Pair distribution function computed tomography.
Jacques, Simon D M; Di Michiel, Marco; Kimber, Simon A J; Yang, Xiaohao; Cernik, Robert J; Beale, Andrew M; Billinge, Simon J L
2013-01-01
An emerging theme of modern composites and devices is the coupling of nanostructural properties of materials with their targeted arrangement at the microscale. Of the imaging techniques developed that provide insight into such designer materials and devices, those based on diffraction are particularly useful. However, to date, these have been heavily restrictive, providing information only on materials that exhibit high crystallographic ordering. Here we describe a method that uses a combination of X-ray atomic pair distribution function analysis and computed tomography to overcome this limitation. It allows the structure of nanocrystalline and amorphous materials to be identified, quantified and mapped. We demonstrate the method with a phantom object and subsequently apply it to resolving, in situ, the physicochemical states of a heterogeneous catalyst system. The method may have potential impact across a range of disciplines from materials science, biomaterials, geology, environmental science, palaeontology and cultural heritage to health.
Introduction to Pair Distribution Function Analysis
King, Graham Missell
2015-02-17
By collecting a total scattering pattern, subtracting the non-sample background, applying corrections, and taking the Fourier transform, the real space pair distribution function can be obtained. A PDF gives the distribution of inter-atomic distances in a material and is an excellent probe of short and intermediate range structure. RMC refinements using multiple data types are an excellent method for multi-scale modeling, including the mesoscale range.
Quantum correction to the pair distribution function.
Levashov, V A; Billinge, S J L; Thorpe, M F
2007-08-01
We report a numerical technique that allows the quantum effects of zero-point motion to be incorporated into Pair Distribution Functions calculated classically for molecules using Monte Carlo or Molecular Dynamics simulations. We establish the basis for this approximation using a diatomic molecule described by a Morse potential. The correction should significantly improve the agreement between modeled and experimental data, and facilitate conclusions about inter- and intra-molecular motion and flexibility. We describe a similar approach to obtain the energy and the specific heat.
Pair distribution functions of silicon/silicon nitride interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Deng; Bachlechner, Martina E.
2006-03-01
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate different mechanical and structural properties of the silicon/silicon nitride interface. One way to characterize the structure as tensile strain is applied parallel to the interface is to calculate pair distribution functions for specific atom types. The pair distribution function gives the probability of finding a pair of atoms a distance r apart, relative to the probability expected for a completely random distribution at the same density. The pair distribution functions for bulk silicon nitride reflect the fracture of the silicon nitride film at about 8 % and the fact that the centerpiece of the silicon nitride film returns to its original structure after fracture. The pair distribution functions for interface silicon atoms reveal the formation of bonds for originally unbound atom pairs, which is indicative of the interstitial-vacancy defect that causes failure in silicon.
Atomic Pair Distribution Function (PDF) Analysis of Ferroelectric Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoneda, Yasuhiro
Atomic Pair Distribution Function (PDF) is a one of local structure analysis. PDF analysis is a powerful method for ferroelectrics in which domain structure exists. A deviation arises between average and local structures under the influence of the ferroelectric domain configuration. The local structure analysis of BaTiO3 and BiMg0.5Ti0.5O3 is shown as an example of application to the ferroelectric materials of PDF analysis.
Crystal structure solution from experimentally determined atomic pair distribution functions
Juhas, P.; Granlund, L.; Gujarathi, S.R.; Duxbury, P.M.; Billinge, S.J.L.
2010-05-25
An extension of the Liga algorithm for structure solution from atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs), to handle periodic crystal structures with multiple elements in the unit cell, is described. The procedure is performed in three separate steps. First, pair distances are extracted from the experimental PDF. In the second step the Liga algorithm is used to find unit-cell sites consistent with these pair distances. Finally, the atom species are assigned over the cell sites by minimizing the overlap of their empirical atomic radii. The procedure has been demonstrated on synchrotron X-ray PDF data from 16 test samples. The structure solution was successful for 14 samples, including cases with enlarged supercells. The algorithm success rate and the reasons for the failed cases are discussed, together with enhancements that should improve its convergence and usability.
Pair-Distribution Function Analysis of Bismuth Titanate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoneda, Yasuhiro; Kohara, Shinji; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro
2006-09-01
In ferroelectrics, it is sometimes observed that the local structure is different from the average structures. We observed the difference between the local and average structure of Bi4Ti3O12. The average and local structures were refined by Rietveld and Pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis, respectively. These were refined with the same data set collected by high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The crystal symmetry of both the local and average structures of Bi4Ti3O12 was orthorhombic. The TiO6 rotation angle around the b-axis of the local structure was larger than that of the average structure. The difference should originate from oxygen vacancies, which are generated in crystal synthesis.
A pair distribution function analysis of zeolite beta
Martinez-Inesta, M.M.; Peral, I.; Proffen, T.; Lobo, R.F.
2010-07-20
We describe the structural refinement of zeolite beta using the local structure obtained with the pair distribution function (PDF) method. A high quality synchrotron and two neutron scattering datasets were obtained on two samples of siliceous zeolite beta. The two polytypes that make up zeolite beta have the same local structure; therefore refinement of the two structures was possible using the same experimental PDF. Optimized structures of polytypes A and B were used to refine the structures using the program PDFfit. Refinements using only the synchrotron or the neutron datasets gave results inconsistent with each other but a cyclic refinement with the two datasets gave a good fit to both PDFs. The results show that the PDF method is a viable technique to analyze the local structure of disordered zeolites. However, given the complexity of most zeolite frameworks, the use of both X-ray and neutron radiation and high-resolution patterns is essential to obtain reliable refinements.
Temperature effects on atomic pair distribution functions of melts
Ding, J. Ma, E.; Xu, M.; Guan, P. F.; Deng, S. W.; Cheng, Y. Q.
2014-02-14
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the temperature-dependent evolution of the first peak position/shape in pair distribution functions of liquids. For metallic liquids, the peak skews towards the left (shorter distance side) with increasing temperature, similar to the previously reported anomalous peak shift. Making use of constant-volume simulations in the absence of thermal expansion and change in inherent structure, we demonstrate that the apparent shift of the peak maximum can be a result of the asymmetric shape of the peak, as the asymmetry increases with temperature-induced spreading of neighboring atoms to shorter and longer distances due to the anharmonic nature of the interatomic interaction potential. These findings shed light on the first-shell expansion/contraction paradox for metallic liquids, aside from possible changes in local topological or chemical short-range ordering. The melts of covalent materials are found to exhibit an opposite trend of peak shift, which is attributed to an effect of the directionality of the interatomic bonds.
Pair distribution function study on compression of liquid gallium
Luo, Shengnian; Yu, Tony; Chen, Jiuhua; Ehm, Lars; Guo, Quanzhong; Parise, John
2008-01-01
Integrating a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) and focused high energy x-ray beam from the superconductor wiggler X17 beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we have successfully collected high quality total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium. The experiments were conducted at a pressure range from 0.1GPa up to 2GPa at ambient temperature. For the first time, pair distribution functions (PDF) for liquid gallium at high pressure were derived up to 10 {angstrom}. Liquid gallium structure has been studied by x-ray absorption (Di Cicco & Filipponi, 1993; Wei et al., 2000; Comez et al., 2001), x-ray diffraction studies (Waseda & Suzuki, 1972), and molecular dynamics simulation (Tsay, 1993; Hui et al., 2002). These previous reports have focused on the 1st nearest neighbor structure, which tells us little about the atomic arrangement outside the first shell in non- crystalline materials. This study focuses on the structure of liquid gallium and the atomic structure change due to compression. The PDF results show that the observed atomic distance of the first nearest neighbor at 2.78 {angstrom} (first G(r) peak and its shoulder at the higher Q position) is consistent with previous studies by x-ray absorption (2.76 {angstrom}, Comez et al., 2001). We have also observed that the first nearest neighbor peak position did not change with pressure increasing, while the farther peaks positions in the intermediate distance range decreased with pressure increasing. This leads to a conclusion of the possible existence of 'locally rigid units' in the liquid. With the addition of reverse Monte Carlo modeling, we have observed that the coordination number in the local rigit unit increases with pressure. The bulk modulus of liquid gallium derived from the volume compression curve at ambient temperature (300K) is 12.1(6) GPa.
Grenier, Antonin; Porras-Gutierrez, Ana-Gabriela; Groult, Henri; ...
2017-07-05
Detailed analysis of electrochemical reactions occurring in rechargeable Fluoride-Ion Batteries (FIBs) is provided by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis.
Gamez-Mendoza, Liliana; Terban, Maxwell W.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; ...
2017-04-13
The particle size of supported catalysts is a key characteristic for determining structure–property relationships. It is a challenge to obtain this information accurately and in situ using crystallographic methods owing to the small size of such particles (<5 nm) and the fact that they are supported. In this work, the pair distribution function (PDF) technique was used to obtain the particle size distribution of supported Pt catalysts as they grow under typical synthesis conditions. The PDF of Pt nanoparticles grown on zeolite X was isolated and refined using two models: a monodisperse spherical model (single particle size) and a lognormalmore » size distribution. The results were compared and validated using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) results. Both models describe the same trends in average particle size with temperature, but the results of the number-weighted lognormal size distributions can also accurately describe the mean size and the width of the size distributions obtained from STEM. Since the PDF yields crystallite sizes, these results suggest that the grown Pt nanoparticles are monocrystalline. As a result, this work shows that refinement of the PDF of small supported monocrystalline nanoparticles can yield accurate mean particle sizes and distributions.« less
Genetic algorithm for the pair distribution function of the electron gas.
Vericat, Fernando; Stoico, César O; Carlevaro, C Manuel; Renzi, Danilo G
2011-12-01
The pair distribution function of the electron gas is calculated using a parameterized generalization of hypernetted chain approximation with the parameters being obtained by optimizing the system energy with a genetic algorithm. The functions so obtained are compared with Monte Carlo simulations performed by other authors in its variational and di_usion versions showing a very good agreement especially with the di_usion Monte Carlo results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borgis, Daniel; Assaraf, Roland; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe
2013-12-01
No fancy statistical objects here, we go back to the computation of one of the most basic and fundamental quantities in the statistical mechanics of fluids, namely the pair distribution functions. Those functions are usually computed in molecular simulations by using histogram techniques. We show here that they can be estimated using a global information on the instantaneous forces acting on the particles, and that this leads to a reduced variance compared to the standard histogram estimators. The technique is extended successfully to the computation of three-dimensional solvent densities around tagged molecular solutes, quantities that are noisy and very long to converge, using histograms.
Local Atomic Structure of Semiconductor Alloys Using Pair Distribution Function Analysis
Billinge, S.J.L.; Thorpe, M.F.
2002-06-24
We have been taking advantage of recent experimental developments, which involve utilizing diffraction data from x-rays or neutrons out to very large wave-vectors, to obtain a detailed structural characterization of semiconductor alloys. This approach allows an accurate Pair Distribution Function (PDF) to be obtained to 20A and beyond and reveals the local structure of the alloy directly. These data can be modeled explicitly to learn about local correlations and short-range order in materials. We are combining theory, modeling and experiments to study a range of materials from semiconductors to thermoelectrics and proton conductors.
Structure of nanocrystalline Ti3C2 MXene using atomic pair distribution function.
Shi, Chenyang; Beidaghi, Majid; Naguib, Michael; Mashtalir, Olha; Gogotsi, Yury; Billinge, Simon J L
2014-03-28
The structures of nanocrystalline pristine, potassium hydroxide and sodium acetate intercalated new two-dimensional materials Ti3C2 MXenes were studied using the x-ray atomic pair distribution function technique. Pristine MXene has a hexagonal structure with a=b=3.0505(5) Å, c=19.86(2) Å (S.G. P63/mmc No. 194). Both hydroxyl and fluoride terminating species are present. The intercalation of K+ or Na+ ions expands the Ti3C2 layers perpendicular to the planes but shrinks the in-plane a and b lattice parameters.
Abeykoon M.; Billinge S.; Malliakas, C.D.; Juhas, P.; Bozin, E.S.; Kanatzidis, M.G.
2012-05-01
Quantitatively reliable atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) have been obtained from nanomaterials in a straightforward way from a standard laboratory transmission electron microscope (TEM). The approach looks very promising for making electron derived PDFs (ePDFs) a routine step in the characterization of nanomaterials because of the ubiquity of such TEMs in chemistry and materials laboratories. No special attachments such as energy filters were required on the microscope. The methodology for obtaining the ePDFs is described as well as some opportunities and limitations of the method.
Structure of Nanocrystalline Ti3C2 MXene Using Atomic Pair Distribution Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Chenyang; Beidaghi, Majid; Naguib, Michael; Mashtalir, Olha; Gogotsi, Yury; Billinge, Simon J. L.
2014-03-01
The structures of nanocrystalline pristine, potassium hydroxide and sodium acetate intercalated new two-dimensional materials Ti3C2 MXenes were studied using the x-ray atomic pair distribution function technique. Pristine MXene has a hexagonal structure with a =b=3.0505(5) Å, c =19.86(2) Å (S.G. P63/mmc No. 194). Both hydroxyl and fluoride terminating species are present. The intercalation of K+ or Na+ ions expands the Ti3C2 layers perpendicular to the planes but shrinks the in-plane a and b lattice parameters.
Finite Size Effects on the Real-Space Pair Distribution Function of Nanoparticles
Gilbert, Benjamin
2008-10-01
The pair distribution function (PDF) method is a powerful approach for the analysis of the structure of nanoparticles. An important approximation used in nanoparticle PDF simulations is the incorporation of a form factor describing nanoparticle size and shape. The precise effect of the form factor on the PDF is determined by both particle shape and structure if these characteristics are both anisotropic and correlated. The correct incorporation of finite size effects is important for distinguishing and quantifying the structural consequences of small particle size in nanomaterials.
SUePDF: a program to obtain quantitative pair distribution functions from electron diffraction data
Tran, Dung Trung; Svensson, Gunnar; Tai, Cheuk-Wai
2017-01-01
SUePDF is a graphical user interface program written in MATLAB to achieve quantitative pair distribution functions (PDFs) from electron diffraction data. The program facilitates structural studies of amorphous materials and small nanoparticles using electron diffraction data from transmission electron microscopes. It is based on the physics of electron scattering as well as the total scattering methodology. A method of background modeling is introduced to treat the intensity tail of the direct beam, inelastic scattering and incoherent multiple scattering. Kinematical electron scattering intensity is scaled using the electron scattering factors. The PDFs obtained after Fourier transforms are normalized with respect to number density, nanoparticle form factor and the non-negativity of probability density. SUePDF is distributed as free software for academic users. PMID:28190994
Malavasi, Lorenzo; Orera, Alodia; Slater, Peter R; Panchmatia, Pooja M; Islam, M Saiful; Siewenie, Joan
2011-01-07
In this communication we provide a direct insight into the local structure and defects of oxygen excess Ge-apatites, in both dry and deuterated states, by means of pair distribution function analysis.
Novel trends in pair distribution function approaches on bulk systems with nanoscale heterogeneities
Emil S. Bozin; Billinge, Simon J. L.
2016-07-29
Novel materials for high performance applications increasingly exhibit structural order on the nanometer length scale; a domain where crystallography, the basis of Rietveld refinement, fails [1]. In such instances the total scattering approach, which treats Bragg and diffuse scattering on an equal basis, is a powerful approach. In recent years, the analysis of the total scattering data became an invaluable tool and the gold standard for studying nanocrystalline, nanoporous, and disordered crystalline materials. The data may be analyzed in reciprocal space directly, or Fourier transformed to the real-space atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and this intuitive function examined for local structural information. Here we give a number of illustrative examples, for convenience picked from our own work, of recent developments and applications of total scattering and PDF analysis to novel complex materials. There are many other wonderful examples from the work of others.
Novel trends in pair distribution function approaches on bulk systems with nanoscale heterogeneities
Emil S. Bozin; Billinge, Simon J. L.
2016-07-29
Novel materials for high performance applications increasingly exhibit structural order on the nanometer length scale; a domain where crystallography, the basis of Rietveld refinement, fails [1]. In such instances the total scattering approach, which treats Bragg and diffuse scattering on an equal basis, is a powerful approach. In recent years, the analysis of the total scattering data became an invaluable tool and the gold standard for studying nanocrystalline, nanoporous, and disordered crystalline materials. The data may be analyzed in reciprocal space directly, or Fourier transformed to the real-space atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and this intuitive function examined for local structural information. Here we give a number of illustrative examples, for convenience picked from our own work, of recent developments and applications of total scattering and PDF analysis to novel complex materials. There are many other wonderful examples from the work of others.
Emerging operando and x-ray pair distribution function methods for energy materials development
Chapman, Karena W.
2016-03-01
Our energy needs drive widespread materials research. Advances in materials characterization are critical to this research effort. Using new characterization tools that allow us to probe the atomic structure of energy materials in situ as they operate, we can identify how their structure is linked to their functional properties and performance. These fundamental insights serve as a roadmap to enhance performance in the next generation of advanced materials. In the last decade, developments in synchrotron instrumentation have made the pair distribution function (PDF) method and operando x-ray studies more readily accessible tools capable of providing valuable insights into complex materials systems. Here, the emergence of the PDF method as a versatile structure characterization tool and the further enhancement of this method through developments in operando capabilities and multivariate data analytics are described. These advances in materials characterization are demonstrated by several highlighted studies focused on energy storage in batteries.
Novel trends in pair distribution function approaches on bulk systems with nanoscale heterogeneities
Emil S. Bozin; Billinge, Simon J. L.
2016-07-29
Novel materials for high performance applications increasingly exhibit structural order on the nanometer length scale; a domain where crystallography, the basis of Rietveld refinement, fails [1]. In such instances the total scattering approach, which treats Bragg and diffuse scattering on an equal basis, is a powerful approach. In recent years, the analysis of the total scattering data became an invaluable tool and the gold standard for studying nanocrystalline, nanoporous, and disordered crystalline materials. The data may be analyzed in reciprocal space directly, or Fourier transformed to the real-space atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and this intuitive function examined for localmore » structural information. Here we give a number of illustrative examples, for convenience picked from our own work, of recent developments and applications of total scattering and PDF analysis to novel complex materials. There are many other wonderful examples from the work of others.« less
Structure of Exfoliated Titanate Nanosheets Determined by Atomic Pair Distribution Function Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gateshki, Milen; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Ren, Yang
2005-03-01
Titanate nanosheets find useful applications as precursors of nanocomposite materials. Colloidal suspension of titanate nanosheets has been prepared by exfoliation of Cs0.67Ti1.83O4 through the intercalation of tetrabutylammonium (TBA). The atomic scale structure of the nanosheets has been determined using X-ray diffraction and the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) technique, which is known to be well suited for materials showing limited structural coherence. The exfoliated titanate nanosheets have been found to be an irregular assembly of double layers of Ti-O6 octahedra accommodating water and TBA molecules in the interlayer space. M. Gateshki, S.-J. Hwang, D. H. Park, Y Ren, and V. Petkov, Chem. Mater. 2004, 16, 5153-5157.
Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; ...
2015-04-01
This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering datamore » and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.« less
Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute
2015-04-01
This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering data and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.
Dykhne, Timur; Taylor, Ryan; Florence, Alastair; Billinge, Simon J L
2011-05-01
To determine the optimal measurement strategy for fingerprinting condensed phases of pharmaceutical systems using atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) obtained from data collected using several types of x-ray diffraction instruments. PDFs of crystalline and amorphous-phase molecular systems derived from data accessible to copper-, molybdenum-, and silver-anode laboratory sources were compared to one another and synchrotron data using qualitative and quantitative methods. We find that reliable fingerprinting is still possible using silver and molybdenum laboratory sources, but data from copper anode laboratory sources are unreliable for fingerprinting, yielding ambiguous and potentially incorrect results. The ambiguities make data measured using low energy x-rays unsuitable for fingerprinting active pharmaceutical ingredients and small molecule systems, and, in general, copper anode diffractometers are undesirable for this purpose; however, laboratory x-ray sources with either Mo or Ag anodes are well suited for this application.
Martinez-Inesta, Maria M.; Lobo, Raul F.
2008-06-18
We have used the pair distribution function (PDF) method to gain insight into the mechanism of contraction of zeolite chabazite. Using this method we followed how the interatomic distances of the local structure changed with temperature. By optimization of the structure by free energy minimization and using the Reverse Monte Carlo technique we were able to find structural models at low and at high temperatures that agreed quantitatively with our experimental PDFs. From these models we conclude that the mechanism of contraction with temperature cannot involve rocking of the tetrahedra as rigid unit modes as there are distortions of the tetrahedra with temperature (indicating internal vibrations) and also that the mechanism of contraction probably involves a mode that translates along the Si-O3-Si-O4-Si linkages inside of the D6R of zeolite chabazite.
Cliffe, Matthew J; Goodwin, Andrew L
2013-11-13
We present a detailed study of the mechanism by which the INVERT method (Cliffe et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 125501) guides structure refinement of disordered materials. We present a number of different possible implementations of the central algorithm and explore the question of algorithm weighting. Our analysis includes quantification of the relative contributions of variance and fit-to-data terms during structure refinement, which leads us to study the roles of density fluctuations and configurational jamming in the RMC fitting process. We present a parametric study of the pair distribution function solution space for C60, a-Si and a-SiO2, which serves to highlight the difficulties faced in developing a transferable weighting scheme.
Computer simulation of cavity pair distribution functions of hard spheres in a hard slit pore
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, William R.; Vörtler, Horst L.
We describe efficient Monte Carlo computer simulation techniques to calculate conditional distribution functions for pairs of hard-sphere (HS) cavities in a hard slit pore of width L , n * (z1/sub> , z2, r), and use these as an efficient route to calculating the corresponding dimensionless excess chemical potentials μe (z1 , z2, r). zi is the distance of an HS centre from a (specified) wall and r is the distance between the cavity centres. This is the first calculation of such functions, which are of interest in their own right and provide data for the testing of theories, in addition to providing data for a simple model for the infinite dilution behaviour of a polyatomic solute in a simple molecularly confined solvent. Results are presented for special cases for the cavity functions n * ( z1 , z2, r) which occur when the spheres are in the same plane, when the line of sphere centres is perpendicular to the walls, and when the spheres are in contact. We compare results obtained using the Kirkwood superposition approximation in conjunction with results obtained from the computer simulation data using the first member of the BGY integral equation hierarchy. The approximation is found to be exact in certain limiting geometrical situations, but in general is quantitatively poor.
Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.
2016-01-01
In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may be used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.
Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; ...
2016-01-01
In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may bemore » used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.« less
Burnell, Victoria A.; Readman, Jennifer E.; Tang, Chiu C; Parker, Julia E.; Thompson, Stephen P.; Hriljac, Joseph A.
2010-07-24
Crystalline metal (IV) phosphates with variable zirconium-to-titanium molar ratios of general formula (Ti_{1-x}Zr_{x})(HPO_{4})_{2} • H_{2}O have been prepared by precipitation of soluble salts of the metals with phosphoric acid and heating the amorphous solids in 12 M H_{3}PO_{4} in an autoclave. The new materials are structurally characterised by Rietveld analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy synchrotron X-ray total scattering data. A broad range of zirconium-titanium phosphate solid solutions were formed showing isomorphous substitution of titanium by zirconium in the α-titanium phosphate lattice and vice versa for titanium substitution into the α-zirconium phosphate lattice. In both cases the solubility is partial with the coexistence of two substituted phases observed in samples with nominal compositions between the solubility limits.
Atomic Structure of a Cesium Aluminosilicate Geopolymer: A Pair Distribution Function Study
Bell, J.; Sarin, P; Provis, J; Haggerty, R; Driemeyer, P; Chupas, P; van Deventer, J; Kriven, W
2008-01-01
The atomic pair distribution function (PDF) method was used to study the structure of cesium aluminosilicate geopolymer. The geopolymer was prepared by reacting metakaolin with cesium silicate solution followed by curing at 50C for 24 h in a sealed container. Heating of Cs-geopolymer above 1000C resulted in formation of crystalline pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}). PDF refinement of the pollucite phase formed displayed an excellent fit over the 10-30 {angstrom} range when compared with a cubic pollucite model. A poorer fit was attained from 1-10 {angstrom} due to an additional amorphous phase present in the heated geopolymer. On the basis of PDF analysis, unheated Cs-geopolymer displayed structural ordering similar to pollucite up to a length scale of 9 {angstrom}, despite some differences. Our results suggest that hydrated Cs{sup +} ions were an integral part of the Cs-geopolymer structure and that most of the water present was not associated with Al-OH or Si-OH bonds.
X-ray Pair Distribution Function Analysis of Potassium Based Geopolymer
Bell, J.; Sarin, P; Driemeyer, P; Haggerty, R; Chupas, P; Kriven, W
2008-01-01
The atomic structure of geopolymers is often described as amorphous with a local structure that is equivalent to that of crystalline zeolites. However, this structural relationship has never been quantified beyond a first-nearest-neighbor bonding environment. In this study, the short to medium range (1 nm) structural order of metakaolin-based KAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}{center_dot}5.5H{sub 2}O geopolymer was quantified and compared to zeolitic tetragonal leucite (KAlSi2O6) using the X-ray atomic pair distribution function technique. Unheated KAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}{center_dot}5.5H{sub 2}O was found to be structurally similar to leucite out to a length of 8 {angstrom}, but had increased medium range disorder over the 4.5 {angstrom} < r < 8 {angstrom} range. On heating to >300 C, changes in the short to medium range structure were observed due to dehydration and removal of chemically bound water. Crystallization of leucite occurred in samples heated beyond 1050 C. Refinements of a leucite model against the PDF data for geopolymer heated to 1100 C for 24 h yielded a good fit.
Total Scattering and Pair Distribution Function Analysis in Modelling Disorder in PZN
Whitfield, Ross E.; Goossens, Darren J; Welberry, T. R.
2016-01-01
The ability of the pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of total scattering (TS) from a powder to determine the local ordering in ferroelectric PZN (PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3) has been explored by comparison with a model established using single-crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS). While X-ray PDF analysis is discussed, the focus is on neutron diffraction results because of the greater extent of the data and the sensitivity of the neutron to oxygen atoms, the behaviour of which is important in PZN. The PDF was shown to be sensitive to many effects not apparent in the average crystal structure, including variations in the B-site—O separationmore » distances and the fact that (110) Pb2+ displacements are most likely. A qualitative comparison between SCDS and the PDF shows that some features apparent in SCDS were not apparent in the PDF. These tended to pertain to short-range correlations in the structure, rather than to interatomic separations. For example, in SCDS the short-range alternation of the B-site cations was quite apparent in diffuse scattering at (½ ½ ½), whereas it was not apparent in the PDF.« less
Total Scattering and Pair Distribution Function Analysis in Modelling Disorder in PZN
Whitfield, Ross E.; Goossens, Darren J; Welberry, T. R.
2016-01-01
The ability of the pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of total scattering (TS) from a powder to determine the local ordering in ferroelectric PZN (PbZn_{1/3}Nb_{2/3}O_{3}) has been explored by comparison with a model established using single-crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS). While X-ray PDF analysis is discussed, the focus is on neutron diffraction results because of the greater extent of the data and the sensitivity of the neutron to oxygen atoms, the behaviour of which is important in PZN. The PDF was shown to be sensitive to many effects not apparent in the average crystal structure, including variations in the B-site—O separation distances and the fact that (110) Pb^{2+} displacements are most likely. A qualitative comparison between SCDS and the PDF shows that some features apparent in SCDS were not apparent in the PDF. These tended to pertain to short-range correlations in the structure, rather than to interatomic separations. For example, in SCDS the short-range alternation of the B-site cations was quite apparent in diffuse scattering at (½ ½ ½), whereas it was not apparent in the PDF.
Prill, Dragica; Juhás, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J L; Schmidt, Martin U
2016-01-01
A method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may be used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.
Cole, Jacqueline M.; Cheng, Xie; Payne, Michael C.
2016-10-18
The use of principal component analysis (PCA) to statistically infer features of local structure from experimental pair distribution function (PDF) data is assessed on a case study of rare-earth phosphate glasses (REPGs). Such glasses, co-doped with two rare-earth ions (R and R’) of different sizes and optical properties, are of interest to the laser industry. The determination of structure-property relationships in these materials is an important aspect of their technological development. Yet, realizing the local structure of co-doped REPGs presents significant challenges relative to their singly-doped counterparts; specifically, R and R’ are difficult to distinguish in terms of establishing relative material compositions, identifying atomic pairwise correlation profiles in a PDF that are associated with each ion, and resolving peak overlap of such profiles in PDFs. This study demonstrates that PCA can be employed to help overcome these structural complications, by statistically inferring trends in PDFs that exist for a restricted set of experimental data on REPGs, and using these as training data to predict material compositions and PDF profiles in unknown co-doped REPGs. The application of these PCA methods to resolve individual atomic pairwise correlations in t(r) signatures is also presented. The training methods developed for these structural predictions are pre-validated by testing their ability to reproduce known physical phenomena, such as the lanthanide contraction, on PDF signatures of the structurally simpler singly-doped REPGs. The intrinsic limitations of applying PCA to analyze PDFs relative to the quality control of source data, data processing, and sample definition, are also considered. Furthermore, while this case study is limited to lanthanide-doped REPGs, this type of statistical inference may easily be extended to other inorganic solid-state materials, and be exploited in large-scale data-mining efforts that probe many t(r) functions.
Cole, Jacqueline M.; Cheng, Xie; Payne, Michael C.
2016-10-18
The use of principal component analysis (PCA) to statistically infer features of local structure from experimental pair distribution function (PDF) data is assessed on a case study of rare-earth phosphate glasses (REPGs). Such glasses, co-doped with two rare-earth ions (R and R’) of different sizes and optical properties, are of interest to the laser industry. The determination of structure-property relationships in these materials is an important aspect of their technological development. Yet, realizing the local structure of co-doped REPGs presents significant challenges relative to their singly-doped counterparts; specifically, R and R’ are difficult to distinguish in terms of establishing relativemore » material compositions, identifying atomic pairwise correlation profiles in a PDF that are associated with each ion, and resolving peak overlap of such profiles in PDFs. This study demonstrates that PCA can be employed to help overcome these structural complications, by statistically inferring trends in PDFs that exist for a restricted set of experimental data on REPGs, and using these as training data to predict material compositions and PDF profiles in unknown co-doped REPGs. The application of these PCA methods to resolve individual atomic pairwise correlations in t(r) signatures is also presented. The training methods developed for these structural predictions are pre-validated by testing their ability to reproduce known physical phenomena, such as the lanthanide contraction, on PDF signatures of the structurally simpler singly-doped REPGs. The intrinsic limitations of applying PCA to analyze PDFs relative to the quality control of source data, data processing, and sample definition, are also considered. Furthermore, while this case study is limited to lanthanide-doped REPGs, this type of statistical inference may easily be extended to other inorganic solid-state materials, and be exploited in large-scale data-mining efforts that probe many t
Cole, Jacqueline M; Cheng, Xie; Payne, Michael C
2016-11-07
The use of principal component analysis (PCA) to statistically infer features of local structure from experimental pair distribution function (PDF) data is assessed on a case study of rare-earth phosphate glasses (REPGs). Such glasses, codoped with two rare-earth ions (R and R') of different sizes and optical properties, are of interest to the laser industry. The determination of structure-property relationships in these materials is an important aspect of their technological development. Yet, realizing the local structure of codoped REPGs presents significant challenges relative to their singly doped counterparts; specifically, R and R' are difficult to distinguish in terms of establishing relative material compositions, identifying atomic pairwise correlation profiles in a PDF that are associated with each ion, and resolving peak overlap of such profiles in PDFs. This study demonstrates that PCA can be employed to help overcome these structural complications, by statistically inferring trends in PDFs that exist for a restricted set of experimental data on REPGs, and using these as training data to predict material compositions and PDF profiles in unknown codoped REPGs. The application of these PCA methods to resolve individual atomic pairwise correlations in t(r) signatures is also presented. The training methods developed for these structural predictions are prevalidated by testing their ability to reproduce known physical phenomena, such as the lanthanide contraction, on PDF signatures of the structurally simpler singly doped REPGs. The intrinsic limitations of applying PCA to analyze PDFs relative to the quality control of source data, data processing, and sample definition, are also considered. While this case study is limited to lanthanide-doped REPGs, this type of statistical inference may easily be extended to other inorganic solid-state materials and be exploited in large-scale data-mining efforts that probe many t(r) functions.
White, Claire E; Provis, John L; Bloomer, Breaunnah; Henson, Neil J; Page, Katharine
2013-06-14
With the ever-increasing environmentally-driven demand for technologically advanced structural materials, geopolymer cement is fast becoming a viable alternative to traditional cements due to its proven engineering characteristics and the reduction in CO2 emitted during manufacturing (as much as 80% less CO2 emitted in manufacture, compared to ordinary Portland cement). Nevertheless, much remains unknown regarding the kinetics of reaction responsible for nanostructural evolution during the geopolymerisation process. Here, in situ X-ray total scattering measurements and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis are used to quantify the extent of reaction as a function of time for alkali-activated metakaolin/slag geopolymer binders, including the impact of various activators (alkali hydroxide/silicate) on the kinetics of the geopolymerisation reaction. Quantifying the reaction process in situ from X-ray PDF data collected during the initial ten hours can provide an estimate of the total reaction extent, but when combined with data obtained at longer times (128 days here) enables more accurate determination of the overall rate of reaction. To further assess the initial stages of the geopolymerisation reaction process, a pseudo-single step first order rate equation is fitted to the extent of reaction data, which reveals important mechanistic information regarding the role of free silica in the activators in the evolution of the binder systems. Hence, it is shown that in situ X-ray PDF analysis is an ideal experimental local structure tool to probe the reaction kinetics of complex reacting systems involving transitions between disordered/amorphous phases, of which geopolymerisation is an important example.
Studies of some problems related to atomic ordering, molecular motion and pair distribution function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levashov, Valentin A.
In this thesis the results of my work on three out of four projects on which I was working during my Ph.D. under supervision of Prof. M. F. Thorpe are summarized. The first project was devoted to the study of properties of a model that was developed to reproduce the ordering of ions in layered double hydroxides. In the model two types of positive ions occupy the sites of triangular lattice. The ordering of ions is assumed to occur due to the long-range Coulomb interaction. The charge neutrality is provided by the negative background charge, which is assumed to be the same at every site of the lattice. General properties of the model in 1d and 2d were studied and the phase diagrams were obtained. The obtained results predict multiple phase separations in this system of charges that can, in particularly, affect the stability of the layered double hydroxides. Some properties of the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) were studied during my work on the second project. Traditionally PDF was used to study atomic ordering at small distances, while it was assumed that at large distances PDF is featureless. Puzzled by the observation that PDF calculated for the crystalline Ni does not decay at large distances we studied the behavior, in particularly the origin of decay, of PDF at large distances. The obtained results potentially could be used to measure the amount of imperfections in crystalline materials and to test instrumental resolution in X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments. During my work on the third project we were developing a technique that would allow accurate calculation of PDF for the flexible molecules. Since quantum mechanical calculations are complicated and computationally demanding in calculations of PDF for molecules in liquid or gaseous phases, classical methods, like molecular dynamics are usually employed. Thus, quantum mechanical effects, like zero-point atomic motion, are usually ignored. However, it is necessary to take into account the
Pair distribution function analysis of La(Fe{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x})AsO compounds
Martinelli, A.; Palenzona, A.; Ferdeghini, C.; Mazzani, M.; Bonfa', P.; Allodi, G.
2014-12-15
The local structures of La(Fe{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x})AsO (0.00≤x≤0.80) compounds were investigated by means of pair distribution function analysis at room temperature; as a result, no phase separation or clustering takes place. Local distortions are no longer correlated beyond ∼15 Å for both pure and substituted samples, indicating that the presence of Ru atoms does not determine a notable variation in the length scale of the local distortion. Different types of short range correlation between Fe and Ru atoms do not produce significant changes in the pair distribution function. - Graphical abstract: Fe–As and Ru–As bond length distributions as obtained by pair distribution function analysis of La(Fe{sub 0.70}Ru{sub 0.30})AsO; As atoms (purple spheres) undergo a random shifting around their crystallographic positions (red spheres: Fe/Ru atoms). - Highlights: • No phase separation or clustering takes place in La(Fe{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x})AsO solid solutions. • Local distortions are no longer correlated beyond ∼15 Å. • Ru displays a tendency towards local enrichment in the transition metal sublattice.
Fry-Petit, A. M. E-mail: afry@fullerton.edu; Sheckelton, J. P.; McQueen, T. M. E-mail: afry@fullerton.edu; Rebola, A. F.; Fennie, C. J.; Mourigal, M.; Valentine, M.; Drichko, N.
2015-09-28
For over a century, vibrational spectroscopy has enhanced the study of materials. Yet, assignment of particular molecular motions to vibrational excitations has relied on indirect methods. Here, we demonstrate that applying group theoretical methods to the dynamic pair distribution function analysis of neutron scattering data provides direct access to the individual atomic displacements responsible for these excitations. Applied to the molecule-based frustrated magnet with a potential magnetic valence-bond state, LiZn{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 8}, this approach allows direct assignment of the constrained rotational mode of Mo{sub 3}O{sub 13} clusters and internal modes of MoO{sub 6} polyhedra. We anticipate that coupling this well known data analysis technique with dynamic pair distribution function analysis will have broad application in connecting structural dynamics to physical properties in a wide range of molecular and solid state systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Xiangyun
The employed experimental method in this Ph.D. dissertation research is the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) technique specializing in high real space resolution local structure determination. The PDF is obtained via Fourier transform from powder total scattering data including the important local structural information in the diffuse scattering intensities underneath, and in-between, the Bragg peaks. Having long been used to study liquids and amorphous materials, the PDF technique has been recently successfully applied to highly crystalline materials owing to the advances in modern X-ray and neutron sources and computing power. An integral part of this thesis work has been to make the PDF technique accessible to a wider scientific community. We have recently developed the rapid acquisition PDF (RA-PDF) method featuring high energy X-rays coupled with an image plate area detector, allowing three to four orders of magnitude decrease of data collection time. Correspondingly in software development, I have written a complete X-ray data correction program PDFgetX2 (user friendly with GUI, 32,000+ lines). Those developments sweep away many barriers to the wide-spread application of the PDF technique in complex materials. The RA-PDF development also opens up new fields of research such as time-resolved studies, pump-probe measurements and so on, where the PDF analysis can provide unique insights. Two examples of the RA-PDF applications are described: the distorted T12 square nets in the new binary antimonide Ti2Sb and in-situ chemical reduction of CuO to Cu. The most intellectually enriching has been the local structure studies of the colossal magneto-resistive (CMR) manganites with intrinsic inhomogeneities. The strong coupling between electron, spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom result in extremely rich and interesting phase diagrams. We have carried out careful PDF analysis of neutron powder diffraction data to study the local MnO6 octahedral
Abeykoon, A. M. Milinda; Hu, Hefei; Wu, Lijun; ...
2015-02-01
We explore and describe different protocols for calibrating electron pair distribution function (ePDF) measurements for quantitative studies on nano-materials. We find the most accurate approach to determine the camera-length is to use a standard calibration sample of Au nanoparticles from National Institute of Standards and Technology. Different protocols for data collection are also explored, as are possible operational errors, to find the best approaches for accurate data collection for quantitative ePDF studies.
Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem applied to refinements of the atomic pair distribution function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farrow, Christopher L.; Shaw, Margaret; Kim, Hyunjeong; Juhás, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.
2011-10-01
We have systematically studied the optimal real-space sampling of atomic pair distribution (PDF) data by comparing refinement results from oversampled and resampled data. Based on nickel and a complex perovskite system, we show that not only is the optimal sampling bounded by the Nyquist interval described by the Nyquist-Shannon (NS) sampling theorem as expected, but near this sampling interval, the data points in the PDF are minimally correlated, which results in more reliable uncertainty estimates in the modeling. Surprisingly, we find that PDF refinements quickly become unstable for data on coarser grids. Although the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem is well known, it has not been applied to PDF refinements, despite the growing popularity of the PDF method and its adoption in a growing number of communities. Here, we give explicit expressions for the application of NS sampling theorem to the PDF case, and establish through modeling that it is working in practice, which lays the groundwork for this to become more widely adopted. This has implications for the speed and complexity of possible refinements that can be carried out many times faster than currently with no loss of information, and it establishes a theoretically sound limit on the amount of information contained in the PDF that will prevent over-parametrization during modeling.
High-pressure pair distribution function (PDF) measurement using high-energy focused x-ray beam
Hong, Xinguo Weidner, Donald J.; Ehm, Lars; Zhong, Zhong; Ghose, Sanjit; Duffy, Thomas S.
2016-07-27
In this paper, we report recent development of the high-pressure pair distribution function (HP-PDF) measurement technique using a focused high-energy X-ray beam coupled with a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The focusing optics consist of a sagittally bent Laue monochromator and Kirkpatrick-Baez (K–B) mirrors. This combination provides a clean high-energy X-ray beam suitable for HP-PDF research. Demonstration of the HP-PDF technique for nanocrystalline platinum under quasi-hydrostatic condition above 30 GPa is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saveliev, V. L.
2011-05-01
Pair collisions is the main interaction process in the Boltzmann gas dynamics. By making use of exactly the same physical assumptions as was used by Ludwig Boltzmann we write the kinetic equation for two-particle distribution function of molecules in the gas mixtures. Instead of the collision integral, there are the linear scattering operator and the chaos projector in the right part of this equation. Because the scattering operator is more simple then Boltzmann collision integral this equation opens new opportunities for mathematical description of the Boltzmann gas dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Il-Kyoung
In semiconductor alloys such as In1-xGaxAs, the energy band gap as well as the lattice parameter can be engineered by changing the concentration, x. Due to these properties, semiconductor alloys have found wide applications in optoelectronic devices. In these alloys, local structure information is of fundamental importance in understanding the physical properties such as band structure. Using the high real-space resolution atomic Pair Distribution Function, we obtained more complete structural information such as bond length, bond length distributions, and far-neighbor distances and distributions. From such experimental information and the Kirkwood model we studied both local static displacements and correlations in the displacements of atoms. The 3-dimensional As and (In,Ga) atom iso-probability surfaces were obtained from the supercell relaxed using the Kirkwood potential. This shows that the As atom displacements are very directional and can be represented as a combination of <100> and <111> displacements. On the contrary, the (In,Ga) atom displacements are more or less isotropic. In addition, the single crystal diffuse scattering calculation of the relaxed supercell shows that the atomic displacements are correlated over longer range along [110] directions although the displacements of As atoms are along <100> and <111> directions. Besides the local static displacements, we studied correlations in thermal atomic motions of atom pairs from the PDF peak width changes as a function of atom pair distance. In the PDF the near-neighbor peaks are sharper than those of far-neighbors due to the correlation in near-neighbor thermal motions. We also determined bond stretching and bond bending force constants of semiconductor compounds by fitting the nearest neighbor and far-neighbor peak widths to the lattice dynamic calculations using the Kirkwood model.
Olds, Daniel; Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Page, Katharine L.
2015-09-04
In this work we discuss the potential problems and currently available solutions in modeling powder-diffraction based pair-distribution function (PDF) data from systems where morphological feature information content includes distances in the nanometer length scale, such as finite nanoparticles, nanoporous networks, and nanoscale precipitates in bulk materials. The implications of an experimental finite minimum Q-value are addressed by simulation, which also demonstrates the advantages of combining PDF data with small angle scattering data (SAS). In addition, we introduce a simple Fortran90 code, DShaper, which may be incorporated into PDF data fitting routines in order to approximate the so-called shape-function for any atomistic model.
Olds, Daniel; Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Page, Katharine L.
2015-09-04
In this work we discuss the potential problems and currently available solutions in modeling powder-diffraction based pair-distribution function (PDF) data from systems where morphological feature information content includes distances in the nanometer length scale, such as finite nanoparticles, nanoporous networks, and nanoscale precipitates in bulk materials. The implications of an experimental finite minimum Q-value are addressed by simulation, which also demonstrates the advantages of combining PDF data with small angle scattering data (SAS). In addition, we introduce a simple Fortran90 code, DShaper, which may be incorporated into PDF data fitting routines in order to approximate the so-called shape-function for anymore » atomistic model.« less
Wesolowski, David J.; Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Page, Katharine L.; ...
2015-12-08
MXenes are a recently discovered family of two-dimensional (2D) early transition metal carbides and carbonitrides, which have already shown many attractive properties and great promise in energy storage and many other applications. But, a complex surface chemistry and small coherence length have been obstacles in some applications of MXenes, also limiting the accuracy of predictions of their properties. In this study, we describe and benchmark a novel way of modeling layered materials with real interfaces (diverse surface functional groups and stacking order between the adjacent monolayers) against experimental data. The structures of three kinds of Ti3C2Tx MXenes (T stands formore » surface terminating species, including O, OH, and F) produced under different synthesis conditions were resolved for the first time using atomic pair distribution function obtained by high-quality neutron total scattering. We present the true nature of the material can be easily captured with the sensitivity of neutron scattering to the surface species of interest and the detailed “third-generation” structure model. The modeling approach leads to new understanding of MXene structural properties and can replace the currently used idealized models in predictions of a variety of physical, chemical, and functional properties of Ti3C2-based MXenes. Moreover, the developed models can be employed to guide the design of new MXene materials with selected surface termination and controlled contact angle, catalytic, optical, electrochemical, and other properties. Finally, we suggest that the multilevel structural modeling should form the basis for a generalized methodology on modeling diffraction and pair distribution function data for 2D and layered materials.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Araujo, Gabriel L. B.; Benmore, Chris J.; Byrn, Stephen R.
2017-04-01
For many years, the idea of analyzing atom-atom contacts in amorphous drug-polymer systems has been of major interest, because this method has always had the potential to differentiate between amorphous systems with domains and amorphous systems which are molecular mixtures. In this study, local structure of ionic and noninonic interactions were studied by High-Energy X-ray Diffraction and Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis in amorphous solid dispersions of lapatinib in hypromellose phthalate (HPMCP) and hypromellose (HPMC-E3). The strategy of extracting lapatinib intermolecular drug interactions from the total PDF x-ray pattern was successfully applied allowing the detection of distinct nearest neighbor contacts for the HPMC-E3 rich preparations showing that lapatinib molecules do not cluster in the same way as observed in HPMC-P, where ionic interactions are present. Orientational correlations up to nearest neighbor molecules at about 4.3 Å were observed for polymer rich samples; both observations showed strong correlation to the stability of the systems. Finally, the superior physical stability of 1:3 LP:HPMCP was consistent with the absence of significant intermolecular interactions in (∆) in the range of 3.0 to 6.0 Å, which are attributed to C-C, C-N and C-O nearest neighbor contacts present in drug-drug interactions.
de Araujo, Gabriel L. B.; Benmore, Chris J.; Byrn, Stephen R.
2017-04-11
For many years, the idea of analyzing atom-atom contacts in amorphous drug-polymer systems has been of major interest, because this method has always had the potential to differentiate between amorphous systems with domains and amorphous systems which are molecular mixtures. In this study, local structure of ionic and noninonic interactions were studied by High-Energy X-ray Diffraction and Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis in amorphous solid dispersions of lapatinib in hypromellose phthalate (HPMCP) and hypromellose (HPMC-E3). The strategy of extracting lapatinib intermolecular drug interactions from the total PDF x-ray pattern was successfully applied allowing the detection of distinct nearest neighbor contactsmore » for the HPMC-E3 rich preparations showing that lapatinib molecules do not cluster in the same way as observed in HPMC-P, where ionic interactions are present. Orientational correlations up to nearest neighbor molecules at about 4.3 Å were observed for polymer rich samples; both observations showed strong correlation to the stability of the systems. Lasty, the superior physical stability of 1:3 LP:HPMCP was consistent with the absence of significant intermolecular interactions in (ΔDinterLP(r)) in the range of 3.0 to 6.0 Å, which are attributed to C-C, C-N and C-O nearest neighbor contacts present in drug-drug interactions.« less
Reeder, Richard J; Michel, F Marc
2013-01-01
Total X-ray scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, using a high-energy synchrotron source, allow direct study of the short- and intermediate-range structure that distinguish amorphous, structurally disordered, and nanocrystalline biominerals. For such samples in which diffuse scatter is a significant component, care must be taken in the experimental procedures to optimize data quality and extract the useful signal necessary to calculate the PDF. General methods are described for data collection and processing, including commonly used software programs. Methods for analysis and interpretation of PDFs are presented, including direct real-space refinement and reverse Monte Carlo methods. Greater application of PDFs to amorphous and poorly crystallized biominerals will provide new insight into structure, especially over length scales that are not probed by other techniques. The rapid data collection available at synchrotron facilities also allows in situ kinetic studies of reactions involving biominerals. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shi, Chenyang; Teerakapibal, Rattavut; Yu, Lian; ...
2017-07-10
Using high-brilliance high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation, for the first time the total scattering of a thin organic glass film deposited on a strongly scattering inorganic substrate has been measured in transmission mode. The organic thin film was composed of the weakly scattering pharmaceutical substance indomethacin in the amorphous state. The film was 130 µm thick atop a borosilicate glass substrate of equal thickness. The atomic pair distribution function derived from the thin-film measurement is in excellent agreement with that from bulk measurements. This ability to measure the total scattering of amorphous organic thin films in transmission will enable accurate inmore » situ structural studies for a wide range of materials.« less
Zhu, Mengqiang; Farrow, Christopher L.; Post, Jeffrey E.; Livi, Kenneth J.T.; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Sparks, Donald L.
2012-03-15
Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive natural minerals and play an important role in elemental cycling in oceanic and terrestrial environments. A large portion of naturally-occurring Mn oxides tend to be poorly-crystalline and/or nanocrystalline, with not fully resolved crystal structures. In this study, the crystal structures of their synthetic analogs including acid birnessite (AcidBir), {delta}-MnO{sub 2}, polymeric MnO{sub 2} (PolyMnO{sub 2}) and a bacteriogenic Mn oxide (BioMnO{sub x}), have been revealed using atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Results unambiguously verify that these Mn oxides are layered materials. The best models that accurately allow simulation of pair distribution functions (PDFs) belong to the monoclinic C12/m1 space group with a disk-like shape. The single MnO{sub 6} layers in the average structures deviate significantly from hexagonal symmetry, in contrast to the results of previous studies based on X-ray diffraction analysis in reciprocal space. Manganese occupancies in MnO{sub 6} layers are estimated to be 0.936, 0.847, 0.930 and 0.935, for AcidBir, BioMnOx, {delta}-MnO{sub 2} and PolyMnO{sub 2}, respectively; however, occupancies of interlayer cations and water molecules cannot be accurately determined using the models in this study. The coherent scattering domains (CSDs) of PolyMnO{sub 2}, {delta}-MnO{sub 2} and BioMnO{sub x} are at the nanometer scale, comprising one to three MnO{sub 6} layers stacked with a high disorder in the crystallographic c-axis direction. Overall, the results of this study advance our understanding of the mineralogy of Mn oxide minerals in the environment.
Billinge S. J.; Zhu, M.; Farrow, C.L.; Post, J.E.; Livi, K.J.T.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Sparks, D.L.
2012-03-15
Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive natural minerals and play an important role in elemental cycling in oceanic and terrestrial environments. A large portion of naturally-occurring Mn oxides tend to be poorly-crystalline and/or nanocrystalline, with not fully resolved crystal structures. In this study, the crystal structures of their synthetic analogs including acid birnessite (AcidBir), {delta}-MnO{sub 2}, polymeric MnO{sub 2} (PolyMnO{sub 2}) and a bacteriogenic Mn oxide (BioMnO{sub x}), have been revealed using atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Results unambiguously verify that these Mn oxides are layered materials. The best models that accurately allow simulation of pair distribution functions (PDFs) belong to the monoclinic C12/m1 space group with a disk-like shape. The single MnO{sub 6} layers in the average structures deviate significantly from hexagonal symmetry, in contrast to the results of previous studies based on X-ray diffraction analysis in reciprocal space. Manganese occupancies in MnO{sub 6} layers are estimated to be 0.936, 0.847, 0.930 and 0.935, for AcidBir, BioMnO{sub x}, {delta}-MnO{sub 2} and PolyMnO{sub 2}, respectively; however, occupancies of interlayer cations and water molecules cannot be accurately determined using the models in this study. The coherent scattering domains (CSDs) of PolyMnO{sub 2}, {delta}-MnO{sub 2} and BioMnO{sub x} are at the nanometer scale, comprising one to three MnO{sub 6} layers stacked with a high disorder in the crystallographic c-axis direction. Overall, the results of this study advance our understanding of the mineralogy of Mn oxide minerals in the environment.
Local structure in BaTi1-xZrxO3 relaxors from neutron pair distribution function analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laulhé, C.; Hippert, F.; Bellissent, R.; Simon, A.; Cuello, G. J.
2009-02-01
The pair distribution functions (PDF) of BaTi1-xZrxO3 (BTZ) relaxors (x=0.25,0.32,0.35) , as well as those of the end members BaTiO3 and BaZrO3 , were determined at 300 K from neutron powder scattering data. In the relaxors, the PDF provides direct evidence that the Ti and Zr atoms do not occupy the equivalent octahedral sites expected from the crystallographic cubic perovskite structure. It is shown that the TiO6 and ZrO6 octahedra in BTZ relaxors are instead similar to those observed in BaTiO3 and BaZrO3 , respectively. In BaZrO3 , the Zr atoms lie at the center of regular oxygen octahedra, forming nonpolar ZrO6 units. In the tetragonal ferroelectric phase of BaTiO3 , the distribution of Ti-O distances within TiO6 octahedra is found compatible with a displacement of the Ti atoms in the [111]p direction of the pseudocubic perovskite cell. We conclude that the local polarization in BTZ relaxors is mainly due to the displacements of the Ti atoms and that moreover the Ti displacements are very similar in BTZ relaxors and in the classical ferroelectric BaTiO3 .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frandsen, Benjamin A.; Brunelli, Michela; Page, Katharine; Uemura, Yasutomo J.; Staunton, Julie B.; Billinge, Simon J. L.
2016-05-01
We present a temperature-dependent atomic and magnetic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron total scattering measurements of antiferromagnetic MnO, an archetypal strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. The known antiferromagnetic ground-state structure fits the low-temperature data closely with refined parameters that agree with conventional techniques, confirming the reliability of the newly developed magnetic PDF method. The measurements performed in the paramagnetic phase reveal significant short-range magnetic correlations on a ˜1 nm length scale that differ substantially from the low-temperature long-range spin arrangement. Ab initio calculations using a self-interaction-corrected local spin density approximation of density functional theory predict magnetic interactions dominated by Anderson superexchange and reproduce the measured short-range magnetic correlations to a high degree of accuracy. Further calculations simulating an additional contribution from a direct exchange interaction show much worse agreement with the data. The Anderson superexchange model for MnO is thus verified by experimentation and confirmed by ab initio theory.
Benjamin A. Frandsen; Brunelli, Michela; Page, Katharine; ...
2016-05-11
Here, we present a temperature-dependent atomic and magnetic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron total scattering measurements of antiferromagnetic MnO, an archetypal strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. The known antiferromagnetic ground-state structure fits the low-temperature data closely with refined parameters that agree with conventional techniques, confirming the reliability of the newly developed magnetic PDF method. The measurements performed in the paramagnetic phase reveal significant short-range magnetic correlations on a ~1 nm length scale that differ substantially from the low-temperature long-range spin arrangement. Ab initio calculations using a self-interaction-corrected local spin density approximation of density functional theory predict magnetic interactions dominatedmore » by Anderson superexchange and reproduce the measured short-range magnetic correlations to a high degree of accuracy. Further calculations simulating an additional contribution from a direct exchange interaction show much worse agreement with the data. Furthermore, the Anderson superexchange model for MnO is thus verified by experimentation and confirmed by ab initio theory.« less
Dambournet, D.; Chapman, K. W.; Koudriachova, M. V.; Chupas, P. J.; Belharouak, I.; Amine, K.
2011-07-04
X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) methods and first-principles calculations have been combined to probe the structure of electrochemically lithiated TiO{sub 2} Brookite. Traditional powder diffraction studies suggest that Brookite amorphizes upon lithium insertion, with the Bragg reflections disappearing. However, PDF analysis indicates that the TiO{sub 2} framework connectivity is maintained throughout lithium intercalation, with expansions along the a and b axes. The Li{sup +} ions within the framework are poorly observed in the X-ray PDF, which is dominated by contributions from the more strongly scattering Ti and O atoms. First-principles calculations were used to identify energetically favorable Li{sup +} sites within the Brookite lattice and to develop a complete structural model of the lithiated material. This model replicates the local structure and decreased intermediate range order observed in the PDF data. The analysis suggests that local structural distortions of the TiO{sub 2} lattice accommodate lithium in five-coordinate sites. This structural model is consistent with the observed electrochemical behavior.
Cho, Hyung Min; Chu, Jhih-Wei
2009-10-07
We develop a new method to invert the target profiles of radial distribution functions (RDFs) to the pair forces between particles. The target profiles of RDFs can be obtained from all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations or experiments and the inverted pair forces can be used in molecular simulations at a coarse-grained (CG) scale. Our method is based on a variational principle that determines the mean forces between CG sites after integrating out the unwanted degrees of freedom. The solution of this variational principle has been shown to correspond to the Yvon-Born-Green (YBG) equation [Noid et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 4116 (2007)]. To invert RDFs, we solve the YBG equation iteratively by running a CG MD simulation at each step of iteration. A novelty of the iterative-YBG method is that during iteration, CG forces are updated according to the YBG equation without imposing any approximation as is required by other methods. As a result, only three to ten iterations are required to achieve convergence for all cases tested in this work. Furthermore, we show that not only are the target RDFs reproduced by the iterative solution; the profiles of the three-body correlation function in the YBG equation computed from all-atom and CG simulations also have a better agreement. The iterative-YBG method is applied to compute the CG forces of four molecular liquids to illustrate its efficiency and robustness: water, ethane, ethanol, and a water/methanol mixture. Using the resulting CG forces, all of the target RDFs observed in all-atom MD simulations are reproduced. We also show that the iterative-YBG method can be applied with a virial constraint to expand the representability of a CG force field. The iterative-YBG method thus provides a general and robust framework for computing CG forces from RDFs and could be systematically generalized to go beyond pairwise forces and to include higher-body interactions in a CG force field by applying the aforementioned variational
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zurbriggen, E.; Rohrmann, R. D.
The description of the microscopical spatial structure of a gas in equilibrium can be enriched by using the so-called space partition method. This thermo-statistical formalism makes use of a novel kind of conditional pair distribution function denoted g_{vv'}. The aim of the present work is to continue the analysis of the function g_{vv'} for gases composed of independent, randomly distributed particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziesche, P.; Pernal, K.; Tasnádi, F.
2003-09-01
Recently, new sum rules for the scattering phase shifts of the pair-density geminals (being 2-body-wave functions which parametrize the pair density together with an appropriately chosen occupancy) have been derived from the normalization of the pair density [P. Ziesche, Phys. Rev. B 67, 233102 (2003)]. Here, we present a generalization of these sum rules, which allows one in principle to calculate the momentum distribution from these geminals and their phase shifts. These contraction sum rules contain the afore mentioned (Friedel-like) normalization sum rules as special cases.
Nishi, Kengo; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro
2017-03-01
Small angle scattering (SAS) on polymer nanocomposites under elongation or shear flow is an important experimental method to investigate the reinforcement effects of the mechanical properties by fillers. However, the anisotropic scattering patterns that appear in SAS are very complicated and difficult to interpret. A representative example is a four-spot scattering pattern observed in the case of polymer materials containing silica nanoparticles, the origin of which is still in debate because of the lack of quantitative analysis. The difficulties in the interpretation of anisotropic scattering patterns mainly arise from the abstract nature of the reciprocal space. Here, we focus on the 2D pair distribution function (PDF) directly evaluated from anisotropic scattering patterns. We applied this method to elongated poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) gels containing silica nanoparticles (PDAM-NP gel), which show a four-spot scattering pattern under elongation. From 2D PDFs, we obtained detailed and concrete structural information about the elongated PDAM-NP gel, such as affine and non-affine displacements of directly attached and homogeneously dispersed silica nanoparticles, respectively. We proposed that nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the perpendicular direction are not displaced due to the collision of the adsorbed polymer layer during elongation, while those in the parallel direction are displaced in an affine way. We assumed that this suppression of the lateral compression is the origin of the four-spot pattern in this study. These results strongly indicate that our 2D PDF analysis will provide deep insight into the internal structure of polymer nanocomposites hidden in the anisotropic scattering patterns.
Morandeau, Antoine E.; White, Claire E.
2015-04-21
Calcium–silicate–hydrate (C–S–H) gel is the main binder component in hydrated ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste, and is known to play a crucial role in the carbonation of cementitious materials, especially for more sustainable alternatives containing supplementary cementitious materials. However, the exact atomic structural changes that occur during carbonation of C–S–H gel remain unknown. Here, we investigate the local atomic structural changes that occur during carbonation of a synthetic calcium–silicate–hydrate gel exposed to pure CO₂ vapour, using in situ X-ray total scattering measurements and subsequent pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. By analysing both the reciprocal and real-space scattering data as the C–S–H carbonation reaction progresses, all phases present during the reaction (crystalline and non-crystalline) have been identified and quantified, with the results revealing the emergence of several polymorphs of crystalline calcium carbonate (vaterite and calcite) in addition to the decalcified C–S–H gel. Furthermore, the results point toward residual calcium being present in the amorphous decalcified gel, potentially in the form of an amorphous calcium carbonate phase. As a result of the quantification process, the reaction kinetics for the evolution of the individual phases have been obtained, revealing new information on the rate of growth/dissolution for each phase associated with C–S–H gel carbonation. Moreover, the investigation reveals that the use of real space diffraction data in the form of PDFs enables more accurate determination of the phases that develop during complex reaction processes such as C–S–H gel carbonation in comparison to the conventional reciprocal space Rietveld analysis approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rademacher, N.; Bayarjargal, L.; Morgenroth, W.; Bauer, J. D.; Milman, V.; Winkler, B.
2015-05-01
The decomposition of SF6 in the presence of glassy carbon was induced in laser heated diamond anvil cells at 10-11 GPa and 2000-2500 K. The reaction products were characterised by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, including high pressure pair distribution function analysis, and micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with atomistic model calculations. The decomposition leads to elemental amorphous helical sulfur and crystalline CF4-III. Two different sulfur phases, namely helical Sμ and crystalline α-S8, were observed after recovering the laser heated samples of different experiments at ambient conditions.
Stratford, Joshua M.; Mayo, Martin; Allan, Phoebe K.; ...
2017-05-04
Here, the alloying mechanism of high-capacity tin anodes for sodium-ion batteries is investigated using a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) and high-throughput screening using a species-swap method provide insights into a range of possible sodium–tin structures. These structures are linked to experiments using both average and local structure probes in the form of operando pair distribution function analysis, X-ray diffraction, and 23Na solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR), along with ex situ 119Sn ssNMR. Through this approach, we propose structures for the previously unidentified crystalline and amorphous intermediates. The first electrochemical process of sodium insertionmore » into tin results in the conversion of crystalline tin into a layered structure consisting of mixed Na/Sn occupancy sites intercalated between planar hexagonal layers of Sn atoms (approximate stoichiometry NaSn3). Following this, NaSn2, which is predicted to be thermodynamically stable by AIRSS, forms; this contains hexagonal layers closely related to NaSn3, but has no tin atoms between the layers. NaSn2 is broken down into an amorphous phase of approximate composition Na1.2Sn. Reverse Monte Carlo refinements of an ab initio molecular dynamics model of this phase show that the predominant tin connectivity is chains. Further reaction with sodium results in the formation of structures containing Sn–Sn dumbbells, which interconvert through a solid-solution mechanism. These structures are based upon Na5–xSn2, with increasing occupancy of one of its sodium sites commensurate with the amount of sodium added. ssNMR results indicate that the final product, Na15Sn4, can store additional sodium atoms as an off-stoichiometry compound (Na15+xSn4) in a manner similar to Li15Si4.« less
Pair correlation function for spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Julio F.; Alonso, Juan J.
2012-10-01
We extract a pair correlation function (PCF) from probability distributions of the spin-overlap parameter q. The distributions come from Monte Carlo simulations. A measure, w, of the thermal fluctuations of magnetic patterns follows from the PCFs. We also obtain rms deviations (over different system samples) δp away from average probabilities for q. For the linear system sizes L that we have studied, w and δp are independent of L in the Edwards-Anderson model but scale as 1/L and L, respectively, in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.
Meral, Cagla; Benmore, C.J.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.
2011-07-15
Significant progress was achieved with the application of Rietveld method to characterize the crystalline phases in portland cement paste. However, to obtain detailed information on the amorphous or poorly crystalline phases, it is necessary to analyze the total scattering data. The pair distribution function (PDF) method has been successfully used in the study of liquids and amorphous solids. The method takes the Sine Fourier transform of the measured structure factor over a wide momentum transfer range, providing a direct measure of the probability of finding an atom surrounding a central atom at a radial distance away. The obtained experimental characteristic distances can be also used to validate the predictions by the theoretical models, such as, molecular dynamics, ab initio simulations and density functional theory. The paper summarizes recent results of PDF analysis on silica fume, rice husk ash, fly ash, ASR gel, C-S-H and geopolymers.
Grangeon, Sylvain; Baronnet, Alain; Marty, Nicolas; Poulain, Agnieszka; Elkaïm, Erik; Roosz, Cédric; Gaboreau, Stéphane; Henocq, Pierre; Claret, Francis
2017-01-01
The structural evolution of nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) as a function of its calcium to silicon (Ca/Si) ratio has been probed using qualitative and quantitative X-ray atomic pair distribution function analysis of synchrotron X-ray scattering data. Whatever the Ca/Si ratio, the C–S–H structure is similar to that of tobermorite. When the Ca/Si ratio increases from ∼0.6 to ∼1.2, Si wollastonite-like chains progressively depolymerize through preferential omission of Si bridging tetrahedra. When the Ca/Si ratio approaches ∼1.5, nanosheets of portlandite are detected in samples aged for 1 d, while microcrystalline portlandite is detected in samples aged for 1 year. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging shows that the tobermorite-like structure is maintained to Ca/Si > 3. PMID:28190991
Filippov, Alexander E.; Popov, Valentin L.; Gorb, Stanislav N.
2015-01-01
Microstructures responsible for temporary arresting of contacting surfaces are widely distributed on surfaces in different organisms. Recent morphological studies show that these structures have different density of outgrowths and not ideal distribution pattern on both complementary parts of the contact. One can suggest that this difference is optimized by natural selection to get stronger mechanical arrest within the system. In this paper, we simulate such a system numerically, both in the frames of continuous contact and discrete dynamical models to prove this hypothesis and elucidate other aspects of optimization of such mechanical adhesive systems. PMID:25533090
Filippov, Alexander E; Popov, Valentin L; Gorb, Stanislav N
2015-02-05
Microstructures responsible for temporary arresting of contacting surfaces are widely distributed on surfaces in different organisms. Recent morphological studies show that these structures have different density of outgrowths and not ideal distribution pattern on both complementary parts of the contact. One can suggest that this difference is optimized by natural selection to get stronger mechanical arrest within the system. In this paper, we simulate such a system numerically, both in the frames of continuous contact and discrete dynamical models to prove this hypothesis and elucidate other aspects of optimization of such mechanical adhesive systems. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.; Posch, H. A.; Codelli, J. A.
2007-03-01
We explore and compare numerical methods for the determination of multifractal dimensions for a doubly-thermostatted harmonic oscillator. The equations of motion are continuous and time-reversible. At equilibrium the distribution is a four-dimensional Gaussian, so that all the dimension calculations can be carried out analytically. Away from equilibrium the distribution is a surprisingly isotropic multifractal strange attractor, with the various fractal dimensionalities in the range 1 < D < 4. The attractor is relatively homogeneous, with projected two-dimensional information and correlation dimensions which are nearly independent of direction. Our data indicate that the Kaplan-Yorke conjecture (for the information dimension) fails in the full four-dimensional phase space. We also find no plausible extension of this conjecture to the projected fractal dimensions of the oscillator. The projected growth rate associated with the largest Lyapunov exponent is negative in the one-dimensional coordinate space.
Distributed processing; distributed functions?
Fox, Peter T.; Friston, Karl J.
2016-01-01
After more than twenty years busily mapping the human brain, what have we learned from neuroimaging? This review (coda) considers this question from the point of view of structure–function relationships and the two cornerstones of functional neuroimaging; functional segregation and integration. Despite remarkable advances and insights into the brain’s functional architecture, the earliest and simplest challenge in human brain mapping remains unresolved: We do not have a principled way to map brain function onto its structure in a way that speaks directly to cognitive neuroscience. Having said this, there are distinct clues about how this might be done: First, there is a growing appreciation of the role of functional integration in the distributed nature of neuronal processing. Second, there is an emerging interest in data-driven cognitive ontologies, i.e., that are internally consistent with functional anatomy. We will focus this review on the growing momentum in the fields of functional connectivity and distributed brain responses and consider this in the light of meta-analyses that use very large data sets to disclose large-scale structure–function mappings in the human brain. PMID:22245638
Sutter, John P. Chater, Philip A.; Hillman, Michael R.; Keeble, Dean S.; Wilhelm, Heribert; Tucker, Matt G.
2016-07-27
The I15-1 beamline, the new side station to I15 at the Diamond Light Source, will be dedicated to the collection of atomic pair distribution function data. A Laue monochromator will be used consisting of three silicon crystals diffracting X-rays at a common Bragg angle of 2.83°. The crystals use the (1 1 1), (2 2 0), and (3 1 1) planes to select 40, 65, and 76 keV X-rays, respectively, and will be bent meridionally to horizontally focus the selected X-rays onto the sample. All crystals will be cut to the same optimized asymmetry angle in order to eliminate image broadening from the crystal thickness. Finite element calculations show that the thermal distortion of the crystals will affect the image size and bandpass.
Skinner, Lawrie B; Huang, Congcong; Schlesinger, Daniel; Pettersson, Lars G M; Nilsson, Anders; Benmore, Chris J
2013-02-21
Four recent x-ray diffraction measurements of ambient liquid water are reviewed here. Each of these measurements represents a significant development of the x-ray diffraction technique applied to the study of liquid water. Sources of uncertainty from statistical noise, Q-range, Compton scattering, and self-scattering are discussed. The oxygen-hydrogen contribution to the measured x-ray scattering pattern was subtracted using literature data to yield an experimental determination, with error bars, of the oxygen-oxygen pair-distribution function, g(OO)(r), which essentially describes the distribution of molecular centers. The extended Q-range and low statistical noise of these measurements has significantly reduced truncation effects and related errors in the g(OO)(r) functions obtained. From these measurements and error analysis, the position and height of the nearest neighbor maximum in g(OO)(r) were found to be 2.80(1) Å and 2.57(5) respectively. Numerical data for the coherent differential x-ray scattering cross-section I(X)(Q), the oxygen-oxygen structure factor S(OO)(Q), and the derived g(OO)(r) are provided as benchmarks for calibrating force-fields for water.
Benjamin A. Frandsen; Brunelli, Michela; Page, Katharine; Uemura, Yasutomo J.; Staunton, Julie B.; Billinge, Simon J. L.
2016-05-11
Here, we present a temperature-dependent atomic and magnetic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron total scattering measurements of antiferromagnetic MnO, an archetypal strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. The known antiferromagnetic ground-state structure fits the low-temperature data closely with refined parameters that agree with conventional techniques, confirming the reliability of the newly developed magnetic PDF method. The measurements performed in the paramagnetic phase reveal significant short-range magnetic correlations on a ~1 nm length scale that differ substantially from the low-temperature long-range spin arrangement. Ab initio calculations using a self-interaction-corrected local spin density approximation of density functional theory predict magnetic interactions dominated by Anderson superexchange and reproduce the measured short-range magnetic correlations to a high degree of accuracy. Further calculations simulating an additional contribution from a direct exchange interaction show much worse agreement with the data. Furthermore, the Anderson superexchange model for MnO is thus verified by experimentation and confirmed by ab initio theory.
Benjamin A. Frandsen; Brunelli, Michela; Page, Katharine; Uemura, Yasutomo J.; Staunton, Julie B.; Billinge, Simon J. L.
2016-05-11
Here, we present a temperature-dependent atomic and magnetic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron total scattering measurements of antiferromagnetic MnO, an archetypal strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. The known antiferromagnetic ground-state structure fits the low-temperature data closely with refined parameters that agree with conventional techniques, confirming the reliability of the newly developed magnetic PDF method. The measurements performed in the paramagnetic phase reveal significant short-range magnetic correlations on a ~1 nm length scale that differ substantially from the low-temperature long-range spin arrangement. Ab initio calculations using a self-interaction-corrected local spin density approximation of density functional theory predict magnetic interactions dominated by Anderson superexchange and reproduce the measured short-range magnetic correlations to a high degree of accuracy. Further calculations simulating an additional contribution from a direct exchange interaction show much worse agreement with the data. Furthermore, the Anderson superexchange model for MnO is thus verified by experimentation and confirmed by ab initio theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Achilles, C. N.; Bish, D. L.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.
2015-01-01
Soils on Mars have been analyzed by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and most recently by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Chemical analyses from a majority of soil samples suggest that there is a relatively uniform global soil composition across much of the planet. A soil site, Rocknest, was sampled by the MSL science payload including the CheMin X-ray diffractometer and the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). Che- Min X-ray diffraction (XRD) data revealed crystalline phases and a broad, elevated background, indicating the presence of amorphous or poorly ordered materials (Fig 1). Based on the chemical composition of the bulk soil measured by APXS and the composition of crystalline phases derived from unit-cell parameters determined with CheMin data, the percentages of crystalline and amorphous phases were calculated at 51% and 49%, respectively. Attempts to model the amorphous contribution to CheMin XRD patterns were made using amorphous standards and full-pattern fitting methods and show that the broad, elevated background region can be fitted by basaltic glass, allophane, and palagonite. However, the modeling shows only that these phases have scattering patterns similar to that for the soil, not that they represent unique solutions. Here, we use pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to determine the short-range order of amorphous analogs in martian soils and better constrain the amorphous material detected by CheMin.
Shiotani, Shinya; Ohara, Koji; Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Mori, Shigeo; Kanno, Ryoji
2017-08-01
In general, the ionic conductivity of sulfide glasses decreases with their crystallization, although it increases for a few sulphide glasses owing to the crystallization of a highly conductive new phase (e.g., Li7P3S11: 70Li2S-30P2S5). We found that the ionic conductivity of 75Li2S-25P2S5 sulfide glass, which consists of glassy and crystalline phases, is improved by optimizing the conditions of the heat treatment, i.e., annealing. A different mechanism of high ionic conductivity from the conventional mechanism is expected in the glassy phase. Here, we report the glassy structure of 75Li2S-25P2S5 immediately before the crystallization by using the differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction. Even though the ionic conductivity increases during the optimum annealing, the d-PDF analysis indicated that the glassy structure undergoes no structural change in the sulfide glass-ceramic electrolyte at a crystallinity of 33.1%. We observed the formation of a nanocrystalline phase in the X-ray and electron diffraction patterns before the crystallization, which means that Bragg peaks were deformed. Thus, the ionic conductivity in the mixture of glassy and crystalline phases is improved by the coexistence of the nanocrystalline phase.
Allan, P. K.; Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Hriljac, J. A.; Renouf, C. L.; Lucas, T. C. A.; Morris, R. E.
2012-01-01
Flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are materials of great current interest. A small class of MOFs show flexibility driven by reversible bonding rearrangements that lead directly to unusual properties. Cu-SIP-3 is a MOF based on the 5-sulfoisophthalate ligand, where the strong copper-carboxylate bonds ensure that the three-dimensional integrity of the structure is retained while allowing bonding changes to occur at the more weakly bonding sulfonate group leading to unusual properties such as the ultra-selective adsorption of only certain gases. While the integrity of the framework remains intact during bonding changes, crystalline order is not retained at all times during the transformations. X-Ray diffraction reveals that highly crystalline single crystals lose order during the transformation before regaining crystallinity once it is complete. Here we show how X-ray pair distribution function analysis can be used to reveal the mechanism of the transformations in Cu-SIP-3, identifying the sequence of atomic displacements that occur in the disordered phase. A similar approach reveals the underlying mechanism of Cu-SIP-3's ultra-selective gas adsorption.
Hong, Xinguo; Ehm, Lars; Zhong, Zhong; Ghose, Sanjit; Duffy, Thomas S.; Weidner, Donald J.
2016-01-01
We report development of micro-focusing optics for high-energy x-rays by combining a sagittally bent Laue crystal monchromator with Kirkpatrick-Baez (K–B) X-ray focusing mirrors. The optical system is able to provide a clean, high-flux X-ray beam suitable for pair distribution function (PDF) measurements at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). A focused beam of moderate size (10–15 μm) has been achieved at energies of 66 and 81 keV. PDF data for nanocrystalline platinum (n-Pt) were collected at 12.5 GPa with a single 5 s X-ray exposure, showing that the in-situ compression, decompression, and relaxation behavior of samples in the DAC can be investigated with this technique. PDFs of n-Pt and nano Au (n-Au) under quasi-hydrostatic loading to as high as 71 GPa indicate the existence of substantial reduction of grain or domain size for Pt and Au nanoparticles at pressures below 10 GPa. The coupling of sagittally bent Laue crystals with K–B mirrors provides a useful means to focus high-energy synchrotron X-rays from a bending magnet or wiggler source. PMID:26902122
Hong, Xinguo; Ehm, Lars; Zhong, Zhong; ...
2016-02-23
We report development of micro-focusing optics for high-energy x-rays by combining a sagittally bent Laue crystal monchromator with Kirkpatrick-Baez (K–B) X-ray focusing mirrors. The optical system is able to provide a clean, high-flux X-ray beam suitable for pair distribution function (PDF) measurements at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). A focused beam of moderate size (10–15 μm) has been achieved at energies of 66 and 81keV. PDF data for nanocrystalline platinum (n-Pt) were collected at 12.5 GPa with a single 5 s X-ray exposure, showing that the in-situ compression, decompression, and relaxation behavior of samples in the DACmore » can be investigated with this technique. PDFs of n-Pt and nano Au (n-Au) under quasi-hydrostatic loading to as high as 71GPa indicate the existence of substantial reduction of grain or domain size for Pt and Au nanoparticles at pressures below 10 GPa. In conclusion, the coupling of sagittally bent Laue crystals with K–B mirrors provides a useful means to focus high-energy synchrotron X-rays from a bending magnet or wiggler source.« less
Hong, Xinguo; Ehm, Lars; Zhong, Zhong; Ghose, Sanjit; Duffy, Thomas S.; Weidner, Donald J.
2016-02-23
We report development of micro-focusing optics for high-energy x-rays by combining a sagittally bent Laue crystal monchromator with Kirkpatrick-Baez (K–B) X-ray focusing mirrors. The optical system is able to provide a clean, high-flux X-ray beam suitable for pair distribution function (PDF) measurements at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). A focused beam of moderate size (10–15 μm) has been achieved at energies of 66 and 81keV. PDF data for nanocrystalline platinum (n-Pt) were collected at 12.5 GPa with a single 5 s X-ray exposure, showing that the in-situ compression, decompression, and relaxation behavior of samples in the DAC can be investigated with this technique. PDFs of n-Pt and nano Au (n-Au) under quasi-hydrostatic loading to as high as 71GPa indicate the existence of substantial reduction of grain or domain size for Pt and Au nanoparticles at pressures below 10 GPa. In conclusion, the coupling of sagittally bent Laue crystals with K–B mirrors provides a useful means to focus high-energy synchrotron X-rays from a bending magnet or wiggler source.
Whitfield, Ross E; Goossens, Darren J; Welberry, T Richard
2016-01-01
The ability of the pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of total scattering (TS) from a powder to determine the local ordering in ferroelectric PZN (PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3) has been explored by comparison with a model established using single-crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS). While X-ray PDF analysis is discussed, the focus is on neutron diffraction results because of the greater extent of the data and the sensitivity of the neutron to oxygen atoms, the behaviour of which is important in PZN. The PDF was shown to be sensitive to many effects not apparent in the average crystal structure, including variations in the B-site-O separation distances and the fact that 〈110〉 Pb(2+) displacements are most likely. A qualitative comparison between SCDS and the PDF shows that some features apparent in SCDS were not apparent in the PDF. These tended to pertain to short-range correlations in the structure, rather than to interatomic separations. For example, in SCDS the short-range alternation of the B-site cations was quite apparent in diffuse scattering at (½ ½ ½), whereas it was not apparent in the PDF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Xinguo; Ehm, Lars; Zhong, Zhong; Ghose, Sanjit; Duffy, Thomas S.; Weidner, Donald J.
2016-02-01
We report development of micro-focusing optics for high-energy x-rays by combining a sagittally bent Laue crystal monchromator with Kirkpatrick-Baez (K–B) X-ray focusing mirrors. The optical system is able to provide a clean, high-flux X-ray beam suitable for pair distribution function (PDF) measurements at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). A focused beam of moderate size (10–15 μm) has been achieved at energies of 66 and 81 keV. PDF data for nanocrystalline platinum (n-Pt) were collected at 12.5 GPa with a single 5 s X-ray exposure, showing that the in-situ compression, decompression, and relaxation behavior of samples in the DAC can be investigated with this technique. PDFs of n-Pt and nano Au (n-Au) under quasi-hydrostatic loading to as high as 71 GPa indicate the existence of substantial reduction of grain or domain size for Pt and Au nanoparticles at pressures below 10 GPa. The coupling of sagittally bent Laue crystals with K–B mirrors provides a useful means to focus high-energy synchrotron X-rays from a bending magnet or wiggler source.
Chen, Shuang; Sheikh, Ahmad Y; Ho, Raimundo
2014-12-01
Pharmaceutical unit operations such as milling and compaction can often generate disordered regions in crystals of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This may lead to changes in a number of important pharmaceutical properties including dissolution, stability, hygroscopicity, and so on. It is therefore important for pharmaceutical industry to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical processing on API structural orders, and to investigate and develop analytical tools that are capable of accurately detecting and assessing subtle process-induced structural disorders in pharmaceutical crystals. In this study, nanoindentation was first used to determine the intrinsic mechanical properties including hardness and Young's modulus of two API crystals, compounds 1 and 2. These crystals of different mechanical properties were then milled and compacted under various conditions. The resulting structural disorders in these crystals were subsequently evaluated using synchrotron-based high-resolution total scattering pair distribution function (TS-PDF) analysis. Furthermore, principal component analysis was applied to the PDF data to assess the relative extents of disorders in the API crystals, which showed a good correlation with the process conditions. The study demonstrates that high-resolution TS-PDF analysis coupled with nanoindentation measurement is a valuable and effective tool for detecting and assessing process-induced subtle structural disorders in API crystals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.
Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Lee, P. L.; X-Ray Science Division
2007-01-01
The application of a large-area (41 x 41 cm, 2048 x 2048 or 1024 x 1024 pixel) high-sensitivity (detective quantum efficiency > 65%) fast-readout (up to 7.5 or 30 Hz) flat-panel detector based on an amorphous silicon array system to the collection of high-energy X-ray scattering data for quantitative pair distribution function (PDF) analysis is evaluated and discussed. Data were collected over a range of exposure times (0.13 s-7 min) for benchmark PDF samples: crystalline nickel metal and amorphous silica (SiO2). The high real-space resolution of the resultant PDFs (with Q{sub max} up to {approx} 40 Angstroms{sup -1})and the high quality of fits to data [RNi(0.13s) = 10.5%, RNi(1.3s) = 6.3%] obtained in short measurement times indicate that this detector is well suited to studies of materials disorder. Further applications of the detector to locate weakly scattering H2 molecules within the porous Prussian blue system, Mn{sup II}{sub 3}[CoIII(CN)6]2 x xH2, and to follow the in situ reduction of PtIVO2 to Pt0 at 30 Hz, confirm the high sensitivity of the detector and demonstrate a new potential for fast time-resolved studies.
Jensen, K. M.Ø.; Blichfeld, A. B.; Bauers, S. R.; ...
2015-07-05
By means of normal incidence, high flux and high energy x-rays, we have obtained total scattering data for Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. We illustrate the ‘tfPDF’ method through studies of as depositedmore » (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows predicting whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films.« less
Kwon, Gihan; Kokhan, Oleksandr; Han, Ali; ...
2015-12-01
Amorphous thin film oxygen evolving catalysts, OECs, of first-row transition metals show promise to serve as self-assembling photoanode materials in solar-driven, photoelectrochemical `artificial leaf' devices. This report demonstrates the ability to use high-energy X-ray scattering and atomic pair distribution function analysis, PDF, to resolve structure in amorphous metal oxide catalyst films. The analysis is applied here to resolve domain structure differences induced by oxyanion substitution during the electrochemical assembly of amorphous cobalt oxide catalyst films, Co-OEC. PDF patterns for Co-OEC films formed using phosphate, Pi, methylphosphate, MPi, and borate, Bi, electrolyte buffers show that the resulting domains vary in sizemore » following the sequence Pi < MPi < Bi. The increases in domain size for CoMPi and CoBi were found to be correlated with increases in the contributions from bilayer and trilayer stacked domains having structures intermediate between those of the LiCoOO and CoO(OH) mineral forms. The lattice structures and offset stacking of adjacent layers in the partially stacked CoMPi and CoBi domains were best matched to those in the LiCoOO layered structure. The results demonstrate the ability of PDF analysis to elucidate features of domain size, structure, defect content and mesoscale organization for amorphous metal oxide catalysts that are not readily accessed by other X-ray techniques. Finally, PDF structure analysis is shown to provide a way to characterize domain structures in different forms of amorphous oxide catalysts, and hence provide an opportunity to investigate correlations between domain structure and catalytic activity.« less
Jensen, K. M.Ø.; Blichfeld, A. B.; Bauers, S. R.; Wood, S. R.; Dooryhee, E.; Johnson, D. C.; Iversen, B. B.; Billinge, S.
2015-07-05
By means of normal incidence, high flux and high energy x-rays, we have obtained total scattering data for Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. We illustrate the ‘tfPDF’ method through studies of as deposited (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb_{3} films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb_{3} phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb_{3} structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb_{6} octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb_{3}. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows predicting whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb_{3} phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films.
Kwon, Gihan; Kokhan, Oleksandr; Han, Ali; Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.; Du, Pingwu; Tiede, David M.
2015-12-01
Amorphous thin film oxygen evolving catalysts, OECs, of first-row transition metals show promise to serve as self-assembling photoanode materials in solar-driven, photoelectrochemical `artificial leaf' devices. This report demonstrates the ability to use high-energy X-ray scattering and atomic pair distribution function analysis, PDF, to resolve structure in amorphous metal oxide catalyst films. The analysis is applied here to resolve domain structure differences induced by oxyanion substitution during the electrochemical assembly of amorphous cobalt oxide catalyst films, Co-OEC. PDF patterns for Co-OEC films formed using phosphate, Pi, methylphosphate, MPi, and borate, Bi, electrolyte buffers show that the resulting domains vary in size following the sequence Pi < MPi < Bi. The increases in domain size for CoMPi and CoBi were found to be correlated with increases in the contributions from bilayer and trilayer stacked domains having structures intermediate between those of the LiCoOO and CoO(OH) mineral forms. The lattice structures and offset stacking of adjacent layers in the partially stacked CoMPi and CoBi domains were best matched to those in the LiCoOO layered structure. The results demonstrate the ability of PDF analysis to elucidate features of domain size, structure, defect content and mesoscale organization for amorphous metal oxide catalysts that are not readily accessed by other X-ray techniques. Finally, PDF structure analysis is shown to provide a way to characterize domain structures in different forms of amorphous oxide catalysts, and hence provide an opportunity to investigate correlations between domain structure and catalytic activity.
Jensen, Kirsten M Ø; Blichfeld, Anders B; Bauers, Sage R; Wood, Suzannah R; Dooryhée, Eric; Johnson, David C; Iversen, Bo B; Billinge, Simon J L
2015-09-01
By means of normal-incidence, high-flux and high-energy X-rays, total scattering data for pair distribution function (PDF) analysis have been obtained from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. The 'tfPDF' method is illustrated through studies of as-deposited (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows the prediction of whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films.
Allan, Phoebe K; Griffin, John M; Darwiche, Ali; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Wiaderek, Kamila M; Chapman, Karena W; Morris, Andrew J; Chupas, Peter J; Monconduit, Laure; Grey, Clare P
2016-02-24
Operando pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and ex situ (23)Na magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS ssNMR) spectroscopy are used to gain insight into the alloying mechanism of high-capacity antimony anodes for sodium-ion batteries. Subtraction of the PDF of crystalline NaxSb phases from the total PDF, an approach constrained by chemical phase information gained from (23)Na ssNMR in reference to relevant model compounds, identifies two previously uncharacterized intermediate species formed electrochemically; a-Na(3-x)Sb (x ≈ 0.4-0.5), a structure locally similar to crystalline Na3Sb (c-Na3Sb) but with significant numbers of sodium vacancies and a limited correlation length, and a-Na(1.7)Sb, a highly amorphous structure featuring some Sb-Sb bonding. The first sodiation breaks down the crystalline antimony to form first a-Na(3-x)Sb and, finally, crystalline Na3Sb. Desodiation results in the formation of an electrode formed of a composite of crystalline and amorphous antimony networks. We link the different reactivity of these networks to a series of sequential sodiation reactions manifesting as a cascade of processes observed in the electrochemical profile of subsequent cycles. The amorphous network reacts at higher voltages reforming a-Na(1.7)Sb, then a-Na(3-x)Sb, whereas lower potentials are required for the sodiation of crystalline antimony, which reacts to form a-Na(3-x)Sb without the formation of a-Na(1.7)Sb. a-Na(3-x)Sb is converted to crystalline Na3Sb at the end of the second discharge. We find no evidence of formation of NaSb. Variable temperature (23)Na NMR experiments reveal significant sodium mobility within c-Na3Sb; this is a possible contributing factor to the excellent rate performance of Sb anodes.
Jensen, Kirsten M. Ø.; Blichfeld, Anders B.; Bauers, Sage R.; Wood, Suzannah R.; Dooryhée, Eric; Johnson, David C.; Iversen, Bo B.; Billinge, Simon J. L.
2015-01-01
By means of normal-incidence, high-flux and high-energy X-rays, total scattering data for pair distribution function (PDF) analysis have been obtained from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. The ‘tfPDF’ method is illustrated through studies of as-deposited (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows the prediction of whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films. PMID:26306190
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Mai Thi; Thuy Duong, Tran; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Van Hong, Nguyen
2017-06-01
The structural organization of CaSiO3 glass at 600 K and under pressure of 0-100 GPa is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). Results show that the atomic structure of CaSiO3 comprises SiO n and CaO m units considered as basic structural polyhedra. At low pressure, most of the basic structural polyhedra are SiO4, CaO5, CaO6 and CaO7. At high pressure most of the basic structural polyhedra are SiO5, SiO6 and CaO9, CaO10 and CaO11. The distribution of basic structural polyhedra is not uniform resulting in formation of Ca-rich and Si-rich regions. The distribution of SiO4, SiO5 and SiO6 polyhedra is also not uniform, but it tends to form SiO4-, SiO5-, and SiO6-clusters. For the Si-O network, under compression there is a gradual transition from the tetrahedral network (SiO4) to the octahedral network (SiO6) via SiO5 polyhedra. The SiO5-clusters are the same as immediate-phase in the transformation process. The size and shape of SiO4 tetrahedra change strongly under compression. While the size of SiO5 and SiO6 has also changed significantly, but the shape is almost unchanged under compression. The SiO n polyhedra can connect to each other via one common oxygen ion (corner-sharing bond), two common oxygen ions (edge-sharing bond) or three common oxygen ions (face-sharing bond). The Si-Si bond length in corner-sharing bonds is much longer than the ones in edge-sharing and face-sharing bonds. The change of intermediate range order (IRO) structure under compression relating to edge- and face-sharing bonds amongst SiO n at high pressure is the origin of the first peak splitting of the radial distribution functions of Si-Si pair. Under compression, the number of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) decreases. This makes the Si-O network more polymerized. At low pressure, most of the Ca2+ ions incorporate into the Si-O network via NBOs. At high pressure, the amount of NBO decreases, Ca2+ ions mainly incorporate into the Si-O network via bridging oxygen (BO) that
Allan, Phoebe K.; Griffin, John M.; Darwiche, Ali; Borkiewicz, Olaf J.; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Morris, Andrew J.; Chupas, Peter J.; Monconduit, Laure; Grey, Clare P.; Chapman, Karena W.
2016-02-24
Operando pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and ex situ Na-23 magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS ssNMR) spectroscopy are used to gain insight into the alloying mechanism of high-capacity antimony anodes for sodium-ion batteries. Subtraction of the PDF of crystalline NaxSb phases from the total PDF, an approach constrained by chemical phase information gained from Na-23 ssNMR in reference to relevant model compounds, identifies two previously uncharacterized intermediate species formed electro-chemically; a-Na3-xSb (x approximate to 0.4-0.5), a structure locally similar to crystalline Na3Sb (c-Na3Sb) but with significant numbers of sodium vacancies and a limited correlation length, and a-Na1.7Sb, a highly amorphous structure featuring some Sb-Sb bonding. The first sodiation breaks down the crystalline antimony to form first a-Na3-xSb and, finally, crystalline Na3Sb. Desodiation results in the formation of an electrode formed of a composite of crystalline and amorphous antimony networks. We link the different reactivity of these networks to a series of sequential sodiation reactions manifesting as a cascade of processes observed in the electrochemical profile of subsequent cycles. The amorphofis network reacts at higher voltages reforming a-Na1.7Sb, then a-Na3-xSb, whereas lower potentials are required for the sodiation of crystalline antimony, which reacts to form a-Na3-xSb without the formation of a-Na3-xSb. a-Na3-xSb is converted to crystalline Na3Sb at the end of the second discharge. We find no evidence of formation of NaSb. Variable temperature Na-23 NMR experiments reveal significant sodium mobility within c-Na3Sb; this is a possible contributing factor to the excellent rate performance of Sb anodes.
2016-01-01
Operando pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and ex situ 23Na magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS ssNMR) spectroscopy are used to gain insight into the alloying mechanism of high-capacity antimony anodes for sodium-ion batteries. Subtraction of the PDF of crystalline NaxSb phases from the total PDF, an approach constrained by chemical phase information gained from 23Na ssNMR in reference to relevant model compounds, identifies two previously uncharacterized intermediate species formed electrochemically; a-Na3–xSb (x ≈ 0.4–0.5), a structure locally similar to crystalline Na3Sb (c-Na3Sb) but with significant numbers of sodium vacancies and a limited correlation length, and a-Na1.7Sb, a highly amorphous structure featuring some Sb–Sb bonding. The first sodiation breaks down the crystalline antimony to form first a-Na3–xSb and, finally, crystalline Na3Sb. Desodiation results in the formation of an electrode formed of a composite of crystalline and amorphous antimony networks. We link the different reactivity of these networks to a series of sequential sodiation reactions manifesting as a cascade of processes observed in the electrochemical profile of subsequent cycles. The amorphous network reacts at higher voltages reforming a-Na1.7Sb, then a-Na3–xSb, whereas lower potentials are required for the sodiation of crystalline antimony, which reacts to form a-Na3–xSb without the formation of a-Na1.7Sb. a-Na3–xSb is converted to crystalline Na3Sb at the end of the second discharge. We find no evidence of formation of NaSb. Variable temperature 23Na NMR experiments reveal significant sodium mobility within c-Na3Sb; this is a possible contributing factor to the excellent rate performance of Sb anodes. PMID:26824406
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Timur D.
2011-12-01
In the development of new medicinal products, poor oral bioavailability, due to the low solubilities of many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), is increasingly a barrier for treatments to be administered using tablet or capsule formulations and one of the main challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry. Non-crystalline phases such as the amorphous and nanostructured states can confer increased solubility to a drug, and therefore, have recently garnered a lot of interest from pharmaceutical researchers. However, little is known about local ordering in non-crystalline pharmaceuticals due to the lack of reliable experimental probes, hindering the clinical application of these compounds. The powerful tools of crystallography begin to lose their potency for structures on the nanoscale; conventional X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) patterns become broad and featureless in these cases and are not useful for differentiating between different local molecular packing arrangements. In this thesis, we introduce the use of high energy X-rays coupled with total scattering pair distribution function (TSPDF) and fingerprinting analysis to investigate the local structures of non-crystalline pharmaceutical compounds. The high energy X-rays allow us to experimentally collect diffuse scattering intensities, which contain information about a sample's local ordering, in addition to the Bragg scattering available in conventional XRPD experiments, while the TSPDF allows us to view the intra- and inter-molecular correlations in real space. The goal of this study was to address some fundamental problems involving fingerprinting non-crystalline APIs using TSPDF in order to lay the groundwork for the proper use of the technique by the pharmaceutical community. We achieved this by developing the methodology as well as the exploring the scientific implications. On the methodology side, we introduced PDFGetX3, a new software program for calculating TSPDFs that simplifies the procedure
Allan, Phoebe K.; Griffin, John M.; Darwiche, Ali; ...
2016-01-29
We use operando pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and ex situ 23Na magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS ssNMR) spectroscopy to gain insight into the alloying mechanism of high-capacity antimony anodes for sodium-ion batteries. Subtraction of the PDF of crystalline NaxSb phases from the total PDF, an approach constrained by chemical phase information gained from 23Na ssNMR in reference to relevant model compounds, identifies two previously uncharacterized intermediate species formed electrochemically; a-Na3–xSb (x ≈ 0.4–0.5), a structure locally similar to crystalline Na3Sb (c-Na3Sb) but with significant numbers of sodium vacancies and a limited correlation length, and a-Na1.7Sb, a highlymore » amorphous structure featuring some Sb–Sb bonding. The first sodiation breaks down the crystalline antimony to form first a-Na3–xSb and, finally, crystalline Na3Sb. Desodiation results in the formation of an electrode formed of a composite of crystalline and amorphous antimony networks. We link the different reactivity of these networks to a series of sequential sodiation reactions manifesting as a cascade of processes observed in the electrochemical profile of subsequent cycles. The amorphous network reacts at higher voltages reforming a-Na1.7Sb, then a-Na3–xSb, whereas lower potentials are required for the sodiation of crystalline antimony, which reacts to form a-Na3–xSb without the formation of a-Na1.7Sb. a-Na3–xSb is converted to crystalline Na3Sb at the end of the second discharge. In the end, we find no evidence of formation of NaSb. Variable temperature 23Na NMR experiments reveal significant sodium mobility within c-Na3Sb; this is a possible contributing factor to the excellent rate performance of Sb anodes.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Chenyang
Structure and dynamics lie at the heart of the materials science. A detailed knowledge of both subjects would be foundational in understanding the materials' properties and predicting their potential applications. However, the task becomes increasingly dicult as the particle size is reduced to the nanometer scale. For nanostructured materials their laboratory x-ray scattering patterns are overlapped and broadened, making structure determination impossible. Atomic pair distribution function technique based on either synchrotron x-ray or neutron scattering data is known as the tool of choice for probing local structures. However, to solve the "structure problem" in low-dimensional materials with PDF is still challenging. For example for 2D materials of interest in this thesis the crystallographic modeling approach often yields unphysical thermal factors along stacking direction where new chemical intuitions about their actual structures and new modeling methodology/program are needed. Beyond this, lattice dynamical investigations on nanosized particles are extremely dicult. Laboratory tools such as Raman and infra-red only probe phonons at Brillouin zone center. Although in literature there are a great number of theoretical studies of their vibrational properties based on either empirical force elds or density functional theory, various approximations made in theories make the theoretical predictions less reliable. Also, there lacks the direct experiment result to validate the theory against. In this thesis, we studied the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of technologically relevant low-dimensional materials through synchrotron based x-ray PDF and high energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HERIX) techniques. By collecting PDF data and employing advanced modeling program such as DiPy-CMI, we successfully determined the atomic structures of (i) emerging Ti3C2, Nb4C3 MXenes (transition metal carbides and/or nitrides) that are promising for energy storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Idemoto, Yasushi; Akatsuka, Kazumasa; Kitamura, Naoto
2015-12-01
We synthesize Li(Li1/6Mn1/2Ni1/6Co1/6)O2 with a coprecipitation method, and study the electrochemical properties and the atomic configuration by means of galvanostatic charge-discharge test, neutron total scatterings, and the density functional theory calculation. From the average-structure analysis using the Bragg profile, that is, the Rietveld analysis, it is found that the sample has the Li2MnO3-type layered structure (space group; C2/m) and Ni and Co exist at both the two sites (4g and 2b sites) in the transition-metal layer. The DFT calculation indicates that there is a local atomic ordering denoted as LiMn6 in the transition-metal layer in the same way as Li2MnO3. Moreover, such a local structure can explain a reduced pair distribution function, G(r), derived from neutron total scatterings. Detailed investigation on the G(r) also suggests a local distortion along the c axis perpendicular to the layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Dvornikov, O.; Makarenko, V.; Mossolov, V.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Zykunov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Chagas, E. Belchior Batista Das; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Guativa, L. M. Huertas; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, T.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Ruan, M.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Mesic, B.; Susa, T.; Ather, M. W.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Stahl Leiton, A. G.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Zghiche, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Bihan, A.-C. Le; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Finco, L.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Khvedelidze, A.; Lomidze, D.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Kiesel, M. 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J.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Ha, S.; Hong, B.; Jo, Y.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Almond, J.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Oh, S. B.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Seo, S. H.; Yang, U. K.; Yoo, H. D.; Yu, G. B.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Hwang, C.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Carpinteyro, S.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Saddique, A.; Shah, M. 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H.; Barney, D.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Botta, C.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; Chen, Y.; Cimmino, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Roeck, A.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Everaerts, P.; Fartoukh, S.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Gulhan, D.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Krammer, M.; Lange, C.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Meijers, F.; Merlin, J. 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T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; De Cosa, A.; Donato, S.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Seitz, C.; Yang, Y.; Zucchetta, A.; Candelise, V.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Tsai, J. F.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Boran, F.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. 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D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kunkle, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Apyan, A.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Demiragli, Z.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Tatar, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Malta Rodrigues, A.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Rupprecht, N.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mei, K.; Ojalvo, I.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Tully, C.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Schulte, J. F.; Shi, X.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. 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R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Sturdy, J.; Zaleski, S.; Belknap, D. A.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Hussain, U.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.
2017-07-01
Normalized double-differential cross sections for top quark pair (t\\overline{t}) production are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 {TeV} with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 {fb}^{-1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton e^{± }μ ^{∓ } final state. The t\\overline{t} cross section is determined as a function of various pairs of observables characterizing the kinematics of the top quark and t\\overline{t} system. The data are compared to calculations using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading and approximate next-to-next-to-leading orders. They are also compared to predictions of Monte Carlo event generators that complement fixed-order computations with parton showers, hadronization, and multiple-parton interactions. Overall agreement is observed with the predictions, which is improved when the latest global sets of proton parton distribution functions are used. The inclusion of the measured t\\overline{t} cross sections in a fit of parametrized parton distribution functions is shown to have significant impact on the gluon distribution.
Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; ...
2017-07-11
Normalized double-differential cross sections for top quark pair (more » $$\\mathrm{t}\\overline{\\mathrm{t}}$$ ) production are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 $$\\,\\text {TeV}$$ with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 $$\\,\\text {fb}^{-1}$$ . The measurement is performed in the dilepton $$\\mathrm {e}^{\\pm }\\mu ^{\\mp }$$ final state. The $$\\mathrm{t}\\overline{\\mathrm{t}}$$ cross section is determined as a function of various pairs of observables characterizing the kinematics of the top quark and $$\\mathrm{t}\\overline{\\mathrm{t}}$$ system. The data are compared to calculations using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading and approximate next-to-next-to-leading orders. They are also compared to predictions of Monte Carlo event generators that complement fixed-order computations with parton showers, hadronization, and multiple-parton interactions. Overall agreement is observed with the predictions, which is improved when the latest global sets of proton parton distribution functions are used. Lastly, the inclusion of the measured $$\\mathrm{t}\\overline{\\mathrm{t}}$$ cross sections in a fit of parametrized parton distribution functions is shown to have significant impact on the gluon distribution.« less
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Stenson, K; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Mcdermott, K; Mirman, N; Patterson, J R; Rinkevicius, A; Ryd, A; Skinnari, L; Soffi, L; Tan, S M; Tao, Z; Thom, J; Tucker, J; Wittich, P; Zientek, M; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Cremonesi, M; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Hare, D; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jayatilaka, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Lammel, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, M; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Magini, N; Marraffino, J M; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Ristori, L; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Stoynev, S; Strait, J; Strobbe, N; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Wang, M; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Wu, Y; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Das, S; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Low, J F; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Mitselmakher, G; Rank, D; Shchutska, L; Sperka, D; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Ackert, A; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bein, S; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Kolberg, T; Perry, T; Prosper, H; Santra, A; Yohay, R; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Cavanaugh, R; Chen, X; Evdokimov, O; Gerber, C E; Hangal, D A; Hofman, D J; Jung, K; Kamin, J; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Trauger, H; Varelas, N; Wang, H; Wu, Z; Zhang, J; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Blumenfeld, B; Cocoros, A; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Roskes, J; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; You, C; Al-Bataineh, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Boren, S; Bowen, J; Castle, J; Forthomme, L; Khalil, S; Kropivnitskaya, A; Majumder, D; Mcbrayer, W; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jeng, G Y; Kellogg, R G; Kunkle, J; Mignerey, A C; Ricci-Tam, F; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Abercrombie, D; Allen, B; Apyan, A; Azzolini, V; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bi, R; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; D'Alfonso, M; Demiragli, Z; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hsu, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Krajczar, K; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Maier, B; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Tatar, K; Velicanu, D; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Benvenuti, A C; Chatterjee, R M; Evans, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Claes, D R; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Kravchenko, I; Malta Rodrigues, A; Monroy, J; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Stieger, B; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Nguyen, D; Parker, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Bhattacharya, S; Charaf, O; Hahn, K A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Schmitt, M H; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Hurtado Anampa, K; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Rupprecht, N; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Alimena, J; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Francis, B; Hart, A; Hill, C; Ji, W; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Cooperstein, S; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Lange, D; Luo, J; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mei, K; Ojalvo, I; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Tully, C; Malik, S; Barker, A; Barnes, V E; Folgueras, S; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, A W; Khatiwada, A; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Schulte, J F; Shi, X; Sun, J; Wang, F; Xie, W; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Duh, Y T; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Lo, K H; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Agapitos, A; Chou, J P; Gershtein, Y; Gómez Espinosa, T A; Halkiadakis, E; Heindl, M; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Kyriacou, S; Lath, A; Montalvo, R; Nash, K; Osherson, M; Saka, H; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Delannoy, A G; Foerster, M; Heideman, J; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Thapa, K; Bouhali, O; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Juska, E; Kamon, T; Mueller, R; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Perniè, L; Rathjens, D; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Damgov, J; De Guio, F; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Gurpinar, E; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Peltola, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Wang, Z; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Barria, P; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Sturdy, J; Zaleski, S; Belknap, D A; Buchanan, J; Caillol, C; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Hussain, U; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N
2017-01-01
Normalized double-differential cross sections for top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) production are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8[Formula: see text] with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton [Formula: see text] final state. The [Formula: see text] cross section is determined as a function of various pairs of observables characterizing the kinematics of the top quark and [Formula: see text] system. The data are compared to calculations using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading and approximate next-to-next-to-leading orders. They are also compared to predictions of Monte Carlo event generators that complement fixed-order computations with parton showers, hadronization, and multiple-parton interactions. Overall agreement is observed with the predictions, which is improved when the latest global sets of proton parton distribution functions are used. The inclusion of the measured [Formula: see text] cross sections in a fit of parametrized parton distribution functions is shown to have significant impact on the gluon distribution.
Pair correlation function integrals: Computation and use
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wedberg, Rasmus; O'Connell, John P.; Peters, Günther H.; Abildskov, Jens
2011-08-01
We describe a method for extending radial distribution functions obtained from molecular simulations of pure and mixed molecular fluids to arbitrary distances. The method allows total correlation function integrals to be reliably calculated from simulations of relatively small systems. The long-distance behavior of radial distribution functions is determined by requiring that the corresponding direct correlation functions follow certain approximations at long distances. We have briefly described the method and tested its performance in previous communications [R. Wedberg, J. P. O'Connell, G. H. Peters, and J. Abildskov, Mol. Simul. 36, 1243 (2010);, 10.1080/08927020903536366 Fluid Phase Equilib. 302, 32 (2011)], 10.1016/j.fluid.2010.10.004, but describe here its theoretical basis more thoroughly and derive long-distance approximations for the direct correlation functions. We describe the numerical implementation of the method in detail, and report numerical tests complementing previous results. Pure molecular fluids are here studied in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble with isothermal compressibilities evaluated from the total correlation function integrals and compared with values derived from volume fluctuations. For systems where the radial distribution function has structure beyond the sampling limit imposed by the system size, the integration is more reliable, and usually more accurate, than simple integral truncation.
Saleta, M E; Eleotério, M; Mesquita, A; Mastelaro, V R; Granado, E
2017-09-01
This work reports the setting up of the X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory for performing total scattering experiments to be analyzed by atomic pair distribution function (PDF) studies. The results of a PDF refinement for Al2O3 standard are presented and compared with data acquired at a beamline of the Advanced Photon Source, where it is common to perform this type of experiment. A preliminary characterization of the Pb1-xLaxZr0.40Ti0.60O3 ferroelectric system, with x = 0.11, 0.12 and 0.15, is also shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toby, B. H.; Dmowski, W.; Egami, T.; Jorgensen, J. D.; Subramanian, M. A.; Gopalakrishnan, J.; Sleight, A. W.; Parise, J. B.
1989-12-01
Rietveld analysis indicates that the only long-range structural variation in Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8 with temperature is a shift of O(2) away from Cu and toward Ba with increasing T. Atomic pair distribution function analysis on two samples of Tl 2Ba 2CuO 6, one superconducting, the other not, shows substantial differences in their short range structure, but similar medium range structures, while Rietveld analysis shows very similar lattice constants and long-range structures.
Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trapateau, J.; Ghalbouni, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.
2015-10-01
We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.
Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs
Trapateau, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.; Ghalbouni, J.
2015-10-14
We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.
Wesolowski, David J.; Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Page, Katharine L.; Naguib, Michael; Gogotsi, Yury
2015-12-08
MXenes are a recently discovered family of two-dimensional (2D) early transition metal carbides and carbonitrides, which have already shown many attractive properties and great promise in energy storage and many other applications. But, a complex surface chemistry and small coherence length have been obstacles in some applications of MXenes, also limiting the accuracy of predictions of their properties. In this study, we describe and benchmark a novel way of modeling layered materials with real interfaces (diverse surface functional groups and stacking order between the adjacent monolayers) against experimental data. The structures of three kinds of Ti_{3}C_{2}T_{x} MXenes (T stands for surface terminating species, including O, OH, and F) produced under different synthesis conditions were resolved for the first time using atomic pair distribution function obtained by high-quality neutron total scattering. We present the true nature of the material can be easily captured with the sensitivity of neutron scattering to the surface species of interest and the detailed “third-generation” structure model. The modeling approach leads to new understanding of MXene structural properties and can replace the currently used idealized models in predictions of a variety of physical, chemical, and functional properties of Ti_{3}C_{2}-based MXenes. Moreover, the developed models can be employed to guide the design of new MXene materials with selected surface termination and controlled contact angle, catalytic, optical, electrochemical, and other properties. Finally, we suggest that the multilevel structural modeling should form the basis for a generalized methodology on modeling diffraction and pair distribution function data for 2D and layered materials.
Wigner functions for the pair angle and orbital angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kastrup, H. A.
2016-12-01
The problem of constructing physically and mathematically well-defined Wigner functions for the canonical pair angle θ and angular momentum p is solved. While a key element for the construction of Wigner functions for the planar phase space {(q ,p ) ∈R2} is the Heisenberg-Weyl group, the corresponding group for the cylindrical phase space {(θ ,p ) ∈S1×R } is the Euclidean group E (2 ) of the plane and its unitary representations. Here the angle θ is replaced by the pair (cosθ ,sinθ ) , which corresponds uniquely to the points on the unit circle. The main structural properties of the Wigner functions for the planar and the cylindrical phase spaces are strikingly similar. A crucial role is played by the s i n c function, which provides the interpolation for the discontinuous quantized angular momenta in terms of the continuous classical ones, in accordance with the famous Whittaker cardinal function well known from interpolation and sampling theories. The quantum mechanical marginal distributions for the angle (continuous) and angular momentum (discontinuous) are, as usual, uniquely obtained by appropriate integrations of the (θ ,p ) Wigner function. Among the examples discussed is an elementary system of simple cat states.
Spatial Distribution of Pair Production Over the Pulsar Polar Cap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Parfrey, Kyle
2016-10-01
Using an analytic, axisymmetric approach that includes general relativity, coupled to a condition for pair production deduced from simulations, we derive general results about the spatial distribution of pair-producing field lines over the pulsar polar cap. In particular, we show that pair production on magnetic field lines operates over only a fraction of the polar cap for an aligned rotator for general magnetic field configurations, assuming the magnetic field varies spatially on a scale that is larger than the size of the polar cap. We compare our result to force-free simulations of a pulsar with a dipole surface field and find excellent agreement. Our work has implications for first-principles simulations of pulsar magnetospheres and for explaining observations of pulsed radio and high-energy emission.
Nucleon and nucleon-pair momentum distributions in A ≤12 nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiringa, R. B.; Schiavilla, R.; Pieper, Steven C.; Carlson, J.
2014-02-01
Background: Momentum distributions of individual nucleons and nucleon pairs reflect features of the short-range structure of nuclei and provide useful insights into various reactions on nuclei, such as (e,e'p) and (e,e'pp/pn) electrodisintegration processes or neutrino-nucleus interaction experiments. Purpose: To provide the nuclear physics community with the results (available online) of a systematic study of single-nucleon momentum distributions and nucleon-pair and nucleon-cluster momentum distributions for A ≤12 nuclei. Method: The realistic Argonne v18 two-nucleon and Urbana X three-nucleon potentials are used to generate accurate variational Monte Carlo wave functions for the A ≤12 nuclei; quantum Monte Carlo methods are used to calculate the momentum distributions. Results: Single-nucleon distributions are given, broken down into proton and neutron components and spin-up and spin-down components where appropriate. Nucleon-pair momentum distributions are given either in pair spin and isospin ST projection or for pp, pn, and nn pairs. Nucleon-cluster momentum distributions include dp in 3He, tp and dd in 4He, αd in 6Li, αt in 7Li, and αα in 8Be. Conclusions: The momentum distributions exhibit common characteristic shapes, with tensor correlations (or lack thereof) playing a dominant role in the 1.5-3 fm-1 range, while spin-isospin correlations dominate at higher momenta.
Wong, Stanislaus; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Lewis, Crystal S.; ...
2015-05-06
The magnetic spinel ferrites, MFe₂O₄ (wherein 'M' = a divalent metal ion such as but not limited to Mn, Co, Zn, and Ni), represent a unique class of magnetic materials in which the rational introduction of different 'M's can yield correspondingly unique and interesting magnetic behaviors. Herein we present a generalized hydrothermal method for the synthesis of single-crystalline ferrite nanoparticles with 'M' = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively, which can be systematically and efficaciously produced simply by changing the metal precursor. Our protocol can moreover lead to reproducible size control by judicious selection of various surfactants. Asmore » such, we have probed the effects of both (i) size and (ii) chemical composition upon the magnetic properties of these nanomaterials using complementary magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. The structure of the samples was confirmed by atomic PDF analysis of X-ray and electron powder diffraction data as a function of particle size. These materials retain the bulk spinel structure to the smallest size (i.e., 3 nm). In addition, we have explored the catalytic potential of our ferrites as both (a) magnetically recoverable photocatalysts and (b) biological catalysts, and noted that many of our as-prepared ferrite systems evinced intrinsically higher activities as compared with their iron oxide analogues.« less
Wong, Stanislaus; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Lewis, Crystal S.; Han, Jinkyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiang; Shi, Chenyang; Abeykoon, A. M.Milinda; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Stach, Eric; Thomas, Justin; Guerrero, Kevin; Munayco, Pablo; Munayco, Jimmy; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Burnham, Philip; Viescas, Arthur J; Tiano, Amanda L.
2015-05-06
The magnetic spinel ferrites, MFe₂O₄ (wherein 'M' = a divalent metal ion such as but not limited to Mn, Co, Zn, and Ni), represent a unique class of magnetic materials in which the rational introduction of different 'M's can yield correspondingly unique and interesting magnetic behaviors. Herein we present a generalized hydrothermal method for the synthesis of single-crystalline ferrite nanoparticles with 'M' = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively, which can be systematically and efficaciously produced simply by changing the metal precursor. Our protocol can moreover lead to reproducible size control by judicious selection of various surfactants. As such, we have probed the effects of both (i) size and (ii) chemical composition upon the magnetic properties of these nanomaterials using complementary magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. The structure of the samples was confirmed by atomic PDF analysis of X-ray and electron powder diffraction data as a function of particle size. These materials retain the bulk spinel structure to the smallest size (i.e., 3 nm). In addition, we have explored the catalytic potential of our ferrites as both (a) magnetically recoverable photocatalysts and (b) biological catalysts, and noted that many of our as-prepared ferrite systems evinced intrinsically higher activities as compared with their iron oxide analogues.
Time-dependent pair distribution in the mean-field approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boley, C. D.; Tenti, G.
1980-05-01
The time-dependent pair-distribution function, which plays a central role in the description of nuclear magnetic relaxation and collision-induced absorption in classical fluids, is evaluated in a mean-field approximation proposed earlier. In this scheme the binary dynamics of the colliding pair is treated without approximation, and the interaction with the background fluid is taken into account via a renormalization of the pair potential. The result is expressed in terms of orbits having specified end points and specified elapsed times.
Nguyen-Phan, Thuy-Duong; Liu, Zongyuan; Luo, Si; Gamalski, Andrew D.; Vovchok, Dimitry; Xu, Wenqian; Stach, Eric A.; Polyansky, Dmitry E.; Fujita, Etsuko; Rodriguez, José A.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.
2016-02-18
The functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) and graphene by TiO_{2} and other metal oxides has attracted considerable attention due to numerous promising applications in catalysis, energy conversion, and storage. We propose hydrogenation of this class of materials as a promising way to tune catalytic properties by altering the structural and chemical transformations that occur upon H incorporation. We also investigate the structural changes that occur during the hydrogenation process using in situ powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function analysis of GO–TiO_{2} and TiO_{2} under H_{2} reduction. Sequential Rietveld refinement was employed to gain insight into the evolution of crystal growth of TiO_{2} nanoparticles in the presence of two-dimensional (2D) GO nanosheets. GO sheets not only significantly retarded the nucleation and growth of rutile impurities, stabilizing the anatase structure, but was also partially reduced to hydrogenated graphene by the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the honeycomb lattice. We discuss the hydrogenation processes and the resulting composite structure that occurs during the incorporation of atomic H and the dynamic structural transformations that leads to a highly active photocatalyst.
Nguyen-Phan, Thuy-Duong; Liu, Zongyuan; Luo, Si; ...
2016-02-18
The functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) and graphene by TiO2 and other metal oxides has attracted considerable attention due to numerous promising applications in catalysis, energy conversion, and storage. We propose hydrogenation of this class of materials as a promising way to tune catalytic properties by altering the structural and chemical transformations that occur upon H incorporation. We also investigate the structural changes that occur during the hydrogenation process using in situ powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function analysis of GO–TiO2 and TiO2 under H2 reduction. Sequential Rietveld refinement was employed to gain insight into the evolution of crystalmore » growth of TiO2 nanoparticles in the presence of two-dimensional (2D) GO nanosheets. GO sheets not only significantly retarded the nucleation and growth of rutile impurities, stabilizing the anatase structure, but was also partially reduced to hydrogenated graphene by the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the honeycomb lattice. We discuss the hydrogenation processes and the resulting composite structure that occurs during the incorporation of atomic H and the dynamic structural transformations that leads to a highly active photocatalyst.« less
Rademacher, Nadine; Bayarjargal, Lkhamsuren; Morgenroth, Wolfgang; Winkler, Björn; Ciezak-Jenkins, Jennifer; Batyrev, Iskander G; Milman, Victor
2014-09-01
The local atomic structures of liquid and polymerized CO and its decomposition products were analyzed at pressures up to 30 GPa in diamond anvil cells by X-ray diffraction, pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, single-crystal diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The structural models were obtained by density functional calculations. Analysis of the PDF of a liquid CO-rich phase revealed that the local structure has a pronounced short-range order. The PDFs of polymerized amorphous CO at several pressures revealed the compression of the molecular structure; covalent bond lengths did not change significantly with pressure. Experimental PDFs could be reproduced with simulations from DFT-optimized structural models. Likely structural features of polymerized CO are thus 4- to 6-membered rings (lactones, cyclic ethers, and rings decorated with carbonyl groups) and long bent chains with carbonyl groups and bridging atoms. Laser heating polymerized CO at pressures of 7 to 9 GPa and 20 GPa resulted in the formation of CO(2). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Im, Won Bin; Page, Katharine; DenBaars, Steven P.; Seshadri, Ram
2011-08-04
The compound LaSr{sub 2}AlO{sub 5} was recently introduced as a competitive Ce{sup 3+} host material for blue-pumped yellow phosphors for use in white light emitting diodes. A crucial feature of the crystal structure of LaSr{sub 2}AlO{sub 5} is that La, which is the host site for Ce{sup 3+}, is located in the 8h positions of the I4/mcm crystal structure, a site equally shared with Sr. While the average crystal structure of LaSr{sub 2}AlO{sub 5} as revealed by Rietveld analysis of laboratory and synchrotron X-ray diffraction data suggests nothing untoward, maximum entropy method analysis of the synchrotron X-ray data reveals the existence of conspicuous non-sphericity of the electron density. Pair distribution function analysis of the data suggests that despite their occupying the same crystallographic site, La and Sr possess distinct coordination environments, and the environment around La is more compact and regular than the environment suggested by the Rietveld refinement of the average structure. The absorption and emission from Ce{sup 3+} centers is controlled by the local coordination and symmetry, and the use of powerful new tools in unraveling details of these strengthens the rational search for new phosphors for solid state white lighting.
Nucleon and nucleon-pair momentum distributions in A≤12 nuclei
Wiringa, Robert B.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Pieper, Steven C.; ...
2014-02-10
We report variational Monte Carlo calculations of single-nucleon momentum distributions for A≤12 nuclei and nucleon-pair and nucleon-cluster momentum distributions for A≤8. The wave functions have been generated for a Hamiltonian containing the Argonne ν18 two-nucleon and Urbana X three-nucleon potentials. The single-nucleon and nucleon-pair momentum distributions exhibit universal features attributable to the one-pion-exchange tensor interaction The single-nucleon distributions are broken down into proton and neutron components and spin-up and spin-down components where appropriate. The nucleon-pair momentum distributions are given separately for pp and pn pairs. The nucleon-cluster momentum distributions include dp in 3He, tp and dd in S4He, αd inmore » 6Li,αt in 7Li, and αα in 8Be. Detailed tables are provided on-line for download.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanyuk, O. N.; Pavlov, S. V.; Dovhaliuk, R. Yu.; Babyuk, N. P.; Obidnyk, M. D.; Kisala, P.; Suleimenov, B.
2013-01-01
A microfacet distribution function is presented. This function can be used to calculate the microfacet distribution term in BRDF models. The function differs from other well-known microfacet distribution functions like Blinn or Beckmann distributions in that it doesn`t use special functions like acos, tan, exp, pow and thus has lower computational complexity.
Synergy between pair coupled cluster doubles and pair density functional theory
Garza, Alejandro J.; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.
2015-01-28
Pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) has been recently studied as a method capable of accounting for static correlation with low polynomial cost. We present three combinations of pCCD with Kohn–Sham functionals of the density and on-top pair density (the probability of finding two electrons on top of each other) to add dynamic correlation to pCCD without double counting. With a negligible increase in computational cost, these pCCD+DFT blends greatly improve upon pCCD in the description of typical problems where static and dynamic correlations are both important. We argue that—as a black-box method with low scaling, size-extensivity, size-consistency, and a simple quasidiagonal two-particle density matrix—pCCD is an excellent match for pair density functionals in this type of fusion of multireference wavefunctions with DFT.
Bréger, Julien; Dupré, Nicolas; Chupas, Peter J; Lee, Peter L; Proffen, Thomas; Parise, John B; Grey, Clare P
2005-05-25
The local environments and short-range ordering of LiNi(0.5)Mn(0.5)O(2), a potential Li-ion battery positive electrode material, were investigated by using a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction and isotopic substitution (NDIS) techniques, (6)Li Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy, and for the first time, X-ray and neutron Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis, associated with Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) calculations. Three samples were studied: (6)Li(NiMn)(0.5)O(2), (7)Li(NiMn)(0.5)O(2), and (7)Li(NiMn)(0.5)O(2) enriched with (62)Ni (denoted as (7)Li(ZERO)Ni(0.5)Mn(0.5)O(2)), so that the resulting scattering length of Ni atoms is null. LiNi(0.5)Mn(0.5)O(2) adopts the LiCoO(2) structure (space group Rm) and comprises separate lithium layers, transition metal layers (Ni, Mn), and oxygen layers. NMR experiments and Rietveld refinements show that there is approximately 10% of Ni/Li site exchange between the Li and transition metal layers. PDF analysis of the neutron data revealed considerable local distortions in the layers that were not captured in the Rietveld refinements performed using the Bragg diffraction data and the LiCoO(2) structure, resulting in different M-O bond lengths of 1.93 and 2.07 Angstroms for Mn-O and Ni/Li-O, respectively. Large clusters of 2400-3456 atoms were built to investigate cation ordering. The RMC method was then used to improve the fit between the calculated model and experimental PDF data. Both NMR and RMC results were consistent with a nonrandom distribution of Ni, Mn, and Li cations in the transition metal layers; both the Ni and Li atoms are, on average, close to more Mn ions than predicted based on a random distribution of these ions in the transition metal layers. Constraints from both experimental methods showed the presence of short-range order in the transition metal layers comprising LiMn(6) and LiMn(5)Ni clusters combined with Ni and Mn contacts resembling those found in the so-called "flower structure" or
Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions
Schienbein, I.; Yu, J.-Y.; Keppel, Cynthia; Morfin, Jorge; Olness, F.; Owens, J.F.
2009-01-01
We study nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering in the framework of a chi^2 analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). We extract a set of iron PDFs which are used to compute x_Bj-dependent and Q^2-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. We compare our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for charged-lepton--iron scattering. We find that, except for very high x_Bj, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering.
Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions
I. Schienbein, J.Y. Yu, C. Keppel, J.G. Morfin, F. Olness, J.F. Owens
2009-06-01
We study nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering in the framework of a {chi}{sup 2} analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). We extract a set of iron PDFs which are used to compute x{sub Bj}-dependent and Q{sup 2}-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. We compare our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for charged-lepton--iron scattering. We find that, except for very high x{sub Bj}, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leow, Alex D.; Zhu, Siwei
2008-03-01
Diffusion weighted MR imaging is a powerful tool that can be employed to study white matter microstructure by examining the 3D displacement profile of water molecules in brain tissue. By applying diffusion-sensitizing gradients along a minimum of 6 directions, second-order tensors (represetnted by 3-by-3 positive definiite matrices) can be computed to model dominant diffusion processes. However, it has been shown that conventional DTI is not sufficient to resolve more complicated white matter configurations, e.g. crossing fiber tracts. More recently, High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) seeks to address this issue by employing more than 6 gradient directions. To account for fiber crossing when analyzing HARDI data, several methodologies have been introduced. For example, q-ball imaging was proposed to approximate Orientation Diffusion Function (ODF). Similarly, the PAS method seeks to reslove the angular structure of displacement probability functions using the maximum entropy principle. Alternatively, deconvolution methods extract multiple fiber tracts by computing fiber orientations using a pre-specified single fiber response function. In this study, we introduce Tensor Distribution Function (TDF), a probability function defined on the space of symmetric and positive definite matrices. Using calculus of variations, we solve for the TDF that optimally describes the observed data. Here, fiber crossing is modeled as an ensemble of Gaussian diffusion processes with weights specified by the TDF. Once this optimal TDF is determined, ODF can easily be computed by analytical integration of the resulting displacement probability function. Moreover, principle fiber directions can also be directly derived from the TDF.
Static structure factor and pair correlation function of graphene.
Ashraf, S S Z; Mishra, Kavita N; Sharma, A C
2010-09-08
We report our theoretical investigations on the static structure factor and pair correlation function using both the density-density and spin-density response functions of a doped single graphene sheet based on the random phase approximation and on graphene's massless Dirac fermions concept. The static structure factor and pair correlation function are obtained by regularizing the dynamical polarization function, which otherwise is clearly divergent due to the interaction energy of the infinite Dirac sea of negative energy states. The local field effects have been considered in the simplistic Hubbard approximation. We find the structure factor to be dependent on the dimensionless coupling constant α, and for high values of coupling constant the magnetic structure factor indicates paramagnetic instability which is also corroborated from other theoretical investigations. The spin symmetric pair correlation function computed in the simplistic Hubbard approximation begins from zero at zero separation only at very high densities but the results for parallel spin and anti-parallel spin pair correlation functions expose the shortcoming of this local field approximation. This work should stimulate more investigations testing various other local field schemes and also quantum Monte Carlo based simulations.
Green's Function Application for Pairing Correlations and the Optical Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Dong
Pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter has been studied incorporating the effect of finite total momentum. We employ the generalized Cooper eigenvalue equation, which can be used to demonstrate the pairing instability and also generates reasonable pairing gaps compared to the traditional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) gap equation. From phase space arguments and the resulting strength of the pairing gap, we learn that the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase with a finite total momentum is favored over the conventional phase in asymmetric nuclear matter, but not in symmetric nuclear matter. To address open questions in neutron star cooling, neutron matter pairing gaps of the 1S0 and the 3P2 - 3F2 channels in a wide range of densities have been calculated using three different realistic interactions. Instead of the mean-field BCS procedure, we incorporate the influence of short- and long-range correlations in calculating the pairing gaps. Short-range correlations are treated to include the fragmentation of single-particle states, suppressing the gaps substantially. Long-range correlations dress the pairing interaction via density and spin modes, and provide a smaller correction. The results provide input for neutron-star cooling scenarios and are parametrized in a user friendly way. The results are of particular relevance in view of the recent observational data on Cassiopeia A. To study the nucleon-nucleus scattering problem in an ab-initio way, the optical potential in the momentum vector basis beyond the mean-field has been calculated employing the T x rho folding as the first step of the self-consistent Green's function method. The deuteron pole structure of T- matrix has been properly avoided using the spectral functions from the dispersive optical model. A comparison of the resulting real and imaginary part of the self-energy at 100 MeV with the corresponding dispersive-optical-model potentials shows reasonable agreement.
An efficient algorithm for generating random number pairs drawn from a bivariate normal distribution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, C. W.
1983-01-01
An efficient algorithm for generating random number pairs from a bivariate normal distribution was developed. Any desired value of the two means, two standard deviations, and correlation coefficient can be selected. Theoretically the technique is exact and in practice its accuracy is limited only by the quality of the uniform distribution random number generator, inaccuracies in computer function evaluation, and arithmetic. A FORTRAN routine was written to check the algorithm and good accuracy was obtained. Some small errors in the correlation coefficient were observed to vary in a surprisingly regular manner. A simple model was developed which explained the qualities aspects of the errors.
Correlation functions for pairs and groups of galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalinkov, M.; Kuneva, I.
1990-01-01
There are many studies on the correlation functions of galaxies, of clusters of galaxies, even of superclusters (e.g., Groth and Peebles 1977; Davies and Peebles 1983; Kalinkov and Kuneva 1985, 1986; Bahcall 1988 and references therein) but not so many on pairs and groups of galaxies. Results of the calculations of two-point correlation fuctions for some catalogs of pairs and groups of galaxies are given. It is assumed that the distances to pairs and groups of galaxies are given by their mean redshifts according to R = sigma (sup n, sub i-1) V sub i/nH (sub 0), where n is the number of galaxies in the system and H sub 0 = 100 km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1).
Sense-antisense pairs in mammals: functional and evolutionary considerations.
Galante, Pedro A F; Vidal, Daniel O; de Souza, Jorge E; Camargo, Anamaria A; de Souza, Sandro J
2007-01-01
A significant number of genes in mammalian genomes are being found to have natural antisense transcripts (NATs). These sense-antisense (S-AS) pairs are believed to be involved in several cellular phenomena. Here, we generated a catalog of S-AS pairs occurring in the human and mouse genomes by analyzing different sources of expressed sequences available in the public domain plus 122 massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) libraries from a variety of human and mouse tissues. Using this dataset of almost 20,000 S-AS pairs in both genomes we investigated, in a computational and experimental way, several putative roles that have been assigned to NATs, including gene expression regulation. Furthermore, these global analyses allowed us to better dissect and propose new roles for NATs. Surprisingly, we found that a significant fraction of NATs are artifacts produced by genomic priming during cDNA library construction. We propose an evolutionary and functional model in which alternative polyadenylation and retroposition account for the origin of a significant number of functional S-AS pairs in mammalian genomes.
Hyperdimensional Analysis of Amino Acid Pair Distributions in Proteins
Henriksen, Svend B.; Arnason, Omar; Söring, Jón; Petersen, Steffen B.
2011-01-01
Our manuscript presents a novel approach to protein structure analyses. We have organized an 8-dimensional data cube with protein 3D-structural information from 8706 high-resolution non-redundant protein-chains with the aim of identifying packing rules at the amino acid pair level. The cube contains information about amino acid type, solvent accessibility, spatial and sequence distance, secondary structure and sequence length. We are able to pose structural queries to the data cube using program ProPack. The response is a 1, 2 or 3D graph. Whereas the response is of a statistical nature, the user can obtain an instant list of all PDB-structures where such pair is found. The user may select a particular structure, which is displayed highlighting the pair in question. The user may pose millions of different queries and for each one he will receive the answer in a few seconds. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the data cube as well as the programs, we have selected well known structural features, disulphide bridges and salt bridges, where we illustrate how the queries are posed, and how answers are given. Motifs involving cysteines such as disulphide bridges, zinc-fingers and iron-sulfur clusters are clearly identified and differentiated. ProPack also reveals that whereas pairs of Lys residues virtually never appear in close spatial proximity, pairs of Arg are abundant and appear at close spatial distance, contrasting the belief that electrostatic repulsion would prevent this juxtaposition and that Arg-Lys is perceived as a conservative mutation. The presented programs can find and visualize novel packing preferences in proteins structures allowing the user to unravel correlations between pairs of amino acids. The new tools allow the user to view statistical information and visualize instantly the structures that underpin the statistical information, which is far from trivial with most other SW tools for protein structure analysis. PMID:22174733
Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B.; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan
2013-01-25
Density Functional Theory is used to investigate a weakly coordinating room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ([Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -}). Four locally stable conformers of the ion pair were located. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and electron density analysis indicated the existence of several hydrogen bonds. Further investigation through the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Energy Decomposition Analysis (NEDA) calculations provided insight into the origin of interactions in the [Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -} ion pair. Strength of molecular interactions in the ionic liquid was correlated with frequency shifts of the characteristic vibrations of the ion pair. Harmonic vibrations of the ion pair were also compared with the experimental Raman and Infrared spectra. Vibrational frequencies were assigned by visualizing displacements of atoms around their equilibrium positions and through Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B.; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan
2013-04-01
Density Functional Theory is used to investigate a weakly coordinating room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ([Emim]+[TCB]-). Four locally stable conformers of the ion pair were located. Atoms-in-molecules (AIMs) and electron density analysis indicated the existence of several hydrogen bonds. Further investigation through the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Energy Decomposition Analysis (NEDA) calculations provided insight into the origin of interactions in the [Emim]+[TCB]- ion pair. Strength of molecular interactions in the ionic liquid was correlated with frequency shifts of the characteristic vibrations of the ion pair. Harmonic vibrations of the ion pair were also compared with the experimental Raman and Infrared spectra. Vibrational frequencies were assigned by visualizing displacements of atoms around their equilibrium positions and through Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis.
A combination of JND curve property and intensity-pair distribution for image enhancement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Bin; Lu, Yang; Qian, Jun; He, Junfeng; Li, Liangfu; Zhou, Guoliang; Yang, Yizhou; Yan, Haozheng
2017-02-01
In recent years, the distribution characteristic of pixel intensity-pairs is proposed, which effectively absorbing the advantages of global and local image enhancement algorithms, avoiding over enhancement, noise amplification and other defects. However, the performance of the algorithm is heavily dependent on the selection of local artificial thresholds. In this paper, by the Just Noticeable Difference(JND) curve from human visual system, dynamic thresholds with visual sense are generated. Then image pixels are divided into different channels for statistical processing, in order to construct mapping functions. Finally, the enhanced image is a weighted fusion of different channels. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm has better effect and adaptability.
Conditional pair distributions in many-body systems: exact results for Poisson ensembles.
Rohrmann, René D; Zurbriggen, Ernesto
2012-05-01
We introduce a conditional pair distribution function (CPDF) which characterizes the probability density of finding an object (e.g., a particle in a fluid) to within a certain distance of each other, with each of these two having a nearest neighbor to a fixed but otherwise arbitrary distance. This function describes special four-body configurations, but also contains contributions due to the so-called mutual nearest neighbor (two-body) and shared neighbor (three-body) configurations. The CPDF is introduced to improve a Helmholtz free energy method based on space partitions. We derive exact expressions of the CPDF and various associated quantities for randomly distributed, noninteracting points at Euclidean spaces of one, two, and three dimensions. Results may be of interest in many diverse scientific fields, from fluid physics to social and biological sciences.
Cluster pair correlation function of simple fluids: energetic connectivity criteria.
Pugnaloni, Luis A; Zarragoicoechea, Guillermo J; Vericat, Fernando
2006-11-21
We consider the clustering of Lennard-Jones particles by using an energetic connectivity criterion proposed long ago by Hill [J. Chem. Phys. 32, 617 (1955)] for the bond between pairs of particles. The criterion establishes that two particles are bonded (directly connected) if their relative kinetic energy is less than minus their relative potential energy. Thus, in general, it depends on the direction as well as on the magnitude of the velocities and positions of the particles. An integral equation for the pair connectedness function, proposed by two of the authors [Phys. Rev. E 61, R6067 (2000)], is solved for this criterion and the results are compared with those obtained from molecular dynamics simulations and from a connectedness Percus-Yevick-type integral equation for a velocity-averaged version of Hill's energetic criterion.
Equilibrium Distribution Functions: Another Look.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waite, Boyd A.
1986-01-01
Discusses equilibrium distribution functions and provides an alternative "derivation" that allows the student, with the help of a computer, to gain intuitive insight as to the nature of distributions in general and the precise nature of the dominance of the Boltzmann distribution. (JN)
Integrals over the triplet distribution function without the triplet distribution function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lado, F.
While the triplet distribution function of disordered systems appears in a wide variety of problems in statistical mechanics, it does so always under an integral sign. In this paper, we propose a new method of evaluating such integrals that involves only pair functions throughout and avoids altogether the need for any explicit representation of the little-known triplet function. The procedure is based on an extension of integral equation theory of classical fluids. Numerical illustrations of the method are given for integrals that arise in the calculation of moments of a local field distribution.
Chemoselective Lewis pair polymerization of renewable multivinyl-functionalized γ-butyrolactones.
Gowda, Ravikumar R; Chen, Eugene Y-X
2017-08-28
Multivinyl-functionalized γ-butyrolactones, γ-vinyl-γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (γVMMBL) and γ-allyl-γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (γAMMBL), have been synthesized from biorenewable ethyl levulinate and effectively polymerized by Lewis pairs consisting of an organic N-heterocyclic carbene Lewis base and a strong organo-Lewis acid E(C6F5)3 (E = Al, B). This Lewis pair polymerization is quantitatively chemoselective, proceeds exclusively via polyaddition across the conjugated α-methylene double bond without participation of the γ-vinyl or γ-allyl double bond, and produces high-molecular-weight functionalized polymers with unimodal molecular-weight distributions. The Al-based Lewis pair produces a polymer with approximately 5.5 times higher molecular weight than that produced by the B-based Lewis pair. The resulting vinyl-functionalized polymers are soluble in common organic solvents and stable at room temperature, and can be thermally cured into crosslinked materials.This article is part of the themed issue 'Frustrated Lewis pair chemistry'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Chemoselective Lewis pair polymerization of renewable multivinyl-functionalized γ-butyrolactones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gowda, Ravikumar R.; Chen, Eugene Y.-X.
2017-07-01
Multivinyl-functionalized γ-butyrolactones, γ-vinyl-γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (γVMMBL) and γ-allyl-γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (γAMMBL), have been synthesized from biorenewable ethyl levulinate and effectively polymerized by Lewis pairs consisting of an organic N-heterocyclic carbene Lewis base and a strong organo-Lewis acid E(C6F5)3 (E = Al, B). This Lewis pair polymerization is quantitatively chemoselective, proceeds exclusively via polyaddition across the conjugated α-methylene double bond without participation of the γ-vinyl or γ-allyl double bond, and produces high-molecular-weight functionalized polymers with unimodal molecular-weight distributions. The Al-based Lewis pair produces a polymer with approximately 5.5 times higher molecular weight than that produced by the B-based Lewis pair. The resulting vinyl-functionalized polymers are soluble in common organic solvents and stable at room temperature, and can be thermally cured into crosslinked materials. This article is part of the themed issue 'Frustrated Lewis pair chemistry'.
Kinematic distributions for electron pair production by muons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linsker, R.
1972-01-01
Cross sections and kinematic distributions for the trident production process plus or negative muon plus charge yields plus or minus muon plus electron plus positron plus charge (with charge = dipion moment and Fe) are given for beam energies of 100 to 300 GeV at fixed (electron positron) masses from 5 to 15 GeV. This process is interesting as a test of quantum electrodynamics at high energies, and in particular as a test of the form of the photon propagator at large timelike (four-momentum) squared. For this purpose, it is desirable to impose kinematic cuts that favor those Bethe-Heitler graphs which contain a timelike photon propagator. It is found that there are substantial differences between the kinematic distributions for the full Bethe-Heitler matrix element and the distributions for the two timelike-photon graphs alone; these differences can be exploited in the selection of appropriate kinematic cuts.
Distributed Pair Programming Using Collaboration Scripts: An Educational System and Initial Results
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsompanoudi, Despina; Satratzemi, Maya; Xinogalos, Stelios
2015-01-01
Since pair programming appeared in the literature as an effective method of teaching computer programming, many systems were developed to cover the application of pair programming over distance. Today's systems serve personal, professional and educational purposes allowing distributed teams to work together on the same programming project. The…
Pair correlation functions of strongly coupled two-temperature plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.
2017-09-01
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we perform the first direct tests of three proposed models for the pair correlation functions of strongly coupled plasmas with species of unequal temperature. The models are all extensions of the Ornstein-Zernike/hypernetted-chain theory used to good success for equilibrium plasmas. Each theory is evaluated at several coupling strengths, temperature ratios, and mass ratios for a model plasma in which the electrons are positively charged. We show that the model proposed by Seuferling et al. [Phys. Rev. A 40, 323 (1989)] agrees well with molecular dynamics over a wide range of mass and temperature ratios, as well as over a range of coupling strength similar to that of the equilibrium hypernetted-chain (HNC) theory. The SVT model also correctly predicts the strength of interspecies correlations and exhibits physically reasonable long-wavelength limits of the static structure factors. Comparisons of the SVT model with the Yukawa one-component plasma (YOCP) model are used to show that ion-ion pair correlations are well described by the YOCP model up to Γe≈1 , beyond which it rapidly breaks down.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Jiang, Yun-Kun; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2013-04-01
We have demonstrated experimentally a nondegenerate polarization-entangled photon-pair distribution in a commercial telecom dense wave-division multiplexing device (DWDM) with eight channels. A promising point of this experiment is that an entangled photon pair is obtained via spontaneous parametric down conversion in a single type-II periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal without postselection. Another promising advantage is that we can actively switch the distribution of the photon pair between different channel pairs in DWDM at will. There is no crosstalk between different channel pairs because of a limited emission bandwidth of the source. Maximum raw visibility of 97.88%±0.86% obtained in a Bell-type interference experiment and a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality S parameter of 2.63±0.08 calculated prove high entanglement of our source. Our work is helpful for building quantum communication networks.
Valence quark spin distribution functions
Nathan Isgur
1998-09-01
The hyperfine interactions of the constituent quark model provide a natural explanation for many nucleon properties, including the {Delta} - N splitting, the charge radius of the neutron, and the observation that the proton's quark distribution function ratio d(x)/u(x) {r_arrow} 0 as x {r_arrow} 1. The hyperfine-perturbed quark model also makes predictions for the nucleon spin-dependent distribution functions. Precision measurements of the resulting asymmetries A{sub 1}{sup p}(x) and A{sub 1}{sup n}(x) in the valence region can test this model and thereby the hypothesis that the valence quark spin distributions are ''normal''.
Beam distribution function after filamentation
Raubenheimer, T.O.; Decker, F.J.; Seeman, J.T.
1995-05-01
In this paper, the authors calculate the beam distribution function after filamentation (phase-mixing) of a focusing mismatch. This distribution is relevant when interpreting beam measurements and sources of emittance dilution in linear colliders. It is also important when considering methods of diluting the phase space density, which may be required for the machine protection system in future linear colliders, and it is important when studying effects of trapped ions which filament in the electron beam potential. Finally, the resulting distribution is compared with measured beam distributions from the SLAC linac.
Chemical reactivity in the framework of pair density functional theories.
Otero, Nicolás; Mandado, Marcos
2012-05-15
Chemical reactivity descriptors are derived within the framework of the pair density functional theory. These indices provide valuable information about bonding rearrangements and activating mechanisms upon electrophilic or nucleophilic reactions. Indices derived and tested in this work represent nonlocal counterparts of the local reactivity indices derived in the context of conceptual density functional theory (CDFT) and frequently used in reactivity studies; the Fukui function, the local softness and the dual descriptor. In this work, we show how these nonlocal indices provide a quantum chemical basis to explain the success of qualitative resonance models in chemical reactivity predictions. Also, local information is implicitly contained as CDFT indices are obtained by simple integration. As illustrative examples, we have considered in this work the Markovnikov's rule, the reactivity of enolate anion, the nucleophilic conjugate addition to α,β-unsaturated compounds and the electrophilic aromatic substitution of benzene derivatives. The densities used in this work were obtained with Hartree-Fock, Kohn-Sham DFT, and singles and doubles configuration interaction (CISD) approaches.
2001-06-01
Correlation Functions of Non- Crystalline Materials DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the...PAIR CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF NON- CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS W. Hoyer, I. Kaban, Th. Halm Institute of Physics, TU - Chemnitz, D-09107, Chemnitz, Germany...correlation functions of the non- crystalline materials with low-coordinated (open) structure. Liquid Te and amorphous Ge-telluride have been chosen for
Nagy, A.
2011-09-15
A link between density and pair density functional theories is presented. Density and pair density scaling are used to derive the Euler equation in both theories. Density scaling provides a constructive way of obtaining approximations for the Pauli potential. The Pauli potential (energy) of the density functional theory is expressed as the difference of the scaled and original exchange-correlation potentials (energies).
Structure functions and parton distributions
Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J.; Roberts, R.G.
1995-07-01
The MRS parton distribution analysis is described. The latest sets are shown to give an excellent description of a wide range of deep-inelastic and other hard scattering data. Two important theoretical issues-the behavior of the distributions at small x and the flavor structure of the quark sea-are discussed in detail. A comparison with the new structure function data from HERA is made, and the outlook for the future is discussed.
Spin quasi-distribution functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scully, M. O.; Wódkiewicz, K.
1994-01-01
Two-classes of phase-space spin quasi-distribution functions are introduced and discussed. The first class of these distributions is based on the delta function construction. It is shown that such a construction can be carried out for an arbitrary spin s and an arbitrary ordering of the spin operators. The second class of the spin distributions is constructed with the help of the spin coherent states. The connection of the spin coherent states to the Stratonovich formalism is established and discussed. It is shown that the c-number phase-space description of quantum fluctuations provides a simple statistical picture of quantum fluctuations of spinoperators in terms of random directions on a unit sphere. For quantum states of the spin system the statistics of these random orientations is given by non-positive spin quasi-distribution functions. It is shown that the application of these spin quasi-distribution functions to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations provide an insight into the quantum theory of measurement.
King, Graham; Ramezanipour, Farshid; Llobet, Anna; Greedan, John E.
2013-02-15
The local structures of the oxygen deficient perovskites Sr{sub 2}FeMnO{sub 5}, Sr{sub 2}FeMnO{sub 5.5}, and Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 1.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 5} have been analyzed using neutron pair distribution function data. The results show that locally all three structures are more complex than implied by their average cubic structures and that the distributions of oxygen vacancies are not completely random on a local level. For both Sr{sub 2}FeMnO{sub 5+y} compounds it is found that there is no short range ordering of the Fe and Mn cations. For Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 1.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 5} there is evidence to suggest that the Fe/Cr distribution is not completely random and is locally ordered such that there are fewer Fe--Fe nearest neighbor pairs than in a random distribution. Reverse Monte Carlo modeling of the pair distribution function data has provided the Fe--O, Mn--O, and Cr--O bond length distributions and information on the coordination numbers of the Fe, Mn, and Cr cations. In Sr{sub 2}FeMnO{sub 5} it is found that the Fe{sup 3+} cations are most often in 4-fold coordination but there is also a large amount of Fe{sup 3+} in 5-fold coordination and a small amount in 6-fold coordination. The Mn{sup 3+} is split between 5-fold and 6-fold coordination. The Mn--O bond length distributions indicate that the Mn{sup 3+}O{sub 6} octahedra and Mn{sup 3+}O{sub 5} square pyramids are locally Jahn-Teller distorted. In Sr{sub 2}FeMnO{sub 5.5} the Fe{sup 3+} is almost entirely 5 coordinate while the Mn{sup 4+} is almost entirely 6 coordinate. The Cr{sup 3+} in Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 1.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 5} is almost entirely 6-fold coordinated, giving the Fe{sup 3+} an average coordination number of 4.67. In Sr{sub 2}FeMnO{sub 5} and Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 1.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 5} the Fe{sup 3+} and Sr{sup 2+} cations undergo local displacements which are driven by the oxygen vacancies, while the Mn{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} cations remain near their positions in the average structures. In Sr{sub 2
The Generalized Relative Pairs IBD Distribution: Its Use in the Detection of Linkage
Zou, Quan
2016-01-01
I introduce a novel approach to derive the distribution of disease affectional status given alleles identical by descent (IBD) sharing through ITO method. My approach tremendously simplifies the calculation of the affectional status distribution compared to the conventional method, which requires the parental mating information, and could be applied to disease with both dichotomous trait and quantitative trait locus (QTL). This distribution is shown to be independent of relative relationship and be employed to develop the marker IBD distributions for relative relationship. In addition, three linkage tests: the proportion, the mean test, and the LOD score test are proposed for different relative pairs based on their marker IBD distributions. Among all three tests, the mean test for sib pair requires the least sample size, thus, has the highest power. Finally, I evaluate the significance of different relative relationships by a Monte-Carlo simulation approach. PMID:27933287
Moriya, Maki; Miyahara, Masahiko; Hokazono, Mana; Sasaki, Hirokazu; Nemoto, Atsushi; Katayama, Shingo; Akimoto, Yuji; Hirano, Shin-ichi; Ren, Yang
2014-10-01
The stable cycling performance with a high discharge capacity of similar to 190 mAh g(-1) in a carbon-hybridized Li2MnSiO4 nanostructured powder has prompted an experimental investigation of the charged/discharged structures using synchrotron-based and laboratory-based X-rays and atomic-pair distributionfunction (PDF) analyses. A novel method of in-situ spray pyrolysis of a precursor solution with glucose as a carbon source enabled the successful synthesis of the carbon-hybridized Li2(M)nSiO(4) nanoparticles. The XRD patters of the discharged (lithiated) samples exhibit a long-range ordered structure characteristic of the (beta) Li2MnSiO4 crystalline phase (space group Pmn2(1)) which dissipates in the charged (delithiated) samples. However, upon discharging the long-range ordered structure recovers in each cycle. The disordered structure, according to the PDF analysis, is mainly due to local distortions of the MnO4 tetrahedra which show a mean Mn-O nearest neighbor distance shorter than that of the long-range ordered phase. These results corroborate the notion of the smaller Mn3+/Mn4+ ionic radii in the Li extracted phase versus the larger Mn2+ ionic radius in Li inserted phase. Thus Li extraction/insertion drives the fluctuation between the disordered and the long-range ordered structures. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Andersson, C; Engelsen, S B
1999-04-01
The hydration of carbohydrates plays a key role in many biological processes. Molecular dynamics simulations provide an effective tool for investigating the hydration of complex solutes such as carbohydrates. In this article we devise an algorithm for the calculation of two-dimensional radial pair distributions describing the probability of finding a water molecule in a site defined by two reference atoms. The normalized 2D radial pair distribution is proposed as an effective tool for investigating and comparing localized or ordered water sites around flexible molecules such as carbohydrates when analyzing molecular dynamics simulations and the utility of 2D radial pair distributions is demonstrated using sucrose as an example. In this relatively simple structure, 2D radial pair distributions were able to characterize and quantify the importance of two unique interresidue hydration sites in which a water molecule is forming a bridge between the glycopyranosyl and fructofuranosyl residues. The approach is proposed to be a valuable tool for comparing and understanding the hydration of flexible biomolecules such as carbohydrates.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsompanoudi, Despina; Satratzemi, Maya; Xinogalos, Stelios
2016-01-01
The results presented in this paper contribute to research on two different areas of teaching methods: distributed pair programming (DPP) and computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). An evaluation study of a DPP system that supports collaboration scripts was conducted over one semester of a computer science course. Seventy-four students…
Diffraction pattern simulation of cellulose fibrils using distributed and quantized pair distances
Zhang, Yan; Inouye, Hideyo; Crowley, Michael; ...
2016-10-14
Intensity simulation of X-ray scattering from large twisted cellulose molecular fibrils is important in understanding the impact of chemical or physical treatments on structural properties such as twisting or coiling. This paper describes a highly efficient method for the simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns from complex fibrils using atom-type-specific pair-distance quantization. Pair distances are sorted into arrays which are labelled by atom type. Histograms of pair distances in each array are computed and binned and the resulting population distributions are used to represent the whole pair-distance data set. These quantized pair-distance arrays are used with a modified and vectorized Debyemore » formula to simulate diffraction patterns. This approach utilizes fewer pair distances in each iteration, and atomic scattering factors are moved outside the iteration since the arrays are labelled by atom type. As a result, this algorithm significantly reduces the computation time while maintaining the accuracy of diffraction pattern simulation, making possible the simulation of diffraction patterns from large twisted fibrils in a relatively short period of time, as is required for model testing and refinement.« less
Diffraction pattern simulation of cellulose fibrils using distributed and quantized pair distances
Zhang, Yan; Inouye, Hideyo; Crowley, Michael; Yu, Leiming; Kaeli, David; Makowski, Lee
2016-10-14
Intensity simulation of X-ray scattering from large twisted cellulose molecular fibrils is important in understanding the impact of chemical or physical treatments on structural properties such as twisting or coiling. This paper describes a highly efficient method for the simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns from complex fibrils using atom-type-specific pair-distance quantization. Pair distances are sorted into arrays which are labelled by atom type. Histograms of pair distances in each array are computed and binned and the resulting population distributions are used to represent the whole pair-distance data set. These quantized pair-distance arrays are used with a modified and vectorized Debye formula to simulate diffraction patterns. This approach utilizes fewer pair distances in each iteration, and atomic scattering factors are moved outside the iteration since the arrays are labelled by atom type. As a result, this algorithm significantly reduces the computation time while maintaining the accuracy of diffraction pattern simulation, making possible the simulation of diffraction patterns from large twisted fibrils in a relatively short period of time, as is required for model testing and refinement.
Estimation of distribution function in bivariate competing risk models.
Sankaran, P G; Lawless, J F; Abraham, B; Antony, Ansa Alphonsa
2006-06-01
We consider lifetime data involving pairs of study individuals with more than one possible cause of failure for each individual. Non-parametric estimation of cause-specific distribution functions is considered under independent censoring. Properties of the estimators are discussed and an illustration of their application is given.
Pinning down the large- x gluon with NNLO top-quark pair differential distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czakon, Michał; Hartland, Nathan P.; Mitov, Alexander; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Rojo, Juan
2017-04-01
Top-quark pair production at the LHC is directly sensitive to the gluon PDF at large x. While total cross-section data is already included in several PDF determinations, differential distributions are not, because the corresponding NNLO calculations have become available only recently. In this work we study the impact on the large- x gluon of top-quark pair differential distributions measured by ATLAS and CMS at √{s}=8 TeV. Our analysis, performed in the NNPDF3.0 framework at NNLO accuracy, allows us to identify the optimal combination of LHC top-quark pair measurements that maximize the constraints on the gluon, as well as to assess the compatibility between ATLAS and CMS data. We find that differential distributions from top-quark pair production provide significant constraints on the large- x gluon, comparable to those obtained from inclusive jet production data, and thus should become an important ingredient for the next generation of global PDF fits.
Distributed practice can boost evaluative conditioning by increasing memory for the stimulus pairs.
Richter, Jasmin; Gast, Anne
2017-09-01
When presenting a neutral stimulus (CS) in close temporal and spatial proximity to a positive or negative stimulus (US) the former is often observed to adopt the valence of the latter, a phenomenon named evaluative conditioning (EC). It is already well established that under most conditions, contingency awareness is important for an EC effect to occur. In addition to that, some findings suggest that awareness of the stimulus pairs is not only relevant during the learning phase, but that it is also relevant whether memory for the pairings is still available during the measurement phase. As previous research has shown that memory is better after temporally distributed than after contiguous (massed) repetitions, it seems plausible that also EC effects are moderated by distributed practice manipulations. This was tested in the current studies. In two experiments with successful distributed practice manipulations on memory, we show that also the magnitude of the EC effect was larger for pairs learned under spaced compared to massed conditions. Both effects, on memory and on EC, are found after a within-participant and after a between-participant manipulation. However, we did not find significant differences in the EC effect for different conditions of spaced practice. These findings are in line with the assumption that EC is based on similar processes as memory for the pairings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The counterbalance theory for evolution and function of paired receptors.
Barclay, A Neil; Hatherley, Deborah
2008-11-14
Paired receptors are families of membrane proteins containing similar extracellular regions but differing in their potential for signaling with one type able to give inhibitory signals and the other activating. Inhibitory receptors could be good targets for pathogens to restrict immune responses against them. Here we suggest that activating members may have evolved to counterbalance pathogens utilizing the inhibitory pathway. Thus, if a pathogen utilizes any part of the inhibitory receptor to downregulate responses against itself, it may, because of similarities in structure, also bind the activating receptor and give an opposing signal. We evaluate recent structural data on SIRPalpha (signal regulatory protein) and LILRB1 (leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 1) showing evidence of pathogen pressure in nonligand-binding regions of these receptors together with data on pathogen binding to PIRs (paired Ig-like receptors) to provide support for this theory.
Unbiased estimators for spatial distribution functions of classical fluids.
Adib, Artur B; Jarzynski, Christopher
2005-01-01
We use a statistical-mechanical identity closely related to the familiar virial theorem, to derive unbiased estimators for spatial distribution functions of classical fluids. In particular, we obtain estimators for both the fluid density rho(r) in the vicinity of a fixed solute and the pair correlation g(r) of a homogeneous classical fluid. We illustrate the utility of our estimators with numerical examples, which reveal advantages over traditional histogram-based methods of computing such distributions.
Familial Clustering of Executive Functioning in Affected Sibling Pair Families with ADHD
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo; Buitelaar, Jan
2005-01-01
Objective: To investigate familial clustering of executive functioning (i.e., response inhibition, fine visuomotor functioning, and attentional control) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-affected sibling pairs. Method: Fifty-two affected sibling pairs aged 6 to 18 years and diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV performed the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petkov, Valeri; Prasai, Binay; Shan, Shiyao; Ren, Yang; Wu, Jinfang; Cronk, Hannah; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian
2016-05-01
Here we present the results from a study aimed at clarifying the relationship between the atomic structure and activity of nanocatalysts for chemical reactions driving fuel cells, such as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In particular, using in operando high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD) we tracked the evolution of the atomic structure and activity of noble metal-transition metal (NM-TM) nanocatalysts for ORR as they function at the cathode of a fully operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Experimental HE-XRD data were analysed in terms of atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) and compared to the current output of the PEMFC, which was also recorded during the experiments. The comparison revealed that under actual operating conditions, NM-TM nanocatalysts can undergo structural changes that differ significantly in both length-scale and dynamics and so can suffer losses in their ORR activity that differ significantly in both character and magnitude. Therefore we argue that strategies for reducing ORR activity losses should implement steps for achieving control not only over the length but also over the time-scale of the structural changes of NM-TM NPs that indeed occur during PEMFC operation. Moreover, we demonstrate how such a control can be achieved and thereby the performance of PEMFCs improved considerably. Last but not least, we argue that the unique capabilities of in operando HE-XRD coupled to atomic PDF analysis to characterize active nanocatalysts inside operating fuel cells both in a time-resolved manner and with atomic level resolution, i.e. in 4D, can serve well the ongoing search for nanocatalysts that deliver more with less platinum.Here we present the results from a study aimed at clarifying the relationship between the atomic structure and activity of nanocatalysts for chemical reactions driving fuel cells, such as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In particular, using in operando high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE
Noureddine, Achraf; Lichon, Laure; Maynadier, Marie; Garcia, Marcel; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Zink, Jeffrey I; Cattoën, Xavier; Wong Chi Man, Michel
2015-07-14
The synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles bearing organic functionalities is strained by the careful adjustment of the reaction parameters, as the incorporation of functional and/or voluminous organosilanes during the sol-gel synthesis strongly affects the final structure of the nanoparticles. In this paper we describe the design of new clickable mesoporous silica nanoparticles as spheres or rods, synthesized by the co-condensation of TEOS with two clickable organosilanes (bearing alkyne and azide groups) and readily multi-functionalizable by CuAAC click chemistry. We show that controlled loadings of clickable functions can be homogeneously distributed within the MSN, allowing us to efficiently click-graft various pairs of functionalities while preserving the texture and morphology of the particles. The homogeneous distribution of the grafted functionalities was probed by FRET experiments between two anchored fluorophores. Moreover, a communication by proton transfer between two functions was demonstrated by constructing a light-actuated nanomachine that works through a proton transfer between a photoacid generator and a pH-sensitive supramolecular nanogate. The activation of the nanomachine enabled the successful release of rhodamine B in buffered solutions and the delivery of doxorubicin in breast cancer cells (MCF-7) upon blue irradiation.
Petkov, Valeri; Prasai, Binay; Shan, Shiyao; Ren, Yang; Wu, Jinfang; Cronk, Hannah; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian
2016-05-19
Here we present the results from a study aimed at clarifying the relationship between the atomic structure and activity of nanocatalysts for chemical reactions driving fuel cells, such as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In particular, using in operando high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD) we tracked the evolution of the atomic structure and activity of noble metal-transition metal (NM-TM) nanocatalysts for ORR as they function at the cathode of a fully operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Experimental HE-XRD data were analysed in terms of atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) and compared to the current output of the PEMFC, which was also recorded during the experiments. The comparison revealed that under actual operating conditions, NM-TM nanocatalysts can undergo structural changes that differ significantly in both length-scale and dynamics and so can suffer losses in their ORR activity that differ significantly in both character and magnitude. Therefore we argue that strategies for reducing ORR activity losses should implement steps for achieving control not only over the length but also over the time-scale of the structural changes of NM-TM NPs that indeed occur during PEMFC operation. Moreover, we demonstrate how such a control can be achieved and thereby the performance of PEMFCs improved considerably. Last but not least, we argue that the unique capabilities of in operando HE-XRD coupled to atomic PDF analysis to characterize active nanocatalysts inside operating fuel cells both in a time-resolved manner and with atomic level resolution, i.e. in 4D, can serve well the ongoing search for nanocatalysts that deliver more with less platinum.
On the distribution of the unpaired t-statistic with paired data.
Proschan, M A
1996-05-30
I derive the exact distribution of the unpaired t-statistic computed when the data actually come from a paired design. I use this to prove a result Diehr et al. obtained by simulation, namely that the type I error rate of this procedure is no greater than alpha regardless of the sample size. I provide a formula to use in computation of power and type I error rate.
Variational derivation of equation for generalized pair correlation function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, F. Bary
1992-01-01
The wavefunction of a system is explicitly written down in a fully anti-symmetric way between a fermion pair and a medium, and the equations for each one of them are derived from the variation of total energy for bound systems and by forming appropriate scalar products for continuum states. High-energy particles, such as protons, electrons, and nuclei impinging upon spacecraft, produce secondary radiations. In order to protect the internal environment of spacecraft from these radiations, their intensities are determined in many instances theoretically, and an appropriate program has been developed in the High Energy Science Branch. The purpose of this research is to investigate the problem of indistinguishability of an incident projectile with one of the same in a target.
Pire, B; Szymanowski, L
2009-08-14
We describe a new way to access the chiral-odd transversity parton distribution in the proton through the photoproduction of lepton pairs. The basic ingredient is the interference of the usual Bethe-Heitler or Drell-Yan amplitudes with the amplitude of a process, where the photon couples to quarks through its chiral-odd distribution amplitude, which is normalized to the magnetic susceptibility of the QCD vacuum. A promising phenomenology of single and double spin observables emerges from the unusual features of this amplitude.
Pair-correlation function of a metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate
Zin, Pawel; Trippenbach, Marek; Gajda, Mariusz
2004-02-01
The pair-correlation function is one of the basic quantities to characterize the coherence properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate. We calculate this function in the experimentally important case of a zero temperature Bose-Einstein condensate in a metastable triplet helium state using the variational method with a pair-excitation ansatz. We compare our result with a pair-correlation function obtained for the hard-sphere potential with the same scattering length. Both functions are practically indistinguishable for distances greater than the scattering length. At smaller distances, due to interatomic interactions, the helium condensate shows strong correlations.
The Differential cross section distribution of Drell-Yan dielectron pairs in the z boson mass region
Han, Jiyeon
2008-01-01
We report on a measurement of the rapidity distribution, dσ/dy, for Z=Drell-Yan → ee events produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV. The data sample consists of 2.13 fb^{-1} corresponding to about 160,000 Z/Drell-Yan → ee candidates in the Z boson mass region collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The dσ/dy distribution, which is measured over the full kinematic range for e^{+}e^{-} pairs in the invariant mass range 66 < M_{ee} < 116 GeV/c^{2}, is compared with theory predictions. There is good agreement between the data and predictions of Quantum Chromodynamics in Next to Leading Order with the CTEQ6.1M Parton Distribution Functions.
Mutation analysis of the base-pair connecting two functional modules in the DSL ribozyme.
Ishikawa, Junya; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya
2008-01-01
The class DSL ribozyme is one of artificial RNA enzymes generated by module-based molecular design. In the structure of this ribozyme, two most important functional modules are connected by a U-A base-pair. We have examined the possible importance of this base-pair by site-directed mutation experiments using the DSL-1S ribozyme and its derivative possessing altered modular organization. The analysis indicated that the DSL-1S ribozyme preferred U-A pair at the positions whereas the derivative preferred A-U pair.
Sweet complementarity: the functional pairing of glycans with lectins.
Gabius, H-J; Manning, J C; Kopitz, J; André, S; Kaltner, H
2016-05-01
Carbohydrates establish the third alphabet of life. As part of cellular glycoconjugates, the glycans generate a multitude of signals in a minimum of space. The presence of distinct glycotopes and the glycome diversity are mapped by sugar receptors (antibodies and lectins). Endogenous (tissue) lectins can read the sugar-encoded information and translate it into functional aspects of cell sociology. Illustrated by instructive examples, each glycan has its own ligand properties. Lectins with different folds can converge to target the same epitope, while intrafamily diversification enables functional cooperation and antagonism. The emerging evidence for the concept of a network calls for a detailed fingerprinting. Due to the high degree of plasticity and dynamics of the display of genes for lectins the validity of extrapolations between different organisms of the phylogenetic tree yet is inevitably limited.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shabram, Megan; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Ford, Eric B.
2015-12-01
We characterize the mass-radius-eccentricity distribution of transiting planets near first-order mean motion resonances using Transit Timing Variation (TTV) observations from NASA's Kepler mission. Kepler's precise measurements of transit times (Mazeh et al. 2014; Rowe et al. 2015) constrain the planet-star mass ratio, eccentricity and pericenter directions for hundreds of planets. Strongly-interacting planetary systems allow TTVs to provide precise measurements of masses and orbital eccentricities separately (e.g., Kepler-36, Carter et al. 2012). In addition to these precisely characterized planetary systems, there are several systems harboring at least two planets near a mean motion resonance (MMR) for which TTVs provide a joint constraint on planet masses, eccentricities and pericenter directions (Hadden et al. 2015). Unfortunately, a near degeneracy between these parameters leads to a posterior probability density with highly correlated uncertainties. Nevertheless, the population encodes valuable information about the distribution of planet masses, orbital eccentricities and the planet mass-radius relationship. We characterize the distribution of masses and eccentricities for near-resonant transiting planets by combining a hierarchical Bayesian model with an analytic model for the TTV signatures of near-resonant planet pairs (Lithwick & Wu 2012). By developing a rigorous statistical framework for analyzing the TTV signatures of a population of planetary systems, we significantly improve upon previous analyses. For example, our analysis includes transit timing measurements of near-resonant transiting planet pairs regardless of whether there is a significant detection of TTVs, thereby avoiding biases due to only including TTV detections.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiktor, Julia; Jomard, Gérald; Torrent, Marc; Bertolus, Marjorie
2017-01-01
We performed first-principles calculations of the momentum distributions of annihilating electron-positron pairs in vacancies in uranium dioxide. Full atomic relaxation effects (due to both electronic and positronic forces) were taken into account and self-consistent two-component density functional theory schemes were used. We present one-dimensional momentum distributions (Doppler-broadened annihilation radiation line shapes) along with line-shape parameters S and W. We studied the effect of the charge state of the defect on the Doppler spectra. The effect of krypton incorporation in the vacancy was also considered and it was shown that it should be possible to observe the fission gas incorporation in defects in UO2 using positron annihilation spectroscopy. We suggest that the Doppler broadening measurements can be especially useful for studying impurities and dopants in UO2 and of mixed actinide oxides.
Lerma H, S.
2010-07-15
The structure of the exact wave function of the isovectorial pairing Hamiltonian with nondegenerate single-particle levels is discussed. The way that the single-particle splittings break the quartet condensate solution found for N=Z nuclei in a single degenerate level is established. After a brief review of the exact solution, the structure of the wave function is analyzed and some particular cases are considered where a clear interpretation of the wave function emerges. An expression for the exact wave function in terms of the isospin triplet of pair creators is given. The ground-state wave function is analyzed as a function of pairing strength, for a system of four protons and four neutrons. For small and large values of the pairing strength a dominance of two-pair (quartets) scalar couplings is found, whereas for intermediate values enhancements of the nonscalar couplings are obtained. A correlation of these enhancements with the creation of Cooper-like pairs is observed.
Function Transfer in Human Operant Experiments: The Role of Stimulus Pairings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tonneau, Francois; Gonzalez, Carmen
2004-01-01
Although function transfer often has been studied in complex operant procedures (such as matching to sample), whether operant reinforcement actually produces function transfer in such settings has not been established. The present experiments, with high school students as subjects, suggest that stimulus pairings can promote function transfer in…
Ulrich, Beverly D.; Martin, Bernard
2015-01-01
In muscle responses of proprioceptive origin, including the stretch/tendon reflex (T-reflex), the corresponding reciprocal excitation and irradiation to distant muscles have been described from newborn infants to older adults. However, the functioning of other responses mediated primarily by Ia-afferents has not been investigated in infants. Understanding the typical development of these multiple pathways is critical to determining potential problems in their development in populations affected by neurological disease, such as spina bifida or cerebral palsy. Hence, the goal of the present study was to quantify the excitability of Ia-mediated responses in lower limb muscles of infants with typical development. These responses were elicited by mechanical stimulation applied to the distal tendons of the gastrocnemius-soleus (GS), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (QAD) muscles of both legs in twelve 2- to 10-month-old infants and recorded simultaneously in antagonist muscle pairs by surface EMG. Tendon taps alone elicited responses in either, both or neither muscle. The homonymous response (T-reflex) was less frequent in the TA than the GS or QAD muscle. An 80 Hz vibration superimposed on tendon taps induced primarily an inhibition of monosynaptic responses; however, facilitation also occurred in either muscle of the recorded pair. These responses were not influenced significantly by age or gender. Vibration alone produced a tonic reflex response in the vibrated muscle (TVR) and/or the antagonist muscle (AVR). However, for the TA muscle the TVR was more frequently elicited in older than younger infants. High variability was common to all responses. Overall, the random distribution and inconsistency of muscle responses suggests that the gain of Ia-mediated feedback is unstable. We propose that during infancy the central nervous system needs to learn to set stable feedback gain, or destination of proprioceptive assistance, based on their use during functional
Teulier, Caroline; Ulrich, Beverly D; Martin, Bernard
2011-02-01
In muscle responses of proprioceptive origin, including the stretch/tendon reflex (T-reflex), the corresponding reciprocal excitation and irradiation to distant muscles have been described from newborn infants to older adults. However, the functioning of other responses mediated primarily by Ia-afferents has not been investigated in infants. Understanding the typical development of these multiple pathways is critical to determining potential problems in their development in populations affected by neurological disease, such as spina bifida or cerebral palsy. Hence, the goal of the present study was to quantify the excitability of Ia-mediated responses in lower limb muscles of infants with typical development. These responses were elicited by mechanical stimulation applied to the distal tendons of the gastrocnemius-soleus (GS), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (QAD) muscles of both legs in twelve 2- to 10-month-old infants and recorded simultaneously in antagonist muscle pairs by surface EMG. Tendon taps alone elicited responses in either, both or neither muscle. The homonymous response (T-reflex) was less frequent in the TA than the GS or QAD muscle. An 80 Hz vibration superimposed on tendon taps induced primarily an inhibition of monosynaptic responses; however, facilitation also occurred in either muscle of the recorded pair. These responses were not influenced significantly by age or gender. Vibration alone produced a tonic reflex response in the vibrated muscle (TVR) and/or the antagonist muscle (AVR). However, for the TA muscle the TVR was more frequently elicited in older than younger infants. High variability was common to all responses. Overall, the random distribution and inconsistency of muscle responses suggests that the gain of Ia-mediated feedback is unstable. We propose that during infancy the central nervous system needs to learn to set stable feedback gain, or destination of proprioceptive assistance, based on their use during functional
Leszczynska, M; Liu, X; Wrobel, W; Malys, M; Norberg, S T; Hull, S; Krok, F; Abrahams, I
2013-11-13
Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling of neutron total scattering data, combined with conventional Rietveld analysis of x-ray and neutron data, has been used to describe the cation coordination environments and vacancy pair distribution in the oxide ion conducting electrolyte Bi3YbO6. The thermal variation of the cubic fluorite unit cell volume, monitored by variable temperature x-ray and neutron experiments, reveals significant curvature, which is explained by changes in the oxide ion distribution. There is a significant increase in tetrahedral oxide ion vacancy concentration relative to δ-Bi2O3, due to the creation of Frenkel defects associated with the Yb(3+) cation. The tetrahedral oxide ion vacancy concentration increases from room temperature to 800 °C, but little change is observed in the vacancy pair distribution with temperature. The vacancy pair distributions at both temperatures are consistent with a favouring of [100] vacancy pairs.
New wrapped distribution via Richard link function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demirelli, Arzu Ekinci; Gürcan, Mehmet
2017-07-01
In this paper, we investigate a new wrapped distribution obtained from Richard link function. In the literature, many probability distributions are used wrapped form via normal, Cauchy, etc.. In this point, the most important characteristic of the Richard link function is that the flexible. Because of this feature Richard link function is useful. But, the Richard link function does not have a distribution form and analytical solution of parameter estimation. In this study we examined properties of wrapped Richard distribution and we have sampled for ant data.
Demuru, M; Gouw, A A; Hillebrand, A; Stam, C J; van Dijk, B W; Scheltens, P; Tijms, B M; Konijnenberg, E; Ten Kate, M; den Braber, A; Smit, D J A; Boomsma, D I; Visser, P J
2017-08-29
Resting-state functional connectivity patterns are highly stable over time within subjects. This suggests that such 'functional fingerprints' may have strong genetic component. We investigated whether the functional (FC) or effective (EC) connectivity patterns of one monozygotic twin could be used to identify the co-twin among a larger sample and determined the overlap in functional fingerprints within monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs using resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG). We included 32 cognitively normal MZ twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register who participate in the EMIF-AD preclinAD study (average age 68 years). Combining EC information across multiple frequency bands we obtained an identification rate over 75%. Since MZ twin pairs are genetically identical these results suggest a high genetic contribution to MEG-based EC patterns, leading to large similarities in brain connectivity patterns between two individuals even after 60 years of life or more.
Probability distribution functions of the Grincevicjus series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapica, Rafal; Morawiec, Janusz
2008-06-01
Given a sequence ([xi]n,[eta]n) of independent identically distributed vectors of random variables we consider the Grincevicjus series and a functional-integral equation connected with it. We prove that the equation characterizes all probability distribution functions of the Grincevicjus series. Moreover, some application of this characterization to a continuous refinement equation is presented.
On Approximation of Distribution and Density Functions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wolff, Hans
Stochastic approximation algorithms for least square error approximation to density and distribution functions are considered. The main results are necessary and sufficient parameter conditions for the convergence of the approximation processes and a generalization to some time-dependent density and distribution functions. (Author)
Singh, Sheo B; Zhang, Chaowei; Zink, Deborah L; Herath, Kithsiri; Ondeyka, John; Masurekar, Prakash; Jayasuriya, Hiranthi; Goetz, Michael A; Tormo, Jose Rubén; Vicente, Francisca; Martín, Jesús; González, Ignacio; Genilloud, Olga
2013-10-01
Natural products have been major sources of antibacterial agents and remain very promising. Frequent rediscoveries of known compounds hampers progress of new discoveries and demands development and utilization of new methods for rapid biological and chemical dereplication. This paper describes an efficient approach for discovery of new thiazolyl peptides by sensitive-resistant pair screening and dereplication in a time and cost-effective manner at industrial scale. A highly effective library-based dereplication of thiazolyl peptides by high resolution fourier transform liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HRFTLCMS) has been developed, which can detect and dereplicate very low levels of thiazolyl peptides particularly when combined with miniaturized high-throughput 96-well solid-phase extraction separation, and as well can be automated. Combination of sensitive (susceptible)-resistant pair screening, diversified screening collection and miniaturized high-throughput SPE and HRFTLCMS techniques were applied for discovery of new thiazolyl peptides. The combined approach allowed for identification of over 24 thiazolyl peptides represented by three of the five structural subgroups, including three novel compounds. In addition, it is possible for the first time to mechanistically group three structural subgroups of over 24 thiazolyl peptides. Furthermore, these studies helped to understand natural frequency of distribution of these compounds and helped in discovery of new producing strains of many thiazolyl compounds.
Murugan, N Arul; Chakrabarti, Swapan; Ågren, Hans
2011-04-14
We have studied the structures and absorption spectra of merocyanine, the photoresponsive isomer of the spiropyran (SP)-merocyanine (MC) pair, in chloroform and in water solvents using a combined hybrid QM/MM Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CP-QM/MM) and ZINDO approach. We report remarkable differences in the molecular structure and charge distribution of MC between the two solvents; the molecular structure of MC remains in neutral form in chloroform while it becomes charge-separated, zwitterionic, in water. The dipole moment of MC in water is about 50% larger than in chloroform, while the value for SP in water is in between, suggesting that the solvent is more influential than the conformation itself in deciding the dipole moment for the merocyanine-spiropyran pair. The calculations could reproduce the experimentally reported blue shift in the absorption spectra of MC when going from the nonpolar to the polar solvent, though the actual value of the absorption maximum is overestimated in chloroform solvent. We find that the CP-QM/MM approach is appropriate for structure modeling of solvatochromic and thermochromic molecules as this approach is able to capture the solvent and thermal-induced structural changes within the solute important for an accurate assessment of the properties.
Synthesis and characterization of bifunctional surfaces with tunable functional group pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galloway, John M.; Kung, Mayfair; Kung, Harold H.
2016-06-01
Grafting of pairs of functional groups onto a silica surface was demonstrated by tethering both terminals of an organochlorosilane precursor molecule, Cl2(CH3)Si(CH2)4(CO)(OSi(i-Pr)2)(CH2)2Si(CH3)Cl2, that possess a cleavable silyl ester bond, onto a silica surface. Hydrolytic cleavage of the silyl ester bond of the grafted molecule resulted in the generation of organized pairs of carboxylic acid and organosilanol groups. This organosilanol moiety was easily transformed into other functional groups through condensation reactions to form, together with the neighboring acid group, pairs such as carboxylic acid/secondary amine, carboxylic acid/pyridine, and carboxylic acid/phosphine. In the case of carboxylic acid/amine pairing, there was evidence of the formation of amide. A sample grafted with amine-carboxylic acid pairs was three times more active (per free amine) than a sample without such pairs for the nitroaldol condensation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and nitromethane.
The parton distribution function library
Plothow-Besch, H.
1995-07-01
This article describes an integrated package of Parton Density Functions called PDFLIB which has been added to the CERN Program Library Pool W999 and is labelled as W5051. In this package all the different sets of parton density functions of the Nucleon, Pion and the Photon which are available today have been put together. All these sets have been combined in a consistent way such that they all have similar calling sequences and no external data files have to be read in anymore. A default set has been prepared, although those preferring their own set or wanting to test a new one may do so within the package. The package also offers a program to calculate the strong coupling constant {alpha}, to first or second order. The correct {Lambda}{sub QCD} associated to the selected set of structure functions and the number of allowed flavours with respect to the given Q{sup 2} is automatically used in the calculation. The selection of sets, the program parameters as well as the possibilities to modify the defaults and to control errors occurred during execution are described.
An unnatural base pair system for efficient PCR amplification and functionalization of DNA molecules
Kimoto, Michiko; Kawai, Rie; Mitsui, Tsuneo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hirao, Ichiro
2009-01-01
Toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet, we present an unnatural base pair system for efficient PCR amplification, enabling the site-specific incorporation of extra functional components into DNA. This system can be applied to conventional PCR protocols employing DNA templates containing unnatural bases, natural and unnatural base triphosphates, and a 3′→5′ exonuclease-proficient DNA polymerase. For highly faithful and efficient PCR amplification involving the unnatural base pairing, we identified the natural-base sequences surrounding the unnatural bases in DNA templates by an in vitro selection technique, using a DNA library containing the unnatural base. The system facilitates the site-specific incorporation of a variety of modified unnatural bases, linked with functional groups of interest, into amplified DNA. DNA fragments (0.15 amol) containing the unnatural base pair can be amplified 107-fold by 30 cycles of PCR, with <1% total mutation rate of the unnatural base pair site. Using the system, we demonstrated efficient PCR amplification and functionalization of DNA fragments for the extremely sensitive detection of zeptomol-scale target DNA molecules from mixtures with excess amounts (pmol scale) of foreign DNA species. This unnatural base pair system will be applicable to a wide range of DNA/RNA-based technologies. PMID:19073696
Particulate distribution function evolution for ejecta transport
Hammerberg, James Edward; Plohr, Bradley J
2010-01-01
The time evolution of the ejecta distribution function in a gas is discussed in the context of the recent experiments of W. Buttler and M. Zellner for well characterized Sn surfaces. Evolution equations are derived for the particulate distribution function when the dominant gas-particle interaction in is particulate drag. In the approximation of separability of the distribution function in velocity and size, the solution for the time dependent distribution function is a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind whose kernel is expressible in terms of the vacuum time dependent velocity distribution function measured with piezo probes or Asay foils. The solution of this equation in principle gives the size distribution function. We discuss the solution of this equation and the results of the Buttler - Zellner experiments. These suggest that correlations in velocity and size are necessary for a complete description of the transport dala. The solutions presented also represent an analytic test problem for the calculated distribution function in ejecta transport implementations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radyushkin, A. V.
2017-08-01
We show that quasi-parton distribution functions (quasi-PDFs) may be treated as hybrids of PDFs and primordial rest-frame momentum distributions of partons. This results in a complicated convolution nature of quasi-PDFs that necessitates using large p3≳3 GeV momenta to get reasonably close to the PDF limit. As an alternative approach, we propose using pseudo-PDFs P (x ,z32) that generalize the light-front PDFs onto spacelike intervals and are related to Ioffe-time distributions M (ν ,z32), the functions of the Ioffe time ν =p3z3 and the distance parameter z32 with respect to which it displays perturbative evolution for small z3. In this form, one may divide out the z32 dependence coming from the primordial rest-frame distribution and from the problematic factor due to lattice renormalization of the gauge link. The ν dependence remains intact and determines the shape of PDFs.
Plasma Dispersion Function for the Kappa Distribution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Podesta, John J.
2004-01-01
The plasma dispersion function is computed for a homogeneous isotropic plasma in which the particle velocities are distributed according to a Kappa distribution. An ordinary differential equation is derived for the plasma dispersion function and it is shown that the solution can be written in terms of Gauss' hypergeometric function. Using the extensive theory of the hypergeometric function, various mathematical properties of the plasma dispersion function are derived including symmetry relations, series expansions, integral representations, and closed form expressions for integer and half-integer values of K.
Fog droplet distribution functions for lidar.
Mallow, J V
1982-04-15
The interpretation of lidar data on fog has been limited by two obstacles: approximations in the form of the Mie scattering cross sections for water droplets, and droplet size distribution functions whose relationship to the experiment has not been clear. This paper develops a method for generating distribution functions from experimental data. These functions are then used with newly available Mie cross sections to obtain backscattering and extinction coefficients for singly scattered ruby laser pulses in fog. The results show what experimental lidar accuracies are needed to uniquely determine fog droplet size distribution.
Fog droplet distribution functions for lidar
Mallow, J.V.
1982-04-15
The interpretation of lidar data on fog has been limited by two obstacles: approximations in the form of the Mie scattering cross sections for water droplets, and droplet size distribution functions whose relationship to the experiment has not been clear. This paper develops a method for generating distribution functions from experimental data. These functions are then used with newly available Mie cross sections to obtain backscattering and extinction coefficients for singly scattered ruby laser pulses in fog. The results show what experimental lidar accuracies are needed to uniquely determine fog droplet size distribution.
Linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory with pairing fields.
Peng, Degao; van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao
2014-05-14
Recent development in particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) broadens the perspective on ground state correlation energies [H. van Aggelen, Y. Yang, and W. Yang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 030501 (2013), Y. Yang, H. van Aggelen, S. N. Steinmann, D. Peng, and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174110 (2013); D. Peng, S. N. Steinmann, H. van Aggelen, and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104112 (2013)] and N ± 2 excitation energies [Y. Yang, H. van Aggelen, and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 224105 (2013)]. So far Hartree-Fock and approximated density-functional orbitals have been utilized to evaluate the pp-RPA equation. In this paper, to further explore the fundamentals and the potential use of pairing matrix dependent functionals, we present the linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory with pairing fields with both adiabatic and frequency-dependent kernels. This theory is related to the density-functional theory and time-dependent density-functional theory for superconductors, but is applied to normal non-superconducting systems for our purpose. Due to the lack of the proof of the one-to-one mapping between the pairing matrix and the pairing field for time-dependent systems, the linear-response theory is established based on the representability assumption of the pairing matrix. The linear response theory justifies the use of approximated density-functionals in the pp-RPA equation. This work sets the fundamentals for future density-functional development to enhance the description of ground state correlation energies and N ± 2 excitation energies.
Pair-flowered cymes in the Lamiales: structure, distribution and origin
Weber, Anton
2013-01-01
Background and Aims In the Lamiales, indeterminate thyrses (made up of axillary cymes) represent a significant inflorescence type. However, it has been largely overlooked that there occur two types of cymes: (1) ordinary cymes, and (2) ‘pair-flowered cymes’ (PFCs), with a flower pair (terminal and front flower) topping each cyme unit. PFCs are unique to the Lamiales and their distribution, origin and phylogeny are not well understood. Methods The Lamiales are screened as to the occurrence of PFCs, ordinary cymes and single flowers (constituting racemic inflorescences). Key Results PFCs are shown to exhibit a considerable morphological and developmental diversity and are documented to occur in four neighbouring taxa of Lamiales: Calceolariaceae, Sanango, Gesneriaceae and Plantaginaceae. They are omnipresent in the Calceolariaceae and almost so in the Gesneriaceae. In the Plantaginaceae, PFCs are restricted to the small sister tribes Russelieae and Cheloneae (while the large remainder has single flowers in the leaf/bract axils; ordinary cymes do not occur). Regarding the origin of PFCs, the inflorescences of the genus Peltanthera (unplaced as to family; sister to Calceolariaceae, Sanango and Gesneriaceae in most molecular phylogenies) support the idea that PFCs have originated from paniculate systems, with the front-flowers representing remnant flowers. Conclusions From the exclusive occurrence of PFCs in the Lamiales and the proximity of the respective taxa in molecular phylogenies it may be expected that PFCs have originated once, representing a synapomorphy for this group of taxa and fading out within the Plantaginaceae. However, molecular evidence is ambiguous. Depending on the position of Peltanthera (depending in turn on the kind and number of genes and taxa analysed) a single, a double (the most probable scenario) or a triple origin appears conceivable. PMID:23884395
Pair-flowered cymes in the Lamiales: structure, distribution and origin.
Weber, Anton
2013-11-01
In the Lamiales, indeterminate thyrses (made up of axillary cymes) represent a significant inflorescence type. However, it has been largely overlooked that there occur two types of cymes: (1) ordinary cymes, and (2) 'pair-flowered cymes' (PFCs), with a flower pair (terminal and front flower) topping each cyme unit. PFCs are unique to the Lamiales and their distribution, origin and phylogeny are not well understood. The Lamiales are screened as to the occurrence of PFCs, ordinary cymes and single flowers (constituting racemic inflorescences). PFCs are shown to exhibit a considerable morphological and developmental diversity and are documented to occur in four neighbouring taxa of Lamiales: Calceolariaceae, Sanango, Gesneriaceae and Plantaginaceae. They are omnipresent in the Calceolariaceae and almost so in the Gesneriaceae. In the Plantaginaceae, PFCs are restricted to the small sister tribes Russelieae and Cheloneae (while the large remainder has single flowers in the leaf/bract axils; ordinary cymes do not occur). Regarding the origin of PFCs, the inflorescences of the genus Peltanthera (unplaced as to family; sister to Calceolariaceae, Sanango and Gesneriaceae in most molecular phylogenies) support the idea that PFCs have originated from paniculate systems, with the front-flowers representing remnant flowers. From the exclusive occurrence of PFCs in the Lamiales and the proximity of the respective taxa in molecular phylogenies it may be expected that PFCs have originated once, representing a synapomorphy for this group of taxa and fading out within the Plantaginaceae. However, molecular evidence is ambiguous. Depending on the position of Peltanthera (depending in turn on the kind and number of genes and taxa analysed) a single, a double (the most probable scenario) or a triple origin appears conceivable.
Winges, Sara A.; Johnston, Jamie A.; Santello, Marco
2007-01-01
To gain insight into the synergistic control of hand muscles, we have recently quantified the strength of correlated neural activity across motor units from extrinsic digit flexors during a five-digit object-hold task. We found stronger synchrony and coherence across motor units from thumb and index finger flexor muscle compartment than between the thumb flexor and other finger flexor muscle compartments. The present study of two-digit object hold was designed to determine the extent to which such distribution of common input among thumb-finger flexor muscle compartments, revealed by holding an object with five digits, is preserved when varying the functional role of a given digit pair. We recorded normal force exerted by the digits and electrical activity of single motor units from muscle flexor pollicis longus (FPL) and two compartments of the m. flexor digitorum profundus (FDP2 and FDP3; index and middle finger, respectively). Consistent with our previous results from five-digit grasping, synchrony and coherence across motor units from FPL-FDP2 was significantly stronger than in FPL-FDP3 during object hold with two digits [common input strength: 0.49 ± 0.02 and 0.35 ± 0.02 (means ± SE), respectively; peak coherence: 0.0054 and 0.0038, respectively]. This suggests that the distribution of common neural input is muscle-pair specific regardless of grip type. However, the strength of coherence, but not synchrony, was significantly stronger in two- versus five-digit object hold for both muscle combinations, suggesting the periodicity of common input is sensitive to grip type. PMID:16723414
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donev, Aleksandar; Torquato, Salvatore; Stillinger, Frank H.
2005-01-01
We study the approach to jamming in hard-sphere packings and, in particular, the pair correlation function g2(r) around contact, both theoretically and computationally. Our computational data unambiguously separate the narrowing δ -function contribution to g2 due to emerging interparticle contacts from the background contribution due to near contacts. The data also show with unprecedented accuracy that disordered hard-sphere packings are strictly isostatic: i.e., the number of exact contacts in the jamming limit is exactly equal to the number of degrees of freedom, once rattlers are removed. For such isostatic packings, we derive a theoretical connection between the probability distribution of interparticle forces Pf(f) , which we measure computationally, and the contact contribution to g2 . We verify this relation for computationally generated isostatic packings that are representative of the maximally random jammed state. We clearly observe a maximum in Pf and a nonzero probability of zero force, shedding light on long-standing questions in the granular-media literature. We computationally observe an unusual power-law divergence in the near-contact contribution to g2 , persistent even in the jamming limit, with exponent -0.4 clearly distinguishable from previously proposed inverse-square-root divergence. Additionally, we present high-quality numerical data on the two discontinuities in the split-second peak of g2 and use a shared-neighbor analysis of the graph representing the contact network to study the local particle clusters responsible for the peculiar features. Finally, we present the computational data on the contact contribution to g2 for vacancy-diluted fcc crystal packings and also investigate partially crystallized packings along the transition from maximally disordered to fully ordered packings. We find that the contact network remains isostatic even when ordering is present. Unlike previous studies, we find that ordering has a significant impact on
A pair-conformation-dependent scoring function for evaluating 3D RNA-protein complex structures
Li, Haotian; Huang, Yangyu
2017-01-01
Computational prediction of RNA-protein complex 3D structures includes two basic steps: one is sampling possible structures and another is scoring the sampled structures to pick out the correct one. At present, constructing accurate scoring functions is still not well solved and the performances of the scoring functions usually depend on used benchmarks. Here we propose a pair-conformation-dependent scoring function, 3dRPC-Score, for 3D RNA-protein complex structure prediction by considering the nucleotide-residue pairs having the same energy if their conformations are similar, instead of the distance-only dependence of the most existing scoring functions. Benchmarking shows that 3dRPC-Score has a consistent performance in three test sets. PMID:28358834
A pair-conformation-dependent scoring function for evaluating 3D RNA-protein complex structures.
Li, Haotian; Huang, Yangyu; Xiao, Yi
2017-01-01
Computational prediction of RNA-protein complex 3D structures includes two basic steps: one is sampling possible structures and another is scoring the sampled structures to pick out the correct one. At present, constructing accurate scoring functions is still not well solved and the performances of the scoring functions usually depend on used benchmarks. Here we propose a pair-conformation-dependent scoring function, 3dRPC-Score, for 3D RNA-protein complex structure prediction by considering the nucleotide-residue pairs having the same energy if their conformations are similar, instead of the distance-only dependence of the most existing scoring functions. Benchmarking shows that 3dRPC-Score has a consistent performance in three test sets.
Extracting the kaon Collins function from e+e- hadron pair production data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anselmino, M.; Boglione, M.; D'Alesio, U.; Hernandez, J. O. Gonzalez; Melis, S.; Murgia, F.; Prokudin, A.
2016-02-01
The latest data released by the BABAR Collaboration on azimuthal correlations measured for pion-kaon and kaon-kaon pairs produced in e+e- annihilations allow, for the first time, a direct extraction of the kaon Collins functions. These functions are then used to compute the kaon Collins asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes, which result in good agreement with the measurements performed by the HERMES and COMPASS collaborations.
Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with heralded pair-coherent sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Le; Zhao, Shengmei
2017-04-01
Round-robin differential-phase-shift (RRDPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme provides an effective way to overcome the signal disturbance from the transmission process. However, most RRDPS-QKD schemes use weak coherent pulses (WCPs) as the replacement of the perfect single-photon source. Considering the heralded pair-coherent source (HPCS) can efficiently remove the shortcomings of WCPs, we propose a RRDPS-QKD scheme with HPCS in this paper. Both infinite-intensity decoy-state method and practical three-intensity decoy-state method are adopted to discuss the tight bound of the key rate of the proposed scheme. The results show that HPCS is a better candidate for the replacement of the perfect single-photon source, and both the key rate and the transmission distance are greatly increased in comparison with those results with WCPs when the length of the pulse trains is small. Simultaneously, the performance of the proposed scheme using three-intensity decoy states is close to that result using infinite-intensity decoy states when the length of pulse trains is small.
Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henneman, A.
2001-01-01
When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target [1], is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.
Radyushkin, Anatoly V.
2017-08-28
Here, we show that quasi-PDFs may be treated as hybrids of PDFs and primordial rest-frame momentum distributions of partons. This results in a complicated convolution nature of quasi-PDFs that necessitates using large p3≳ 3 GeV momenta to get reasonably close to the PDF limit. Furthemore, as an alternative approach, we propose to use pseudo-PDFs P(x, zmore » $$2\\atop{3}$$) that generalize the light-front PDFs onto spacelike intervals and are related to Ioffe-time distributions M (v, z$$2\\atop{3}$$), the functions of the Ioffe time v = p3 z3 and the distance parameter z$$2\\atop{3}$$ with respect to which it displays perturbative evolution for small z3. In this form, one may divide out the z$$2\\atop{3}$$ dependence coming from the primordial rest-frame distribution and from the problematic factor due to lattice renormalization of the gauge link. The v-dependence remains intact and determines the shape of PDFs.« less
Energy-loss function in the two-pair approximation for the electron liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachlechner, M. E.; Holas, A.; Böhm, H. M.; Schinner, A.
1996-07-01
The imaginary part of the proper polarizability, Im Π, arising due to excitations of two electron-hole pairs, is studied in detail for electron systems of arbitrary dimensionality, and taking into account arbitrary degeneracy of the electron bands. This allows an application to semiconductors with degenerate valleys, and to ferromagnetic metals. The results obtained not only confirm expressions already known for paramagnetic systems in the high-frequency region, but are also rigorously shown to be valid for all frequencies outside the particle-hole continuum. For a sufficiently high momentum transfer a cutoff frequency (below which Im Π=0) is established for not only two-pair but also any n-pair processes. In contrast, there is no upper cutoff for n>~1. The energy-loss function, including the discussed two-pair contributions, is calculated. The effects of screening are investigated. Numerical results, illustrating various aspects and properties of this function, especially showing finite-width plasmon peaks, are obtained for a two-dimensional electron gas.
Copy number variation distribution in six monozygotic twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia.
Castellani, Christina A; Awamleh, Zain; Melka, Melkaye G; O'Reilly, Richard L; Singh, Shiva M
2014-04-01
We have evaluated copy number variants (CNVs) in six monozygotic twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia. The data from Affymetrix® Human SNP 6.0 arrays™ were analyzed using Affymetrix® Genotyping Console™, Partek® Genomics Suite™, PennCNV, and Golden Helix SVS™. This yielded both program-specific and overlapping results. Only CNVs called by Affymetrix Genotyping Console, Partek Genomics Suite, and PennCNV were used in further analysis. This analysis included an assessment of calls in each of the six twin pairs towards identification of unique CNVs in affected and unaffected co-twins. Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments confirmed one CNV loss at 7q11.21 that was found in the affected patient but not in the unaffected twin. The results identified CNVs and genes that were previously implicated in mental abnormalities in four of the six twin pairs. It included PYY (twin pairs 1 and 5), EPHA3 (twin pair 3), KIAA1211L (twin pair 4), and GPR139 (twin pair 5). They represent likely candidate genes and CNVs for the discordance of four of the six monozygotic twin pairs for this heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder. An explanation for these differences is ontogenetic de novo events that differentiate in the monozygotic twins during development.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hilchey, Christian Thomas
2014-01-01
This dissertation examines prefixation of simplex pairs. A simplex pair consists of an iterative imperfective and a semelfactive perfective verb. When prefixed, both of these verbs are perfective. The prefixed forms derived from semelfactives are labeled single act verbs, while the prefixed forms derived from iterative imperfective simplex verbs…
Matvija, P; Rozbořil, F; Sobotík, P; Ošt'ádal, I; Kocán, P
2017-09-07
The state of matter in fluid phases, determined by the interactions between particles, can be characterized by a pair correlation function (PCF). At the nanoscale, the PCF has been so far obtained experimentally only by means of reciprocal-space techniques. We use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at room temperature in combination with lattice-gas kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations to study a two-dimensional gas of highly mobile molecules of fluorinated copper phthalocyanine on a Si(111)/Tl-(1×1) surface. A relatively slow mechanism of STM image acquisition results in time-averaging of molecular occurrence under the STM tip. We prove by the KMC simulations that in the proximity of fixed molecules STM images represent the PCF. We demonstrate that STM is capable of visualizing directly the pair correlation function in real space.
Exact probability distribution functions for Parrondo's games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zadourian, Rubina; Saakian, David B.; Klümper, Andreas
2016-12-01
We study the discrete time dynamics of Brownian ratchet models and Parrondo's games. Using the Fourier transform, we calculate the exact probability distribution functions for both the capital dependent and history dependent Parrondo's games. In certain cases we find strong oscillations near the maximum of the probability distribution with two limiting distributions for odd and even number of rounds of the game. Indications of such oscillations first appeared in the analysis of real financial data, but now we have found this phenomenon in model systems and a theoretical understanding of the phenomenon. The method of our work can be applied to Brownian ratchets, molecular motors, and portfolio optimization.
Belyi, V.V.; Kukharenko, Y.A.; Wallenborn, J. ||
1996-05-01
Taking into account the first non-Markovian correction to the Balescu-Lenard equation, we have derived an expression for the pair correlation function and a nonlinear kinetic equation valid for a nonideal polarized classical plasma. This last equation allows for the description of the correlational energy evolution and shows the global conservation of energy with dynamical polarization. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Chloride Ion in Liquid Hydroxylamine: Pair Potential Function and Monte Carlo Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sompornpisut, Pornthep; Kokpol, Sirirat; Rode, Bernd M.
1994-08-01
An analytical pair potential function for the Cl--NH2OH interaction energy surface has been constructed based on basis set superposition error corrected ECP/DZP ab initio calculations. The potential has been tested by Monte Carlo simulation of a solution of one chloride ion in liquid hydroxylamine at 32 °C, leading to the conclusion that under these conditions Cl-forms a solvation shell of eight solvent molecules, coordinated via OH hydrogens.
Carlson, Rebecca K; Li Manni, Giovanni; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura
2015-01-13
Kohn-Sham density functional theory, resting on the representation of the electronic density and kinetic energy by a single Slater determinant, has revolutionized chemistry, but for open-shell systems, the Kohn-Sham Slater determinant has the wrong symmetry properties as compared to an accurate wave function. We have recently proposed a theory, called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), in which the electronic kinetic energy and classical Coulomb energy are calculated from a multiconfiguration wave function with the correct symmetry properties, and the rest of the energy is calculated from a density functional, called the on-top density functional, that depends on the density and the on-top pair density calculated from this wave function. We also proposed a simple way to approximate the on-top density functional by translation of Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation functionals. The method is much less expensive than other post-SCF methods for calculating the dynamical correlation energy starting with a multiconfiguration self-consistent-field wave function as the reference wave function, and initial tests of the theory were quite encouraging. Here, we provide a broader test of the theory by applying it to bond energies of main-group molecules and transition metal complexes, barrier heights and reaction energies for diverse chemical reactions, proton affinities, and the water dimerization energy. Averaged over 56 data points, the mean unsigned error is 3.2 kcal/mol for MC-PDFT, as compared to 6.9 kcal/mol for Kohn-Sham theory with a comparable density functional. MC-PDFT is more accurate on average than complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) for main-group small-molecule bond energies, alkyl bond dissociation energies, transition-metal-ligand bond energies, proton affinities, and the water dimerization energy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Chaffee, Dalton W.; Wilson, Nathaniel C.; Lekki, John D.; Tokars, Roger P.; Pouch, John J.; Roberts, Tony D.; Battle, Philip; Floyd, Bertram M.; Lind, Alexander J.;
2016-01-01
A high generation rate photon-pair source using a dual element periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PP KTP) waveguide is described. The fully integrated photon-pair source consists of a 1064-nanometer pump diode laser, fiber-coupled to a dual element waveguide within which a pair of 1064-nanometer photons are up-converted to a single 532-nanometer photon in the first stage. In the second stage, the 532-nanometer photon is down-converted to an entangled photon-pair at 800 nanometer and 1600 nanometer which are fiber-coupled at the waveguide output. The photon-pair source features a high pair generation rate, a compact power-efficient package, and continuous wave (CW) or pulsed operation. This is a significant step towards the long term goal of developing sources for high-rate Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) to enable Earth-space secure communications. Characterization and test results are presented. Details and preliminary results of a laboratory free-space QKD experiment with the B92 protocol are also presented.
Free-space quantum key distribution with a high generation rate potassium titanyl phosphate waveguide photon-pair source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Chaffee, Dalton W.; Wilson, Nathaniel C.; Lekki, John D.; Tokars, Roger P.; Pouch, John J.; Roberts, Tony D.; Battle, Philip R.; Floyd, Bertram; Lind, Alexander J.; Cavin, John D.; Helmick, Spencer R.
2016-09-01
A high generation rate photon-pair source using a dual element periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PP KTP) waveguide is described. The fully integrated photon-pair source consists of a 1064-nm pump diode laser, fiber-coupled to a dual element waveguide within which a pair of 1064-nm photons are up-converted to a single 532-nm photon in the first stage. In the second stage, the 532-nm photon is down-converted to an entangled photon-pair at 800 nm and 1600 nm which are fiber-coupled at the waveguide output. The photon-pair source features a high pair generation rate, a compact power-efficient package, and continuous wave (CW) or pulsed operation. This is a significant step towards the long term goal of developing sources for high-rate Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) to enable Earth-space secure communications. Characterization and test results are presented. Details and preliminary results of a laboratory free space QKD experiment with the B92 protocol are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Sourav; Krantzler, Seth O.; Ford, Eric B.; Tasker, Elizabeth; Rasio, Fred
2015-12-01
Period ratios of most adjacent planet pairs in Kepler's multiplanet systems seem random. However, there is a clear excess and dearth of systems just exterior and interior to major mean motion resonances, respectively. We show that dynamical interactions between initially resonant planet pairs and planetesimals in a planetesimal disk can naturally produce the observed asymmetric abundances in period ratios of near-resonant pairs for a wide variety of planet and planetesimal disk properties (Chatterjee & Ford 2015). We further extend this study to include planet pairs initially not in resonance. We will present our key results from this large suite of simulations. We will also discuss implications of planetesimal scattering for the observable properties of these planets including their TTV signal and mass-radius properties as a result of planetesimal accretion.
Global optimum protein threading with gapped alignment and empirical pair score functions.
Lathrop, R H; Smith, T F
1996-02-02
We describe a branch-and-bound search algorithm for finding the exact global optimum gapped sequence-structure alignment ("threading") between a protein sequence and a protein core or structural model, using an arbitrary amino acid pair score function (e.g. contact potentials, knowledge-based potentials, potentials of mean force, etc.). The search method imposes minimal conditions on how structural environments are defined or the form of the score function, and allows arbitrary sequence-specific functions for scoring loops and active site residues. Consequently the search method can be used with many different score functions and threading methodologies; this paper illustrates five from the literature. On a desktop workstation running LISP, we have found the global optimum protein sequence-structure alignment in NP-hard search spaces as large as 9.6 x 10(31), at rates ranging as high as 6.8 x 10(28) equivalent threadings per second (most of which are pruned before they ever are examined explicitly). Continuing the procedure past the global optimum enumerates successive candidate threadings in monotonically increasing score order. We give efficient algorithms for search space size, uniform random sampling, segment placement probabilities, mean, standard deviation and partition function. The method should prove useful for structure prediction, as well as for critical evaluation of new pair score functions.
Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Yang, Tao; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Jun; Jin, Xian-Min; Feng, Fa-Yong; Yang, Bin; Yang, Jian; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Nan; Tian, Bao-Li; Pan, Jian-Wei
2005-04-22
We report free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over a noisy ground atmosphere of 13 km. It is shown that the desired entanglement can still survive after both entangled photons have passed through the noisy ground atmosphere with a distance beyond the effective thickness of the aerosphere. This is confirmed by observing a spacelike separated violation of Bell inequality of 2.45+/-0.09. On this basis, we exploit the distributed entangled photon source to demonstrate the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum cryptography scheme. The distribution distance of entangled photon pairs achieved in the experiment is for the first time well beyond the effective thickness of the aerosphere, hence presenting a significant step towards satellite-based global quantum communication.
Lim, Han Chuen; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Kikuchi, Kazuro
2008-09-29
Studies on telecom-band entangled photon-pair sources for entanglement distribution have so far focused on their narrowband operations. Fiber-based sources are seriously limited by spontaneous Raman scattering while sources based on quasi-phase-matched crystals or waveguides are usually narrowband because of long device lengths and/or operations far from degeneracy. An entanglement distributor would have to multiplex many such narrowband sources before entanglement distribution to fully utilize the available fiber transmission bandwidth. In this work, we demonstrate a broadband source of polarization-entangled photon-pairs suitable for wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution over optical fiber. We show that our source is potentially capable of simultaneously supporting up to forty-four independent wavelength channels.
Density Functional Study of the Influence of C5 Cytosine Substitution in Base Pairs with Guanine
Moser, Adam; Guza, Rebecca; Tretyakova, Natalia; York, Darrin M.
2009-01-01
The present study employs density-functional electronic structure methods to investigate the effect of chemical modification at the C5 position of cytosine. A series of experimentally motivated chemical modifications are considered, including alkyl, halogen, aromatic, fused ring, and strong σ and π withdrawing functional groups. The effect of these modifications on cytosine geometry, electronic structure, proton affinities, gas phase basicities, cytosine-guanine base-pair hydrogen bond network and corresponding nucleophilicity at guanine are examined. Ultimately, these results play a part in dissecting the effect of endogenous cytosine methylation on the reactivity of neighboring guanine toward carcinogens and DNA alkylating agents. PMID:19890472
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chong, D. P.; Langhoff, S. R.
1986-01-01
A modified coupled pair functional (CPF) method is presented for the configuration interaction problem that dramatically improves properties for cases where the Hartree-Fock reference configuration is not a good zeroth-order wave function description. It is shown that the tendency for CPF to overestimate the effect of higher excitations arises from the choice of the geometric mean for the partial normalization denominator. The modified method is demonstrated for ground state dipole moment calculations of the NiH, CuH, and ZnH transition metal hydrides, and compared to singles-plus-doubles configuration interaction and the Ahlrichs et al. (1984) CPF method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chong, D. P.; Langhoff, S. R.
1986-01-01
A modified coupled pair functional (CPF) method is presented for the configuration interaction problem that dramatically improves properties for cases where the Hartree-Fock reference configuration is not a good zeroth-order wave function description. It is shown that the tendency for CPF to overestimate the effect of higher excitations arises from the choice of the geometric mean for the partial normalization denominator. The modified method is demonstrated for ground state dipole moment calculations of the NiH, CuH, and ZnH transition metal hydrides, and compared to singles-plus-doubles configuration interaction and the Ahlrichs et al. (1984) CPF method.
Krisiloff, David B.; Oyeyemi, Victor B.; Libisch, Florian; Carter, Emily A.
2014-01-14
A Multireference Configuration Interaction (MRCI) wavefunction includes both static and dynamic electron correlation. MRCI's well-known flaw, a lack of size extensivity, can be ameliorated with the Multireference Averaged Coupled-Pair Functional (MRACPF). However, the original MRACPF is frequently unstable, sometimes producing unphysical results. The more Multireference Averaged Quadratic Coupled-Cluster and MRACPF2 functionals also occasionally exhibit unphysical behavior. We find that these instabilities are avoided crossings with unphysical solutions to the MRACPF equations. We present two approaches to avoid the undesirable unphysical solutions.
Calculation of the Poisson cumulative distribution function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert G.; Scheuer, Ernest M.
1990-01-01
A method for calculating the Poisson cdf (cumulative distribution function) is presented. The method avoids computer underflow and overflow during the process. The computer program uses this technique to calculate the Poisson cdf for arbitrary inputs. An algorithm that determines the Poisson parameter required to yield a specified value of the cdf is presented.
Electron energy-distribution functions in gases
Pitchford, L.C.
1981-01-01
Numerical calculation of the electron energy distribution functions in the regime of drift tube experiments is discussed. The discussion is limited to constant applied fields and values of E/N (ratio of electric field strength to neutral density) low enough that electron growth due to ionization can be neglected. (GHT)
Probability distribution functions in turbulent convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balachandar, S.; Sirovich, L.
1991-01-01
Results of an extensive investigation of probability distribution functions (pdfs) for Rayleigh-Benard convection, in hard turbulence regime, are presented. It is shown that the pdfs exhibit a high degree of internal universality. In certain cases this universality is established within two Kolmogorov scales of a boundary. A discussion of the factors leading to the universality is presented.
Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory: A New Way To Treat Strongly Correlated Systems.
Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G; Li Manni, Giovanni; Carlson, Rebecca K; Hoyer, Chad E; Bao, Junwei Lucas
2017-01-17
The electronic energy of a system provides the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy for internuclear motion and thus determines molecular structure and spectra, bond energies, conformational energies, reaction barrier heights, and vibrational frequencies. The development of more efficient and more accurate ways to calculate the electronic energy of systems with inherently multiconfigurational electronic structure is essential for many applications, including transition metal and actinide chemistry, systems with partially broken bonds, many transition states, and most electronically excited states. Inherently multiconfigurational systems are called strongly correlated systems or multireference systems, where the latter name refers to the need for using more than one ("multiple") configuration state function to provide a good zero-order reference wave function. This Account describes multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which was developed as a way to combine the advantages of wave function theory (WFT) and density functional theory (DFT) to provide a better treatment of strongly correlated systems. First we review background material: the widely used Kohn-Sham DFT (which uses only a single Slater determinant as reference wave function), multiconfiguration WFT methods that treat inherently multiconfigurational systems based on an active space, and previous attempts to combine multiconfiguration WFT with DFT. Then we review the formulation of MC-PDFT. It is a generalization of Kohn-Sham DFT in that the electron kinetic energy and classical electrostatic energy are calculated from a reference wave function, while the rest of the energy is obtained from a density functional. However, there are two main differences with respent to Kohn-Sham DFT: (i) The reference wave function is multiconfigurational rather than being a single Slater determinant. (ii) The density functional is a function of the total density and the on-top pair density rather than
Extended distribution functions for our Galaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanders, Jason L.; Binney, James
2015-06-01
We extend models of our Galaxy based on distribution functions that are analytic functions of the action integrals to extended distribution functions (EDFs), which have an analytic dependence on metallicity as well. We use a simple, but physically motivated, functional forms for the metallicity of the interstellar medium as a function of radius and time and for the star formation rate, and a model for the diffusion of stars through phase space to suggest the required functional form of an EDF. We introduce a simple prescription for radial migration that preserves the overall profile of the disc while allowing individual stars to migrate throughout the disc. Our models explicitly consider the thin and thick discs as two distinct components separated in age. We show how an EDF can be used to incorporate realistic selection functions in models, and to construct mock catalogues of observed samples. We show that the selection function of the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) biases in favour of young stars, which have atypically small random velocities. With the selection function taken into account our models produce good fits of the GCS data in chemo-dynamical space and the Gilmore & Reid (1983) density data. From our EDF, we predict the structure of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration G-dwarf sample. The kinematics are successfully predicted. The predicted metallicity distribution has too few stars with [Fe/H] ≃ -0.5 dex and too many metal-rich stars. A significant problem may be the lack of any chemical-kinematic correlations in our thick disc. We argue that EDFs will prove essential tools for the analysis of both observational data and sophisticated models of Galaxy formation and evolution.
Nonclassicality criteria: Quasiprobability distributions and correlation functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexanian, Moorad
2016-10-01
We use the exact calculation of the quantum mechanical, temporal characteristic function χ (η ) and the degree of second-order coherence g(2 )(τ ) for a single-mode, degenerate parametric amplifier for a system in the Gaussian state, viz., a displaced-squeezed thermal state, to study the different criteria for nonclassicality. In particular, we contrast criteria that involve only one-time functions of the dynamical system, for instance, the quasiprobability distribution P (β ) of the Glauber-Sudarshan coherent or P representation of the density of state and the Mandel QM(τ ) parameter, versus the criteria associated with the two-time correlation function g(2 )(τ ) .
Nonlocal energy density functionals for pairing and beyond-mean-field calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennaceur, K.; Idini, A.; Dobaczewski, J.; Dobaczewski, P.; Kortelainen, M.; Raimondi, F.
2017-04-01
We propose to use two-body regularized finite-range pseudopotential to generate nuclear energy density functional (EDF) in both particle–hole and particle–particle channels, which makes it free from self-interaction and self-pairing, and also free from singularities when used beyond mean field. We derive a sequence of pseudopotentials regularized up to next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order, which fairly well describe infinite-nuclear-matter properties and finite open-shell paired and/or deformed nuclei. Since pure two-body pseudopotentials cannot generate sufficiently large effective mass, the obtained solutions constitute a preliminary step towards future implementations, which will include, e.g., EDF terms generated by three-body pseudopotentials.
Nonequilibrium effects in the energy distribution function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burns, George; Cohen, L. Kenneth
1983-03-01
The relative nonequilibrium energy distribution function, in the steady state for the irreversibly reacting Br2 in an argon system at 3500 K, is calculated. It is based upon 44 400 classical 3D trajectories, and uses the single uniform ensemble method [H. D. Kutz and G. Burns, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3562 (1980)]. Although the raw data display a considerable scatter, they clearly indicate a depletion from the equilibrium distribution function over a wide energy range. A careful statistical study of the data is performed. It is found that their histograms can be described over the entire possible energy range by a simple analytical function with only one adjustable parameter. The best fitting procedure yields a surprisingly narrow goodness of fit. However, an apparent deviation of the fit from the data is observed in the energy region where the reaction channel opens. To that extent, this work sheds a new light on the nature of the steady state in an irreversible reaction.
The force distribution probability function for simple fluids by density functional theory.
Rickayzen, G; Heyes, D M
2013-02-28
Classical density functional theory (DFT) is used to derive a formula for the probability density distribution function, P(F), and probability distribution function, W(F), for simple fluids, where F is the net force on a particle. The final formula for P(F) ∝ exp(-AF(2)), where A depends on the fluid density, the temperature, and the Fourier transform of the pair potential. The form of the DFT theory used is only applicable to bounded potential fluids. When combined with the hypernetted chain closure of the Ornstein-Zernike equation, the DFT theory for W(F) agrees with molecular dynamics computer simulations for the Gaussian and bounded soft sphere at high density. The Gaussian form for P(F) is still accurate at lower densities (but not too low density) for the two potentials, but with a smaller value for the constant, A, than that predicted by the DFT theory.
Matsuo, Ryota; Kobayashi, Suguru; Yamagishi, Miki; Ito, Etsuro
2011-03-15
Terrestrial pulmonates can learn olfactory-aversion tasks and retain them in their long-term memory. To elucidate the cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory, researchers have focused on both the peripheral and central components of olfaction: two pairs of tentacles (the superior and inferior tentacles) and a pair of procerebra, respectively. Data from tentacle-amputation experiments showed that either pair of tentacles is sufficient for olfactory learning. Results of procerebrum lesion experiments showed that the procerebra are necessary for olfactory learning but that either one of the two procerebra, rather than both, is used for each olfactory learning event. Together, these data suggest that there is a redundancy in the structures of terrestrial pulmonates necessary for olfactory learning. In our commentary we exemplify and discuss functional optimization and structural redundancy in the sensory and central organs involved in olfactory learning and memory in terrestrial pulmonates.
Biotin-dependent functions in adiposity: a study of monozygotic twin pairs.
Järvinen, E; Ismail, K; Muniandy, M; Bogl, L H; Heinonen, S; Tummers, M; Miettinen, S; Kaprio, J; Rissanen, A; Ollikainen, M; Pietiläinen, K H
2016-05-01
Biotin acts as a coenzyme for carboxylases regulating lipid and amino-acid metabolism. We investigated alterations of the biotin-dependent functions in obesity and the downstream effects of biotin restriction in adipocytes in vitro. Twenty-four monozygotic twin pairs discordant for body mass index (BMI). Mean within-pair difference (heavy-lean co-twin, Δ) of BMI was 6.0 kg m(-2) (range 3.1-15.2 kg m(-)(2)). Adipose tissue (AT) DNA methylation, gene expression of AT and adipocytes, and leukocytes (real-time quantitative PCR), serum biotin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and triglycerides were measured in the twins. Human adipocytes were cultured in low and control biotin concentrations and analyzed for lipid droplet content, mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial respiration. The gene expression levels of carboxylases, PCCB and MCCC1, were upregulated in the heavier co-twins' leukocytes. ΔPCCB (r=0.91, P=0.0046) and ΔMCCC1 (r=0.79, P=0.036) correlated with ΔCRP within-pairs. Serum biotin levels were lower in the heavier (274 ng l(-1)) than in the lean co-twins (390 ng l(-1), P=0.034). ΔBiotin correlated negatively with Δtriglycerides (r=-0.56, P=0.045) within-pairs. In AT, HLCS and ACACB were hypermethylated and biotin cycle genes HLCS and BTD were downregulated (P<0.05). Biotin-dependent carboxylases were downregulated (ACACA, ACACB, PCCB, MCCC2 and PC; P<0.05) in both AT and adipocytes of the heavier co-twins. Adipocytes cultured in low biotin had decreased lipid accumulation, altered mitochondrial morphology and deficient mitochondrial respiration. Biotin-dependent functions are modified by adiposity independent of genetic effects, and correlate with inflammation and hypertriglyceridemia. Biotin restriction decreases lipid accumulation and respiration, and alters mitochondrial morphology in adipocytes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sumaryada, Tony; Maha Putra, Bima; Pramudito, Sidikrubadi
2017-05-01
We propose an alternative way to describe the pairing formation and breaking via a quantum anharmonic oscillator with a delta-function potential model. Unlike BCS theory, which describes the pairing formation in the momentum space, this model works in the coordinate space and is able to give a molecular view of pairing formation and breaking in the coordinate space. By exploring the dynamical interplay between the intrinsic factor (dissociation energy) and external factor (pairing strength) of this system additional information was gained, including the critical pairing strength and critical scattering length, which might relate to the BCS-BEC crossover phenomena and halo state formation. Although only the energetic aspect of pairing is described by this model, its simplicity and pedagogical steps might help undergraduate students to understand the pairing problem in a simple way.
Distributions of solar drift-pair bursts in frequency from decameter radio observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Volvach, Yaroslav
2017-04-01
Statement of the Problem: Solar drift-pair (DP) bursts are one of interesting manifestations of solar activity. Observed during the solar storms of type III bursts, they demonstrate a very simple form on dynamic radio spectra as two short components separated in time, often the second component being the full repetition of the first. As is well known, type III bursts are produced by the accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines in solar corona. However, no each storm of type III bursts leads to any DP. The role of electron beams in the generation of DPs remains unclear. Solar DPs are detected by ground-based instruments at decameter and meter wavelengths, but each individual DP occupies only a limited bandwidth in the frequency range. The bursts drift in frequency, and their frequency drift rate can be both negative and positive (so-called the forward and reverse DPs), from -2 MHz/s to 6 MHz/s [1]. Besides, there are cases of vertical DPs, which occur simultaneously in all the frequencies within their bandwidth. It is difficult to interpret them by means of a moving source, as any exciting agent responsible for such bursts would travel with velocities faster than velocity of light [2]. Methodology & Experimental Orientation: New features of modern low-frequency radio astronomy allow us to study the empirical properties of DPs more deeply than ever before. Our results are based on the recent radio data (during 10-12 July of 2015) obtained with help of the UTR-2 radio telescope at frequencies 9-33 MHz with the time resolution of 50 ms and the frequency resolution of 4 kHz. We have identified 301 DP bursts in which 209 events were forward (FDP), and the rest were reverse (RDP). Results & Significance: According to the data, the occurrence of FDPs decreased at high frequencies, whereas the number of RDPs had an opposite tendency, they rarely occured at lower frequencies. During the observational session, at 20-25 MHz almost the same amount of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verdebout, S.; Jönsson, P.; Gaigalas, G.; Godefroid, M.; Froese Fischer, C.
2010-04-01
Multiconfiguration expansions frequently target valence correlation and correlation between valence electrons and the outermost core electrons. Correlation within the core is often neglected. A large orbital basis is needed to saturate both the valence and core-valence correlation effects. This in turn leads to huge numbers of configuration state functions (CSFs), many of which are unimportant. To avoid the problems inherent to the use of a single common orthonormal orbital basis for all correlation effects in the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) method, we propose to optimize independent MCHF pair-correlation functions (PCFs), bringing their own orthonormal one-electron basis. Each PCF is generated by allowing single- and double-excitations from a multireference (MR) function. This computational scheme has the advantage of using targeted and optimally localized orbital sets for each PCF. These pair-correlation functions are coupled together and with each component of the MR space through a low dimension generalized eigenvalue problem. Nonorthogonal orbital sets being involved, the interaction and overlap matrices are built using biorthonormal transformation of the coupled basis sets followed by a counter-transformation of the PCF expansions. Applied to the ground state of beryllium, the new method gives total energies that are lower than the ones from traditional complete active space (CAS)-MCHF calculations using large orbital active sets. It is fair to say that we now have the possibility to account for, in a balanced way, correlation deep down in the atomic core in variational calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamanishi, Teruya; Yu-Bing, Dong; Morii, Toshiyuki
2001-06-01
To study the polarized gluon density Δg(x) in the nucleon, we propose the high-pT pair charmed hadron production process in polarized lp scattering. The double spin asymmetry ALL for this process is a good observable for testing the models of Δg(x). .
Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution with a High Generation Rate KTP Waveguide Photon-Pair Source
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, J.; Chaffee, D.; Wilson, N.; Lekki, J.; Tokars, R.; Pouch, J.; Lind, A.; Cavin, J.; Helmick, S.; Roberts, T.;
2016-01-01
NASA awarded Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts to AdvR, Inc to develop a high generation rate source of entangled photons that could be used to explore quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols. The final product, a photon pair source using a dual-element periodically- poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguide, was delivered to NASA Glenn Research Center in June of 2015. This paper describes the source, its characterization, and its performance in a B92 (Bennett, 1992) protocol QKD experiment.
TRANSVERSE POLARIZATION DISTRIBUTION AND FRAGMENTATION FUNCTIONS
BOER,D.
2000-04-11
The authors discuss transverse polarization distribution and fragmentation functions, in particular, T-odd functions with transverse momentum dependence, which might be relevant for the description of single transverse spin asymmetries. The role of intrinsic transverse momentum in the expansion in inverse powers of the hard scale is elaborated upon. The sin {phi} single spin asymmetry in the process e {rvec p} {r_arrow} e{prime} {pi}{sup +} X as recently reported by the HERMES Collaboration is investigated, in particular, by using the bag model.
Datta, Rhea R.; Cruickshank, Tami; Kumar, Justin P.
2011-01-01
The retinal determination (RD) network in Drosophila comprises fourteen known nuclear proteins that include DNA binding proteins, transcriptional co-activators, kinases and phosphatases. The composition of the network varies considerably throughout the animal kingdom, with the network in several basal insects having fewer members and with vertebrates having potentially significantly higher numbers of retinal determination genes. One important contributing factor for the variation in gene number within the network is gene duplication. For example, ten members of the RD network in Drosophila are derived from duplication events. Here we present an analysis of the coding regions of the five pairs of duplicate genes from within the retinal determination network of several different Drosophila species. We demonstrate that there is differential selection across the coding regions of all RD genes. Additionally, some of the most significant differences in ratios of non-silent to silent site substitutions (dN/dS) between paralog pairs are found within regions that have no ascribed function. Previous structure/function analyses of several duplicate genes have identified areas within one gene that contain novel activities when compared to its paralog. The evolutionary analysis presented here identifies these same areas in the paralogs as being under high levels of relaxed selection. We suggest that sequence divergence between paralogs and selection signatures can be used as a reasonable predictor of functional changes in rapidly evolving motifs. PMID:21210943
Comparing functional analysis and paired-choice assessment results in classroom settings.
Berg, Wendy K; Wacker, David P; Cigrand, Karla; Merkle, Steve; Wade, Jeanie; Henry, Kim; Wang, Yu-Chia
2007-01-01
The results of a functional analysis of problem behavior and a paired-choice assessment were compared to determine whether the same social reinforcers were identified for problem behavior and an appropriate response (time allocation). The two assessments were conducted in classroom settings with 4 adolescents with mental retardation who engaged in severe problem behavior. Each student's classroom teacher served as the therapist for all phases of assessment. The two assessment procedures identified the same social reinforcers for problem and appropriate behavior for 3 of 4 participants.
Neoclassical physics in full distribution function gyrokinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dif-Pradalier, G.; Diamond, P. H.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Latu, G.; Strugarek, A.; Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.
2011-06-01
Treatment of binary Coulomb collisions when the full gyrokinetic distribution function is evolved is discussed here. A spectrum of different collision operators is presented, differing through both the physics that can be addressed and the numerics they are based on. Eulerian-like (semi-Lagrangian) and particle in cell (PIC) (Monte-Carlo) schemes are successfully cross-compared, and a detailed confrontation to neoclassical theory is shown.
Micro-review of structure functions and parton distribution functions
Morfin, J.G.
1989-01-01
There has recently been a great deal of discussion concerning the surprising differences in the measurements of the nucleon structure function F/sub 2/(x,Q/sup 2/), off of a hydrogen target, by the high statistics muoproduction experiments EMC and BCDMS. In this short review I will attempt to summarize the status of the experimental measurements of the structure functions and highlight any significant disagreements. At the conclusion I will comment on the status of the extraction of the parton distribution functions from these measurements. 17 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.
Wireless distributed functional electrical stimulation system.
Jovičić, Nenad S; Saranovac, Lazar V; Popović, Dejan B
2012-08-09
The control of movement in humans is hierarchical and distributed and uses feedback. An assistive system could be best integrated into the therapy of a human with a central nervous system lesion if the system is controlled in a similar manner. Here, we present a novel wireless architecture and routing protocol for a distributed functional electrical stimulation system that enables control of movement. The new system comprises a set of miniature battery-powered devices with stimulating and sensing functionality mounted on the body of the subject. The devices communicate wirelessly with one coordinator device, which is connected to a host computer. The control algorithm runs on the computer in open- or closed-loop form. A prototype of the system was designed using commercial, off-the-shelf components. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves and the distributed nature of the system were considered during the development of a two-hop routing protocol, which was implemented in the prototype's software. The outcomes of this research include a novel system architecture and routing protocol and a functional prototype based on commercial, off-the-shelf components. A proof-of-concept study was performed on a hemiplegic subject with paresis of the right arm. The subject was tasked with generating a fully functional palmar grasp (closing of the fingers). One node was used to provide this movement, while a second node controlled the activation of extensor muscles to eliminate undesired wrist flexion. The system was tested with the open- and closed-loop control algorithms. The system fulfilled technical and application requirements. The novel communication protocol enabled reliable real-time use of the system in both closed- and open-loop forms. The testing on a patient showed that the multi-node system could operate effectively to generate functional movement.
Cheung, Chi Yuen; Chan, Hoi Wong; Liu, Yan Lun; Chau, Ka Foon; Li, Chun Sang
2009-12-01
The first prospective, randomized trial with paired kidney analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus with cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplant recipients. This paper reports the long-term follow-up results of the authors' previously published study, with the main focus on graft survival and renal function. Chinese patients transplanted in our centre between June 1998 and June 2005 with their first deceased renal transplant were included. Patients were included if both kidneys were received by the authors' centre, thus allowing a paired analysis. Patients were randomized to receive triple immunosuppressive therapy with either tacrolimus or Neoral cyclosporine, concomitantly with prednisolone and azathioprine therapy. Seventy-six patients received cadaveric kidneys from 38 donors. Each pair of kidneys was randomly assigned to a separate group (38 subjects/group). The mean follow-up duration was 6.1 +/- 1.8 years. The mean calculated creatinine clearance was significantly higher in patients receiving tacrolimus-based therapy. The rate of biopsy-proven acute rejection was lower in the tacrolimus group (18.4% vs 42.1%, P = 0.03). The patient and graft survival were comparable in both treatment arms. Significantly fewer patients on tacrolimus-based therapy developed hypercholesterolaemia (P = 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the development of post-transplant diabetes mellitus, hypertension, opportunistic infection and malignancy between both groups. Using the immunosuppressive regimen, tacrolimus-based therapy provided adequate immunosuppression with better renal function and less acute rejection, as compared with cyclosporine-based therapy.
Functional connectivity of paired default mode network subregions in primary insomnia
Nie, Xiao; Shao, Yi; Liu, Si-yu; Li, Hai-jun; Wan, Ai-lan; Nie, Si; Peng, De-chang; Dai, Xi-jian
2015-01-01
Objective The aim of this study is to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) differences between the paired default mode network (DMN) subregions in patients with primary insomnia (PIs). Methods Forty-two PIs and forty-two age- and sex-matched good sleepers (GSs) were recruited. All subjects underwent the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The seed-based region-to-region FC method was used to evaluate the abnormal connectivity within the DMN subregions between the PIs and the GSs. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the abnormal FC strength within the paired DMN subregions and the clinical features in PIs. Results Compared with the GSs, the PIs showed higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score, Self-Rating Depression Scale score, Self Rating Anxiety Scale score, Self-Rating Scale of Sleep score, and Profile of Mood States score (P<0.001). Compared with the GSs, the PIs showed significant decreased region-to-region FC between the medial prefrontal cortex and the right medial temporal lobe (t=−2.275, P=0.026), and between the left medial temporal lobe and the left inferior parietal cortices (t=−3.32, P=0.001). The abnormal FC strengths between the DMN subregions did not correlate with the clinical features. Conclusion PIs showed disrupted FC within the DMN subregions. PMID:26719693
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Yu; Swan, James W.; Zia, Roseanna N.
2017-03-01
Accurate modeling of particle interactions arising from hydrodynamic, entropic, and other microscopic forces is essential to understanding and predicting particle motion and suspension behavior in complex and biological fluids. The long-range nature of hydrodynamic interactions can be particularly challenging to capture. In dilute dispersions, pair-level interactions are sufficient and can be modeled in detail by analytical relations derived by Jeffrey and Onishi [J. Fluid Mech. 139, 261-290 (1984)] and Jeffrey [Phys. Fluids A 4, 16-29 (1992)]. In more concentrated dispersions, analytical modeling of many-body hydrodynamic interactions quickly becomes intractable, leading to the development of simplified models. These include mean-field approaches that smear out particle-scale structure and essentially assume that long-range hydrodynamic interactions are screened by crowding, as particle mobility decays at high concentrations. Toward the development of an accurate and simplified model for the hydrodynamic interactions in concentrated suspensions, we recently computed a set of effective pair of hydrodynamic functions coupling particle motion to a hydrodynamic force and torque at volume fractions up to 50% utilizing accelerated Stokesian dynamics and a fast stochastic sampling technique [Zia et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 224901 (2015)]. We showed that the hydrodynamic mobility in suspensions of colloidal spheres is not screened, and the power law decay of the hydrodynamic functions persists at all concentrations studied. In the present work, we extend these mobility functions to include the couplings of particle motion and straining flow to the hydrodynamic stresslet. The couplings computed in these two articles constitute a set of orthogonal coupling functions that can be utilized to compute equilibrium properties in suspensions at arbitrary concentration and are readily applied to solve many-body hydrodynamic interactions analytically.
Enigmatic Distribution, Evolution, and Function of Inteins*
Novikova, Olga; Topilina, Natalya; Belfort, Marlene
2014-01-01
Inteins are mobile genetic elements capable of self-splicing post-translationally. They exist in all three domains of life including in viruses and bacteriophage, where they have a sporadic distribution even among very closely related species. In this review, we address this anomalous distribution from the point of view of the evolution of the host species as well as the intrinsic features of the inteins that contribute to their genetic mobility. We also discuss the incidence of inteins in functionally important sites of their host proteins. Finally, we describe instances of conditional protein splicing. These latter observations lead us to the hypothesis that some inteins have adapted to become sensors that play regulatory roles within their host protein, to the advantage of the organism in which they reside. PMID:24695741
Measurements of Correlated Pair Momentum Distributions in ^{3}He(e,e'pp)n with CLAS
Niyazov, Rustam
2003-05-01
We have measured the ^{3}He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2 and 4.4 GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for ''fast'' nucleons (p > 250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less and the third or ''leading'' nucleon carries most of the transferred energy. These fast nucleon pairs (both pp and pn) are back-to-back and carry very little momentum along $\\vec{q}$, indicating that they are spectators. Experimental and theoretical evidence indicates that we have measured NN correlations in ^{3}He(e,e'pp)n by striking the third nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Q.; Sun, F.; Li, Z. Y.; Taxis, L.; Pugno, N.
2017-05-01
Combining the elastica theory, finite element (FE) analysis, and a geometrical topological experiment, we studied the mechanical behavior of a ring subjected to multi-pairs of evenly distributed equal radial forces by looking at its seven distinct states. The results showed that the theoretical predictions of the ring deformation and strain energy matched the FE results very well, and that the ring deformations were comparable to the topological experiment. Moreover, no matter whether the ring was compressed or tensioned by N-pairs of forces, the ring always tended to be regular polygons with 2N sides as the force increased, and a proper compressive force deformed the ring into exquisite flower-like patterns. The present study solves a basic mechanical problem of a ring subjected to lateral forces, which can be useful for studying the relevant mechanical behavior of ring structures from the nano- to the macro-scale.
Spaceflight alters immune cell function and distribution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Mandel, Adrian D.; Konstantinova, Irina V.; Berry, Wallace D.; Taylor, Gerald R.; Lesniak, A. T.; Fuchs, Boris B.; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L.
1992-01-01
Experiments are described which were performed onboard Cosmos 2044 to determine spaceflight effects on immunologically important cell function and distribution. Results indicate that bone marrow cells from flown and suspended rats exhibited a decreased response to a granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with the bone marrow cells from control rats. Bone marrow cells showed an increase in the percentage of cells expressing markers for helper T-cells in the myelogenous population and increased percentages of anti-asialo granulocyte/monocyte-1-bearing interleulin-2 receptor bearing pan T- and helper T-cells in the lymphocytic population.
Forsberg, Zarah; Mackenzie, Alasdair K.; Sørlie, Morten; Røhr, Åsmund K.; Helland, Ronny; Arvai, Andrew S.; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.
2014-01-01
For decades, the enzymatic conversion of cellulose was thought to rely on the synergistic action of hydrolytic enzymes, but recent work has shown that lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are important contributors to this process. We describe the structural and functional characterization of two functionally coupled cellulose-active LPMOs belonging to auxiliary activity family 10 (AA10) that commonly occur in cellulolytic bacteria. One of these LPMOs cleaves glycosidic bonds by oxidation of the C1 carbon, whereas the other can oxidize both C1 and C4. We thus demonstrate that C4 oxidation is not confined to fungal AA9-type LPMOs. X-ray crystallographic structures were obtained for the enzyme pair from Streptomyces coelicolor, solved at 1.3 Å (ScLPMO10B) and 1.5 Å (CelS2 or ScLPMO10C) resolution. Structural comparisons revealed differences in active site architecture that could relate to the ability to oxidize C4 (and that also seem to apply to AA9-type LPMOs). Despite variation in active site architecture, the two enzymes exhibited similar affinities for Cu2+ (12–31 nM), redox potentials (242 and 251 mV), and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra, with only the latter clearly different from those of chitin-active AA10-type LPMOs. We conclude that substrate specificity depends not on copper site architecture, but rather on variation in substrate binding and orientation. During cellulose degradation, the members of this LPMO pair act in synergy, indicating different functional roles and providing a rationale for the abundance of these enzymes in biomass-degrading organisms. PMID:24912171
Jensen, Lasse; Govind, Niranjan
2009-09-10
In this work, we present a study of the excitation energies of adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and the adenine-thymine (AT) and guanine-cytosine (GC) base pairs using long-range corrected (LC) density functional theory. We compare three recent LC functionals, BNL, CAM-B3LYP, and LC-PBE0, with B3LYP and coupled cluster results from the literature. We find that the best overall performance is for the BNL functional based on LDA. However, in order to achieve this good agreement, a smaller attenuation parameter is needed, which leads to nonoptimum performance for ground-state properties. B3LYP, on the other hand, severely underestimates the charge-transfer (CT) transitions in the base pairs. Surprisingly, we also find that the CAM-B3LYP functional also underestimates the CT excitation energy for the GC base pair but correctly describes the AT base pair. This illustrates the importance of retaining the full long-range exact exchange even at distances as short as that of the DNA base pairs. The worst overall performance is obtained with the LC-PBE0 functional, which overestimates the excitations for the individual bases as well as the base pairs. It is therefore crucial to strike a good balance between the amount of local and long-range exact exchange. Thus, this work highlights the difficulties in obtained LC functionals, which provides a good description of both ground- and excited-state properties.
Excited States of DNA Base Pairs Using Long-Range Corrected Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, Lasse; Govind, Niranjan
2009-08-01
In this work, we present a study of the excitation energies of adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and the adenine-thymine (AT) and guanine-cytosine (GC) base pairs using long-range corrected (LC) density functional theory. We compare three recent LC functionals, BNL, CAM-B3LYP, and LC-PBE0, with B3LYP and coupled cluster results from the literature. We find that the best overall performance is for the BNL functional based on LDA. However, in order to achieve this good agreement, a smaller attenuation parameter is needed, which leads to nonoptimum performance for ground-state properties. B3LYP, on the other hand, severely underestimates the charge-transfer (CT) transitions in the base pairs. Surprisingly, we also find that the CAM-B3LYP functional also underestimates the CT excitation energy for the GC base pair but correctly describes the AT base pair. This illustrates the importance of retaining the full long-range exact exchange even at distances as short as that of the DNA base pairs. The worst overall performance is obtained with the LC-PBE0 functional, which overestimates the excitations for the individual bases as well as the base pairs. It is therefore crucial to strike a good balance between the amount of local and long-range exact exchange. Thus, this work highlights the difficulties in obtained LC functionals, which provides a good description of both ground- and excited-state properties.
Trans-ionospheric pulse pairs (TIPPs): Their geographic distributions and seasonal variations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuelsdorf, R. S.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Casler, C.; Christian, H. J.; Franz, R. C.
Since November 1993 the Blackbeard instrument aboard the ALEXIS satellite has detected pairs of pulses in the VHF band, known as Trans-Ionospheric Pulse Pairs (TIPPs). These pulses exhibit dispersion consistent with a source of sub- ionospheric origin. As of January 1997 over 850 TIPPs have been detected. The source of these emissions still remains a mystery, although it is believed that TIPPs are in some way related to thunderstorms as such storms provide a strong sub-ionospheric source and produce radiation in the same frequencies observed by Blackbeard. In an attempt to establish this connection we compare the geographic occurrence of TIPPs to that of lightning flashes observed from space by the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) on the Microlab-1 spacecraft. TIPP data run from 2 November 1993 to 19 November 1996. OTD data run from 1 May 1995 to 30 November 1996. The geographical occurrence of TIPPs and that of lightning flashes is strongly correlated. TIPPs occur less frequently during the winter months and their region of production moves southward in the North American sector similar in behavior to lightning activity.
Maradeo, Marie E; Garg, Anisha; Skibbens, Robert V
2010-11-01
Sister chromatid pairing reactions, termed cohesion establishment, occur during S-phase and appear to be regulated by Replication Factor C (RFC) complexes. For instance, RFCs that contain Ctf18p exhibit pro-establishment activities while those that contain Elg1p exhibit anti-establishment activities. It remains unknown whether Ctf18p-RFC and Elg1p-RFC functions are simply opposing or instead reveal complicated and non-parallel regulatory mechanisms. To better understand the nature of these novel pathways, we analyzed the small RFC subunit Rfc5p that is common to both Ctf18p-RFC and Elg1p-RFC. Despite this commonality, the data show that diminished Rfc5p function rescues ctf7/eco1 mutant cell phenotypes, revealing that Rfc5p promotes anti-establishment activities. This rescue is specific to establishment pathways in that rfc5-1 greatly accentuates growth defects when expressed in scc2 (deposition), mcd1/scc1 or smc3 (cohesion maintenance) mutated cells. Our results reveal for the first time a role for small RFC subunits in directing RFC complex functions-in this case towards anti-establishment pathways. We further report that Pds5p exhibits both establishment and anti-establishment functions in cohesion. This duality suggests that categorizations of establishment and anti-establishment activities require further examination.
Excited States of DNA Base Pairs Using Long-Range Corrected Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory
Jensen, Lasse; Govind, Niranjan
2009-09-10
In this work we present a study of the excitation energies of adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine and the adenine-thymine (AT) and guanine-cytosine (GC) base pairs using long-range corrected (LC) density functional theory. We compare three recent LC-functionals, BNL, CAM-B3LYP and LC-PBE0 with B3LYP and coupled cluster results from the literature. We find that the best overall performance is for the BNL functional based on LDA. However, in order to achieve this good agreement a smaller attenuation parameter was needed which leads to non-optimum performance for ground state properties. B3LYP, on the other hand, severely underestimates the charge transfer (CT) transitions in the base pairs. Surprisingly we also find that the CAM-B3LYP functional also underestimates the CT excitation energy for the GC base pair, but correctly describes the AT base pair. This illustrates the importance of retaining the full long-range exact exchange even at distances as short as that of the DNA base pairs. The worst overall performance was obtained with the LC-PBE0 functional which overestimates the excitations for the individual bases as well as the base pairs. It is therefore crucial to strike a good balance between the amount of local and long-range exact exchange.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietinen, Sami; Tenhunen, Vesa; Tukiainen, Markku
Several methods and techniques have surfaced to address the ongoing concerns of quality and productivity of software development. Among these is the Pair Programming (PP) method, which has gained a lot off attention through being an essential part of an agile software development methodology called the eXtreme Programming (XP). In this paper, we present the results of two controlled case studies that investigate the possible productivity improvement through the incorporation of PP over solo programming. The main focus is on implementation task, more specifically in programming, although PP is suitable for other tasks too. Our results show that very high level of PP use might be difficult to achieve in a very tightly scheduled software development project, but some of the benefits can be seen to come true even with proportional use of PP. In our case, PP added the additional effort of 13% over solo programming.
Identifying the necrotic zone boundary in tumour spheroids with pair-correlation functions.
Dini, S; Binder, B J; Fischer, S C; Mattheyer, C; Schmitz, A; Stelzer, E H K; Bean, N G; Green, J E F
2016-10-01
Automatic identification of the necrotic zone boundary is important in the assessment of treatments on in vitro tumour spheroids. This has been difficult especially when the difference in cell density between the necrotic and viable zones of a tumour spheroid is small. To help overcome this problem, we developed novel one-dimensional pair-correlation functions (PCFs) to provide quantitative estimates of the radial distance of the necrotic zone boundary from the centre of a tumour spheroid. We validate our approach on synthetic tumour spheroids in which the position of the necrotic zone boundary is known a priori It is then applied to nine real tumour spheroids imaged with light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy. PCF estimates of the necrotic zone boundary are compared with those of a human expert and an existing standard computational method. © 2016 The Author(s).
Zia, Roseanna N; Swan, James W; Su, Yu
2015-12-14
The formulation of detailed models for the dynamics of condensed soft matter including colloidal suspensions and other complex fluids requires accurate description of the physical forces between microstructural constituents. In dilute suspensions, pair-level interactions are sufficient to capture hydrodynamic, interparticle, and thermodynamic forces. In dense suspensions, many-body interactions must be considered. Prior analytical approaches to capturing such interactions such as mean-field approaches replace detailed interactions with averaged approximations. However, long-range coupling and effects of concentration on local structure, which may play an important role in, e.g., phase transitions, are smeared out in such approaches. An alternative to such approximations is the detailed modeling of hydrodynamic interactions utilizing precise couplings between moments of the hydrodynamic traction on a suspended particle and the motion of that or other suspended particles. For two isolated spheres, a set of these functions was calculated by Jeffrey and Onishi [J. Fluid Mech. 139, 261-290 (1984)] and Jeffrey [J. Phys. Fluids 4, 16-29 (1992)]. Along with pioneering work by Batchelor, these are the touchstone for low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamic interactions and have been applied directly in the solution of many important problems related to the dynamics of dilute colloidal dispersions [G. K. Batchelor and J. T. Green, J. Fluid Mech. 56, 375-400 (1972) and G. K. Batchelor, J. Fluid Mech. 74, 1-29 (1976)]. Toward extension of these functions to concentrated systems, here we present a new stochastic sampling technique to rapidly calculate an analogous set of mobility functions describing the hydrodynamic interactions between two hard spheres immersed in a suspension of arbitrary concentration, utilizing accelerated Stokesian dynamics simulations. These mobility functions provide precise, radially dependent couplings of hydrodynamic force and torque to particle translation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zia, Roseanna N.; Swan, James W.; Su, Yu
2015-12-01
The formulation of detailed models for the dynamics of condensed soft matter including colloidal suspensions and other complex fluids requires accurate description of the physical forces between microstructural constituents. In dilute suspensions, pair-level interactions are sufficient to capture hydrodynamic, interparticle, and thermodynamic forces. In dense suspensions, many-body interactions must be considered. Prior analytical approaches to capturing such interactions such as mean-field approaches replace detailed interactions with averaged approximations. However, long-range coupling and effects of concentration on local structure, which may play an important role in, e.g., phase transitions, are smeared out in such approaches. An alternative to such approximations is the detailed modeling of hydrodynamic interactions utilizing precise couplings between moments of the hydrodynamic traction on a suspended particle and the motion of that or other suspended particles. For two isolated spheres, a set of these functions was calculated by Jeffrey and Onishi [J. Fluid Mech. 139, 261-290 (1984)] and Jeffrey [J. Phys. Fluids 4, 16-29 (1992)]. Along with pioneering work by Batchelor, these are the touchstone for low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamic interactions and have been applied directly in the solution of many important problems related to the dynamics of dilute colloidal dispersions [G. K. Batchelor and J. T. Green, J. Fluid Mech. 56, 375-400 (1972) and G. K. Batchelor, J. Fluid Mech. 74, 1-29 (1976)]. Toward extension of these functions to concentrated systems, here we present a new stochastic sampling technique to rapidly calculate an analogous set of mobility functions describing the hydrodynamic interactions between two hard spheres immersed in a suspension of arbitrary concentration, utilizing accelerated Stokesian dynamics simulations. These mobility functions provide precise, radially dependent couplings of hydrodynamic force and torque to particle translation
Zia, Roseanna N. Su, Yu; Swan, James W.
2015-12-14
The formulation of detailed models for the dynamics of condensed soft matter including colloidal suspensions and other complex fluids requires accurate description of the physical forces between microstructural constituents. In dilute suspensions, pair-level interactions are sufficient to capture hydrodynamic, interparticle, and thermodynamic forces. In dense suspensions, many-body interactions must be considered. Prior analytical approaches to capturing such interactions such as mean-field approaches replace detailed interactions with averaged approximations. However, long-range coupling and effects of concentration on local structure, which may play an important role in, e.g., phase transitions, are smeared out in such approaches. An alternative to such approximations is the detailed modeling of hydrodynamic interactions utilizing precise couplings between moments of the hydrodynamic traction on a suspended particle and the motion of that or other suspended particles. For two isolated spheres, a set of these functions was calculated by Jeffrey and Onishi [J. Fluid Mech. 139, 261–290 (1984)] and Jeffrey [J. Phys. Fluids 4, 16–29 (1992)]. Along with pioneering work by Batchelor, these are the touchstone for low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamic interactions and have been applied directly in the solution of many important problems related to the dynamics of dilute colloidal dispersions [G. K. Batchelor and J. T. Green, J. Fluid Mech. 56, 375–400 (1972) and G. K. Batchelor, J. Fluid Mech. 74, 1–29 (1976)]. Toward extension of these functions to concentrated systems, here we present a new stochastic sampling technique to rapidly calculate an analogous set of mobility functions describing the hydrodynamic interactions between two hard spheres immersed in a suspension of arbitrary concentration, utilizing accelerated Stokesian dynamics simulations. These mobility functions provide precise, radially dependent couplings of hydrodynamic force and torque to particle
Garza, Alejandro J; Sousa Alencar, Ana G; Scuseria, Gustavo E
2015-12-28
Singlet-paired coupled cluster doubles (CCD0) is a simplification of CCD that relinquishes a fraction of dynamic correlation in order to be able to describe static correlation. Combinations of CCD0 with density functionals that recover specifically the dynamic correlation missing in the former have also been developed recently. Here, we assess the accuracy of CCD0 and CCD0+DFT (and variants of these using Brueckner orbitals) as compared to well-established quantum chemical methods for describing ground-state properties of singlet actinide molecules. The f(0) actinyl series (UO2(2+), NpO2(3+), PuO2(4+)), the isoelectronic NUN, and thorium (ThO, ThO(2+)) and nobelium (NoO, NoO2) oxides are studied.
Impact of recurrent head trauma on olfactory function in boxers: a matched pairs analysis.
Vent, Julia; Koenig, Joerg; Hellmich, Martin; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Damm, Michael
2010-03-12
Recently, interest in the health of boxers has been raised by a petition of the British Medical Association to restrict boxing. However, scientific data on permanent damage are rare and typical localisations of injuries were yet to be defined. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are changes in the sense of smell in people undergoing recurrent head traumas. The hypothesis to be tested was if boxers had a reduced olfactory function. We used a matched pairs analysis design. Fifty healthy, male athletes underwent subjective olfactometry using Sniffin'Sticks testing (including threshold, discrimination and identification, TDI). Nasal endoscopy was performed and a thorough, questionnaire-based history was obtained. These data were correlated with normative data from healthy subjects. Statistical analysis was based on matched pairs analysis by t-tests, i.e. boxers and healthy (non-boxing) subjects. Boxers showed a mean TDI score of 32.5 compared to 35.1 of non-boxing controls (p=0.003). The olfactory threshold (p<0.001) and odour identification (p<0.05) were significantly decreased in boxers; whereas odour discrimination was unaffected. Performance of odour identification showed a correlation with cushioning of the gloves (p<0.05), and thus seems a protective measure regarding the sense of smell. Boxing seems to affect olfactory function, particularly by reducing the olfactory threshold. Furthermore, cushioning of the gloves can be protective and should be increased to safeguard sportsmen from physical damage. Boxing can serve as a model for central regeneration after trauma.
The self-consistent electron pairs method for multiconfiguration reference state functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, Hans-Joachim; Reinsch, Ernst-Albrecht
1982-03-01
An efficient direct CI method which includes all singly and doubly substituted configurations with respect to an arbitrary multiconfiguration (MCSCF) reference function is described. The configurations are generated by subsequently applying spin-coupled two-particle annihilation and creation operators to the complete MCSCF function. This considerably reduces the size of the n-electron basis and the computational effort as compared to previous multireference CI treatments, in which the configurations are defined with respect to the individual reference configurations. The formalism of the method is very similar to the closed-shell ''self-consistent electron pairs'' (SCEP) method of Meyer. The vector Hc is obtained in terms of simple matrix operations involving coefficient and integral matrices. A full transformation of the two-electron integrals is not required. Test calculations with large basis sets have been performed for the 3B1 and 1A1 states of CH2 (ΔE = 9.5 kcal/mol) and for the CH2(3B1) +H2→CH3+H reaction barrier (ΔE = 10.7 kcal/mol). As a preliminary test for the accuracy of the results obtained with contracted wave functions of the above type the potential energy and dipole moment functions of the OH X 2Π and A 2Σ+ states have been calculated. For the 2Π state re and ωe deviate by less than 10-3 Å and 1 cm-1, respectively, from the experimental data. For the 2Σ+ state the agreement is somewhat less good, which is probably due to basis set defects. Around the equilibrium distance the calculated dipole moment functions are in very close agreement with those previously obtained from PNO- CEPA functions.
Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions
Seljak, Uroš; McDonald, Patrick E-mail: pvmcdonald@lbl.gov
2011-11-01
We develop a phase space distribution function approach to redshift space distortions (RSD), in which the redshift space density can be written as a sum over velocity moments of the distribution function. These moments are density weighted and have well defined physical interpretation: their lowest orders are density, momentum density, and stress energy density. The series expansion is convergent if kμu/aH < 1, where k is the wavevector, H the Hubble parameter, u the typical gravitational velocity and μ = cos θ, with θ being the angle between the Fourier mode and the line of sight. We perform an expansion of these velocity moments into helicity modes, which are eigenmodes under rotation around the axis of Fourier mode direction, generalizing the scalar, vector, tensor decomposition of perturbations to an arbitrary order. We show that only equal helicity moments correlate and derive the angular dependence of the individual contributions to the redshift space power spectrum. We show that the dominant term of μ{sup 2} dependence on large scales is the cross-correlation between the density and scalar part of momentum density, which can be related to the time derivative of the matter power spectrum. Additional terms contributing to μ{sup 2} and dominating on small scales are the vector part of momentum density-momentum density correlations, the energy density-density correlations, and the scalar part of anisotropic stress density-density correlations. The second term is what is usually associated with the small scale Fingers-of-God damping and always suppresses power, but the first term comes with the opposite sign and always adds power. Similarly, we identify 7 terms contributing to μ{sup 4} dependence. Some of the advantages of the distribution function approach are that the series expansion converges on large scales and remains valid in multi-stream situations. We finish with a brief discussion of implications for RSD in galaxies relative to dark matter
Lu, Haige; Krueger, Andrew T; Gao, Jianmin; Liu, Haibo; Kool, Eric T
2010-06-21
The development of alternative architectures for genetic information-encoding systems offers the possibility of new biotechnological tools as well as basic insights into the function of the natural system. In order to examine the potential of benzo-expanded DNA (xDNA) to encode and transfer biochemical information, we carried out a study of the processing of single xDNA pairs by DNA Polymerase I Klenow fragment (Kf, an A-family sterically rigid enzyme) and by the Sulfolobus solfataricus polymerase Dpo4 (a flexible Y-family polymerase). Steady-state kinetics were measured and compared for enzymatic synthesis of the four correct xDNA pairs and twelve mismatched pairs, by incorporation of dNTPs opposite single xDNA bases. Results showed that, like Kf, Dpo4 in most cases selected the correctly paired partner for each xDNA base, but with efficiency lowered by the enlarged pair size. We also evaluated kinetics for extension by these polymerases beyond xDNA pairs and mismatches, and for exonuclease editing by the Klenow exo+ polymerase. Interestingly, the two enzymes were markedly different: Dpo4 extended pairs with relatively high efficiencies (within 18-200-fold of natural DNA), whereas Kf essentially failed at extension. The favorable extension by Dpo4 was tested further by stepwise synthesis of up to four successive xDNA pairs on an xDNA template.
Chawla, Mohit; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Oliva, Romina; Cavallo, Luigi
2014-01-01
The G:C reverse Watson-Crick (W:W trans) base pair, also known as Levitt base pair in the context of tRNAs, is a structurally and functionally important base pair that contributes to tertiary interactions joining distant domains in functional RNA molecules and also participates in metabolite binding in riboswitches. We previously indicated that the isolated G:C W:W trans base pair is a rather unstable geometry, and that dicationic metal binding to the Guanine base or posttranscriptional modification of the Guanine can increase its stability. Herein, we extend our survey and report on other H-bonding interactions that can increase the stability of this base pair. To this aim, we performed a bioinformatics search of the PDB to locate all the occurencies of G:C trans base pairs. Interestingly, 66% of the G:C trans base pairs in the PDB are engaged in additional H-bonding interactions with other bases, the RNA backbone or structured water molecules. High level quantum mechanical calculations on a data set of representative crystal structures were performed to shed light on the structural stability and energetics of the various crystallographic motifs. This analysis was extended to the binding of the preQ1 metabolite to a preQ1-II riboswitch.
Chawla, Mohit; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Oliva, Romina; Cavallo, Luigi
2014-01-01
The G:C reverse Watson–Crick (W:W trans) base pair, also known as Levitt base pair in the context of tRNAs, is a structurally and functionally important base pair that contributes to tertiary interactions joining distant domains in functional RNA molecules and also participates in metabolite binding in riboswitches. We previously indicated that the isolated G:C W:W trans base pair is a rather unstable geometry, and that dicationic metal binding to the Guanine base or posttranscriptional modification of the Guanine can increase its stability. Herein, we extend our survey and report on other H-bonding interactions that can increase the stability of this base pair. To this aim, we performed a bioinformatics search of the PDB to locate all the occurencies of G:C trans base pairs. Interestingly, 66% of the G:C trans base pairs in the PDB are engaged in additional H-bonding interactions with other bases, the RNA backbone or structured water molecules. High level quantum mechanical calculations on a data set of representative crystal structures were performed to shed light on the structural stability and energetics of the various crystallographic motifs. This analysis was extended to the binding of the preQ1 metabolite to a preQ1-II riboswitch. PMID:24121683
Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.
2015-05-01
Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.
Carotenoids in Algae: Distributions, Biosyntheses and Functions
Takaichi, Shinichi
2011-01-01
For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of oxygenic phototrophs in sea and fresh water, including cyanobacteria, red algae, brown algae and green algae, is summarized. These phototrophs contain division- or class-specific carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin, peridinin and siphonaxanthin. The distribution of α-carotene and its derivatives, such as lutein, loroxanthin and siphonaxanthin, are limited to divisions of Rhodophyta (macrophytic type), Cryptophyta, Euglenophyta, Chlorarachniophyta and Chlorophyta. In addition, carotenogenesis pathways are discussed based on the chemical structures of carotenoids and known characteristics of carotenogenesis enzymes in other organisms; genes and enzymes for carotenogenesis in algae are not yet known. Most carotenoids bind to membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes, such as reaction center, light-harvesting and cytochrome b6f complexes. Water-soluble peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP) and orange carotenoid protein (OCP) are also established. Some functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis are also briefly summarized. PMID:21747749
Nuclear modifications of Parton Distribution Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adeluyi, Adeola Adeleke
This dissertation addresses a central question of modern nuclear physics: how does the behavior of fundamental degrees of freedom (quarks and gluons) change in the nuclear environment? This is an important aspect of experimental studies at current facilities such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLAB). It is also highly relevant to planned experimental efforts at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the future Electron Ion Collider (EIC). All these facilities probe matter via collisions involving nuclei; thus complications arise due to the presence of the attendant nuclear medium. Theoretical efforts to understand and interpret experimental results from such collisions are therefore largely dependent on the resolution of this question. The development of nuclear physics demonstrates that theoretical description is most efficient in terms of the effective degrees of freedom relevant to the scale (energy) being probed. Thus at low energies, nuclei are described as bound states of protons and neutrons (nucleons). At higher energies, the nucleons are no longer elementary, but are revealed to possess an underlying substructure: they are made up of quarks and gluons, collectively termed partons. The mometum distributions of these partons in the nucleon are referred to as Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). Parton distributions can be determined from experimental measurements of structure functions. The ratio of nuclear structure functions to nucleon structure functions (generically referred to as nuclear ratio) is a measure of the nuclear modifications of the free nucleon PDFs. Thus a study of the nuclear ratio suffices to gain an understanding of nuclear modifications. In this dissertation we aim to describe theoretically nuclear modifications in a restricted region where the nuclear ratio is less than unity, the so
Optimal pair-generation rate for entanglement-based quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holloway, Catherine; Doucette, John A.; Erven, Christopher; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Jennewein, Thomas
2013-02-01
In entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD), the generation and detection of multiphoton modes leads to a trade-off between entanglement visibility and twofold coincidence events when maximizing the secure key rate. We produce a predictive model for the optimal twofold coincidence probability per coincidence window given the channel efficiency and detector dark count rate of a given system. This model is experimentally validated and used in simulations for QKD with satellites as well as optical fibers.
Rohlmann, A; Calisse, J; Bergmann, G; Radvan, J; Mayer, H M
1996-06-01
The load distribution between two internal spinal fixation devices depends, besides other factors, on their stiffness. The stiffness ranges were determined experimentally for the clamps of the AO internal fixator with lateral nut and with posterior nut as well as for the clamps of the SOCON fixator. The stiffness of eight devices each differed by a factor of 3.1 for the clamp with lateral nut, by a factor of 1.5 for the clamp with posterior nut, and by a factor of 1.4 for the clamp of the SOCON fixator. For the AO clamp with lateral nut, the influence of the nut-tightening torque on the stiffness was determined. Using instrumented internal spinal fixation devices mounted to plastic vertebrae and simulating a corpectomy, the load distribution between the implants was measured for different tightening torques. It could be shown that, for the AO internal fixator whose clamps have a lateral nut, a nut-tightening torque > 5 Nm has only a negligible influence on load-sharing between the implants. Tooth damage occurs when the teeth of the clamp body and clamping jaw of the clamp with lateral nut do not gear together exactly, which leads to changes in the clamping stiffness and load-sharing between the two implants.
Tests of structure functions using lepton pairs: W-charge asymmetry at CDF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakumoto, W. K.
1994-09-01
Large asymmetry of W-bosons produced in p(bar-p) collisions has been measured using 19 039 W yields e nu and W yields mu nu decays recorded by the CDF detector during the 1992-1993 Tevatron collider run. The asymmetry is sensitive to the slope of the proton's d/u quark distribution ratio down to x less than 0.01 at Q(exp 2) approximately M(sub w)(exp 2), where nonperturbative QCD effects are minimal. Of recent parton distribution functions, those of Martin, Roberts, and Stirling are favored over those of the CTEQ collaboration. This difference is seen even though both sets agree, at the level of the nuclear shadowing corrections, with the recent NMC measurements of F(sub 2)(sup mu n)/F(sub 2)(sup mu p).
Tests of structure functions using lepton pairs: W-charge asymmetry at CDF
Sakumoto, W.K.; CDF Collaboration
1994-09-01
Large asymmetry of W-bosons produced in p{bar p} collisions has been measured using 19 039 W {yields} e{nu} and W {yields} {mu}{nu} decays recorded by the CDF detector during the 1992--1993 Tevatron collider run. The asymmetry is sensitive to the slope of the proton`s d/u quark distribution ratio down to x < 0.01 at Q{sup 2} {approx} M{sub w}{sup 2}, where nonperturbative QCD effects are minimal. Of recent parton distribution functions, those of Martin, Roberts and Stirling are favored over those of the CTEQ collaboration. This difference is seen even though both sets agree, at the leval of the nuclear shadowing corrections, with the recent NMC measurements of F{sub 2}{sup mu}n/F{sub 2}{sup mu}p.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzuba, Sergei A.
2016-08-01
Pulsed double electron-electron resonance technique (DEER, or PELDOR) is applied to study conformations and aggregation of peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, and other macromolecules. For a pair of spin labels, experimental data allows for the determination of their distance distribution function, P(r). P(r) is derived as a solution of a first-kind Fredholm integral equation, which is an ill-posed problem. Here, we suggest regularization by increasing the distance discretization length to its upper limit where numerical integration still provides agreement with experiment. This upper limit is found to be well above the lower limit for which the solution instability appears because of the ill-posed nature of the problem. For solving the integral equation, Monte Carlo trials of P(r) functions are employed; this method has an obvious advantage of the fulfillment of the non-negativity constraint for P(r). The regularization by the increasing of distance discretization length for the case of overlapping broad and narrow distributions may be employed selectively, with this length being different for different distance ranges. The approach is checked for model distance distributions and for experimental data taken from literature for doubly spin-labeled DNA and peptide antibiotics.
Shin, Jae Yen; Lopez-Garrido, Javier; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; ...
2015-05-07
SpoIIIE is a membrane-anchored DNA translocase that localizes to the septal midpoint to mediate chromosome translocation and membrane fission during Bacillus subtilis sporulation. Here we use cell-specific protein degradation and quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy in strains with a thick sporulation septum to investigate the architecture and function of the SpoIIIE DNA translocation complex in vivo. We were able to visualize SpoIIIE complexes with approximately equal numbers of molecules in the mother cell and the forespore. Cell-specific protein degradation showed that only the mother cell complex is required to translocate DNA into the forespore, whereas degradation in either cell reversesmore » membrane fission. Our data suggest that SpoIIIE assembles a coaxially paired channel for each chromosome arm comprised of one hexamer in each cell to maintain membrane fission during DNA translocation. We show that SpoIIIE can operate, in principle, as a bi-directional motor that exports DNA.« less
Density functional theory studies of interactions of ruthenium-arene complexes with base pair steps.
Mutter, Shaun T; Platts, James A
2011-10-20
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to determine the strength and geometry of intermolecular interactions of "piano-stool" ruthenium arene complexes, which show potential as anticancer treatments. Model complexes with methane and benzene indicate that the coordinated arene has C-H···π acceptor ability similar to that of free benzene, whereas this arene acts as a much stronger C-H donor or partner in π-stacking than free benzene. The source of these enhanced interactions is identified as a combination of electrostatic and dispersion effects. Complexes of Ru-arene complexes with base-pair step fragments of DNA, in which the arene has the potential to act as an intercalator, have also been investigated. Binding energies are found to be sensitive to the size and nature of the arene, with larger and more flexible arenes having stronger binding. π-stacking and C-H···π interactions between arene and DNA bases and hydrogen bonds from coordinated N-H to DNA oxygen atoms, as well as covalent Ru-N bonding, contribute to the overall binding. The effect of complexation on DNA structure is also examined, with larger rise and more negative slide values than canonical B-DNA observed in all cases.
Shin, Jae Yen; Lopez-Garrido, Javier; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Diaz-Celis, Cesar; Fleming, Tinya; Bustamante, Carlos; Pogliano, Kit
2015-01-01
SpoIIIE is a membrane-anchored DNA translocase that localizes to the septal midpoint to mediate chromosome translocation and membrane fission during Bacillus subtilis sporulation. Here we use cell-specific protein degradation and quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy in strains with a thick sporulation septum to investigate the architecture and function of the SpoIIIE DNA translocation complex in vivo. We were able to visualize SpoIIIE complexes with approximately equal numbers of molecules in the mother cell and the forespore. Cell-specific protein degradation showed that only the mother cell complex is required to translocate DNA into the forespore, whereas degradation in either cell reverses membrane fission. Our data suggest that SpoIIIE assembles a coaxially paired channel for each chromosome arm comprised of one hexamer in each cell to maintain membrane fission during DNA translocation. We show that SpoIIIE can operate, in principle, as a bi-directional motor that exports DNA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06474.001 PMID:25950186
Pair correlation function of short-ranged square-well fluids.
Largo, J; Solana, J R; Yuste, S B; Santos, A
2005-02-22
We have performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical (NVT) ensemble of the pair correlation function for square-well fluids with well widths lambda-1 ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, in units of the diameter sigma of the particles. For each one of these widths, several densities rho and temperatures T in the ranges 0.1< or =rhosigma(3)< or =0.8 and T(c)(lambda) less or approximately T less or approximately 3T(c)(lambda), where T(c)(lambda) is the critical temperature, have been considered. The simulation data are used to examine the performance of two analytical theories in predicting the structure of these fluids: the perturbation theory proposed by Tang and Lu [Y. Tang and B. C.-Y. Lu, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 3079 (1994); 100, 6665 (1994)] and the nonperturbative model proposed by two of us [S. B. Yuste and A. Santos, J. Chem. Phys. 101 2355 (1994)]. It is observed that both theories complement each other, as the latter theory works well for short ranges and/or moderate densities, while the former theory works for long ranges and high densities.
Functional model for the [Fe] hydrogenase inspired by the frustrated Lewis pair concept.
Kalz, Kai F; Brinkmeier, Alexander; Dechert, Sebastian; Mata, Ricardo A; Meyer, Franc
2014-11-26
[Fe] hydrogenase (Hmd) catalyzes the heterolytic splitting of H2 by using, in its active site, a unique organometallic iron-guanylylpyridinol (FeGP) cofactor and, as a hydride acceptor, the substrate methenyltetrahydromethanopterin (methenyl-H4MPT(+)). The combination FeGP/methenyl-H4MPT(+) and its reactivity bear resemblance to the concept of frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs), some of which have been shown to heterolytically activate H2. The present work exploits this interpretation of Hmd reactivity by using the combination of Lewis basic ruthenium metalates, namely K[CpRu(CO)2] (KRp) and a related polymeric Cp/Ru/CO compound (Rs), with the new imidazolinium salt 1,3-bis(2,6-difluorophenyl)-2-(4-tolyl)imidazolinium bromide ([(Tol)Im(F4)](+)Br(-)) that was designed to emulate the hydride acceptor properties of methenyl-H4MPT(+). Solid-state structures of [(Tol)Im(F4)](+)Br(-) and the corresponding imidazolidine H(Tol)Im(F4) reveal that the heterocycle undergoes similar structural changes as in the biological substrate. DFT calculations indicate that heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen by the FLP Rp(-)/[(Tol)Im(F4)](+) is exothermic, but the formation of the initial Lewis pair should be unfavorable in polar solvents. Consequently the combination Rp(-)/[(Tol)Im(F4)](+) does not react with H2 but leads instead to side products from nucleophilic substitution (k = 4 × 10(-2) L mol (-1) s(-1) at room temperature). In contrast, the heterogeneous combination Rs/[(Tol)Im(F4)](+) does split H2 heterolytically to give H(Tol)Im(F4) and HRuCp(CO)2 (HRp) or D(Tol)Im(F4) and DRp when using D2. The reaction has been followed by (1)H/(2)H and (19)F NMR spectroscopy as well as by IR spectroscopy and reaches 96% conversion after 1 d. Formation of H(Tol)Im(F4) under these conditions demonstrates that superelectrophilic activation by protonation, which has been proposed for methenyl-H4MPT(+) to increase its carbocationic character, is not necessarily required for an imidazolinium ion to
Huang, Lin; Wang, Jia; Lilley, David M. J.
2016-01-01
k-turns are commonly-occurring motifs that introduce sharp kinks into duplex RNA, thereby facilitating tertiary contacts. Both the folding and conformation of k-turns are determined by their local sequence. k-turns fall into two conformational classes, called N3 and N1, that differ in the pattern of hydrogen bonding in the core. We show here that this is determined by the basepair adjacent to the critical G•A pairs. We determined crystal structures of a series of Kt-7 variants in which this 3b,3n position has been systematically varied, showing that this leads to a switch in the conformation. We have previously shown that the 3b,3n position also determines the folding characteristics of the k-turn, i.e. whether or not the k-turn can fold in the presence of metal ions alone. We have analyzed the distribution of 3b,3n sequences from four classes of k-turns from ribosomes, riboswitches and U4 snRNA, finding a strong conservation of properties for a given k-turn type. We thus demonstrate a strong association between biological function, 3b,3n sequence and k-turn folding and conformation. This has strong predictive power, and can be applied to the modeling of large RNA architectures. PMID:27016741
Huang, Lin; Wang, Jia; Lilley, David M J
2016-06-20
k-turns are commonly-occurring motifs that introduce sharp kinks into duplex RNA, thereby facilitating tertiary contacts. Both the folding and conformation of k-turns are determined by their local sequence. k-turns fall into two conformational classes, called N3 and N1, that differ in the pattern of hydrogen bonding in the core. We show here that this is determined by the basepair adjacent to the critical G•A pairs. We determined crystal structures of a series of Kt-7 variants in which this 3b,3n position has been systematically varied, showing that this leads to a switch in the conformation. We have previously shown that the 3b,3n position also determines the folding characteristics of the k-turn, i.e. whether or not the k-turn can fold in the presence of metal ions alone. We have analyzed the distribution of 3b,3n sequences from four classes of k-turns from ribosomes, riboswitches and U4 snRNA, finding a strong conservation of properties for a given k-turn type. We thus demonstrate a strong association between biological function, 3b,3n sequence and k-turn folding and conformation. This has strong predictive power, and can be applied to the modeling of large RNA architectures.
Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Paul E.
2015-03-07
Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations.
2015-01-01
Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations. PMID:25747091
Oyeyemi, Victor B; Keith, John A; Carter, Emily A
2014-09-04
Accurate bond dissociation energies (BDEs) are important for characterizing combustion chemistry, particularly the initial stages of pyrolysis. Here we contribute to evaluating the thermochemistry of biodiesel methyl ester molecules using ab initio BDEs derived from a multireference averaged coupled-pair functional (MRACPF2)-based scheme. Having previously validated this approach for hydrocarbons and a variety of oxygenates, herein we provide further validation for bonds within carboxylic acids and methyl esters, finding our scheme predicts BDEs within chemical accuracy (i.e., within 1 kcal/mol) for these molecules. Insights into BDE trends with ester size are then analyzed for methyl formate through methyl crotonate. We find that the carbonyl group in the ester moiety has only a local effect on BDEs. C═C double bonds in ester alkyl chains are found to increase the strengths of bonds adjacent to the double bond. An important exception are bonds beta to C═C or C═O bonds, which produce allylic-like radicals upon dissociation. The observed trends arise from different degrees of geometric relaxation and resonance stabilization in the radicals produced. We also compute BDEs in various small alkanes and alkenes as models for the long hydrocarbon chain of actual biodiesel methyl esters. We again show that allylic bonds in the alkenes are much weaker than those in the small methyl esters, indicating that hydrogen abstractions are more likely at the allylic site and even more likely at bis-allylic sites of alkyl chains due to more electrons involved in π-resonance in the latter. Lastly, we use the BDEs in small surrogates to estimate heretofore unknown BDEs in large methyl esters of biodiesel fuels.
Reimers, Jeffrey R; Hush, Noel S
2004-04-07
We apply our four-state 70-vibration vibronic-coupling model for the properties of the photosynthetic special-pair radical cation to: (1) interpret the observed correlations between the midpoint potential and the distribution of spin density between the two bacteriochlorophylls for 30 mutants of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, (2) interpret the observed average intervalence hole-transfer absorption energies as a function of spin density for six mutants, and (3) simulate the recently obtained intervalence electroabsorption Stark spectrum of the wild-type reaction center. While three new parameters describing the location of the sites of mutation with respect to the special pair are required to describe the midpoint-potential data, a priori predictions are made for the transition energies and the Stark spectrum. In general, excellent predictions are made of the observed quantities, with deviations being typically of the order of twice the experimental uncertainties. A unified description of many chemical and spectroscopic properties of the bacterial reaction center is thus provided. Central to the analysis is the assumption that the perturbations made to the reaction center, either via mutations of protein residues or by application of an external electric field, act only to independently modify the oxidation potentials of the two halves of the special pair and hence the redox asymmetry E0. While this appears to be a good approximation, clear evidence is presented that effects of mutation can be more extensive than what is allowed for. A thorough set of analytical equations describing the observed properties is obtained using the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation. These equations are generally appropriate for intervalence charge-transfer problems and include, for the first time, full treatment of both symmetric and antisymmetric vibrational motions. The limits of validity of the adiabatic approach to the full nonadiabatic problem are obtained.
A Crystal Structure of a Functional RNA Molecule Containing an Artificial Nucleobase Pair.
Hernandez, Armando R; Shao, Yaming; Hoshika, Shuichi; Yang, Zunyi; Shelke, Sandip A; Herrou, Julien; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Kim, Myong-Jung; Piccirilli, Joseph A; Benner, Steven A
2015-08-17
As one of its goals, synthetic biology seeks to increase the number of building blocks in nucleic acids. While efforts towards this goal are well advanced for DNA, they have hardly begun for RNA. Herein, we present a crystal structure for an RNA riboswitch where a stem C:G pair has been replaced by a pair between two components of an artificially expanded genetic-information system (AEGIS), Z and P, (6-amino-5-nitro-2(1H)-pyridone and 2-amino-imidazo[1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazin-4-(8H)-one). The structure shows that the Z:P pair does not greatly change the conformation of the RNA molecule nor the details of its interaction with a hypoxanthine ligand. This was confirmed in solution by in-line probing, which also measured a 3.7 nM affinity of the riboswitch for guanine. These data show that the Z:P pair mimics the natural Watson-Crick geometry in RNA in the first example of a crystal structure of an RNA molecule that contains an orthogonal added nucleobase pair.
Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; ...
2013-02-15
We present the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to detect photons with energies from ≈20 MeV to >300 GeV. The pre-launch response functions of the LAT were determined through extensive Monte Carlo simulations and beam tests. The point-spread function (PSF) characterizing the angular distribution of reconstructed photons as a function of energy and geometry in the detector is determined here from two years of on-orbit data by examining the distributions of γ rays from pulsars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Above 3 GeV, the PSF is found to be broadermore » than the pre-launch PSF. We checked for dependence of the PSF on the class of γ-ray source and observation epoch and found none. We also investigated several possible spatial models for pair-halo emission around BL Lac AGNs. Finally, we found no evidence for a component with spatial extension larger than the PSF and set upper limits on the amplitude of halo emission in stacked images of low- and high-redshift BL Lac AGNs and the TeV blazars 1ES0229+200 and 1ES0347–121.« less
Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P. E-mail: mar0@uw.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS and others
2013-03-01
The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to detect photons with energies from Almost-Equal-To 20 MeV to >300 GeV. The pre-launch response functions of the LAT were determined through extensive Monte Carlo simulations and beam tests. The point-spread function (PSF) characterizing the angular distribution of reconstructed photons as a function of energy and geometry in the detector is determined here from two years of on-orbit data by examining the distributions of {gamma} rays from pulsars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Above 3 GeV, the PSF is found to be broader than the pre-launch PSF. We checked for dependence of the PSF on the class of {gamma}-ray source and observation epoch and found none. We also investigated several possible spatial models for pair-halo emission around BL Lac AGNs. We found no evidence for a component with spatial extension larger than the PSF and set upper limits on the amplitude of halo emission in stacked images of low- and high-redshift BL Lac AGNs and the TeV blazars 1ES0229+200 and 1ES0347-121.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Fu-Guo; Liu, Xiao-Shu; Ma, Ying-Jun; Xiao, Li; Long, Gui-Lu
2002-07-01
We propose a theoretical scheme for any-to-any multi-user quantum key distribution on a passive optical network with ordered N Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs. This scheme is safe and more efficient than those with single photons. Its efficiency approaches 100% in the limit that the number of pairs used in the eavesdropping check becomes negligible. It also has high capacity and is convenient for users.
Extractions of polarized and unpolarized parton distribution functions
Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro
2014-01-01
An overview of our ongoing extractions of parton distribution functions of the nucleon is given. First JAM results on the determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions from world data on polarized deep-inelastic scattering are presented first, and followed by a short report on the status of the JR unpolarized parton distributions. Different aspects of PDF analysis are briefly discussed, including effects of the nuclear structure of targets, target-mass corrections and higher twist contributions to the structure functions.
Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum.
Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C; Clark, Kristi A; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C
2016-01-01
Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach) because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions.
Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum
Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C.; Clark, Kristi A.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D.; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C.
2016-01-01
Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach) because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions. PMID:27303273
Variability of Response Latency in Paired Associate Learning as a Function of Training Procedure.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Judd, Wilson A.; Glaser, Robert
Two procedures were investigated in an attempt to decrease the variability of overlearning response latencies in a study-test paradigm, paired-associate task matching CVC's with response keys: (1) self-pacing the task by presenting test trial stimuli whenever the subject pressed a "home" key; and (2) instructing and shaping subjects to keep home…
RECALL OF NOUN PAIRS EMBEDDED IN CONNECTED DISCOURSE AS A FUNCTION OF ASSOCIATION STRENGTH.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
ROSENBERG, SHELDON
THREE GROUPS OF SUBJECTS WERE GIVEN A PASSAGE TO LEARN FOLLOWED BY A WRITTEN RECALL TEST. GROUP HA (HIGH ASSOCIATION) WAS GIVEN A PASSAGE WHICH INCLUDED 16 PAIRS OF ASSOCIATIVELY RELATED NOUNS. GROUPS LA (LOW ASSOCIATION) AND C (CONTROL) WERE GIVEN A PASSAGE CONTAINING ASSOCIATIVELY UNRELATED NOUNS. THE HA AND LA PASSAGES CONTAINED THE SAME…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lansberg, J. P.; Pire, B.; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K.; Szymanowski, L.
2012-12-01
Nucleon-antinucleon annihilation into a near backward- (or forward-) produced meson and a high invariant mass lepton pair admits a factorized description in terms of antinucleon (or nucleon) distribution amplitudes and nucleon-to-meson (or antinucleon-to-meson) transition distribution amplitudes. We estimate the cross section of backward (and forward) pion and η-meson production in association with a high invariant mass lepton pair for the kinematical conditions of GSI-FAIR. The cross sections are found to be large enough to be measured with the P¯ANDA detector. Interesting phenomenological applications of the approach are thus expected.
Optimal Reward Functions in Distributed Reinforcement Learning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan
2000-01-01
We consider the design of multi-agent systems so as to optimize an overall world utility function when (1) those systems lack centralized communication and control, and (2) each agents runs a distinct Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm. A crucial issue in such design problems is to initialize/update each agent's private utility function, so as to induce best possible world utility. Traditional 'team game' solutions to this problem sidestep this issue and simply assign to each agent the world utility as its private utility function. In previous work we used the 'Collective Intelligence' framework to derive a better choice of private utility functions, one that results in world utility performance up to orders of magnitude superior to that ensuing from use of the team game utility. In this paper we extend these results. We derive the general class of private utility functions that both are easy for the individual agents to learn and that, if learned well, result in high world utility. We demonstrate experimentally that using these new utility functions can result in significantly improved performance over that of our previously proposed utility, over and above that previous utility's superiority to the conventional team game utility.
Radial distribution function of semiflexible oligomers with stretching flexibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xi; Bao, Lei; Wu, Yuan-Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Tan, Zhi-Jie
2017-08-01
The radial distribution of the end-to-end distance Ree is crucial for quantifying the global size and flexibility of a linear polymer. For semiflexible polymers, several analytical formulas have been derived for the radial distribution of Ree ignoring the stretching flexibility. However, for semiflexible oligomers, such as DNA or RNA, the stretching flexibility can be rather pronounced and can significantly affect the radial distribution of Ree. In this study, we obtained an extended formula that includes the stretch modulus to describe the distribution of Ree for semiflexible oligomers on the basis of previous formulas for semiflexible polymers without stretching flexibility. The extended formula was validated by extensive Monte Carlo simulations over wide ranges of the stretch modulus and persistence length, as well as all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of short DNAs and RNAs. Additionally, our analyses showed that the effect of stretching flexibility on the distribution of Ree becomes negligible for DNAs longer than ˜130 base pairs and RNAs longer than ˜240 base pairs.
Finding of a highly efficient ZFN pair for Aqpep gene functioning in murine zygotes
FUJII, Wataru; ONUMA, Asuka; YOSHIOKA, Shin; NAGASHIMA, Keisuke; SUGIURA, Koji; NAITO, Kunihiko
2015-01-01
The generation efficiencies of mutation-induced mice when using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) have been generally 10 to 20% of obtained pups in previous studies. The discovery of high-affinity DNA-binding modules can contribute to the generation of various kinds of novel artificial chromatin-targeting tools, such as zinc-finger acetyltransferases, zinc-finger histone kinases and so on, as well as improvement of reported zinc-finger recombinases and zinc-finger methyltransferases. Here, we report a novel ZFN pair that has a highly efficient mutation-induction ability in murine zygotes. The ZFN pair induced mutations in all obtained mice in the target locus, exon 17 of aminopeptidase Q gene, and almost all of the pups had biallelic mutations. This high efficiency was also shown in the plasmid DNA transfected in a cultured human cell line. The induced mutations were inherited normally in the next generation. The zinc-finger modules of this ZFN pair are expected to contribute to the development of novel ZF-attached chromatin-targeting tools. PMID:26460691
Self-Organizing Maps and Parton Distribution Functions
K. Holcomb, Simonetta Liuti, D. Z. Perry
2011-05-01
We present a new method to extract parton distribution functions from high energy experimental data based on a specific type of neural networks, the Self-Organizing Maps. We illustrate the features of our new procedure that are particularly useful for an anaysis directed at extracting generalized parton distributions from data. We show quantitative results of our initial analysis of the parton distribution functions from inclusive deep inelastic scattering.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witherow, William K. (Inventor)
1988-01-01
A Lambertian reference standard for uniformly scattering a beam of light is constructed of a plate having a planar surface with a layer of glue disposed on the surface. An evenly packed layer of monodisperse spheres is set in the layer, and when the standard is used for bi-directional (BRDF) measurements, the spheres are coated with a layer of highly relective substance, such as gold or silver. When the standard is used for bi-directional transmittance distribution function (BTDF) measurements, the spheres are of a transparent material and are provided with a roughened surface, as by acid etching. In this case, the layer of glue is an optical cement, and the plate is of glass, with the spheres, the layer, and the plate all possessing a similar refractive index.
Sochacka, Elzbieta; Szczepanowski, Roman H; Cypryk, Marek; Sobczak, Milena; Janicka, Magdalena; Kraszewska, Karina; Bartos, Paulina; Chwialkowska, Anna; Nawrot, Barbara
2015-03-11
2-Thiouracil-containing nucleosides are essential modified units of natural and synthetic nucleic acids. In particular, the 5-substituted-2-thiouridines (S2Us) present in tRNA play an important role in tuning the translation process through codon-anticodon interactions. The enhanced thermodynamic stability of S2U-containing RNA duplexes and the preferred S2U-A versus S2U-G base pairing are appreciated characteristics of S2U-modified molecular probes. Recently, we have demonstrated that 2-thiouridine (alone or within an RNA chain) is predominantly transformed under oxidative stress conditions to 4-pyrimidinone riboside (H2U) and not to uridine. Due to the important biological functions and various biotechnological applications for sulfur-containing nucleic acids, we compared the thermodynamic stabilities of duplexes containing desulfured products with those of 2-thiouracil-modified RNA and DNA duplexes. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments and theoretical calculations demonstrate that upon 2-thiouracil desulfuration to 4-pyrimidinone, the preferred base pairing of S2U with adenosine is lost, with preferred base pairing with guanosine observed instead. Therefore, biological processes and in vitro assays in which oxidative desulfuration of 2-thiouracil-containing components occurs may be altered. Moreover, we propose that the H2U-G base pair is a suitable model for investigation of the preferred recognition of 3'-G-ending versus A-ending codons by tRNA wobble nucleosides, which may adopt a 4-pyrimidinone-type structural motif.
Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions
Kirby, W.
1983-01-01
Use of previously coded and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main progress. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chi-square, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function, I sub o, gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions, and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer-plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)
Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions
Kirby, W.H.
1980-01-01
Use of previously codes and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main programs. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chisquare, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F tests. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function I (subzero), gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)
Messenger RNA modifications: Form, distribution, and function.
Gilbert, Wendy V; Bell, Tristan A; Schaening, Cassandra
2016-06-17
RNA contains more than 100 distinct modifications that promote the functions of stable noncoding RNAs in translation and splicing. Recent technical advances have revealed widespread and sparse modification of messenger RNAs with N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A), 5-methylcytosine (m(5)C), and pseudouridine (Ψ). Here we discuss the rapidly evolving understanding of the location, regulation, and function of these dynamic mRNA marks, collectively termed the epitranscriptome. We highlight differences among modifications and between species that could instruct ongoing efforts to understand how specific mRNA target sites are selected and how their modification is regulated. Diverse molecular consequences of individual m(6)A modifications are beginning to be revealed, but the effects of m(5)C and Ψ remain largely unknown. Future work linking molecular effects to organismal phenotypes will broaden our understanding of mRNA modifications as cell and developmental regulators. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Distribution and functions of sterols and sphingolipids.
Hannich, J Thomas; Umebayashi, Kyohei; Riezman, Howard
2011-05-01
Sterols and sphingolipids are considered mainly eukaryotic lipids even though both are present in some prokaryotes, with sphingolipids being more widespread than sterols. Both sterols and sphingolipids differ in their structural features in vertebrates, plants, and fungi. Interestingly, some invertebrates cannot synthesize sterols de novo and seem to have a reduced dependence on sterols. Sphingolipids and sterols are found in the plasma membrane, but we do not have a clear picture of their precise intracellular localization. Advances in lipidomics and subcellular fractionation should help to improve this situation. Genetic approaches have provided insights into the diversity of sterol and sphingolipid functions in eukaryotes providing evidence that these two lipid classes function together. Intermediates in sphingolipid biosynthesis and degradation are involved in signaling pathways, whereas sterol structures are converted to hormones. Both lipids have been implicated in regulating membrane trafficking.
Distribution and Functions of Sterols and Sphingolipids
Hannich, J. Thomas; Umebayashi, Kyohei; Riezman, Howard
2011-01-01
Sterols and sphingolipids are considered mainly eukaryotic lipids even though both are present in some prokaryotes, with sphingolipids being more widespread than sterols. Both sterols and sphingolipids differ in their structural features in vertebrates, plants, and fungi. Interestingly, some invertebrates cannot synthesize sterols de novo and seem to have a reduced dependence on sterols. Sphingolipids and sterols are found in the plasma membrane, but we do not have a clear picture of their precise intracellular localization. Advances in lipidomics and subcellular fractionation should help to improve this situation. Genetic approaches have provided insights into the diversity of sterol and sphingolipid functions in eukaryotes providing evidence that these two lipid classes function together. Intermediates in sphingolipid biosynthesis and degradation are involved in signaling pathways, whereas sterol structures are converted to hormones. Both lipids have been implicated in regulating membrane trafficking. PMID:21454248
Distributed implementation of functional program evaluation
Fasel, J.H.; Douglass, R.J.; Michelsen, R.; Hudak, P.
1985-01-01
In this paper, we explore the potential of the functional model, particularly as it pertains to architecture. In Section 2, we describe the graph-reduction operational model of computation and its relation to AI problems. In Section 3, we discuss a class of architectures that implement graph reduction and a prototype implementation in this class being developed at Los Alamos. Finally, we speculate on the applicability of graph reduction to some other classes of architecture.
Aaltonen, T
2011-04-28
We report a study of the invariant mass distribution of jet pairs produced in association with a W boson using data collected with the CDF detector which correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.3 fb-1. The observed distribution has an excess in the 120-160 GeV/c2 mass range which is not described by current theoretical predictions within the statistical and systematic uncertainties. In this letter we report studies of the properties of this excess.
Dijksterhuis, Jacomijn P.; Baljinnyam, Bolormaa; Stanger, Karen; Sercan, Hakki O.; Ji, Yun; Andres, Osler; Rubin, Jeffrey S.; Hannoush, Rami N.; Schulte, Gunnar
2015-01-01
The seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors of the FZD1–10 class are bound and activated by the WNT family of lipoglycoproteins, thereby inducing a complex network of signaling pathways. However, the specificity of the interaction between mammalian WNT and FZD proteins and the subsequent signaling cascade downstream of the different WNT-FZD pairs have not been systematically addressed to date. In this study, we determined the binding affinities of various WNTs for different members of the FZD family by using bio-layer interferometry and characterized their functional selectivity in a cell system. Using purified WNTs, we show that different FZD cysteine-rich domains prefer to bind to distinct WNTs with fast on-rates and slow off-rates. In a 32D cell-based system engineered to overexpress FZD2, FZD4, or FZD5, we found that WNT-3A (but not WNT-4, -5A, or -9B) activated the WNT-β-catenin pathway through FZD2/4/5 as measured by phosphorylation of LRP6 and β-catenin stabilization. Surprisingly, different WNT-FZD pairs showed differential effects on phosphorylation of DVL2 and DVL3, revealing a previously unappreciated DVL isoform selectivity by different WNT-FZD pairs in 32D cells. In summary, we present extensive mapping of WNT-FZD cysteine-rich domain interactions complemented by analysis of WNT-FZD pair functionality in a unique cell system expressing individual FZD isoforms. Differential WNT-FZD binding and selective functional readouts suggest that endogenous WNT ligands evolved with an intrinsic natural bias toward different downstream signaling pathways, a phenomenon that could be of great importance in the design of FZD-targeting drugs. PMID:25605717
A.V. Efremov, P. Schweitzer, O.V. Teryaev, P. Zavada
2011-03-01
We derive relations between transverse momentum dependent distribution functions (TMDs) and the usual parton distribution functions (PDFs) in the 3D covariant parton model, which follow from Lorentz invariance and the assumption of a rotationally symmetric distribution of parton momenta in the nucleon rest frame. Using the known PDFs f_1(x) and g_1(x) as input we predict the x- and pT-dependence of all twist-2 T-even TMDs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodek, K.; Kępka, D.; Rozpędzik, D.; Zejma, J.; Kozela, A.
2017-04-01
A self-calibrating double-Mott polarimeter is proposed for measurement of the spin correlation function of relativistic electron pairs produced in Møller scattering. The polarization of outgoing electrons (appearing when the beam is polarized) is utilized for calibration of effective analyzing powers in the secondary Mott scattering used for spin analysis. The experiment will measure the newly introduced relative spin correlation function. This new observable can be measured with a significantly better accuracy than the regular spin correlation function in a small scale experiment. It is shown that both the spin correlation function and the relative spin correlation function are theoretically equivalent. A specific experimental data analysis scenario is proposed, which effectively eliminates the systematic effects related to the imperfect geometry and detector efficiency.
An Orientation Distribution Function for Trabecular Bone
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
2004-10-08
We describe a new method for quantifying the orientation of trabecular bone from three-dimensional images. Trabecular lattices from five human vertebrae were decomposed into individual trabecular elements, and the orientation, mass, and thickness of each element were recorded. Continuous functions that described the total mass (M({var_phi},{theta})) and mean thickness ({tau}({var_phi},{theta})) of all trabeculae as a function of orientation were derived. The results were compared with experimental measurements of the elastic modulus in the three principal anatomic directions. A power law scaling relationship between the anisotropies in mass and elastic modulus was observed; the scaling exponent was 1.41 (R{sup 2} = 0.88). As expected, the preponderance of trabecular mass was oriented along the cranial-caudal direction; on average, there was 3.4 times more mass oriented vertically than horizontally. Moreover, the vertical trabeculae were 30% thicker, on average, than the horizontal trabeculae. The vertical trabecular thickness was inversely related to the connectivity (R{sup 2} = 0.70; p = 0.07), suggesting a possible organization into either few, thick trabeculae or many thin trabeculae. The method, which accounts for the mechanical connectedness of the lattice, provides a rapid way to both visualize and quantify the three-dimensional organization of trabecular bone.
Davis, Catherine L; Tkacz, Joseph P; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Bustamante, Eduardo E
2015-11-01
This study tested whether participation in organized physical activity (active vs. inactive) or weight status (normal weight vs. overweight or obese) independently relate to children's cognition, using a matched-pairs design. Normal weight, active children (8-11 yrs, 5th-75th percentile BMI) were recruited from extracurricular physical activity programs while normal weight inactive (5th-75th percentile BMI) and overweight inactive children (BMI ≥85th percentile) were recruited from local Augusta, Georgia area schools. Measures included the Cognitive Assessment System, anthropometrics, and parent- and self-report of physical activity. Paired t tests compared cognition scores between matched groups of normal weight active vs. normal weight inactive (N = 24 pairs), normal weight inactive vs. overweight inactive (N = 21 pairs), and normal weight active vs. overweight inactive children (N = 16 pairs). Children in each comparison were matched for race, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Normal weight active children had higher Planning (M± SD = 109 ± 11 vs. 100 ± 11, p = .011) and Attention scores (108 ± 11 vs. 100 ± 11, p = .013) than overweight inactive children. Normal weight inactive children had higher Attention scores than overweight inactive children (105 ± 13 vs. 93 ± 12, p = .008). When compared with normal weight inactive children, normal weight active children had higher Planning (113 ± 10 vs. 102 ± 13, p = .008) and marginally higher Attention scores (111 ± 11 vs. 104 ± 12, p = .06). Findings suggest independent associations of children's weight status with selective attention, and physical activity with higher-order processes of executive function.
Tkacz, Joseph P.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Bustamante, Eduardo E.
2015-01-01
Purpose This study tested whether participation in organized physical activity (active vs. inactive) or weight status (normal weight vs. overweight or obese) independently relate to hildren’s cognition, using a matched-pairs design. Design and Methods Normal weight, active children (8–11 yrs, 5th–75th percentile BMI) were recruited from extracurricular physical activity programs while normal weight inactive (5th–75th percentile BMI) and overweight inactive children (BMI ≥85th percentile) were recruited from local Augusta, Georgia area schools. Measures included the Cognitive Assessment System, anthropometrics, and parent- and self-report of physical activity. Paired t-tests compared cognition scores between matched groups of normal weight active vs. normal weight inactive (N=24 pairs), normal weight inactive vs. overweight inactive (N=21 pairs), and normal weight active vs. overweight inactive children (N=16 pairs). Children in each comparison were matched for race, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Results Normal weight active children had higher Planning (M±SD=109±11 vs. 100±11, p=.011) and Attention scores (108±11 vs. 100±11, p=013) than overweight inactive children. Normal weight inactive children had higher Attention scores than overweight inactive children (105±13 vs. 93±12, p=008). When compared to normal weight inactive children, normal weight active children had higher Planning (113±10 vs. 102±13, p=008) and marginally higher Attention scores (111±11 vs. 104±12, p=06). Conclusion Findings suggest independent associations of children’s weight status with selective attention, and physical activity with higher-order processes of executive function. PMID:26252198
Role of scattering distribution functions in spacecraft contamination control practices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carosso, P. A.; Carosso, N. J. P.
1986-01-01
A method for spacecraft optical surface contamination monitoring based on the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and the bidirectional transmittance distribution function (BTDF) is described. In the experimental set up, BRDF/BTDF measurements were made at 0.6328 microns using a 35-mW He-Ne laser light source. A correlation of the second order between BRDF and cleanliness levels was observed. It is suggested that bidirectional scattering distribution functions measured on witness mirrors can give information about contamination in clean rooms or vacuum chambers, and that they can be adopted to establish contamination control criteria.
Wang, Bi-Dar; Ceniccola, Kristin; Yang, Qi; Andrawis, Ramez; Patel, Vyomesh; Ji, Youngmi; Rhim, Johng; Olender, Jacqueline; Popratiloff, Anastas; Latham, Patricia; Lai, Yinglei; Patierno, Steven R; Lee, Norman H
2015-11-01
African Americans (AA) exhibit higher rates of prostate cancer incidence and mortality compared with European American (EA) men. In addition to socioeconomic influences, biologic factors are believed to play a critical role in prostate cancer disparities. We investigated whether population-specific and -enriched miRNA-mRNA interactions might contribute to prostate cancer disparities. Integrative genomics was used, combining miRNA and mRNA profiling, miRNA target prediction, pathway analysis, and functional validation, to map miRNA-mRNA interactions associated with prostate cancer disparities. We identified 22 AA-specific and 18 EA-specific miRNAs in prostate cancer versus patient-matched normal prostate, and 10 "AA-enriched/-depleted" miRNAs in AA prostate cancer versus EA prostate cancer comparisons. Many of these population-specific/-enriched miRNAs could be paired with target mRNAs that exhibited an inverse pattern of differential expression. Pathway analysis revealed EGFR (or ERBB) signaling as a critical pathway significantly regulated by AA-specific/-enriched mRNAs and miRNA-mRNA pairings. Novel miRNA-mRNA pairings were validated by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and/or IHC analyses in prostate cancer specimens. Loss/gain of function assays performed in population-specific prostate cancer cell lines confirmed miR-133a/MCL1, miR-513c/STAT1, miR-96/FOXO3A, miR-145/ITPR2, and miR-34a/PPP2R2A as critical miRNA-mRNA pairings driving oncogenesis. Manipulating the balance of these pairings resulted in decreased proliferation and invasion, and enhanced sensitization to docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity in AA prostate cancer cells. Our data suggest that AA-specific/-enriched miRNA-mRNA pairings may play a critical role in the activation of oncogenic pathways in AA prostate cancer. Our findings also suggest that miR-133a/MCL1, miR-513c/STAT1, and miR-96/FOXO3A may have clinical significance in the development of novel strategies for treating aggressive prostate cancer. ©2015
Neural compensation, muscle load distribution and muscle function in control of biped models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bavarian, B.
Three aspects of the neuromuscular control of muscle actuators in biped movements were studied: neural compensation, muscle load distribution, and muscle function. A block diagram of a neural control circuit model of the control nervous system is presented. Based on this block diagram a circuit comprised of a dynamic compensator, an inverse plant, and pre-programmed reference trajectory generators is proposed for control of a general n-link biped model. This circuit is used to study the postural stability and point-to-point voluntary movement of a two-link planar biped with two pairs of muscle models. The muscle load distribution, relevant to functional electrical stimulation of paraplegic patients for restoration of limited motor function, is considered. A quantitative analysis of the local controllability of a two-link planar biped model incorporating six major muscles of the lower extremities is presented. A model of the muscle for the lower extremities is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sand, Andrew M.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Gagliardi, Laura
2017-01-01
The recently developed multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT) combines multiconfiguration wave function theory with a density functional that depends on the on-top pair density of an electronic system. In an MC-PDFT calculation, there are two steps: a conventional multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) calculation and a post-MCSCF evaluation of the energy with an on-top density functional. In this work, we present the details of the MC-PDFT algorithm that avoids steeply scaling steps that are present in other post-self-consistent-field multireference calculations of dynamic correlation energy. We demonstrate the favorable scaling by considering systems of H2 molecules with active spaces of several different sizes. We then apply the MC-PDFT method to calculate the heterolytic dissociation enthalpy of ferrocene. We find that MC-PDFT yields results that are at least as accurate as complete active space second-order perturbation theory and are more stable with respect to basis set, but at a fraction of the cost in both time and memory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalal, E. N.; Handley, J. C.; Wu, W.; Wang, J.
2008-01-01
The method of paired comparisons is often used in image quality evaluations. Psychometric scale values for quality judgments are modeled using Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment in which distance in a psychometric scale space is a function of the probability of preference. The transformation from psychometric space to probability is a cumulative probability distribution. The major drawback of a complete paired comparison experiment is that every treatment is compared to every other, thus the number of comparisons grows quadratically. We ameliorate this difficulty by performing paired comparisons in two stages, by precisely estimating anchors in the psychometric scale space which are spaced apart to cover the range of scale values and comparing treatments against those anchors. In this model, we employ a generalized linear model where the regression equation has a constant offset vector determined by the anchors. The result of this formulation is a straightforward statistical model easily analyzed using any modern statistics package. This enables model fitting and diagnostics. This method was applied to overall preference evaluations of color pictorial hardcopy images. The results were found to be compatible with complete paired comparison experiments, but with significantly less effort.
Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Hassanpour, Mahlega S.; Dehghani, Hamid; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Hershey, Tamara; Culver, Joseph P.
2014-06-01
Mapping of human brain function has revolutionized systems neuroscience. However, traditional functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used when applications require portability, or are contraindicated because of ionizing radiation (positron emission tomography) or implanted metal (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Optical neuroimaging offers a non-invasive alternative that is radiation free and compatible with implanted metal and electronic devices (for example, pacemakers). However, optical imaging technology has heretofore lacked the combination of spatial resolution and wide field of view sufficient to map distributed brain functions. Here, we present a high-density diffuse optical tomography imaging array that can map higher-order, distributed brain function. The system was tested by imaging four hierarchical language tasks and multiple resting-state networks including the dorsal attention and default mode networks. Finally, we imaged brain function in patients with Parkinson's disease and implanted deep brain stimulators that preclude functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Local field distribution near corrugated interfaces: Green's function formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, K. W.; Wan, Jones T. K.
2001-12-01
We have developed a Green's function formalism to compute the local field distribution near an interface separating two media of different dielectric constants. The Maxwell's equations are converted into a surface integral equation; thus it greatly simplifies the solutions and yields accurate results for interfaces of arbitrary shape. The integral equation is solved and the local field distribution is obtained for a periodic interface.
Consistency check for radial distribution functions of water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lie, George C.
1986-12-01
From a relation between the thermal compressibility and radial distribution function, it is shown that the accuracy of the generally accepted Narten and Levy's experimental radial distribution functions (RDFs) for water is very low, compared with newer experimental results. The most recent experimental RDFs obtained by Soper and Phillips not only pass the consistency check derived, but also have the best overall agreement with the simulated results of Lie and Clementi.
Hsu, Justin Bo-Kai; Huang, Kai-Yao; Weng, Tzu-Ya; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Lee, Tzong-Yi
2014-01-01
Machinery of pre-mRNA splicing is carried out through the interaction of RNA sequence elements and a variety of RNA splicing-related proteins (SRPs) (e.g. spliceosome and splicing factors). Alternative splicing, which is an important post-transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, gives rise to multiple mature mRNA isoforms, which encodes proteins with functional diversities. However, the regulation of RNA splicing is not yet fully elucidated, partly because SRPs have not yet been exhaustively identified and the experimental identification is labor-intensive. Therefore, we are motivated to design a new method for identifying SRPs with their functional roles in the regulation of RNA splicing. The experimentally verified SRPs were manually curated from research articles. According to the functional annotation of Splicing Related Gene Database, the collected SRPs were further categorized into four functional groups including small nuclear Ribonucleoprotein, Splicing Factor, Splicing Regulation Factor and Novel Spliceosome Protein. The composition of amino acid pairs indicates that there are remarkable differences among four functional groups of SRPs. Then, support vector machines (SVMs) were utilized to learn the predictive models for identifying SRPs as well as their functional roles. The cross-validation evaluation presents that the SVM models trained with significant amino acid pairs and functional domains could provide a better predictive performance. In addition, the independent testing demonstrates that the proposed method could accurately identify SRPs in mammals/plants as well as effectively distinguish between SRPs and RNA-binding proteins. This investigation provides a practical means to identifying potential SRPs and a perspective for exploring the regulation of RNA splicing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Justin Bo-Kai; Huang, Kai-Yao; Weng, Tzu-Ya; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Lee, Tzong-Yi
2014-01-01
Machinery of pre-mRNA splicing is carried out through the interaction of RNA sequence elements and a variety of RNA splicing-related proteins (SRPs) (e.g. spliceosome and splicing factors). Alternative splicing, which is an important post-transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, gives rise to multiple mature mRNA isoforms, which encodes proteins with functional diversities. However, the regulation of RNA splicing is not yet fully elucidated, partly because SRPs have not yet been exhaustively identified and the experimental identification is labor-intensive. Therefore, we are motivated to design a new method for identifying SRPs with their functional roles in the regulation of RNA splicing. The experimentally verified SRPs were manually curated from research articles. According to the functional annotation of Splicing Related Gene Database, the collected SRPs were further categorized into four functional groups including small nuclear Ribonucleoprotein, Splicing Factor, Splicing Regulation Factor and Novel Spliceosome Protein. The composition of amino acid pairs indicates that there are remarkable differences among four functional groups of SRPs. Then, support vector machines (SVMs) were utilized to learn the predictive models for identifying SRPs as well as their functional roles. The cross-validation evaluation presents that the SVM models trained with significant amino acid pairs and functional domains could provide a better predictive performance. In addition, the independent testing demonstrates that the proposed method could accurately identify SRPs in mammals/plants as well as effectively distinguish between SRPs and RNA-binding proteins. This investigation provides a practical means to identifying potential SRPs and a perspective for exploring the regulation of RNA splicing.
Ohba, Tomihito; Makabe, Toshiaki
2010-03-15
When a pair of short- and long-lived excited molecules are coupled with an upper radiative state, it will be possible to derive the number density of the long-lived species from the optical emission spectroscopy of upper-level short-lived species by careful selection of the pair. Two-dimensional density distributions of the long-lived metastable state Ar(1s{sub 5}) and that of the short-lived excited state Ar(2p{sub 2}) are observed and compared in the time-averaged form, using a computerized tomography technique of the emissions from a pair of optical transitions in a two-frequency capacitively coupled plasma in pure Ar.
Sochacka, Elzbieta; Szczepanowski, Roman H.; Cypryk, Marek; Sobczak, Milena; Janicka, Magdalena; Kraszewska, Karina; Bartos, Paulina; Chwialkowska, Anna; Nawrot, Barbara
2015-01-01
2-Thiouracil-containing nucleosides are essential modified units of natural and synthetic nucleic acids. In particular, the 5-substituted-2-thiouridines (S2Us) present in tRNA play an important role in tuning the translation process through codon–anticodon interactions. The enhanced thermodynamic stability of S2U-containing RNA duplexes and the preferred S2U-A versus S2U-G base pairing are appreciated characteristics of S2U-modified molecular probes. Recently, we have demonstrated that 2-thiouridine (alone or within an RNA chain) is predominantly transformed under oxidative stress conditions to 4-pyrimidinone riboside (H2U) and not to uridine. Due to the important biological functions and various biotechnological applications for sulfur-containing nucleic acids, we compared the thermodynamic stabilities of duplexes containing desulfured products with those of 2-thiouracil-modified RNA and DNA duplexes. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments and theoretical calculations demonstrate that upon 2-thiouracil desulfuration to 4-pyrimidinone, the preferred base pairing of S2U with adenosine is lost, with preferred base pairing with guanosine observed instead. Therefore, biological processes and in vitro assays in which oxidative desulfuration of 2-thiouracil-containing components occurs may be altered. Moreover, we propose that the H2U-G base pair is a suitable model for investigation of the preferred recognition of 3′-G-ending versus A-ending codons by tRNA wobble nucleosides, which may adopt a 4-pyrimidinone-type structural motif. PMID:25690900
Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treumann, Rudolf A.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang
2016-06-01
It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs-Boltzmann factor prescription which is based on counting statistics. With the widely used replacement of the Boltzmann factor by a generalised Lorentzian (also known as the q-deformed exponential function, where κ = 1/|q - 1|, with κ, q ∈ R) both the kappa-Bose and kappa-Fermi partition functions are obtained in quite a straightforward way, from which the conventional Bose and Fermi distributions follow for κ → ∞. For κ ≠ ∞ these are subject to the restrictions that they can be used only at temperatures far from zero. They thus, as shown earlier, have little value for quantum physics. This is reasonable, because physical κ systems imply strong correlations which are absent at zero temperature where apart from stochastics all dynamical interactions are frozen. In the classical large temperature limit one obtains physically reasonable κ distributions which depend on energy respectively momentum as well as on chemical potential. Looking for other functional dependencies, we examine Bessel functions whether they can be used for obtaining valid distributions. Again and for the same reason, no Fermi and Bose distributions exist in the low temperature limit. However, a classical Bessel-Boltzmann distribution can be constructed which is a Bessel-modified Lorentzian distribution. Whether it makes any physical sense remains an open question. This is not investigated here. The choice of Bessel functions is motivated solely by their convergence properties and not by reference to any physical demands. This result suggests that the Gibbs-Boltzmann partition function is fundamental not only to Gibbs-Boltzmann but also to a large class of generalised Lorentzian distributions as well as to the corresponding nonextensive statistical mechanics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Hara, Ryoma; Tanabe, Kazutoshi; Fujimori, Ken
1997-03-01
To examine the reaction mechanism for the thermal reorganization, or more specifically the oxygen scrambling, in diacyl peroxide, we have carried out a hybrid density functional study using formyl peroxide as a model compound. The B3LYP calculations suggest that the oxygen scrambling in diacyl peroxide is most likely to occur via a σ-acyloxyl radical pair species: the competitive pathways of the [3,3]- and [1,3]-sigmatropic shifts are highly improbable. Thus, the mechanism for the thermal oxygen scrambling in diacyl peroxide should be completely different from those for the carbon counterparts of diacyl peroxide (the Cope and Claisen rearrangement).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikeda, Noriaki; Xu, Xiaomeng
2014-11-01
Consistent boundary conditions for Alexandrov-Kontsevich-Schwartz-Zaboronsky (AKSZ) sigma models and the corresponding boundary theories are analyzed. As their mathematical structures, we introduce a generalization of differential graded symplectic manifolds, called twisted QP manifolds, in terms of graded symplectic geometry, canonical functions, and QP pairs. We generalize the AKSZ construction of topological sigma models to sigma models with Wess-Zumino terms and show that all the twisted Poisson-like structures known in the literature can actually be naturally realized as boundary conditions for AKSZ sigma models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, K.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Bian, X. F.
2013-02-01
Molecular dynamics simulation has been performed to study the splitting of the second peak in pair correlation functions of quasi-two-dimensional disordered film. A quasi-two-dimensional inhomogeneous structural model, which contains both crystal-like and disordered regions, supports the hypothesis that the splitting of the second peak is result of a statistical average of crystal-like and disordered structural regions in the system, not just the amorphous structure. The second-peak splitting can be viewed as a prototype of the crystal-like peak exhibiting distorted and vestigial features.
Pion and kaon valence-quark parton distribution functions.
Nguyen, T.; Bashir, A.; Roberts, C. D.; Tandy, P. C.
2011-06-16
A rainbow-ladder truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations, constrained by existing applications to hadron physics, is employed to compute the valence-quark parton distribution functions of the pion and kaon. Comparison is made to {pi}-N Drell-Yan data for the pion's u-quark distribution and to Drell-Yan data for the ratio u{sub K}(x)/u{sub {pi}}(x): the environmental influence of this quantity is a parameter-free prediction, which agrees well with existing data. Our analysis unifies the computation of distribution functions with that of numerous other properties of pseudoscalar mesons.
New insight on the Sivers transverse momentum dependent distribution function
M. Anselmino, M. Boglione, U. D'Alesio, S. Melis, F. Murgia, A. Prokudin
2011-05-01
Polarised Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) processes allow to study Transverse Momentum Dependent partonic distributions (TMDs), which reveal a non trivial three dimensional internal structure of the hadrons in momentum space. One of the most representative of the TMDs is the so-called Sivers function that describes the distribution of unpolarized quarks inside a transversely polarized proton. We present a novel extraction of the Sivers distribution functions from the most recent experimental data of HERMES and COMPASS experiments. Using suitable parametrizations, within the TMD factorization scheme, and a simple fitting strategy, we also perform a preliminary exploration of the role of the proton sea quarks.
Advanced Inverter Functions and Communication Protocols for Distribution Management
Nagarajan, Adarsh; Palmintier, Bryan; Baggu, Murali
2016-05-05
This paper aims at identifying the advanced features required by distribution management systems (DMS) service providers to bring inverter-connected distributed energy resources into use as an intelligent grid resource. This work explores the standard functions needed in the future DMS for enterprise integration of distributed energy resources (DER). The important DMS functionalities such as DER management in aggregate groups, including the discovery of capabilities, status monitoring, and dispatch of real and reactive power are addressed in this paper. It is intended to provide the industry with a point of reference for DER integration with other utility applications and to provide guidance to research and standards development organizations.
Pion and kaon valence-quark parton distribution functions
Nguyen, Trang; Bashir, Adnan; Roberts, Craig D.; Tandy, Peter C.
2011-06-15
A rainbow-ladder truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations, constrained by existing applications to hadron physics, is employed to compute the valence-quark parton distribution functions of the pion and kaon. Comparison is made to {pi}-N Drell-Yan data for the pion's u-quark distribution and to Drell-Yan data for the ratio u{sub K}(x)/u{sub {pi}}(x): the environmental influence of this quantity is a parameter-free prediction, which agrees well with existing data. Our analysis unifies the computation of distribution functions with that of numerous other properties of pseudoscalar mesons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Li-Yun; Fan, Hong-Yi
2009-12-01
We calculate Wigner function, tomogram of the pair coherent state by using its Schmidt decomposition in the coherent state representation. It turns out that the Wigner function can be seen as the quantum entanglement (QE) between two two-variable Hermite polynomials (TVHP) and the tomogram is further simplified as QE of two single-variable Hermite polynomials. The Husimi function of pair coherent state is also calculated.
Energy and enthalpy distribution functions for a few physical systems.
Wu, K L; Wei, J H; Lai, S K; Okabe, Y
2007-08-02
The present work is devoted to extracting the energy or enthalpy distribution function of a physical system from the moments of the distribution using the maximum entropy method. This distribution theory has the salient traits that it utilizes only the experimental thermodynamic data. The calculated distribution functions provide invaluable insight into the state or phase behavior of the physical systems under study. As concrete evidence, we demonstrate the elegance of the distribution theory by studying first a test case of a two-dimensional six-state Potts model for which simulation results are available for comparison, then the biphasic behavior of the binary alloy Na-K whose excess heat capacity, experimentally observed to fall in a narrow temperature range, has yet to be clarified theoretically, and finally, the thermally induced state behavior of a collection of 16 proteins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, P.; Kapusta, J. I.
2017-01-01
In simulations of high energy heavy ion collisions that employ viscous hydrodynamics, single particle distributions are distorted from their thermal equilibrium form due to gradients in the flow velocity. These are closely related to the formulas for the shear and bulk viscosities in the quasiparticle approximation. Distorted single particle distributions are now commonly used to calculate the emission of photons and dilepton pairs, and in the late stage to calculate the conversion of a continuous fluid to individual particles. We show how distortions of the single particle distribution functions due to both shear and bulk viscous effects can be done rigorously in the quasiparticle approximation and illustrate it with the linear σ model at finite temperature.
Functional Mapping of Dynamic Traits with Robust t-Distribution
Wu, Cen; Li, Gengxin; Zhu, Jun; Cui, Yuehua
2011-01-01
Functional mapping has been a powerful tool in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying dynamic traits of agricultural or biomedical interest. In functional mapping, multivariate normality is often assumed for the underlying data distribution, partially due to the ease of parameter estimation. The normality assumption however could be easily violated in real applications due to various reasons such as heavy tails or extreme observations. Departure from normality has negative effect on testing power and inference for QTL identification. In this work, we relax the normality assumption and propose a robust multivariate -distribution mapping framework for QTL identification in functional mapping. Simulation studies show increased mapping power and precision with the distribution than that of a normal distribution. The utility of the method is demonstrated through a real data analysis. PMID:21966378
Global Change and the Function and Distribution of Wetlands
Middleton, Beth A.
2012-01-01
The Global Change Ecology and Wetlands book series will highlight the latest research from the world leaders in the field of climate change in wetlands. Global Change and the Function and Distribution of Wetlands highlights information of importance to wetland ecologists. The chapters include syntheses of international studies on the effects of drought on function and regeneration in wetlands, sea level rise and the distribution of mangrove swamps, former distributions of swamp species and future lessons from paleoecology, and shifts in atmospheric emissions across geographical regions in wetlands. Overall, the book will contribute to a better understanding of the potential effects of climate change on world wetland distribution and function.
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J. -F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell’Acqua, A.; Dell’Asta, L.; Dell’Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. 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A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onogi, K.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Ovcharova, A.; Owen, M.; Owen, R. E.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagáčová, M.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganis, E.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E. St.; Pandini, C. E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N. D.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Penwell, J.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Pizio, C.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M. -A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Ptacek, E.; Puddu, D.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reisin, H.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Ryzhov, A.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C. -L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. 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C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.
2016-05-23
Distributions of transverse momentum p_{T}^{ℓℓ} and the related angular variable $\\phi ^*_{\\eta }$ of Drell-Yan lepton pairs are measured in 20.3 fb^{–1} of proton-proton collisions at √s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Measurements in electron-pair and muon-pair final states are corrected for detector effects and combined. Compared to previous measurements in protonΓÇôproton collisions at √s=7 TeV these new measurements benefit from a larger data sample and improved control of systematic uncertainties. Measurements are performed in bins of lepton-pair mass above, around and below the Z -boson mass peak. The data are compared to predictions from perturbative and resummed QCD calculations. For values of $\\phi ^*_{\\eta }$<1 the predictions from the Monte Carlo generator ResBos are generally consistent with the data within the theoretical uncertainties. However, at larger values of $\\phi ^*_{\\eta }$ this is not the case. Monte Carlo generators based on the parton-shower approach are unable to describe the data over the full range of p_{T}^{ℓℓ} while the fixed-order prediction of Dynnlo falls below the data at high values of p_{T}^{ℓℓ}. Here, ResBos and the parton-shower Monte Carlo generators provide a much better description of the evolution of the $\\phi ^*_{\\eta }$ and p_{T}^{ℓℓ} distributions as a function of lepton-pair mass and rapidity than the basic shape of the data.
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...
2016-05-23
Distributions of transverse momentum pTℓℓ and the related angular variablemore » $$\\phi ^*_{\\eta }$$ of Drell-Yan lepton pairs are measured in 20.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at √s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Measurements in electron-pair and muon-pair final states are corrected for detector effects and combined. Compared to previous measurements in protonΓÇôproton collisions at √s=7 TeV these new measurements benefit from a larger data sample and improved control of systematic uncertainties. Measurements are performed in bins of lepton-pair mass above, around and below the Z -boson mass peak. The data are compared to predictions from perturbative and resummed QCD calculations. For values of $$\\phi ^*_{\\eta }$$<1 the predictions from the Monte Carlo generator ResBos are generally consistent with the data within the theoretical uncertainties. However, at larger values of $$\\phi ^*_{\\eta }$$ this is not the case. Monte Carlo generators based on the parton-shower approach are unable to describe the data over the full range of pTℓℓ while the fixed-order prediction of Dynnlo falls below the data at high values of pTℓℓ. Here, ResBos and the parton-shower Monte Carlo generators provide a much better description of the evolution of the $$\\phi ^*_{\\eta }$$ and pTℓℓ distributions as a function of lepton-pair mass and rapidity than the basic shape of the data.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.
2016-05-01
Distributions of transverse momentum p_T^{ℓ ℓ } and the related angular variable φ ^*_η of DrellΓÇôYan lepton pairs are measured in 20.3┬áfb^{-1} of protonΓÇôproton collisions at √{s}=8┬áTeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Measurements in electron-pair and muon-pair final states are corrected for detector effects and combined. Compared to previous measurements in protonΓÇôproton collisions at √{s}=7┬áTeV, these new measurements benefit from a larger data sample and improved control of systematic uncertainties. Measurements are performed in bins of lepton-pair mass above, around and below the Z-boson mass peak. The data are compared to predictions from perturbative and resummed QCD calculations. For values of φ ^*_η < 1 the predictions from the Monte Carlo generator ResBos are generally consistent with the data within the theoretical uncertainties. However, at larger values of φ ^*_η this is not the case. Monte Carlo generators based on the parton-shower approach are unable to describe the data over the full range of p_T^{ℓ ℓ } while the fixed-order prediction of Dynnlo falls below the data at high values of p_T^{ℓ ℓ }. ResBos and the parton-shower Monte Carlo generators provide a much better description of the evolution of the φ ^*_η and p_T^{ℓ ℓ } distributions as a function of lepton-pair mass and rapidity than the basic shape of the data.
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J. -F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.
2016-05-23
Distributions of transverse momentum p$ℓℓ\\atop{T}$ and the related angular variable Φ$*\\atop{η}$ of DrellΓÇôYan lepton pairs are measured in 20.3$\\perp$áfb^{-1} of protonΓÇôproton collisions at √s=8$\\perp$áTeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Measurements in electron-pair and muon-pair final states are corrected for detector effects and combined. Compared to previous measurements in protonΓÇôproton collisions at √s=7$\\perp$áTeV, these new measurements benefit from a larger data sample and improved control of systematic uncertainties. Measurements are performed in bins of lepton-pair mass above, around and below the Z-boson mass peak. The data are compared to predictions from perturbative and resummed QCD calculations. For values of Φ$*\\atop{η}$<1 the predictions from the Monte Carlo generator ResBos are generally consistent with the data within the theoretical uncertainties. However, at larger values of Φ$*\\atop{η}$ this is not the case. Monte Carlo generators based on the parton-shower approach are unable to describe the data over the full range of pℓℓTpTℓℓ while the fixed-order prediction of Dynnlo falls below the data at high values of p$ℓℓ\\atop{T}$ . ResBos and the parton-shower Monte Carlo generators provide a much better description of the evolution of the Φ$*\\atop{η}$ and p$ℓℓ\\atop{T}$ distributions as a function of lepton-pair mass and rapidity than the basic shape of the data.
Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Artz, S; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Biesuz, N V; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Bjergaard, D M; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanco, J E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Blunier, S; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Bogaerts, J A; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boutle, S K; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Breaden Madden, W D; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, L; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burghgrave, B; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Butt, A I; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Caloba, L P; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminal Armadans, R; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Cano Bret, M; Cantero, J; Cantrill, R; Cao, T; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; 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Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L
2016-01-01
Distributions of transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and the related angular variable [Formula: see text] of DrellΓÇôYan lepton pairs are measured in 20.3┬áfb[Formula: see text] of protonΓÇôproton collisions at [Formula: see text]┬áTeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Measurements in electron-pair and muon-pair final states are corrected for detector effects and combined. Compared to previous measurements in protonΓÇôproton collisions at [Formula: see text]┬áTeV, these new measurements benefit from a larger data sample and improved control of systematic uncertainties. Measurements are performed in bins of lepton-pair mass above, around and below the Z-boson mass peak. The data are compared to predictions from perturbative and resummed QCD calculations. For values of [Formula: see text] the predictions from the Monte Carlo generator ResBos are generally consistent with the data within the theoretical uncertainties. However, at larger values of [Formula: see text] this is not the case. Monte Carlo generators based on the parton-shower approach are unable to describe the data over the full range of [Formula: see text] while the fixed-order prediction of Dynnlo falls below the data at high values of [Formula: see text]. ResBos and the parton-shower Monte Carlo generators provide a much better description of the evolution of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] distributions as a function of lepton-pair mass and rapidity than the basic shape of the data.
Lee, Choong-Hee; Ryu, Jungwon; Lee, Sang-Hun; Kim, Hakjin; Lee, Inah
2016-08-01
The hippocampus plays critical roles in both object-based event memory and spatial navigation, but it is largely unknown whether the left and right hippocampi play functionally equivalent roles in these cognitive domains. To examine the hemispheric symmetry of human hippocampal functions, we used an fMRI scanner to measure BOLD activity while subjects performed tasks requiring both object-based event memory and spatial navigation in a virtual environment. Specifically, the subjects were required to form object-place paired associate memory after visiting four buildings containing discrete objects in a virtual plus maze. The four buildings were visually identical, and the subjects used distal visual cues (i.e., scenes) to differentiate the buildings. During testing, the subjects were required to identify one of the buildings when cued with a previously associated object, and when shifted to a random place, the subject was expected to navigate to the previously chosen building. We observed that the BOLD activity foci changed from the left hippocampus to the right hippocampus as task demand changed from identifying a previously seen object (object-cueing period) to searching for its paired-associate place (object-cued place recognition period). Furthermore, the efficient retrieval of object-place paired associate memory (object-cued place recognition period) was correlated with the BOLD response of the left hippocampus, whereas the efficient retrieval of relatively pure spatial memory (spatial memory period) was correlated with the right hippocampal BOLD response. These findings suggest that the left and right hippocampi in humans might process qualitatively different information for remembering episodic events in space. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moral, A.; Arbe, A.; Colmenero, J.
2000-03-01
In a previous work the incoherent scattering function of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) in the microscopic time range was successfully described in the frame of a model which assumes harmonic vibrations coexisting with relaxational contributions controlled by C-C torsional barriers. In the same frame the behaviour of the coherent scattering function well above the glass transition temperature Tg could also be interpreted. In this work, we investigate the applicability of such a model to coherent scattering of PVC below and around Tg. Within the experimental accuracy, the data can be well described starting from the results independently obtained from the study of the incoherent function. This gives additional support to the ideas involved in the proposed model.
Biswas, Anindya; Das, Tapan Kumar; Chakrabarti, Barnali
2010-09-14
We study the ground state pair-correlation properties of a weakly interacting trapped Bose gas in three dimensions by using a correlated many-body method. The use of the van der Waals interaction potential and an external trapping potential shows realistic features. We also test the validity of shape-independent approximation in the calculation of correlation properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimizu, Naoto; Kawano, Satoyuki; Tachikawa, Masanori
2005-02-01
The potential energy surface along the hydrogen-bonded proton transfer between the Watson-Crick (WC) adenine-thymine (A-T) base pair of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and its tautomeric structures is calculated with 6-31G(d,p) basis set in Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory with Becke's three-parameter hybrid Lee-Yang-Parr exchange-correlation functional (B3LYP), second order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP2), and coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) levels. The tautomeric structure, where both two hydrogen-bonded protons in the A-T base pair have transferred each other, is found at all level of calculations. Though the optimized structure in which only one hydrogen-bonded proton in adenine has migrated to thymine is found at HF level, we could not obtain such optimized structure at both MP2 and B3LYP levels. Including electron correlations, the energy differences between the canonical A-T and the two hydrogen-bonded protons transferred tautomeric structure become smaller. Aside from this, potential energy surface from the WC A-T to the Hoogsteen type A-T gives almost the same among each level of calculation.
Westermeyer, J; Specker, S
1999-01-01
To assess social resources and function among patients with comorbid Eating Disorder (ED) and substance abuse/dependence, referred to here as Substance Related Disorder (SRD). Descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative. A university medical center with an Alcohol-Drug Program located within a Department of Psychiatry. 70 patients with Substance Related Disorder and Eating Disorder (SRD-ED), matched for gender, age, and race-ethnicity with 70 SRD-only patients. A research associate assessed current social resources and social function based on data obtained from patients and collateral sources while blind to the ED status of the patient. Addiction psychiatrists made the diagnoses of SRD and ED and conducted assessments for axis 4 psychosocial stressors and axis 5 psychosocial function. SRD-ED patients had more advantageous social resources than SRD-only patients, including residence with family or friends, more education, higher socioeconomic status, and larger social networks. However, SRD-ED patients manifested martial status, employment, stressors, and coping levels similar to SRD-only patients. Several alternative explanations exist for these expected though unusual findings. Further analyses will be required to understand this lack of articulation between social resources and social function across two diagnostic groups.
Analyzing Distributed Functions in an Integrated Hazard Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, A. Terry; Massie, Michael J.
2010-01-01
Large scale integration of today's aerospace systems is achievable through the use of distributed systems. Validating the safety of distributed systems is significantly more difficult as compared to centralized systems because of the complexity of the interactions between simultaneously active components. Integrated hazard analysis (IHA), a process used to identify unacceptable risks and to provide a means of controlling them, can be applied to either centralized or distributed systems. IHA, though, must be tailored to fit the particular system being analyzed. Distributed systems, for instance, must be analyzed for hazards in terms of the functions that rely on them. This paper will describe systems-oriented IHA techniques (as opposed to traditional failure-event or reliability techniques) that should be employed for distributed systems in aerospace environments. Special considerations will be addressed when dealing with specific distributed systems such as active thermal control, electrical power, command and data handling, and software systems (including the interaction with fault management systems). Because of the significance of second-order effects in large scale distributed systems, the paper will also describe how to analyze secondary functions to secondary functions through the use of channelization.
Phase pupil functions for focal-depth enhancement derived from a Wigner distribution function.
Zalvidea, D; Sicre, E E
1998-06-10
A method for obtaining phase-retardation functions, which give rise to an increase of the image focal depth, is proposed. To this end, the Wigner distribution function corresponding to a specific aperture that has an associated small depth of focus in image space is conveniently sheared in the phase-space domain to generate a new Wigner distribution function. From this new function a more uniform on-axis image irradiance can be accomplished. This approach is illustrated by comparison of the imaging performance of both the derived phase function and a previously reported logarithmic phase distribution.
Malyshev, Denis A; Dhami, Kirandeep; Quach, Henry T; Lavergne, Thomas; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Torkamani, Ali; Romesberg, Floyd E
2012-07-24
The natural four-letter genetic alphabet, comprised of just two base pairs (dA-dT and dG-dC), is conserved throughout all life, and its expansion by the development of a third, unnatural base pair has emerged as a central goal of chemical and synthetic biology. We recently developed a class of candidate unnatural base pairs, exemplified by the pair formed between d5SICS and dNaM. Here, we examine the PCR amplification of DNA containing one or more d5SICS-dNaM pairs in a wide variety of sequence contexts. Under standard conditions, we show that this DNA may be amplified with high efficiency and greater than 99.9% fidelity. To more rigorously explore potential sequence effects, we used deep sequencing to characterize a library of templates containing the unnatural base pair as a function of amplification. We found that the unnatural base pair is efficiently replicated with high fidelity in virtually all sequence contexts. The results show that, for PCR and PCR-based applications, d5SICS-dNaM is functionally equivalent to a natural base pair, and when combined with dA-dT and dG-dC, it provides a fully functional six-letter genetic alphabet.
Gary S. Groenewold; Adriana Dinescu; Michael T. Benson; Garold L. Gresham; Michael J. van Stipdonk
2011-04-01
Ion populations formed from electrospray of uranyl nitrate solutions containing different amides vary depending on ligand nucleophilicity and steric crowding at the metal center. The most abundant species were ion pair complexes having the general formula [UO2(NO3)(amide)n=2,3]+, and complexes containing the amide conjugate base, reduced uranyl UO2+, and a 2+ charge were also formed. The formamide experiment produced the greatest diversity of species that stems from weaker amide binding leading to dissociation and subsequent solvent coordination or metal reduction. Experiments using methyl formamide, dimethyl formamide, acetamide, and methyl acetamide produced ion pair and doubly charged complexes that were more abundant, and less abundant complexes containing solvent or reduced uranyl. This pattern is reversed in the dimethylacetamide experiment, which displayed reduced doubly charged complexes and augmented reduced uranyl complexes. DFT investigations of the tris-amide ion pair complexes showed that inter-ligand repulsion distorts the amide ligands out of the uranyl equatorial plane, and that complex stabilities do not increase with increasing amide nucleophilicity. Elimination of an amide ligand largely relieves the interligand repulsion, and the remaining amide ligands become closely aligned with the equatorial plane in the structures of the bis-amide ligands. The studies show that the phenomenological distribution of coordination complexes in a metal-ligand electrospray experiment is a function of both ligand nucleophilicity and interligand repulsion, and that the latter factor begins exerting influence even in the case of relatively small ligands like the substituted methyl-formamide and –acetamide ligands.
Lee, William; Yue, Peng; Zhang, Zemin
2009-10-01
Cancer is a genetic disease that results from a variety of genomic alterations. Identification of some of these causal genetic events has enabled the development of targeted therapeutics and spurred efforts to discover the key genes that drive cancer formation. Rapidly improving sequencing and genotyping technology continues to generate increasingly large datasets that require analytical methods to identify functional alterations that deserve additional investigation. This review examines statistical and computational approaches for the identification of functional changes among sets of single-nucleotide substitutions. Frequency-based methods identify the most highly mutated genes in large-scale cancer sequencing efforts while bioinformatics approaches are effective for independent evaluation of both non-synonymous mutations and polymorphisms. We also review current knowledge and tools that can be utilized for analysis of alterations in non-protein-coding genomic sequence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, E.; Pencer, J.; Radford, D. D.
2016-10-01
Helium is formed in nickel as a by-product of neutron irradiation. Although helium is chemically inert and essentially insoluble in metals, under specific conditions it is known to cause metal embrittlement. Early experimental and theoretical studies on helium diffusion mechanisms have been a source of controversy. Recent density functional theory (DFT) studies of helium impurities in nickel contradict earlier theoretical studies. In this paper, a new functional form and parameters for a helium-nickel interatomic potential are proposed. The new potential used in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations correctly reproduces the relative stability of helium defects and the interstitial migration of helium in nickel. Furthermore, the computed activation energy for diffusion of helium in nickel corroborates experimental findings. The transferability of the potential is verified through a comparison with DFT predictions of the formation energies of the most stable He clusters in a Ni monovacancy.
Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rubbo, F; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sissakian, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tu, Y; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zucchelli, S
2011-04-29
We report a study of the invariant mass distribution of jet pairs produced in association with a W boson using data collected with the CDF detector which correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.3 fb(-1). The observed distribution has an excess in the 120-160 GeV/c(2) mass range which is not described by current theoretical predictions within the statistical and systematic uncertainties. In this Letter, we report studies of the properties of this excess.
Aaltonen, T
2011-04-28
We report a study of the invariant mass distribution of jet pairs produced in association with a W boson using data collected with the CDF detector which correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.3 fb^{-1}. The observed distribution has an excess in the 120-160 GeV/c^{2} mass range which is not described by current theoretical predictions within the statistical and systematic uncertainties. In this letter we report studies of the properties of this excess.
Global NLO Analysis of Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions
Hirai, M.; Kumano, S.; Nagai, T.-H.
2008-02-21
Nuclear parton distribution functions (NPDFs) are determined by a global analysis of experimental measurements on structure-function ratios F{sub 2}{sup A}/F{sub 2}{sup A{sup '}} and Drell-Yan cross section ratios {sigma}{sub DY}{sup A}/{sigma}{sub DY}{sup A{sup '}}, and their uncertainties are estimated by the Hessian method. The NPDFs are obtained in both leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO) of {alpha}{sub s}. As a result, valence-quark distributions are relatively well determined, whereas antiquark distributions at x>0.2 and gluon distributions in the whole x region have large uncertainties. The NLO uncertainties are slightly smaller than the LO ones; however, such a NLO improvement is not as significant as the nucleonic case.
Bending analysis of different material distributions of functionally graded beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aldousari, S. M.
2017-04-01
Most analyses of functional graded materials (FGM) focusing on power law distribution, which presents stress concentration at the interface when material properties change rapidly. The objective of the current paper is to develop two symmetric and anti-symmetric functions and compare their effects on the static deflection and bending stresses with classical power-law distribution. The proposed distributions are a symmetric power-law and a sigmoid function which is anti-symmetric. To homogenized micromechanical properties of FGM, the effective material properties are derived on the basis of Voigt model. Kinematic relation of Euler-Bernoulli beam is assumed and virtual work is proposed to derive the equilibrium equations. A finite element model is proposed to form stiffness matrix and force vector and then solve the problem numerically. Proposed model has been validated. Numerical results presents the effect of power exponent, and elasticity ratios on a static deflection and stresses of FG beams. The most significant finding is that, the symmetric power function is more reliable and can considerably reduce the stress than the other two functions. However, the sigmoid function distribution represents the highest stress.
FEL beam characterization from measurements of the Wigner distribution function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schäfer, Bernd; Flöter, Bernhard; Mey, Tobias; Juranic, Pavle; Kapitzki, Svea; Keitel, Barbara; Plönjes, Elke; Mann, Klaus; Tiedtke, Kai
2011-10-01
The Free-Electron-Laser FLASH at DESY has been characterized by a quantitative determination of the Wigner distribution function. The setup, comprising an ellipsodial mirror and a moveable extreme UV sensitive CCD detector, enables the mapping of two-dimensional phase spaces corresponding to the horizontal and vertical coordinate axes, respectively. For separable beams this yields the entire Wigner distribution, offering comprehensive information about spatial coherence properties, wavefront, beam profiles, as well as beam propagation parameters.
Measured quantum probability distribution functions for Brownian motion
Ford, G. W.; O'Connell, R. F.
2007-10-15
The quantum analog of the joint probability distributions describing a classical stochastic process is introduced. A prescription is given for constructing the quantum distribution associated with a sequence of measurements. For the case of quantum Brownian motion this prescription is illustrated with a number of explicit examples. In particular, it is shown how the prescription can be extended in the form of a general formula for the Wigner function of a Brownian particle entangled with a heat bath.
Shimizu, Eisuke; Tokuyama, Yuki; Okutsu, Naoko; Nomura, Kazuya; Danilov, Victor I; Kurita, Noriyuki
2015-01-01
Recently, the influence of radiation on human body has been recognized as a serious problem. In particular, highly reactive hydroxyl radicals *OH produced by the radiation react with DNA, resulting in a great damage on its structure and electronic properties. It is thus important to investigate the reaction mechanism of *OH to DNA for elucidating the initial damage in DNA induced by the radiation. In the present study, we search for transition states (TS) of the reaction between G-C/A-T base-pair and [Formula: see text] in vacuum and in water, by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At first, we obtain the stable structures for the dehydrogenated G-C and A-T, in which the hydrogen atom of NH2 group of G or A base is abstracted by [Formula: see text]. From the structures of the dehydrogenated as well as the natural base-pairs, the TS between these structures is searched for and the activation free energy (AFE) is estimated for the reaction. In vacuum, AFEs for the G-C and A-T are almost the same each other, while the stabilization energy by the reaction for G-C is about 4.9 kcal/mol larger than that for A-T, indicating that the population of the dehydrogenated G-C is remarkably larger than that of the dehydrogenated A-T in vacuum. On the other hand, in water approximated by the continuum solvation model, the AFE for A-T is 2.6 kcal/mol smaller than that for G-C, indicating that the reaction dehydrogenated by [Formula: see text] occurs more frequently for the solvated A-T base-pair than G-C.
Chen, Liang; Wan, Shaolong
2013-05-29
We propose three possible momentum-dependent pairing potentials as candidates for topological superconductors (for example CuxBi2Se3), and calculate the surface spectral function and surface density of states with these pairing potentials. We find that the first two can give the same spectral functions as the fully gapped and node-contacted pairing potentials given by Fu and Berg (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 097001), and that the third one can obtain a topological non-trivial case in which there exists a flat Andreev bound state and which preserves the threefold rotation symmetry. We hope our proposals and results will be assessed by future experiment.
Ayadim, A; Amokrane, S
2010-01-27
The accuracy of the structural data obtained from the recently proposed generalization to non-additive hard-spheres (Schmidt 2004 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16 L351) of Rosenfeld's functional is investigated. The radial distribution functions computed from the direct correlation functions generated by the functional, through the Ornstein-Zernike equations, are compared with those obtained from the density profile equations in the test-particle limit, without and with test-particle consistency. The differences between these routes and the role of the optimization of the parameters of the reference system when the functional is used to obtain the reference bridge functional are discussed in the case of symmetric binary mixtures of non-additive hard-spheres. The case of highly asymmetric mixtures is finally briefly discussed.
Polyakov, Evgeny A; Vorontsov-Velyaminov, Pavel N
2014-08-28
Properties of ferrofluid bilayer (modeled as a system of two planar layers separated by a distance h and each layer carrying a soft sphere dipolar liquid) are calculated in the framework of inhomogeneous Ornstein-Zernike equations with reference hypernetted chain closure (RHNC). The bridge functions are taken from a soft sphere (1/r(12)) reference system in the pressure-consistent closure approximation. In order to make the RHNC problem tractable, the angular dependence of the correlation functions is expanded into special orthogonal polynomials according to Lado. The resulting equations are solved using the Newton-GRMES algorithm as implemented in the public-domain solver NITSOL. Orientational densities and pair distribution functions of dipoles are compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. A numerical algorithm for the Fourier-Hankel transform of any positive integer order on a uniform grid is presented.
Electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hassan, H. A.; Deese, J. E.
1976-01-01
A Boltzmann equation formulation is presented for the determination of the electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments. The formulation takes into consideration ambipolar diffusion, elastic and inelastic collisions, recombination and ionization, and allows for the fact that the primary electrons are not monoenergetic. Calculations for He in a tube coated with fissionable material shows that, over a wide pressure and neutron flux range, the distribution function is non-Maxwellian, but the electrons are essentially thermal. Moreover, about a third of the energy of the primary electrons is transferred into the inelastic levels of He. This fraction of energy transfer is almost independent of pressure and neutron flux.
The Central Velocity Distribution Function of Omega Centauri
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seitzer, Patrick
1993-12-01
Precise radial velocities have been obtained for 870 red giant stars within 4 arcminutes of the center of the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC\\ 5139) using the ARGUS multiple object echelle spectrometer at CTIO. The resulting distribution of radial velocities is analyzed to derive the line of sight velocity distribution function, and is compared with various models of relaxed star clusters. The truncation of the velocity function is due to the Galactic tidal field, and some hint of the form this truncation takes is available even with this small number of stars. Observations at two epochs are available for most of the stars and are used to constrain the fraction of binary stars.
Electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hassan, H. A.; Deese, J. E.
1976-01-01
A Boltzmann equation formulation is presented for the determination of the electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments. The formulation takes into consideration ambipolar diffusion, elastic and inelastic collisions, recombination and ionization, and allows for the fact that the primary electrons are not monoenergetic. Calculations for He in a tube coated with fissionable material shows that, over a wide pressure and neutron flux range, the distribution function is non-Maxwellian, but the electrons are essentially thermal. Moreover, about a third of the energy of the primary electrons is transferred into the inelastic levels of He. This fraction of energy transfer is almost independent of pressure and neutron flux.
Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura
2015-08-11
The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.
Sim, Joo Yong; Moeller, Jens; Hart, Kevin C.; Ramallo, Diego; Vogel, Viola; Dunn, Alex R.; Nelson, W. James; Pruitt, Beth L.
2015-01-01
Mechanical linkage between cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesions regulates cell shape changes during embryonic development and tissue homoeostasis. We examined how the force balance between cell–cell and cell–ECM adhesions changes with cell spread area and aspect ratio in pairs of MDCK cells. We used ECM micropatterning to drive different cytoskeleton strain energy states and cell-generated traction forces and used a Förster resonance energy transfer tension biosensor to ask whether changes in forces across cell–cell junctions correlated with E-cadherin molecular tension. We found that continuous peripheral ECM adhesions resulted in increased cell–cell and cell–ECM forces with increasing spread area. In contrast, confining ECM adhesions to the distal ends of cell–cell pairs resulted in shorter junction lengths and constant cell–cell forces. Of interest, each cell within a cell pair generated higher strain energies than isolated single cells of the same spread area. Surprisingly, E-cadherin molecular tension remained constant regardless of changes in cell–cell forces and was evenly distributed along cell–cell junctions independent of cell spread area and total traction forces. Taken together, our results showed that cell pairs maintained constant E-cadherin molecular tension and regulated total forces relative to cell spread area and shape but independently of total focal adhesion area. PMID:25971797
Sim, Joo Yong; Moeller, Jens; Hart, Kevin C; Ramallo, Diego; Vogel, Viola; Dunn, Alex R; Nelson, W James; Pruitt, Beth L
2015-07-01
Mechanical linkage between cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesions regulates cell shape changes during embryonic development and tissue homoeostasis. We examined how the force balance between cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesions changes with cell spread area and aspect ratio in pairs of MDCK cells. We used ECM micropatterning to drive different cytoskeleton strain energy states and cell-generated traction forces and used a Förster resonance energy transfer tension biosensor to ask whether changes in forces across cell-cell junctions correlated with E-cadherin molecular tension. We found that continuous peripheral ECM adhesions resulted in increased cell-cell and cell-ECM forces with increasing spread area. In contrast, confining ECM adhesions to the distal ends of cell-cell pairs resulted in shorter junction lengths and constant cell-cell forces. Of interest, each cell within a cell pair generated higher strain energies than isolated single cells of the same spread area. Surprisingly, E-cadherin molecular tension remained constant regardless of changes in cell-cell forces and was evenly distributed along cell-cell junctions independent of cell spread area and total traction forces. Taken together, our results showed that cell pairs maintained constant E-cadherin molecular tension and regulated total forces relative to cell spread area and shape but independently of total focal adhesion area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hao; Huang, Yue; Yu, Yue; Li, Tianqi; Li, Genxi; Anzai, Jun-Ichi
2016-05-01
Diseases such as cancer arise from systematical reconfiguration of interactions of exceedingly large numbers of proteins in cell signaling. The study of such complicated molecular mechanisms requires multiplexed detection of the inter-connected activities of several proteins in a disease-associated context. However, the existing methods are generally not well-equipped for this kind of application. Here a method for analyzing functionally linked protein activities is developed based on enzyme controlled pairing between complementary peptide helix strands, which simultaneously enables elaborate regulation of catalytic activity of the paired peptides. This method has been used to detect three different types of protein modification enzymes that participate in the modification of extracellular matrix and the formation of invasion front in tumour. In detecting breast cancer tissue samples using this method, up-regulated activity can be observed for two of the assessed enzymes, while the third enzyme is found to have a subtle fluctuation of activity. These results may point to the application of this method in evaluating prometastatic activities of proteins in tumour.
Li, Hao; Huang, Yue; Yu, Yue; Li, Tianqi; Li, Genxi; Anzai, Jun-ichi
2016-01-01
Diseases such as cancer arise from systematical reconfiguration of interactions of exceedingly large numbers of proteins in cell signaling. The study of such complicated molecular mechanisms requires multiplexed detection of the inter-connected activities of several proteins in a disease-associated context. However, the existing methods are generally not well-equipped for this kind of application. Here a method for analyzing functionally linked protein activities is developed based on enzyme controlled pairing between complementary peptide helix strands, which simultaneously enables elaborate regulation of catalytic activity of the paired peptides. This method has been used to detect three different types of protein modification enzymes that participate in the modification of extracellular matrix and the formation of invasion front in tumour. In detecting breast cancer tissue samples using this method, up-regulated activity can be observed for two of the assessed enzymes, while the third enzyme is found to have a subtle fluctuation of activity. These results may point to the application of this method in evaluating prometastatic activities of proteins in tumour. PMID:27140831
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Julie, Hongki; Pasaribu, Udjianna S.; Pancoro, Adi
2015-12-01
This paper will allow Markov Chain's application in genome shared identical by descent by two individual at full sibs model. The full sibs model was a continuous time Markov Chain with three state. In the full sibs model, we look for the cumulative distribution function of the number of sub segment which have 2 IBD haplotypes from a segment of the chromosome which the length is t Morgan and the cumulative distribution function of the number of sub segment which have at least 1 IBD haplotypes from a segment of the chromosome which the length is t Morgan. This cumulative distribution function will be developed by the moment generating function.
Characterizing microcrack orientation distribution functions in osteonal bone samples.
Wolfram, U; Schwiedrzik, J J; Mirzaali, M J; Bürki, A; Varga, P; Olivier, C; Peyrin, F; Zysset, P K
2016-12-01
Prefailure microdamage in bone tissue is considered to be the most detrimental factor in defining its strength and toughness with respect to age and disease. To understand the influence of microcracks on bone mechanics it is necessary to assess their morphology and three-dimensional distribution. This requirement reaches beyond classic histology and stereology, and methods to obtain such information are currently missing. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop a methodology that allows to characterize three-dimensional microcrack distributions in bulk bone samples. Four dumbbell-shaped specimens of human cortical bone of a 77-year-old female donor were loaded beyond yield in either tension, compression or torsion (one control). Subsequently, synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRμCT) was used to obtain phase-contrast images of the damaged samples. A microcrack segmentation algorithm was developed and used to segment microcrack families for which microcrack orientation distribution functions were determined. Distinct microcrack families were observed for each load case that resulted in distinct orientation distribution functions. Microcracks had median areas of approximately 4.7 μm(2) , 33.3 μm(2) and 64.0 μm(2) for tension, compression and torsion. Verifying the segmentation algorithm against a manually segmented ground truth showed good results when comparing the microcrack orientation distribution functions. A size dependence was noted when investigating the orientation distribution functions with respect to the size of the volume of interest used for their determination. Furthermore, a scale separation between tensile, compressive and torsional microcracks was noticeable. Visual comparison to classic histology indicated that microcrack families were successfully distinguished. We propose a methodology to analyse three-dimensional microcrack distributions in overloaded cortical bone. Such information could improve our understanding of
Ghosh, Soumen; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura
2017-04-01
Predicting ground- and excited-state properties of open-shell organic molecules by electronic structure theory can be challenging because an accurate treatment has to correctly describe both static and dynamic electron correlation. Strongly correlated systems, i.e., systems with near-degeneracy correlation effects, are particularly troublesome. Multiconfigurational wave function methods based on an active space are adequate in principle, but it is impractical to capture most of the dynamic correlation in these methods for systems characterized by many active electrons. We recently developed a new method called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), that combines the advantages of wave function theory and density functional theory to provide a more practical treatment of strongly correlated systems. Here we present calculations of the singlet-triplet gaps in oligoacenes ranging from naphthalene to dodecacene. Calculations were performed for unprecedently large orbitally optimized active spaces of 50 electrons in 50 orbitals, and we test a range of active spaces and active space partitions, including four kinds of frontier orbital partitions. We show that MC-PDFT can predict the singlet-triplet splittings for oligoacenes consistent with the best available and much more expensive methods, and indeed MC-PDFT may constitute the benchmark against which those other models should be compared, given the absence of experimental data.
Okamoto, Itaru; Miyatake, Yuya; Kimoto, Michiko; Hirao, Ichiro
2016-11-18
Genetic alphabet expansion of DNA using an artificial extra base pair (unnatural base pair) could augment nucleic acid and protein functionalities by increasing their components. We previously developed an unnatural base pair between 7-(2-thienyl)-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds) and 2-nitro-4-propynylpyrrole (Px), which exhibits high fidelity as a third base pair in PCR amplification. Here, the fidelity and efficiency of Ds-Px pairing using modified Px bases with functional groups, such as diol, azide, ethynyl and biotin, were evaluated by an improved method with optimized PCR conditions. The results revealed that all of the base pairs between Ds and either one of the modified Px bases functioned with high amplification efficiency (0.76-0.81), high selectivity (≥99.96% per doubling), and less sequence dependency, in PCR using 3'-exonuclease-proficient Deep Vent DNA polymerase. We also demonstrated that the azide-Px in PCR-amplified DNA was efficiently modified with any functional groups by copper-free click reaction. This genetic alphabet expansion system could endow nucleic acids with a wide variety of increased functionalities by the site-specific incorporation of modified Px bases at desired positions in DNA.
Jensen, Lasse; Govind, Niranjan
2009-09-18
In this work we present a study of the excitation energies of adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine and the adenine-thymine (AT) and guanine-cytosine (GC) base pairs using long-range corrected (LC) density functional theory. We compare three recent LC-functionals, BNL, CAM-B3LYP and LC-PBE0 with B3LYP and coupled cluster results from the literature. We find that the best overall performance is for the BNL functional based on LDA. However, in order to achieve this good agreement a smaller attenuation parameter was needed which leads to non-optimum performance for ground state properties. B3LYP, on the other hand, severely underestimates the charge transfer (CT) transitions in the base pairs. Surprisingly we also find that the CAM-B3LYP functional also underestimates the CT excitation energy for the GC base pair, but correctly describes the AT base pair. This illustrates the importance of retaining the full long-range exact exchange even at distances as short as that of the DNA base pairs. The worst overall performance was obtained with the LC-PBE0 functional which overestimates the excitations for the individual bases as well as the base pairs. It is therefore crucial to strike a good balance between the amount of local and long-range exact exchange.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lüchow, Arne; Fink, Reinhold F.
2000-11-01
While the diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method (DQMC) is capable, in principle, of calculating exact ground state energies, in practice the fixed-node (FN) approximation leads to node location errors which make FN-DQMC energies upper bounds. It is shown that the node location error can be reduced systematically and without prohibitive increase of computer time requirements by using nodes derived from pair natural orbital CI wave functions (PNO-CI). The reduction is demonstrated for the N atom and the molecules N2 and H2O. With the DQMC/PNOCI method, we obtain a variational energy of -109.520(3) H for the N2 molecule and -76.429(1) H for the ground state of the water molecule which is only 22 and 9 mH above the estimated nonrelativistic ground state energy, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, Benedikt B.; Yannouleas, Consatntine; Landman, Uzi
We report on exact benchmark configuration-interaction computational solutions of the many-body Hamiltonian, uncovering the spectral evolution, wave function anatomy, and entanglement properties of a few interacting ultracold fermions in the entire parameter range, including crossover from an single-well to a double-well confinement and a controllable energy imbalance between the wells. According to recent experiments, the two wells are taken as quasi-one-dimensional and both the linear and parrallel configurations of them are considered. We demonstrate attractive pairing and formation of repulsive, highly correlated, ultracold Wigner molecules, associated with the emergence of Heisenberg spin chains. For two fermions, the entanglement measure of the von-Neumann entropy is used as a diagnostic tool for identifying maximally entangled two-qubit Bell states. Supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Mito, Taro; Kobayashi, Chiharu; Sarashina, Isao; Zhang, Hongjie; Shinahara, Wakako; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Shinmyo, Yohei; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare
2007-03-01
Developmental mechanisms of segmentation appear to be varied among insects in spite of their conserved body plan. Although the expression patterns of the segment polarity genes in all insects examined imply well conserved function of this class of genes, expression patterns and function of the pair-rule genes tend to exhibit diversity. To gain further insights into the evolution of the segmentation process and the role of pair-rule genes, we have examined expression and function of an ortholog of the Drosophila pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve) in a phylogenetically basal insect, Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera, intermediate germ cricket). We find that Gryllus eve (Gb'eve) is expressed as stripes in each of the prospective gnathal, thoracic, and abdominal segments and as a broad domain in the posterior growth zone. Dynamics of stripe formation vary among Gb'eve stripes, representing one of the three modes, the segmental, incomplete pair-rule, and complete pair-rule mode. Furthermore, we find that RNAi suppression of Gb'eve results in segmentation defects in both anterior and posterior regions of the embryo. Mild depletion of Gb'eve shows a pair-rule-like defect in anterior segments, while stronger depletion causes a gap-like defect showing deletion of anterior and posterior segments. These results suggest that Gb'eve acts as a pair-rule gene at least during anterior segmentation and also has segmental and gap-like functions. Additionally, Gb'eve may be involved in the regulation of hunchback and Krüppel expression. Comparisons with eve functions in other species suggest that the Gb'eve function may represent an intermediate state of the evolution of pair-rule patterning by eve in insects.
Lee, Choong‐Hee; Ryu, Jungwon; Lee, Sang‐Hun; Kim, Hakjin
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT The hippocampus plays critical roles in both object‐based event memory and spatial navigation, but it is largely unknown whether the left and right hippocampi play functionally equivalent roles in these cognitive domains. To examine the hemispheric symmetry of human hippocampal functions, we used an fMRI scanner to measure BOLD activity while subjects performed tasks requiring both object‐based event memory and spatial navigation in a virtual environment. Specifically, the subjects were required to form object‐place paired associate memory after visiting four buildings containing discrete objects in a virtual plus maze. The four buildings were visually identical, and the subjects used distal visual cues (i.e., scenes) to differentiate the buildings. During testing, the subjects were required to identify one of the buildings when cued with a previously associated object, and when shifted to a random place, the subject was expected to navigate to the previously chosen building. We observed that the BOLD activity foci changed from the left hippocampus to the right hippocampus as task demand changed from identifying a previously seen object (object‐cueing period) to searching for its paired‐associate place (object‐cued place recognition period). Furthermore, the efficient retrieval of object‐place paired associate memory (object‐cued place recognition period) was correlated with the BOLD response of the left hippocampus, whereas the efficient retrieval of relatively pure spatial memory (spatial memory period) was correlated with the right hippocampal BOLD response. These findings suggest that the left and right hippocampi in humans might process qualitatively different information for remembering episodic events in space. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27009679
An Introduction to Collision Theory Rate Constants via Distribution Functions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McAlduff, E. J.
1980-01-01
Described is an introduction to the collision theory by arriving at the many degrees of freedom rote constant and showing that the (-Ea/RT) is a special case and corresponds to activation in 2 squared terms on the line of center rate constant, which is found through the use of distributed functions. (Author/DS)
Bounds on Transverse Momentum Dependent Distribution and Fragmentation Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bacchetta, A.; Boglione, M.; Henneman, A.; Mulders, P. J.
2000-07-01
We give bounds on the distribution and fragmentation functions that appear at leading order in deep inelastic one-particle inclusive leptoproduction or in Drell-Yan processes. These bounds simply follow from positivity of the defining matrix elements and are an important guidance in estimating the magnitude of the azimuthal and spin asymmetries in these processes.
Family Functions' Distribution in Men and Women Concepts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kasimova, Ramilya Sh.; Biktagirova, Gulnara F.
2016-01-01
Creating a happy family with a favorable psychological climate is important both for the individual and the society as a whole. One of the factors, that influence the creation of a welfare family, is the content of the spouses' concepts of the family, its functions and their possible distribution. The main purpose of this article is to identify…
Numerical Loading of a Maxwellian Probability Distribution Function
J. L. V. Lewandowski
2003-03-24
A renormalization procedure for the numerical loading of a Maxwellian probability distribution function (PDF) is formulated. The procedure, which involves the solution of three coupled nonlinear equations, yields a numerically loaded PDF with improved properties for higher velocity moments. This method is particularly useful for low-noise particle-in-cell simulations with electron dynamics.
Thermodynamic Derivation of the Equilibrium Distribution Functions of Statistical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stoeckly, Beth
1979-01-01
Presents a simplified derivation of the equilibrium distribution functions. The derivation proceeds from the change in the Helmholtz free energy when a particle is added to a system of fixed temperature, volume, and chemical potential. The derivations show the relationship between statistical mechanics and macroscopic thermodynamics. (Author/GA)
Ion energy distribution functions of vacuum arc plasmas
Byon, Eungsun; Anders, Andre
2002-09-16
The velocity distribution function of vacuum arc ions can be measured by a time-of-flight technique similar to a method originally proposed by Yushkov. The measuring principle makes use of the well-justified assumption that the ion drift velocity from the cathode spot region to a collector is approximately constant. It is shown that the negative time derivative of the collector current is directly proportional to the ion distribution function provided that the time-averaged source intensity (i.e., emission of ions from cathode spots) is constant until the arc is rapidly switched off. In the experiment, arc termination took about 700 ns, which is much faster than the decay of the ion current measured at the collector placed in more than 2 meters distance from the cathode. The experimental distribution functions for most cathode materials show one large peak with a tail and one or more small peaks at higher ion velocities. The distribution functions for some other materials exhibit several peaks. No conclusive answer can be given about the nature of these peaks. Arguments are presented that the peaks are not caused by different charge states or plasma contamination but rather due to insufficiently averaged source fluctuations and/or acceleration by plasma instabilities.
Distributed representations in memory: insights from functional brain imaging.
Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D
2012-01-01
Forging new memories for facts and events, holding critical details in mind on a moment-to-moment basis, and retrieving knowledge in the service of current goals all depend on a complex interplay between neural ensembles throughout the brain. Over the past decade, researchers have increasingly utilized powerful analytical tools (e.g., multivoxel pattern analysis) to decode the information represented within distributed functional magnetic resonance imaging activity patterns. In this review, we discuss how these methods can sensitively index neural representations of perceptual and semantic content and how leverage on the engagement of distributed representations provides unique insights into distinct aspects of memory-guided behavior. We emphasize that, in addition to characterizing the contents of memories, analyses of distributed patterns shed light on the processes that influence how information is encoded, maintained, or retrieved, and thus inform memory theory. We conclude by highlighting open questions about memory that can be addressed through distributed pattern analyses.
Valence-quark distribution functions in the kaon and pion
Chen, Chen; Chang, Lei; Roberts, Craig D.; Wan, Shaolong; Zong, Hong-Shi
2016-04-18
We describe expressions for pion and kaon dressed-quark distribution functions that incorporate contributions from gluons which bind quarks into these mesons and hence overcome a flaw of the commonly used handbag approximation. The distributions therewith obtained are purely valence in character, ensuring that dressed quarks carry all the meson’s momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale and vanish as ( 1 - x ) ^{2} when Bjorken- x → 1 . Comparing such distributions within the pion and kaon, it is apparent that the size of S U ( 3 ) -flavor symmetry breaking in meson parton distribution functions is modulated by the flavor dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Corrections to these leading-order formulas may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea quarks. Working with available empirical information, we build an algebraic framework that is capable of expressing the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment which allows us to identify and highlight basic features of measurable pion and kaon valence-quark distributions. We find that whereas roughly two thirds of the pion’s light-front momentum is carried by valence dressed quarks at a characteristic hadronic scale; this fraction rises to 95% in the kaon; evolving distributions with these features to a scale typical of available Drell-Yan data produces a kaon-to-pion ratio of u -quark distributions that is in agreement with the single existing data set, and predicts a u -quark distribution within the pion that agrees with a modern reappraisal of π N Drell-Yan data. Precise new data are essential in order to validate this reappraisal and because a single modest-quality measurement of the kaon-to-pion ratio cannot be considered definitive.
Recursive confidence band construction for an unknown distribution function.
Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J
2015-01-01
Given a sample X1,...,Xn of independent observations from an unknown continuous distribution function F, the problem of constructing a confidence band for F is considered, which is a fundamental problem in statistical inference. This confidence band provides simultaneous inferences on all quantiles and also on all of the cumulative probabilities of the distribution, and so they are among the most important inference procedures that address the issue of multiplicity. A fully nonparametric approach is taken where no assumptions are made about the distribution function F. Historical approaches to this problem, such as Kolmogorov's famous () procedure, represent some of the earliest inference methodologies that address the issue of multiplicity. This is because a confidence band at a given confidence level 1-α allows inferences on all of the quantiles of the distribution, and also on all of the cumulative probabilities, at that specified confidence level. In this paper it is shown how recursive methodologies can be employed to construct both one-sided and two-sided confidence bands of various types. The first approach operates by putting bounds on the cumulative probabilities at the data points, and a recursive integration approach is described. The second approach operates by providing bounds on certain specified quantiles of the distribution, and its implementation using recursive summations of multinomial probabilities is described. These recursive methodologies are illustrated with examples, and R code is available for their implementation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Magnetospheric electron-velocity-distribution function information from wave observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benson, Robert F.; ViñAs, Adolfo F.; Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Fainberg, Joseph; Purser, Carola M.; Adrian, Mark L.; Galkin, Ivan A.; Reinisch, Bodo W.
2013-08-01
The electron-velocity-distribution function was determined to be highly non-Maxwellian and more appropriate to a kappa distribution, with κ ≈ 2.0, near magnetic midnight in the low-latitude magnetosphere just outside a stable plasmasphere during extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions. The kappa results were based on sounder-stimulated Qn plasma resonances using the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite; the state of the plasmasphere was determined from IMAGE/EUV observations. The Qn resonances correspond to the maximum frequencies of Bernstein-mode waves that are observed between the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in the frequency domain above the upper-hybrid frequency. Here we present the results of a parametric investigation that included suprathermal electrons in the electron-velocity-distribution function used in the plasma-wave dispersion equation to calculate the Qn frequencies for a range of kappa and fpe/fce values for Qn resonances from Q1 to Q9. The Qn frequencies were also calculated using a Maxwellian distribution, and they were found to be greater than those calculated using a kappa distribution with the frequency differences increasing with increasing n for a fixed κ and with decreasing κ for a fixed n. The calculated fQn values have been incorporated into the RPI BinBrowser software providing a powerful tool for rapidly obtaining information on the nature of the magnetospheric electron-velocity-distribution function and the electron number density Ne. This capability enabled accurate (within a few percent) in situ Ne determinations to be made along the outbound orbital track as IMAGE moved away from the plasmapause. The extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions allowed IMAGE/EUV-extracted counts to be compared with the RPI-determined orbital-track Ne profile. The comparisons revealed remarkably similar Ne structures.
Patterns of oligonucleotide distribution within DNA and RNA functional sites
Kolchanov, N.A.; Kel, A.E.; Ponomarenko, M.P.; Romachenko, A.G.; Likchachev, J.; Milanesi, L.; Lim, H.
1993-12-31
Patterns of short oligonucleotide distribution within DNA and RNA functional sites have been analyzed using ``Site-Video`` computer system. The group of DNA functional sites involved nucleosome binding sites, gyrase cleavage sites, promoters of E. coli and men. The group of RNA functional sites involved donor and acceptor splice sites of men, translation initiation sites of E. coli and men and translation frame shift site sites. Analysis of these samples of nucleotide sequences have been carried out by the ``Site-Video`` computer system. For each type of site specific set of patterns of oligonucleotide distribution important for the functioning and recognition have been revealed. At the same time, the number of specific patterns revealed in RNA sites was significantly higher than those in DNA sites. On the base of the results obtained, the script of functional sites for evolutionary emergency have been prompted. According to it, two types of context feature selection took place: (1) positive selection targeted to the appearance of the definite types of context features in particular regions of functional sites;and (2) negative selection targeted to the elimination of definite types of context features in particular regions of functional sites. The authors suppose that evolutionary formation of any functional site is a multistep process realized via combination of positive and negative selections. Negative selection, via fixation of a specific pattern of mutations, eliminates false signals of regulatory proteins binding with the functional site. Positive selection leads to the appearance of local context features (signals) which provide for the specificity and efficiency of the site functioning.
Universal probability distribution function for bursty transport in plasma turbulence.
Sandberg, I; Benkadda, S; Garbet, X; Ropokis, G; Hizanidis, K; del-Castillo-Negrete, D
2009-10-16
Bursty transport phenomena associated with convective motion present universal statistical characteristics among different physical systems. In this Letter, a stochastic univariate model and the associated probability distribution function for the description of bursty transport in plasma turbulence is presented. The proposed stochastic process recovers the universal distribution of density fluctuations observed in plasma edge of several magnetic confinement devices and the remarkable scaling between their skewness S and kurtosis K. Similar statistical characteristics of variabilities have been also observed in other physical systems that are characterized by convection such as the x-ray fluctuations emitted by the Cygnus X-1 accretion disc plasmas and the sea surface temperature fluctuations.
The transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model
Avakian, Harut; Efremov, Anatoly; Schweitzer, Peter; Yuan, Feng
2010-01-29
Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.
Transverse momentum dependent distribution functions in the bag model
Harut A. Avakian; Efremov, A. V.; Schweitzer, P.; Yuan, F.
2010-04-01
Leading and subleading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are studied in a quark model framework provided by the bag model. A complete set of relations among different TMDs is derived, and the question is discussed how model-(in)dependent such relations are. A connection of the pretzelosity distribution and quark orbital angular momentum is derived. Numerical results are presented, and applications for phenomenology discussed. In particular, it is shown that in the valence-x region the bag model supports a Gaussian Ansatz for the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs.
Nunes, Rafael; Costa, Paulo J
2017-03-02
The interaction of 2-halo-functionalized imidazolium derivatives (n-X(+) ; X=Cl, Br, I) with a chloride anion through ion-pair halogen bonds (n-X⋅Cl) was studied by means of DFT and ab initio calculations. A method benchmark was performed on 2-bromo-1H-imidazol-3-ium in association with chloride (1-Br⋅Cl); MP2 yielded the best results when compared with CCSD(T) calculations. The interaction energies (ΔE) in the gas phase are high and, although the electrostatic interaction is strong owing to the ion-pair nature of the system, large X⋅⋅⋅Cl(-) Wiberg bond orders and contributions from charge transfer (nCl- →σ*C-X) are obtained. These values drop considerably in chloroform and water; this shows that solvent plays a role in modulating the interaction and that gas-phase calculations are particularly unrealistic for experimental applications. The introduction of electron-withdrawing groups in the 4,5-positions of the imidazolium (e.g., -NO2 , -F) increases the halogen-bond strength in both the gas phase and solvent, including water. The effect of the substituents on the 1,3-positions (N-H groups) also depends on the solvent. The variation of ΔE can be predicted through a two-parameter linear regression that optimizes the weights of charge-transfer and electrostatic interactions, which are different in vacuum and in solvent (chloroform and water). These results could be used in the rational design of efficient chloride receptors based on halogen bonds that work in solution, in particular, in an aqueous environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hochmann, David; Houser, Donald R.; Thomas, Jacob
1991-05-01
Because the reduction of gear noise in next-generation rotorcraft depends on the reduction of transmission errors, attention is presently given to the prediction of such errors and the load distributions of both a spur-gear pair and a double helical gear train used in a split-path helicopter transmission. Two cases are examined: (1) the spur gear mesh between the spur shaft and the lower spur/helical shaft, and (2) the double helical gear mesh between the lower spur/helical shaft and the output bull bear shaft.
Adler, S S; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Y; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J-S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; d'Enterria, D; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G-B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J-C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarján, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszprémi, V; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zhou, S J; Zolin, L
2006-08-04
Azimuthal correlations of jet-induced high-p(T) charged hadron pairs are studied at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV. The distribution of jet-associated partner hadrons (1.0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naylor, Mark; Touati, Sarah; Main, Ian; Bell, Andrew
2010-05-01
Seismic activity is routinely quantified using event rates or their inverse, interevent times, which are more stable to extreme events [1]. It is common practice to model regional earthquake interevent times using a gamma distribution [2]. However, the use of this gamma distribution is empirically based, not physical. Our recent work has shown that the gamma distribution is an approximation that drops out of a physically based model after the commonly applied filtering of the raw data [3]. We show that in general, interevent time distributions have a fundamentally bimodal shape caused by the mixing of two contributions: correlated aftershocks, which have short interevent times and produce a gamma distribution; and independent events, which tend to be separated by longer intervals and are described by a Poisson distribution. The power-law segment of the gamma distribution arises at the cross over between these distributions. This physically based model is transferable to other fields to explain the form of cascading interevent time series with varying proportions of independent and dependent daughter events. We have found that when the independent or background rate of earthquakes is high, as is the case for earthquake catalogues spanning large regions, significant overlapping of separate aftershock sequences within the time series "masks" the effects of these aftershock sequences on the temporal statistics. The time series qualitatively appears more random; this is confirmed in the interevent time distribution, in the convergence of the mean interevent time, and in the poor performance of temporal ETAS parameter inversions on synthetic catalogues within this regime [4]. The aftershock-triggering characteristics within the data are thus hidden from observation in the time series by a high independent rate of events; spatial information about event occurrence is needed in this case to uncover the triggering structure in the data. We show that earthquake interevent
Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Xie, Shaojun; Pan, Li; Miki, Daisuke; Tang, Kai; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Lei, Mingguang; Zhong, Yingli; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Wang, Zhijuan; Zhang, Zhengjing; Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Xu, Huawei; Zhang, Heng; Dilkes, Brian; Tao, W Andy; Zhu, Jian-Kang
2017-01-01
Transposons are generally kept silent by epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation. Here, we identified a pair of Harbinger transposon-derived proteins (HDPs), HDP1 and HDP2, as anti-silencing factors in Arabidopsis. hdp1 and hdp2 mutants displayed an enhanced silencing of transgenes and some transposons. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that HDP1 and HDP2 were co-domesticated from the Harbinger transposon-encoded transposase and DNA-binding protein, respectively. HDP1 interacts with HDP2 in the nucleus, analogous to their transposon counterparts. Moreover, HDP1 and HDP2 are associated with IDM1, IDM2, IDM3 and MBD7 that constitute a histone acetyltransferase complex functioning in DNA demethylation. HDP2 and the methyl-DNA-binding protein MBD7 share a large set of common genomic binding sites, indicating that they jointly determine the target specificity of the histone acetyltransferase complex. Thus, our data revealed that HDP1 and HDP2 constitute a functional module that has been recruited to a histone acetyltransferase complex to prevent DNA hypermethylation and epigenetic silencing. PMID:27934869
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravindranathan, R.; Lesage, A. C.; Chesnokov, E.
2016-12-01
Seismic data covers huge areal extent compared to the sparse well data. Describing the reservoir extent accurately is extremely crucial for production and oil recovery. The elastic properties of the medium are scale-dependent and therefore it would be ideal to make the best possible use of the seismic data by integrating it with the available well-log data to understand the reservoir limits. Pair Correlation Function (PCF) approximation method that takes into account the effect of scattering by considering the interactions between any two points of a heterogeneous medium is considered a very effective tool in differentiating the productive from the non-productive layer. The correlation function has two parts: amplitude and correlation radius. This work deals mainly with the amplitude of the PCF that tends to be higher if the properties of the inclusions are drastically different from the matrix. The amplitude of PCF are calculated for elastic stiffness tensors, density and porosity in the productive zones and compared with the non- productive zones for different frequencies. The study has previously been successfully carried out mostly on well-log data. In this work, we are extending its application to the downscaled velocities to understand heterogeneity from 3D seismic data. The seismic and well-log data are from northern part of South Marsh Island in the Gulf of Mexico. The Tertiary sediments of interest are generally interbedded sands and shales.
Transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions in lattice QCD
Engelhardt, Michael G.; Musch, Bernhard U.; Haegler, Philipp G.; Negele, John W.; Schaefer, Andreas
2013-08-01
A fundamental structural property of the nucleon is the distribution of quark momenta, both parallel as well as perpendicular to its propagation. Experimentally, this information is accessible via selected processes such as semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and the Drell-Yan process (DY), which can be parametrized in terms of transversemomentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs). On the other hand, these distribution functions can be extracted from nucleon matrix elements of a certain class of bilocal quark operators in which the quarks are connected by a staple-shaped Wilson line serving to incorporate initial state (DY) or final state (SIDIS) interactions. A scheme for evaluating such matrix elements within lattice QCD is developed. This requires casting the calculation in a particular Lorentz frame, which is facilitated by a parametrization of the matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes. Exploratory results are presented for the time-reversal odd Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts.
Use of the Digamma Function in Statistical Astrophysics Distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cahill, Michael
2017-06-01
Relaxed astrophysical statistical distributions may be constructed by using the inverse of a most probable energy distribution equation giving the energy ei of each particle in cell i in terms of the cell’s particle population Ni. The digamma mediated equation is A + Bei = Ψ(1+ Ni), where the constants A & B are Lagrange multipliers and Ψ is the digamma function given by Ψ(1+x) = dln(x!)/dx. Results are discussed for a Monatomic Ideal Gas, Atmospheres of Spherical Planets or Satellites and for Spherical Globular Clusters. These distributions are self-terminating even if other factors do not cause a cutoff. The examples are discussed classically but relativistic extensions are possible.
Size distribution of microbubbles as a function of shell composition.
Dicker, Stephen; Mleczko, Michał; Schmitz, Georg; Wrenn, Steven P
2013-09-01
The effect of modifying the shell composition of a population of microbubbles on their size demonstrated through experiment. Specifically, these variations include altering both the mole fraction and molecular weight of functionalized polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the microbubble phospholipid monolayer shell (1-15 mol% PEG, and 1000-5000 g/mole, respectively). The size distribution is measured with an unbiased image segmentation program written in MATLAB which identifies and sizes bubbles from micrographs. For a population of microbubbles with a shell composition of 5 mol% PEG2000, the mean diameter is 1.42 μm with a variance of 0.244 μm. For the remainder of the shell compositions studied herein, we find that the size distributions do not show a statistically significant correlation to either PEG molecular weight or mole fraction. All the measured distributions are nearly Gaussian in shape and have a monomodal peak.
Bascom, Gavin D; Kim, Taejin; Schlick, Tamar
2017-03-31
Nucleosome placement, or DNA linker length patterns, are believed to yield specific spatial features in chromatin fibers, but details are unknown. Here we examine by mesoscale modeling how kilobase (kb) range contacts and fiber looping depend on linker lengths ranging from 18 to 45 bp, with values modeled after living systems, including nucleosome free regions (NFRs) and gene encoding segments. We also compare artificial constructs with alternating versus randomly distributed linker lengths in the range of 18-72 bp. We show that nonuniform distributions with NFRs enhance flexibility and encourage kb-range contacts. NFRs between neighboring gene segments diminish short-range contacts between flanking nucleosomes, while enhancing kb-range contacts via hierarchical looping. We also demonstrate that variances in linker lengths enhance such contacts. In particular, moderate sized variations in fiber linker lengths (∼27 bp) encourage long-range contacts in randomly distributed linker length fibers. Our work underscores the importance of linker length patterns, alongside bound proteins, in biological regulation. Contacts formed by kb-range chromatin folding are crucial to gene activity. Because we find that special linker length distributions in living systems promote kb contacts, our work suggests ways to manipulate these patterns for regulation of gene activity.
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
GPS collars were used to describe the daily distribution patterns of cows and their calves from 18 to 60 days postpartum on pinyon juniper-shortgrass rangeland in central New Mexico. Eighteen, 3 year old cows and their calves were fitted weekly with GPS collars for seven consecutive weeks. Twenty da...
EXPLAINING THE GALACTIC INTERSTELLAR DUST GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION
Casuso, E.; Beckman, J. E.
2010-04-15
We present here a new theoretical model designed to explain the interstellar dust grain size distribution function (IDGSDF), and compare its results with previous observationally derived distributions and with previous theoretical models. The range of grain sizes produced in the late stages of stars with different masses is considered, and folded into a model which takes into account the observed changes in the historical local star formation rate. Stars in different mass ranges reach their grain producing epochs at times whose mass dependence is quantifiable, and the range of grain sizes produced has also been estimated as a function of stellar mass. The results show an IDGSDF that has a global slope comparable to the observationally derived plot and three peaks at values of the grain radius comparable to those in the observationally derived distribution, which have their ultimate origin in three major peaks which have been observed in the star formation rate (SFR) over the past 15 Gyr. The model uses grain-grain interactions to modify pre-existing size distributions at lower grain sizes, where collisions appear more important. The interactions include disruption by collisions as well as coagulation to form larger grains. The initial distributions are given a range of initial functions (flat, Gaussian, fractal) for their physical parameters, as well as geometrical forms ranging from spherical to highly elongated. The particles are constrained in an imaginary box, and laws of inelastic collisions are applied. Finally, we combine the two models and produce an IDGSDF which is a notably good match to the observational fit, and specifically at small grain radii reproduces the data better than the 'SFR model' alone.
Confronting species distribution model predictions with species functional traits.
Wittmann, Marion E; Barnes, Matthew A; Jerde, Christopher L; Jones, Lisa A; Lodge, David M
2016-02-01
Species distribution models are valuable tools in studies of biogeography, ecology, and climate change and have been used to inform conservation and ecosystem management. However, species distribution models typically incorporate only climatic variables and species presence data. Model development or validation rarely considers functional components of species traits or other types of biological data. We implemented a species distribution model (Maxent) to predict global climate habitat suitability for Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We then tested the relationship between the degree of climate habitat suitability predicted by Maxent and the individual growth rates of both wild (N = 17) and stocked (N = 51) Grass Carp populations using correlation analysis. The Grass Carp Maxent model accurately reflected the global occurrence data (AUC = 0.904). Observations of Grass Carp growth rate covered six continents and ranged from 0.19 to 20.1 g day(-1). Species distribution model predictions were correlated (r = 0.5, 95% CI (0.03, 0.79)) with observed growth rates for wild Grass Carp populations but were not correlated (r = -0.26, 95% CI (-0.5, 0.012)) with stocked populations. Further, a review of the literature indicates that the few studies for other species that have previously assessed the relationship between the degree of predicted climate habitat suitability and species functional traits have also discovered significant relationships. Thus, species distribution models may provide inferences beyond just where a species may occur, providing a useful tool to understand the linkage between species distributions and underlying biological mechanisms.
Charge symmetry breaking in parton distribution functions from lattice QCD
Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J. M.; Nakamura, Y.; Pleiter, D.; Rakow, P. E. L.; Schierholz, G.; Stueben, H.; Thomas, A. W.; Young, R. D.; Winter, F.
2011-03-01
By determining the quark momentum fractions of the octet baryons from N{sub f}=2+1 lattice simulations, we are able to predict the degree of charge symmetry violation in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is of importance, not only as a probe of our understanding of the nonperturbative structure of the proton, but also because such a violation constrains the accuracy of global fits to parton distribution functions and hence the accuracy with which, for example, cross sections at the LHC can be predicted. A violation of charge symmetry may also be critical in cases where symmetries are used to guide the search for physics beyond the standard model.
Intensity distribution function and statistical properties of fast radio bursts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Long-Biao; Huang, Yong-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Li, Di; Li, Bing
2017-01-01
Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are intense radio flashes from the sky that are characterized by millisecond durations and Jansky-level flux densities. We carried out a statistical analysis on FRBs that have been discovered. Their mean dispersion measure, after subtracting the contribution from the interstellar medium of our Galaxy, is found to be , supporting their being from a cosmological origin. Their energy released in the radio band spans about two orders of magnitude, with a mean value of erg. More interestingly, although the study of FRBs is still in a very early phase, the published collection of FRBs enables us to derive a useful intensity distribution function. For the 16 non-repeating FRBs detected by the Parkes telescope and the Green Bank Telescope, the intensity distribution can be described as , where is the observed radio fluence in units of Jy ms. Here the power-law index is significantly flatter than the expected value of 2.5 for standard candles distributed homogeneously in a flat Euclidean space. Based on this intensity distribution function, the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is predicted to be able to detect about five FRBs for every 1000 h of observation time.
Limb distribution, motor impairment, and functional classification of cerebral palsy.
Gorter, Jan Willem; Rosenbaum, Peter L; Hanna, Steven E; Palisano, Robert J; Bartlett, Doreen J; Russell, Dianne J; Walter, Stephen D; Raina, Parminder; Galuppi, Barbara E; Wood, Ellen
2004-07-01
This study explored the relationships between the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), limb distribution, and type of motor impairment. Data used were collected in the Ontario Motor Growth study, a longitudinal cohort study with a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Canada (n=657; age 1 to 13 years at study onset). The majority (87.8%) of children with hemiplegia were classified as level I. Children with a bilateral syndrome were represented in all GMFCS levels, with most in levels III, IV, and V. Classifications by GMFCS and 'limb distribution' or by GMFCS and 'type of motor impairment' were statistically significantly associated (Pearson's chi2 p<0.001), though the correlation for limb distribution (two categories) by GMFCS was low (tau-b=0.43). An analysis of function (GMFCS) by impairment (limb distribution) indicates that the latter clinical characteristic does not add prognostic value over GMFCS. Although classification of CP by impairment level is useful for clinical and epidemiological purposes, the value of these subgroups as an indicator of mobility is limited in comparison with the classification of severity with the GMFCS.
Higher twist parton distributions from light-cone wave functions
Braun, V. M.; Lautenschlager, T.; Pirnay, B.; Manashov, A. N.
2011-05-01
We explore the possibility to construct higher-twist parton distributions in a nucleon at some low reference scale from convolution integrals of the light-cone wave functions (WFs). To this end we introduce simple models for the four-particle nucleon WFs involving three valence quarks and a gluon with total orbital momentum zero, and estimate their normalization (WF at the origin) using QCD sum rules. We demonstrate that these WFs provide one with a reasonable description of both polarized and unpolarized parton densities at large values of the Bjorken variable x{>=}0.5. Twist-three parton distributions are then constructed as convolution integrals of qqqg and the usual three-quark WFs. The cases of the polarized structure function g{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) and single transverse spin asymmetries are considered in detail. We find that the so-called gluon pole contribution to twist-three distributions relevant for single spin asymmetry vanishes in this model, but is generated perturbatively at higher scales by the evolution, in the spirit of Glueck-Reya-Vogt parton distributions.
SuperGaussian distribution functions in inhomogenous plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matte, Jean-Pierre
2008-11-01
In plasmas heated by a narrow laser beam, the shape of the distribution function is influenced by both the absorption, which tends to give a superGaussian (DLM) distribution function [1], and the effects of heat flow, which tends to make the distribution more Maxwellian, when the hot region is considerably wider than the laser beam [2]. Thus, it is only at early times that the deformation is as strong as predicted by our uniform intensity formula [1]. A large number of electron kinetic simulations of a finite width laser beam heating a uniform density plasma were performed with the electron kinetic code FPI [1] to study the competition between these two mechanisms. In some cases, the deformation is approximately given by this formula if we average the laser intensity over the entire plasma. This may explain why distributions were more Maxwellian than expected in some experiments [3]. [0pt] [1] J.-P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 30, 1665 (1988) [2] S. Brunner and E. Valeo, Phys. Plasmas 9, 923 (2002) [3] S.H. Glenzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 97 (1999).
Hyaluronan and synovial joint: function, distribution and healing
2013-01-01
Synovial fluid is a viscous solution found in the cavities of synovial joints. The principal role of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between the articular cartilages of synovial joints during movement. The presence of high molar mass hyaluronan (HA) in this fluid gives it the required viscosity for its function as lubricant solution. Inflammation oxidation stress enhances normal degradation of hyaluronan causing several diseases related to joints. This review describes hyaluronan properties and distribution, applications and its function in synovial joints, with short review for using thiol compounds as antioxidants preventing HA degradations under inflammation conditions. PMID:24678248
The distributional zeta-function in disordered field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svaiter, B. F.; Svaiter, N. F.
2016-09-01
In this paper, we present a new mathematical rigorous technique for computing the average free energy of a disordered system with quenched randomness, using the replicas. The basic tool of this technique is a distributional zeta-function, a complex function whose derivative at the origin yields the average free energy of the system as the sum of two contributions: the first one is a series in which all the integer moments of the partition function of the model contribute; the second one, which cannot be written as a series of the integer moments, can be made as small as desired. This result supports the use of integer moments of the partition function, computed via replicas, for expressing the average free energy of the system. One advantage of the proposed formalism is that it does not require the understanding of the properties of the permutation group when the number of replicas goes to zero. Moreover, the symmetry is broken using the saddle-point equations of the model. As an application for the distributional zeta-function technique, we obtain the average free energy of the disordered λφ4 model defined in a d-dimensional Euclidean space.
Fault Detection of Rotating Machinery using the Spectral Distribution Function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Sanford S.
1997-01-01
The spectral distribution function is introduced to characterize the process leading to faults in rotating machinery. It is shown to be a more robust indicator than conventional power spectral density estimates, but requires only slightly more computational effort. The method is illustrated with examples from seeded gearbox transmission faults and an analytical model of a defective bearing. Procedures are suggested for implementation in realistic environments.
Ion escape from Venus using statistical distribution functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordstrom, T.; Stenberg, G.; Nilsson, H.; Barabash, S.; Futaana, Y.
2012-04-01
We use more than three years of data from the ASPERA-4 instrument onboard Venus Express to compile statistical distribution functions of ion flux in and around induced magnetosphere of Venus. We present samples of statistical distribution functions, as well average flux patterns in the near Venus space based on the statistical distribution functions. The statistical distribution functions allows for a compensation of biased sampling regarding both position and angular coverage of the instrument. Protons and heavy ions (mass/charge > 16) are the major ion species escaping from Venus. The escape is due to acceleration of planetary ions by energy transfer from the solar wind. The ion escape appears to exclusively take place in the induced magnetotail region and no heavy ions are present in the magnetosheath. Protons of solar wind origin are travelling around the planet and penetrating the tail, resulting in a mix of planetary and solar wind protons inside the induced magnetosphere boundary. The escape rates of ions inside the tail agree with results from recent published studies, where other analysis methods have been used. We also compare our results for Venus with a recent study of ion escape from Mars, where the same analysis method has been applied to data from the ASPERA-3 instrument on Mars Express. Both Mars and Venus are unmagnetized planets and are expected to interact similarly with the solar wind. On Mars the heavy ions are seen escaping in both the magnetosheath and tail regions as opposed to Venus where escape only takes place inside the tail. A possible explanation is that the magnetosphere of Mars is smaller compared to the ion gyroradius, making it easier for the ions to pass through the induced magnetosphere boundary. On both planets the escape rates of heavy ions in the tail are constant with increasing tail distance, verifying that the ions are leaving the planet in this region.
Fault Detection of Rotating Machinery using the Spectral Distribution Function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Sanford S.
1997-01-01
The spectral distribution function is introduced to characterize the process leading to faults in rotating machinery. It is shown to be a more robust indicator than conventional power spectral density estimates, but requires only slightly more computational effort. The method is illustrated with examples from seeded gearbox transmission faults and an analytical model of a defective bearing. Procedures are suggested for implementation in realistic environments.
The star formation rate distribution function of the local Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bothwell, M. S.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Johnson, B. D.; Wu, Y.; Lee, J. C.; Dale, D.; Engelbracht, C.; Calzetti, D.; Skillman, E.
2011-08-01
We present total infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions derived from large representative samples of galaxies at z˜ 0, selected at IR and UV wavelengths from the Imperial IRAS Faint Source Catalogue redshift data base (IIFSCz) catalogue, and the GALEX All-Sky Imaging Survey (AIS), respectively. We augment these with deep Spitzer and GALEX imaging of galaxies in the 11 Mpc Local Volume Legacy (LVL) Survey, allowing us to extend these luminosity functions to lower luminosities (˜106 L⊙), and providing good constraints on the slope of the luminosity function at the extreme faint end for the first time. Using conventional star formation prescriptions, we generate from our data the star formation rate (SFR) distribution function for the local Universe. We find that it has a Schechter form, the faint-end slope has a constant value (to the limits of our data) of α=-1.51 ± 0.08 and the ‘characteristic’ SFR ψ* is 9.2 M⊙ yr-1. We also show the distribution function of the SFR volume density; we then use this to calculate a value for the total SFR volume density at z˜ 0 of 0.025 ± 0.0016 M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3, of which ˜20 per cent is occurring in starbursts. Decomposing the total star formation by infrared luminosity, it can be seen that 9 ± 1 per cent is due to LIRGs, and 0.7 ± 0.2 per cent is occurring in ULIRGs. By comparing UV and IR emission for galaxies in our sample, we also calculate the fraction of star formation occurring in dust-obscured environments, and examine the distribution of dusty star formation: we find a very shallow slope at the highly extincted end, which may be attributable to line-of-sight orientation effects as well as conventional internal extinction.
Erezyilmaz, Deniz F; Kelstrup, Hans C; Riddiford, Lynn M
2009-10-01
Genetic studies of the fruit fly Drosophila have revealed a hierarchy of segmentation genes (maternal, gap, pair-rule and HOX) that subdivide the syncytial blastoderm into sequentially finer-scale coordinates. Within this hierarchy, the pair-rule genes translate gradients of information into periodic stripes of expression. How pair-rule genes function during the progressive mode of segmentation seen in short and intermediate-germ insects is an ongoing question. Here we report that the nuclear receptor Of'E75A is expressed with double segment periodicity in the head and thorax. In the abdomen, Of'E75A is expressed in a unique pattern during posterior elongation, and briefly resembles a sequence that is typical of pair-rule genes. Depletion of Of'E75A mRNA caused loss of a subset of odd-numbered parasegments, as well as parasegment 6. Because these parasegments straddle segment boundaries, we observe fusions between adjacent segments. Finally, expression of Of'E75A in the blastoderm requires even-skipped, which is a gap gene in Oncopeltus. These data show that the function of Of'E75A during embryogenesis shares many properties with canonical pair-rule genes in other insects. They further suggest that parasegment specification may occur through irregular and episodic pair-rule-like activity.
Erezyilmaz, Deniz F.; Kelstrup, Hans C.; Riddiford, Lynn M.
2009-01-01
Genetic studies of the fruit fly Drosophila have revealed a hierarchy of segmentation genes (maternal, gap, pair-rule and HOX) that subdivide the syncytial blastoderm into sequentially finer scale coordinates. Within this hierarchy, the pair-rule genes translate gradients of information into periodic stripes of expression. How pair-rule genes function during the progressive mode of segmentation seen in short and intermediate-germ insects is an ongoing question. Here we report that the nuclear receptor Of’E75A is expressed with double segment periodicity in the head and thorax. In the abdomen, Of’E75A is expressed in a unique pattern during posterior elongation, and briefly resembles a sequence that is typical of pair-rule genes. Depletion of Of’E75A mRNA caused loss of a subset of odd-numbered parasegments, as well as parasegment 6. Because these parasegments straddle segment boundaries, we observe fusions between adjacent segments. Finally, expression of Of’E75A in the blastoderm requires even-skipped, which is a gap gene in Oncopeltus. These data show that the function of Of’E75A during embryogenesis shares many properties with canonical pair-rule genes in other insects. They further suggest that parasegment specification may occur through irregular and episodic pair-rule-like activity. PMID:19580803
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nuzzolo-Gomez, Robin; Greer, R. Douglas
2004-01-01
We tested the effects of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on the emergence of untaught mands or tacts of adjective-object pairs in a multiple-probe design across four students with autism/developmental disabilities. None of the students emitted either mands or tacts for three sets of three adjective-object pairs (word sets counterbalanced…
Functional brain networks develop from a "local to distributed" organization.
Fair, Damien A; Cohen, Alexander L; Power, Jonathan D; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Church, Jessica A; Miezin, Francis M; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E
2009-05-01
The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward 'segregation' (a general decrease in correlation strength) between regions close in anatomical space and 'integration' (an increased correlation strength) between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple