass-selective detection, such as chiral chromatography MS, which are not discussed here.

  5. Food Mass Reduction Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Stoklosa, Adam M.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable, and nutritious while efficiently balancing appropriate vehicle resources such as mass, volume, power, water, and crewtime. Often, this presents a challenge since maintaining the quality of the food system can result in a higher mass and volume. The Orion vehicle is significantly smaller than the Shuttle vehicle and the International Space Station and the mass and volume available for food is limited. Therefore, the food team has been challenged to reduce the mass of the packaged food from 1.82 kg per person per day to 1.14 kg per person per day. Past work has concentrated on how to reduce the mass of the packaging which contributes to about 15% of the total mass of the packaged food system. Designers have also focused on integrating and optimizing the Orion galley equipment as a system to reduce mass. To date, there has not been a significant effort to determine how to reduce the food itself. The objective of this project is to determine how the mass and volume of the packaged food can be reduced while maintaining caloric and hydration requirements. The following tasks are the key elements to this project: (1) Conduct further analysis of the ISS Standard Menu to determine moisture, protein, carbohydrate, and fat levels. (2) Conduct trade studies to determine how to bring the mass of the food system down. Trade studies may include removing the water of the total food system and/or increasing the fat content. (3) Determine the preferred method for delivery of the new food (e.g. bars, or beverages) and the degree of replacement. (4) Determine whether there are commercially available products that meet the requirements. By the end of this study, an estimate of the mass and volume savings will be provided to the Constellation Program. In addition, if new technologies need to be developed to achieve the mass savings, the technologies, timeline, and

  6. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  7. Masses of Nix and Hydra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholen, David J.; Buie, M. W.; Grundy, W.

    2007-05-01

    Two new, small satellites of Pluto were discovered in 2005 using deep images from the Hubble Space Telescope. The IAU has approved the name Hydra for the outermost satellite and the name Nix for the one orbiting at an intermediate distance between Charon and Hydra. We used the two discovery observations of Nix and Hydra from 2005, the two confirmation observations from 2006, and the twelve prediscovery observations from 2001 and 2002, as well as available observations of Charon, to perform a four-body orbit solution for the Pluto system. Mutual perturbations have placed constraints on the masses of each member of the system. Previous work placed useful limits on the masses of Pluto and Charon, as well as their densities, given the known sizes of the bodies based on stellar occultation and mutual event observations, therefore our new work is aimed at placing constraints on the masses of Nix and Hydra. The best-fit GM values for Nix and Hydra are 0.040 and 0.021 km3 sec-2. The uncertainty in the GM of Hydra is large enough to allow for a negligible mass. At the one-sigma level, we can rule out masses near the upper limit of what is physically reasonable (correpsonding to a combination of low albedos and high densities) for both satellites, and in the case of Nix, we can also rule out a mass near the lower limit (corresponding to a high albedo and low density). We have determined empirically that the rate of precession of the line of apsides of Charon's slightly eccentric orbit is proportional to the mass of Nix and Hydra. New HST observations of the satellites are scheduled, which should improve the orbit solution and reduce the uncertainties in the masses. Ultimately, these results will place constraints on models for the formation of the system.

  8. Mapping the core mass function to the initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guszejnov, Dávid; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that fragmentation within self-gravitating, turbulent molecular clouds (`turbulent fragmentation') can naturally explain the observed properties of protostellar cores, including the core mass function (CMF). Here, we extend recently developed analytic models for turbulent fragmentation to follow the time-dependent hierarchical fragmentation of self-gravitating cores, until they reach effectively infinite density (and form stars). We show that turbulent fragmentation robustly predicts two key features of the initial mass function (IMF). First, a high-mass power-law scaling very close to the Salpeter slope, which is a generic consequence of the scale-free nature of turbulence and self-gravity. We predict the IMF slope (-2.3) is slightly steeper than the CMF slope (-2.1), owing to the slower collapse and easier fragmentation of large cores. Secondly, a turnover mass, which is set by a combination of the CMF turnover mass (a couple solar masses, determined by the `sonic scale' of galactic turbulence, and so weakly dependent on galaxy properties), and the equation of state (EOS). A `soft' EOS with polytropic index γ < 1.0 predicts that the IMF slope becomes `shallow' below the sonic scale, but fails to produce the full turnover observed. An EOS, which becomes `stiff' at sufficiently low surface densities Σgas ˜ 5000 M⊙ pc-2, and/or models, where each collapsing core is able to heat and effectively stiffen the EOS of a modest mass (˜0.02 M⊙) of surrounding gas, are able to reproduce the observed turnover. Such features are likely a consequence of more detailed chemistry and radiative feedback.

  9. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  10. The Mass of Large Impactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    1996-01-01

    By means of a simplified dynamical model, we have computed the eccentricity change in the orbit of each giant planet, caused by a single, large impact at the end of the accretion process. In order to set an upper bound on this eccentricity change, we have considered the giant planets' present eccentricities as primordial ones. By means of this procedure, we were able to obtain an implicit relation for the impactor masses and maximum velocities. We have estimated by this method the maximum allowed mass to impact Jupiter to be approx. 1.136 x 10(exp -1), being in the case of Neptune approx. 3.99 x 10(exp -2) (expressed in units of each planet final mass). Due to the similar present eccentricities of Saturn, Uranus and Jupiter, the constraint masses and velocities of the bodies to impact them (in units of each planet final mass and velocity respectively) are almost the same for the three planets. These results are in good agreement with those obtained by Lissauer and Safronov. These bounds might be used to derive the mass distribution of planetesimals in the early solar system.

  11. Aptamer-facilitated mass cytometry.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Gleb G; Bouzekri, Alexandre; Watson, Jessica; Loboda, Olga; Ornatsky, Olga; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2018-05-01

    Mass cytometry is a novel cell-by-cell analysis technique, which uses elemental tags instead of fluorophores. Sample cells undergo rapid ionization in inductively coupled plasma and the ionized elemental tags are then analyzed by means of time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Benefits of the mass cytometry approach are in no need for compensation, the high number of detection channels (up to 100) and low background noise. In this work, we applied a biotinylated aptamer against human PTK7 receptor for characterization of positive (human acute lymphoblastic leukemia) and negative (human Burkitt's lymphoma) cells by a mass cytometry instrument. Our proof of principal experiments showed that biotinylated aptamers in conjunction with metal-labeled neutravidin can be successfully utilized for mass cytometry experiments at par with commercially available antibodies. Graphical abstract Biotinylated aptamers in conjunction with metal-labeled neutravidin bind to cell biomarkers, and then injected into the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, where cells are vaporized, atomized, and ionized in the plasma for subsequent mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of lanthanide metals.

  12. The Higgs mass coincidence problem: why is the Higgs mass ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrente-Lujan, E.

    2014-02-01

    In the light of the recent LHC boson discovery, we present a phenomenological evaluation of the ratio , from the LHC combined value, we get () This value is close to 1 with a precision of the order . Similarly we evaluate the ratio . From the up-to-date mass values we get . The Higgs mass is numerically close (at the level) to the . From these relations we can write any two mass ratios as a function of, exclusively, the Weinberg angle (with a precision of the order of or better): For example: , . In the limit all the masses would become equal . We review the theoretical situation of this ratio in the SM and beyond. In the SM these relations are rather stable under RGE pointing out to some underlying UV symmetry. In the SM such a ratio hints for a non-casual relation of the type with . Moreover the existence of relations could be interpreted as a hint for a role of the custodial symmetry, together with other unknown mechanism. Without a symmetry at hand to explain then in the SM, there arises a Higgs mass coincidence problem, why the ratios are so close to one, can we find a mechanism that naturally gives , ?

  13. Stellar Initial Mass Function: Trends With Galaxy Mass And Radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, Taniya

    2017-06-01

    There is currently no consensus about the exact shape and, in particular, the universality of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). For massive galaxies, it has been found that near-infrared (NIR) absorption features, which are sensitive to the ratio of dwarf to giant stars, deviate from a Milky Way-like IMF; their modelling seems to require a larger fraction of low mass stars. There are now increasing results looking at whether the IMF varies not only with galaxy mass, but also radially within galaxies. The SDSS-IV/MaNGA integral-field survey will provide spatially resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 galaxies at R 2000 from 360-1000nm. Spectra of early-type galaxies were stacked to achieve high S/N which is particularly important for features in the NIR. Trends with galaxy radius and mass were compared to stellar population models for a range of absorption features in order to separate degeneracies due to changes in stellar population parameters, such as age, metallicity and element abundances, with potential changes in the IMF. Results for 611 galaxies show that we do not require an IMF steeper than Kroupa as a function of galaxy mass or radius based on the NaI index. The Wing-Ford band hints towards a steeper IMF at large radii however we do not have reliable measurements for the most massive galaxies.

  14. Mass predictions from the Garvey-Kelson mass relations

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenecke, J.; Masson, P.J.

    Part A: The transverse Garvey-Kelson mass relation represents a homogeneous third-order partial difference equation. Procedures are described for estimating masses of nuclei with Ngreater than or equal toZ from the most general solution of this difference equation subject to a chi/sup 2/ minimization, using the recent atomic mass adjustment of Wapstra, Audi, and Hoekstra as a boundary condition. A judicious division of the input data in subsets of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei had to be introduced to reduce systematic errors in long-range extrapolations. Approximately 5600 mass-excess values for nuclei with 2less than or equal toZless than or equal to103, 4lessmore » than or equal toNless than or equal to157, and Ngreater than or equal toZ (except N = Z odd for A<40) have been calculated. The standard deviation for reproducing the known mass-excess values is sigma/sub m/approx. =103 keV.« less

  15. ACTOMP - AUTOCAD TO MASS PROPERTIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A.

    1994-01-01

    AutoCAD to Mass Properties was developed to facilitate quick mass properties calculations of structures having many simple elements in a complex configuration such as trusses or metal sheet containers. Calculating the mass properties of structures of this type can be a tedious and repetitive process, but ACTOMP helps automate the calculations. The structure can be modelled in AutoCAD or a compatible CAD system in a matter of minutes using the 3-Dimensional elements. This model provides all the geometric data necessary to make a mass properties calculation of the structure. ACTOMP reads the geometric data of a drawing from the Drawing Interchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD. The geometric entities recognized by ACTOMP include POINTs, 3DLINEs, and 3DFACEs. ACTOMP requests mass, linear density, or area density of the elements for each layer, sums all the elements and calculates the total mass, center of mass (CM) and the mass moments of inertia (MOI). AutoCAD utilizes layers to define separate drawing planes. ACTOMP uses layers to differentiate between multiple types of similar elements. For example if a structure is made of various types of beams, modeled as 3DLINEs, each with a different linear density, the beams can be grouped by linear density and each group placed on a separate layer. The program will request the linear density of 3DLINEs for each new layer it finds as it processes the drawing information. The same is true with POINTs and 3DFACEs. By using layers this way a very complex model can be created. POINTs are used for point masses such as bolts, small machine parts, or small electronic boxes. 3DLINEs are used for beams, bars, rods, cables, and other similarly slender elements. 3DFACEs are used for planar elements. 3DFACEs may be created as 3 or 4 Point faces. Some examples of elements that might be modelled using 3DFACEs are plates, sheet metal, fabric, boxes, large diameter hollow cylinders and evenly distributed masses. ACTOMP was written in Microsoft

  16. Methods for recalibration of mass spectrometry data

    DOEpatents

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2009-03-03

    Disclosed are methods for recalibrating mass spectrometry data that provide improvement in both mass accuracy and precision by adjusting for experimental variance in parameters that have a substantial impact on mass measurement accuracy. Optimal coefficients are determined using correlated pairs of mass values compiled by matching sets of measured and putative mass values that minimize overall effective mass error and mass error spread. Coefficients are subsequently used to correct mass values for peaks detected in the measured dataset, providing recalibration thereof. Sub-ppm mass measurement accuracy has been demonstrated on a complex fungal proteome after recalibration, providing improved confidence for peptide identifications.

  17. The 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation and the Mass Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Audi, G., E-mail: amdc.audi@gmail.com; Wang, M.; MPI-K, D-69117 Heidelberg

    The new evaluation of the Atomic Masses, Ame2012, has just been released. It represents a major step in the history of the 60 year old Atomic Mass Evaluation based on the method developed by Wapstra. This new publication includes all material available to date. Some of the policies and procedures used in our evaluation are reported, together with an illustration of one specially difficult case, the energy available for the {sup 102}Pd double-electron capture. The observation of the mass surface reveals many important new features. We illustrate this statement by the double magicity of {sup 270}Hs at N = 162more » and Z = 108.« less

  18. Mass Determination of Entire Amyloid Fibrils by Using Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Doussineau, Tristan; Mathevon, Carole; Altamura, Lucie; Vendrely, Charlotte; Dugourd, Philippe; Forge, Vincent; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2016-02-12

    Amyloid fibrils are self-assembled protein structures with important roles in biology (either pathogenic or physiological), and are attracting increasing interest in nanotechnology. However, because of their high aspect ratio and the presence of some polymorphism, that is, the possibility to adopt various structures, their characterization is challenging and basic information such as their mass is unknown. Here we show that charge-detection mass spectrometry, recently developed for large self-assembled systems such as viruses, provides such information in a straightforward manner. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Mass psychogenic illness after vaccination.

    PubMed

    Clements, C John

    2003-01-01

    When vaccines are administered to groups, the physical reactions of the recipients may be similar, causing a form of mass reaction, the mechanism for which is the same as that for mass reactions from other causes. These phenomena have been categorised as mass psychogenic illness (MPI), and have been defined as the collective occurrence of a constellation of symptoms suggestive of organic illness but without an identified cause in a group of people with shared beliefs about the cause of the symptom(s). A review of the literature shows that such outbreaks have been reported in differing cultural and environmental settings including developing and industrialised countries, in the work place, on public transport, in schools, and the military. The perceived threats have been against agents such as food poisoning, fire and toxic gases. Whatever the place or perceived threat, the response seems to be similar. The symptoms generally included headache, dizziness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Once under way, MPIs are not easy to stop. Incidents reported in the literature show that they can quickly gather momentum and can be amplified by the press who disseminate information rapidly, escalating the events. Management of such mass events can be extremely difficult. Should the public health official in charge continue to try and determine the cause, or should this person call off the entire investigation? It is suggested here that once vaccines are identified as a probable cause of the phenomenon, a dismissive approach may actually be harmful. Unless the spokesperson has already earned a high level of trust, the public are not likely to be convinced easily that nothing was wrong with the vaccine until it has been tested. An increased awareness of MPIs on the part of organisers of future mass vaccination campaigns seems appropriate. Immunisation managers should be aware that mass immunisation campaigns could generate such mass reactions. It is therefore essential that

  20. Fermion masses in SO(10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungman, Gerard

    1992-11-01

    Yukawa-coupling-constant unification together with the known fermion masses is used to constrain SO(10) models. We consider the case of one (heavy) generation, with the tree-level relation mb=mτ, calculating the limits on the intermediate scales due to the known limits on fermion masses. This analysis extends previous analyses which addressed only the simplest symmetry-breaking schemes. In the case where the low-energy model is the standard model with one Higgs doublet, there are very strong constraints due to the known limits on the top-quark mass and the τ-neutrino mass. The two-Higgs-doublet case is less constrained, though we can make progress in constraining this model also. We identify those parameters to which the viability of the model is most sensitive. We also discuss the ``triviality'' bounds on mt obtained from the analysis of the Yukawa renormalization-group equations. Finally we address the role of a speculative constraint on the τ-neutrino mass, arising from the cosmological implications of anomalous B+L violation in the early Universe.

  1. Photon and graviton mass limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to place limits on deviations from canonical formulations of electromagnetism and gravity have probed length scales increasing dramatically over time. Historically, these studies have passed through three stages: (1) testing the power in the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving explicit gauge or general-coordinate invariance. Since the previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit, and rapid current progress in astronomy makes further advance likely. For gravity there have been vigorous debates about even the concept of graviton rest mass. Meanwhile there are striking observations of astronomical motions that do not fit Einstein gravity with visible sources. “Cold dark matter” (slow, invisible classical particles) fits well at large scales. “Modified Newtonian dynamics” provides the best phenomenology at galactic scales. Satisfying this phenomenology is a requirement if dark matter, perhaps as invisible classical fields, could be correct here too. “Dark energy” might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect, with associated Compton wavelength comparable to the radius of the visible universe. Significant mass limits are summarized in a table.

  2. FOREWORD: Special issue on mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gläser, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This special issue is intended to present a review of mass standards, mass determination and the efforts to replace the international prototype of the kilogram by a new definition of the kilogram based on a fundamental constant of physics. Mass is a quantity that is familiar to everybody primarily for its importance in commerce. It is not only one of the traditional quantities of metrology but also of science in general. The unit of mass has always been based on a material object and, since 1889, on the international prototype of the kilogram. The mass of any standard weight is derived from this prototype by a cascade of comparison measurements using balances. The sources of uncertainty of the mass of a standard depend upon the circumstances of the weighing process and the long-term instabilities of the intermediate standards. The international prototype—its mass is one kilogram by definition—may also suffer from instabilities or drifts in time, but until now it has not been possible to check this by comparison with a fundamental constant in physics. Repeated verifications of some 40 or so national prototypes of the members of the Metre Convention have shown significant drifts with an average of about 50 µg within 100 years, a fact that casts doubt on the stability of the international prototype itself. Experiments have been underway for about 30 years on linking fundamental constants such as the Avogadro constant or, correspondingly, the atomic mass unit and Planck's constant to the kilogram. Relative uncertainties of the order of 10-7 have been reached today, still one order of magnitude too large for monitoring the stability of the international prototype or for a new definition. The first article of this special issue gives information on the international and the national prototypes of the kilogram, its material, manufacture, cleaning procedures, stability investigations and the periodic verifications of national prototypes. The next article describes

  3. Photon and graviton mass limits

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four ordersmore » of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.« less

  4. Photon and graviton mass limits

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff; Nieto, Michael Martin; Theoretical Division

    2010-01-15

    Efforts to place limits on deviations from canonical formulations of electromagnetism and gravity have probed length scales increasing dramatically over time. Historically, these studies have passed through three stages: (1) testing the power in the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving explicit gauge or general-coordinate invariance. Since the previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit, and rapid current progress in astronomymore » makes further advance likely. For gravity there have been vigorous debates about even the concept of graviton rest mass. Meanwhile there are striking observations of astronomical motions that do not fit Einstein gravity with visible sources. ''Cold dark matter'' (slow, invisible classical particles) fits well at large scales. ''Modified Newtonian dynamics'' provides the best phenomenology at galactic scales. Satisfying this phenomenology is a requirement if dark matter, perhaps as invisible classical fields, could be correct here too. ''Dark energy''might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect, with associated Compton wavelength comparable to the radius of the visible universe. Significant mass limits are summarized in a table.« less

  5. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on themore » status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.« less

  6. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-04-28

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed ideamore » is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.« less

  7. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1987-11-10

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface. 8 figs.

  8. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2018-01-16

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  9. Protein mass analysis of histones.

    PubMed

    Galasinski, Scott C; Resing, Katheryn A; Ahn, Natalie G

    2003-09-01

    Posttranslational modification of chromatin-associated proteins, including histones and high-mobility-group (HMG) proteins, provides an important mechanism to control gene expression, genome integrity, and epigenetic inheritance. Protein mass analysis provides a rapid and unbiased approach to monitor multiple chemical modifications on individual molecules. This review describes methods for acid extraction of histones and HMG proteins, followed by separation by reverse-phase chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS). Posttranslational modifications are detected by analysis of full-length protein masses. Confirmation of protein identity and modification state is obtained through enzymatic digestion and peptide sequencing by MS/MS. For differentially modified forms of each protein, the measured intensities are semiquantitative and allow determination of relative abundance and stoichiometry. The method simultaneously detects covalent modifications on multiple proteins and provides a facile assay for comparing chromatin modification states between different cell types and/or cellular responses.

  10. Imaging mass spectrometry in microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry tools which allow for the 2-D visualization of the distribution of trace metals, metabolites, surface lipids, peptides and proteins directly from biological samples without the need for chemical tagging or antibodies are becoming increasingly useful for microbiology applications. These tools, comprised of different imaging mass spectrometry techniques, are ushering in an exciting new era of discovery by allowing for the generation of chemical hypotheses based on of the spatial mapping of atoms and molecules that can correlate to or transcend observed phenotypes. In this review, we explore the wide range of imaging mass spectrometry techniques available to microbiologists and describe their unique applications to microbiology with respect to the types of microbiology samples to be investigated. PMID:21822293

  11. Review of Neutrino Mass Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliani, A.; INFN-Milano, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como

    2006-02-08

    After a brief summary of the recent achievements of neutrino physics, the concept of neutrino mass scale is clarified. The methods for the determination of the neutrino mass values are summarized and critically compared, in particular in the different and complementary contexts of cosmology, double and single beta decay. The attention is then focussed on the laboratory approaches to investigate neutrino mass. The role of neutrinoless double beta decay is explained and a short review of the present and most promising future experiments in this field is given. Single beta decay sensitivity is discussed, with brief descriptions of the KATRINmore » tritium experiment and of the recently proposed MARE rhenium project.« less

  12. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  13. MASS SPECTROMETRY-BASED METABOLOMICS

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Katja; Aronov, Pavel A.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the dynamically developing field of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Metabolomics aims at the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of wide arrays of metabolites in biological samples. These numerous analytes have very diverse physico-chemical properties and occur at different abundance levels. Consequently, comprehensive metabolomics investigations are primarily a challenge for analytical chemistry and specifically mass spectrometry has vast potential as a tool for this type of investigation. Metabolomics require special approaches for sample preparation, separation, and mass spectrometric analysis. Current examples of those approaches are described in this review. It primarily focuses on metabolic fingerprinting, a technique that analyzes all detectable analytes in a given sample with subsequent classification of samples and identification of differentially expressed metabolites, which define the sample classes. To perform this complex task, data analysis tools, metabolite libraries, and databases are required. Therefore, recent advances in metabolomics bioinformatics are also discussed. PMID:16921475

  14. Massing Support for a Levy without Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmoyer, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The classic campaign strategy in most school communities involves using the mass media to attract widespread attention to the upcoming budget or tax levy vote. Such strategies tend to bring uninformed voters in unknown quantities to the polls. The authors' recent experience, working with a committed and well-organized campaign chairperson, helped…

  15. Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

  16. Mass Estimation and Its Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-23

    parameters); e.g., the rect- angular kernel function has fixed width or fixed per unit size. But the rectangular function used in mass has no parameter...MassTER is implemented in JAVA , and we use DBSCAN in WEKA [13] and a version of DENCLUE implemented in R (www.r-project.org) in our empirical evaluation...Proceedings of SIGKDD, 2010, 989-998. [13] I.H. Witten and E. Frank, Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques with Java Implementations

  17. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  18. Mass of the H Dibaryon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, P. E.; Thomas, A. W.; Young, R. D.

    2011-08-01

    Recent lattice QCD calculations have reported evidence for the existence of a bound state with strangeness -2 and baryon number 2 at quark masses somewhat higher than the physical values. By developing a description of the dependence of this binding energy on the up, down and strange quark masses that allows a controlled chiral extrapolation, we explore the hypothesis that this state is to be identified with the H dibaryon. Taking as input the recent results of the HAL and NPLQCD Collaborations, we show that the H dibaryon is likely to be unbound by 13±14MeV at the physical point.

  19. Mass Protection via Translational Invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, José Luis; Cortés, José Luis; Boucaud, Philippe; Carmona, José Manuel; Polonyi, Janos; Sijs, Arjan Van Der

    We propose a way of protecting a Dirac fermion interacting with a scalar field from acquiring a mass from the vacuum. It is obtained through an implementation of translational symmetry when the theory is formulated with a momentum cutoff, which forbids the usual Yukawa term. We consider that this mechanism can help to understand the smallness of neutrino masses without a tuning of the Yukawa coupling. The prohibition of the Yukawa term for the neutrino forbids at the same time a gauge coupling between the right-handed electron and neutrino. We prove that this mechanism can be implemented on the lattice.

  20. Spacelab energetic ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, B. A.; Mcdiarmid, I. B.; Burrows, J. R.; Sharp, R. D.; Johnson, R. G.; Shelley, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    Basic design criteria are given for an ion mass spectrometer for use in studying magnetospheric ion populations. The proposed instrument is composed of an electrostatic analyzer followed by a magnetic spectrometer and simultaneously measures the energy per unit and mass per unit charge of the ion species. An electromagnet is used for momentum analysis to extend the operational energy range over a much wider domain than is possible with the permanent magnets used in previous flights. The energetic ion source regions, ion energization mechanisms, field line tracing, coordinated investigations, and orbit considerations are discussed and operations of the momentum analyzer and of the electrostatic energy analyzer are examined.

  1. Canadian Libraries and Mass Deacidification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1992-01-01

    Considers the advantages and disadvantages of six mass deacidification processes that libraries can use to salvage printed materials: the Wei T'o process, the Diethyl Zinc (DEZ) process, the FMC (Lithco) process, the Book Preservation Associates (BPA) process, the "Bookkeeper" process, and the "Lyophilization" process. The…

  2. Quantitative mass spectrometry: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Pawel L.

    2016-10-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a mainstream chemical analysis technique in the twenty-first century. It has contributed to numerous discoveries in chemistry, physics and biochemistry. Hundreds of research laboratories scattered all over the world use MS every day to investigate fundamental phenomena on the molecular level. MS is also widely used by industry-especially in drug discovery, quality control and food safety protocols. In some cases, mass spectrometers are indispensable and irreplaceable by any other metrological tools. The uniqueness of MS is due to the fact that it enables direct identification of molecules based on the mass-to-charge ratios as well as fragmentation patterns. Thus, for several decades now, MS has been used in qualitative chemical analysis. To address the pressing need for quantitative molecular measurements, a number of laboratories focused on technological and methodological improvements that could render MS a fully quantitative metrological platform. In this theme issue, the experts working for some of those laboratories share their knowledge and enthusiasm about quantitative MS. I hope this theme issue will benefit readers, and foster fundamental and applied research based on quantitative MS measurements. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  3. Time of flight mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ulbricht, Jr., William H.

    1984-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

  4. Theme Issue on Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anapol, Malthon M., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Focusing on issues in mass communication, the six articles in this journal issue cover many facets and approaches to the topics. The first article offers a review of recent developments in the field and some comments about its future. The second article reviews feminism in comedies from the 1930s and in a current film, and the third analyzes the…

  5. Mass spectroscopic apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Bomse, David S.; Silver, Joel A.; Stanton, Alan C.

    1991-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for ionization modulated mass spectrometric analysis. Analog or digital data acquisition and processing can be used. Ions from a time variant source are detected and quantified. The quantified ion output is analyzed using a computer to provide a two-dimensional representation of at least one component present within an analyte.

  6. Science and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieghbaum, Hillier

    The nature and the practices surrounding the mass media reporting of science to the public are examined. Intended for those who have some concern for, or an involvement in the public understanding of science, technology, or medicine, the book is directed toward scientists, engineers, and physicians, and those also who practice the art of…

  7. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Kenneth L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses reactions and characteristics of fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectroscopy in which samples are ionized in a condensed state by bombardment with xenon or argon atoms, yielding positive/negative secondary ions. Includes applications of FAB to structural problems and considers future developments using the technique. (Author/JN)

  8. "EMERGING" POLLUTANTS, MASS SPECTROMETRY, AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A foundation for Environmental Science - Mass Spectrometry: Historically fundamental to amassing our understanding of environmental processes and chemical pollution is the realm of mass spectrometry - the mainstay of analytical chemistry - the workhorse that supplies much of the definitive data that environmental scientists rely upon for identifying the molecular compositions (and ultimately the structures) of chemicals. This is not to ignore the complementary, critical roles played by the adjunct practices of sample enrichment (via any of various means of selective extraction) and analyte separation (via the myriad forms of chromatography and electrophoresis).While the power of mass spectrometry has long been highly visible to the practicing environmental chemist, it borders on continued obscurity to the lay public and most non-chemists. Even though mass spectrometry has played a long, historic (and largely invisible) role in establishing or undergirdidng our existing knowledge about environmental processes and pollution, what recognition it does enjoy is usually relegated to that of a tool. It is ususally the relevance of ssignificance of the knowledge acquired from the application of the tool that has ultimate meaning to the public and science at large - not how the knowledge was acquired. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in

  9. Mass-Selective Laser Photoionization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the nature and applications of mass-selective laser photoionization. The ionization can be done with a single intense laser pulse lasting a few billionths of a second with no molecular fragmentation. Applications focus on: (1) benzene clusters, excimers, and exciplexes; (2) metal clusters; and (3) triplet formation and decay. (Author/JN)

  10. Heisenberg and the critical mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2002-09-01

    An elementary treatment of the critical mass used in nuclear weapons is presented and applied to an analysis of the wartime activities of the German nuclear program. In particular, the work of Werner Heisenberg based on both wartime and postwar documents is discussed.

  11. English and the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Andrew

    1969-01-01

    Despite an excess of materials available today on classroom approaches to the mass media, few English teachers have either the training or experience to determine which studies are relevant and worthwhile or how to utilize them in the classroom. A survey of some of this literature, therefore, can help interested teachers make selections…

  12. Mass Media in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Brian

    The teacher is provided with a range of practical suggestions for teaching about mass media. Chapters are devoted to the press, magazines, television, advertising, and film. The author argues that the teacher must start from the place of the various media in the lives of the children and not from a desire to instruct the children as to what they…

  13. Secrets of a Mass Grave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ament, Caitlin Marie; Graham, Theodore J.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a unit of study in which students examine skeletons and draw conclusions from the evidence they find in a simulated mass grave. The activity involves the foundation of forensic anthropology--interpreting the structure of skeletal remains to determine sex, age, height, and possible cause of death. Working through a series of…

  14. Gravity and body mass regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of altered gravity on body mass, food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition are examined. Metabolic adjustments are reviewed in maintenance of energy balance, neural regulation, and humoral regulation are discussed. Experiments with rats indicate that genetically obese rats respond differently to hypergravity than lean rats.

  15. Graviton mass or cosmological constant?

    SciTech Connect

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Gruzinov, Andrei

    2005-12-15

    To describe a massive graviton in 4D Minkowski space-time one introduces a quadratic term in the Lagrangian. This term, however, can lead to a readjustment or instability of the background instead of describing a massive graviton on flat space. We show that for all local 4D Lorentz-invariant mass terms Minkowski space is unstable. The instability can develop in a time scale that is many orders of magnitude shorter than the inverse graviton mass. We start with the Pauli-Fierz (PF) term that is the only local mass term with no ghosts in the linearized approximation. We show that nonlinear completions ofmore » the PF Lagrangian give rise to instability of Minkowski space. We continue with the mass terms that are not of a PF type. Although these models are known to have ghosts in the linearized approximations, nonlinear interactions can lead to background change in which the ghosts are eliminated. In the latter case, however, the graviton perturbations on the new background are not massive. We argue that a consistent theory of a massive graviton on flat space can be formulated in theories with extra dimensions. They require an infinite number of fields or nonlocal description from a 4D point of view.« less

  16. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (M~3 20 M⊙), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (M~106 1010 M⊙), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with M~102 104 M⊙. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work that will help clarify numerous outstanding questions about these objects.

  17. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman Miller, M.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (M~3-20 M⊙), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (M~106-1010 M⊙), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with M~102-104 M⊙. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work that will help clarify numerous outstanding questions about these objects.

  18. Bias in the Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirino, Robert

    Non-language elements of bias in mass media--such as images, sounds, tones of voices, inflection, and facial expressions--are invariably integrated with the choice of language. Further, they have an emotional impact that is often greater than that of language. It is essential that the teacher of English deal with this non-language bias since it is…

  19. New Results on Cepheid Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. R.; Bohm-Vitense, E.; Carpenter, K.; Robinson, R.; Beck-Winchatz, B.

    1996-12-01

    Masses for Cepheid variable stars can be measured by combining the orbital velocity amplitude for the Cepheid (from a ground-based orbit) with the orbital velocity amplitude of a hot main sequence companion (observed in the ultraviolet from satellites such as IUE and HST) and the mass of the companion (inferred from from the ultraviolet energy distribution). Observations of 5 binary systems are now completed or in progress with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Recently completed observations of U Aql lead to a mass of 5.1 +/- 1.1 Msun . We will discuss the results for S Mus, V350 Sgr, U Aql, and Y Car, and the constraints they place on stellar evolution calculations. As would be expected, some of the B companions have high rotational velocities, decreasing the accuracy with which their orbital velocities can be measured. The preliminary conclusion from the 4 HST targets and SU Cyg (mass from IUE observations) is that a weighted mean indicates no convective overshoot but the mode (which reflects the HST results better) agrees with the modest overshoot used in the Geneva evolutionary calculations. Financial Support was provided by a NASA grant GO-4541-01 to EB--V and GO-4541.02 to KGC, a grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council, Canada to NRE, from the AXAF Science Center NASA Contract NAS8-39073.

  20. Mass Atrocity: Prevention and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Larry Strobel (PKSOI), Colonel Lorelei Coplen (PKSOI) and Jim Armstead (Washington & Lee ) superbly guided their group discussions with minimal... Strobel (PKSOI) A mass atrocity situation will have several key lo- gistical considerations which are normally factors in other rapid response scenarios...termediaries in USAID, the UN, or the host nation. Moral, Ethical & Legal Issues Working Group Moderator: J. Holmes Armstead (Washington and Lee

  1. Mass Communications and American Empire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Herbert I.

    Mass communications are a chief tool in maintaining and expanding American influence abroad. Various government officials recognize this and have made statements which make it explicit national policy. The domestic communications complex is a vital part of the military-industrial complex and is used to further its interests, both in defense of…

  2. Suicide and Mass Urban Transit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Alan L., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Presents case consultation in which consultants respond to issues of urban planning for mass transit (subway) system and how to maximize prevention of intentional injury within subway stations. Also asks what type of research study should be used and what type of data collected once system is operating. Case is discussed by Morton M. Silverman and…

  3. Mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of citrus limonoids.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qingguo; Schwartz, Steven J

    2003-10-15

    Methods for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) of citrus limonoid aglycones and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) of limonoid glucosides are reported. The fragmentation patterns of four citrus limonoid aglycones (limonin, nomilin, obacunone, and deacetylnomilin) and six limonoid glucosides, that is, limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (LG), nomilin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NG), nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NAG), deacetyl nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (DNAG), obacunone 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG), and obacunoic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OAG) were investigated using a quadruple mass spectrometer in low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD). The four limonoid aglycones and four limonoid glucosides (LG, OG, NAG, and DNAG) were purified from citrus seeds; the other two limonoid glucosides (NG and OAG) were tentatively identified in the crude extract of grapefruit seeds by ESI mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion analysis. Ammonium hydroxide or acetic acid was added to the mobile phase to facilitate ionization. During positive ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, protonated molecular ion, [M + H]+, or adduct ion, [M + NH3 + H]-, was formed as base peaks when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. Molecular anions or adduct ions with acetic acid ([M + HOAc - H] and [M + HOAc]-) or a deprotonated molecular ion were produced during negative ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, depending on the mobile-phase modifier used. Positive ion ESI-MS of limonoid glucosides produced adduct ions of [M + H + NH3]+, [M + Na]+, and [M + K]+ when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. After collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of the limonoid aglycone molecular ions in negative ion APCI analysis, fragment ions indicated structural information of the precursor ions, showing the presence of methyl, carboxyl, and oxygenated ring

  4. A mass spectrometry primer for mass spectrometry imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), a rapidly growing subfield of chemical imaging, employs mass spectrometry (MS) technologies to create single- and multi-dimensional localization maps for a variety of atoms and molecules. Complimentary to other imaging approaches, MSI provides high chemical specificity and broad analyte coverage. This powerful analytical toolset is capable of measuring the distribution of many classes of inorganics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceuticals in chemically and structurally complex biological specimens in vivo, in vitro, and in situ. The MSI approaches highlighted in this Methods in Molecular Biology volume provide flexibility of detection, characterization, and identification of multiple known and unknown analytes. The goal of this chapter is to introduce investigators who may be unfamiliar with MS to the basic principles of the mass spectrometric approaches as used in MSI. In addition to guidelines for choosing the most suitable MSI method for specific investigations, cross-references are provided to the chapters in this volume that describe the appropriate experimental protocols. PMID:20680583

  5. Finding Mass Constraints Through Third Neutrino Mass Eigenstate Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangolli, Nakul; de Gouvêa, André; Kelly, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we aim to constrain the decay parameter for the third neutrino mass utilizing already accepted constraints on the other mixing parameters from the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (PMNS). The main purpose of this project is to determine the parameters that will allow the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) to observe a decay parameter with some statistical significance. Another goal is to determine the parameters that JUNO could detect in the case that the third neutrino mass is lighter than the first two neutrino species. We also replicate the results that were found in the JUNO Conceptual Design Report (CDR). By utilizing Χ2-squared analysis constraints have been put on the mixing angles, mass squared differences, and the third neutrino decay parameter. These statistical tests take into account background noise and normalization corrections and thus the finalized bounds are a good approximation for the true bounds that JUNO can detect. If the decay parameter is not included in our models, the 99% confidence interval lies within The bounds 0s to 2.80x10-12s. However, if we account for a decay parameter of 3x10-5 ev2, then 99% confidence interval lies within 8.73x10-12s to 8.73x10-11s.

  6. Significance of the Centrally Expressed TRP Channel "Painless" in "Drosophila" Courtship Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Takaomi; Sato, Shoma; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play vital roles in sensory neurons, mediating responses to various environmental stimuli. In contrast, relatively little is known about how TRP channels exert their effects in the central nervous system to control complex behaviors. This is also true for the…

  7. Computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery for painless anesthesia: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Eun-Jung; Pang, Nan-Sim; Cho, Jin-Hyung; Jung, Bock-Young; Kim, Kee-Deog

    2016-01-01

    Local anesthesia is administered to reduce pain during dental treatments, but may itself cause pain and contribute to increased dental fear. Computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery (CCLAD) is one the method to reduce patient pain during local anesthesia; it is a device that slowly administers anesthetics by using a computerized device to control the injection speed. This literature review aims to provide an objective assessment of the usefulness of CCLAD for controlling pain by reviewing papers published to date that have used CCLAD. PMID:28879299

  8. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma presenting as a painless lump in the parotid.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Emma; Bashyam, Anthony; Derbyshire, Stephen; Di Palma, Silvana

    2018-05-30

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a rare neoplasm of the antigen presenting cells of the immune system. The majority occur in lymph nodes but around 30% can occur extranodally including in the spleen, lungs, head and neck and liver. We present an unusual case of an FDCS of the parotid gland in a 51-year-old woman with a history of Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with combination chemotherapy and modified mantle radiotherapy. Only four cases of an intraparotid FDCS have been previously reported. The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy and level 2/3 neck dissection. A diagnosis of an intraparotid FDCS (25 mm) with no nodal disease was made. Given this patient's history of radiotherapy 20 years previously, we speculate the possibility of postradiation sarcoma. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. The Psychological Costs of Painless but Recurring Experiences of Racial Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Dunbar, Cheyenne M.

    2012-01-01

    When studying discrimination, it is important to examine both perceived frequency and stress associated with these experiences, as well as the interplay between these two dimensions. Using data from Latino/a participants (N = 168), we found an interaction effect of the reported frequency and reported stressfulness of discrimination on psychological distress (depression and anxiety), such that frequency predicted greater psychological distress for low-stress events, but high-stress events were associated with greater distress regardless of frequency. In addition, using the constructs of “stated” and “derived” stressfulness, we found that the frequency of experiences of discrimination that were rated as less stressful were in fact correlated with greater psychological distress. Discrimination events not experienced as stressful nonetheless may have negative implications for the target, especially if they occur frequently. PMID:22250896

  10. Painless treatment of hydrocele: EMLA cream anaesthesia and fibrin adhesive sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, M; Sepich, C A; Pagni, G; Ippolito, C; Minervini, R; Fiorentini, L

    1997-01-01

    Sclerotherapy for hydroceles was performed in 18 patients. Cutaneous anaesthesia was induced with an anaesthetic cream (lidocaine and prilocaine, EMLA cream) and a fibrin sealant (Tissucol) was injected into the sac after fluid aspiration. Patients experienced no pain during needle insertion and sclerosant procedure; 2 recurrences were observed during follow-up. EMLA cream anaesthesia and fibrin adhesive sclerotherapy represent a useful alternative to surgical treatment of hydroceles.

  11. Don’t Let Your Slides Flip You: A Painless Guide to Visuals That Really Aid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    William, F., "Uneiployment and the Ponto. War 137. (Deli*re at ILAB Coeslsrence, in De go.. Budget: Is Theu. Astythse in the Empty Potk 136.ADA030 WO...XIV, No. 64th annual convention of the Amnerican PFyd-o "Public Des ., Treaten and Adklhct Deime." Jan&1. Mor 1I76) lowical Association, Washington. D...Sclurhidr. Jr. f( de ., mans Imrance on the Durations of Uneseployamt tute). AD A047 244 (Crane. Ruonak & Conmpeen. Inc-: Now York). and Sabosquent Earsiatp

  12. Analysis of pain and painless symptoms in temporomandibular joints dysfunction in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Górecka, Małgorzata; Pihut, Małgorzata; Kulesa-Mrowiecka, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in the number of patients reporting for treatment of pain due to musculoskeletal joint, associated with temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Therefore, studies were undertaken, aimed at analyzing the symptoms of the dysfunction, because of which patients come to the prosthetic treatment. Aim of the thesis: The aim of the study was a retrospective analysis of symptoms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction reported by patients diagnosed with this problem. The research material was a retrospective medical records of 120 patients, aged 19 to 45 years who have taken prosthetic treatment due to temporomandibular joint dysfunction in the Consulting Room in Prosthetics Department in Kraków, from June 2015 to December 2016. During the test patients, in addition to interviewing a physician, completed a personal survey in their own study. The material has been divided into I group of patients who reported pain form of dysfunction and II group, who had no symptoms of pain within the stomatognatic system. The analysis covered type of symptoms, the share of local factors (para-functions) and systemic, as well as the time a er which the patients reported for the treatment of functional disorders since the appearance of the first symptoms. Analysis of the research material showed that the main reason for reporting patients was pain in one or both temporal joints of significant intensity (5 to 8 in VAS scale,) accompanied by acoustic symptoms. A large group of questioners reported problems with the range of jaw movement and head and face pain, as well as subjective symptoms from the auditory, sight, neck, neck and shoulder areas.

  13. Taking the mystery out of endodontics, Part 6. Painless anesthesia for the "hot" tooth.

    PubMed

    Weathers, A

    1999-12-01

    Much of what we were taught in dental school is no longer valid. In this article, I've examined some of the myths surrounding what I have dubbed the "inferior" inferior alveolar nerve block. Using the X-tip anesthesia system, it is now possible to achieve total, instant and profound anesthesia of the "hot" tooth, without the problems formerly associated with intraosseous injections.

  14. Pippi — Painless parsing, post-processing and plotting of posterior and likelihood samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Pat

    2012-11-01

    Interpreting samples from likelihood or posterior probability density functions is rarely as straightforward as it seems it should be. Producing publication-quality graphics of these distributions is often similarly painful. In this short note I describe pippi, a simple, publicly available package for parsing and post-processing such samples, as well as generating high-quality PDF graphics of the results. Pippi is easily and extensively configurable and customisable, both in its options for parsing and post-processing samples, and in the visual aspects of the figures it produces. I illustrate some of these using an existing supersymmetric global fit, performed in the context of a gamma-ray search for dark matter. Pippi can be downloaded and followed at http://github.com/patscott/pippi.

  15. Painless File Extraction: The A(rc)--Z(oo) of Internet Archive Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmonds, Curtis

    1993-01-01

    Discusses extraction programs needed to postprocess software downloaded from the Internet that has been archived and compressed for the purposes of storage and file transfer. Archiving formats for DOS, Macintosh, and UNIX operating systems are described; and cross-platform compression utilities are explained. (LRW)

  16. Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is an emerging technique of great potential for investigating the chemical architecture in biological matrices. Although the potential for studying neurobiological systems is evident, the relevance of the technique for application in neuroscience is still in its infancy. In the present Review, a principal overview of the different approaches, including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry, is provided with particular focus on their strengths and limitations for studying different neurochemical species in situ and in vitro. The potential of the various approaches is discussed based on both fundamental and biomedical neuroscience research. This Review aims to serve as a general guide to familiarize the neuroscience community and other biomedical researchers with the technique, highlighting its great potential and suitability for comprehensive and specific chemical imaging. PMID:23530951

  17. Neuroscience and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Palmblad, M N; Buchholz, B A; Hillegonds, D J

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a mass spectrometric method for quantifying rare isotopes. It has had great impact in geochronology and archaeology and is now being applied in biomedicine. AMS measures radioisotopes such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 41}Ca, with zepto- or attomole sensitivity and high precision and throughput, enabling safe human pharmacokinetic studies involving: microgram doses, agents having low bioavailability, or toxicology studies where administered doses must be kept low (<1 {micro}g/kg). It is used to study long-term pharmacokinetics, to identify biomolecular interactions, to determine chronic and low-dose effects or molecular targets ofmore » neurotoxic substances, to quantify transport across the blood-brain barrier and to resolve molecular turnover rates in the human brain on the timescale of decades. We will here review how AMS is applied in neurotoxicology and neuroscience.« less

  18. Next Generation Mass Memory Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpel, H.-J.; Stahle, M.; Lonsdorfer, U.; Binzer, N.

    2010-08-01

    Future Mass Memory units will have to cope with various demanding requirements driven by onboard instruments (optical and SAR) that generate a huge amount of data (>10TBit) at a data rate > 6 Gbps. For downlink data rates around 3 Gbps will be feasible using latest ka-band technology together with Variable Coding and Modulation (VCM) techniques. These high data rates and storage capacities need to be effectively managed. Therefore, data structures and data management functions have to be improved and adapted to existing standards like the Packet Utilisation Standard (PUS). In this paper we will present a highly modular and scalable architectural approach for mass memories in order to support a wide range of mission requirements.

  19. Slowly rotating homogeneous masses revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reina, Borja

    2016-02-01

    Hartle's model for slowly rotating stars has been extensively used to compute equilibrium configurations of slowly rotating stars to second order in perturbation theory in general relativity, given a barotropic equation of state. A recent study based on the modern theory of perturbed matchings concludes that the functions in the (first and second order) perturbation tensors can always be taken as continuous at the surface of the star, except for the second-order function m0. This function presents a jump at the surface of the star proportional to the discontinuity of the energy density there. This concerns only a particular outcome of the model: the change in mass δM. In this paper, the amended change in mass is calculated for the case of constant density stars.

  20. EMERGING POLLUTANTS, MASS SPECTROMETRY, AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Historically fundamental to amassing our understanding of environmental processes and chemical pollution is the realm of mass spectrometry (MS) - the mainstay of analytical chemistry - the workhorse that supplies definitive data that environmental scientists and engineers reply upon for identifying molecular compositions (and ultimately structures) of chemicals. While the power of MS has long been visible to the practicing environmental chemist, it borders on obscurity to the lay public and many scientists. While MS has played a long, historic (and largely invisible) role in establishing our knowledge of environmental processes and pollution, what recognition it does enjoy is usually relegated to that of a tool. It is usually the relevance or significance of the knowledge acquired from the application of the tool that has ultimate meaning to the public and science at large - not how the data were acquired. Methods (736/800): Mass Spectrometry and the

  1. Teaching English through Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafani, Vilma

    2009-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing the importance of using Mass Media in the classroom and finding the ways how to use Printed and Audio-visual Media. It is the result of an in-depth study, surveys and questionnaires thus trying to make the ideas in this article more trustworthy. It is based not only on the literature review but also on long personal…

  2. Portable Tandem Mass Spectrometer Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    The planned instrument was to be small enough to be portable in small vehicles and was to be able to use either an atmospheric pressure ion source or a...conventional electron impact/chemical ionization ion source. In order to accomplish these developments an atmospheric pressure ionization source was...developed for a compact, commercially available tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. This ion source could be readily exchanged with the conventional

  3. Fermion mass without symmetry breaking

    DOE PAGES

    Catterall, Simon

    2016-01-20

    We examine a model of reduced staggered fermions in three dimensions interacting through an SO (4) invariant four fermion interaction. The model is similar to that considered in a recent paper by Ayyer and Chandrasekharan. We present theoretical arguments and numerical evidence which support the idea that the system develops a mass gap for sufficiently strong four fermi coupling without producing a symmetry breaking fermion bilinear condensate. As a result, massless and massive phases appear to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  4. Mental health in mass gatherings

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Chauhan, V. S.; Timothy, A.; Kalpana, S.; Khanam, Shagufta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12%) required admission. Twelve (6.8%) pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2%) patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7%) followed by psychosis (9.8%), insomnia (7.3%), and mood disorders (5.6%). The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%), sleep (55%), anxiety (41%), and fear of being lost (27%). Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu. PMID:28659703

  5. Lunar mass spectrometer test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torney, F. L.; Dobrott, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures are described along with results obtained in a test program conducted to demonstrate the performance of a candidate lunar mass spectrometer. The instrument was designed to sample and measure gases believed to exist in the lunar atmosphere at the surface. The subject instrument consists of a cold cathode ion source, a small quadrupole mass analyzer and an off axis electron multiplier ion counting detector. The major program emphasis was placed on demonstrating instrument resolution, sensitivity and S/N ratio over the mass range 0-150 amu and over a partial pressure range from 10 to the minus 9th power to 10 to the minus 13th power torr. Ultrahigh vacuum tests were conducted and the minimum detectable partial pressure for neon, argon, krypton and xenon was successfully determined for the spectrometer using isotopes of these gases. With the exception of neon, the minimum detectable partial pressure is approximately 4 x 10 to the minus 14th power torr for the above gases.

  6. Establishment of peak bone mass.

    PubMed

    Mora, Stefano; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2003-03-01

    Among the main areas of progress in osteoporosis research during the last decade or so are the general recognition that this condition, which is the cause of so much pain in the elderly population, has its antecedents in childhood and the identification of the structural basis accounting for much of the differences in bone strength among humans. Nevertheless, current understanding of the bone mineral accrual process is far from complete. The search for genes that regulate bone mass acquisition is ongoing, and current results are not sufficient to identify subjects at risk. However, there is solid evidence that BMD measurements can be helpful for the selection of subjects that presumably would benefit from preventive interventions. The questions regarding the type of preventive interventions, their magnitude, and duration remain unanswered. Carefully designed controlled trials are needed. Nevertheless, previous experience indicates that weight-bearing activity and possibly calcium supplements are beneficial if they are begun during childhood and preferably before the onset of puberty. Modification of unhealthy lifestyles and increments in exercise or calcium assumption are logical interventions that should be implemented to improve bone mass gains in all children and adolescents who are at risk of failing to achieve an optimal peak bone mass.

  7. Inertial Mass from Spin Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marcus

    The inertial mass of a Fermion shows up as chiral cross-coupling in its Dirac system. No scalar term can invariantly couple left and right chirality fields; the Dirac matrices must be spin tensors of mixed chirality. We show how such tensor couplings could arise from nonlinear mixing of four spinor fields, two representing the local electron fields and two inertial spinor fields sourced in the distant masses. We thus give a model that implements Mach's principle. Following Mendel Sachs,1 we let the inertial spinors factor the moving spacetime tetrads qα(x) and bar {q}α (x) that appear in the Dirac operator. The inertial spinors do more than set the spacetime "stage;" they are players in the chiral dynamics. Specifically, we show how the massive Dirac system arises as the envelope modulation equations coupling left and right chirality electron fields on a Friedmann universe via nonlinear "spin gratings" with the inertial spinor fields. These gratings implement Penrose's "mass-scatterings," which keep the null zig-zags of the bispinor wave function confined to a timelike world tube. Local perturbations to the inertial spinor fields appear in the Dirac system as Abelian and non-Abelian vector potentials.

  8. Parasites in algae mass culture

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

  9. The art of thermal mass

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.

    1999-10-01

    From cave dwellers to pueblo builders, early people of the southwest used the earth to moderated the extremes of their climate. Now, at the turn of the 21st century, a Colorado builder combines ancient knowledge with high technology to create modern homes that stay naturally warm in the winter and cool in the summer. With passive solar design, incorporating lots concrete mass, Judy Niemeyer builds custom homes that hardly even need thermostats. Before clients Ralph and Sharon Dickman stumbled into Niemeyer, owner of Tierra Concrete Homes in Pueblo, Colorado, thermal mass was not in their vocabulary. Now, when temperatures reachmore » 100 F (38 C) in July and their neighbors are running up their electric bills, the Dickmans are saving for vacation. With the thermal mass integrated into their new home, they don't need a cooling system. And in winter, their gas-fired log fireplace is about all they need to supplement the sun. ``We love the natural lighting, the open feeling and the great view out the huge windows,'' says Sharon. And they stay comfortable year-round with very low energy bills.« less

  10. Tactile Imaging of an Imbedded Palpable Structure for Breast Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Apart from texture, the human finger can sense palpation. The detection of an imbedded structure is a fine balance between the relative stiffness of the matrix, the object, and the device. If the device is too soft, its high responsiveness will limit the depth to which the imbedded structure can be detected. The sensation of palpation is an effective procedure for a physician to examine irregularities. In a clinical breast examination (CBE), by pressing over 1 cm2 area, at a contact pressure in the 70–90 kPa range, the physician feels cancerous lumps that are 8- to 18-fold stiffer than surrounding tissue. Early detection of a lump in the 5–10 mm range leads to an excellent prognosis. We describe a thin-film tactile device that emulates human touch to quantify CBE by imaging the size and shape of 5–10 mm objects at 20 mm depth in a breast model using ∼80 kPa pressure. The linear response of the device allows quantification where the greyscale corresponds to the relative local stiffness. The (background) signal from <2.5-fold stiffer objects at a size below 2 mm is minimal. PMID:25148477

  11. FNAC Versus Core Needle Biopsy: A Comparative Study in Evaluation of Palpable Breast Lump

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Abhijit; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Sarkar, Koushik; Saha, Ashis Kumar; Sarkar, Diptendra KR

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour and the leading cause of carcinoma death in women in world. The main purpose of FNAC or CNB of breast lumps is to confirm cancer preoperatively and to avoid unnecessary surgery in specific benign conditions. Aims and Objective The objective of the study was to compare between Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) and Core Needle Biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma with final histological diagnosis from excision specimen as it is gold standard. Materials and Methods A prospective study was done on 50 cases. Patients undergoing all three procedures (Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Core Needle Biopsy done at Department of Pathology; subsequent excision surgeries done at Department of General Surgery) were selected. May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) and Papaniculou (PAP) staining were performed on cytology smears. Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining was done on both the CNB and tissue specimens obtained from subsequent excision surgeries to see the histological features. Results FNAC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 69%, 100%, 100%, 38.1%, and 74% respectively in diagnosing carcinoma. CNB had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of 88.3%, 100%, 100%, 53.3% and 86%. Both FNAC and CNB showed statistically significant correlation with confirmatory HPE of excision specimen (p-value <0.05) in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Conclusion Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a rapid, less complicated, economical, reliable and relevant method for the preoperative pathological diagnosis of breast carcinoma in a developing nation like ours. If the initial FNAC is inadequate, core needle biopsy (CNB) can be a useful second line method of pathological diagnosis in order to minimize the chance of missed diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:27042469

  12. A 92-Year-Old Male with Eosinophilic Asthma Presenting with Recurrent Palpable Purpuric Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Negbenebor, Nicole A.; Khalifian, Saami; Foreman, Ruth K.; Kroshinsky, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a systemic vasculitis affecting the small and medium-sized vasculature. It is commonly associated with asthma and eosinophilia. Most patients are diagnosed at around the age of 40. We report a case of biopsy-confirmed Churg-Strauss syndrome in a 92-year-old male with a history of eosinophilic asthma and peripheral eosinophilia who was later diagnosed with Churg-Strauss syndrome. PMID:29719830

  13. Factors affecting the palpability of breast lesion by self-examination.

    PubMed

    Lam, W W M; Chan, C P; Chan, C F; Mak, C C C; Chan, C F; Chong, K W H; Leung, M H J; Tang, M H

    2008-03-01

    This study aims to assess the accuracy of detection of breast lesion by breast self-examination and to assess different factors affecting the accuracy. All consecutive Chinese female patients, who attended our breast imaging unit in 2001, completed our questionnaire, had retrievable hard copy films, and had more than three years clinical follow-up, were recruited for this study. Different factors, such as age, menopausal status, previous experience of breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, previous history of mastectomy or lumpectomy, hormonal therapy, oral contraceptive pills and previous history of mammography, were correlated with accuracy in self-detection of breast lesions retrospectively. The nature, size and location of the lesion, and breast size based on imaging, were also correlated with the accuracy in self-detection of breast lesions. A total of 163 questionnaires were analysed. 111 patients detected a breast lesion themselves and 24 of these lesions were false-positives. A total of 173 lesions (27 cancerous, 146 benign lesions) were documented by either ultrasonography and/or mammography, and confirmed by either histology or three-year clinical follow-up. The overall sensitivity in detecting both benign and malignant breast lesions was 71% when number of breast lesions was used as the denominator, and up to 78% sensitivity was achieved when number of patients was used as the denominator. History of mastectomy, and size and nature of the lesions were found to affect the accuracy of self-detection of breast lesions. Overall, breast self-examinations were effective in the detection of breast lesions and factors such as size of lesion, nature of the lesion and history of mastectomy affect the accuracy of the detections. Breast self-examination should be promoted for early detection of breast cancer.

  14. Why Do Gestures Matter? Sensuous Cognition and the Palpability of Mathematical Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this article is to present a sketch of what, following the German social theorist Arnold Gehlen, may be termed "sensuous cognition." The starting point of this alternative approach to classical mental-oriented views of cognition is a multimodal "material" conception of thinking. The very texture of thinking, it is suggested, cannot be…

  15. [Radiological control intraoperatory of a surgical piece in non palpable breast lesions].

    PubMed

    Ruvalcaba Limón, Eva; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby; Bautista Piña, Verónica; Madero Preciado, Luis; Capurso Garcia, Marino; Serratos Garduño, José Eduardo; Hohenstein, Fernando Guisa; Rodríguez Cuevas, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    nonconcrete the mammary injuries are frequent in programs of detection of breast cancer, estereotaxic or ecographic marking is required to realize its split. The intrasurgical radiation control of the surgical piece is indispensable to evaluate the margins of the mammary cancer. to determine the effectiveness of the intrasurgical radiation control of the surgical piece in nonconcrete mammary injuries to diminish the surgical reinterventions to extend margins. women with nonconcrete mammary injuries to those who biopsy by split became, previous marking and intraoperating radiation control of the surgical piece to value margins (suitable margin the same or major of 10 mm, smaller inadequate margin of 10 mm). Intrasurgical reesicion in inadequate radiological margins became. The demographic characteristics, masto-ecographics images, histopathology of the injuries and the radiological-histopatol6gica correlation of the margins studied. Cross-sectional, prospective and descriptive study. 103 patients with 113 nonconcrete mammary injuries included themselves, with age average of 51,35 (32-73) years. In all the injuries the intrasurgical radiation control became of the surgical piece. The prevalence of mammary cancer was of 28.3% (32/113), that corresponds to stellar images (42.8%), suspicious microcalcifications with density (39.2%), microcalcifications (31.2%) and nodules (20%). Of the 32 cancers, 16 had inadequate radiological margins that required intraoperating reescision; suitable histopatologic margins in 100% were obtained (16/16). The 16 (62.5%) cancers without intraoperating reescisi6n by suitable radiological margins had suitable histopatologic margins and 37.5% (6/16) inadequate ones that required surgical reinterventionn to control the margins. The discrepancy between margins was related to microcalcifications in 83.3% of the injuries. the intrasurgical radiation control of the surgical piece is effective to evaluate margins; the intrasurgical reescisión changed inadequate margins to suitable in 50% (16/32) of the cancers; only 18.7% (6/32) of the total of cases required another surgery to control the margins.

  16. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the mass-metallicity relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, C.; Hopkins, A. M.; Gunawardhana, M.; Lara-López, M. A.; Sharp, R. G.; Steele, O.; Taylor, E. N.; Driver, S. P.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S. P.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Norberg, P.; Peacock, J. A.; Alpaslan, M.; Bauer, A. E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Cameron, E.; Colless, M.; Conselice, C. J.; Croom, S. M.; Frenk, C. S.; Hill, D. T.; Jones, D. H.; Kelvin, L. S.; Kuijken, K.; Nichol, R. C.; Owers, M. S.; Parkinson, H. R.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Popescu, C. C.; Prescott, M.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Sutherland, W. J.; Thomas, D.; Tuffs, R. J.; van Kampen, E.; Wijesinghe, D.

    2012-11-01

    Context. The mass-metallicity relationship (MMR) of star-forming galaxies is well-established, however there is still some disagreement with respect to its exact shape and its possible dependence on other observables. Aims: We measure the MMR in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. We compare our measured MMR to that measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and study the dependence of the MMR on various selection criteria to identify potential causes for disparities seen in the literature. Methods: We use strong emission line ratio diagnostics to derive oxygen abundances. We then apply a range of selection criteria for the minimum signal-to-noise in various emission lines, as well as the apparent and absolute magnitude to study variations in the inferred MMR. Results: The shape and position of the MMR can differ significantly depending on the metallicity calibration and selection used. After selecting a robust metallicity calibration amongst those tested, we find that the mass-metallicity relation for redshifts 0.061 ≲ z ≲ 0.35 in GAMA is in reasonable agreement with that found in the SDSS despite the difference in the luminosity range probed. Conclusions: In view of the significant variations of the MMR brought about by reasonable changes in the sample selection criteria and method, we recommend that care be taken when comparing the MMR from different surveys and studies directly. We also conclude that there could be a modest level of evolution over 0.06 ≤ z ≤ 0.35 within the GAMA sample.

  17. Tuberculosis of the Penis: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis of the penis (TBP) is rare. Aim. To review the literature. Method. Various internet data bases were searched. Literature Review. TBP could be primary or secondary, may develop following circumcision performed by a person who had pulmonary Tb, and may be transmitted to the penis from ejaculation, contamination from clothing, or from contact with endometrial secretions, following an earlier pulmonary Tb or Tb elsewhere. TBP presents with a painless/painful small nodule, ulcer, mass on penis which gradually enlarges, and induration/swelling of penis, with or without erectile dysfunction. Inguinal lymph nodes may or may not be palpable. The patient's voiding is normal. There may or may not be history of circumcision, pulmonary Tb, and BCG immunization. TBP mimics penile carcinoma, granulomatous syphilis penile ulcer, genital herpes simplex, granuloma inguinale, and HIV infection. Diagnosis is established by microscopic examination finding of granulomas +/−AFB in penile discharge or biopsy of lesion or culture of Tb organism from discharge or biopsy specimens or positive Elisa serology/PCR for Tb. PTBs respond to first- or 2nd-line anti-Tb 6-month treatment. Close contacts should be screened. Extrapulmonary Tb should be excluded. Conclusions. Clinicians should consider possibility of PTB in cases of penile lesions and erectile failure. PMID:26435877

  18. Tuberculosis of the Penis: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis of the penis (TBP) is rare. Aim. To review the literature. Method. Various internet data bases were searched. Literature Review. TBP could be primary or secondary, may develop following circumcision performed by a person who had pulmonary Tb, and may be transmitted to the penis from ejaculation, contamination from clothing, or from contact with endometrial secretions, following an earlier pulmonary Tb or Tb elsewhere. TBP presents with a painless/painful small nodule, ulcer, mass on penis which gradually enlarges, and induration/swelling of penis, with or without erectile dysfunction. Inguinal lymph nodes may or may not be palpable. The patient's voiding is normal. There may or may not be history of circumcision, pulmonary Tb, and BCG immunization. TBP mimics penile carcinoma, granulomatous syphilis penile ulcer, genital herpes simplex, granuloma inguinale, and HIV infection. Diagnosis is established by microscopic examination finding of granulomas +/-AFB in penile discharge or biopsy of lesion or culture of Tb organism from discharge or biopsy specimens or positive Elisa serology/PCR for Tb. PTBs respond to first- or 2nd-line anti-Tb 6-month treatment. Close contacts should be screened. Extrapulmonary Tb should be excluded. Conclusions. Clinicians should consider possibility of PTB in cases of penile lesions and erectile failure.

  19. Body Mass Measurement - Skylab Experiment M172

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This chart provides details on Skylab's Body Mass Measurement experiment (M172). The M172 experiment was a medical study to determine the body mass of each crew member and observe changes in body masses during flight. Knowledge of exact body mass variations throughout the flight aided significantly in the correlation of other medical data obtained during the flight. Mass measurements under zero-gravity conditions were achieved by the application of Newton's second law (force equals mass times acceleration). The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  20. Zero voltage mass spectrometry probes and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Wleklinski, Michael Stanley; Bag, Soumabha

    The invention generally relates to zero volt mass spectrometry probes and systems. In certain embodiments, the invention provides a system including a mass spectrometry probe including a porous material, and a mass spectrometer (bench-top or miniature mass spectrometer). The system operates without an application of voltage to the probe. In certain embodiments, the probe is oriented such that a distal end faces an inlet of the mass spectrometer. In other embodiments, the distal end of the probe is 5 mm or less from an inlet of the mass spectrometer.

  1. Selling to the moneyed masses.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paul F; Johnson, Brian A; Breene, R Timothy S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, the distribution of household incomes has shifted so much that a much larger proportion of consumers now earn significantly higher-than-average incomes--while still falling short of being truly rich. As a result, what used to be a no-man's-land for new product introductions has in many categories become an extremely profitable "new middle ground." How can marketers capitalize on this new territory? The key, say the authors, is to rethink the positioning and design of offerings and the ways they can be brought to market. Take, for instance, how Procter & Gamble redefined the positioning map for tooth-whitening solutions. A decade ago, dental centers were popularizing expensive bleaching techniques that put the price of a professionally brightened smile in the 400 dollars range. At the low end, consumers also had the choice of whitening toothpastes that cost anywhere from 2 dollars to 8 dollars. P&G wisely positioned itself between the two ends, successfully targeting the new mass market with its 35 dollars Whitestrips. In product categories where it's clear the middle ground has already been populated, it's important for companies to design or redesign offerings to compete. An example is the Polo shirt. How do you sell a man yet another one after he's bought every color he wants? Add some features, and call it a golf shirt. Here, marketers have introduced designs based on the concept of "occasional use" in order to stand out. Finally, companies wishing to reach the "almost rich" can change how they go to market. Perhaps no mass retailer has made a stronger bid for the mass affluent than Target Stores, which has pioneered a focus the company itself characterizes as upscale discount. The strategy has made Target an everyday shopping phenomenon among well-heeled urbanites and prosperous professionals.

  2. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  3. Low floor mass transit vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Emmons, J Bruce [Beverly Hills, MI; Blessing, Leonard J [Rochester, MI

    2004-02-03

    A mass transit vehicle includes a frame structure that provides an efficient and economical approach to providing a low floor bus. The inventive frame includes a stiff roof panel and a stiff floor panel. A plurality of generally vertical pillars extend between the roof and floor panels. A unique bracket arrangement is disclosed for connecting the pillars to the panels. Side panels are secured to the pillars and carry the shear stresses on the frame. A unique seating assembly that can be advantageously incorporated into the vehicle taking advantage of the load distributing features of the inventive frame is also disclosed.

  4. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retinò, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) onboard THOR will provide the first high-time resolution measurements of mass-resolved ions in near-Earth space, focusing on hot ions in the foreshock, shock and magnetosheath turbulent regions. These measurements are required to study how kinetic-scale turbulent fluctuations heat and accelerate different ion species. IMS will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of main ion species (H+, He++, O+) in the energy range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q with energy resolution DE/E down to 10% and angular resolution down to 11.25˚ . The time resolution will be 150 ms for O+, 300 ms for He++ and ˜ 1s for O+, which correspond to ion scales in the the foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting four identical IMS units phased by 90˚ in the spacecraft spin plane. Each IMS unit combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. Adequate mass-per-charge resolution (M/q)/(ΔM/q) (≥ 8 for He++ and ≥ 3 for O+) is obtained through a 6 cm long Time-of-Flight (TOF) section. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCPs) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification and discrimination and a discrete Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) to determine the ion time of flight. A processor board will be used to for ion events formatting and will interface with the Particle Processing Unit (PPU), which will perform data processing for THOR particle detectors. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built and calibrated by an international consortium of scientific institutes from France, USA, Germany and Japan and Switzerland.

  5. Mass extinctions and missing matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible influence of 'invisible matter' on the solar system's comet halo, and therefore on quasi-periodic cometary bombardment of the earth and consequent mass extinctions, is briefly addressed. Invisible matter consisting of small or cold interstellar molecular clouds could significantly modulate the comet background flux, while invisible matter consisting of a large population of old, dead stars with a relatively small galactic concentration probably could not. It is also shown that the downward force exerted by the Galaxy will perturb the halo, but will not produce any periodicity.

  6. A cometary ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Simpson, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flight suitable analyzer units for that part of the GIOTTO Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) experiment designated the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) is discussed. Topics covered include: design of the total ion-optical system for the HERS analyzer; the preparation of the design of analyzing magnet; the evaluation of microchannel plate detectors and associated two-dimensional anode arrays; and the fabrication and evaluation of two flight-suitable units of the complete ion-optical analyzer system including two-dimensional imaging detectors and associated image encoding electronics.

  7. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  8. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  9. Mass balance assessment using GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulbe, Christina L.

    1993-01-01

    Mass balance is an integral part of any comprehensive glaciological investigation. Unfortunately, it is hard to determine at remote locations where there is no fixed reference. The Global Positioning System (GPS) offers a solution. Simultaneous GPS observations at a known location and the remote field site, processed differentially, will accurately position the camp site. From there, a monument planted in the firn atop the ice can also be accurately positioned. Change in the monument's vertical position is a direct indicator of ice thickness change. Because the monument is not connected to the ice, its motion is due to both mass balance change and to the settling of firn as it densifies into ice. Observations of relative position change between the monument and anchors at various depths within the firn are used to remove the settling effect. An experiment to test this method has begun at Byrd Station on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the first epoch of observations was made. Analysis indicates that positioning errors will be very small. It appears likely that the largest errors involved with this technique will arise from ancillary data needed to determine firn settling.

  10. Missing mass or missing light?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. I.

    1990-07-01

    Disney et al. (1989) have argued that the observational data are consistent with disk galaxies being optically thick, particularly in their inner regions. Here, these results are used to reinterpret the radial surface-brightness distributions of spiral galaxies. It is found that the fitting of a profile with an absorbed disk plus bulge leads to both disk and bulge masses (mass in luminous material) that are larger than previously assumed. In addition, it is shown how the rotation velocity, as determined from optical data in the central regions, may systematically underestimate the true rotational velocity in an optically thick disk. If the bulges of late-type galaxies are as large as is hypothesized, then this has important implications in models of galaxy evolution and galaxy dynamics. The model greatly reduces or even eliminates the need for dark matter within the optical radius; it removes a major argument against S0 evolution from later-type galaxies; it accounts for the similarity of rotation curve forms among galaxies of different morphological types; and it leads to a further reappraisal of the observed constancy of the extrapolated central surface brightness of galactic disks.

  11. Mass storage technology in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Takeda, Toru; Itao, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Reizo

    1990-08-01

    Trends and features of mass storage subsystems in network are surveyed and their key technologies spotlighted. Storage subsystems are becoming increasingly important in new network systems in which communications and data processing are systematically combined. These systems require a new class of high-performance mass-information storage in order to effectively utilize their processing power. The requirements of high transfer rates, high transactional rates and large storage capacities, coupled with high functionality, fault tolerance and flexibility in configuration, are major challenges in storage subsystems. Recent progress in optical disk technology has resulted in improved performance of on-line external memories to optical disk drives, which are competing with mid-range magnetic disks. Optical disks are more effective than magnetic disks in using low-traffic random-access file storing multimedia data that requires large capacity, such as in archive use and in information distribution use by ROM disks. Finally, it demonstrates image coded document file servers for local area network use that employ 130mm rewritable magneto-optical disk subsystems.

  12. Automated mass spectrometer analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor); Kuppermann, Aron (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An automated mass spectrometer analysis system is disclosed, in which samples are automatically processed in a sample processor and converted into volatilizable samples, or their characteristic volatilizable derivatives. Each volatilizable sample is sequentially volatilized and analyzed in a double focusing mass spectrometer, whose output is in the form of separate ion beams all of which are simultaneously focused in a focal plane. Each ion beam is indicative of a different sample component or different fragments of one or more sample components and the beam intensity is related to the relative abundance of the sample component. The system includes an electro-optical ion detector which automatically and simultaneously converts the ion beams, first into electron beams which in turn produce a related image which is transferred to the target of a vilicon unit. The latter converts the images into electrical signals which are supplied to a data processor, whose output is a list of the components of the analyzed sample and their abundances. The system is under the control of a master control unit, which in addition to monitoring and controlling various power sources, controls the automatic operation of the system under expected and some unexpected conditions and further protects various critical parts of the system from damage due to particularly abnormal conditions.

  13. Building brands without mass media.

    PubMed

    Joachimsthaler, E; Aaker, D A

    1997-01-01

    Costs, market fragmentation, and new media channels that let customers bypass advertisements seem to be in league against the old ways of marketing. Relying on mass media campaigns to build strong brands may be a thing of the past. Several companies in Europe, making a virtue of necessity, have come up with alternative brand-building approaches and are blazing a trail in the post-mass-media age. In England, Nestlé's Buitoni brand grew through programs that taught the English how to cook Italian food. The Body Shop garnered loyalty with its support of environmental and social causes. Cadbury funded a theme park tied to its history in the chocolate business. Häagen-Dazs opened posh ice-cream parlors and got itself featured by name on the menus of fine restaurants. Hugo Boss and Swatch backed athletic or cultural events that became associated with their brands. The various campaigns shared characteristics that could serve as guidelines for any company hoping to build a successful brand: senior managers were closely involved with brand-building efforts; the companies recognized the importance of clarifying their core brand identity; and they made sure that all their efforts to gain visibility were tied to that core identity. Studying the methods of companies outside one's own industry and country can be instructive for managers. Pilot testing and the use of a single and continuous measure of brand equity also help managers get the most out of novel approaches in their ever more competitive world.

  14. Flood basalts and mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, W. Jason

    1988-01-01

    There appears to be a correlation between the times of flood basalts and mass-extinction events. There is a correlation of flood basalts and hotspot tracks--flood basalts appear to mark the beginning of a new hotspot. Perhaps there is an initial instability in the mantle that bursts forth as a flood basalt but then becomes a steady trickle that persists for many tens of millions of years. Suppose that flood basalts and not impacts cause the environmental changes that lead to mass-extinctions. This is a very testable hypothesis: it predicts that the ages of the flows should agree exactly with the times of extinctions. The Deccan and K-T ages agree with this hypothesis; An iridium anomaly at extinction boundaries apparently can be explained by a scaled-up eruption of the Hawaiian type; the occurrence of shocked-quartz is more of a problem. However if the flood basalts are all well dated and their ages indeed agree with extinction times, then surely some mechanism to appropriately produce shocked-quartz will be found.

  15. Mass Extinctions and Supernova Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korschinek, Gunther

    A nearby supernova (SN) explosion could have negatively influenced life on Earth, maybe even been responsible for mass extinctions. Mass extinction poses a significant extinction of numerous species on Earth, as recorded in the paleontologic, paleoclimatic, and geological record of our planet. Depending on the distance between the Sun and the SN, different types of threats have to be considered, such as ozone depletion on Earth, causing increased exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet radiation or the direct exposure of lethal X-rays. Another indirect effect is cloud formation, induced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere which result in a drop in the Earth's temperature, causing major glaciations of the Earth. The discovery of highly intensive gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which could be connected to SNe, initiated further discussions on possible life-threatening events in the Earth's history. The probability that GRBs hit the Earth is very low. Nevertheless, a past interaction of Earth with GRBs and/or SNe cannot be excluded and might even have been responsible for past extinction events.

  16. Automated mass spectrometer analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor); Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Kuppermann, Aron (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automated mass spectrometer analysis system is disclosed, in which samples are automatically processed in a sample processor and converted into volatilizable samples, or their characteristic volatilizable derivatives. Each volatizable sample is sequentially volatilized and analyzed in a double focusing mass spectrometer, whose output is in the form of separate ion beams all of which are simultaneously focused in a focal plane. Each ion beam is indicative of a different sample component or different fragments of one or more sample components and the beam intensity is related to the relative abundance of the sample component. The system includes an electro-optical ion detector which automatically and simultaneously converts the ion beams, first into electron beams which in turn produce a related image which is transferred to the target of a vidicon unit. The latter converts the images into electrical signals which are supplied to a data processor, whose output is a list of the components of the analyzed sample and their abundances. The system is under the control of a master control unit, which in addition to monitoring and controlling various power sources, controls the automatic operation of the system under expected and some unexpected conditions and further protects various critical parts of the system from damage due to particularly abnormal conditions.

  17. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MSn) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology. PMID:28149262

  18. MASS SPECTROMETRY OF FATTY ALDEHYDES

    PubMed Central

    Berdyshev, Evgeny V.

    2011-01-01

    Fatty aldehydes are important components of the cellular lipidome. Significant interest has been developed towards the analysis of the short chain α,β-unsaturated and hydroxylated aldehydes formed as a result of oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Multiple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and subsequently liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) approaches have been developed to identify and quantify short-chain as well as long-chain fatty aldehydes. Due to the ability to non-enzymaticaly form Schiff bases with amino groups of proteins, lipids, and with DNA guanidine, free aldehydes are viewed as a marker or metric of fatty acid oxidation and not the part of intracellular signaling pathways which has significantly limited the overall attention this group of molecules have received. This review provides an overview of current GC/MS and LC/MS approaches of fatty aldehyde analysis as well as discusses technical challenges standing in the way of free fatty aldehyde quantitation. PMID:21930240

  19. Nonuniversal gaugino masses and muon g - 2

    DOE PAGES

    Gogoladze, Ilia; Nasir, Fariha; Shafi, Qaisar; ...

    2014-08-11

    We consider two classes of supersymmetric models with nonuniversal gaugino masses at the grand unification scale M GUT in an attempt to resolve the apparent muon g-2 anomaly encountered in the Standard Model. We explore two distinct scenarios, one in which all gaugino masses have the same sign at M GUT, and a second case with opposite sign gaugino masses. The sfermion masses in both cases are assumed to be universal at M GUT. We exploit the nonuniversality among gaugino masses to realize large mass splitting between the colored and noncolored sfermions. Thus, the sleptons can have masses in themore » few hundred GeV range, whereas the colored sparticles turn out to be an order of magnitude or so heavier. In both models the resolution of the muon g-2 anomaly is compatible, among other things, with a 125–126 GeV Higgs boson mass and the WMAP dark matter bounds.« less

  20. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on height ...

  1. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  2. System precisely controls oscillation of vibrating mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. J.

    1967-01-01

    System precisely controls the sinusoidal amplitude of a vibrating mechanical mass. Using two sets of coils, the system regulates the drive signal amplitude at the precise level to maintain the mechanical mass when it reaches the desired vibration amplitude.

  3. [Mass media consumption in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Bercedo Sanz, A; Redondo Figuero, C; Pelayo Alonso, R; Gómez Del Río, Z; Hernández Herrero, M; Cadenas González, N

    2005-12-01

    To describe mass media use in teenagers (television, mobile phones, computers, Internet and video games) and to analyze its influence on teenagers' health and development. We performed a cross sectional study by means of a survey of 884 teenagers aged between 14 and 18 years old who were in the third and fourth years of high school in six towns in Cantabria (Spain) in June 2003. The statistical analysis consisted of uni- and bivariable descriptive statistics. All the teenagers had a television set at home and 24 % of families had four or more television sets. The presence of distinct mass media in teenagers' rooms was 52.5 % for televisions, 57.8 % for computers, 52 % for the Internet and 38.7 % for games consoles. The most frequently found media in teenagers' bedrooms were radio/cassette players and compact disks with 76.8 % and 67.4 %, respectively. Teenagers watched television for an average of 3 hours per day on weekdays and 3.2 hours per day at weekends. They played games consoles for an average of 0.69 hours per day on weekdays (41 min) and an average of 1.09 hours per day (65 min) at weekends and used the Internet on weekdays for an average of 0.83 hours per day (49 min) and an average of 1.15 hours per day (69 min) at weekends. A total of 87.2 % of the teenagers, especially girls, had a mobile phone (91.6 % of girls versus 82.4 % of boys; p < 0.001). The average age at which teenagers had the first mobile phone was 13 years old. Expenditure on mobile phones amounted to 15 3 a month in girls and 10 3 a month in boys, and mobiles were mainly used for sending messages. Nearly half the teenagers (46.4 %) took their mobile phones to high school and reported they had an average of three mobile phones at home. Most (82.1 %) surfed the net but boys preferred surfing and downloading games and girls preferred chatting and sending e-mails. Sixty-two percent of teenagers had been to a cybercafé and 40.8 % has visited a pornographic web site, especially boys (33.1 % of

  4. Surface term effects on mass estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Membrado, M.; Pacheco, A. F.

    2016-05-01

    Context. We propose a way of estimating the mass contained in the volume occupied by a sample of galaxies in a virialized system. Aims: We analyze the influence of surface effects and the contribution of the cosmological constant terms on our mass estimations of galaxy systems. Methods: We propose two equations that contain surface terms to estimate galaxy sample masses. When the surface terms are neglected, these equations provide the so-called virial and projected masses. Both equations lead to a single equation that allows sample masses to be estimated without the need for calculating surface terms. Sample masses for some nearest galaxy groups are estimated and compared with virialized masses determined from turn-around radii and results of a spherical infall model. Results: Surface effects have a considerable effect on the mass estimations of the studied galaxy groups. According to our results, they lead sample masses of some groups to being less than half the virial mass estimations and even less than 10% of projected mass estimations. However, the contributions of cosmological constant terms to mass estimations are smaller than 2% for the majority of the virialized groups studied. Our estimations are in agreement with virialized masses calculated from turn-around radii. Virialized masses for complexes were found to be: (8.9 ± 2.8) × 1011 M⊙ for the Milky Way - M 31; (12.5 ± 2.5) × 1011 M⊙ for M 81 - NGC 2403; (21.5 ± 7.7) × 1011 M⊙. for Cantaurs A - M 83; and (7.9 ± 2.6) × 1011 M⊙. for IC 324 - Maffei. Conclusions: The nearest galaxy groups located inside a sphere of 5 Mpc have been addressed to explore the performance of our mass estimator. We have seen that surface effects make mass estimations of galaxy groups rather smaller than both virial and projected masses. In mass calculations, cosmological constant terms can be neglected; nevertheless, the collapse of cold dark matter leading to virialized structures is strongly affected by the

  5. Measuring masses of large biomolecules and bioparticles using mass spectrometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wen-Ping; Chou, Szu-Wei; Patil, Avinash A

    2014-07-21

    Large biomolecules and bioparticles play a vital role in biology, chemistry, biomedical science and physics. Mass is a critical parameter for the characterization of large biomolecules and bioparticles. To achieve mass analysis, choosing a suitable ion source is the first step and the instruments for detecting ions, mass analyzers and detectors should also be considered. Abundant mass spectrometric techniques have been proposed to determine the masses of large biomolecules and bioparticles and these techniques can be divided into two categories. The first category measures the mass (or size) of intact particles, including single particle quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry, cell mass spectrometry, charge detection mass spectrometry and differential mobility mass analysis; the second category aims to measure the mass and tandem mass of biomolecular ions, including quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry and orbitrap mass spectrometry. Moreover, algorithms for the mass and stoichiometry assignment of electrospray mass spectra are developed to obtain accurate structure information and subunit combinations.

  6. MPAI (mass probes aided ionization) method for total analysis of biomolecules by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Honda, Aki; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Hifumi, Hiroki; Honma, Yuya; Tanji, Noriyuki; Iwasawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Suzuki, Koji

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and synthesized various mass probes, which enable us to effectively ionize various molecules to be detected with mass spectrometry. We call the ionization method using mass probes the "MPAI (mass probes aided ionization)" method. We aim at the sensitive detection of various biological molecules, and also the detection of bio-molecules by a single mass spectrometry serially without changing the mechanical settings. Here, we review mass probes for small molecules with various functional groups and mass probes for proteins. Further, we introduce newly developed mass probes for proteins for highly sensitive detection.

  7. Measuring Transmission Efficiencies Of Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Santosh K.

    1989-01-01

    Coincidence counts yield absolute efficiencies. System measures mass-dependent transmission efficiencies of mass spectrometers, using coincidence-counting techniques reminiscent of those used for many years in calibration of detectors for subatomic particles. Coincidences between detected ions and electrons producing them counted during operation of mass spectrometer. Under certain assumptions regarding inelastic scattering of electrons, electron/ion-coincidence count is direct measure of transmission efficiency of spectrometer. When fully developed, system compact, portable, and used routinely to calibrate mass spectrometers.

  8. Water Vapour Effects in Mass Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khélifa, N.

    2008-01-01

    Water vapour density inside the mass comparator enclosure is a critical parameter whose fluctuations during mass weighing can lead to errors in the determination of an unknown mass. To monitor them, a method using DFB laser diode in the near infrared has been proposed and tested. Preliminary results of our observation of water vapour sorption and de-sorption processes from the walls and the mass standard are reported.

  9. Diversity in Mass Communication Theory Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasorsa, Dominic L.

    2002-01-01

    Shows how prominent mass communication theories can be employed to further knowledge of diversity-related issues. Provides examples of how diversity-related issues can be addressed in mass communication theory courses. Concludes that, by definition, mass communication must take into account diversity. (PM)

  10. Inferior vena caval masses identified by echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, J. P.; Asher, C. R.; Xu, Y.; Huang, V.; Griffin, B. P.; Stewart, W. J.; Novick, A. C.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The most common cause of an inferior vena caval mass is renal cell carcinoma that extends through the lumen, occurring in 47 of 62 patients (85%). Detection of an inferior vena caval mass affects the surgical approach requiring cardiopulmonary bypass for resection when the mass extends to the heart.

  11. Parsimonious Charge Deconvolution for Native Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Charge deconvolution infers the mass from mass over charge (m/z) measurements in electrospray ionization mass spectra. When applied over a wide input m/z or broad target mass range, charge-deconvolution algorithms can produce artifacts, such as false masses at one-half or one-third of the correct mass. Indeed, a maximum entropy term in the objective function of MaxEnt, the most commonly used charge deconvolution algorithm, favors a deconvolved spectrum with many peaks over one with fewer peaks. Here we describe a new “parsimonious” charge deconvolution algorithm that produces fewer artifacts. The algorithm is especially well-suited to high-resolution native mass spectrometry of intact glycoproteins and protein complexes. Deconvolution of native mass spectra poses special challenges due to salt and small molecule adducts, multimers, wide mass ranges, and fewer and lower charge states. We demonstrate the performance of the new deconvolution algorithm on a range of samples. On the heavily glycosylated plasma properdin glycoprotein, the new algorithm could deconvolve monomer and dimer simultaneously and, when focused on the m/z range of the monomer, gave accurate and interpretable masses for glycoforms that had previously been analyzed manually using m/z peaks rather than deconvolved masses. On therapeutic antibodies, the new algorithm facilitated the analysis of extensions, truncations, and Fab glycosylation. The algorithm facilitates the use of native mass spectrometry for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of protein and protein assemblies. PMID:29376659

  12. Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's…

  13. Peptide Mass Fingerprinting of Egg White Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alty, Lisa T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    Use of advanced mass spectrometry techniques in the undergraduate setting has burgeoned in the past decade. However, relatively few undergraduate experiments examine the proteomics tools of protein digestion, peptide accurate mass determination, and database searching, also known as peptide mass fingerprinting. In this experiment, biochemistry…

  14. A Developmental History of Polymer Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergne, Matthew J.; Hercules, David M.; Lattimer, Robert P.

    2007-01-01

    The history of the development of mass spectroscopic methods used to characterize polymers is discussed. The continued improvements in methods and instrumentation will offer new and better ways for the mass spectral characterization of polymers and mass spectroscopy (MS) should be recognized as a complementary polymer characterization method along…

  15. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass balance...

  16. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  17. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  18. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  19. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass balance...

  20. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  1. The Theory of the Mass Literacy Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    After an analysis of eight mass literacy campaigns (USSR 1919-39; Vietnam, 1945-77; China, 1950-58; Cuba, 1961; Burma, 1960-1981; Brazil, 1967-80; Tanzania, 1971-81; and Somalia, 1973-75), a campaign strategy for a mass literacy campaign is proposed. A potentially successful mass literacy campaign has to be both an educational and a political…

  2. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor and blades must be mass balanced as necessary to— (1) Prevent excessive vibration; and (2) Prevent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659...

  3. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors and blades must be mass balanced as necessary to— (1) Prevent excessive vibration; and (2) Prevent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659...

  4. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor and blades must be mass balanced as necessary to— (1) Prevent excessive vibration; and (2) Prevent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659...

  5. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors and blades must be mass balanced as necessary to— (1) Prevent excessive vibration; and (2) Prevent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659...

  6. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors and blades must be mass balanced as necessary to— (1) Prevent excessive vibration; and (2) Prevent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659...

  7. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor and blades must be mass balanced as necessary to— (1) Prevent excessive vibration; and (2) Prevent... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659...

  8. Using System Mass (SM), Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM) or Life Cycle Mass (LCM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS) Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) has used a single number, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), for both reporting progress and technology selection. ESM is the launch mass required to provide a space system. ESM indicates launch cost. ESM alone is inadequate for technology selection, which should include other metrics such as Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and also consider perfom.arxe 2nd risk. ESM has proven difficult to implement as a reporting metric, partly because it includes non-mass technology selection factors. Since it will not be used exclusively for technology selection, a new reporting metric can be made easier to compute and explain. Systems design trades-off performance, cost, and risk, but a risk weighted cost/benefit metric would be too complex to report. Since life support has fixed requirements, different systems usually have roughly equal performance. Risk is important since failure can harm the crew, but it is difficult to treat simply. Cost is not easy to estimate, but preliminary space system cost estimates are usually based on mass, which is better estimated than cost. Amass-based cost estimate, similar to ESM, would be a good single reporting metric. The paper defines and compares four mass-based cost estimates, Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM), Life Cycle Mass (LCM), and System Mass (SM). EM is traditional in life support and includes mass, volume, power, cooling and logistics. ESM is the specifically defined ALS metric, which adds crew time and possibly other cost factors to EM. LCM is a new metric, a mass-based estimate of LCC measured in mass units. SM includes only the factors of EM that are originally measured in mass, the hardware and logistics mass. All four mass-based metrics usually give similar comparisons. SM is by far the simplest to compute and easiest to explain.

  9. The mass media and disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    Past investigations by myself and others on the role of the mass media in disasters indicate that news people typically find themselves in situations of uncertainty, ambiguity, and conflicting information; the communication and transportation services that these people use in covering a story become inoperative. However, the media are expected to make sense of the disaster situation almost immediately. the difficulties of doing so were reflected by the ABC Goodyear Blimp footage of the collapsed Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, California, broadcast nationally on the evening of October 17, 1989. The televised picture showed the disastrous results of the Loma Prieta earthquake, but for an hour or more the announcer could not correctly identify what was being shown. He did not seem to realize that the upper deck of the freeway had collapsed on the lower deck, crushing vechiles and people. 

  10. Mass ejections. [during solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.; Hildner, E.; Hansen, R. T.; Dryer, M.; Mcclymont, A. N.; Mckenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.; Mclean, D. J.; Schmahl, E. J.; Steinolfson, R. S.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1980-01-01

    Observations and model simulations of solar mass ejection phenomena are examined in an investigation of flare processes. Consideration is given to Skylab and other observations of flare-associated sprays, eruptive prominences, surges and coronal transients, and to MHD, gas dynamic and magnetic loop models developed to account for them. Magnetic forces are found to confine spray material, which originates in preexisting active-region filaments, within steadily expanding loops, while surges follow unmoving, preexisting magnetic field lines. Simulations of effects of a sudden pressure pulse at the bottom of the corona are found to exhibit many characteristics of coronal transients associated with flares, and impulsive heating low in the chromosphere is found to be able to account for surges. The importance of the magnetic field as the ultimate source of energy which drives eruptive phenomena as well as flares is pointed out.

  11. Mass transit and appropriate technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, L.

    1978-06-01

    Population pressures, dwinding fossil-fuel reserves, and new technological developments will make mass transet more and more competitive with private automobiles in the future. But future transit systems require a combination of high and low technologies--automated subways and conventional sidewalks. Buses and taxicabs may still be the answer in some cities, because more-sophisticated technologies may cause more problems than they solve. Larry Bell reviews information on some of the more advanced transit systems--those in service, proposed, and defunct. He concludes that the most appropriate thechnology for each problem will be found by aiming at balanced, integrated solutions that consider all responablemore » options. (MCW)« less

  12. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Witten, William B.; Kornienko, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  13. The Geochemistry of Mass Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kump, L. R.

    2003-12-01

    The course of biological evolution is inextricably linked to that of the environment through an intricate network of feedbacks that span all scales of space and time. Disruptions to the environment have biological consequences, and vice versa. Fossils provide the prima facie evidence for biotic disruptions: catastrophic losses of global biodiversity at various times in the Phanerozoic. However, the forensic evidence for the causes and environmental consequences of these mass extinctions resides primarily in the geochemical composition of sedimentary rocks deposited during the extinction intervals. Thus, advancement in our understanding of mass extinctions requires detailed knowledge obtained from both paleontological and geochemical records.This chapter reviews the state of knowledge concerning the geochemistry of the "big five" extinctions of the Phanerozoic (e.g., Sepkoski, 1993): the Late Ordovician (Hirnantian; 440 Ma), the Late Devonian (an extended or multiple event with its apex at the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) boundary; 367 Ma), the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr; 251 Ma), the Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J; 200 Ma), and the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T; 65 Ma). The focus on the big five is a matter of convenience, as there is a continuum in extinction rates from "background" to "mass extinction." Although much of the literature on extinctions centers on the causes and extents of biodiversity loss, in recent years paleontologists have begun to focus on recoveries (see, e.g., Hart, 1996; Kirchner and Weil, 2000; Erwin, 2001 and references therein).To the extent that the duration of the recovery interval may reflect a slow relaxation of the environment from perturbation, analysis of the geochemical record of recovery is an integral part of this effort. In interpreting the geochemical and biological records of recovery, we need to maintain a clear distinction among the characteristics of the global biota: their biodiversity (affected by differences in origination and extinction

  14. Mass loss from solar-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, L.

    1985-01-01

    The present picture of mass loss from solar-type (low-mass) stars is described, with special emphasis on winds from pre-main-sequence stars. Attention is given to winds from T Tauri stars and to angular momentum loss. Prospects are good for further advances in our understanding of the powerful mass loss observed from young stars; ultraviolet spectra obtainable with the Space Telescope should provide better estimates of mass loss rates and a clearer picture of physical conditions in the envelopes of these stars. To understand the mass ejection from old, slowly rotating main-sequence stars, we will have to study the sun.

  15. The life sciences mass spectrometry research unit.

    PubMed

    Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The Life Sciences Mass Spectrometry (LSMS) research unit focuses on the development of novel analytical workflows based on innovative mass spectrometric and software tools for the analysis of low molecular weight compounds, peptides and proteins in complex biological matrices. The present article summarizes some of the recent work of the unit: i) the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of drug of abuse in hair, ii) the use of high resolution mass spectrometry for simultaneous qualitative/quantitative analysis in drug metabolism and metabolomics, and iii) the absolute quantitation of proteins by mass spectrometry using the selected reaction monitoring mode.

  16. Mass Uncertainty and Application For Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Expected development maturity under contract (spec) should correlate with Project/Program Approved MGA Depletion Schedule in Mass Properties Control Plan. If specification NTE, MGA is inclusive of Actual MGA (A5 & A6). If specification is not an NTE Actual MGA (e.g. nominal), then MGA values are reduced by A5 values and A5 is representative of remaining uncertainty. Basic Mass = Engineering Estimate based on design and construction principles with NO embedded margin MGA Mass = Basic Mass * assessed % from approved MGA schedule. Predicted Mass = Basic + MGA. Aggregate MGA % = (Aggregate Predicted - Aggregate Basic) /Aggregate Basic.

  17. Quark ACM with topologically generated gluon mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Ishita Dutta; Lahiri, Amitabha

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the effect of a small, gauge-invariant mass of the gluon on the anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) of quarks by perturbative calculations at one-loop level. The mass of the gluon is taken to have been generated via a topological mass generation mechanism, in which the gluon acquires a mass through its interaction with an antisymmetric tensor field Bμν. For a small gluon mass ( < 10 MeV), we calculate the ACM at momentum transfer q2 = -M Z2. We compare those with the ACM calculated for the gluon mass arising from a Proca mass term. We find that the ACM of up, down, strange and charm quarks vary significantly with the gluon mass, while the ACM of top and bottom quarks show negligible gluon mass dependence. The mechanism of gluon mass generation is most important for the strange quarks ACM, but not so much for the other quarks. We also show the results at q2 = -m t2. We find that the dependence on gluon mass at q2 = -m t2 is much less than at q2 = -M Z2 for all quarks.

  18. Point mass deflectors in gravitational lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, Joseph F.

    1988-01-01

    The observed properties of the six systems generally accepted as gravitational lenses are compared with the properties predicted for the images of point-mass and distributed mass deflectors. Taken as a statistical distribution, the characteristics of the six known systems strongly suggest the existence of a super-massive black hole as the effective deflecting mass in one or more of these systems. If the deflecting mass in a gravitational lens is a black hole, the distance to the deflecting mass can be determined directly from the difference in light travel time along the separate image paths. (No direct solution for the distance to the deflecting mass exists when the deflecting mass is a galaxy or a cluster of galaxies). Geometric parallaxes of objects at 1000 Mpc distance are of obvious importance in a wide variety of cosmological studies.

  19. Mass and Charge Measurements on Heavy Ions

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between mass and charge has been a crucial topic in mass spectrometry (MS) because the mass itself is typically evaluated based on the m/z ratio. Despite the fact that this measurement is indirect, a precise mass can be obtained from the m/z value with a high m/z resolution up to 105 for samples in the low mass and low charge region under 10,000 Da and 20 e, respectively. However, the target of MS has recently been expanded to the very heavy region of Mega or Giga Da, which includes large particles and biocomplexes, with very large and widely distributed charge from kilo to Mega range. In this region, it is necessary to evaluate charge and mass simultaneously. Recent studies for simultaneous mass and charge observation and related phenomena are discussed in this review. PMID:29302406

  20. Mass Measurement - Skylab Student Experiment ED-74

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Vincent W. Converse of Rockford, Illinois proposed Skylab's student experiment ED-74, Mass Measurement, to measure mass in a weightless environment. This chart describes Converse's experiment. Mass is the quantity of matter in any object. The gravitational force between an object and the Earth is called weight, which is a result of the Earth's gravity acting upon the object's mass. Even though objects in Skylab were apparently weightless, their mass properties were unchanged. Measurement of mass is therefore an acceptable alternative to measurement of weight. The devices used in this experiment provided accurate mass measurements of the astronauts' weights, intakes, and body wastes throughout the missions. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  1. Microelectromechanical dual-mass resonator structure

    DOEpatents

    Dyck, Christopher W.; Allen, James J.; Huber, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    A dual-mass microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator structure is disclosed in which a first mass is suspended above a substrate and driven to move along a linear or curved path by a parallel-plate electrostatic actuator. A second mass, which is also suspended and coupled to the first mass by a plurality of springs is driven by motion of the first mass. Various modes of operation of the MEM structure are possible, including resonant and antiresonant modes, and a contacting mode. In each mode of operation, the motion induced in the second mass can be in the range of several microns up to more than 50 .mu.m while the first mass has a much smaller displacement on the order of one micron or less. The MEM structure has applications for forming microsensors that detect strain, acceleration, rotation or movement.

  2. Dynamical mass estimates in M13

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, P.J.T.; Richer, H.B.; Fahlman, G.G.

    We have used the proper motion data of Cudworth Monet to make mass estimates in the globular cluster M13 by solving the spherical Jeans equation. We find a mass inside a spherical shell centered on the cluster with a radius corresponding to 390 arcsec on the sky of 5.5 or 7.6 {times} 10{sup 5} M{circle dot}, depending on the adopted cluster distance. This large dynamical mass estimate together with the observed fact that the mass function of M13 is rising steeply at the low-mass end suggest that much of the cluster mass may be in the form of low-mass starsmore » and brown dwarfs.« less

  3. Dynamical mass estimates in M13

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, P.J.T.; Richer, H.B.; Fahlman, G.G.

    We have used the proper motion data of Cudworth Monet to make mass estimates in the globular cluster M13 by solving the spherical Jeans equation. We find a mass inside a spherical shell centered on the cluster with a radius corresponding to 390 arcsec on the sky of 5.5 or 7.6 {times} 10{sup 5} M{circle_dot}, depending on the adopted cluster distance. This large dynamical mass estimate together with the observed fact that the mass function of M13 is rising steeply at the low-mass end suggest that much of the cluster mass may be in the form of low-mass stars andmore » brown dwarfs.« less

  4. Inorganic trace analysis by mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine; Dietze, Hans-Joachim

    1998-10-01

    Mass spectrometric methods for the trace analysis of inorganic materials with their ability to provide a very sensitive multielemental analysis have been established for the determination of trace and ultratrace elements in high-purity materials (metals, semiconductors and insulators), in different technical samples (e.g. alloys, pure chemicals, ceramics, thin films, ion-implanted semiconductors), in environmental samples (waters, soils, biological and medical materials) and geological samples. Whereas such techniques as spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS), laser ionization mass spectrometry (LIMS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have multielemental capability, other methods such as thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) have been used for sensitive mono- or oligoelemental ultratrace analysis (and precise determination of isotopic ratios) in solid samples. The limits of detection for chemical elements using these mass spectrometric techniques are in the low ng g -1 concentration range. The quantification of the analytical results of mass spectrometric methods is sometimes difficult due to a lack of matrix-fitted multielement standard reference materials (SRMs) for many solid samples. Therefore, owing to the simple quantification procedure of the aqueous solution, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is being increasingly used for the characterization of solid samples after sample dissolution. ICP-MS is often combined with special sample introduction equipment (e.g. flow injection, hydride generation, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or electrothermal vaporization) or an off-line matrix separation and enrichment of trace impurities (especially for characterization of

  5. Mass Media Types: Three Q-Analyses of Mass Media Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.

    The purpose of a mass media study was to (l) identify mass media types (patterns of exposure to mass media content) among seventh graders, high school juniors, and adults in a given geographic area; (2) show similarities and differences in the mass media types isolated for these three age groups; (3) pinpoint demographic variables most strongly…

  6. Mass Communication: An Introduction; Theory and Practice of Mass Media in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, John R.

    From the perspectives of historical, contemporary, and future interpretations of mass communication, this introduction to the theory and practice of mass media in society treats both the social context of mass communication and the hardware components that make it operable. The book discusses all mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio,…

  7. Illustrating the Basic Functioning of Mass Analyzers in Mass Spectrometers with Ball-Rolling Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horikoshi, Ryo; Takeiri, Fumitaka; Mikita, Riho; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    A unique demonstration with ball-rolling mechanisms has been developed to illustrate the basic principles of mass analyzers as components of mass spectrometers. Three ball-rolling mechanisms mimicking the currently used mass analyzers (i.e., a quadrupole mass filter, a magnetic sector, and a time-of- flight) have been constructed. Each mechanism…

  8. Sonographic Spectrum of Tunica Albuginea Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Daniel M.; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Tunica albuginea (TA) cyst is the most common extratesticular benign mass, which is usually palpable. Ultrasound examination is the imaging modality of choice to characterize palpable testicular lesions. This pictorial essay presents the spectrum of sonographic features of TA cysts in order to assist radiologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries. PMID:21915386

  9. Pulsations, Shocks, and Mass Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bally, John

    1998-01-01

    This grant provided long-term support for my investigation of the outflows powered by young stars. Several major research results emerged during the course of this research, including: (1) The discovery of giant Herbig-Haro outflows from young stars that can extend for many parsecs from their sources. The first parsec-scale outflow to be recognized led to the realization that Herbig-Haro outflows, even those produced by low mass young stellar objects, can extend orders of magnitude farther from their sources than previously thought. Our preconceptions were to a large extent driven by the narrow fields-of-view then provided by CCD detectors. With the recent advent of large format CCDs and CCD mosaics, we have come to realize that most outflows attain parsec-scale dimensions. Even at the distance of the Orion star forming clouds, such flows can subtend a degree on the sky. Our work has led to the recognition of over two dozen giant. (2) The discovery that outflows are highly clustered. Even regions of relatively isolated star formation such as those in Taurus frequently produce multiple outflows. (3) The discovery of a new family of externally irradiated jets. During the last year of support from this grant, we made the startling discovery that there is a class of jets from young stars that are illuminated by the ionizing radiation field of nearby massive stars. The first four examples were discovered in the vicinity of the a Orionis sub-group of the Orion OB Association which is believed to be at least 2 million years old. Since the jets are photo-ionized, their densities can be reliably estimated. Most HH jets are shock excited, and are therefore notoriously difficult to characterize since their visibility and observed properties depend on the complex and highly non-linear processes associated with shocks. Furthermore, many irradiated jets are one sided rather than bipolar. Thus, irradiated jets may for the first time be used to accurately diagnose jet densities

  10. Quantitative Lesion-to-Fat Elasticity Ratio Measured by Shear-Wave Elastography for Breast Mass: Which Area Should Be Selected as the Fat Reference?

    PubMed

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Gweon, Hye Mi; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the diagnostic performance of lesion-to-fat elasticity ratio (Eratio) was affected by the location of the reference fat. For 257 breast masses in 250 women who underwent shear-wave elastography before biopsy or surgery, multiple Eratios were measured with a fixed region-of-interest (ROI) in the mass along with multiple ROIs over the surrounding fat in different locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine that Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (depth, laterality, and distance from lesion or skin). Mean (Emean) and maximum (Emax) elasticity values of fat were divided into four groups according to their interquartile ranges. Diagnostic performance of each group was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). False diagnoses of Eratio were reviewed for ROIs on areas showing artifactual high or low stiffness and analyzed by logistic regression analysis to determine variables (associated palpable abnormality, lesion size, the vertical distance from fat ROI to skin, and elasticity values of lesion or fat) independently associated with false results. Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (P<0.0001). Among four groups of fat elasticity values, the AUC showed no significant difference (<25th percentile, 25th percentile~median, median~75th percentile, and ≥75th percentile; 0.973, 0.982, 0.967, and 0.954 for Emean; 0.977, 0.967, 0.966, and 0.957 for Emax). Fat elasticity values were independently associated with false results of Eratio with the cut-off of 3.18 from ROC curve (P<0.0001). ROIs were set on fat showing artifactual high stiffness in 90% of 10 false negatives and on lesion showing vertical striped artifact or fat showing artifactual low stiffness in 77.5% of 71 false positives. Eratio shows good diagnostic performance regardless of the location of reference fat, except when it is placed in areas of artifacts.

  11. Quantitative Lesion-to-Fat Elasticity Ratio Measured by Shear-Wave Elastography for Breast Mass: Which Area Should Be Selected as the Fat Reference?

    PubMed Central

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Gweon, Hye Mi; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether the diagnostic performance of lesion-to-fat elasticity ratio (Eratio) was affected by the location of the reference fat. Methods For 257 breast masses in 250 women who underwent shear-wave elastography before biopsy or surgery, multiple Eratios were measured with a fixed region-of-interest (ROI) in the mass along with multiple ROIs over the surrounding fat in different locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine that Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (depth, laterality, and distance from lesion or skin). Mean (Emean) and maximum (Emax) elasticity values of fat were divided into four groups according to their interquartile ranges. Diagnostic performance of each group was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). False diagnoses of Eratio were reviewed for ROIs on areas showing artifactual high or low stiffness and analyzed by logistic regression analysis to determine variables (associated palpable abnormality, lesion size, the vertical distance from fat ROI to skin, and elasticity values of lesion or fat) independently associated with false results. Results Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (P<0.0001). Among four groups of fat elasticity values, the AUC showed no significant difference (<25th percentile, 25th percentile~median, median~75th percentile, and ≥75th percentile; 0.973, 0.982, 0.967, and 0.954 for Emean; 0.977, 0.967, 0.966, and 0.957 for Emax). Fat elasticity values were independently associated with false results of Eratio with the cut-off of 3.18 from ROC curve (P<0.0001). ROIs were set on fat showing artifactual high stiffness in 90% of 10 false negatives and on lesion showing vertical striped artifact or fat showing artifactual low stiffness in 77.5% of 71 false positives. Conclusion Eratio shows good diagnostic performance regardless of the location of reference fat, except when

  12. Relationship between mass-flux reduction and source-zone mass removal: analysis of field data.

    PubMed

    Difilippo, Erica L; Brusseau, Mark L

    2008-05-26

    The magnitude of contaminant mass-flux reduction associated with a specific amount of contaminant mass removed is a key consideration for evaluating the effectiveness of a source-zone remediation effort. Thus, there is great interest in characterizing, estimating, and predicting relationships between mass-flux reduction and mass removal. Published data collected for several field studies were examined to evaluate relationships between mass-flux reduction and source-zone mass removal. The studies analyzed herein represent a variety of source-zone architectures, immiscible-liquid compositions, and implemented remediation technologies. There are two general approaches to characterizing the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship, end-point analysis and time-continuous analysis. End-point analysis, based on comparing masses and mass fluxes measured before and after a source-zone remediation effort, was conducted for 21 remediation projects. Mass removals were greater than 60% for all but three of the studies. Mass-flux reductions ranging from slightly less than to slightly greater than one-to-one were observed for the majority of the sites. However, these single-snapshot characterizations are limited in that the antecedent behavior is indeterminate. Time-continuous analysis, based on continuous monitoring of mass removal and mass flux, was performed for two sites, both for which data were obtained under water-flushing conditions. The reductions in mass flux were significantly different for the two sites (90% vs. approximately 8%) for similar mass removals ( approximately 40%). These results illustrate the dependence of the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship on source-zone architecture and associated mass-transfer processes. Minimal mass-flux reduction was observed for a system wherein mass removal was relatively efficient (ideal mass-transfer and displacement). Conversely, a significant degree of mass-flux reduction was observed for a site wherein mass

  13. Determining Gravitational Attraction by Mass Property Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Sun, Ke-Xun; DeBra, Dan

    2006-11-01

    The acceleration generated by the gradient of the mass attraction field between the spacecraft and proof mass is one parameter critical to drag-free performance. The gravitational self-attraction properties between two distributed bodies is characterized by the mass, mass center and moment of inertia for each body. Mass property measurements can therefore be used to indirectly measure the mass attraction properties. Since the ultimate goal is to demonstrate the ability to predict the system gravitational mass attraction force and force gradients to a precision below that of the LISA requirements, the corresponding properties of mass, mass center, and moment of inertia must be precisely determined for the proof mass and satellite components. This work introduces a new method for measuring the moment of inertia using a novel five-wire torsion pendulum, which reduces errors due to translational degrees of freedom. The five-wire pendulum is integrated with optical angular sensing using diffraction grating angular magnification to provide a sensor with both a large dynamic range and high resolution.

  14. Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a synopsis of the initiation of the strong-field magnetic explosions that produce large, fast coronal mass ejections. Cartoons based on observations are used to describe the inferred basic physical processes and sequences that trigger and drive the explosion. The magnetic field that explodes is a sheared-core bipole that may or may not be embedded in surrounding strong magnetic field, and may or may not contain a flux rope before it starts to explode. We describe three different mechanisms that singly or in combination trigger the explosion: (1) runaway internal tether-cutting reconnection, (2) runaway external tether-cutting reconnection, and (3) ideal MHD instability or loss or equilibrium. For most eruptions, high-resolution, high-cadence magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal movies (such as from TRACE and/or Solar-B) of the pre-eruption region and of the onset of the eruption and flare are needed to tell which one or which combination of these mechanisms is the trigger. Whatever the trigger, it leads to the production of an erupting flux rope. Using a simple model flux rope, we demonstrate that the explosion can be driven by the magnetic pressure of the expanding flux rope, provided the shape of the expansion is "fat" enough.

  15. Mass Spectrometric Studies of Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Current studies at NASA Glenn on oxide thermodynamics are discussed. Previous studies on the vaporization of B2O3 in reducing atmospheres led to inconsistent studies when B was used as a reductant. It is shown that liquid B2O3 does not wet B and a clear phase separation was noted in the Knudsen cell. This problem was solved by using FeB and Fe2B to supply a different and constant activity of B. The thermodynamic data thus derived are compared to quantum chemical composite calculations. A major problem in high temperature mass spectrometry is the determination of accurate ionization cross sections, particularly for molecules. The method of Deutsch and Mark shows promise and some sample calculations are discussed. Finally current studies on the thermodynamics of rare earth silicates are discussed. Here the problems are obtaining a measurable signal from SiO2 vaporization and non-equilibrium vaporization. The use of a Ta reducing agent provides a stronger signal, which is related to silica activity. The Whitman-Motzfeld relation adapted to KEMS measurements is applied to obtain equilibrium pressures.

  16. Weapons of mass destruction, WMD.

    PubMed

    Vogel, H

    2007-08-01

    Since the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described. X-ray findings of victims of WMD are described. From CW, own observations are reported. Examples of (possible) X-ray findings of victims of BW are described. AW may induce radiation disease. Exposure to sulfur-lost induces severe bronchitis; if the radiograph shows pulmonary infiltrations, the prognosis is bad; a late consequence maybe bronchiectasis. BW can be based on bacteria, virus or toxins. An approach of the X-ray findings for BW victims is based on the assumption that the disease induced by BW has the same (or a similar) clinic and radiology as that induced by the original microorganism or by the unchanged toxism. This approximation may have its limits, if the germ or toxin has been modified. In survivors of AW, the radiology is probably that of victims of thermal radiation and blast. WMD seem to be a real or a possible threat. They can be used in war, in terrorist attacks, in crime, and in action of secret services. In case that WMD are employed, X-ray diagnostic will be used to evaluate the prognosis (triage) and the risk of infection.

  17. Composition of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, T. H.; Weberg, M.; von Steiger, R.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the physical origin of plasmas that are ejected from the solar corona. To address this issue, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the elemental composition of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using recently released elemental composition data for Fe, Mg, Si, S, C, N, Ne, and He as compared to O and H. We find that ICMEs exhibit a systematic abundance increase of elements with first ionization potential (FIP) < 10 eV, as well as a significant increase of Ne as compared to quasi-stationary solar wind. ICME plasmas have a stronger FIP effect than slow wind, which indicates either that an FIP process is active during the ICME ejection or that a different type of solar plasma is injected into ICMEs. The observed FIP fractionation is largest during times when the Fe ionic charge states are elevated above Q Fe > 12.0. For ICMEs with elevated charge states, the FIP effect is enhanced by 70% over that of the slow wind. We argue that the compositionally hot parts of ICMEs are active region loops that do not normally have access to the heliosphere through the processes that give rise to solar wind. We also discuss the implications of this result for solar energetic particles accelerated during solar eruptions and for the origin of the slow wind itself.

  18. Composition of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurbuchen, T. H.; Weberg, M.; von Steiger, R.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the physical origin of plasmas that are ejected from the solar corona. To address this issue, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the elemental composition of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using recently released elemental composition data for Fe, Mg, Si, S, C, N, Ne, and He as compared to O and H. We find that ICMEs exhibit a systematic abundance increase of elements with first ionization potential (FIP) less than 10 electronvolts, as well as a significant increase of Ne as compared to quasi-stationary solar wind. ICME plasmas have a stronger FIP effect than slow wind, which indicates either that an FIP process is active during the ICME ejection or that a different type of solar plasma is injected into ICMEs. The observed FIP fractionation is largest during times when the Fe ionic charge states are elevated above Q (sub Fe) is greater than 12.0. For ICMEs with elevated charge states, the FIP effect is enhanced by 70 percent over that of the slow wind. We argue that the compositionally hot parts of ICMEs are active region loops that do not normally have access to the heliosphere through the processes that give rise to solar wind. We also discuss the implications of this result for solar energetic particles accelerated during solar eruptions and for the origin of the slow wind itself.

  19. Adrenal Mass Causing Secondary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Darlene Y

    2015-11-01

    Most hypertensive patients have essential (primary) hypertension; only 5% to 10% have a secondary cause. Two clinical characteristics suggestive of secondary hypertension are early onset (< 30 years of age) and severe hypertension (>180/110 mm Hg). When faced with these findings, clinicians should consider a secondary cause of hypertension. A 22-year-old woman being evaluated for asthma exacerbation in the emergency department was noted to have severe persistent hypertension. Additional evaluation revealed severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypernatremia. The patient was admitted to the hospital for blood pressure management, electrolyte replacement, and further evaluation of presumed hyperaldosteronism. Diagnostic imaging revealed a large adrenal mass. Surgical resection was performed, leading to a diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism caused by adrenal carcinoma. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Secondary hypertension is far less common than essential hypertension; however, considering the large volume of patients seen in emergency departments, it is likely that some will have secondary hypertension. Emergency physicians should be aware of the clinical characteristics that suggest secondary hypertension so that the appropriate diagnostic and treatment pathways can be pursued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolution of Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliuk, Shannon; Makarov, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the evolution of OrbitrapTM mass spectrometry (MS) from its birth in the late 1990s to its current role as one of the most prominent techniques for MS. The Orbitrap mass analyzer is the first high-performance mass analyzer that employs trapping of ions in electrostatic fields. Tight integration with the ion injection process enables the high-resolution, mass accuracy, and sensitivity that have become essential for addressing analytical needs in numerous areas of research, as well as in routine analysis. We examine three major families of instruments (related to the LTQ Orbitrap, Q Exactive, and Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometers) in the context of their historical development over the past ten eventful years. We discuss as well future trends and perspectives of Orbitrap MS. We illustrate the compelling potential of Orbitrap-based mass spectrometers as (ultra) high-resolution platforms, not only for high-end proteomic applications, but also for routine targeted analysis.

  1. Surface melt dominates Alaska glacier mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen Chris F,; Burgess, E; Arendt, A.A.; O'Neel, Shad; Johnson, A.J.; Kienholz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers comprise a small and widely distributed fraction of the world's terrestrial ice, yet their rapid losses presently drive a large percentage of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Regional mass balance assessments are challenging over large glacier populations due to remote and rugged geography, variable response of individual glaciers to climate change, and episodic calving losses from tidewater glaciers. In Alaska, we use airborne altimetry from 116 glaciers to estimate a regional mass balance of −75 ± 11 Gt yr−1 (1994–2013). Our glacier sample is spatially well distributed, yet pervasive variability in mass balances obscures geospatial and climatic relationships. However, for the first time, these data allow the partitioning of regional mass balance by glacier type. We find that tidewater glaciers are losing mass at substantially slower rates than other glaciers in Alaska and collectively contribute to only 6% of the regional mass loss.

  2. Gaussian mass optimization for kernel PCA parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Zulin

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel kernel parameter optimization method based on Gaussian mass, which aims to overcome the current brute force parameter optimization method in a heuristic way. Generally speaking, the choice of kernel parameter should be tightly related to the target objects while the variance between the samples, the most commonly used kernel parameter, doesn't possess much features of the target, which gives birth to Gaussian mass. Gaussian mass defined in this paper has the property of the invariance of rotation and translation and is capable of depicting the edge, topology and shape information. Simulation results show that Gaussian mass leads a promising heuristic optimization boost up for kernel method. In MNIST handwriting database, the recognition rate improves by 1.6% compared with common kernel method without Gaussian mass optimization. Several promising other directions which Gaussian mass might help are also proposed at the end of the paper.

  3. On the Mass Distribution of Animal Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redner, Sidney; Clauset, Aaron; Schwab, David

    2009-03-01

    We develop a simple diffusion-reaction model to account for the broad and asymmetric distribution of adult body masses for species within related taxonomic groups. The model assumes three basic evolutionary features that control body mass: (i) a fixed lower limit that is set by metabolic constraints, (ii) a species extinction risk that is a weakly increasing function of body mass, and (iii) cladogenetic diffusion, in which daughter species have a slight tendency toward larger mass. The steady-state solution for the distribution of species masses in this model can be expressed in terms of the Airy function. This solution gives mass distributions that are in good agreement with data on 4002 terrestrial mammal species from the late Quaternary and 8617 extant bird species.

  4. Mass murder: causes, classification, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Knoll, James L

    2012-12-01

    This article discusses common psychological and social factors in mass murders and outlines a proposed classification system to coordinate future research efforts. The final communications of two mass murderers are analyzed to demonstrate that the forensic psycholinguistic approach may assist in providing an enhanced understanding of the motives, psychopathology, and classification of mass murderers whose offenses can seem similar from a purely behavioral perspective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and limb bone cross-sectional geometry: Implications for estimating body mass and physique from the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Emma; Macintosh, Alison; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

    2018-05-01

    Estimating body mass from skeletal dimensions is widely practiced, but methods for estimating its components (lean and fat mass) are poorly developed. The ability to estimate these characteristics would offer new insights into the evolution of body composition and its variation relative to past and present health. This study investigates the potential of long bone cross-sectional properties as predictors of body, lean, and fat mass. Humerus, femur and tibia midshaft cross-sectional properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in sample of young adult women (n = 105) characterized by a range of activity levels. Body composition was estimated from bioimpedance analysis. Lean mass correlated most strongly with both upper and lower limb bone properties (r values up to 0.74), while fat mass showed weak correlations (r ≤ 0.29). Estimation equations generated from tibial midshaft properties indicated that lean mass could be estimated relatively reliably, with some improvement using logged data and including bone length in the models (minimum standard error of estimate = 8.9%). Body mass prediction was less reliable and fat mass only poorly predicted (standard errors of estimate ≥11.9% and >33%, respectively). Lean mass can be predicted more reliably than body mass from limb bone cross-sectional properties. The results highlight the potential for studying evolutionary trends in lean mass from skeletal remains, and have implications for understanding the relationship between bone morphology and body mass or composition. © 2018 The Authors. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Antarctic Ice Mass Balance from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boening, C.; Firing, Y. L.; Wiese, D. N.; Watkins, M. M.; Schlegel, N.; Larour, E. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Antarctic ice mass balance and rates of change of ice mass over the past decade are analyzed based on observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, in the form of JPL RL05M mascon solutions. Surface mass balance (SMB) fluxes from ERA-Interim and other atmospheric reanalyses successfully account for the seasonal GRACE-measured mass variability, and explain 70-80% of the continent-wide mass variance at interannual time scales. Trends in the residual (GRACE mass - SMB accumulation) mass time series in different Antarctic drainage basins are consistent with time-mean ice discharge rates based on radar-derived ice velocities and thicknesses. GRACE also resolves accelerations in regional ice mass change rates, including increasing rates of mass gain in East Antarctica and accelerating ice mass loss in West Antarctica. The observed East Antarctic mass gain is only partially explained by anomalously large SMB events in the second half of the record, potentially implying that ice discharge rates are also decreasing in this region. Most of the increasing mass loss rate in West Antarctica, meanwhile, is explained by decreasing SMB (principally precipitation) over this time period, part of the characteristic decadal variability in regional SMB. The residual acceleration of 2+/-1 Gt/yr, which is concentrated in the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) basins, represents the contribution from increasing ice discharge rates. An Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) run with constant ocean forcing and stationary grounding lines both underpredicts the largest trends in the ASE and produces negligible acceleration or interannual variability in discharge, highlighting the potential importance of ocean forcing for setting ice discharge rates at interannual to decadal time scales.

  7. MRI of Adnexal Masses in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Telischak, Nicholas A.; Yeh, Benjamin M.; Joe, Bonnie N.; Westphalen, Antonio C.; Poder, Liina; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this article is to provide a practical review of the incremental benefit of MRI in the assessment of adnexal masses in pregnancy. CONCLUSION MRI can assist sonographic assessment of adnexal masses in pregnancy by depicting the characteristic findings of exophytic leiomyoma, red degeneration of leiomyoma, endometrioma, decidualized endometrioma, and massive ovarian edema. Accordingly, MRI should be considered as a useful adjunct when sonography is inconclusive or insufficient to guide management of adnexal masses discovered in pregnancy. PMID:18647903

  8. Computing Mass Properties From AutoCAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A.

    1990-01-01

    Mass properties of structures computed from data in drawings. AutoCAD to Mass Properties (ACTOMP) computer program developed to facilitate quick calculations of mass properties of structures containing many simple elements in such complex configurations as trusses or sheet-metal containers. Mathematically modeled in AutoCAD or compatible computer-aided design (CAD) system in minutes by use of three-dimensional elements. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  9. Clinical Application of Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Hua; Hsieh, Hua-Yi; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Ambient ionization allows mass spectrometry analysis directly on the sample surface under atmospheric pressure with almost zero sample pretreatment. Since the development of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) in 2004, many other ambient ionization techniques were developed. Due to their simplicity and low operation cost, rapid and on-site clinical mass spectrometry analysis becomes real. In this review, we will highlight some of the most widely used ambient ionization mass spectrometry approaches and their applications in clinical study. PMID:28337399

  10. Libraries of Peptide Fragmentation Mass Spectra Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 1C NIST Libraries of Peptide Fragmentation Mass Spectra Database (Web, free access)   The purpose of the library is to provide peptide reference data for laboratories employing mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods for protein analysis. Mass spectral libraries identify these compounds in a more sensitive and robust manner than alternative methods. These databases are freely available for testing and development of new applications.

  11. Conversational high resolution mass spectrographic data reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romiez, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 program is described which reduces the data obtained from a high resolution mass spectrograph. The program (1) calculates an accurate mass for each line on the photoplate, and (2) assigns elemental compositions to each accurate mass. The program is intended for use in a time-shared computing environment and makes use of the conversational aspects of time-sharing operating systems.

  12. Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.

  13. Mass mortality and extraterrestrial impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansa, L. F.; Gradstein, F. M.; Pierre-Aubry, M.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of iridium enrichment at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary resulted in formulation of hypothesis of a cometary or asteroid impact as the cause of the biological extinctions at this boundary. Subsequent discoveries of geochemical anomalies at major stratigraphic boundaries like the Precambrian/Cambrian, Permian/Triassic, Middle/Late Jurassic, resulted in the application of similar extraterrestrial impact theories to explain biological changes at these boundaries. Until recently the major physical evidence, as is the location of the impact crater site, to test the impact induced biological extinction was lacking. The diameter of such a crater would be in the range of 60 to 100 km. The recent discovery of the first impact crater in the ocean provide the first opportunity to test the above theory. The crater, named Montagnais and located on the outer shelf off Nova Scotia, Canada, has a minimum diameter of 42 km, with some evidence to a diameter of more than 60 km. At the Montagnais impact site, micropaleontological analysis of the uppermost 80 m of the fall-back breccia represented by a mixture of pre-impact sediments and basement rocks which fills the crater and of the basal 50 m of post-impact marine sediments which overly the impact deposits, revealed presence of diversified foraminiferal and nannoplankton assemblages. The sediments which are intercalated within the uppermost part of the fall-back breccia, had to be deposited before the meteorite impact. The post-impact deposits were laid down almost immediately after the impact as also supported by the micropaleontological data. In conclusion, micropaleontological studies of sediments from the first submarine impact crater site identified in the ocean did not reveal any mass extinction or significant biological changes at the impact site or in the proximal deep ocean basin.

  14. Data Acquisition and Mass Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vande Vyvre, P.

    2004-08-01

    The experiments performed at supercolliders will constitute a new challenge in several disciplines of High Energy Physics and Information Technology. This will definitely be the case for data acquisition and mass storage. The microelectronics, communication, and computing industries are maintaining an exponential increase of the performance of their products. The market of commodity products remains the largest and the most competitive market of technology products. This constitutes a strong incentive to use these commodity products extensively as components to build the data acquisition and computing infrastructures of the future generation of experiments. The present generation of experiments in Europe and in the US already constitutes an important step in this direction. The experience acquired in the design and the construction of the present experiments has to be complemented by a large R&D effort executed with good awareness of industry developments. The future experiments will also be expected to follow major trends of our present world: deliver physics results faster and become more and more visible and accessible. The present evolution of the technologies and the burgeoning of GRID projects indicate that these trends will be made possible. This paper includes a brief overview of the technologies currently used for the different tasks of the experimental data chain: data acquisition, selection, storage, processing, and analysis. The major trends of the computing and networking technologies are then indicated with particular attention paid to their influence on the future experiments. Finally, the vision of future data acquisition and processing systems and their promise for future supercolliders is presented.

  15. Study of node and mass sensitivity of resonant mode based cantilevers with concentrated mass loading

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kewei, E-mail: drzkw@126.com; Chai, Yuesheng; Fu, Jiahui

    2015-12-15

    Resonant-mode based cantilevers are an important type of acoustic wave based mass-sensing devices. In this work, the governing vibration equation of a bi-layer resonant-mode based cantilever attached with concentrated mass is established by using a modal analysis method. The effects of resonance modes and mass loading conditions on nodes and mass sensitivity of the cantilever were theoretically studied. The results suggested that the node did not shift when concentrated mass was loaded on a specific position. Mass sensitivity of the cantilever was linearly proportional to the square of the point displacement at the mass loading position for all the resonancemore » modes. For the first resonance mode, when mass loading position x{sub c} satisfied 0 < x{sub c} < ∼ 0.3l (l is the cantilever beam length and 0 represents the rigid end), mass sensitivity decreased as the mass increasing while the opposite trend was obtained when mass loading satisfied ∼0.3l ≤ x{sub c} ≤ l. Mass sensitivity did not change when concentrated mass was loaded at the rigid end. This work can provide scientific guidance to optimize the mass sensitivity of a resonant-mode based cantilever.« less

  16. Mass balancing of hollow fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kielb, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A typical section model is used to analytically investigate the effect of mass balancing as applied to hollow, supersonic fan blades. A procedure to determine the best configuration of an internal balancing mass to provide flutter alleviation is developed. This procedure is applied to a typical supersonic shroudless fan blade which is unstable in both the solid configuration and when it is hollow with no balancing mass. The addition of an optimized balancing mass is shown to stabilize the blade at the design condition.

  17. Vacuum Technology Considerations For Mass Metrology

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Patrick J.; Jabour, Zeina J.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum weighing of mass artifacts eliminates the necessity of air buoyancy correction and its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. Vacuum weighing is also an important process in the experiments currently underway for the redefinition of the SI mass unit, the kilogram. Creating the optimum vacuum environment for mass metrology requires careful design and selection of construction materials, plumbing components, pumping, and pressure gauging technologies. We review the vacuum technology1 required for mass metrology and suggest procedures and hardware for successful and reproducible operation. PMID:26989593

  18. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-10-01

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  19. 1986-87 atomic mass predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Haustein, P.E.

    A project to perform a comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions has recently been concluded and will be published shortly in Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables. The project evolved from an ongoing comparison between available mass predictions and reports of newly measured masses of isotopes throughout the mass surface. These comparisons have highlighted a variety of features in current mass models which are responsible for predictions that diverge from masses determined experimentally. The need for a comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions was therefore apparent and the project was organized and began at the last mass conferencemore » (AMCO-VII). Project participants included: Pape and Anthony; Dussel, Caurier and Zuker; Moeller and Nix; Moeller, Myers, Swiatecki and Treiner; Comay, Kelson, and Zidon; Satpathy and Nayak; Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada; Spanier and Johansson; Jaenecke and Masson; and Wapstra, Audi and Hoekstra. An overview of the new atomic mass predictions may be obtained by written request.« less

  20. The 1986-87 atomic mass predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haustein, P. E.

    1987-12-01

    A project to perform a comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions has recently been concluded and will be published shortly in Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables. The project evolved from an ongoing comparison between available mass predictions and reports of newly measured masses of isotopes throughout the mass surface. These comparisons have highlighted a variety of features in current mass models which are responsible for predictions that diverge from masses determined experimentally. The need for a comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions was therefore apparent and the project was organized and began at the last mass conference (AMCO-VII). Project participants included: Pape and Anthony; Dussel, Caurier and Zuker; Möller and Nix; Möller, Myers, Swiatecki and Treiner; Comay, Kelson, and Zidon; Satpathy and Nayak; Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada; Spanier and Johansson; Jänecke and Masson; and Wapstra, Audi and Hoekstra. An overview of the new atomic mass predictions may be obtained by written request.

  1. Storage and retrieval of mass spectral information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohn, M. E.; Humberston, M. J.; Eglinton, G.

    1977-01-01

    Computer handling of mass spectra serves two main purposes: the interpretation of the occasional, problematic mass spectrum, and the identification of the large number of spectra generated in the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of complex natural and synthetic mixtures. Methods available fall into the three categories of library search, artificial intelligence, and learning machine. Optional procedures for coding, abbreviating and filtering a library of spectra minimize time and storage requirements. Newer techniques make increasing use of probability and information theory in accessing files of mass spectral information.

  2. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  3. Resonant pairing between fermions with unequal masses

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shin-Tza; Pao, C.-H.; Yip, S.-K.

    We study via mean-field theory the pairing between fermions of different masses, especially at the unitary limit. At equal populations, the thermodynamic properties are identical with the equal mass case provided an appropriate rescaling is made. At unequal populations, for sufficiently light majority species, the system does not phase separate. For sufficiently heavy majority species, the phase separated normal phase have a density larger than that of the superfluid. For atoms in harmonic traps, the density profiles for unequal mass fermions can be drastically different from their equal-mass counterparts.

  4. Neutrino masses, neutrino oscillations, and cosmological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical concepts and motivations for considering neutrinos having finite masses are discussed and the experimental situation on searches for neutrino masses and oscillations is summarized. The solar neutrino problem, reactor, deep mine and accelerator data, tri decay experiments and double beta-decay data are considered and cosmological implications and astrophysical data relating to neutrino masses are reviewed. The neutrino oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem, the missing mass problem in galaxy halos and galaxy cluster galaxy formation and clustering, and radiative neutrino decay and the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation are examined.

  5. Structural models for nickel electrode active mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.; Karjala, P. J.; Loyselle, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic data allow one to distinguish nickel electrode active mass, alpha and beta phase materials. Discharges active mass is not isostructural with beta-Ni(OH)2. This is contrary to the generally accepted model for the discharged beta phase of active mass. It is concluded that charged active mass displays a disordered and nonstoichiometric, nonclose packed structure of the R3 bar m, NiOOH structure type. Raman spectral data and x ray diffraction data are analyzed and shown to be consistent with this structural model.

  6. History of the mass of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttleton, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the calculation of the masses of planets, as a means to construct reliable tables for their positions. Emphasis is placed on the four inner planets and the moon, with additional consideration given to the history of the masses of Jupiter and Saturn. A smooth curve can be drawn with the logarithm of the masses of the earth, Venus, Mars, and the moon, but the point for Mercury lies substantially off the curve. An investigation of the material content, surface examination, and planet radius for the planets leads to a reexamination of the history of the value for the mass of Mercury.

  7. The mass distribution of Population III stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M.; Casey, A. R.; Gilmore, G.; Heger, A.; Chan, C.

    2017-06-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are uniquely informative on the nature of massive Population III stars. Modulo a few elements that vary with stellar evolution, the present-day photospheric abundances observed in EMP stars are representative of their natal gas cloud composition. For this reason, the chemistry of EMP stars closely reflects the nucleosynthetic yields of supernovae from massive Population III stars. Here we collate detailed abundances of 53 EMP stars from the literature and infer the masses of their Population III progenitors. We fit a simple initial mass function (IMF) to a subset of 29 of the inferred Population III star masses, and find that the mass distribution is well represented by a power-law IMF with exponent α = 2.35^{+0.29}_{-0.24}. The inferred maximum progenitor mass for supernovae from massive Population III stars is M_{max} = 87^{+13}_{-33} M⊙, and we find no evidence in our sample for a contribution from stars with masses above ˜120 M⊙. The minimum mass is strongly consistent with the theoretical lower mass limit for Population III supernovae. We conclude that the IMF for massive Population III stars is consistent with the IMF of present-day massive stars and there may well have formed stars much below the supernova mass limit that could have survived to the present day.

  8. Mass Spectrometry in the Home and Garden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, Christopher J.; Bain, Ryan M.; Wiley, Joshua S.; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R. Graham

    2015-02-01

    Identification of active components in a variety of chemical products used directly by consumers is described at both trace and bulk levels using mass spectrometry. The combination of external ambient ionization with a portable mass spectrometer capable of tandem mass spectrometry provides high chemical specificity and sensitivity as well as allowing on-site monitoring. These experiments were done using a custom-built portable ion trap mass spectrometer in combination with the ambient ionization methods of paper spray, leaf spray, and low temperature plasma ionization. Bactericides, garden chemicals, air fresheners, and other products were examined. Herbicide applied to suburban lawns was detected in situ on single leaves 5 d after application.

  9. Role of Mass Spectrometry in Clinical Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Ketha, Siva S; Singh, Ravinder J; Ketha, Hemamalini

    2017-09-01

    The advent of mass spectrometry into the clinical laboratory has led to an improvement in clinical management of several endocrine diseases. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry found some of its first clinical applications in the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism, in quantitative steroid analysis, and in drug analysis laboratories. Mass spectrometry assays offer analytical sensitivity and specificity that is superior to immunoassays for many analytes. This article highlights several areas of clinical endocrinology that have witnessed the use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to improve clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ELEMENT MASSES IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, Adam R.; Katz, Andrea M.; Satterfield, Timothy J.

    Using our previously published element abundance or mass-fraction distributions in the Crab Nebula, we derived actual mass distributions and estimates for overall nebular masses of hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. As with the previous work, computations were carried out for photoionization models involving constant hydrogen density and also constant nuclear density. In addition, employing new flux measurements for [Ni ii]  λ 7378, along with combined photoionization models and analytic computations, a nickel abundance distribution was mapped and a nebular stable nickel mass estimate was derived.

  11. Top Quark Mass Measurements at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of the top quark in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron proton antiproton collider, precise measurements of its mass are ongoing. Using data recorded by the D0 and CDF experiment, corresponding to up to the full Tevatron data sample, top quark mass measurements performed in different final states using various extraction techniques are presented in this article. The recent Tevatron top quark mass combination yields m_t=173.20 +-0.87 GeV. Furthermore, measurements of the top antitop quark mass difference from the Tevatron are discussed.

  12. Mass-Radius Relationships for Low-Mass Planets: From Iron Planets to Water Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Transit observations, and radial velocity measurements, have begun to populate the mass radius diagram for extrasolar planets; fubture astrometric measurements and direct images promise more mass and radius information. Clearly, the bulk density of a planet indicates something about a planet s composition--but what? I will attempt to answer this question in general for low-mass planets (mass) using a combination of analytic and numerical calculations, and I will show that all low-mass planets obey a kind of universal mass-radius relationship: an expansion whose first term is M approx. R(sup 3).

  13. A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samyn, M.; Goriely, S.; Heenen, P.-H.; Pearson, J. M.; Tondeur, F.

    2002-03-01

    In order to have more reliable predictions of nuclear masses at the neutron drip line, we here go beyond the recent mass formula HFBCS-1 and present a new mass formula, HFB-1, based on the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method. As with the HFBCS-1 mass formula, we use a 10-parameter Skyrme force along with a 4-parameter δ-function pairing force and a 2-parameter phenomenological Wigner term. However, with the original HFBCS-1 Skyrme force (MSk7), the rms error becomes unacceptably large and a new force fit is required. With the isoscalar and isovector effective masses constrained to be equal, the remaining 15 degrees of freedom are fitted to the masses of all the 1754 measured nuclei with A⩾16, | N- Z|>2 given in the 1995 Audi-Wapstra compilation. The rms error with respect to the masses of all the 1888 measured nuclei with Z, N⩾8 is 0.764 MeV. A complete mass table, HFB-1 (available on the Web), has been constructed, giving all nuclei lying between the two drip lines over the range Z, N⩾8 and Z⩽120. A comparison between HFB-1 and HFBCS-1 mass tables shows that the HFBCS model is a very good approximation of the HFB theory, in particular for masses, the extrapolated masses never differing by more than 2 MeV below Z⩽110. We also find that the behaviour of shell gaps far away from the region of beta stability does not depend on whether the HFBCS or HFB methods are used, in particular, no quenching of astrophysical interest arises from replacing the BCS method by the Bogoliubov method.

  14. The dependence of halo mass on galaxy size at fixed stellar mass using weak lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, Paul J. L.; Hudson, Michael J.; Balogh, Michael L.; Khatri, Sumeet

    2017-12-01

    Stellar mass has been shown to correlate with halo mass, with non-negligible scatter. The stellar mass-size and luminosity-size relationships of galaxies also show significant scatter in galaxy size at fixed stellar mass. It is possible that, at fixed stellar mass and galaxy colour, the halo mass is correlated with galaxy size. Galaxy-galaxy lensing allows us to measure the mean masses of dark matter haloes for stacked samples of galaxies. We extend the analysis of the galaxies in the CFHTLenS catalogue by fitting single Sérsic surface brightness profiles to the lens galaxies in order to recover half-light radius values, allowing us to determine halo masses for lenses according to their size. Comparing our halo masses and sizes to baselines for that stellar mass yields a differential measurement of the halo mass-galaxy size relationship at fixed stellar mass, defined as Mh(M_{*}) ∝ r_{eff}^{η }(M_{*}). We find that, on average, our lens galaxies have an η = 0.42 ± 0.12, i.e. larger galaxies live in more massive dark matter haloes. The η is strongest for high-mass luminous red galaxies. Investigation of this relationship in hydrodynamical simulations suggests that, at a fixed M*, satellite galaxies have a larger η and greater scatter in the Mh and reff relationship compared to central galaxies.

  15. [Conversion methods of freshwater snail tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Hua; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Liu, Xue-Qin

    2009-06-01

    Mollusk biomass is usually expressed as wet mass with shell, but this expression fails to represent real biomass due to the high calcium carbonate content in shells. Tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass are relatively close to real biomass. However, the determination process of these two parameters is very complicated, and thus, it is necessary to establish simple and practical conversion methods for these two parameters. A total of six taxa of freshwater snails (Bellamya sp., Alocinma longicornis, Parafossarulus striatulus, Parafossarulus eximius, Semisulcospira cancellata, and Radix sp.) common in the Yangtze Basin were selected to explore the relations of their five shell dimension parameters, dry and wet mass with shells with their tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass. The regressions of the tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass with the five shell dimension parameters were all exponential (y = ax(b)). Among them, shell width and shell length were more precise (the average percentage error between observed and predicted value being 22.0% and 22.5%, respectively) than the other three parameters in the conversion of dry mass. Wet mass with shell could be directly converted to tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass, with an average percentage error of 21.7%. According to the essence of definition and the errors of conversion, ash free dry mass would be the optimum parameter to express snail biomass.

  16. Mass Media and Communication. Second, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Charles S., Ed.

    This revised and enlarged second edition contains sections focusing on a number of mass media: newspapers, the American magazine, motion pictures, broadcasting media, and book publishing. Other section topics include the structure and development of mass communication, public opinion, international communication, the motivation of assent, the…

  17. A Synthetic Model of Mass Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneupper, Charles W.; Underwood, Willard A.

    Mass persuasion involves a message production process which significantly alters or reinforces an attitude, belief, or action of the members of a large, heterogeneous audience. A synthetic communication model for mass persuasion has been constructed which incorporates aspects of several models created to describe the process of effective…

  18. The Mass Function of Cosmic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audit, E.; Teyssier, R.; Alimi, J.-M.

    We investigate some modifications to the Press and Schechter (1974) (PS) prescription resulting from shear and tidal effects. These modifications rely on more realistic treatments of the collapse process than the standard approach based on the spherical model. First, we show that the mass function resulting from a new approximate Lagrangian dynamic (Audit and Alimi, A&A 1996), contains more objects at high mass, than the classical PS mass function and is well fitted by a PS-like function with a threshold density of deltac ≍ 1.4. However, such a Lagrangian description can underestimate the epoch of structure formation since it defines it as the collapse of the first principal axis. We therefore suggest some analytical prescriptions, for computing the collapse time along the second and third principal axes, and we deduce the corresponding mass functions. The collapse along the third axis is delayed by the shear and the number of objects of high mass then decreases. Finally, we show that the shear also strongly affects the formation of low-mass halos. This dynamical effect implies a modification of the low-mass slope of the mass function and allows the reproduction of the observed luminosity function of field galaxies.

  19. Interrelationships Between Mass and Interpersonal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Judith

    Academic departmentalization, especially at the undergraduate level, can result in the isolation of subject areas. The two purposes of this paper are to make a case for the interrelationships between mass and interpersonal communication becoming an integral aspect of mass media study, and to stress the importance of presenting this material in…

  20. The Mass Media: An Integrated Unit. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Barry

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to a critical study of the mass media is presented in this journal insert, which also provides a format for planning an integrated unit. The main section of the insert focuses on seven questions and their answers concerning: (1) selection of the topic, (2) justifying a mass media curriculum, (3) entry experience, (4)…