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Sample records for pairing correlation effects

  1. Induced spectral gap and pairing correlations from superconducting proximity effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ching-Kai; Cole, William S.; Das Sarma, S.

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically consider superconducting proximity effect, using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) theory, in heterostructure sandwich-type geometries involving a normal s -wave superconductor and a nonsuperconducting material with the proximity effect being driven by Cooper pairs tunneling from the superconducting slab to the nonsuperconducting slab. Applications of the superconducting proximity effect may rely on an induced spectral gap or induced pairing correlations without any spectral gap. We clarify that in a nonsuperconducting material the induced spectral gap and pairing correlations are independent physical quantities arising from the proximity effect. This is a crucial issue in proposals to create topological superconductivity through the proximity effect. Heterostructures of three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) slabs on conventional s -wave superconductor (SC) substrates provide a platform, with proximity-induced topological superconductivity expected to be observed on the "naked" top surface of a thin TI slab. We theoretically study the induced superconducting gap on this naked surface. In addition, we compare against the induced spectral gap in heterostructures of SC with a normal metal or a semiconductor with strong spin-orbit coupling and a Zeeman splitting potential (another promising platform for topological superconductivity). We find that for any model for the non-SC metal (including metallic TI) the induced spectral gap on the naked surface decays as L-3 as the thickness (L ) of the non-SC slab is increased in contrast to the slower 1 /L decay of the pairing correlations. Our distinction between proximity-induced spectral gap (with its faster spatial decay) and pairing correlation (with its slower spatial decay) has important implications for the currently active search for topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions in various superconducting heterostructures.

  2. Pairing Correlations at High Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hai-Liang; Dong, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Ping; Yuan, Da-Qing; Zhu, Shen-Yun; Zhang, Huan-Qiao; Petrache, C. M.; Ragnarsson, I.; Carlsson, B. G.

    The pairing correcting energies at high spins in 161Lu and 138Nd are studied by comparing the results of the cranked-Nilsson-Strutinsky (CNS) and cranked-Nilsson-Strutinsky-Bogoliubov (CNSB) models. It is concluded that the Coriolis effect rather than the rotational alignment effect plays a major role in the reduction of the pairing correlations in the high spin region. Then we proposed an average pairing correction method which not only better reproduces the experimental data comparing with the CNS model but also enables a clean-cut tracing of the configurations thus the full-spin-range discussion on the various rotating bands.

  3. Format change and semantic relatedness effects on the ERP correlates of recognition: old pairs, new pairs, different stories.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Baier, Sophia; Bourgeois, Mélanie; Tinard, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    In this event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated the effects of format change and semantic relatedness in a recognition task using pairs composed of a word and a line drawing. The semantic relatedness of the pairs (related: rabbit-carrot; unrelated: duck-artichoke) influenced their associative properties and corresponding distinctiveness, while format change refers to the switching of an item from the verbal form to the line drawing form between study and recognition (e.g., the word "egg" is associated with a drawing of a hen at study, and a line drawing of an egg is associated with the word "hen" at test). Study-test format change thus prevents visual matching while maintaining conceptual matching. While the N300 potential was only modulated by the semantic relatedness of the pair, both factors modulated recognition performance and corresponding ERP old/new effects with larger mid-frontal N400 old/new effect (300-500 ms) and larger parietal old/new effect (500-800 ms) in the same compared to the different-format condition, as well as for related compared to unrelated pairs. Furthermore, the semantic relatedness of correctly recognized old pairs modulated the anterior N400 while it modulated the posterior N400 for correctly rejected pairs. These results suggest that semantic relatedness and familiarity related to the amount of change between study and test present distinct ERP signatures in the N400 window. They suggest also that the distinctiveness and the ease of the retrieval of the pair could be determining for the parietal old/new effect.

  4. Pairing phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotscheck, E.; Smith, R. A.; Jackson, A. D.

    1981-12-01

    The correlated-basis-function method is extended to deal with pairing phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids. With a variational ansatz for the model wave function we derive the "correlated" analog of the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (or Balian-Werthamer), Anderson-Brinkman-Morel theory of pairing. A suitable (and well-controlled) set of approximations brings the theory into a form identical to the conventional theories, but with the bare interaction replaced by a weak effective interaction and the bare single-particle energies replaced by an effective single-particle spectrum. As usual, liquid 3He provides a very stringent test of the theory, as both the interaction and the experimental facts are pretty clear. The variational estimates for the pairing interaction are improved by nonorthogonal perturbation theory. We find the expected enhancement of the attraction in P waves, although the restriction to effective two-body interactions appears to be insufficient to generate P-wave pairing.

  5. Effects of a rotating magnetization on pair correlations in a ballistic regime Josephson Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, Andreas; Leal, Luis

    Pair correlations in clean superconducting-magnetic proximity systems are studied with a focus on the singlet-triplet mixing resulting from magnetic inhomogeneities. The system is modeled in the clean limit using a tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Bogoliubov -de Gennes equations are solved to determine the Gor'kov functions of the system. Three different magnetic configurations are considered: an exchange spring, a helical magnet, and misaligned homogeneous ferromagnetic layers; each is sandwiched between two superconductors to form a Josephson junction. The goal of the study is to revisit how pair correlations are affected by different magnetization configurations and magnitudes in the clean limit. We discuss our results in the light of those obtained in the diffusive regime. We gratefully acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation under Grant DMR- 1309341 and the ORSP Student Research Assistantship at CSU Long Beach.

  6. Effects of pairing correlation on the low-lying quasiparticle resonance in neutron drip-line nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiko; Matsuo, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the effects of pairing correlation on quasiparticle resonance. We analyze in detail how the width of the low-lying (Ex≲ 1 MeV) quasiparticle resonance is governed by the pairing correlation in the neutron drip-line nuclei. We consider the {}^{46}Si + n system to discuss the low-lying p-wave quasiparticle resonance. Solving the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equation in coordinate space with the scattering boundary condition, we calculate the phase shift, the elastic cross section, the resonance width, and the resonance energy. We find that the pairing correlation has the effect of reducing the width of the quasiparticle resonance that originates from a particle-like orbit in weakly bound nuclei.

  7. Pairing correlations in high-spin isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Odahara, A.; Gono, Y.; Fukuchi, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Sagawa, H.; Satula, W.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2005-12-15

    High-spin isomers with J{sup {pi}}=49/2{sup +} and 27{sup +} have been systematically observed in a number of N=83 isotones with 60{<=}Z{<=}67 at excitation energies {approx}9 MeV. Based on experimental excitation energies, an odd-even binding energy staggering has been extracted for the first time for these multi-quasiparticle states. Surprisingly, the magnitude of the odd-even effect in high-spin isomers turned out to be very close to that in ground states, thus challenging conventional wisdom that pairing correlations are reduced in highly excited states. Theoretical analysis based on mean-field theory explains the observed proton number dependence of the odd-even effect as a manifestation of strong pairing correlations in the highly excited states. Mean-field effects and the proton-neutron residual interaction on the odd-even staggering are also examined.

  8. Josephson-phase-controlled interplay between correlation effects and electron pairing in a three-terminal nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domański, T.; Žonda, M.; Pokorný, V.; Górski, G.; Janiš, V.; Novotný, T.

    2017-01-01

    We study the subgap spectrum of the interacting single-level quantum dot coupled between two superconducting reservoirs, forming the Josephson-type circuit, and additionally hybridized with a metallic normal lead. This system allows for the phase-tunable interplay between the correlation effects and the proximity-induced electron pairing resulting in the singlet-doublet (0-π ) crossover and the phase-dependent Kondo effect. We investigate the spectral function, induced local pairing, Josephson supercurrent, and Andreev conductance in a wide range of system parameters by the numerically exact numerical renormalization group and quantum Monte Carlo calculations along with perturbative treatments in terms of the Coulomb repulsion and the hybridization term. Our results address especially the correlation effects reflected in dependencies of various quantities on the local Coulomb interaction strength as well as on the coupling to the normal lead. We quantitatively establish the phase-dependent Kondo temperature logTK(ϕ ) ∝cos2(ϕ /2 ) and show that it can be read off from the half-width of the zero-bias enhancement in the Andreev conductance in the doublet phase, which can be experimentally measured by the tunneling spectroscopy.

  9. Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2015-01-01

    Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source. PMID:25951143

  10. Pair correlations in magnetic nanodispersed fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Elfimova, E. A. Ivanov, A. O.

    2010-07-15

    The pair distribution function of a monodisperse magnetic fluid simulated by a liquid made of dipolar hard spheres with constant magnetic moments is calculated. The anisotropy of the pair distribution function and the related structure factor of scattering in a dc uniform magnetic field are studied. The calculation is performed by diagrammatic expansion in the volume concentration of particles and the interparticle magnetic-dipole interaction intensity using a thermodynamic perturbation theory. Limitation by three-particle diagrams makes it possible to apply the results obtained to magnetic fluids with a moderate concentration. Even for low-concentration and weakly nonideal magnetic fluids, the anisotropic interparticle magnetic-dipole correlations in a magnetic field lead to the repulsion of particles in the direction normal to the field and to the formation of particle dimers along the field.

  11. Nonlinear backbone torsional pair correlations in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu

    2016-10-01

    Protein allostery requires dynamical structural correlations. Physical origin of which, however, remain elusive despite intensive studies during last two and half decades. Based on analysis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories for ten proteins with different sizes and folds, we found that nonlinear backbone torsional pair (BTP) correlations, which are mainly spatially long-ranged and are dominantly executed by loop residues, exist extensively in most analyzed proteins. Examination of torsional motion for correlated BTPs suggested that such nonlinear correlations are mainly associated aharmonic torsional state transitions and in some cases strongly anisotropic local torsional motion of participating torsions, and occur on widely different and relatively longer time scales. In contrast, correlations between backbone torsions in stable α helices and β strands are mainly linear and spatially short-ranged, and are more likely to associate with harmonic local torsional motion. Further analysis revealed that the direct cause of nonlinear contributions are heterogeneous linear correlations. These findings implicate a general search strategy for novel allosteric modulation sites of protein activities.

  12. Nonlinear backbone torsional pair correlations in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu

    2016-01-01

    Protein allostery requires dynamical structural correlations. Physical origin of which, however, remain elusive despite intensive studies during last two and half decades. Based on analysis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories for ten proteins with different sizes and folds, we found that nonlinear backbone torsional pair (BTP) correlations, which are mainly spatially long-ranged and are dominantly executed by loop residues, exist extensively in most analyzed proteins. Examination of torsional motion for correlated BTPs suggested that such nonlinear correlations are mainly associated aharmonic torsional state transitions and in some cases strongly anisotropic local torsional motion of participating torsions, and occur on widely different and relatively longer time scales. In contrast, correlations between backbone torsions in stable α helices and β strands are mainly linear and spatially short-ranged, and are more likely to associate with harmonic local torsional motion. Further analysis revealed that the direct cause of nonlinear contributions are heterogeneous linear correlations. These findings implicate a general search strategy for novel allosteric modulation sites of protein activities. PMID:27708342

  13. Pair correlation function for spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Julio F.; Alonso, Juan J.

    2012-10-01

    We extract a pair correlation function (PCF) from probability distributions of the spin-overlap parameter q. The distributions come from Monte Carlo simulations. A measure, w, of the thermal fluctuations of magnetic patterns follows from the PCFs. We also obtain rms deviations (over different system samples) δp away from average probabilities for q. For the linear system sizes L that we have studied, w and δp are independent of L in the Edwards-Anderson model but scale as 1/L and L, respectively, in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.

  14. Nuclear pairing correlations within and beyond HFB-BCS models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambacurta, Danilo; Lacroix, Denis

    2015-02-01

    Pairing correlations in nuclear systems play a crucial role in several aspects, i.e. binding energies and odd-even effects, superfluid phenomena and pair transfer mechanisms, just to quote few of them. On the theoretical side, the standard description of these features is done by using BCS or HFB models which allow to describe in a simple way pairing effects. However, due to the explicit breaking of the particle number, these theories present some limitations which can be cured by using particle number projection techniques. In this paper, we will show the merits of these techniques and their accuracy in treating pairing correlations. First, a beyond BCS-HFB method is introduced where the effect of four quasi-particle states is included perturbatively and subsequently the particle number is restored. We will then show the need of restoring the good particle number also for excited states that are essential in the pair transfer process between superfluid systems. Applications to the Richardson model are shown and discussed.

  15. Electron Pairing, Repulsion, and Correlation: A Simplistic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Lars-Fride; Kloo, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The interplay between a nucleus and an electron pair is explained through a basic application of an electrostatic and balanced model to determine the correlated and repulsive movements of the electron pair. The stable correlation depends on the positive charge produced by the combined force, which in turn establishes a negative potential energy.

  16. Correlated-pair approach to composite-boson scattering lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Shiue-Yuan; Combescot, Monique; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2016-11-01

    We derive the scattering length of composite bosons (cobosons) within the framework of the composite-boson many-body formalism that uses correlated-pair states as a basis instead of free-fermion states. The integral equation constructed from this physically relevant basis makes transparent the role of fermion exchange in the coboson-coboson effective scattering. Three potentials used for Cooper pairs, fermionic-atom dimers, and semiconductor excitons are considered. While the s -wave scattering length for the BCS-like potential is just equal to its Born value, the other two are substantially smaller. For fermionic-atom dimers and semiconductor excitons, our results, calculated within a restricted correlated-pair basis, are in good agreement with those obtained from procedures numerically more demanding. We also propose model coboson-coboson scatterings that are separable and thus easily workable and that produce scattering lengths which match quantitatively well with the numerically obtained values for all fermion mass ratios. These separable model scatterings can facilitate future works on many-body effects in coboson gases.

  17. Pair correlation and twin primes revisited

    PubMed Central

    Conrey, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We establish a connection between the conjectural two-over-two ratios formula for the Riemann zeta-function and a conjecture concerning correlations of a certain arithmetic function. Specifically, we prove that the ratios conjecture and the arithmetic correlations conjecture imply the same result. This casts a new light on the underpinnings of the ratios conjecture, which previously had been motivated by analogy with formulae in random matrix theory and by a heuristic recipe. PMID:27843409

  18. Pair correlation function integrals: Computation and use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedberg, Rasmus; O'Connell, John P.; Peters, Günther H.; Abildskov, Jens

    2011-08-01

    We describe a method for extending radial distribution functions obtained from molecular simulations of pure and mixed molecular fluids to arbitrary distances. The method allows total correlation function integrals to be reliably calculated from simulations of relatively small systems. The long-distance behavior of radial distribution functions is determined by requiring that the corresponding direct correlation functions follow certain approximations at long distances. We have briefly described the method and tested its performance in previous communications [R. Wedberg, J. P. O'Connell, G. H. Peters, and J. Abildskov, Mol. Simul. 36, 1243 (2010);, 10.1080/08927020903536366 Fluid Phase Equilib. 302, 32 (2011)], 10.1016/j.fluid.2010.10.004, but describe here its theoretical basis more thoroughly and derive long-distance approximations for the direct correlation functions. We describe the numerical implementation of the method in detail, and report numerical tests complementing previous results. Pure molecular fluids are here studied in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble with isothermal compressibilities evaluated from the total correlation function integrals and compared with values derived from volume fluctuations. For systems where the radial distribution function has structure beyond the sampling limit imposed by the system size, the integration is more reliable, and usually more accurate, than simple integral truncation.

  19. Vernier-like super resolution with guided correlated photon pairs.

    PubMed

    Nespoli, Matteo; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Shih, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-11

    We describe a dispersion-enabled, ultra-low power realization of super-resolution in an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our scheme is based on a Vernier-like effect in the coincident detection of frequency correlated, non-degenerate photon pairs at the sensor output in the presence of group index dispersion. We design and simulate a realistic integrated refractive index sensor in a silicon nitride on silica platform and characterize its performance in the proposed scheme. We present numerical results showing a sensitivity improvement upward of 40 times over a traditional sensing scheme. The device we design is well within the reach of modern semiconductor fabrication technology. We believe this is the first metrology scheme that uses waveguide group index dispersion as a resource to attain super-resolution.

  20. Estimation of pairing correlations for nuclear mass table evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robledo, Luis; Bertsch, George

    2010-11-01

    Mean field models provide a well-justified theoretical approach to generate mass tables, but without some extension the energy misses the correlation energy associated with the restoration of broken symmetries such as angular momentum or particle number. The Lipkin-Nogami (LN) method is often used to treat the pairing correlation energy in mass table evaluations, mainly because of its simplicity. However, it has been found that in many nuclei pairing correlations are weak and the LN method, which is an approximation to the more sophisticated Particle Number Projection (PNP), fails. We propose an alternative to the LN method which can be safely applied in the regime of weak pairing correlations and is simpler than variation after projection (VAP) for the PNP. It is based on a Restricted VAP for PNP using the fluctuation on particle number as coordinate. We show that in the strong pairing correlation limit the LN method is recovered. The method is applied to the evaluation of the even-even nuclei mass table with the Gogny parametrization of the nuclear interaction.

  1. On the pairing effects in triaxial nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Oudih, M. R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.

    2014-03-05

    Triaxial deformation effect on the pairing correlations is studied in the framework of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory. Quantities such as binding energy, gap parameter and particle-number fluctuation are considered in neutron-rich Mo isotopes. The results are compared with those of axially symmetric calculation and with available experimental data. The role played by the particle-number projection is outlined.

  2. Spectral correlation control in down-converted photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajewski, Andrzej; Kolenderski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    Sources of photon pairs based on the spontaneous parametric down-conversion process are commonly used for long-distance quantum communication and quantum information processing. The key feature for improving the range of transmission is engineering their spectral properties. Our analysis shows the way for full control of spectral correlation within a fiber-coupled photon pair. The result of extensive numerical simulations allows us to specify the settings for the generation of pairs featuring positive-energy correlation, which can potentially improve the signal-to-noise ratio in practical implementation of quantum communication protocols. We analytically and numerically analyze the characteristics of a source based on a β -barium borate crystal cut for type-II phase matching at the degenerated frequencies 755 nm →1550 nm +1550 nm . The presented framework is general and can be applied to other crystals.

  3. Electron correlation within the relativistic no-pair approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almoukhalalati, Adel; Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa.; Dyall, Kenneth G.; Saue, Trond

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the definition of correlation energy within 4-component relativistic atomic and molecular calculations. In the nonrelativistic domain the correlation energy is defined as the difference between the exact eigenvalue of the electronic Hamiltonian and the Hartree-Fock energy. In practice, what is reported is the basis set correlation energy, where the "exact" value is provided by a full Configuration Interaction (CI) calculation with some specified one-particle basis. The extension of this definition to the relativistic domain is not straightforward since the corresponding electronic Hamiltonian, the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, has no bound solutions. Present-day relativistic calculations are carried out within the no-pair approximation, where the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian is embedded by projectors eliminating the troublesome negative-energy solutions. Hartree-Fock calculations are carried out with the implicit use of such projectors and only positive-energy orbitals are retained at the correlated level, meaning that the Hartree-Fock projectors are frozen at the correlated level. We argue that the projection operators should be optimized also at the correlated level and that this is possible by full Multiconfigurational Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) calculations, that is, MCSCF calculations using a no-pair full CI expansion, but including orbital relaxation from the negative-energy orbitals. We show by variational perturbation theory that the MCSCF correlation energy is a pure MP2-like correlation expression, whereas the corresponding CI correlation energy contains an additional relaxation term. We explore numerically our theoretical analysis by carrying out variational and perturbative calculations on the two-electron rare gas atoms with specially tailored basis sets. In particular, we show that the correlation energy obtained by the suggested MCSCF procedure is smaller than the no-pair full CI correlation energy, in accordance with the underlying

  4. Electron correlation within the relativistic no-pair approximation.

    PubMed

    Almoukhalalati, Adel; Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa; Dyall, Kenneth G; Saue, Trond

    2016-08-21

    This paper addresses the definition of correlation energy within 4-component relativistic atomic and molecular calculations. In the nonrelativistic domain the correlation energy is defined as the difference between the exact eigenvalue of the electronic Hamiltonian and the Hartree-Fock energy. In practice, what is reported is the basis set correlation energy, where the "exact" value is provided by a full Configuration Interaction (CI) calculation with some specified one-particle basis. The extension of this definition to the relativistic domain is not straightforward since the corresponding electronic Hamiltonian, the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, has no bound solutions. Present-day relativistic calculations are carried out within the no-pair approximation, where the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian is embedded by projectors eliminating the troublesome negative-energy solutions. Hartree-Fock calculations are carried out with the implicit use of such projectors and only positive-energy orbitals are retained at the correlated level, meaning that the Hartree-Fock projectors are frozen at the correlated level. We argue that the projection operators should be optimized also at the correlated level and that this is possible by full Multiconfigurational Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) calculations, that is, MCSCF calculations using a no-pair full CI expansion, but including orbital relaxation from the negative-energy orbitals. We show by variational perturbation theory that the MCSCF correlation energy is a pure MP2-like correlation expression, whereas the corresponding CI correlation energy contains an additional relaxation term. We explore numerically our theoretical analysis by carrying out variational and perturbative calculations on the two-electron rare gas atoms with specially tailored basis sets. In particular, we show that the correlation energy obtained by the suggested MCSCF procedure is smaller than the no-pair full CI correlation energy, in accordance with the underlying

  5. Exact Solutions for Pairing Correlations Among Protons and Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miora, Madeleine; Launey, Kristina; Kekejian, David; Draayer, Jerry; Pan, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Using the nuclear shell model we are able to achieve, for the first time, exact solutions for pairing correlations for light to medium-mass nuclei, including the challenging proton-neutron pairs, while also identifying the primary physics involved. We utilize a new Hamiltonian with only two adjustable parameters. In addition to a single-particle energy term and the Coulomb potential, the shell-model Hamiltonian consists of isovector T=1 pairing interaction and average proton-neutron isoscalar T=0 interaction. The T=0 term describes the average interaction between non-paired protons and neutrons. This Hamiltonian is exactly solvable, but calculations represent a challenge, as they require highly non-linear equations to be computed. With this model, including from 3 to 7 single-particle energy levels, we can reproduce experimental data for 0+ state energies for isotopes with mass A=10 through A=62 exceptionally well including isotopes from He to Ge. These results provide a further understanding for the key role of proton-neutron pairing correlations in nuclei, which is especially important for waiting-point nuclei on the rp-path of nucleosynthesis. We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (grant #1262890, OCI-0904874, and ACI-1516338), DOE (DE-SC0005248), SURA, and CUSTIPEN.

  6. Influence of pairing correlations on the radius of neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Ying; Meng, Jie; Ring, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The influence of pairing correlations on the neutron root mean square (rms) radius of nuclei is investigated in the framework of self-consistent Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations. The continuum is treated appropriately by the Green's function techniques. As an example the nucleus 124Zr is treated for a varying strength of pairing correlations. We find that, as the pairing strength increases, the neutron rms radius first shrinks, reaches a minimum, and beyond this point it expands again. The shrinkage is due to the the so-called pairing antihalo effect, i.e., due to the decrease of the asymptotic density distribution with increasing pairing. However, in some cases, increasing pairing correlations can also lead to an expansion of the nucleus due to a growing occupation of so-called halo orbits, i.e., weakly bound states and resonances in the continuum with low-ℓ values. In this case, the neutron radii are extended just by the influence of pairing correlations, since these halo orbits cannot be occupied without pairing. The term "antihalo effect" is not justified in such cases. For a full understanding of this complicated interplay, self-consistent calculations are necessary.

  7. Morphological type correlation between nearest neighbor pairs of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, Tomohiko

    1990-11-01

    Although the morphological type of galaxies is one of the most fundamental properties of galaxies, its origin and evolutionary processes, if any, are not yet fully understood. It has been established that the galaxy morphology strongly depends on the environment in which the galaxy resides (e.g., Dressler 1980). Galaxy pairs correspond to the smallest scales of galaxy clustering and may provide important clues to how the environment influences the formation and evolution of galaxies. Several investigators pointed out that there is a tendency for pair galaxies to have similar morphological types (Karachentsev and Karachentseva 1974, Page 1975, Noerdlinger 1979). Here, researchers analyze morphological type correlation for 18,364 nearest neighbor pairs of galaxies identified in the magnetic tape version of the Center for Astrophysics Redshift Catalogue.

  8. Bose-Einstein correlations in W-pair decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barate, R.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Jezequel, S.; Lees, J.-P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Graugés, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L. M.; Morawitz, P.; Pacheco, A.; Riu, I.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Boix, G.; Buchmüller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ciulli, V.; Davies, G.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Greening, T. C.; Halley, A. W.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Leroy, O.; Maley, P.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Spagnolo, P.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tournefier, E.; Valassi, A.; Wright, A. E.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Pascolo, J. M.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.-C.; Machefert, F.; Rougé, A.; Swynghedauw, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Chalmers, M.; Kennedy, J.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raeven, B.; Smith, D.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Ward, J. J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Leibenguth, G.; Putzer, A.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Marinelli, N.; Martin, E. B.; Nash, J.; Nowell, J.; Przysiezniak, H.; Sciabà, A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Thompson, J. C.; Thomson, E.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Buck, P. G.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Robertson, N. A.; Smizanska, M.; Williams, M. I.; Giehl, I.; Hölldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Kröcker, M.; Müller, A.-S.; Nürnberger, H.-A.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Tilquin, A.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Ragusa, F.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Hüttmann, K.; Lütjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Azzurri, P.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; de Vivie de Régie, J.-B.; Zerwas, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Coles, J.; Cowan, G.; Green, M. G.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Jones, L. T.; Medcalf, T.; Strong, J. A.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Norton, P. R.; Tomalin, I. R.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Faïf, G.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Seager, P.; Trabelsi, A.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Loomis, C.; Kim, H. Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P. N.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Misiejuk, A.; Prange, G.; Sieler, U.; Borean, C.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Williams, R. W.; Armstrong, S. R.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    2000-04-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations are studied in semileptonic (WW-->qq¯lν) and fully hadronic (WW-->qq¯qq¯) W-pair decays with the ALEPH detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies of 172, 183 and 189 GeV. They are compared with those made at the Z peak after correction for the different flavour compositions. A Monte Carlo model of Bose-Einstein correlations based on the JETSET hadronization scheme was tuned to the Z data and reproduces the correlations in the WW-->qq¯lν events. The same Monte Carlo reproduces the correlations in the WW-->qq¯qq¯ channel assuming independent fragmentation of the two W's. A variant of this model with Bose-Einstein correlations between decay products of different W's is disfavoured.

  9. Triplet p-wave pairing correlation in low-doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianxing; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhongbing; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2017-02-01

    We reveal an edge spin triplet p–wave superconducting pairing correlation in slightly doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons. By employing a method that combines random-phase approximation, the finite-temperature determinant quantum Monte Carlo approach, and the ground-state constrained-path quantum Monte Carlo method, it is shown that such a spin-triplet pairing is mediated by the ferromagnetic fluctuations caused by the flat band at the edge. The spin susceptibility and effective pairing interactions at the edge strongly increase as the on-site Coulomb interaction increases, indicating the importance of electron-electron correlations. It is also found that the doping-dependent ground-state p-wave pairing correlation bears some similarity to the famous superconducting dome in the phase diagram of a high-temperature superconductor, while the spin correlation at the edge is weakened as the system is doped away from half filling.

  10. Triplet p-wave pairing correlation in low-doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tianxing; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhongbing; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2017-01-01

    We reveal an edge spin triplet p–wave superconducting pairing correlation in slightly doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons. By employing a method that combines random-phase approximation, the finite-temperature determinant quantum Monte Carlo approach, and the ground-state constrained-path quantum Monte Carlo method, it is shown that such a spin-triplet pairing is mediated by the ferromagnetic fluctuations caused by the flat band at the edge. The spin susceptibility and effective pairing interactions at the edge strongly increase as the on-site Coulomb interaction increases, indicating the importance of electron-electron correlations. It is also found that the doping-dependent ground-state p-wave pairing correlation bears some similarity to the famous superconducting dome in the phase diagram of a high-temperature superconductor, while the spin correlation at the edge is weakened as the system is doped away from half filling. PMID:28186185

  11. Correlations in bottom quark pair production at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Galyardt, Jason Edward

    2009-01-01

    I present an analysis of b$\\bar{b}$ pair production correlations, using dimuon-triggered data collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV during Run II of the TeVatron. The leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO) b quark production processes are discriminated by the angular and momentum correlations between the b{bar b} pair. Track-level jets containing a muon are classified by b quark content and used to estimate the momentum vector of the progenitor b quark. The theoretical distributions given by the MC@NLO event generator are tested against the data.

  12. Temperature dependence of pair correlations and correlation entropy in a fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Castro, C.R.; Aidun, J.B.; Straub, G.K.; Wills, J.M.; Wallace, D.C. )

    1994-09-01

    For a system of atoms interacting through a pair potential, the entropy is evaluated by molecular dynamics at temperatures from the liquid to the gas. The pair potential represents aluminum in the liquid regime and the calculated entropy is in close agreement with experiment. The temperature dependence of the entropy is understood in terms of structural changes in the pair correlation function. Of the two approximate entropy expansions evaluated in low orders, the Nettleton-Raveche-Green expansion is more accurate at high temperatures, while the multiparticle irreducible correlation expansion is more accurate for the liquid.

  13. Temperature dependence of pair correlations and correlation entropy in a fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Castro, Carlos R.; Aidun, John B.; Straub, Galen K.; Wills, John M.; Wallace, Duane C.

    1994-09-01

    For a system of atoms interacting through a pair potential, the entropy is evaluated by molecular dynamics at temperatures from the liquid to the gas. The pair potential represents aluminum in the liquid regime and the calculated entropy is in close agreement with experiment. The temperature dependence of the entropy is understood in terms of structural changes in the pair correlation function. Of the two approximate entropy expansions evaluated in low orders, the Nettleton-Raveché-Green expansion is more accurate at high temperatures, while the multiparticle irreducible correlation expansion is more accurate for the liquid.

  14. Marked counteranion effects on single-site olefin polymerization processes. Correlations of ion pair structure and dynamics with polymerization activity, chain transfer, and syndioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Chou; Roberts, John A S; Marks, Tobin J

    2004-04-14

    Counteranion effects on the rate and stereochemistry of syndiotactic propylene enchainment by the archetypal C(s)-symmetric precatalyst [Me(2)C(Cp)(Flu)]ZrMe(2) (1; Cp = C(5)H(4); Flu = C(13)H(8), fluorenyl) are probed using the cocatalysts MAO (2), B(C(6)F(5))(3) (3)(,) B(2-C(6)F(5)C(6)F(4))(3) (4)(,) Ph(3)C(+)B(C(6)F(5))(4)(-) (5), and Ph(3)C(+)FAl(2-C(6)F(5)C(6)F(4))(3)(-) (6), offering greatly different structural and ion pairing characteristics. Reaction of 1 with 3 affords [Me(2)C(Cp)(Flu)]ZrMe(+) MeB(C(6)F(5))(3)(-) (7). In the case of 4, this reaction leads to formation the micro-methyl dinuclear diastereomers [([Me(2)C(Cp)(Flu)]ZrMe)(2)(micro-Me)](+) MeB(2-C(6)F(5)C(6)F(4))(3)(-) (8). A similar reaction with 6 results in diastereomeric [Me(2)C(Cp)(Flu)]ZrMe(+) FAl(2-C(6)F(5)C(6)F(4))(3)(-) (10) ion pairs. The molecular structures of 7 and 10 have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Reorganization pathways available to these species have been examined using EXSY and dynamic NMR, revealing that the cation-MeB(C(6)F(5))(3)(-) interaction is considerably weaker/more mobile than in the FAl(2-C(6)F(5)C(6)F(4))(3)(-)-derived analogue. Polymerizations mediated by 1 in toluene over the temperature range of -10 degrees to +60 degrees C and at 1.0-5.0 atm propylene pressure (at 60 degrees C) reveal that activity, product syndiotacticity, m and mm stereodefect generation, and chain transfer processes are highly sensitive to the nature of the ion pairing. Thus, the complexes activated with 4 and 5, having the weakest ion pairing, yield the highest estimated propagation rates, while with 6, having the strongest pairing, yields the lowest. The strongly coordinating, immobile FAl(2-C(6)F(5)C(6)F(4))(3)(-) anion produces the highest/least temperature-dependent product syndiotacticity, lowest/least temperature-dependent m stereodefect abundance, and highest product molecular weight. These polypropylene microstructural parameters, and also M(w), are least

  15. Impact of pairing correlations on the orientation of the nuclear spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P. W.; Zhang, S. Q.; Meng, J.

    2015-09-01

    For the first time, the tilted axis cranking covariant density functional theory with pairing correlations has been formulated and implemented in a fully self-consistent and microscopic way to investigate the evolution of the spin axis and the pairing effects in rotating triaxial nuclei. The measured energy spectrum and transition probabilities for the 135Nd yrast band are reproduced well without any ad hoc renormalization factors when pairing effects are taken into account. A transition from collective to chiral rotation has been demonstrated. It is found that pairing correlations introduce additional admixtures in the single-particle orbitals, and, thus, influence the structure of tilted axis rotating nuclei by reducing the magnitude of the proton and neutron angular momenta while merging their direction.

  16. Triplet p + ip pairing correlations in the doped Kane-Mele-Hubbard model: A quantum Monte Carlo study

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Tianxing; Lin, Hai-Qing; Gubernatis, James E.

    2015-09-01

    By using the constrained-phase quantum Monte Carlo method, we performed a systematic study of the pairing correlations in the ground state of the doped Kane-Mele-Hubbard model on a honeycomb lattice. We find that pairing correlations with d + id symmetry dominate close to half filling, but pairing correlations with p+ip symmetry dominate as hole doping moves the system below three-quarters filling. We correlate these behaviors of the pairing correlations with the topology of the Fermi surfaces of the non-interacting problem. We also find that the effective pairing correlation is enhanced greatly as the interaction increases, and these superconducting correlations aremore » robust against varying the spin-orbit coupling strength. Finally, our numerical results suggest a possible way to realize spin triplet superconductivity in doped honeycomb-like materials or ultracold atoms in optical traps.« less

  17. Current correlations in an interacting Cooper-pair beam splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rech, J.; Chevallier, D.; Jonckheere, T.; Martin, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach allowing the computation of currents and their correlations in interacting multiterminal mesoscopic systems involving quantum dots coupled to normal and/or superconducting leads. The formalism relies on the expression of branching currents and noise crossed correlations in terms of one- and two-particle Green's functions for the dots electrons, which are then evaluated self-consistently within a conserving approximation. We then apply this to the Cooper-pair beam-splitter setup recently proposed [L. Hofstetter , Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature08432 461, 960 (2009); Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.136801 107, 136801 (2011); L. G. Herrmann , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.026801 104, 026801 (2010)], which we model as a double quantum dot with weak interactions, connected to a superconducting lead and two normal ones. Our method not only enables us to take into account a local repulsive interaction on the dots, but also to study its competition with the direct tunneling between dots. Our results suggest that even a weak Coulomb repulsion tends to favor positive current cross correlations in the antisymmetric regime (where the dots have opposite energies with respect to the superconducting chemical potential).

  18. Reproductive pair correlations and the clustering of organisms.

    PubMed

    Young, W R; Roberts, A J; Stuhne, G

    2001-07-19

    Clustering of organisms can be a consequence of social behaviour, or of the response of individuals to chemical and physical cues. Environmental variability can also cause clustering: for example, marine turbulence transports plankton and produces chlorophyll concentration patterns in the upper ocean. Even in a homogeneous environment, nonlinear interactions between species can result in spontaneous pattern formation. Here we show that a population of independent, random-walking organisms ('brownian bugs'), reproducing by binary division and dying at constant rates, spontaneously aggregates. Using an individual-based model, we show that clusters form out of spatially homogeneous initial conditions without environmental variability, predator-prey interactions, kinesis or taxis. The clustering mechanism is reproductively driven-birth must always be adjacent to a living organism. This clustering can overwhelm diffusion and create non-poissonian correlations between pairs (parent and offspring) or organisms, leading to the emergence of patterns.

  19. Reproductive pair correlations and the clustering of organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, W. R.; Roberts, A. J.; Stuhne, G.

    2001-07-01

    Clustering of organisms can be a consequence of social behaviour, or of the response of individuals to chemical and physical cues. Environmental variability can also cause clustering: for example, marine turbulence transports plankton and produces chlorophyll concentration patterns in the upper ocean. Even in a homogeneous environment, nonlinear interactions between species can result in spontaneous pattern formation. Here we show that a population of independent, random-walking organisms (`brownian bugs'), reproducing by binary division and dying at constant rates, spontaneously aggregates. Using an individual-based model, we show that clusters form out of spatially homogeneous initial conditions without environmental variability, predator-prey interactions, kinesis or taxis. The clustering mechanism is reproductively driven-birth must always be adjacent to a living organism. This clustering can overwhelm diffusion and create non-poissonian correlations between pairs (parent and offspring) or organisms, leading to the emergence of patterns.

  20. Effective field theory for dilute fermions with pairing

    SciTech Connect

    Furnstahl, R.J. Hammer, H.-W. Puglia, S.J.

    2007-11-15

    Effective field theory (EFT) methods for a uniform system of fermions with short-range, natural interactions are extended to include pairing correlations, as part of a program to develop a systematic Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) for medium and heavy nuclei. An effective action formalism for local composite operators leads to a free-energy functional that includes pairing by applying an inversion method order by order in the EFT expansion. A consistent renormalization scheme is demonstrated for the uniform system through next-to-leading order, which includes induced-interaction corrections to pairing.

  1. Spatial Nonlocal Pair Correlations in a Repulsive 1D Bose Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, A. G.; Davis, M. J.; Kheruntsyan, K. V.; Gangardt, D. M.; Viering, K.; Raizen, M. G.

    2008-04-25

    We analytically calculate the spatial nonlocal pair correlation function for an interacting uniform 1D Bose gas at finite temperature and propose an experimental method to measure nonlocal correlations. Our results span six different physical realms, including the weakly and strongly interacting regimes. We show explicitly that the characteristic correlation lengths are given by one of four length scales: the thermal de Broglie wavelength, the mean interparticle separation, the healing length, or the phase coherence length. In all regimes, we identify the profound role of interactions and find that under certain conditions the pair correlation may develop a global maximum at a finite interparticle separation due to the competition between repulsive interactions and thermal effects.

  2. Correlations in laser-induced electron-positron pair creation

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewska, K.; Kaminski, J. Z.

    2011-09-15

    Probability rates of electron-positron pair creation in head-on laser-beam-proton collisions are investigated, using an exact treatment of the colliding proton as a finite-mass particle. We observe that the recoil effects become more important when passing from the perturbative multiphoton regime to the nonperturbative above-threshold regime of laser-matter coupling. Thus we concentrate on the latter case. In this regime, our detailed analysis shows that energy supplied by the colliding proton makes the process more effective, and that the electrons and positrons that are created during the collision are more energetic than in the case when the momentum transfer from the proton is neglected. A number of similarities to above-threshold atomic ionization are also illustrated.

  3. Fermi-Dirac correlations in /Λ pairs in hadronic Z decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barate, R.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Graugès, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L. M.; Pacheco, A.; Riu, I.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Boix, G.; Buchmüller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ciulli, V.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Greening, T. C.; Halley, A. W.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Lehraus, I.; Leroy, O.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Spagnolo, P.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tournefier, E.; Wright, A. E.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J.-C.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Swynghedauw, M.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Marinelli, N.; Sciabà, A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Thomson, E.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Buck, P. G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Robertson, N. A.; Williams, M. I.; Giehl, I.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Hüttmann, K.; Lütjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Azzurri, P.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Cowan, G.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Strong, J. A.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Tomalin, I. R.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Misiejuk, A.; Prange, G.; Sieler, U.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    2000-03-01

    Two-particle correlations of /ΛΛ and /Λ¯Λ¯ pairs have been studied in multihadronic Z decays recorded with the ALEPH detector at LEP in the years from 1992 to 1995. The correlations were measured as a function of the four-momentum difference Q of the pair. A depletion of events is observed in the region /Q<2 GeV which could arise from the effects of Fermi-Dirac statistics. In addition the spin content of the /Λ pair system has been determined. For /2 GeV the fraction of pairs with spin one is consistent with the value of 0.75 expected for a statistical spin mixture, whilst for /Q<2 GeV this fraction is found to be lower. For /ΛΛ¯ pairs, where no Fermi-Dirac correlations are expected, the spin one fraction is measured to be consistent with 0.75 over the entire analysed Q range.

  4. Polarization proximity effect in isolator crystal pairs.

    PubMed

    Linzon, Y; Ferrera, M; Razzari, L; Pignolet, A; Morandotti, R

    2008-12-01

    We experimentally study the polarization dynamics (orientation and ellipticity) of near-infrared light transmitted through magneto-optical yttrium iron garnet isolator crystal pairs using a modified balanced detection scheme. When the pair separation is in the submillimeter range, we observed a proximity effect in which the saturation field is reduced by up to 20%. One-dimensional calculations suggest that the proximity effect originates from magnetostatic interactions between the dipole moments of the isolator crystals.

  5. Slow light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Takesue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya

    2013-04-08

    We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon pairs was improved by two orders of magnitude compared with that of a photonic-crystal line defect waveguide without a slow-light effect.

  6. Communication: Multipole approximations of distant pair energies in local correlation methods with pair natural orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Hans-Joachim

    2016-11-01

    The accuracy of multipole approximations for distant pair energies in local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) as introduced by Hetzer et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 143 (1998)] is investigated for three chemical reactions involving molecules with up to 92 atoms. Various iterative and non-iterative approaches are compared, using different energy thresholds for distant pair selection. It is demonstrated that the simple non-iterative dipole-dipole approximation, which has been used in several recent pair natural orbitals (PNO)-LMP2 and PNO-LCCSD (local coupled-cluster with singles and doubles) methods, may underestimate the distant pair energies by up to 50% and can lead to significant errors in relative energies, unless very tight thresholds are used. The accuracy can be much improved by including higher multipole orders and by optimizing the distant pair amplitudes iteratively along with all other amplitudes. A new approach is presented in which very small special PNO domains for distant pairs are used in the iterative approach. This reduces the number of distant pair amplitudes by 3 orders of magnitude and keeps the additional computational effort for the iterative optimization of distant pair amplitudes minimal.

  7. Communication: Multipole approximations of distant pair energies in local correlation methods with pair natural orbitals.

    PubMed

    Werner, Hans-Joachim

    2016-11-28

    The accuracy of multipole approximations for distant pair energies in local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) as introduced by Hetzer et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 290, 143 (1998)] is investigated for three chemical reactions involving molecules with up to 92 atoms. Various iterative and non-iterative approaches are compared, using different energy thresholds for distant pair selection. It is demonstrated that the simple non-iterative dipole-dipole approximation, which has been used in several recent pair natural orbitals (PNO)-LMP2 and PNO-LCCSD (local coupled-cluster with singles and doubles) methods, may underestimate the distant pair energies by up to 50% and can lead to significant errors in relative energies, unless very tight thresholds are used. The accuracy can be much improved by including higher multipole orders and by optimizing the distant pair amplitudes iteratively along with all other amplitudes. A new approach is presented in which very small special PNO domains for distant pairs are used in the iterative approach. This reduces the number of distant pair amplitudes by 3 orders of magnitude and keeps the additional computational effort for the iterative optimization of distant pair amplitudes minimal.

  8. Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-03-30

    An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.

  9. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations.

  10. Yes, pair correlations alone do determine sedimentation profiles of highly charged colloids.

    PubMed

    Belloni, Luc

    2005-11-22

    Recent analyses of sedimentation profiles in charged colloidal suspensions are examined in view of general, somewhat underestimated, concepts. It is recalled that the standard equation for osmotic pressure equilibrium, which involves pair correlations between colloids only, remains valid in the presence of long-range Coulombic interactions. The entropy of the counterions and the electric field generated by the spatial inhomogeneity are implicitly taken into account in the colloid structure factor through the compressibility equation and local electroneutrality conditions. Limiting the macroscopic analysis to the pure electric-field contribution or, equivalently, to the ideal ionic pressure, corresponds to the incorrect, bare Debye-Huckel approximation for the colloid-colloid correlations. A one-component description with reasonable Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek-type ion-averaged effective pair potential between colloids is sufficient to derive the sedimentation profile of highly charged, weakly screened colloidal suspensions. The macroscopic electric field is directly related to the microscopic electrostatic potential around the colloids.

  11. Pairing correlations near a Kondo-destruction quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pixley, J. H.; Deng, Lili; Ingersent, Kevin; Si, Qimiao

    2015-05-01

    Motivated by the unconventional superconductivity observed in heavy-fermion metals, we investigate pairing susceptibilities near a continuous quantum phase transition of the Kondo-destruction type. We solve two-impurity Bose-Fermi Anderson models with Ising and Heisenberg forms of the interimpurity exchange interaction using continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo and numerical renormalization-group methods. Each model exhibits a Kondo-destruction quantum critical point separating Kondo-screened and local-moment phases. For antiferromagnetic interimpurity exchange interactions, singlet pairing is found to be enhanced in the vicinity of the transition. Implications of this result for heavy-fermion superconductivity are discussed.

  12. Study of correlations between photoproduced pairs of charmed particles at Experiment E831/FOCUS

    SciTech Connect

    Castromonte Flores, Cesar Manuel

    2008-08-01

    The authors present the study of the charm-pair correlations produced in photon-nucleon interactions at $\\langle$Eγ$\\rangle$ = 175 GeV/c, by the Fermilab fixed target experiment E831/FOCUS. The E831/FOCUS experiment produced and reconstructed over one million charm particles. This high statistics allows the reconstruction of more than 7000 charm-pair mesons D$\\bar{D}$, 10 times the statistic of former experiments, and also allows to get, for the first time, about 600 totally reconstructed charm-pairs in the DDs and DΛc channels. They were able to study, with some detail, the kinematical correlations between the charm and anticharm particle forming a pair, in the square transverse momentum (pT2), azimuthal angle difference (ΔΦ), rapidity difference (Δy) and the charm-pair mass variables. They observe some correlation for the longitudinal momenta, and a significant correlation for the transverse momenta of the charm and anticharm particles. They compare the experimental distributions with theoretical predictions based on the photon-gluon fusion model (PGF), for the production of c$\\bar{c}$ quarks, and the standard Lund hadronization model. These models are implemented by the PYTHIA Monte Carlo event generator. The PYTHIA program allows the inclusion, in the simulation, of non-perturbative effects that have been shown to be important for charm production. In order to compare data and simulation, they have generated two Monte Carlo samples, the first one set to favor the production of D$\\bar{D}$ pairs (MCDD2), and the second one set to favor the production of DDsand DΛc pairs, where each one uses different functions and parameters values for the theoretical models in the simulation. They observe, for the correlation distributions, that the set of parameters used by the MCDD2 model together with the intrinsic transverse momentum (k$\\perp$) of the partons inside the

  13. Cost-effective instrumentation for quantitative depth measurement of optic nerve head using stereo fundus image pair and image cross correlation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, Luis Alberto V.; Carvalho, Valeria

    2014-02-01

    One of the main problems with glaucoma throughout the world is that there are typically no symptoms in the early stages. Many people who have the disease do not know they have it and by the time one finds out, the disease is usually in an advanced stage. Most retinal cameras available in the market today use sophisticated optics and have several other features/capabilities (wide-angle optics, red-free and angiography filters, etc) that make them expensive for the general practice or for screening purposes. Therefore, it is important to develop instrumentation that is fast, effective and economic, in order to reach the mass public in the general eye-care centers. In this work, we have constructed the hardware and software of a cost-effective and non-mydriatic prototype device that allows fast capturing and plotting of high-resolution quantitative 3D images and videos of the optical disc head and neighboring region (30° of field of view). The main application of this device is for glaucoma screening, although it may also be useful for the diagnosis of other pathologies related to the optic nerve.

  14. Electrical Conductivity through a Single Atomic Step Measured with the Proximity-Induced Superconducting Pair Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Howon; Lin, Shi-Zeng; Graf, Matthias J.; Miyata, Yoshinori; Nagai, Yuki; Kato, Takeo; Hasegawa, Yukio

    2016-09-01

    Local disordered nanostructures in an atomically thick metallic layer on a semiconducting substrate play significant and decisive roles in transport properties of two-dimensional (2D) conductive systems. We measured the electrical conductivity through a step of monoatomic height in a truly microscopic manner by using as a signal the superconducting pair correlation induced by the proximity effect. The transport property across a step of a one-monolayer Pb surface metallic phase, formed on a Si(111) substrate, was evaluated by inducing the pair correlation around the local defect and measuring its response, i.e., the reduced density of states at the Fermi energy using scanning tunneling microscopy. We found that the step resistance has a significant contribution to the total resistance on a nominally flat surface. Our study also revealed that steps in the 2D metallic layer terminate the propagation of the pair correlation. Superconductivity is enhanced between the first surface step and the superconductor-normal-metal interface by reflectionless tunneling when the step is located within a coherence length.

  15. Cluster pair correlation function of simple fluids: energetic connectivity criteria.

    PubMed

    Pugnaloni, Luis A; Zarragoicoechea, Guillermo J; Vericat, Fernando

    2006-11-21

    We consider the clustering of Lennard-Jones particles by using an energetic connectivity criterion proposed long ago by Hill [J. Chem. Phys. 32, 617 (1955)] for the bond between pairs of particles. The criterion establishes that two particles are bonded (directly connected) if their relative kinetic energy is less than minus their relative potential energy. Thus, in general, it depends on the direction as well as on the magnitude of the velocities and positions of the particles. An integral equation for the pair connectedness function, proposed by two of the authors [Phys. Rev. E 61, R6067 (2000)], is solved for this criterion and the results are compared with those obtained from molecular dynamics simulations and from a connectedness Percus-Yevick-type integral equation for a velocity-averaged version of Hill's energetic criterion.

  16. Correlating size and composition-dependent effects with magnetic, Mössbauer, and pair distribution function measurements in a family of catalytically active ferrite nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Wong, Stanislaus; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Lewis, Crystal S.; ...

    2015-05-06

    The magnetic spinel ferrites, MFe₂O₄ (wherein 'M' = a divalent metal ion such as but not limited to Mn, Co, Zn, and Ni), represent a unique class of magnetic materials in which the rational introduction of different 'M's can yield correspondingly unique and interesting magnetic behaviors. Herein we present a generalized hydrothermal method for the synthesis of single-crystalline ferrite nanoparticles with 'M' = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively, which can be systematically and efficaciously produced simply by changing the metal precursor. Our protocol can moreover lead to reproducible size control by judicious selection of various surfactants. Asmore » such, we have probed the effects of both (i) size and (ii) chemical composition upon the magnetic properties of these nanomaterials using complementary magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. The structure of the samples was confirmed by atomic PDF analysis of X-ray and electron powder diffraction data as a function of particle size. These materials retain the bulk spinel structure to the smallest size (i.e., 3 nm). In addition, we have explored the catalytic potential of our ferrites as both (a) magnetically recoverable photocatalysts and (b) biological catalysts, and noted that many of our as-prepared ferrite systems evinced intrinsically higher activities as compared with their iron oxide analogues.« less

  17. Correlating size and composition-dependent effects with magnetic, Mössbauer, and pair distribution function measurements in a family of catalytically active ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Stanislaus; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Lewis, Crystal S.; Han, Jinkyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiang; Shi, Chenyang; Abeykoon, A. M.Milinda; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Stach, Eric; Thomas, Justin; Guerrero, Kevin; Munayco, Pablo; Munayco, Jimmy; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Burnham, Philip; Viescas, Arthur J; Tiano, Amanda L.

    2015-05-06

    The magnetic spinel ferrites, MFe₂O₄ (wherein 'M' = a divalent metal ion such as but not limited to Mn, Co, Zn, and Ni), represent a unique class of magnetic materials in which the rational introduction of different 'M's can yield correspondingly unique and interesting magnetic behaviors. Herein we present a generalized hydrothermal method for the synthesis of single-crystalline ferrite nanoparticles with 'M' = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively, which can be systematically and efficaciously produced simply by changing the metal precursor. Our protocol can moreover lead to reproducible size control by judicious selection of various surfactants. As such, we have probed the effects of both (i) size and (ii) chemical composition upon the magnetic properties of these nanomaterials using complementary magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. The structure of the samples was confirmed by atomic PDF analysis of X-ray and electron powder diffraction data as a function of particle size. These materials retain the bulk spinel structure to the smallest size (i.e., 3 nm). In addition, we have explored the catalytic potential of our ferrites as both (a) magnetically recoverable photocatalysts and (b) biological catalysts, and noted that many of our as-prepared ferrite systems evinced intrinsically higher activities as compared with their iron oxide analogues.

  18. Variational derivation of equation for generalized pair correlation function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, F. Bary

    1992-01-01

    The wavefunction of a system is explicitly written down in a fully anti-symmetric way between a fermion pair and a medium, and the equations for each one of them are derived from the variation of total energy for bound systems and by forming appropriate scalar products for continuum states. High-energy particles, such as protons, electrons, and nuclei impinging upon spacecraft, produce secondary radiations. In order to protect the internal environment of spacecraft from these radiations, their intensities are determined in many instances theoretically, and an appropriate program has been developed in the High Energy Science Branch. The purpose of this research is to investigate the problem of indistinguishability of an incident projectile with one of the same in a target.

  19. Generation and analysis of correlated pairs of photons on board a nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekara, R.; Tang, Z.; Tan, Y. C.; Cheng, C.; Sha, L.; Hiang, G. C.; Oi, D.; Ling, A.

    2016-10-01

    Progress in quantum computers and their threat to conventional public key infrastructure is driving new forms of encryption. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) using entangled photons is a promising approach. A global QKD network can be achieved using satellites equipped with optical links. Despite numerous proposals, actual experimental work demonstrating relevant entanglement technology in space is limited due to the prohibitive cost of traditional satellite development. To make progress, we have designed a photon pair source that can operate on modular spacecraft called CubeSats. We report the in-orbit operation of the photon pair source on board an orbiting CubeSat and demonstrate pair generation and polarisation correlation under space conditions. The in-orbit polarisation correlations are compatible with ground-based tests, validating our design. This successful demonstration is a major experimental milestone towards a space-based quantum network. Our approach provides a cost-effective method for proving the space-worthiness of critical components used in entangled photon technology. We expect that it will also accelerate efforts to probe the overlap between quantum and relativistic models of physics.

  20. Pair-correlation function of a metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Zin, Pawel; Trippenbach, Marek; Gajda, Mariusz

    2004-02-01

    The pair-correlation function is one of the basic quantities to characterize the coherence properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate. We calculate this function in the experimentally important case of a zero temperature Bose-Einstein condensate in a metastable triplet helium state using the variational method with a pair-excitation ansatz. We compare our result with a pair-correlation function obtained for the hard-sphere potential with the same scattering length. Both functions are practically indistinguishable for distances greater than the scattering length. At smaller distances, due to interatomic interactions, the helium condensate shows strong correlations.

  1. Triplet p + ip pairing correlations in the doped Kane-Mele-Hubbard model: A quantum Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Tianxing; Lin, Hai-Qing; Gubernatis, James E.

    2015-09-01

    By using the constrained-phase quantum Monte Carlo method, we performed a systematic study of the pairing correlations in the ground state of the doped Kane-Mele-Hubbard model on a honeycomb lattice. We find that pairing correlations with d + id symmetry dominate close to half filling, but pairing correlations with p+ip symmetry dominate as hole doping moves the system below three-quarters filling. We correlate these behaviors of the pairing correlations with the topology of the Fermi surfaces of the non-interacting problem. We also find that the effective pairing correlation is enhanced greatly as the interaction increases, and these superconducting correlations are robust against varying the spin-orbit coupling strength. Finally, our numerical results suggest a possible way to realize spin triplet superconductivity in doped honeycomb-like materials or ultracold atoms in optical traps.

  2. Variational multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method applied to pairing correlations in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pillet, N.; Berger, J.-F.; Caurier, E.

    2008-08-15

    Applying a variational multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method whose purpose is to include correlations beyond the mean field in a unified way without particle number and Pauli principle violations, we investigate pairing-like correlations in the ground states of {sup 116}Sn, {sup 106}Sn, and {sup 100}Sn. The same effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, namely, the D1S parametrization of the Gogny force, is used to derive both the mean field and correlation components of nuclear wave functions. Calculations are performed using an axially symmetric representation. The structure of correlated wave functions, their convergence with respect to the number of particle-hole excitations, and the influence of correlations on single-particle level spectra and occupation probabilities are analyzed and compared with results obtained with the same two-body effective interaction from BCS, Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov, and particle number projected after variation BCS approaches. Calculations of nuclear radii and the first theoretical excited 0{sup +} states are compared with experimental data.

  3. Slow-light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    Xiong, C; Monat, Christelle; Clark, Alex S; Grillet, Christian; Marshall, Graham D; Steel, M J; Li, Juntao; O'Faolain, Liam; Krauss, Thomas F; Rarity, John G; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2011-09-01

    We report the generation of correlated photon pairs in the telecom C-band at room temperature from a dispersion-engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide. The spontaneous four-wave mixing process producing the photon pairs is enhanced by slow-light propagation enabling an active device length of less than 100 μm. With a coincidence to accidental ratio of 12.8 at a pair generation rate of 0.006 per pulse, this ultracompact photon pair source paves the way toward scalable quantum information processing realized on-chip.

  4. Local explicitly correlated second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with pair natural orbitals.

    PubMed

    Tew, David P; Helmich, Benjamin; Hättig, Christof

    2011-08-21

    We explore using a pair natural orbital analysis of approximate first-order pair functions as means to truncate the space of both virtual and complementary auxiliary orbitals in the context of explicitly correlated F12 methods using localised occupied orbitals. We demonstrate that this offers an attractive procedure and that only 10-40 virtual orbitals per significant pair are required to obtain second-order valence correlation energies to within 1-2% of the basis set limit. Moreover, for this level of virtual truncation, only 10-40 complementary auxiliary orbitals per pair are required for an accurate resolution of the identity in the computation of the three- and four-electron integrals that arise in explicitly correlated methods.

  5. Correlation-induced suppression of decoherence in capacitively coupled Cooper-pair boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xuedong; You, J. Q.; Nori, Franco

    2005-03-01

    Charge fluctuations from gate bias and background traps severely limit the performance of a charge qubit in a Cooper-pair box (CPB). Here we discuss an encoding approachootnotetextJ.Q. You, X.Hu, and F. Nori, cond-mat/0407423. to control the decoherence effects of these charge fluctuations using two strongly capacitively coupled CPBs. This coupled-box system has a low-decoherence subspace of two states, for which we calculate the dephasing and relaxation rates using a master equation approach. Our results show that the inter-box Coulomb correlation can significantly suppress decoherence of this two-level system by reducing the strength of the system-environment interaction, making it a promising candidate as a logical qubit, encoded using two CPBs.

  6. Students' Perceptions of Dynamics Concept Pairs and Correlation with Their Problem-Solving Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ning

    2012-10-01

    A concept pair is a pair of concepts that are fundamentally different but closely related. To develop a solid conceptual understanding in dynamics (a foundational engineering science course) and physics, students must understand the fundamental difference and relationship between two concepts that are included in each concept pair. However, all existing research in dynamics and physics education has been focused on the identification and repair of students' misunderstanding of individual concepts, but not concept pairs. The present research fills the gap of existing research by studying students' perceptions of dynamics concept pairs and correlation with their problem-solving performance in both particle and rigid-body dynamics. A total of 88 engineering undergraduate students participated in the present study. Students' perceptions were assessed using a 40-item instrument that included 20 dynamics concept pairs at fundamental Level One and higher-order Level Two. Students' problem-solving performance was assessed using four exams that included 66 dynamics problems. The coefficients of reliability (Cronbach's α) of assessment instruments vary between 0.69 and 0.93. The research findings from the present study show that students were not confident in their understanding of Level-Two concept pairs, especially the relationship between the Principle of Linear Impulse and Momentum and the Principle of Angular Impulse and Momentum, and the relationship between the Principle of Angular Impulse and Momentum and the Conservation of Angular Momentum. A statistically significant correlation exists between students' perceptions of Level-Two concept pairs and their problem-solving performance on both particle dynamics (r = 0.355, p < 0.01) and rigid-body dynamics (r = 0.351, p < 0.01). The research findings made from the present study imply that educational efforts should be focused on improving students' understanding of Level-Two dynamics concept pairs.

  7. Cytoplasmic and genomic effects on meiotic pairing in Brassica hybrids and allotetraploids from pair crosses of three cultivated diploids.

    PubMed

    Cui, Cheng; Ge, Xianhong; Gautam, Mayank; Kang, Lei; Li, Zaiyun

    2012-07-01

    Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploidization contribute to the origin of many important crops. Synthetic Brassica is a widely used model for the study of genetic recombination and "fixed heterosis" in allopolyploids. To investigate the effects of the cytoplasm and genome combinations on meiotic recombination, we produced digenomic diploid and triploid hybrids and trigenomic triploid hybrids from the reciprocal crosses of three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC). The chromosomes in the resultant hybrids were doubled to obtain three allotetraploids (B. juncea, AA.BB; B. napus, AA.CC; B. carinata, BB.CC). Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings in these hybrids were quantified using genomic in situ hybridization and BAC-FISH. The level of intra- and intergenomic pairings varied significantly, depending on the genome combinations and the cytoplasmic background and/or their interaction. The extent of intragenomic pairing was less than that of intergenomic pairing within each genome. The extent of pairing variations within the B genome was less than that within the A and C genomes, each of which had a similar extent of pairing. Synthetic allotetraploids exhibited nondiploidized meiotic behavior, and their chromosomal instabilities were correlated with the relationship of the genomes and cytoplasmic background. Our results highlight the specific roles of the cytoplasm and genome to the chromosomal behaviors of hybrids and allopolyploids.

  8. A novel method for measurement of the spin correlation function for relativistic electron pairs produced in Møller scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodek, K.; Kępka, D.; Rozpędzik, D.; Zejma, J.; Kozela, A.

    2017-04-01

    A self-calibrating double-Mott polarimeter is proposed for measurement of the spin correlation function of relativistic electron pairs produced in Møller scattering. The polarization of outgoing electrons (appearing when the beam is polarized) is utilized for calibration of effective analyzing powers in the secondary Mott scattering used for spin analysis. The experiment will measure the newly introduced relative spin correlation function. This new observable can be measured with a significantly better accuracy than the regular spin correlation function in a small scale experiment. It is shown that both the spin correlation function and the relative spin correlation function are theoretically equivalent. A specific experimental data analysis scenario is proposed, which effectively eliminates the systematic effects related to the imperfect geometry and detector efficiency.

  9. [About paired correlation of pi-electrons tissue lipid extracts of animals of different evolutionary levels].

    PubMed

    Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Chebotareva, M A; Shukoliukova, E P; Ivanova, V P; Krivchenko, A I

    2008-01-01

    With aid of optical methods, the presence of the paired correlations of pi-electrons has been revealed in phospholipids as well as in triacylglyceride molecules. Used for analysis were lipid extracts of individual representatives of animals of various evolutionary levels--cartilaginous and bony fish and mammals differing by the content of unsaturated fatty acids in lipids. It has been established that the necessary condition for formation of electron pairs is interaction of lipid molecules with each other. An opinion is put forward that in the liquid crystal structure of the membrane monolayer there are two zones able to form electron pairs--the zone of location of ester bonds and the zone in the region of double bonds. Besides, the paired correlation in the phospholipid molecule electron system is accompanied by the absence of electric resistance of the membrane monolayer, which provides the monolayer superconductivity at low rates of movement of the "electron fluid". It is to be noted that the very fact of the presence of the electron pair implies transfer of energy by small portions, which does not allow excitation of individual phospholipid molecules in the monolayer and promotes stability of the native membrane. Our data agree with the known statements of A. Pulman and B. Pulman that the life dynamicity is determined by dynamicity of the electron cloud in coupled or partially coupled systems.

  10. Origin of Light-Induced Spin-Correlated Radical Pairs in Cryptochrome

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Stefan; Biskup, Till; Okafuji, Asako; Marino, Anthony R.; Berthold, Thomas; Link, Gerhard; Hitomi, Kenichi; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Schleicher, Erik; Norris, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Blue-light excitation of cryptochromes and homologs uniformly triggers electron transfer (ET) from the protein surface to the flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor. A cascade of three conserved tryptophan residues has been considered to be critically involved in this photoreaction. If the FAD is initially in its fully oxidized (diamagnetic) redox state, light-induced ET via the tryptophan triad generates a series of short-lived spin-correlated radical pairs comprising an FAD radical and a tryptophan radical. Coupled doublet-pair species of this type have been proposed as the basis, e.g., of a biological magnetic compass in migratory birds, and were found critical for some cryptochrome functions in vivo. In this contribution, a cryptochrome-like protein (CRYD) derived from Xenopus laevis has been examined as a representative system. The terminal radical-pair state FAD•⋯W324• of X. laevis CRYD has been characterized in detail by time-resolved electron-paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) at X-band microwave frequency (9.68 GHz) and magnetic fields around 345 mT, and at Q-band (34.08 GHz) at around 1215 mT. Different precursor states – singlet versus triplet – of radical-pair formation have been considered in spectral simulations of the experimental electron-spin polarized TREPR signals. Conclusively, we present evidence for a singlet-state precursor of FAD•⋯W324• radical-pair generation because at both magnetic fields, where radical pairs were studied by TREPR, net-zero electron-spin polarization has been detected. Neither a spin-polarized triplet precursor nor a triplet at thermal equilibrium can explain such an electron-spin polarization. It turns out that a two-microwave-frequency TREPR approach is essential to draw conclusions on the nature of the precursor electronic states in light-induced spin-correlated radical pair formations. PMID:20684534

  11. Correlation of leptin and soluble leptin receptor levels with anthropometric parameters in mother-newborn pairs

    PubMed Central

    Marino-Ortega, Linda A; Molina-Bello, Adiel; Polanco-García, Julio C; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B; Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris P; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if anthropometric parameters are associated with both leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sLEPR) levels in newborns and their mothers. This cross-sectional study was performed in 118 mother-newborn pairs. The venous blood sample of mothers was taken before delivery and immediately after delivery an umbilical cord blood sample was collected. Levels of leptin and sLEPR in maternal and umbilical cord sera were assessed by ELISA. Maternal serum concentration of leptin and sLEPR (6.2 and 25.7 ng/ml, respectively) were higher than in umbilical cord blood (2.4 and 14.2 ng/ml, respectively). However, the newborns and their mothers had higher sLEPR levels than leptin levels. In mothers was observed that leptin levels increase with weight gain in pregnancy and decreased sLEPR levels. Cord leptin levels correlated with neonatal birth weight and length, the body circumferences, placental weight and maternal leptin levels. Cord sLEPR levels correlated with maternal sLEPR and leptin levels. Maternal serum concentration of leptin correlated with pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain, cord sLEPR and leptin levels. Maternal sLEPR concentration correlated with cord sLEPR levels. The leptin and sLEPR levels in mother-newborn pairs are related with anthropometric parameters and an inverse correlation between leptin levels and sLEPR was observed in pairs. PMID:26379933

  12. Quantum diffraction and interference of spatially correlated photon pairs and its Fourier-optical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Ryosuke; Edamatsu, Keiichi; Itoh, Tadashi

    2006-07-15

    We present one- and two-photon diffraction and interference experiments involving parametric down-converted photon pairs. By controlling the divergence of the pump beam in parametric down-conversion, the diffraction-interference pattern produced by an object changes from a quantum (perfectly correlated) case to a classical (uncorrelated) one. The observed diffraction and interference patterns are accurately reproduced by Fourier-optical analysis taking into account the quantum spatial correlation. We show that the relation between the spatial correlation and the object size plays a crucial role in the formation of both one- and two-photon diffraction-interference patterns.

  13. Bose Einstein correlations in W-pair decays with an event-mixing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ALEPH Collaboration; Schael, S.; Barate, R.; Brunelière, R.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Lees, J.-P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Trocmé, B.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Pacheco, A.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Barklow, T.; Buchmüller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Clerbaux, B.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Mato, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Sguazzoni, G.; Teubert, F.; Valassi, A.; Videau, I.; Badaud, F.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Fayolle, D.; Gay, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Pallin, D.; Pascolo, J. M.; Perret, P.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Kraan, A. C.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.-C.; Machefert, F.; Rougé, A.; Videau, H.; Ciulli, V.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Kennedy, J.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Thompson, A. S.; Wasserbaech, S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Cameron, W.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nowell, J.; Rutherford, S. A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Thompson, J. C.; White, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Bowdery, C. K.; Clarke, D. P.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Pearson, M. R.; Robertson, N. A.; Smizanska, M.; van der Aa, O.; Delaere, C.; Leibenguth, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Blumenschein, U.; Hölldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kayser, F.; Kleinknecht, K.; Müller, A.-S.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Bonissent, A.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Payre, P.; Tilquin, A.; Ragusa, F.; David, A.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Hüttmann, K.; Lütjens, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Settles, R.; Villegas, M.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacholkowska, A.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.-J.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Foà, L.; Giammanco, A.; Giassi, A.; Ligabue, F.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Awunor, O.; Blair, G. A.; Cowan, G.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Misiejuk, A.; Strong, J. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Norton, P. R.; Tomalin, I. R.; Ward, J. J.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Boumediene, D.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P. N.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Ngac, A.; Prange, G.; Borean, C.; Giannini, G.; He, H.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Armstrong, S. R.; Berkelman, K.; Cranmer, K.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P. A.; Nielsen, J.; Pan, Y. B.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.; Dissertori, G.

    2005-01-01

    Bose Einstein correlations in W-pair decays are studied using data collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP at e+e- centre-of-mass energies from 183 to 209 GeV. The analysis is based on the comparison of WW→qq¯qq¯ events to “mixed” events constructed with the hadronic part of WW→qq¯ℓν events. The data are in agreement with the hypothesis that Bose Einstein correlations are present only for pions from the same W decay. The JETSET model with Bose Einstein correlations between pions from different W bosons is disfavoured.

  14. Structure beyond pair correlations: X-ray cross-correlation from colloidal crystals1

    PubMed Central

    Lehmkühler, Felix; Fischer, Birgit; Müller, Leonard; Ruta, Beatrice; Grübel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The results of an X-ray cross-correlation analysis (XCCA) study on hard-sphere colloidal crystals and glasses are presented. The article shows that cross-correlation functions can be used to extract structural information beyond the static structure factor in such systems. In particular, the powder average can be overcome by accessing the crystals’ unit-cell structure. In this case, the results suggest that the crystal is of face-centered cubic type. It is demonstrated that XCCA is a valuable tool for X-ray crystallography, in particular for studies on colloidal systems. These are typically characterized by a rather poor crystalline quality due to size polydispersity and limitations in experimental resolution because of the small q values probed. Furthermore, nontrivial correlations are observed that allow a more detailed insight into crystal structures beyond conventional crystallography, especially to extend knowledge in structure formation processes and phase transitions. PMID:27980511

  15. A compact, integrated silicon device for the generation of spectrally filtered, pair-correlated photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkov, Momchil; Savona, Vincenzo

    2016-05-01

    The third-order nonlinearity of silicon gives rise to a spontaneous four-wave mixing process in which correlated photon pairs are generated. Sources based on this effect can be used for quantum computation and cryptography, and can in principle be integrated with standard CMOS fabrication technology and components. However, one of the major challenges is the on-chip demultiplexing of the photons, and in particular the filtering of the pump power, which is many orders of magnitude larger than that of the signal and idler photons. Here, we propose a photonic crystal coupled-cavity system designed so that the coupling of the pump mode to the output channel is strictly zero due to symmetry. We further analyze this effect in the presence of fabrication disorder and find that, even then, a pump suppression of close to 40 dB can be achieved in state-of-the-art systems. Due to the small mode volumes and high quality factors, our system is also expected to have a generation efficiency much higher than in standard micro-ring systems. Those two considerations make a strong case for the integration of our proposed design in future on-chip quantum technologies.

  16. Superconducting transition temperatures and coherence length in non-s-wave pairing materials correlated with spin-fluctuation mediated interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angilella, G. G.; March, N. H.; Pucci, R.

    2002-03-01

    Following earlier work on electron or hole liquids flowing through assemblies with magnetic fluctuations, we have recently exposed a marked correlation of the superconducting temperature Tc, for non-s-wave pairing materials, with coherence length ξ and effective mass m*. The very recent study of Abanov et al. [Europhys. Lett. 54, 488 (2001)] and the prior investigation of Monthoux and Lonzarich [Phys. Rev. B 59, 14 598 (1999)] have each focused on the concept of a spin-fluctuation temperature Tsf, which again is intimately related to Tc. For the d-wave pairing via antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in the cuprates, these studies are brought into close contact with our own work, and the result is that kBTsf~ħ2/m*ξ2. This demonstrates that ξ is also determined by such antiferromagnetic spin-fluctuation mediated pair interaction. The coherence length in units of the lattice spacing is then essentially given in the cuprates as the square root of the ratio of two characteristic energies, namely, the kinetic energy of localization of a charge carrier of mass m* in a specified magnetic correlation length to the hopping energy. The quasi-two-dimensional ruthenate Sr2RuO4, with Tc~1.3 K, has p-wave spin-triplet pairing and so is also briefly discussed here.

  17. Correlated photon pair generation in low-loss double-stripe silicon nitride waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Yanbing; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate correlated photon pair generation via spontaneous four-wave mixing in a low-loss double-stripe silicon nitride waveguide with a coincidence-to-accidental ratio over 10. The coincidence-to-accidental ratio is limited by spontaneous Raman scattering, which can be mitigated by cooling in the future. This demonstration suggests that this waveguide structure is a potential platform to develop integrated quantum photonic chips for quantum information processing.

  18. Improving the clinical correlation of multiple sclerosis black hole volume change by paired-scan analysis.

    PubMed

    Tam, Roger C; Traboulsee, Anthony; Riddehough, Andrew; Li, David K B

    2012-01-01

    The change in T 1-hypointense lesion ("black hole") volume is an important marker of pathological progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Black hole boundaries often have low contrast and are difficult to determine accurately and most (semi-)automated segmentation methods first compute the T 2-hyperintense lesions, which are a superset of the black holes and are typically more distinct, to form a search space for the T 1w lesions. Two main potential sources of measurement noise in longitudinal black hole volume computation are partial volume and variability in the T 2w lesion segmentation. A paired analysis approach is proposed herein that uses registration to equalize partial volume and lesion mask processing to combine T 2w lesion segmentations across time. The scans of 247 MS patients are used to compare a selected black hole computation method with an enhanced version incorporating paired analysis, using rank correlation to a clinical variable (MS functional composite) as the primary outcome measure. The comparison is done at nine different levels of intensity as a previous study suggests that darker black holes may yield stronger correlations. The results demonstrate that paired analysis can strongly improve longitudinal correlation (from -0.148 to -0.303 in this sample) and may produce segmentations that are more sensitive to clinically relevant changes.

  19. Continuous-wave quasi-phase-matched waveguide correlated photon pair source on a III–V chip

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrafi, Peyman Zhu, Eric Y.; Dolgaleva, Ksenia; Aitchison, J. Stewart; Qian, Li; Holmes, Barry M.; Hutchings, David C.

    2013-12-16

    We report on the demonstration of correlated photon pair generation in a quasi-phase-matched superlattice GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide using a continuous-wave pump. Our photon pair source has a low noise level and achieves a high coincidence-to-accidental ratio greater than 100, which is the highest value reported in III–V chips so far. This correlated photon pair source has the potential to be monolithically integrated with on-chip pump laser sources fabricated on the same superlattice wafer structure, enabling direct correlated/entangled photon pair production from a compact electrically powered chip.

  20. Excluded volume effect enhances the homology pairing of model chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamiya, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Isami, Shuhei; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori

    To investigate the structural dynamics of the homology pairing of polymers, we mod- eled the scenario of homologous chromosome pairings during meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, one of the simplest model organisms of eukaryotes. We consider a simple model consist- ing of pairs of homologous polymers with the same structures that are confined in a cylindrical container, which represents the local parts of chromosomes contained in an elongated nucleus of S. pombe. Brownian dynamics simulations of this model showed that the excluded volume effects among non-homological chromosomes and the transitional dynamics of nuclear shape serve to enhance the pairing of homologous chromosomes.

  1. Study of quantum spin correlations of relativistic electron pairs - Testing nonlocality of relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bodek, K.; Rozpędzik, D.; Zejma, J.; Caban, P.; Rembieliński, J.; Włodarczyk, M.; Enders, J.; Köhler, A.; Kozela, A.

    2013-11-07

    The Polish-German project QUEST aims at studying relativistic quantum spin correlations of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky-Bohm type, through measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities for relativistic electron pairs. The results will be compared to theoretical predictions obtained by us within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, based on assumptions regarding the form of the relativistic spin operator. Agreement or divergence will be interpreted in the context of non-uniqueness of the relativistic spin operator in quantum mechanics as well as dependence of the correlation function on the choice of observables representing the spin. Pairs of correlated electrons will originate from the Mo/ller scattering of polarized 15 MeV electrons provided by the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC, TU Darmstadt, incident on a Be target. Spin projections will be determined using the Mott polarimetry technique. Measurements (starting 2013) are planned for longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations and different orientations of the beam polarization vector w.r.t. the Mo/ller scattering plane. This is the first project to study relativistic spin correlations for particles with mass.

  2. Study of quantum spin correlations of relativistic electron pairs - Testing nonlocality of relativistic quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodek, K.; Caban, P.; Ciborowski, J.; Enders, J.; Köhler, A.; Kozela, A.; Rembieliński, J.; Rozpedzik, D.; Włodarczyk, M.; Zejma, J.

    2013-11-01

    The Polish-German project QUEST aims at studying relativistic quantum spin correlations of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky-Bohm type, through measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities for relativistic electron pairs. The results will be compared to theoretical predictions obtained by us within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, based on assumptions regarding the form of the relativistic spin operator. Agreement or divergence will be interpreted in the context of non-uniqueness of the relativistic spin operator in quantum mechanics as well as dependence of the correlation function on the choice of observables representing the spin. Pairs of correlated electrons will originate from the Mo/ller scattering of polarized 15 MeV electrons provided by the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC, TU Darmstadt, incident on a Be target. Spin projections will be determined using the Mott polarimetry technique. Measurements (starting 2013) are planned for longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations and different orientations of the beam polarization vector w.r.t. the Mo/ller scattering plane. This is the first project to study relativistic spin correlations for particles with mass.

  3. Exchange-correlation energy from pairing matrix fluctuation and the particle-particle random phase approximation.

    PubMed

    van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao

    2014-05-14

    Despite their unmatched success for many applications, commonly used local, semi-local, and hybrid density functionals still face challenges when it comes to describing long-range interactions, static correlation, and electron delocalization. Density functionals of both the occupied and virtual orbitals are able to address these problems. The particle-hole (ph-) Random Phase Approximation (RPA), a functional of occupied and virtual orbitals, has recently known a revival within the density functional theory community. Following up on an idea introduced in our recent communication [H. van Aggelen, Y. Yang, and W. Yang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 030501 (2013)], we formulate more general adiabatic connections for the correlation energy in terms of pairing matrix fluctuations described by the particle-particle (pp-) propagator. With numerical examples of the pp-RPA, the lowest-order approximation to the pp-propagator, we illustrate the potential of density functional approximations based on pairing matrix fluctuations. The pp-RPA is size-extensive, self-interaction free, fully anti-symmetric, describes the strong static correlation limit in H2, and eliminates delocalization errors in H2(+) and other single-bond systems. It gives surprisingly good non-bonded interaction energies--competitive with the ph-RPA--with the correct R(-6) asymptotic decay as a function of the separation R, which we argue is mainly attributable to its correct second-order energy term. While the pp-RPA tends to underestimate absolute correlation energies, it gives good relative energies: much better atomization energies than the ph-RPA, as it has no tendency to underbind, and reaction energies of similar quality. The adiabatic connection in terms of pairing matrix fluctuation paves the way for promising new density functional approximations.

  4. Eppur si Muove: Positional and Kinematic Correlations of Satellite Pairs in the Low Z Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Famaey, Benoit; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Neil G.; Martin, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    We have recently shown that pairs of satellite galaxies located diametrically opposite to each other around their host possess predominantly anti-correlated velocities. This is consistent with a scenario in which ≳50% of satellite galaxies belong to kinematically coherent rotating planar structures. Here we extend this analysis, examining satellites of giant galaxies drawn from an SDSS photometric redshift catalog. We find that there is a ∼17% overabundance (>3σ significance) of candidate satellites at positions diametrically opposite to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite. We show that ΛCDM cosmological simulations do not possess this property when contamination is included. After subtracting contamination, we find ∼2 times more satellites diametrically opposed to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite than at 90° from it, at projected distances ranging from 100 to 150 kpc from the host. This independent analysis thus strongly supports our previous results on anti-correlated velocities. We also find that those satellite pairs with anti-correlated velocities have a strong preference (∼3:1) to align with the major axis of the host whereas those with correlated velocities display the opposite behavior. We finally show that repeating a similar analysis to Ibata et al. with same-side satellites is generally hard to interpret, but is not inconsistent with our previous results when strong quality cuts are applied on the sample. This addresses all of the concerns recently raised by Cautun et al., who did not uncover any flaw in our previous analysis, but may simply have hinted at the physical extent of planar satellite structures by pointing out that the anti-correlation signal weakens at radii >150 kpc. All these unexpected positional and kinematic correlations strongly suggest that a substantial fraction of satellite galaxies are causally linked in their formation and evolution.

  5. EPPUR SI MUOVE: POSITIONAL AND KINEMATIC CORRELATIONS OF SATELLITE PAIRS IN THE LOW Z UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Famaey, Benoit; Martin, Nicolas; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Neil G.

    2015-05-20

    We have recently shown that pairs of satellite galaxies located diametrically opposite to each other around their host possess predominantly anti-correlated velocities. This is consistent with a scenario in which ≳50% of satellite galaxies belong to kinematically coherent rotating planar structures. Here we extend this analysis, examining satellites of giant galaxies drawn from an SDSS photometric redshift catalog. We find that there is a ∼17% overabundance (>3σ significance) of candidate satellites at positions diametrically opposite to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite. We show that ΛCDM cosmological simulations do not possess this property when contamination is included. After subtracting contamination, we find ∼2 times more satellites diametrically opposed to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite than at 90° from it, at projected distances ranging from 100 to 150 kpc from the host. This independent analysis thus strongly supports our previous results on anti-correlated velocities. We also find that those satellite pairs with anti-correlated velocities have a strong preference (∼3:1) to align with the major axis of the host whereas those with correlated velocities display the opposite behavior. We finally show that repeating a similar analysis to Ibata et al. with same-side satellites is generally hard to interpret, but is not inconsistent with our previous results when strong quality cuts are applied on the sample. This addresses all of the concerns recently raised by Cautun et al., who did not uncover any flaw in our previous analysis, but may simply have hinted at the physical extent of planar satellite structures by pointing out that the anti-correlation signal weakens at radii >150 kpc. All these unexpected positional and kinematic correlations strongly suggest that a substantial fraction of satellite galaxies are causally linked in their formation and evolution.

  6. Bosonic pair creation and the Schiff-Snyder-Weinberg effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Q. Z.; Bauke, Heiko; Su, Q.; Keitel, C. H.; Grobe, R.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between different bound states in bosonic systems can lead to pair creation. We study this process in detail by solving the Klein-Gordon equation on space-time grids in the framework of time-dependent quantum field theory. By choosing specific external field configurations, two bound states can become pseudodegenerate, which is commonly referred to as the Schiff-Snyder-Weinberg effect. These pseudodegenerate bound states, which have complex energy eigenvalues, are related to the pseudo-Hermiticity of the Klein-Gordon Hamiltonian. In this work, the influence of the Schiff-Snyder-Weinberg effect on pair production is studied. A generalized Schiff-Snyder-Weinberg effect, where several pairs of pseudodegenerate states appear, is found in combined electric and magnetic fields. The generalized Schiff-Snyder-Weinberg effect likewise triggers pair creation. The particle number in these situations obeys an exponential growth law in time enhancing the creation of bosons, which cannot be found in fermionic systems.

  7. Computing the correlation and other things directly from the raw pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D A

    2007-08-16

    We want a faster and more robust way to compute the correlation, expanded in Spherical (or Cartesian) Harmonics. We also want to include the cross-{ell},m data covariance that are there, but currently ignored. We don't want to get bogged down in fancy binning in x-y-z or r-{theta}-{phi}, just r. Want to just look at C{sub {ell}m} to decide how many terms to keep--or better yet the pair distributions directly.

  8. The role of multiparticle correlations and Cooper pairing in the formation of molecules in an ultracold gas of Fermi atoms with a negative scattering length

    SciTech Connect

    Babichenko, V. S. Kagan, Yu.

    2012-11-15

    The influence of multiparticle correlation effects and Cooper pairing in an ultracold Fermi gas with a negative scattering length on the formation rate of molecules is investigated. Cooper pairing is shown to cause the formation rate of molecules to increase, as distinct from the influence of Bose-Einstein condensation in a Bose gas on this rate. This trend is retained in the entire range of temperatures below the critical one.

  9. Pair-correlation functions and phase separation in a two-component point Yukawa fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, P.; Archer, A. J.; Evans, R.

    2006-02-01

    We investigate the structure of a binary mixture of particles interacting via purely repulsive point Yukawa pair potentials with a common inverse screening length λ. Using the hypernetted chain closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equations, we find that for a system with "ideal" (Berthelot mixing rule) pair-potential parameters for the interaction between unlike species, the asymptotic decay of the total correlation functions crosses over from monotonic to damped oscillatory on increasing the fluid total density at fixed composition. This gives rise to a Kirkwood line in the phase diagram. We also consider a "nonideal" system, in which the Berthelot mixing rule is multiplied by a factor (1+δ). For any δ >0 the system exhibits fluid-fluid phase separation and remarkably the ultimate decay of the correlation functions is now monotonic for all (mixture) state points. Only in the limit of vanishing concentration of either species does one find oscillatory decay extending to r =∞. In the nonideal case the simple random-phase approximation provides a good description of the phase separation and the accompanying Lifshitz line.

  10. Quantifying the dynamics of the oligomeric transcription factor STAT3 by pair correlation of molecular brightness.

    PubMed

    Hinde, Elizabeth; Pandžić, Elvis; Yang, Zhengmin; Ng, Ivan H W; Jans, David A; Bogoyevitch, Marie A; Gratton, Enrico; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-03-24

    Oligomerization of transcription factors controls their translocation into the nucleus and DNA-binding activity. Here we present a fluorescence microscopy analysis termed pCOMB (pair correlation of molecular brightness) that tracks the mobility of different oligomeric species within live cell nuclear architecture. pCOMB amplifies the signal from the brightest species present and filters the dynamics of the extracted oligomeric population based on arrival time between two locations. We use this method to demonstrate a dependence of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mobility on oligomeric state. We find that on entering the nucleus STAT3 dimers must first bind DNA to form STAT3 tetramers, which are also DNA-bound but exhibit a different mobility signature. Examining the dimer-to-tetramer transition by a cross-pair correlation analysis (cpCOMB) reveals that chromatin accessibility modulates STAT3 tetramer formation. Thus, the pCOMB approach is suitable for mapping the impact oligomerization on transcription factor dynamics.

  11. Quantifying the dynamics of the oligomeric transcription factor STAT3 by pair correlation of molecular brightness

    PubMed Central

    Hinde, Elizabeth; Pandžić, Elvis; Yang, Zhengmin; Ng, Ivan H. W.; Jans, David A.; Bogoyevitch, Marie A.; Gratton, Enrico; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization of transcription factors controls their translocation into the nucleus and DNA-binding activity. Here we present a fluorescence microscopy analysis termed pCOMB (pair correlation of molecular brightness) that tracks the mobility of different oligomeric species within live cell nuclear architecture. pCOMB amplifies the signal from the brightest species present and filters the dynamics of the extracted oligomeric population based on arrival time between two locations. We use this method to demonstrate a dependence of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mobility on oligomeric state. We find that on entering the nucleus STAT3 dimers must first bind DNA to form STAT3 tetramers, which are also DNA-bound but exhibit a different mobility signature. Examining the dimer-to-tetramer transition by a cross-pair correlation analysis (cpCOMB) reveals that chromatin accessibility modulates STAT3 tetramer formation. Thus, the pCOMB approach is suitable for mapping the impact oligomerization on transcription factor dynamics. PMID:27009358

  12. Chromatographic and computational assessment of lipophilicity using sum of ranking differences and generalized pair-correlation.

    PubMed

    Andrić, Filip; Héberger, Károly

    2015-02-06

    Lipophilicity (logP) represents one of the most studied and most frequently used fundamental physicochemical properties. At present there are several possibilities for its quantitative expression and many of them stems from chromatographic experiments. Numerous attempts have been made to compare different computational methods, chromatographic methods vs. computational approaches, as well as chromatographic methods and direct shake-flask procedure without definite results or these findings are not accepted generally. In the present work numerous chromatographically derived lipophilicity measures in combination with diverse computational methods were ranked and clustered using the novel variable discrimination and ranking approaches based on the sum of ranking differences and the generalized pair correlation method. Available literature logP data measured on HILIC, and classical reversed-phase combining different classes of compounds have been compared with most frequently used multivariate data analysis techniques (principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis) as well as with the conclusions in the original sources. Chromatographic lipophilicity measures obtained under typical reversed-phase conditions outperform the majority of computationally estimated logPs. Oppositely, in the case of HILIC none of the many proposed chromatographic indices overcomes any of the computationally assessed logPs. Only two of them (logkmin and kmin) may be selected as recommended chromatographic lipophilicity measures. Both ranking approaches, sum of ranking differences and generalized pair correlation method, although based on different backgrounds, provides highly similar variable ordering and grouping leading to the same conclusions.

  13. Pair-correlation properties and momentum distribution of finite number of interacting trapped bosons in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Anindya; Das, Tapan Kumar; Chakrabarti, Barnali

    2010-09-14

    We study the ground state pair-correlation properties of a weakly interacting trapped Bose gas in three dimensions by using a correlated many-body method. The use of the van der Waals interaction potential and an external trapping potential shows realistic features. We also test the validity of shape-independent approximation in the calculation of correlation properties.

  14. Jet azimuthal angle correlations in the production of a Higgs boson pair plus two jets at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Junya; Baglio, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Azimuthal angle correlations of two jets in the process pp→ HHjj are studied. The loop induced O(α _s^4 α _{}^2) gluon fusion (GF) sub-process and the O(α _{}^4) weak boson fusion (WBF) sub-process are considered. The GF sub-process exhibits strong correlations in the azimuthal angles φ _{1,2}^{} of the two jets measured from the production plane of the Higgs boson pair and the difference between these two angles φ _1^{}-φ _2^{}, and a very small correlation in their sum φ _1^{}+φ _2^{}. Using a finite value for the mass of the loop running top quark in the amplitude is crucial for the correlations. The impact of a non-standard value for the triple Higgs self-coupling on the correlations is found small. The peak shifts of the azimuthal angle distributions reflect the magnitude of parity violation in the gg→ HH amplitude and the dependence of the distributions on parity violating phases is analytically clarified. The normalised distributions and the peak positions of the correlations are stable against the variation of factorisation and renormalisation scales. The WBF sub-process also produces correlated distributions and it is found that they are not induced by the quantum effect of the intermediate weak bosons but mainly by a kinematic effect. This kinematic effect is a characteristic feature of the WBF sub-process and is not observed in the GF sub-process. It is found that the correlations are different in the GF and in the WBF sub-processes. As part of the process dependent information, they will be helpful in the analyses of the process pp→ HHjj at the LHC.

  15. Plasmon switching effect based on graphene nanoribbon pair arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Wu, Lingxi; Liu, Qiong; Zhou, Renlong; Xie, Suxia; Chen, Jiangjiamin; Wu, Mengxiong; Zeng, Lisan

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically demonstrate the existence of plasmon switching effect in graphene nanostructure. By using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the plasmon resonance modes are studied in graphene nanoribbon pair arrays with the change of Fermi level, graphene width, and carrier mobility. It is found that the Fermi level and graphene width play an important role in changing the distribution of electric energy on different graphene nanoribbons, resulting in a significant plasmon switching effect. Moreover, we study the characteristic of resonance mode of one graphene ribbon by using glass rod with different shape. The effect of kerr material sandwiched between graphene nanoribbon pair is also considered.

  16. Proximity effects and pair currents in cuprate junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, Gad

    2017-04-01

    Proximity effects and pair currents were measured in epitaxial trilayer c-axis junctions comprised of a {{{PrBa}}}2{{{Cu}}}3{{{O}}}7-δ barrier sandwiched in between an overdoped {{{Y}}}0.94{{{Ca}}}0.06{{{Ba}}}2{{{Cu}}}3{{{O}}}7-δ layer and underdoped {{{YBa}}}2{{{Cu}}}2.7{{{Co}}}0.3{{{O}}}{y} layer. These junctions had two T c values of {{T}}{{c}}({high})=84{--}86 K and {{T}}{{c}}({low})=50{--}55 K, allowing investigation when both electrodes are superconducting, or when only one is superconducting while the other is in its pseudogap regime. For T below T c(high) but much above T c(low), two distinct proximity effect transitions were observed in the resistance at two temperature regimes, between 80 and 84 K, and 76 to 80 K. The first is a conventional proximity effect with the T c(high) electrode, while the second is a second order proximity effect of this electrode with uncorrelated pairs in the pseudogap regime. Conductance spectra measured between 2 and 86 K showed four different I c pair currents which were attributed to coherent pairs tunneling through the barrier below 42 K, to a fluctuating pairs current up to ∼77 K, and to a proximity pairs current between 77 and 84 K. All pair currents were suppressed under magnetic fields, with two distinct decay parameters that originated in the two different electrodes, with a significant suppression observed in the pseudogap regime.

  17. Evaluation of the pair-culture effect in Ophryotrocha puerilis (Polychaeta: Dorvilleidae). I. Pair-culture effect and sex ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kegel, B.; Pfannenstiel, H.-D.

    1983-06-01

    Pairs and larger groups of female Ophryotrocha puerilis puerilis were formed from formerly isolated specimens. Neither the diameter of the oocytes present in the coelomic fluid nor the number of setigerous segments (ss) of the partners of a newly formed pair allow us to predict which one of the two animals will exhibit sex reversal. Amputation of the palps showed that these ventrolateral appendages of the prostomium are not responsible for the transmission of the mutual influence which is exerted during the pair-culture effect. Isolated females do not produce egg masses but keep their oocytes in the body cavity until they are eventually resorbed. The shedding of oocytes in one of the females of a newly formed pair was formerly considered to be the first step in the pair-culture effect. The present results demonstrate that egg laying in these cases is unspecific and due rather to the end of isolation than to specific interactions with the partner. In groups consisting of up to 50 animals the sex ratio oscillates around 1:1. The presence of primary males does not influence the sex ratio of adult specimens, although these males are capable of fertilizing egg masses produced by adult females. As a result, a high percentage of both young and old males are found in densely populated bowls. The significance of the pair-culture effect in natural populations is discussed in the light of these findings.

  18. Adaptive memory: animacy effects persist in paired-associate learning.

    PubMed

    VanArsdall, Joshua E; Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Cogdill, Mindi

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that animate stimuli are remembered better than matched inanimate stimuli. Two experiments tested whether this animacy effect persists in paired-associate learning of foreign words. Experiment 1 randomly paired Swahili words with matched animate and inanimate English words. Participants were told simply to learn the English "translations" for a later test. Replicating earlier findings using free recall, a strong animacy advantage was found in this cued-recall task. Concerned that the effect might be due to enhanced accessibility of the individual responses (e.g., animates represent a more accessible category), Experiment 2 selected animate and inanimate English words from two more constrained categories (four-legged animals and furniture). Once again, an advantage was found for pairs using animate targets. These results argue against organisational accounts of the animacy effect and potentially have implications for foreign language vocabulary learning.

  19. Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs

    DOE PAGES

    Dixon, P. Ben; Rosenberg, Danna; Stelmakh, Veronika; ...

    2014-10-06

    We report on a systematic experimental study of heralding efficiency and generation rate of telecom-band infrared photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to single mode optical fibers. We define the correlated-mode coupling efficiency--an inherent source efficiency--and explain its relation to heralding efficiency. For our experiment, we developed a reconfigurable computer controlled pump-beam and collection-mode optical apparatus which we used to measure the generation rate and correlated-mode coupling efficiency. The use of low-noise, high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single-photon-detectors in this setup allowed us to explore focus configurations with low overall photon flux. The measured data agree well with theory andmore » we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97%±2%, which is the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. These results confirm theoretical treatments and demonstrate that very high overall heralding efficiencies can, in principle, be achieved in quantum optical systems. We expect that these results and techniques will be widely incorporated into future systems that require, or benefit from, a high heralding efficiency.« less

  20. Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, P. Ben; Rosenberg, Danna; Stelmakh, Veronika; Grein, Matthew E.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Dauler, Eric A.; Kerman, Andrew J.; Molnar, Richard J.; Wong, Franco N. C.

    2014-10-06

    We report on a systematic experimental study of heralding efficiency and generation rate of telecom-band infrared photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to single mode optical fibers. We define the correlated-mode coupling efficiency--an inherent source efficiency--and explain its relation to heralding efficiency. For our experiment, we developed a reconfigurable computer controlled pump-beam and collection-mode optical apparatus which we used to measure the generation rate and correlated-mode coupling efficiency. The use of low-noise, high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single-photon-detectors in this setup allowed us to explore focus configurations with low overall photon flux. The measured data agree well with theory and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97%±2%, which is the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. These results confirm theoretical treatments and demonstrate that very high overall heralding efficiencies can, in principle, be achieved in quantum optical systems. We expect that these results and techniques will be widely incorporated into future systems that require, or benefit from, a high heralding efficiency.

  1. Theoretical Analysis of Spectral Correlations Between Photon Pairs Generated in Nanoscale Silicon Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Liang-Liang; Xu, Ping; Xu, Jian-Ning; He, Guang-Qiang; Zhu, Shi-Ning

    2015-12-01

    Spontaneous four wave mixing in nonlinear waveguide is one of the excellent technique for generating photon pairs in well-defined guided modes. Here we present a comprehensive study of the frequency characteristic of correlated photon pairs generated in telecom C-band from a dispersion-engineered silicon wire waveguide. We have demonstrated that the waveguide configuration, shape of pump pulse, two-photon absorption as well as linear losses have significant influences on the biphoton spectral characteristics and the amount of frequency entanglement generated. The superior performance as well as the structural compactness and CMOS compatibility makes the silicon wire waveguide an ideal integrated platform for the implementation of on-chip quantum technologies. Supported by the State Key Program for Basic Research of China under Grant No. 2012CB921802, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 91321312, 91121001, 11321063, 11174121, and 61475099, and the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET), and a Foundation for the Author of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of People's Republic of China (FANEDD)

  2. Magnetic Correlations and Pairing in the 1/5-Depleted Square Lattice Hubbard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khatemi, Ehsan; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Pickett, Warren E.; Scalettar, Richardq T.

    2014-09-04

    We study the single-orbital Hubbard model on the 1/5-depleted square-lattice geometry, which arises in such diverse systems as the spin-gap magnetic insulator CaV4O9 and ordered-vacancy iron selenides, presenting new issues regarding the origin of both magnetic ordering and superconductivity in these materials. We find a rich phase diagram that includes a plaquette singlet phase, a dimer singlet phase, a Néel and a block-spin antiferromagnetic phase, and stripe phases. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations show that the dominant pairing correlations at half filling change character from d wave in the plaquette phase to extended s wave upon transition to the Néel phase. These findings have intriguing connections to iron-based superconductors, and suggest that some physics of multiorbital systems can be captured by a single-orbital model at different dopings.

  3. Chromatin Dynamics during DNA Repair Revealed by Pair Correlation Analysis of Molecular Flow in the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Hinde, Elizabeth; Kong, Xiangduo; Yokomori, Kyoko; Gratton, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin dynamics modulate DNA repair factor accessibility throughout the DNA damage response. The spatiotemporal scale upon which these dynamics occur render them invisible to live cell imaging. Here we present a believed novel assay to monitor the in vivo structural rearrangements of chromatin during DNA repair. By pair correlation analysis of EGFP molecular flow into chromatin before and after damage, this assay measures millisecond variations in chromatin compaction with submicron resolution. Combined with laser microirradiation we employ this assay to monitor the real-time accessibility of DNA at the damage site. We find from comparison of EGFP molecular flow with a molecule that has an affinity toward double-strand breaks (Ku-EGFP) that DNA damage induces a transient decrease in chromatin compaction at the damage site and an increase in compaction to adjacent regions, which together facilitate DNA repair factor recruitment to the lesion with high spatiotemporal control. PMID:24988341

  4. Probing the Spatial Organization of Molecular Complexes Using Triple-Pair-Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yandong; Rothenberg, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy coupled with multiplexing techniques can resolve specific spatial arrangements of different components within molecular complexes. However, reliable quantification and analysis of such specific organization is extremely problematic because it is frequently obstructed by random co-localization incidents between crowded molecular species and the intrinsic heterogeneity of molecular complexes. To address this, we present a Triple-Pair-Correlation (TPC) analysis approach for unbiased interpretation of the spatial organization of molecular assemblies in crowded three-color super-resolution (SR) images. We validate this approach using simulated data, as well as SR images of DNA replication foci in human cells. This demonstrates the applicability of TPC in deciphering the specific spatial organization of molecular complexes hidden in dense multi-color super-resolution images. PMID:27545293

  5. Magnetic Correlations and Pairing in the 1/5-Depleted Square Lattice Hubbard Model

    DOE PAGES

    Khatemi, Ehsan; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Pickett, Warren E.; ...

    2014-09-04

    We study the single-orbital Hubbard model on the 1/5-depleted square-lattice geometry, which arises in such diverse systems as the spin-gap magnetic insulator CaV4O9 and ordered-vacancy iron selenides, presenting new issues regarding the origin of both magnetic ordering and superconductivity in these materials. We find a rich phase diagram that includes a plaquette singlet phase, a dimer singlet phase, a Néel and a block-spin antiferromagnetic phase, and stripe phases. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations show that the dominant pairing correlations at half filling change character from d wave in the plaquette phase to extended s wave upon transition to the Néel phase.more » These findings have intriguing connections to iron-based superconductors, and suggest that some physics of multiorbital systems can be captured by a single-orbital model at different dopings.« less

  6. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory: A New Way To Treat Strongly Correlated Systems.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G; Li Manni, Giovanni; Carlson, Rebecca K; Hoyer, Chad E; Bao, Junwei Lucas

    2017-01-17

    The electronic energy of a system provides the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy for internuclear motion and thus determines molecular structure and spectra, bond energies, conformational energies, reaction barrier heights, and vibrational frequencies. The development of more efficient and more accurate ways to calculate the electronic energy of systems with inherently multiconfigurational electronic structure is essential for many applications, including transition metal and actinide chemistry, systems with partially broken bonds, many transition states, and most electronically excited states. Inherently multiconfigurational systems are called strongly correlated systems or multireference systems, where the latter name refers to the need for using more than one ("multiple") configuration state function to provide a good zero-order reference wave function. This Account describes multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which was developed as a way to combine the advantages of wave function theory (WFT) and density functional theory (DFT) to provide a better treatment of strongly correlated systems. First we review background material: the widely used Kohn-Sham DFT (which uses only a single Slater determinant as reference wave function), multiconfiguration WFT methods that treat inherently multiconfigurational systems based on an active space, and previous attempts to combine multiconfiguration WFT with DFT. Then we review the formulation of MC-PDFT. It is a generalization of Kohn-Sham DFT in that the electron kinetic energy and classical electrostatic energy are calculated from a reference wave function, while the rest of the energy is obtained from a density functional. However, there are two main differences with respent to Kohn-Sham DFT: (i) The reference wave function is multiconfigurational rather than being a single Slater determinant. (ii) The density functional is a function of the total density and the on-top pair density rather than

  7. Solvent effect on the anharmonic vibrational frequencies in guanine-cytosine base pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bende, A.; Muntean, C. M.

    2012-02-01

    We present an ab initio study of the vibrational properties of cytosine and guanine in the Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pair configurations. The results are obtained by considering the DFT method together with the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) using PBE and B3PW91 exchange-correlation functionals and triple-ζ valence basis set. We investigate the importance of anharmonic corrections for the vibrational modes taking into account the solvent effect of the water environment. In particular, the unusual anharmonic effect of the H+ vibration in the case of the Hoogsteen base pair configuration is discussed.

  8. Empirical Correlates of the Overcontrolled-Hostility Scale and the MMPI 4-3 High-Point Pair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared the behavioral correlates of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 4-3 high-point pair and the Overcontrolled-Hostility scale in a sample of university psychology clinic outpatients (N=97). Behavioral correlates of two groups of outpatients were more similar to each other than they were to the group of outpatient controls.…

  9. Towards pair production near threshold with unstable particle effective theory

    SciTech Connect

    Beneke, M.; Kauer, N.; Signer, A.; Zanderighi, G.; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    We illustrate the use of effective theory techniques to describe processes involving unstable particles close to resonance. First, we present the main ideas in the context of a scalar resonance in an Abelian gauge-Yukawa model. We then outline the necessary modifications to describe W-pair production close to threshold in electron-positron collisions.

  10. Decoding the pair correlations and properties of equilibrium microscopic cluster phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, Jonathan; Jadrich, Ryan; Truskett, Thomas

    Due to competing interactions acting between particles, dispersed colloidal suspensions can reversibly transition to phases comprising aggregate clusters. Cluster phases have been reported for both 'model' colloidal particles and complex monomers (e.g., proteins); however, many questions remain regarding how to detect and characterize cluster phases given only pair structural correlations (the information most accessible across diverse systems) and how to relate clustering susceptibility and behavior to underlying monomer-monomer interactions. Using molecular simulations and liquid-state theory across a wide survey of conditions, we decode the widely-observed intermediate range order pre-peak in the structure factor by: (1) validating a physically-intuitive rule for detecting clustering based on the pre-peak thermal correlation length; and (2) relating pre-peak position to cluster size and bulk monomer density. We further demonstrate how clustering transitions and resultant properties relate to monomer interactions along coordinates tunable in experiments. These trends are suitable for comparing against clustering systems that can be directly visualized (via, e.g., confocal microscopy), which should aid in assessing the realism of commonly-adopted monomer interaction potentials.

  11. Students' Perceptions of Dynamics Concept Pairs and Correlation with Their Problem-Solving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Ning

    2012-01-01

    A concept pair is a pair of concepts that are fundamentally different but closely related. To develop a solid conceptual understanding in dynamics (a foundational engineering science course) and physics, students must understand the fundamental difference and relationship between two concepts that are included in each concept pair. However, all…

  12. Influence of the Integration Limits on the Shape of Pair Correlation Functions of Non-Crystalline Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Correlation Functions of Non- Crystalline Materials DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the...PAIR CORRELATION FUNCTIONS OF NON- CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS W. Hoyer, I. Kaban, Th. Halm Institute of Physics, TU - Chemnitz, D-09107, Chemnitz, Germany...correlation functions of the non- crystalline materials with low-coordinated (open) structure. Liquid Te and amorphous Ge-telluride have been chosen for

  13. De-correlated combination of two low-low Satellite-to-Satellite tracking pairs according to temporal aliasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murböck, Michael; Pail, Roland

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of the temporal changes in the Earth's gravity field is of great scientific and societal importance. Within several days a homogeneous global coverage of gravity observations can be obtained with satellite missions. Temporal aliasing of background model errors into global gravity field models will be one of the largest restrictions in future satellite temporal gravity recovery. The largest errors are due to high-frequent tidal and non-tidal atmospheric and oceanic mass variations. Having a double pair low-low Satellite-to-Satellite tracking (SST) scenario on different inclined orbits reduces temporal aliasing errors significantly. In general temporal aliasing effects for a single (-pair) mission strongly depend on the basic orbital rates (Murböck et al. 2013). These are the rates of the argument of the latitude and of the longitude of the ascending node. This means that the revolution time and the length of one nodal day determine how large the temporal aliasing error effects are for each SH order. The combination of two low-low SST missions based on normal equations requires an adequate weighting of the two components. This weighting shall ensure the full de-correlation of each of the two parts. Therefore it is necessary to take the temporal aliasing errors into account. In this study it is analyzed how this can be done based on the resonance orders of the two orbits. Different levels of approximation are applied to the de-correlation approach. The results of several numerical closed-loop simulations are shown including stochastic modeling of realistic future instrument noise. It is shown that this de-correlation approach is important for maximizing the benefit of a double-pair low-low SST mission for temporal gravity recovery. Murböck M, Pail R, Daras I and Gruber T (2013) Optimal orbits for temporal gravity recovery regarding temporal aliasing. Journal of Geodesy, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, ISSN 0949-7714, DOI 10.1007/s00190-013-0671-y

  14. Diffraction of collinear correlated photon pairs by an ultrasonic wave within Raman-Nath and intermediate region.

    PubMed

    Kwiek, Piotr

    2015-03-01

    The phenomenon of collinear correlated photon pairs diffraction by an ultrasonic wave is investigated within Raman-Nath and intermediate region. The numbers of single photons and photon pairs counts in discrete diffraction orders were measured as functions of the Raman-Nath parameter. Similarly, the number of coincidence photon counts in separate diffraction orders was also investigated. It was shown experimentally that the phenomenon of photon pairs diffraction by an ultrasonic wave happens at angles identical to those corresponding to single photons diffraction. It was also demonstrated that in case of Raman-Nath diffraction the number of photon pairs in a selected, n(th), diffraction order varies with the Raman-Nath parameter changes as an n(th) order Bessel function of the first kind, raised to the fourth power. Whilst in the so-called intermediate diffraction zone, the number of diffracted photon pairs varies as squared intensity of a diffracted light beam consisting of single photons. Moreover, it was revealed that correlations between photons in selected diffraction orders change with the Raman-Nath parameter variation as products of relevant intensities of light in the considered diffraction orders. Finally, it should be emphasized that the presented formulae describing diffraction of collinear correlated proton pairs by an ultrasonic wave are in a very good agreement with corresponding experimental data, for both Raman-Nath and intermediate diffraction.

  15. Energy correlations of photon pairs generated by a silicon microring resonator probed by Stimulated Four Wave Mixing.

    PubMed

    Grassani, Davide; Simbula, Angelica; Pirotta, Stefano; Galli, Matteo; Menotti, Matteo; Harris, Nicholas C; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Galland, Christophe; Liscidini, Marco; Bajoni, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    Compact silicon integrated devices, such as micro-ring resonators, have recently been demonstrated as efficient sources of quantum correlated photon pairs. The mass production of integrated devices demands the implementation of fast and reliable techniques to monitor the device performances. In the case of time-energy correlations, this is particularly challenging, as it requires high spectral resolution that is not currently achievable in coincidence measurements. Here we reconstruct the joint spectral density of photons pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a silicon ring resonator by studying the corresponding stimulated process, namely stimulated four wave mixing. We show that this approach, featuring high spectral resolution and short measurement times, allows one to discriminate between nearly-uncorrelated and highly-correlated photon pairs.

  16. Energy correlations of photon pairs generated by a silicon microring resonator probed by Stimulated Four Wave Mixing

    PubMed Central

    Grassani, Davide; Simbula, Angelica; Pirotta, Stefano; Galli, Matteo; Menotti, Matteo; Harris, Nicholas C.; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Galland, Christophe; Liscidini, Marco; Bajoni, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Compact silicon integrated devices, such as micro-ring resonators, have recently been demonstrated as efficient sources of quantum correlated photon pairs. The mass production of integrated devices demands the implementation of fast and reliable techniques to monitor the device performances. In the case of time-energy correlations, this is particularly challenging, as it requires high spectral resolution that is not currently achievable in coincidence measurements. Here we reconstruct the joint spectral density of photons pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a silicon ring resonator by studying the corresponding stimulated process, namely stimulated four wave mixing. We show that this approach, featuring high spectral resolution and short measurement times, allows one to discriminate between nearly-uncorrelated and highly-correlated photon pairs. PMID:27032688

  17. [Using the operonic gene pairs for establishing the treshold for correlation coefficient of differently expressed genes].

    PubMed

    Hedge, Sh; Klimova, E Iu; Mande, Sh; Medvedeva, Iu A; Makeev, V Iu; Permina, E A

    2011-01-01

    We developed an approach for effective estimating the correlations in the noise component of gene expression data. An efficent noise reduction technique has been suggested. The resulting technique has been applied to E. coli microarray data and tested on SOS response modulated genes.

  18. Nucleon pairing correlations and the α cluster preformation probability inside heavy and superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seif, W. M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of paired or unpaired protons and neutrons in the open-shell radioactive α emitter affects the preformation probability of the α cluster inside it. The α-preformation probability inside the odd ( Z )-even ( N ) , even ( Z )-odd ( N ) , and odd ( Z )-odd ( N ) α emitters is investigated. The study is restricted to those decays with no angular momentum transfer to make a precise prediction about the mere pairing effect. The extended cluster model of α decay and the WKB approximation are used by taking into account the deformation degrees of freedom to carry out the calculations for 105 parent nuclei in the mass region of A =175 -289 . The α + daughter interaction potential is calculated by using the Hamiltonian energy-density approach in terms of the SLy4 Skyrme-like interaction, then it is implemented to find the average decay width over the different orientations. The half-life of the decay is then estimated and employed in turn to extract the α-preformation probability by taking account of errors on both the released energy and the experimental half-life time. According to the present calculations, it is found that the α cluster preformation probability inside the nuclei which have unpaired nucleons is less than it would be in the neighboring nuclei of the same shell and subshell closures but have no unpaired nucleons. In particular, the effect of the single unpaired neutron in the even ( Z )-odd ( N ) nuclei is slightly larger than that of the single unpaired proton in the odd ( Z )-even ( N ) ones. The effect of the unpaired nucleons appears more clearly in the odd ( Z )-odd ( N ) nuclei which have both an unpaired neutron and an unpaired proton. Based on the obtained results, an empirical pairing term is added to the empirical formula [J. Phys. G 40, 105102 (2013), 10.1088/0954-3899/40/10/105102] that relates the α cluster preformation probability to the proton and neutron numbers outside the closed shells of the parent nucleus.

  19. New concept for the pairing anti-halo effect as a localized wave packet of quasiparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, K.; Sagawa, H.

    2017-02-01

    The pairing anti-halo effect is a phenomenon that a pairing correlation suppresses a divergence of nuclear radius, which happens for single-particle states with orbital angular momenta of l =0 and 1 in the limit of vanishing binding energy. While this effect has mainly been discussed in terms of Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory, we here use a three-body model and provide its new intuitive concept as a localized wave packet for a quasiparticle, that is, a coherent superposition of a weakly bound and continuum wave functions due to a pairing interaction. We show that the one-particle density in the three-body model can be directly expressed with such quasiparticle wave functions, which have a close analog to wave functions in the HFB approximation.

  20. Correlation of Global and Gene-Specific DNA Methylation in Maternal-Infant Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Kile, Molly L.; Baccarelli, Andrea; Tarantini, Letizia; Hoffman, Elaine; Wright, Robert O.; Christiani, David C.

    2010-01-01

    The inheritance of DNA methylation patterns is a popular theory to explain the influence of parental genetic and environmental factors on the phenotype of their offspring but few studies have examined this relationship in humans. Using 120 paired maternal-umbilical cord blood samples randomly selected from a prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh, we quantified DNA methylation by pyrosequencing seven CpG positions in the promoter region of p16, four CpG positions in the promoter region of p53, LINE-1 and Alu. Positive correlations were observed between maternal and umbilical cord blood at p16, LINE-1, and Alu but not p53. Multiple linear regression models observed a significant association between maternal and umbilical cord blood at LINE-1 and Alu (LINE-1: β = 0.63, p<0.0001; Alu: β = 0.28, p = 0.009). After adjusting for multiple comparisons, maternal methylation of p16 at position 4 significantly predicted methylation at the same position in umbilical cord blood (β = 0.43, p = <0.0001). These models explained 48%, 5% and 16% of the observed variability in umbilical cord %5mC for LINE-1, Alu and p16 at position 4, respectively. These results suggest that DNA methylation in maternal blood was correlated with her offspring at LINE-1, Alu, and p16 but not p53. Additional studies are needed to confirm whether these observed associations were due to the inheritance of epigenetic events or the shared environment between mother and fetus. Future studies should also use a multi-generational family-based design that would quantify both maternal and paternal contributions to DNA methylation in offspring across more than one generation. PMID:21060777

  1. Diffusion Tensor Analysis by Two-Dimensional Pair Correlation of Fluorescence Fluctuations in Cells.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, Carmine; Cardarelli, Francesco; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Beltram, Fabio; Gratton, Enrico

    2016-08-23

    In a living cell, the movement of biomolecules is highly regulated by the cellular organization into subcompartments that impose barriers to diffusion, can locally break the spatial isotropy, and ultimately guide these molecules to their targets. Despite the pivotal role of these processes, experimental tools to fully probe the complex connectivity (and accessibility) of the cell interior with adequate spatiotemporal resolution are still lacking. Here, we show how the heterogeneity of molecular dynamics and the location of barriers to molecular motion can be mapped in live cells by exploiting a two-dimensional (2D) extension of the pair correlation function (pCF) analysis. Starting from a time series of images collected for the same field of view, the resulting 2D pCF is calculated in the proximity of each point for each time delay and allows us to probe the spatial distribution of the molecules that started from a given pixel. This 2D pCF yields an accurate description of the preferential diffusive routes. Furthermore, we combine this analysis with the image-derived mean-square displacement approach and gain information on the average nanoscopic molecular displacements in different directions. Through these quantities, we build a fluorescence-fluctuation-based diffusion tensor that contains information on speed and directionality of the local dynamical processes. Contrary to classical fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and related methods, this combined approach can distinguish between isotropic and anisotropic local diffusion. We argue that the measurement of this iMSD tensor will contribute to advance our understanding of the role played by the intracellular environment in the regulation of molecular diffusion at the nanoscale.

  2. Short Range Correlations and the EMC Effect

    SciTech Connect

    L.B. Weinstein, E. Piasetzky, D.W. Higinbotham, J. Gomez, O. Hen, R. Shneor

    2011-02-01

    This Letter shows quantitatively that the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering at intermediate xB, 0.35≤xB≤0.7, is linearly related to the short range correlation (SRC) scale factor obtained from electron inclusive scattering at xB≥1. The observed phenomenological relationship is used to extract the ratio of the deuteron to the free pn pair cross sections and F2n/F2p, the ratio of the free neutron to free proton structure functions. We speculate that the observed correlation is because both the EMC effect and SRC are dominated by the high virtuality (high momentum) nucleons in the nucleus.

  3. Age effects on associative memory for novel picture pairings.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Emma K; Kursawe, Anna-Lena; Bader, Regine; Tibon, Roni; Gronau, Nurit; Levy, Daniel A; Mecklinger, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Normal aging is usually accompanied by greater memory decline for associations than for single items. Though associative memory is generally supported by recollection, it has been suggested that familiarity can also contribute to associative memory when stimuli can be unitized and encoded as a single entity. Given that familiarity remains intact during healthy aging, this may be one route to reducing age-related associative deficits. The current study investigated age-related differences in associative memory under conditions that were expected to differentially promote unitization, in this case by manipulating the spatial arrangement of two semantically unrelated objects positioned relative to each other in either spatially implausible or plausible orientations. Event-related potential (ERP) correlates of item and associative memory were recorded whilst younger and older adults were required to discriminate between old, recombined and new pairs of objects. These ERP correlates of item and associative memory did not vary with plausibility, whereas behavioral measures revealed that both associative and item memory were greater for spatially plausible than implausible pair arrangements. Contrary to predictions, older adults were less able to take advantage of this memory benefit than younger participants. Potential reasons for this are considered, and these are informed by those lines of evidence which indicate older participants were less sensitive to the bottom-up spatial manipulation employed here. It is recommended that future strategies for redressing age-related associative deficits should take account of the aging brain's increasing reliance on pre-existing semantic associations.

  4. Pair correlation function of short-ranged square-well fluids.

    PubMed

    Largo, J; Solana, J R; Yuste, S B; Santos, A

    2005-02-22

    We have performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical (NVT) ensemble of the pair correlation function for square-well fluids with well widths lambda-1 ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, in units of the diameter sigma of the particles. For each one of these widths, several densities rho and temperatures T in the ranges 0.1< or =rhosigma(3)< or =0.8 and T(c)(lambda) less or approximately T less or approximately 3T(c)(lambda), where T(c)(lambda) is the critical temperature, have been considered. The simulation data are used to examine the performance of two analytical theories in predicting the structure of these fluids: the perturbation theory proposed by Tang and Lu [Y. Tang and B. C.-Y. Lu, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 3079 (1994); 100, 6665 (1994)] and the nonperturbative model proposed by two of us [S. B. Yuste and A. Santos, J. Chem. Phys. 101 2355 (1994)]. It is observed that both theories complement each other, as the latter theory works well for short ranges and/or moderate densities, while the former theory works for long ranges and high densities.

  5. Spin Correlations of Strongly Interacting Massive Fermion Pairs as a Test of Bell's Inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, H.; Saito, T.; Kuboki, H.; Sasano, M.; Yako, K.; Ikeda, T.; Itoh, K.; Kawabata, T.; Maeda, Y.; Suda, K.; Uesaka, T.; Matsui, N.; Satou, Y.; Rangacharyulu, C.; Sekiguchi, K.; Tamii, A.

    2006-10-13

    We report the results of the first-time test of the local hidden variable theories (Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) involving strongly interacting pairs of massive spin 1/2 hadrons from the decay of short-lived ({tau}<10{sup -21}sec) {sup 2}He spin-singlet state, populated in the nuclear reaction {sup 2}H+{sup 1}H{yields}{sup 2}He+n. The novel features of this experiment are (a) the use of an 'event body' detector of nearly 100% efficiency to prepare an unbiased sample and (b) a focal-plane polarimeter of full 2{pi} sr acceptance with a random 'post selection' of the reference axes. The spin-correlation function is deduced to be S{sub exp}({pi}/4)=2.83{+-}0.24{sub stat}{+-}0.07{sub sys}. This result is in agreement with nonlocal quantum mechanical prediction and it violates the Bell-CHSH inequality of vertical bar S vertical bar{<=}2 at a confidence level of 99.3%.

  6. Zero Quantum Coherence in a Series of Covalent Spin-Correlated Radical Pairs.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jordan N; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Horwitz, Noah E; Rugg, Brandon K; Phelan, Brian T; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2017-03-14

    Photoinitiated subnanosecond electron transfer within covalently linked electron donor-acceptor molecules can result in the formation of a spin-correlated radical pair (SCRP) with a well-defined initial singlet spin configuration. Subsequent coherent mixing between the SCRP singlet and triplet ms = 0 spin states, the so-called zero quantum coherence (ZQC), is of potential interest in quantum information processing applications because the ZQC can be probed using pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (pulse-EPR) techniques. Here, pulse-EPR spectroscopy is utilized to examine the ZQC oscillation frequencies and ZQC dephasing in three structurally well-defined D-A systems. While transitions between the singlet and triplet ms = 0 spin states are formally forbidden (Δms = 0), they can be addressed using specific microwave pulse turning angles to map information from the ZQC onto observable single quantum coherences. In addition, by using structural variations to tune the singlet-triplet energy gap, the ZQC frequencies determined for this series of molecules indicate a stronger dependence on the electronic g-factor than on electron-nuclear hyperfine interactions.

  7. Investigation of the bistability in J aggregates upon resonant optical excitation with inclusion of pair correlations between molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterov, L. A.; Rosanov, N. N.

    2016-09-01

    A theory of resonant interaction with radiation of J aggregates based on chains of two-level molecules coupled by the retarded dipole‒dipole interaction has been developed. The effect of pair correlations between the chain molecules on the bistable response of this system under the influence of external resonant radiation has been investigated within the homogeneous chain model. Traditionally, these systems have been described using single-particle density matrices corresponding to each molecule. In this description, twoparticle interactions are represented in the factorized form and do not include correlations between the interacting molecules. In this study, the correlation corrections have been estimated taking into account the influence of only the nearest neighbors, while their values have found to be of the same order of magnitude as the factorized two-particle expectation values for which these corrections have been calculated. As a result, the dipole‒dipole interaction of a particular molecule with the nearest neighbors is so strong that the description of this interaction in the factorized form becomes inappropriate and can be used only for a qualitative analysis of the response of the chain. In order to obtain correct quantitative characteristics, it is necessary to abandon the factorization of the two-particle expectation values, at least for nearest neighbors.

  8. Time-domain shape of electron spin echo signal of spin-correlated radical pairs in polymer/fullerene blends.

    PubMed

    Popov, Alexander A; Lukina, Ekaterina A; Rapatskiy, Leonid; Kulik, Leonid V

    2017-03-01

    Temporal shape of electron spin echo (ESE) signal of photoinduced spin-correlated radical pairs (SCRP) in composite of conductive polymer P3HT and substituted fullerene PCBM is studied in details. ESE signals of radical pairs (RP) P3HT(+)/PCBM(-) are calculated in realistic model, taking into account finite microwave pulse length. Inhomogeneous broadening of resonant lines and interradical distance distribution are included. Experimentally observed ESE time-domain shape was found to contradict predictions of conventional SCRP theory, which would be valid in the case of very fast electron transfer. Thus, instantaneous formation of singlet SCRP is not the case for P3HT(+)/PCBM(-) pair, and spin system has enough time to evolve coherently during sequential electron transfer. While it is impossible to reproduce experimental data within simple singlet SCRP model, assumption of presence of additional - with respect to what is predicted by singlet SCRP theory - AE (absorption/emission) spin polarization gives convincing accordance with the experiment. Density matrix of RP P3HT(+)/PCBM(-) is a superposition of two contributions, namely the parts reflecting (i) antiphase polarization of original singlet-born SCRP and (ii) additional AE-polarization which is generated during initial stage of charge separation. AE-polarization affects experimental ESEEM (electron spin echo envelope modulation) traces, as well as ESE shape, making impossible their interpretation via simple singlet SCRP model. However, this effect can be eliminated by averaging of ESEEM traces over EPR spectral positions. Finally, choosing the optimal gate for ESE time-domain integration and proper microwave detection phase tuning are considered.

  9. Time-domain shape of electron spin echo signal of spin-correlated radical pairs in polymer/fullerene blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexander A.; Lukina, Ekaterina A.; Rapatskiy, Leonid; Kulik, Leonid V.

    2017-03-01

    Temporal shape of electron spin echo (ESE) signal of photoinduced spin-correlated radical pairs (SCRP) in composite of conductive polymer P3HT and substituted fullerene PCBM is studied in details. ESE signals of radical pairs (RP) P3HT+/PCBM- are calculated in realistic model, taking into account finite microwave pulse length. Inhomogeneous broadening of resonant lines and interradical distance distribution are included. Experimentally observed ESE time-domain shape was found to contradict predictions of conventional SCRP theory, which would be valid in the case of very fast electron transfer. Thus, instantaneous formation of singlet SCRP is not the case for P3HT+/PCBM- pair, and spin system has enough time to evolve coherently during sequential electron transfer. While it is impossible to reproduce experimental data within simple singlet SCRP model, assumption of presence of additional - with respect to what is predicted by singlet SCRP theory - AE (absorption/emission) spin polarization gives convincing accordance with the experiment. Density matrix of RP P3HT+/PCBM- is a superposition of two contributions, namely the parts reflecting (i) antiphase polarization of original singlet-born SCRP and (ii) additional AE-polarization which is generated during initial stage of charge separation. AE-polarization affects experimental ESEEM (electron spin echo envelope modulation) traces, as well as ESE shape, making impossible their interpretation via simple singlet SCRP model. However, this effect can be eliminated by averaging of ESEEM traces over EPR spectral positions. Finally, choosing the optimal gate for ESE time-domain integration and proper microwave detection phase tuning are considered.

  10. Correlation-Enhanced Odd-Parity Interorbital Singlet Pairing in the Iron-Pnictide Superconductor LiFeAs.

    PubMed

    Nourafkan, R; Kotliar, G; Tremblay, A-M S

    2016-09-23

    The rich variety of iron-based superconductors and their complex electronic structure lead to a wide range of possibilities for gap symmetry and pairing components. Here we solve in the two-Fe Brillouin zone the full frequency-dependent linearized Eliashberg equations to investigate spin-fluctuations mediated Cooper pairing for LiFeAs. The magnetic excitations are calculated with the random phase approximation on a correlated electronic structure obtained with density functional theory and dynamical mean field theory. The interaction between electrons through Hund's coupling promotes both the intraorbital d_{xz(yz)} and the interorbital magnetic susceptibility. As a consequence, the leading pairing channel, conventional s^{+-}, acquires sizable interorbital d_{xy}-d_{xz(yz)} singlet pairing with odd parity under glide-plane symmetry. The combination of intra- and interorbital components makes the results consistent with available experiments on the angular dependence of the gaps observed on the different Fermi surfaces.

  11. Correlation-Enhanced Odd-Parity Interorbital Singlet Pairing in the Iron-Pnictide Superconductor LiFeAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourafkan, R.; Kotliar, G.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2016-09-01

    The rich variety of iron-based superconductors and their complex electronic structure lead to a wide range of possibilities for gap symmetry and pairing components. Here we solve in the two-Fe Brillouin zone the full frequency-dependent linearized Eliashberg equations to investigate spin-fluctuations mediated Cooper pairing for LiFeAs. The magnetic excitations are calculated with the random phase approximation on a correlated electronic structure obtained with density functional theory and dynamical mean field theory. The interaction between electrons through Hund's coupling promotes both the intraorbital dx z (y z ) and the interorbital magnetic susceptibility. As a consequence, the leading pairing channel, conventional s+- , acquires sizable interorbital dx y-dx z (y z ) singlet pairing with odd parity under glide-plane symmetry. The combination of intra- and interorbital components makes the results consistent with available experiments on the angular dependence of the gaps observed on the different Fermi surfaces.

  12. Interaction Effects on Combustion of Alcohol Droplet Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, Keiichi; Ono, Yutaka; Moriue, Osamu; Shiba, Seiji; Araki, Mikiya; Nomura, Hiroshi; Shiga, Seiichi; Tsue, Mitsuhiro; Kono, Michikata

    Experimental investigation was conducted on two droplet-array combustion of methanol and methanol/dodecanol mixture fuels in microgravity. For methanol, effects of ambient pressure and droplet spacing were examined. Results show that the droplet lifetime decreases with increasing spacing at relatively low pressure and the droplet lifetime becomes independent of spacing at higher-subcritical and supercritical pressures. For methanol/dodecanol mixture, effects of pressure, fuel composition were investigated in terms of occurrence of disruption. Disruption of droplet during combustion was demonstrated both for single droplet and droplet pairs.

  13. Octupole correlation effects in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Octupole correlation effects in nuclei are discussed from the point of view of many-body wavefunctions as well as mean-field methods. The light actinides, where octupole effects are largest, are considered in detail. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made for energy splittings of parity doublets; E1 transition matrix elements and one-nucleon transfer reactions.

  14. Octupole correlation effects in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1992-08-01

    Octupole correlation effects in nuclei are discussed from the point of view of many-body wavefunctions as well as mean-field methods. The light actinides, where octupole effects are largest, are considered in detail. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made for energy splittings of parity doublets; E1 transition matrix elements and one-nucleon transfer reactions.

  15. Pairing of opposite learning styles among allied health students: effects on collaborative performance.

    PubMed

    Sandmire, David A; Boyce, Pauline F

    2004-01-01

    To understand better determinants of effective collaboration in allied health education, students were paired by similar and opposite learning styles to work on a simulated clinical case exercise. Fifty-six sophomore and junior students enrolled in an anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology course from a variety of allied health programs were assigned randomly in pairs to one of three subsets based on their Kolb Learning Style Inventory scores (concrete versus abstract learners). The students read the history and physical examination findings of an immunocompromised patient with an abscess in an undisclosed spinal cord location, then answered a series of case questions. Analysis of variance revealed that mismatched pairs (concrete/abstract) performed significantly better than matched concrete pairs (F2,21 = 3.83, p < 0.05) and slightly better than matched abstract pairs. This higher performance of the mismatched group was not attributed to differences in either general or specific level of academic preparation among the groups, as measured by cumulative grade point average and prior course examination scores, respectively (F2,21 = 2.15, p > 0.05 and F2,21 = 3.04, p > 0.05). Collapsing of all three subset groups into one cohort revealed that case exercise performance was correlated moderately, however, to cumulative grade point average (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and correlated strongly to prior course exam scores (r = 0.76, p < 0.001). These findings suggest that clinical collaboration skills are enhanced not only by individual level of academic preparation but also by intentional pairing of concrete with abstract learners.

  16. Generation of non-classical correlated photon pairs via a ladder-type atomic configuration: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can

    2012-05-07

    We experimentally generate a non-classical correlated two-color photon pair at 780 and 1529.4 nm in a ladder-type configuration using a hot 85Rb atomic vapor with the production rate of ~10(7)/s. The non-classical correlation between these two photons is demonstrated by strong violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by the factor R = 48 ± 12. Besides, we experimentally investigate the relations between the correlation and some important experimental parameters such as the single-photon detuning, the powers of pumps. We also make a theoretical analysis in detail and the theoretical predictions are in reasonable agreement with our experimental results.

  17. Bond thermal expansion and effective pair potential in crystals: the case of cadmium selenide.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Andrea

    2011-08-10

    The local dynamics of cadmium selenide (CdSe) with wurtzite structure has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations, using a many-body Tersoff potential. The radial distribution functions (i.e., the effective pair potentials) of the first seven coordination shells have been determined as a function of temperature, as well as their parallel and perpendicular mean-square relative atomic displacements. The bond thermal expansion of the first coordination shell is mainly due to the asymmetry of the effective pair potential. In contrast, the bond thermal expansion of the outer shells is mostly due to a rigid shift of the effective pair potential. This behavior, recently observed also in simple cubic monoatomic crystals, can be generalized and related to the correlation of atomic motion. Finally, a shift toward lower values of the first Se-Cd effective pair potential has been observed when increasing the temperature, confirming previous findings by extended x-ray absorption fine-structure measurements. Differently from superionic conductors like AgI and CuBr, in which this anomalous negative shift was tentatively explained by cluster distortion and cation diffusion, the negative shift of CdSe is related to the peculiar properties of the crystalline potential.

  18. Multilevel Modeling with Correlated Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jee-Seon; Frees, Edward W.

    2007-01-01

    When there exist omitted effects, measurement error, and/or simultaneity in multilevel models, explanatory variables may be correlated with random components, and standard estimation methods do not provide consistent estimates of model parameters. This paper introduces estimators that are consistent under such conditions. By employing generalized…

  19. Image-Word Pairing-Congruity Effect on Affective Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Sambai, Ami; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    The present study explores the effects of familiarity on affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to Japanese ad elements, based on the schema incongruity theory. Print ads showing natural scenes (landscapes) were used to create the stimuli (images and words). An empirical study was conducted to measure subjects' affective responses to image-word combinations that varied in terms of incongruity. The level of incongruity was based on familiarity levels, and was statistically determined by a variable called ‘pairing-congruity status’. The tested hypothesis proposed that even highly familiar image-word combinations, when combined incongruously, would elicit strong affective responses. Subjects assessed the stimuli using bipolar scales. The study was effective in tracing interactions between familiarity, pleasure and arousal, although the incongruous image-word combinations did not elicit the predicted strong effects on pleasure and arousal. The results suggest a need for further research incorporating kansei (i.e., creativity) into the process of stimuli selection.

  20. Nonlocal Intuition: Replication and Paired-subjects Enhancement Effects

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study of repeat entrepreneurs in Tehran, Iran, in which nonlocal intuition was investigated in a replication and extension of experiment using measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Nonlocal intuition is the perception of information about a distant or future event by the body's psychophysiological systems, which is not based on reason or memories of prior experience. This study follows up on the McCraty, Radin, and Bradley studies, which found evidence of nonlocal intuition. We used Radin's experimental protocol, with the addition of HRV measures as in the McCraty studies involving computer administration of a random sequence of calm and emotional pictures as the stimulus, and conducted two experiments on mutually exclusive samples—the first on a group of single participants (N=15) and the second on a group of co-participant pairs (N=30)—to investigate the question of the “amplification” of intuition effects by social connection. Each experiment was conducted over 45 trials while heart rate rhythm activity was recorded continuously. Results, using random permutation analysis, a statistically conservative procedure, show significant pre-stimulus results—that is, for the period before the computer had randomly selected the picture stimulus—for both experiments. Moreover, while significant separation between the emotional and calm HRV curves was observed in the single-participant experiment, an even larger separation was apparent for the experiment on co-participant pairs; the difference between the two groups was also significant. Overall, the results of the single-participant experiment confirm previous finding: that electrophysiological measures, especially changes in the heart rhythm, can detect intuitive foreknowledge. This result is notable because it constitutes cross-cultural corroboration in a non-Western context—namely, Iran. In addition, the results for co-participant pairs offer new evidence on the

  1. Neural Correlates of Encoding Predict Infants' Memory in the Paired-Comparison Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to monitor infant brain activity during the initial encoding of a previously novel visual stimulus, and examined whether ERP measures of encoding predicted infants' subsequent performance on a visual memory task (i.e., the paired-comparison task). A late slow wave component of the ERP measured…

  2. Relational integrativity of prime-target pairs moderates congruity effects in evaluative priming.

    PubMed

    Ihmels, Max; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus; Alexopoulos, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    In evaluative priming, positive or negative primes facilitate reactions to targets that share the same valence. While this effect is commonly explained as reflecting invariant structures in semantic long-term memory or in the sensorimotor system, the present research highlights the role of integrativity in evaluative priming. Integrativity refers to the ease of integrating two concepts into a new meaningful compound representation. In extended material tests using paired comparisons from two pools of positive and negative words, we show that evaluative congruity is highly correlated with integrativity. Therefore, in most priming studies, congruity and integrativity are strongly confounded. When both aspects are disentangled by manipulating congruity and integrativity orthogonally, three priming experiments show that evaluative-priming effects were confined to integrative prime-target pairs. No facilitation of prime-congruent targets was obtained for non-integrative stimuli. These findings are discussed from a broader perspective on priming conceived as flexible, context-dependent, and serving a generative adaptation function.

  3. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Mousumi; Singh, Darrel; Massod, Shahid S; Nganba, Khundrakpam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans (MS) in mother-child pairs and to evaluate the correlation in the levels of salivary MS of working and nonworking mothers with that of their children and their associations with other related factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 100 mother-child pairs residing in New Multan Nagar Colony, New Delhi, India. A total of 50 children with their mothers were included in the working group and another 50 were included in the nonworking group. A questionnaire regarding the feeding habits, oral hygiene habits, daily intake of sugars of the children along with their weaning time was carried out. All mothers and children were clinically examined for recording decayed, extracted, and filled teeth (deft)/decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), and whole unstimulated saliva was collected and cultured for MS in the laboratory. The data were collected and subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square, Spearman’s correlation, and logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of salivary MS in the children was 69%. A statistically significant correlation was found between the oral levels of MS in nonworking and working mother-child pairs. Regression analysis showed that those children who feed by bottle for more than 12 months, have daily sweet intake, have sugars in feeding bottle and have higher defts were more likely to have mutans score of 1 or 2. Conclusion The mother, working or nonworking, being the primary care provider is the major source of transmission of MS to their child irrespective of the amount of time spent with them. How to cite this article Sharma P, Goswami M, Singh D, Massod SS, Nganba K. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):342-348. PMID:28127167

  4. Local explicitly correlated second- and third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with pair natural orbitals.

    PubMed

    Hättig, Christof; Tew, David P; Helmich, Benjamin

    2012-05-28

    We present an algorithm for computing explicitly correlated second- and third-order Møller-Plesset energies near the basis set limit for large molecules with a cost that scales formally as N(4) with system size N. This is achieved through a hybrid approach where locality is exploited first through orbital specific virtuals (OSVs) and subsequently through pair natural orbitals (PNOs) and integrals are approximated using density fitting. Our method combines the low orbital transformation costs of the OSVs with the compactness of the PNO representation of the doubles amplitude vector. The N(4) scaling does not rely upon the a priori definition of domains, enforced truncation of pair lists, or even screening and the energies converge smoothly to the canonical values with decreasing occupation number thresholds, used in the selection of the PNO basis. For MP2.5 intermolecular interaction energies, we find that 99% of benchmark basis set limit correlation energy contributions are recovered using an aug-cc-pVTZ basis and that on average only 50 PNOs are required to correlate the significant orbital pairs.

  5. Local explicitly correlated second- and third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with pair natural orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hättig, Christof; Tew, David P.; Helmich, Benjamin

    2012-05-01

    We present an algorithm for computing explicitly correlated second- and third-order Møller-Plesset energies near the basis set limit for large molecules with a cost that scales formally as N^4 with system size N. This is achieved through a hybrid approach where locality is exploited first through orbital specific virtuals (OSVs) and subsequently through pair natural orbitals (PNOs) and integrals are approximated using density fitting. Our method combines the low orbital transformation costs of the OSVs with the compactness of the PNO representation of the doubles amplitude vector. The N^4 scaling does not rely upon the a priori definition of domains, enforced truncation of pair lists, or even screening and the energies converge smoothly to the canonical values with decreasing occupation number thresholds, used in the selection of the PNO basis. For MP2.5 intermolecular interaction energies, we find that 99% of benchmark basis set limit correlation energy contributions are recovered using an aug-cc-pVTZ basis and that on average only 50 PNOs are required to correlate the significant orbital pairs.

  6. Finite Size Effects on the Real-Space Pair Distribution Function of Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Benjamin

    2008-10-01

    The pair distribution function (PDF) method is a powerful approach for the analysis of the structure of nanoparticles. An important approximation used in nanoparticle PDF simulations is the incorporation of a form factor describing nanoparticle size and shape. The precise effect of the form factor on the PDF is determined by both particle shape and structure if these characteristics are both anisotropic and correlated. The correct incorporation of finite size effects is important for distinguishing and quantifying the structural consequences of small particle size in nanomaterials.

  7. Correlation between Two Sets of Data Presented as Range-Mean-Pair Counts,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    range-mean-pair counts. POSTAL ADDRESS: Chief Superintendent, Aeronautical Research Laboratories, Box 4331, P.O., Melbourne, Victoria, 3001, Australia...Aeronautical Research Laboratories (a) Task: AIR 78/052 9. Cost Code : (b) Sponsoring Agency: 24 1045 Air Force Office 10. Imprint: 11. Computer Progiam(s...Overseas: I’O.**I IP.RI_ A I I C II I I EI 13. Announcement Limitations (of the information on this page): No Limitations 14. Descriptors: 15. Cosati Codes

  8. Experimental measurement of local displacement and chemical pair correlations in crystalline solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, C.L.; Ice, G.E.; Robertson, J.L.; Shaffer, L.B.

    1993-10-01

    Measurement of near-neighbor atomic arrangements in crystalline solid solutions is well established and provides meaningful values for chemical preference of atoms for their near neighbors to beyond the first ten neighboring shells. Static displacements (atomic size) between these atom pairs have mostly been either ignored in the recovery of the local pair preferences or removed by making use of the displacement scattering dependence on momentum transfer. With intense and energy tunable x-ray synchrotron sources, our ability to recover these static displacements between atoms has greatly improved. Data taken with multiple x-ray energies to obtain the contrast necessary to separate like from unlike neighbor pair distances are discussed for the two cases studied to date: A locally ordered Ni{sub 77.5}Fe{sub 22.5} crystal and a locally clustered Fe{sub 53}Cr{sub 47} crystal. Analysis of experimental parameters and data gives the systematic and statistical errors on the recovered parameters. Meaningful atomic displacements from the mean lattice can be measured and recovered. These displacements help us understand material properties and will provide theorists with tests for their calculations.

  9. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual's associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  10. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mlynski, David T.; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P.

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual’s associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  11. Sleep spindles during a nap correlate with post sleep memory performance for highly rewarded word-pairs.

    PubMed

    Studte, Sara; Bridger, Emma; Mecklinger, Axel

    2017-04-01

    The consolidation of new associations is thought to depend in part on physiological processes engaged during non-REM (NREM) sleep, such as slow oscillations and sleep spindles. Moreover, NREM sleep is thought to selectively benefit associations that are adaptive for the future. In line with this, the current study investigated whether different reward cues at encoding are associated with changes in sleep physiology and memory retention. Participants' associative memory was tested after learning a list of arbitrarily paired words both before and after taking a 90-min nap. During learning, word-pairs were preceded by a cue indicating either a high or a low reward for correct memory performance at test. The motivation manipulation successfully impacted retention such that memory declined to a greater extent from pre- to post sleep for low rewarded than for high rewarded word-pairs. In line with previous studies, positive correlations between spindle density during NREM sleep and general memory performance pre- and post-sleep were found. In addition to this, however, a selective positive relationship between memory performance for highly rewarded word-pairs at posttest and spindle density during NREM sleep was also observed. These results support the view that motivationally salient memories are preferentially consolidated and that sleep spindles may be an important underlying mechanism for selective consolidation.

  12. Effects of Dimensionality on Pair-Instability Supernova Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmer, Matthew S.; Kozyreva, Alexandra; Hirschi, Raphael; Fröhlich, Carla

    Since the emergence of the new class of extremely bright transients, super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe), three main mechanisms to power their light curves (LCs) have been discussed. They are the spin-down of a magnetar, interaction with circumstellar material, and the decay of large amounts of radioactive nickel in pair-instability supernovae (PISNe). Given the high degree of diversity seen within the class, it is possible that all three mechanisms are at work. PISN models can be self- consistently simulated from the main sequence phase of very massive stars (VMS) through to their explosion. These models robustly predict large amounts of radioactive nickel and thus very luminous SN events. However, PISN model LCs evolve more slowly than even the slowest evolving SLSNe. Multidimensional effects on the ejecta structure, specifically the mixing of radioactive nickel out to large radii, could alleviate this discrepancy with observation. Here we explore the multidimensional effects on the LC evolution by simulating the explosion phase in 1D, 2D, and 3D. We find that the ejecta from the multidimensional simulations have slightly shallower abundance gradients due to mixing at shell boundaries. We compute synthetic LCs whose shapes show no discernible differences due to the multidimensional effects.

  13. Attention can increase or decrease spike count correlations between pairs of neurons depending on their role in a task

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Douglas A.; Cohen, Marlene R.

    2015-01-01

    Visual attention enhances the responses of visual neurons that encode the attended location. Several recent studies showed that attention also decreases correlations between fluctuations in the responses of pairs of neurons (termed spike count correlation or rSC). The previous results are consistent with two hypotheses. Attention–related changes in rate and rSC might be linked (perhaps through a common mechanism), so that attention always decreases rSC. Alternately, attention might either increase or decrease rSC, possibly depending on the role the neurons play in the behavioral task. We recorded simultaneously from dozens of neurons in area V4 while monkeys performed a discrimination task. We found strong evidence in favor of the second hypothesis, showing that attention can flexibly increase or decrease correlations, depending on whether the neurons provide evidence for the same or opposite perceptual decisions. These results place important constraints on models of the neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive factors. PMID:25306550

  14. Two-particle correlations in pp, p¯p¯ and KS0KS0 pairs from hadronic Z decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ALEPH Collaboration; Schael, S.; Barate, R.; Brunelière, R.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Lees, J.-P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Trocmé, B.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Pacheco, A.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Barklow, T.; Buchmüller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Clerbaux, B.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Mato, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Sguazzoni, G.; Teubert, F.; Valassi, A.; Videau, I.; Badaud, F.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Fayolle, D.; Gay, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Pallin, D.; Pascolo, J. M.; Perret, P.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Kraan, A. C.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.-C.; Machefert, F.; Rougé, A.; Videau, H.; Ciulli, V.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Kennedy, J.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Thompson, A. S.; Wasserbaech, S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Cameron, W.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nowell, J.; Rutherford, S. A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Thompson, J. C.; White, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Bowdery, C. K.; Clarke, D. P.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Pearson, M. R.; Robertson, N. A.; Smizanska, M.; van der Aa, O.; Delaere, C.; Leibenguth, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Blumenschein, U.; Hölldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kayser, F.; Kleinknecht, K.; Müller, A.-S.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Bonissent, A.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Payre, P.; Tilquin, A.; Ragusa, F.; David, A.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Hüttmann, K.; Lütjens, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Settles, R.; Villegas, M.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacholkowska, A.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.-J.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Foà, L.; Giammanco, A.; Giassi, A.; Ligabue, F.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Awunor, O.; Blair, G. A.; Cowan, G.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Misiejuk, A.; Strong, J. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Norton, P. R.; Tomalin, I. R.; Ward, J. J.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Boumediene, D.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P. N.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Ngac, A.; Prange, G.; Borean, C.; Giannini, G.; He, H.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Armstrong, S. R.; Berkelman, K.; Cranmer, K.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P. A.; Nielsen, J.; Pan, Y. B.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wu, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.; Dissertori, G.

    2005-03-01

    Two-particle correlations in pp, p¯p¯ and KS0KS0 pairs have been studied in hadronic Z decays recorded at LEP with the ALEPH detector. The correlations were measured as a function of the four-momentum difference Q of the pair. For pp, p¯p¯ pairs a depletion of events is observed in the region Q<3 GeV, and for KS0KS0 pairs an enhancement of events is observed in the region Q<0.5 GeV. These features are consistent with expectations from Fermi Dirac and Bose Einstein statistics, respectively.

  15. The Effect of Unitizing Word Pairs on Recollection Versus Familiarity-Based Retrieval— Further Evidence From ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, Siri-Maria; Bader, Regine; Mecklinger, Axel

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of familiarity and recollection to associative retrieval of word pairs depending on the extent to which the pairs have been unitized through task instructions in the encoding phase. Participants in the unitization condition encoded word pairs in the context of a definition that tied them together such that they were treated as a coherent new item, while in the control condition word pairs were inserted into a sentence frame in which each word remained an individual unit. Contrasting event-related potentials (ERERPs) elicited in a subsequent recognition test by old (intact) and recombined (a new combination of two words from different study pairs) word pairs, an early frontal effect, the putative ER P correlate of familiarity-based retrieval, was apparent in the unitization condition. The left parietal old/new effect, reflecting recollection-based retrieval, was elicited only in the control condition. This suggests that in the unitization condition only, familiarity was sufficiently diagnostic to distinguish old from recombined pairs, while in the control condition, recollection contributed to associative recognition. Our findings add to a body of literature suggesting that unitization of associations increases the relative contribution of familiarity to subsequent associative retrieval. PMID:28154613

  16. Expansion Effects on Back-to-Back Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Padula, S.S.; Krein, G.; Csoergo, T.; Hama, Y.; Panda, P.K.

    2004-12-02

    The back-to-back correlations (BBC) of particle-antiparticle pairs, signalling in-medium mass modification, are studied in a finite size thermalized medium. The width of BBC function is explicitly evaluated in the case of a nonrelativistic spherically symmetric expanding fireball. The effect of the flow is to reduce the BBC signal as compared to the case of non flow. Nevertheless, a significant signal survives finite-time emission plus expansion effects.

  17. Temperature effects on atomic pair distribution functions of melts

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J. Ma, E.; Xu, M.; Guan, P. F.; Deng, S. W.; Cheng, Y. Q.

    2014-02-14

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the temperature-dependent evolution of the first peak position/shape in pair distribution functions of liquids. For metallic liquids, the peak skews towards the left (shorter distance side) with increasing temperature, similar to the previously reported anomalous peak shift. Making use of constant-volume simulations in the absence of thermal expansion and change in inherent structure, we demonstrate that the apparent shift of the peak maximum can be a result of the asymmetric shape of the peak, as the asymmetry increases with temperature-induced spreading of neighboring atoms to shorter and longer distances due to the anharmonic nature of the interatomic interaction potential. These findings shed light on the first-shell expansion/contraction paradox for metallic liquids, aside from possible changes in local topological or chemical short-range ordering. The melts of covalent materials are found to exhibit an opposite trend of peak shift, which is attributed to an effect of the directionality of the interatomic bonds.

  18. Why does the second peak of pair correlation functions split in quasi-two-dimensional disordered films?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Bian, X. F.

    2013-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been performed to study the splitting of the second peak in pair correlation functions of quasi-two-dimensional disordered film. A quasi-two-dimensional inhomogeneous structural model, which contains both crystal-like and disordered regions, supports the hypothesis that the splitting of the second peak is result of a statistical average of crystal-like and disordered structural regions in the system, not just the amorphous structure. The second-peak splitting can be viewed as a prototype of the crystal-like peak exhibiting distorted and vestigial features.

  19. Long-lived spin-correlated pairs generated by photolysis of naphthalene occluded in non-Brønsted acidic ZSM-5 zeolites.

    PubMed

    Moissette, Alain; Marquis, Séverine; Cornu, David; Vezin, Hervé; Brémard, Claude

    2005-11-09

    Long-lived spin-correlated pairs were generated by laser irradiation of naphthalene (NAP) occluded as intact molecule within non-Brønsted acidic MnZSM-5 zeolites with MnSiO(2))(96-n)(AlO(2)n formula per unit cell. The laser UV photoionization generates primary NAP.+-electron pair as a fast phenomenon. These charge carriers exhibit lifetimes that extend over less than 1 h at room temperature and disappear according to two parallel competitive ways: direct charge recombination and electron transfer. This subsequent electron transfer takes place between the electron-deficient radical cation (NAP.+) and the electron-donor oxygen atom of zeolite framework. The aluminum rich MnZSM-5 zeolites (n = 3.4, 6.6) hinder efficiently the charge recombination and promote the electron transfer to generate a very long electron-hole pair which exceeds several weeks at room temperature in NAP@Li(6.6)ZSM-5. The electron-hole pair exhibits broad visible absorption bands at 482 and 525 nm. The electron-hole distance, 1.3 nm, was deduced from the dipolar interaction term (D) value. The spin density of trapped electron appears spread over (27)Al, (29)Si, (7)Li, and (1)H nuclei as deduced by two-dimensional approach of hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE). The very low recombination rate by tunneling effect was found to be in agreement with the very low value (J approximately 0) of the magnetic exchange. The combined effects of tight fit between NAP size and straight-channel dimension, the high aluminum content of the framework, and the highly polarizing cation Li(+) trapped efficiently the ejected electron in the conduction band and the hole in the valence band of the porous materials.

  20. The Mediating Effect of Instruction on Pair Composition in L2 Revision and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Steendam, Elke; Rijlaarsdam, G. C. W.; Van den Bergh, H. H.; Sercu, L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study tests the effect of ability pairing in two instructional methods in L2 collaborative revision. Two continuous indices determine a pair: individual proficiency level, distance in proficiency between pair members (heterogeneity), and the interaction between both indices. Instructional methods tested are modelling and practising.…

  1. Correlation between discharge timings of pairs of motor units reveals the presence but not the proportion of common synaptic input to motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Negro, Francesco; Farina, Dario

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether correlation measures derived from pairs of motor unit (MU) spike trains are reliable indicators of the degree of common synaptic input to motor neurons. Several 50-s isometric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle were performed at different target forces ranging from 10 to 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction relying on force feedback. Forty-eight pairs of MUs were examined at various force levels. Motor unit synchrony was assessed by cross-correlation analysis using three indexes: the output correlation as the peak of the cross-histogram (ρ) and the number of synchronous spikes per second (CIS) and per trigger (E). Individual analysis of MU pairs revealed that ρ, CIS, and E were most often positively associated with discharge rate (87, 85, and 76% of the MU pairs, respectively) and negatively with interspike interval variability (69, 65, and 62% of the MU pairs, respectively). Moreover, the behavior of synchronization indexes with discharge rate (and interspike interval variability) varied greatly among the MU pairs. These results were consistent with theoretical predictions, which showed that the output correlation between pairs of spike trains depends on the statistics of the input current and motor neuron intrinsic properties that differ for different motor neuron pairs. In conclusion, the synchronization between MU firing trains is necessarily caused by the (functional) common input to motor neurons, but it is not possible to infer the degree of shared common input to a pair of motor neurons on the basis of correlation measures of their output spike trains.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The strength of correlation between output spike trains is only poorly associated with the degree of common input to the population of motor neurons. The synchronization between motor unit firing trains is necessarily caused by the (functional) common input to motor neurons, but it is not possible to infer the degree of shared common input to a pair of

  2. Cumulative approaches to track formation under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation: Phenomenological correlation with formation energies of Frenkel pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespillo, M. L.; Agulló-López, F.; Zucchiatti, A.

    2017-03-01

    An extensive survey for the formation energies of Frenkel pairs, as representative candidates for radiation-induced point defects, is presented and discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms (CM) of track formation in dielectric materials under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. These mechanisms rely on the generation and accumulation of point defects during irradiation followed by collapse of the lattice once a threshold defect concentration is reached. The physical basis of those approaches has been discussed by Fecht as a defect-assisted transition to an amorphous phase. Although a first quantitative analysis of the CM model was previously performed for LiNbO3 crystals, we have, here, adopted a broader phenomenological approach. It explores the correlation between track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation for a broad range of materials. It is concluded that the threshold stopping powers can be roughly scaled with the energies required to generate a critical Frenkel pair concentration in the order of a few percent of the total atomic content. Finally, a comparison with the predictions of the thermal spike model is discussed within the analytical Szenes approximation.

  3. Simulation of strongly correlated fermions in two spatial dimensions with fermionic projected entangled-pair states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corboz, Philippe; Orús, Román; Bauer, Bela; Vidal, Guifré

    2010-04-01

    We explain how to implement, in the context of projected entangled-pair states (PEPSs), the general procedure of fermionization of a tensor network introduced in P. Corboz and G. Vidal, Phys. Rev. B 80, 165129 (2009). The resulting fermionic PEPS, similar to previous proposals, can be used to study the ground state of interacting fermions on a two-dimensional lattice. As in the bosonic case, the cost of simulations depends on the amount of entanglement in the ground state and not directly on the strength of interactions. The present formulation of fermionic PEPS leads to a straightforward numerical implementation that allowed us to recycle much of the code for bosonic PEPS. We demonstrate that fermionic PEPS are a useful variational ansatz for interacting fermion systems by computing approximations to the ground state of several models on an infinite lattice. For a model of interacting spinless fermions, ground state energies lower than Hartree-Fock results are obtained, shifting the boundary between the metal and charge-density wave phases. For the t-J model, energies comparable with those of a specialized Gutzwiller-projected ansatz are also obtained.

  4. Direct Correlation between Ionic Liquid Transport Properties and Ion Pair Lifetimes: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Maginn, Edward J

    2015-02-19

    Self-diffusivities as a function of temperature were computed for 29 different ionic liquids (ILs) covering a wide variety of cation and anion classes. Ideal ionic conductivities (σNE) were estimated from the self-diffusivities via the Nernst-Einstein relation. The ion pair (IP) lifetimes (τIP) and ion cage (IC) lifetimes (τIC) of each IL were also computed. A linear relationship between the calculated self-diffusivities and the inverse of IP or IC lifetimes was observed. A similar inverse linear relationship was also observed for ideal ionic conductivity. These relationships were found to be independent of temperature and the nature of the IL. These observations connect macroscopic dynamic properties with local atomic-level motions and strongly suggest that the dynamics of ILs are governed by a universal IP or IC forming and breaking mechanism. Thus, in order to design an ionic liquid with enhanced dynamics, one should consider how to minimize IP or IC lifetimes.

  5. Pair correlation microscopy reveals the role of nanoparticle shape in intracellular transport and site of drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinde, Elizabeth; Thammasiraphop, Kitiphume; Duong, Hien T. T.; Yeow, Jonathan; Karagoz, Bunyamin; Boyer, Cyrille; Gooding, J. Justin; Gaus, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle size, surface charge and material composition are known to affect the uptake of nanoparticles by cells. However, whether nanoparticle shape affects transport across various barriers inside the cell remains unclear. Here we used pair correlation microscopy to show that polymeric nanoparticles with different shapes but identical surface chemistries moved across the various cellular barriers at different rates, ultimately defining the site of drug release. We measured how micelles, vesicles, rods and worms entered the cell and whether they escaped from the endosomal system and had access to the nucleus via the nuclear pore complex. Rods and worms, but not micelles and vesicles, entered the nucleus by passive diffusion. Improving nuclear access, for example with a nuclear localization signal, resulted in more doxorubicin release inside the nucleus and correlated with greater cytotoxicity. Our results therefore demonstrate that drug delivery across the major cellular barrier, the nuclear envelope, is important for doxorubicin efficiency and can be achieved with appropriately shaped nanoparticles.

  6. The numerical condition of electron correlation theories when only active pairs of electrons are spin-unrestricted.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Keith V; Parkhill, John A; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2009-05-14

    The use of spin-unrestriction with high-quality correlation theory, such as coupled-cluster (CC) methods, is a common practice necessary to obtain high-quality potential energy surfaces. While this typically is a useful approach, we find that in the unrestricted limit of ROHF fragments (the unrestricted in active pair orbitals) the CC equations are singular if only the strongly correlated electrons are considered. Unstable amplitudes which do not represent the physics of the problem are easily found and could be unwittingly accepted without inspection. We use stability analysis and the condition number of the CC doubles Jacobian matrix to examine the problem, and present results for several molecular systems with a variety of unrestricted cluster models. Finally a regularization of the CC equations is proposed, using a dynamic penalty function, which allows us to apply CC, and Lagrangian gradient formulas even in the singular limit.

  7. Effects of Habitat Complexity on Pair-Housed Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Keck, Victoria A; Edgerton, Dale S; Hajizadeh, Susan; Swift, Larry L; Dupont, William D; Lawrence, Christian; Boyd, Kelli L

    2015-07-01

    Sexually mature zebrafish were housed as single male-female pairs with or without plastic vegetation for 1, 5, or 10 d for comparison of whole-body cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay. Individually housed male zebrafish were used as controls. In the fish that were pair-housed without vegetation (NVeg), one animal died in 5 of 24 pairs, and one animal was alive but wounded in an additional pair. No deaths or wounds occurred in the fish that were pair-housed with vegetation (Veg). Cortisol levels did not differ between the treatment groups on day 1. On day 5, cortisol values were higher in the Veg group than in the individually housed fish (P < 0.0005) and the NVeg fish (P = 0.004). On day 10, the relationships were inversed: cortisol levels had risen in the individually housed and NVeg groups and had fallen to baseline levels in the Veg group. Cortisol values on day 10 were lower in the Veg group than in the individually housed (P = 0.004) and NVeg (P = 0.05) groups. Cortisol levels in individually housed male zebrafish increased over time. Although this study did not demonstrate a reduction in cortisol levels associated with providing vegetation, this enrichment prevented injury and death from fighting. These findings show how commonly used housing situations may affect the wellbeing of laboratory zebrafish.

  8. Effects of Habitat Complexity on Pair-Housed Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Victoria A; Edgerton, Dale S; Hajizadeh, Susan; Swift, Larry L; Dupont, William D; Lawrence, Christian; Boyd, Kelli L

    2015-01-01

    Sexually mature zebrafish were housed as single male-female pairs with or without plastic vegetation for 1, 5, or 10 d for comparison of whole-body cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay. Individually housed male zebrafish were used as controls. In the fish that were pair-housed without vegetation (NVeg), one animal died in 5 of 24 pairs, and one animal was alive but wounded in an additional pair. No deaths or wounds occurred in the fish that were pair-housed with vegetation (Veg). Cortisol levels did not differ between the treatment groups on day 1. On day 5, cortisol values were higher in the Veg group than in the individually housed fish (P < 0.0005) and the NVeg fish (P = 0.004). On day 10, the relationships were inversed: cortisol levels had risen in the individually housed and NVeg groups and had fallen to baseline levels in the Veg group. Cortisol values on day 10 were lower in the Veg group than in the individually housed (P = 0.004) and NVeg (P = 0.05) groups. Cortisol levels in individually housed male zebrafish increased over time. Although this study did not demonstrate a reduction in cortisol levels associated with providing vegetation, this enrichment prevented injury and death from fighting. These findings show how commonly used housing situations may affect the wellbeing of laboratory zebrafish. PMID:26224437

  9. Electron correlated and density functional studies on hydrogen-bonded proton transfer in adenine thymine base pair of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Naoto; Kawano, Satoyuki; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2005-02-01

    The potential energy surface along the hydrogen-bonded proton transfer between the Watson-Crick (WC) adenine-thymine (A-T) base pair of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and its tautomeric structures is calculated with 6-31G(d,p) basis set in Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory with Becke's three-parameter hybrid Lee-Yang-Parr exchange-correlation functional (B3LYP), second order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP2), and coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) levels. The tautomeric structure, where both two hydrogen-bonded protons in the A-T base pair have transferred each other, is found at all level of calculations. Though the optimized structure in which only one hydrogen-bonded proton in adenine has migrated to thymine is found at HF level, we could not obtain such optimized structure at both MP2 and B3LYP levels. Including electron correlations, the energy differences between the canonical A-T and the two hydrogen-bonded protons transferred tautomeric structure become smaller. Aside from this, potential energy surface from the WC A-T to the Hoogsteen type A-T gives almost the same among each level of calculation.

  10. The Effect of Nonindependent Mate Pairing on the Effective Population Size

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ben J.; Charlesworth, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The effective population size (Ne) quantifies the effectiveness of genetic drift in finite populations. When generations overlap, theoretical expectations for Ne typically assume that the sampling of offspring genotypes from a given individual is independent among successive breeding events, even though this is not true in many species, including humans. To explore the effects on Ne of nonindependent mate pairing across breeding events, we simulated the genetic drift of mitochondrial DNA, autosomal DNA, and sex chromosome DNA under three mating systems. Nonindependent mate pairing across breeding seasons has no effect when all adults mate pair for life, a small or moderate effect when females reuse stored sperm, and a large effect when there is intense male–male competition for reproduction in a harem social system. If adult females reproduce at a constant rate irrespective of the type of mate pairing, the general effect of nonindependent mate pairing is to decrease Ne for paternally inherited components of the genome. These findings have significant implications for the relative Ne values of different genomic regions, and hence for the expected levels of DNA sequence diversity in these regions. PMID:23183666

  11. The pairing correlation study in the {sup 40}Ar+{sup 208}Pb reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mijatović, T. Szilner, S.; Malenica, D. Jelavić; Prepolec, L.; Soić, N.; Tokić, V.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Goasduff, A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Dobón, J. J. Valiente; Montanari, D.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Ur, C. A.; Pollarolo, G.

    2015-10-15

    The multinucleon transfer reaction {sup 40}Ar+{sup 208}Pb has been measured at E{sub lab} = 260 MeV with the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer PRISMA. Mass and charge yields, differential and total cross sections, total kinetic energy loss distributions of different channels were simultaneously studied. Angular distributions were measured in a wide angular range by matching three different angular settings of the spectrometer. Absolute cross sections were obtained after the response function of the spectrometer was evaluated. These cross sections for different transfer channels allow the discussion of the role played by nucleon-nucleon correlations.

  12. Estimation of unidentified non-methane hydrocarbons in urban air based on highly correlated compound pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Blas, Maite; Gómez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon

    2014-12-01

    Gas Chromatography coupled with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) is used worldwide for non-methane hydrocarbons' (NMHCs) monitoring. Being a non-selective detector, identification and coelution problems may hamper the reliability of data. An estimation method was developed, based on the correlation of easily measured NMHCs with those unknowns. Correlations were calculated from data obtained with a Gas Chromatograph coupled with a Mass Spectrometer Detector (GC-MSD) after gathering more than 1500 hourly mixing ratio data of 67 NMHCs. The method was developed and validated for an urban area but it may be adapted and applied to other locations. Now it is possible to estimate mixing ratios of some important ozone precursors previously not resolved with the GC-FID, such as 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. As a result, a six year-long database was enlarged by 34% allowing for a more accurate calculation of the total reactivity and NMHCs' ozone forming potential.

  13. Dechlorane Plus in paired hair and serum samples from e-waste workers: correlation and differences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kehui; Zheng, Jing; Yan, Xiao; Yu, Lehuan; Luo, Xiaojun; Peng, Xiaowu; Yu, Yunjiang; Yang, Zhongyi; Mai, Bixian

    2015-03-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) and a dechlorinated product of DP were measured in 34 matched human hair and serum samples (19 males and 15 females) collected from e-waste recycling workers in South China. The DP (sum of syn- and anti-DP) concentrations in hair and serum samples ranged from 6.3 to 1100 ng g(-1) dry weight and from 22 to 1400 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw). The levels of anti-Cl11-DP ranged from 0.02 to 1.8 ng g(-1) in hair and from not detected to 7.9 ng g(-1) lw in serum. Significant positive correlations for both DP and anti-Cl11-DP concentrations between hair and serum samples were found (p<0.05), indicating hair to be a suitable matrix for human DP exposure. However, a significant difference was found in the DP isomer composition between hair and serum, suggesting stereoselective bioaccumulation during the absorption of DP into hair. A sharp gender difference was found in the levels of DP in hair. Moreover, syn-DP, anti-DP and anti-Cl11-DP in hair significantly correlated with those in serum for male samples, but not for female samples. The observed gender differences in the present study may be, in part, ascribed to the much longer hair exposure time for females than males due to the difference in sampling distance from the scalp.

  14. Femtosecond correlated photon echo in CdS crystal under two-photon excitation by two pairs of crossed laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartsev, V. V.; Leontiev, A. V.; Mitrofanova, T. G.

    2015-07-01

    We consider the possibility of observing a femtosecond correlated photon echo (FCPE) under two-photon excitation of CdS crystal by two pairs of crossed laser beams. The peculiarities of FCPE signals and their possible applications are discussed.

  15. Self-consistent implementation of ensemble density functional theory method for multiple strongly correlated electron pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, Michael; Liu, Fang; Kim, Kwang S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2016-12-01

    The spin-restricted ensemble-referenced Kohn-Sham (REKS) method is based on an ensemble representation of the density and is capable of correctly describing the non-dynamic electron correlation stemming from (near-)degeneracy of several electronic configurations. The existing REKS methodology describes systems with two electrons in two fractionally occupied orbitals. In this work, the REKS methodology is extended to treat systems with four fractionally occupied orbitals accommodating four electrons and self-consistent implementation of the REKS(4,4) method with simultaneous optimization of the orbitals and their fractional occupation numbers is reported. The new method is applied to a number of molecular systems where simultaneous dissociation of several chemical bonds takes place, as well as to the singlet ground states of organic tetraradicals 2,4-didehydrometaxylylene and 1,4,6,9-spiro[4.4]nonatetrayl.

  16. Pairing Courses across the Disciplines: Effects on Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Julie; Burnett, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    Writing performance of a complex recommendation report produced by student teams for an actual client during a 15-week semester was compared in a writing-intensive Agronomy 356 course and in paired Agronomy 356/English 309 courses. The longitudinal study investigated differences that existed between reports produced for each learning environment…

  17. Observation of Transverse Spin-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations of Charged Pion Pairs in p↑+p at √{s }=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, Z. M.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, X.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Y. F.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in p↑+p collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of 5 standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities η >0.5 , and for pair masses around the mass of the ρ meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p +p collisions.

  18. Observation of Transverse Spin-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations of Charged Pion Pairs in p^{↑}+p at sqrt[s]=200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, X; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, X; Li, C; Li, W; Li, Z M; Li, Y; Li, X; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, Y G; Ma, G L; Ma, L; Ma, R; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, M K; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, X; Sun, Z; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Surrow, B; Svirida, N; Szelezniak, M A; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A N; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, G; Wang, Y; Wang, F; Wang, Y; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Y F; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, X P; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2015-12-11

    We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in p^{↑}+p collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of 5 standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities η>0.5, and for pair masses around the mass of the ρ meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p+p collisions.

  19. The effect of domain growth on spatial correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Robert J. H.; Yates, C. A.; Baker, R. E.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models describing cell movement and proliferation are important tools in developmental biology research. In this work we present methods to include the effects of domain growth on the evolution of spatial correlations between agent locations in a continuum approximation of a one-dimensional lattice-based model of cell motility and proliferation. This is important as the inclusion of spatial correlations in continuum models of cell motility and proliferation without domain growth has previously been shown to be essential for their accuracy in certain scenarios. We include the effect of spatial correlations by deriving a system of ordinary differential equations that describe the expected evolution of individual and pair density functions for agents on a growing domain. We then demonstrate how to simplify this system of ordinary differential equations by using an appropriate approximation. This simplification allows domain growth to be included in models describing the evolution of spatial correlations between agents in a tractable manner.

  20. An investigation of proton pair correlations relevant to the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticehurst, David R.

    The observation of neutrinoless double beta decay (0nubetabeta ) would demonstrate that the neutrino is a Majorana particle and allow determination of its mass by comparing the measured decay rate to the calculated rate. The main uncertainty in the calculation of the 0 nubetabeta rate is due to uncertainties in the nuclear structure models used in the computation of the nuclear matrix elements for the decay process. This project tested the validity of using wavefunctions for the nuclear states involved in the 0nubetabeta process that are based on a first-order application of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity. In the BCS approximation, most of the strength for two-nucleon transfer reactions should be for transitions to the 0 + ground state of the final nucleus (i.e., little strength should go to the 0+ excited states). This experiment measured the strength to the first 0+ excited state for the 74Ge( 3He,n)76Se and 76Ge( 3He,n)78Se reactions relative to the strength for transition to the 0+ ground state in selenium. For both nuclei, and at 3He beam energies of 15 and 21 MeV, the observed relative strength for transfer to the first 0+ excited state was less than 13%. This result supports the validity of using the BCS approximation to describe the ground state of both 76Se and 78Se and is consistent with the results of recent ( 3He,n) cross section measurements on 74Ge and 76Ge. In addition, the magnitude and shape of the measured angular distributions suggest that contribution of the sequential two-nucleon transfer process, which is an indicator of long-range nucleon-nucleon correlations, is over-predicted by the DWBA code FRESCO.

  1. Entanglement transfer from two-mode anti-correlated continuous-variable systems to a pair of localized discrete systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Du; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2016-04-01

    We address the entanglement transfer from a bipartite continuous-variable(CV) system to a pair of localized discrete systems. The dynamics behavior can be implemented by two two-level atoms flying through spatially separated identical cavities where two quantized modes are injected. We assume each CV mode couples to one atom via the resonant Jaynes-Cummings interaction. The CV systems are initially prepared in a two-mode anti-correlated SU(2) coherent state, while with the initial atomic states of the cases: |g⟩1|g⟩2, |e⟩1|e⟩2 and |g⟩1|e⟩2, respectively. We find that the entanglement transfer for single-photon excitation case is more efficient than that for multi-photon excitation case. Under same conditions, we also note that the entanglement transfer is more efficient for SU(2) coherent state than for twin-bean (TWB) and pair-coherent (TMC) state. Besides, we show that, for a given total photon number of the initial SU(2) coherent state, the efficiency of entanglement transfer depends upon the distribution of photons in the two CV modes. We also consider the influences of the dissipation and the white noise on the entanglement transfer.

  2. Competition between pairing correlations and deformation from the odd-even mass staggering of francium and radium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreim, S.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, Ch.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Cocolios, T. E.; Gottberg, A.; Herfurth, F.; Kowalska, M.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Lunney, D.; Manea, V.; Mendonca, T. M.; Naimi, S.; Neidherr, D.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Stora, Th.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.

    2014-08-01

    The masses of Fr222,224,226-233 and Ra233,234 have been determined with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the ISOLDE facility at CERN, including the previously unknown mass and half-life of Fr233. We study the evolution of the odd-even staggering of binding energies along the francium and radium isotopic chains and of its lowest-order estimator, Δ3(N). An enhancement of the staggering of Δ3(N) is observed towards neutron number N =146, which points to contributions beyond pairing correlations. These contributions are investigated in the Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approaches, emphasizing the connections to the single-particle level density and nuclear deformation.

  3. Neutron-Proton Pairing Effects on the Gamow-Teller Transitions in 24,26Mg by Using the Deformed QRPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Eunja; Cheoun, Myung-Ki

    We investigated the effects of the neutron-proton (np) pairing correlations on the Gamow-Teller (GT) transition of 24,26Mg by taking into account the deformation. Our calculations is performed within the deformed quasi-particle random phase approximation (DQRPA) which explicitly includes the deformation at the BCS and RPA stage. In this work, we include the np pairing as well as the nn and pp paring correlations to the DQRPA. Our new formalism is applied to the GT transition of the well known deformed Mg isotopes. The np pairing effect is found to affect the GT distribution of 24Mg and 26Mg. Correlations between the deformation and the np pairing are also discussed with the comparison to the experimental GT transition data by triton and 3He beams.

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of medium and long range correlated density functionals in TD-DFT investigation of DNA bases and base pairs: gas phase and water solution study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Manoj K.; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2010-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the performance of the TD-DFT method using different density functionals including recently developed medium and long-range correlation corrected density functionals have been carried out for lower-lying electronic singlet valence transitions of nucleic acid bases and the Watson-Crick base pairs in the gas phase and in the water solution. The standard 6-311++G(d,p) basis set was used. Ground state geometries of bases and base pairs were optimized at the M05-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level. The nature of potential energy surfaces (PES) was ascertained through the harmonic vibrational frequency analysis; all geometries were found to be minima at the respective PES. Electronic singlet vertical transition energies were also computed at the CC2/def2-TZVP level in the gas phase. The effect of state-specific water solvation on TD-DFT computed transition energies was considered using the PCM model. For the isolated bases the performance of the B3LYP functional was generally found to be superior among all functionals, but it measurably fails for charge-transfer states in the base pairs. The CC2/def2-TZVP computed transition energies were also revealed to be inferior compared with B3LYP results for the isolated bases. The performance of the ωB97XD, CAM-B3LYP and BMK functionals were found to be similar and comparable with the CC2 results for the isolated bases. However, for the Watson-Crick adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine base pairs the performance of the ωB97XD functional was found to be the best among all the studied functionals in the present work in predicting the locally excited transitions as well as charge transfer states.

  5. Relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects in the helium pair potential.

    PubMed

    Przybytek, M; Cencek, W; Komasa, J; Łach, G; Jeziorski, B; Szalewicz, K

    2010-05-07

    The helium pair potential was computed including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics contributions as well as improved accuracy adiabatic ones. Accurate asymptotic expansions were used for large distances R. Error estimates show that the present potential is more accurate than any published to date. The computed dissociation energy and the average R for the (4)He(2) bound state are 1.62+/-0.03 mK and 47.1+/-0.5 A. These values can be compared with the measured ones: 1.1(-0.2)(+0.3) mK and 52+/-4 A [R. E. Grisenti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2284 (2000)].

  6. [Homologue pairing: initiation sites and effects on crossing over and chromosome disjunction in Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Chubykin, V L

    1996-01-01

    The role of homologue pairing and chromocentral association of chromosomes in recombination and segregation during cell division is discussed. Peculiarities of mitotic and meiotic chromosome pairing in Drosophila males and females are considered. On the basis of our own and published data, the presence and localization of sites of homologue pairing initiation in euchromatin are substantiated. The effects of transfer of initiation sites along a chromosome (exemplified by inversions) on chromosome pairing (asynapsis), crossing over (intrachromosomal, interchromosomal, and centromeric effects), and segregation are discussed. To record the effects of pairing sites on crossing over, a method of comparing crossing-over frequencies in an inverted region with those in a region of the same size and position with regard to the centromere on cytological maps was proposed. Chromosomes orient toward opposite division poles during paracentromeric heterochromatin pairing. This occurs after successful euchromatin pairing, during which the chromocentral circular structure is reorganized. If heterochromatin pairing is disrupted because of structural or locus mutations, nonexchange bivalents segregate randomly. In this case, chromosome coordination may occur due to proximal chiasmata or chromocentral associations between homologues.

  7. Effects of deformation and neutron-proton pairing on the Gamow-Teller transitions for Mg,2624 in a deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Eunja; Cheoun, Myung-Ki

    2016-11-01

    We investigate effects of neutron-proton (n p ) pairing correlations on the Gamow-Teller (GT) transition of Mg,2624 by explicitly taking into account deformation effects. Our calculation is performed by a deformed quasiparticle random phase approximation (DQRPA) which includes the deformation at the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer and RPA stage. In this paper, we include the n p pairing as well as neutron-neutron (n n ) and proton-proton (p p ) paring correlations to the DQRPA. Our new formalism is applied to the GT transition of well-known deformed Mg isotopes. The n p pairing effect is found to affect more or less the GT distribution of 24Mg and 26Mg. But the deformation effect turns out to be much larger than the n p paring effect because the Fermi surfaces smear more widely by the deformation rather than the n p pairing correlations. Correlations between the deformation and the n p pairing effects and their ambiguities are also discussed with the comparison to experimental GT strength data by triton and 3He beams.

  8. Correlation effects in metallic cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydock, Roger

    2014-03-01

    The electronic contribution to the cohesive energy of a correlated metal is the sum of the transition energies for adding successive electrons at successive Fermi levels until the system reaches its final electron density. This can be computed as the integral of energy over the projected density of transitions for adding single electrons to localized orbitals. In the case of independent electrons, this reduces to the usual integral over the projected density of states. As an example, cohesive energies for some simple transition metal structures are calculated using the recursion method* with a Hubbard repulsion between electrons. * Phys. Rev. B 61, 7953-64 Work supported by the Richmond F. Snyder gift to the University of Oregon.

  9. Effects of age at first-pairing on the reproductive performance of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Kai, O; Sakemi, K; Suzuki, Y; Sonoda, Y; Imai, K

    1995-10-01

    Effects of age at first-pairing on the reproductive performance of the gerbil were studied throughout the reproductive life. Six groups of 7-30 female gerbils were paired monogamously with males at different ages. Out of 101 pairs in 6 groups, 79 (78.2%) produced 1 or more litters. The mean litter size at birth and mean weaning rate of 846 litters were 4.4 (totally 3,733 pups) and 67.4% (2,517 pups), respectively. Reproduction was compared in the 6 age groups. The littering rate (No. of females with litters/No. of female paired) was significantly lower in two groups in which mature females were paired with age-matched males (Group 4) or the oldest females with younger, sexually mature males (Group 6). The interval from pairing to the first litter was shortest in two groups in which mature females were paired with one month older, sexually mature males (Groups 3 and 5). Although the oldest pairs (Group 6) produced about 7 litters, the pairs from the other 5 groups produced about 10 or more litters throughout their reproductive life. The weaning rate was significantly higher in Group 6 (the oldest pairs) than in the younger groups. The effects of parity on reproduction were estimated from the data for the 61 pairs which produced more than 8 litters in the 6 groups. The number of pups at birth and the weaning rate were decreased in last 20-30% of the total parity in all 6 groups, although the age at the last litter in all groups was significantly different. The data suggest that any decline in reproduction may be due to not age but parity in the Mongolian gerbil.

  10. Correlations in the low-density Fermi gas: Fermi-liquid state, dimerization, and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, H. H.; Krotscheck, E.; Lichtenegger, T.; Mateo, D.; Zillich, R. E.

    2015-08-01

    We present ground-state calculations for low-density Fermi gases described by two model interactions, an attractive square-well potential and a Lennard-Jones potential, of varying strength. We use the optimized Fermi-hypernetted chain integral equation method, which has been proved to provide, in the density regimes of interest here, an accuracy of better than 1%. We first examine the low-density expansion of the energy and compare it with the exact answer of H. Huang and C. N. Yang [Phys. Rev. 105, 767 (1957), 10.1103/PhysRev.105.767]. It is shown that a locally correlated wave function of the Jastrow-Feenberg type does not recover the quadratic term in the expansion of the energy in powers of a0kF , where a0 is the vacuum s -wave scattering length and kF the Fermi wave number. The problem is cured by adding second-order perturbation corrections in a correlated basis. Going to higher densities and/or more strongly coupled systems, we encounter an instability of the normal state of the system which is characterized by a divergence of the in-medium scattering length. We interpret this divergence as a phonon-exchange-driven dimerization of the system, similar to what occurs at zero density when the vacuum scattering length a0 diverges. We then study, in the stable regime, the superfluid gap and its dependence on the density and the interaction strength. We identify two corrections to low-density expansions: One is medium corrections to the pairing interaction, and the other is finite-range corrections. We show that the most important finite-range corrections are a direct manifestation of the many-body nature of the system.

  11. Perturbative triples correction for local pair natural orbital based explicitly correlated CCSD(F12*) using Laplace transformation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Gunnar; Hättig, Christof

    2016-12-01

    We present an implementation of pair natural orbital coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples, PNO-CCSD(T), which avoids the quasi-canonical triples approximation (T0) where couplings due to off-diagonal Fock matrix elements are neglected. A numerical Laplace transformation of the canonical expression for the perturbative (T) triples correction is used to avoid an I/O and storage bottleneck for the triples amplitudes. Results for a test set of reaction energies show that only very few Laplace grid points are needed to obtain converged energy differences and that PNO-CCSD(T) is a more robust approximation than PNO-CCSD(T0) with a reduced mean absolute deviation from canonical CCSD(T) results. We combine the PNO-based (T) triples correction with the explicitly correlated PNO-CCSD(F12*) method and investigate the use of specialized F12-PNOs in the conventional triples correction. We find that no significant additional errors are introduced and that PNO-CCSD(F12*)(T) can be applied in a black box manner.

  12. Perturbative triples correction for local pair natural orbital based explicitly correlated CCSD(F12*) using Laplace transformation techniques.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Gunnar; Hättig, Christof

    2016-12-21

    We present an implementation of pair natural orbital coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples, PNO-CCSD(T), which avoids the quasi-canonical triples approximation (T0) where couplings due to off-diagonal Fock matrix elements are neglected. A numerical Laplace transformation of the canonical expression for the perturbative (T) triples correction is used to avoid an I/O and storage bottleneck for the triples amplitudes. Results for a test set of reaction energies show that only very few Laplace grid points are needed to obtain converged energy differences and that PNO-CCSD(T) is a more robust approximation than PNO-CCSD(T0) with a reduced mean absolute deviation from canonical CCSD(T) results. We combine the PNO-based (T) triples correction with the explicitly correlated PNO-CCSD(F12*) method and investigate the use of specialized F12-PNOs in the conventional triples correction. We find that no significant additional errors are introduced and that PNO-CCSD(F12*)(T) can be applied in a black box manner.

  13. Combining automatic table classification and relationship extraction in extracting anticancer drug-side effect pairs from full-text articles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer drug-associated side effect knowledge often exists in multiple heterogeneous and complementary data sources. A comprehensive anticancer drug-side effect (drug-SE) relationship knowledge base is important for computation-based drug target discovery, drug toxicity predication and drug repositioning. In this study, we present a two-step approach by combining table classification and relationship extraction to extract drug-SE pairs from a large number of high-profile oncological full-text articles. The data consists of 31,255 tables downloaded from the Journal of Oncology (JCO). We first trained a statistical classifier to classify tables into SE-related and -unrelated categories. We then extracted drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables. We compared drug side effect knowledge extracted from JCO tables to that derived from FDA drug labels. Finally, we systematically analyzed relationships between anti-cancer drug-associated side effects and drug-associated gene targets, metabolism genes, and disease indications. The statistical table classifier is effective in classifying tables into SE-related and -unrelated (precision: 0.711; recall: 0.941; F1: 0.810). We extracted a total of 26,918 drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables with a precision of 0.605, a recall of 0.460, and a F1 of 0.520. Drug-SE pairs extracted from JCO tables is largely complementary to those derived from FDA drug labels; as many as 84.7% of the pairs extracted from JCO tables have not been included a side effect database constructed from FDA drug labels. Side effects associated with anticancer drugs positively correlate with drug target genes, drug metabolism genes, and disease indications.

  14. The effect of musical practice on gesture/sound pairing

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M.; Attardo, Lapo; Cozzi, Matteo; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Learning to play a musical instrument is a demanding process requiring years of intense practice. Dramatic changes in brain connectivity, volume, and functionality have been shown in skilled musicians. It is thought that music learning involves the formation of novel audio visuomotor associations, but not much is known about the gradual acquisition of this ability. In the present study, we investigated whether formal music training enhances audiovisual multisensory processing. To this end, pupils at different stages of education were examined based on the hypothesis that the strength of audio/visuomotor associations would be augmented as a function of the number of years of conservatory study (expertise). The study participants were violin and clarinet students of pre-academic and academic levels and of different chronological ages, ages of acquisition, and academic levels. A violinist and a clarinetist each played the same score, and each participant viewed the video corresponding to his or her instrument. Pitch, intensity, rhythm, and sound duration were matched across instruments. In half of the trials, the soundtrack did not match (in pitch) the corresponding musical gestures. Data analysis indicated a correlation between the number of years of formal training (expertise) and the ability to detect an audiomotor incongruence in music performance (relative to the musical instrument practiced), thus suggesting a direct correlation between knowing how to play and perceptual sensitivity. PMID:25883580

  15. The effect of musical practice on gesture/sound pairing.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice M; Attardo, Lapo; Cozzi, Matteo; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Learning to play a musical instrument is a demanding process requiring years of intense practice. Dramatic changes in brain connectivity, volume, and functionality have been shown in skilled musicians. It is thought that music learning involves the formation of novel audio visuomotor associations, but not much is known about the gradual acquisition of this ability. In the present study, we investigated whether formal music training enhances audiovisual multisensory processing. To this end, pupils at different stages of education were examined based on the hypothesis that the strength of audio/visuomotor associations would be augmented as a function of the number of years of conservatory study (expertise). The study participants were violin and clarinet students of pre-academic and academic levels and of different chronological ages, ages of acquisition, and academic levels. A violinist and a clarinetist each played the same score, and each participant viewed the video corresponding to his or her instrument. Pitch, intensity, rhythm, and sound duration were matched across instruments. In half of the trials, the soundtrack did not match (in pitch) the corresponding musical gestures. Data analysis indicated a correlation between the number of years of formal training (expertise) and the ability to detect an audiomotor incongruence in music performance (relative to the musical instrument practiced), thus suggesting a direct correlation between knowing how to play and perceptual sensitivity.

  16. Establishing and maintaining treatment effects with less intrusive consequences via a pairing procedure.

    PubMed

    Vorndran, Christina M; Lerman, Dorothea C

    2006-01-01

    The generality and long-term maintenance of a pairing procedure designed to improve the efficacy of less intrusive procedures were evaluated for the treatment of problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement exhibited by 2 individuals with developmental disabilities. Results suggested that a less intrusive procedure could be established as a conditioned punisher by pairing it with an effective punisher contingent on problem behavior. Generalization across multiple therapists was demonstrated for both participants. However, generalization to another setting was not achieved for 1 participant until pairing was conducted in the second setting. Long-term maintenance was observed with 1 participant in the absence of further pairing trials. Maintenance via intermittent pairing trials was successful for the other participant.

  17. Evidence for a pairing anti-halo effect in the odd-even staggering in reaction cross sections of weakly bound nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hagino, K.; Sagawa, H.

    2011-07-15

    We investigate the spatial extension of weakly bound Ne and C isotopes by taking into account the pairing correlation with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method and a three-body model, respectively. We show that the odd-even staggering in the reaction cross sections of {sup 30,31,32}Ne and {sup 14,15,16}C are successfully reproduced, and thus the staggering can be attributed to the pairing anti-halo effect. A correlation between a one-neutron separation energy and the anti-halo effect is demonstrated for s and p waves using the HFB wave functions.

  18. Effect of single-particle splitting in the exact wave function of the isovectorial pairing Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Lerma H, S.

    2010-07-15

    The structure of the exact wave function of the isovectorial pairing Hamiltonian with nondegenerate single-particle levels is discussed. The way that the single-particle splittings break the quartet condensate solution found for N=Z nuclei in a single degenerate level is established. After a brief review of the exact solution, the structure of the wave function is analyzed and some particular cases are considered where a clear interpretation of the wave function emerges. An expression for the exact wave function in terms of the isospin triplet of pair creators is given. The ground-state wave function is analyzed as a function of pairing strength, for a system of four protons and four neutrons. For small and large values of the pairing strength a dominance of two-pair (quartets) scalar couplings is found, whereas for intermediate values enhancements of the nonscalar couplings are obtained. A correlation of these enhancements with the creation of Cooper-like pairs is observed.

  19. Modulation of radical pairs dynamics immersed in an ELF-EMF: The effect on hepatocarcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Riquelme, G. O.; López-Sandoval, E.; Vera-Aguilar, E.; Godina-Nava, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    The most suitable mechanism of action of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on biological systems is the effect on the radical pair (RP) recombination through the Zeeman effect and hyperfine interaction, which changes the rate of reactions or the product distribution. Enzyme reactions with RP intermediates can be altered by EMF, like those catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450), a heme-thiolate family protein that detoxifies xenobiotics and involved in chemical carcinogenesis. CYP450 activate chemical carcinogens producing an enormous amount of free radicals, which damage the DNA resulting in the malignant transformation of cells. During the activation, CYP450 produce spin-correlated RP intermediates that can either go to recombination or to continue the catalytic process. As CYP450 are electron carrier proteins, it is possible that RP intermediates may be affected by EMF. It was previously found that periodic treatment with extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) inhibits more than 50% the number and area of preneoplastic lesions in rats with chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis through reduction of cell proliferation. In this work, we developed a quantum mechanical model based on RP mechanism in order to explain the experimental effects of ELF-EMF on the free radicals produced in the early stages of chemical carcinogenesis.

  20. Importance of calcium in the inotropic effect of hyperosomotic agents, norepinephrine, paired electrical stimulation, and treppe.

    PubMed

    Willerson, J T; Crie, J S; Adcock, R C; Templeton, G H; Wildenthal, K

    1975-01-01

    The data obtained from these studies demonstrate that the inotropic effect of hyperosmolar mannitol and sucrose and of paired electrical stimulation is critically influenced by extracellular calcium concentration. The inotropic effect of norepinephrine is not prevented by maximal functional extracellular calcium concentrations. Inhibition of systolic calcium flux at the cell membrane by D600 does not prevent the inotropic effect of hyperosmolar mannitol or of paired electrical stimulation but it does prevent the inotropic effect of hyperosmolar intropic effect of treppe. Thus, intracellular calcium regulation appears to be of major importance in the inotropic effect in isolated cardiac muscle of mannitol and paired pacing while systolic calcium flux at the cell membrane appears to be of major importance in the inotropic effect of treppe.

  1. The Familiarity Effect for Single-Letter Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Bruce A.; Proctor, Janet D.

    1976-01-01

    A familiarity effect in these experiments is defined as a subject's ability to respond more rapidly to a familiar stimulus than to an unfamiliar stimulus. Evidence indicates that familiarity does not affect an initial encoding process, but it can affect a comparison process. (Editor/RK)

  2. Ultrasonic distance and velocity measurement using a pair of LPM signals for cross-correlation method: improvement of Doppler-shift compensation and examination of Doppler velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shinnosuke; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi

    2012-09-01

    Real-time distance measurement of a moving object with high accuracy and high resolution using an ultrasonic wave is difficult due to the influence of the Doppler effect or the limit of the calculation cost of signal processing. An over-sampling signal processing method using a pair of LPM signals has been proposed for ultrasonic distance and velocity measurement of moving objects with high accuracy and high resolution. The proposed method consists of cross correlation by single-bit signal processing, high-resolution Doppler velocity estimation with wide measurement range and low-calculation-cost Doppler-shift compensation. The over-sampling cross-correlation function is obtained from cross correlation by single-bit signal processing with low calculation cost. The Doppler velocity and distance of the object are determined from the peak interval and peak form in the cross-correlation function by the proposed method of Doppler velocity estimation and Doppler-shift compensation. In this paper, the proposed method of Doppler-shift compensation is improved. Accuracy of the determined distance was improved from approximately within ±140μm in the previous method to approximately within ±10μm in computer simulations. Then, the proposed method of Doppler velocity estimation is evaluated. In computer simulations, accuracy of the determined Doppler velocity and distance were demonstrated within ±8.471mm/s and ±13.87μm. In experiments, Doppler velocities of the motorized stage could be determined within ±27.9mm/s.

  3. Synergistic Effects of Six Chronic Disease Pairs on Decreased Physical Activity: The SMILE Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dörenkamp, Sarah; Mesters, Ilse; Vos, Rein; Schepers, Jan; van den Akker, Marjan; Teijink, Joep; de Bie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about whether and how two chronic diseases interact with each other in modifying the risk of physical inactivity. The aim of the present study is to identify chronic disease pairs that are associated with compliance or noncompliance with the Dutch PA guideline recommendation and to study whether specific chronic disease pairs indicate an extra effect on top of the effects of the diseases individually. Cross-sectional data from 3,386 participants of cohort study SMILE were used and logistic regression analysis was performed to study the joint effect of the two diseases of each chronic disease pair for compliance with the Dutch PA guideline. For six chronic disease pairs, patients suffering from both diseases belonging to these disease pairs in question show a higher probability of noncompliance to the Dutch PA guideline, compared to what one would expect based on the effects of each of the two diseases alone. These six chronic disease pairs were chronic respiratory disease and severe back problems; migraine and inflammatory joint disease; chronic respiratory disease and severe kidney disease; chronic respiratory disease and inflammatory joint disease; inflammatory joint disease and rheumatoid arthritis; and rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis of the knees, hips, and hands. PMID:27274994

  4. Redundant correlation effect on personalized recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Han, Teng-Yue; Zhong, Li-Xin; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Chen, Guang

    2014-02-01

    The high-order redundant correlation effect is investigated for a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), through both heat conduction biased (HCB) and mass diffusion biased (MDB) correlation redundancy elimination processes. The HCB and MDB algorithms do not introduce any additional tunable parameters, but keep the simple character of the original HHM. Based on two empirical datasets, the Netflix and MovieLens, the HCB and MDB are found to show better recommendation accuracy for both the overall objects and the cold objects than the HHM algorithm. Our work suggests that properly eliminating the high-order redundant correlations can provide a simple and effective approach to accurate recommendation.

  5. Long-range superharmonic Josephson current and spin-triplet pairing correlations in a junction with ferromagnetic bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Hao; Wu, Jiansheng; Wu, Xiuqiang; Ren, Mengyuan; Ren, Yajie

    2016-01-01

    The long-range spin-triplet supercurrent transport is an interesting phenomenon in the superconductor/ferromagnet () heterostructure containing noncollinear magnetic domains. Here we study the long-range superharmonic Josephson current in asymmetric junctions. It is demonstrated that this current is induced by spin-triplet pairs  −  or  +  in the thick layer. The magnetic rotation of the particularly thin layer will not only modulate the amplitude of the superharmonic current but also realise the conversion between  −  and  + . Moreover, the critical current shows an oscillatory dependence on thickness and exchange field in the layer. These effect can be used for engineering cryoelectronic devices manipulating the superharmonic current. In contrast, the critical current declines monotonically with increasing exchange field of the layer, and if the layer is converted into half-metal, the long-range supercurrent is prohibited but still exists within the entire region. This phenomenon contradicts the conventional wisdom and indicates the occurrence of spin and charge separation in present junction, which could lead to useful spintronics devices. PMID:26892755

  6. Vibrational stark effects to identify ion pairing and determine reduction potentials in electrolyte-free environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Grills, David C.; Miller, John R.

    2015-01-02

    A recently-developed instrument for time-resolved infrared detection following pulse radiolysis has been used to measure the ν(C≡N) IR band of the radical anion of a CN-substituted fluorene in tetrahydrofuran. Specific vibrational frequencies can exhibit distinct frequency shifts due to ion-pairing, which can be explained in the framework of the vibrational Stark effect. Measurements of the ratio of free ions and ion-pairs in different electrolyte concentrations allowed us to obtain an association constant and free energy change for ion-pairing. As a result, this new method has the potential to probe the geometry of ion-pairing and allows the reduction potentials of molecules to be determined in the absence of electrolyte in an environment of low dielectric constant.

  7. Vibrational stark effects to identify ion pairing and determine reduction potentials in electrolyte-free environments

    DOE PAGES

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Grills, David C.; Miller, John R.

    2015-01-02

    A recently-developed instrument for time-resolved infrared detection following pulse radiolysis has been used to measure the ν(C≡N) IR band of the radical anion of a CN-substituted fluorene in tetrahydrofuran. Specific vibrational frequencies can exhibit distinct frequency shifts due to ion-pairing, which can be explained in the framework of the vibrational Stark effect. Measurements of the ratio of free ions and ion-pairs in different electrolyte concentrations allowed us to obtain an association constant and free energy change for ion-pairing. As a result, this new method has the potential to probe the geometry of ion-pairing and allows the reduction potentials of moleculesmore » to be determined in the absence of electrolyte in an environment of low dielectric constant.« less

  8. Electron spin polarization transfer from photogenerated spin-correlated radical pairs to a stable radical observer spin.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Michael T; Carmieli, Raanan; Miura, Tomoaki; Richert, Sabine; Gardner, Daniel M; Smeigh, Amanda L; Dyar, Scott M; Conron, Sarah M; Ratner, Mark A; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2013-06-27

    A series of donor-chromophore-acceptor-stable radical (D-C-A-R(•)) molecules having well-defined molecular structures were synthesized to study the factors affecting electron spin polarization transfer from the photogenerated D(+•)-C-A(-•) spin-correlated radical pair (RP) to the stable radical R(•). Theory suggests that the magnitude of this transfer depends on the spin-spin exchange interaction (2JDA) of D(+•)-C-A(-•). Yet, the generality of this prediction has never been demonstrated. In the D-C-A-R(•) molecules described herein, D is 4-methoxyaniline (MeOAn), 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-amine (DioxAn), or benzobisdioxole aniline (BDXAn), C is 4-aminonaphthalene-1,8-dicarboximide, and A is naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) (1A,B-3A,B) or pyromellitimide (4A,B-6A,B). The terminal imide of the acceptors is functionalized with either a hydrocarbon (1A-6A) or a 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxyl radical (R(•)) (1B-6B). Photoexcitation of C with 416-nm laser pulses results in two-step charge separation to yield D(+•)-C-A(-•)-(R(•)). Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) spectroscopy using continuous-wave (CW) microwaves at both 295 and 85 K and pulsed microwaves at 85 K (electron spin-echo detection) was used to probe the initial formation of the spin-polarized RP and the subsequent polarization of the attached R(•) radical. The TREPR spectra show that |2JDA| for D(+•)-C-A(-•) decreases in the order MeOAn(+•) > DioxAn(+•) > BDXAn(+•) as a result of their spin density distributions, whereas the spin-spin dipolar interaction (dDA) remains nearly constant. Given this systematic variation in |2JDA|, electron spin-echo-detected EPR spectra of 1B-6B at 85 K show that the magnitude of the spin polarization transferred from the RP to R(•) depends on |2JDA|.

  9. Ecological Correlates of Effective Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Daphne; Scannapieco, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Providing effective foster care is a major undertaking that continues to plague this country. The ultimate goal of substitute care is to provide child victims of maltreatment with a safe and nurturing home environment. The goal of this theory driven research project was to identify ecological factors correlated with effective non-kin family foster…

  10. Development of a drug-in-adhesive patch combining ion pair and chemical enhancer strategy for transdermal delivery of zaltoprofen: pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and in vitro/in vivo correlation evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongxia; Quan, Peng; Zhou, Zhuang; Fang, Liang

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a drug-in-adhesive patch system for transdermal delivery of zaltoprofen (ZAL). The formulation was designed in combination with the ion pair and chemical enhancer strategy. Seven organic amines were chosen as counter ions, and the prepared ion pairs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of ZAL was studied on rabbits following transdermal and intravenous administration. A deconvolution method was applied to determine the correlation between the in vitro permeation and the in vivo absorption. Acetic acid-induced writhing response was conducted on mice to evaluate the analgesic effect. In vitro permeation results showed that both ion pairs and chemical enhancers were effective in modulating ZAL skin permeation from patches. The enhancement ratio was negatively correlated to the polar surface area (PSA) of counter ions, and was positively correlated to the octanol-water partition coefficient (log Ko/w) of chemical enhancers, respectively. The optimized formulation contained 10% (w/w) ZAL-triethylamine and 10% (w/w) isopropyl myristate, with DURO-TAK® 87-4098 as the pressure sensitive adhesive matrix. Furthermore, the in vitro permeation data were well correlated with the in vivo absorption data. The analgesic effect of the optimized patch was comparable to the commercial indometacin plasters. In conclusion, it was feasible for transdermal delivery of ZAL by the synergistic action of ion pair and chemical enhancer, and the in vitro permeation data were indicative of the in vivo performance for the developed patches.

  11. Identification of Ion-Pair Structures in Solution by Vibrational Stark Effects.

    PubMed

    Hack, John; Grills, David C; Miller, John R; Mani, Tomoyasu

    2016-02-18

    Ion pairing is a fundamental consideration in many areas of chemistry and has implications in a wide range of sciences and technologies that include batteries and organic photovoltaics. Ions in solution are known to inhabit multiple possible states, including free ions (FI), contact ion pairs (CIP), and solvent-separated ion pairs (SSIP). However, in solutions of organic radicals and nonmetal electrolytes, it is often difficult to distinguish between these states. In the first part of this work, we report evidence for the formation of SSIPs in low-polarity solvents and distinct measurements of CIP, SSIP, and FI, by using the ν(C≡N) infrared (IR) band of a nitrile-substituted fluorene radical anion. Use of time-resolved IR detection following pulse radiolysis allowed us to unambiguously assign the peak of the FI. In the presence of nonmetal electrolytes, two distinct red-shifted peaks were observed and assigned to the CIP and SSIP. The assignments are interpreted in the framework of the vibrational Stark effect (VSE) and are supported by (1) the solvent dependence of ion-pair populations, (2) the observation of a cryptand-separated sodium ion pair that mimics the formation of SSIPs, and (3) electronic structure calculations. In the second part of this work, we show that a blue-shift of the ν(C≡N) IR band due to the VSE can be induced in a nitrile-substituted fluorene radical anion by covalently tethering it to a metal-chelating ligand that forms an intramolecular ion pair upon reduction and complexation with sodium ion. This adds support to the conclusion that the shift in IR absorptions by ion pairing originates from the VSE. These results combined show that we can identify ion-pair structures by using the VSE, including the existence of SSIPs in a low-polarity solvent.

  12. Identification of ion-pair structures in solution by vibrational stark effects

    DOE PAGES

    Hack, John; Mani, Tomoyasu; Grills, David C.; ...

    2016-01-25

    Here, ion pairing is a fundamental consideration in many areas of chemistry and has implications in a wide range of sciences and technologies that include batteries and organic photovoltaics. Ions in solution are known to inhabit multiple possible states, including free ions (FI), contact ion pairs (CIP), and solvent-separated ion pairs (SSIP). However, in solutions of organic radicals and nonmetal electrolytes, it is often difficult to distinguish between these states. In the first part of this work, we report evidence for the formation of SSIPs in low-polarity solvents and distinct measurements of CIP, SSIP, and FI, by using the ν(C≡N)more » infrared (IR) band of a nitrile-substituted fluorene radical anion. Use of time-resolved IR detection following pulse radiolysis allowed us to unambiguously assign the peak of the FI. In the presence of nonmetal electrolytes, two distinct red-shifted peaks were observed and assigned to the CIP and SSIP. The assignments are interpreted in the framework of the vibrational Stark effect (VSE) and are supported by (1) the solvent dependence of ion-pair populations, (2) the observation of a cryptand-separated sodium ion pair that mimics the formation of SSIPs, and (3) electronic structure calculations. In the second part of this work, we show that a blue-shift of the ν(C≡N) IR band due to the VSE can be induced in a nitrile-substituted fluorene radical anion by covalently tethering it to a metal-chelating ligand that forms an intramolecular ion pair upon reduction and complexation with sodium ion. This adds support to the conclusion that the shift in IR absorptions by ion pairing originates from the VSE. These results combined show that we can identify ion-pair structures by using the VSE, including the existence of SSIPs in a low-polarity solvent.« less

  13. Identification of ion-pair structures in solution by vibrational stark effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, John; Mani, Tomoyasu; Grills, David C.; Miller, John R.

    2016-01-25

    Here, ion pairing is a fundamental consideration in many areas of chemistry and has implications in a wide range of sciences and technologies that include batteries and organic photovoltaics. Ions in solution are known to inhabit multiple possible states, including free ions (FI), contact ion pairs (CIP), and solvent-separated ion pairs (SSIP). However, in solutions of organic radicals and nonmetal electrolytes, it is often difficult to distinguish between these states. In the first part of this work, we report evidence for the formation of SSIPs in low-polarity solvents and distinct measurements of CIP, SSIP, and FI, by using the ν(C≡N) infrared (IR) band of a nitrile-substituted fluorene radical anion. Use of time-resolved IR detection following pulse radiolysis allowed us to unambiguously assign the peak of the FI. In the presence of nonmetal electrolytes, two distinct red-shifted peaks were observed and assigned to the CIP and SSIP. The assignments are interpreted in the framework of the vibrational Stark effect (VSE) and are supported by (1) the solvent dependence of ion-pair populations, (2) the observation of a cryptand-separated sodium ion pair that mimics the formation of SSIPs, and (3) electronic structure calculations. In the second part of this work, we show that a blue-shift of the ν(C≡N) IR band due to the VSE can be induced in a nitrile-substituted fluorene radical anion by covalently tethering it to a metal-chelating ligand that forms an intramolecular ion pair upon reduction and complexation with sodium ion. This adds support to the conclusion that the shift in IR absorptions by ion pairing originates from the VSE. These results combined show that we can identify ion-pair structures by using the VSE, including the existence of SSIPs in a low-polarity solvent.

  14. Interplay between pairing and tensor effects in the N = 82 even-even isotone chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguiano, M.; Bernard, R. N.; Lallena, A. M.; Co', G.; De Donno, V.

    2016-11-01

    The combined effects of the pairing and tensor terms of the nuclear interaction are investigated by analyzing the ground state properties of the nuclei belonging to the isotonic chain N = 82. The pairing effects have been taken into account by considering both Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and Hartree-Fock plus Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer approaches using the same finite-range nuclear interaction, specifically a force of Gogny type. Our results reproduce very well the available experimental data of binding energies and charge radii. The study of the particle number fluctuation indicates that the presence of the tensor terms in the interaction reduces the pairing effects and produces new shell closures in some isotopes. The experimental behavior of the energy difference between neutron single particle states up to A = 140 is properly described only if the tensor force is considered.

  15. Stimulant Drug Effects on Touchscreen Automated Paired-Associates Learning (PAL) in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschlau, Corinna; Votteler, Angeline; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Here we tested in rats effects of the procognitive drugs modafinil and methylphenidate on post-acquisition performance in an object-location paired-associates learning (PAL) task. Modafinil (32; 64 mg/kg) was without effect, while higher (9 mg/kg) but not lower (4.5 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate impaired PAL performance. Likewise, higher but not…

  16. Estimation of Effect Size from a Series of Experiments Involving Paired Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Robert D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A distribution theory is derived for a G. V. Glass-type (1976) estimator of effect size from studies involving paired comparisons. The possibility of combining effect sizes from studies involving a mixture of related and unrelated samples is also explored. Resulting estimates are illustrated using data from previous psychiatric research. (SLD)

  17. Effect of noise correlations on randomized benchmarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Harrison; Stace, Thomas M.; Flammia, Steven T.; Biercuk, Michael J.

    2016-02-01

    Among the most popular and well-studied quantum characterization, verification, and validation techniques is randomized benchmarking (RB), an important statistical tool used to characterize the performance of physical logic operations useful in quantum information processing. In this work we provide a detailed mathematical treatment of the effect of temporal noise correlations on the outcomes of RB protocols. We provide a fully analytic framework capturing the accumulation of error in RB expressed in terms of a three-dimensional random walk in "Pauli space." Using this framework we derive the probability density function describing RB outcomes (averaged over noise) for both Markovian and correlated errors, which we show is generally described by a Γ distribution with shape and scale parameters depending on the correlation structure. Long temporal correlations impart large nonvanishing variance and skew in the distribution towards high-fidelity outcomes—consistent with existing experimental data—highlighting potential finite-sampling pitfalls and the divergence of the mean RB outcome from worst-case errors in the presence of noise correlations. We use the filter-transfer function formalism to reveal the underlying reason for these differences in terms of effective coherent averaging of correlated errors in certain random sequences. We conclude by commenting on the impact of these calculations on the utility of single-metric approaches to quantum characterization, verification, and validation.

  18. Exploring Electrical and Magnetic Resonances from Coherently Correlated Long-Lived Radical Pairs towards Development of Negative Refractive-Index Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-08

    permeability by using radical pairs, (4) mutual coupling between permittivity and permeability, and (5) high Seebeck effect from hybrid metal/polymer...foundation for realizing electromagnetic resonance towards the development of molecular metamaterials. 5. High Seebeck effects have been achieved by...permeability. 5. We discovered a new approach to develop high Seebeck effects by using common metal and conducting polymer materials based on

  19. Effect of ion pairing on the fluorescence of berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megyesi, Mónika; Biczók, László

    2007-10-01

    Effect of association with chloride or perchlorate anions on the fluorescence properties of berberine, a cationic isoquinoline alkaloid, has been studied. Interaction with Cl - caused more efficient fluorescence quenching; it significantly accelerated the radiationless deactivation and slowed down the radiative transition. Combined analysis of spectrophotometric, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence results provided 1.5 × 10 5 M -1 for the equilibrium constant of ion pairing with Cl - in CH 2Cl 2. Both ion pairing and enrichment of the microenvironment of berberine in ions led to excited state quenching in solvents of medium polarity, but only the latter effect was observed in the presence of perchlorates in butyronitrile.

  20. The effect of pair-instability mass loss on black-hole mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belczynski, K.; Heger, A.; Gladysz, W.; Ruiter, A. J.; Woosley, S.; Wiktorowicz, G.; Chen, H.-Y.; Bulik, T.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Holz, D. E.; Fryer, C. L.; Berti, E.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Mergers of two stellar-origin black holes are a prime source of gravitational waves and are under intensive investigation. One crucial ingredient in their modeling has been neglected: pair-instability pulsation supernovae with associated severe mass loss may suppress the formation of massive black holes, decreasing black-hole-merger rates for the highest black-hole masses. Aims: We demonstrate the effects of pair-instability pulsation supernovae on merger rate and mass using populations of double black-hole binaries formed through the isolated binary classical evolution channel. Methods: The mass loss from pair-instability pulsation supernova is estimated based on existing hydrodynamical calculations. This mass loss is incorporated into the StarTrack population synthesis code. StarTrack is used to generate double black-hole populations with and without pair-instability pulsation supernova mass loss. Results: The mass loss associated with pair-instability pulsation supernovae limits the Population I/II stellar-origin black-hole mass to 50 M⊙, in tension with earlier predictions that the maximum black-hole mass could be as high as 100 M⊙. In our model, neutron stars form with mass 1-2 M⊙. We then encounter the first mass gap at 2-5 M⊙ with the compact object absence due to rapid supernova explosions, followed by the formation of black holes with mass 5-50 M⊙, with a second mass gap at 50-135 M⊙ created by pair-instability pulsation supernovae and by pair-instability supernovae. Finally, black holes with masses above 135 M⊙ may potentially form to arbitrarily high mass limited only by the extent of the initial mass function and the strength of stellar winds. Suppression of double black-hole-merger rates by pair-instability pulsation supernovae is negligible for our evolutionary channel. Our standard evolutionary model, with the inclusion of pair-instability pulsation supernovae and pair-instability supernovae, is fully consistent with the Laser

  1. Hyper-Binding across Time: Age Differences in the Effect of Temporal Proximity on Paired-Associate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Karen L.; Trelle, Alexandra; Hasher, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Older adults show hyper- (or excessive) binding effects for simultaneously and sequentially presented distraction. Here, we addressed the potential role of hyper-binding in paired-associate learning. Older and younger adults learned a list of word pairs and then received an associative recognition task in which rearranged pairs were formed from…

  2. Effects of the osmolyte TMAO (Trimethylamine-N-oxide) on aqueous hydrophobic contact-pair interactions.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Ryan D; Khajehpour, Mazdak

    2013-12-31

    Osmolytes are small, soluble organic molecules produced by living organisms for maintaining cell volume. These molecules have also been shown to have significant effects on the stability of proteins. Perhaps one of the most studied osmolytes is Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Thermodynamic studies of the effects of TMAO on proteins have shown that this molecule is a strong stabilizer of the protein folded state, thus being able to counteract the effects of protein denaturants such as urea and guanidine hydrochloride. Most studies of TMAO effects on bio-molecular stability have until now been focused on how the osmolyte reduces the solubility of polypeptide backbones, while the effects of TMAO on hydrophobic interactions are still not well understood. In fact, there are few experimental data measuring the effect of TMAO on hydrophobic interactions. This work studies phenyl and alkyl contact pairs as model hydrophobic contact pairs. The formation of these contact pairs is monitored using fluorescence, i.e., through the quenching of phenol fluorescence by carboxylate ions; and a methodology is developed to isolate hydrophobic contributions from other interactions. The data demonstrate that the addition of TMAO to the aqueous solvent destabilizes hydrophobic contact pairs formed between alkyl and phenyl moieties. In other words, TMAO acts as a "denaturant" for hydrophobic interactions.

  3. EFFECTS OF ROTATION ON THE MINIMUM MASS OF PRIMORDIAL PROGENITORS OF PAIR-INSTABILITY SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Chatzopoulos, E.; Craig Wheeler, J.

    2012-03-20

    The issue of which stars may reach the conditions of electron/positron pair-formation instability is of importance to understand the final evolution both of the first stars and of contemporary stars. The criterion to enter the pair-instability regime in density and temperature is basically controlled by the mass of the oxygen core. The main-sequence masses that produce a given oxygen core mass are, in turn, dependent on metallicity, mass loss, and convective and rotationally induced mixing. We examine the evolution of massive stars to determine the minimum main-sequence mass that can encounter pair-instability effects, either a pulsational pair-instability supernova (PPISN) or a full-fledged pair-instability supernova (PISN). We concentrate on zero-metallicity stars with no mass-loss subject to the Schwarzschild criterion for convective instability, but also explore solar metallicity and mass loss and the Ledoux criterion. As expected, for sufficiently strong rotationally induced mixing, the minimum main-sequence mass is encountered for conditions that induce effectively homogeneous evolution such that the original mass is converted almost entirely to helium and then to oxygen. For this case, we find that the minimum main-sequence mass is about 40 M{sub Sun} to encounter PPISN and about 65 M{sub Sun} to encounter a PISN. The implications of these results for the first stars and for contemporary supernovae are discussed.

  4. Efficient and accurate local single reference correlation methods for high-spin open-shell molecules using pair natural orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Andreas; Liakos, Dimitrios G.; Neese, Frank

    2011-12-01

    A production level implementation of the high-spin open-shell (spin unrestricted) single reference coupled pair, quadratic configuration interaction and coupled cluster methods with up to doubly excited determinants in the framework of the local pair natural orbital (LPNO) concept is reported. This work is an extension of the closed-shell LPNO methods developed earlier [F. Neese, F. Wennmohs, and A. Hansen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114108 (2009), 10.1063/1.3086717; F. Neese, A. Hansen, and D. G. Liakos, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 064103 (2009), 10.1063/1.3173827]. The internal space is spanned by localized orbitals, while the external space for each electron pair is represented by a truncated PNO expansion. The laborious integral transformation associated with the large number of PNOs becomes feasible through the extensive use of density fitting (resolution of the identity (RI)) techniques. Technical complications arising for the open-shell case and the use of quasi-restricted orbitals for the construction of the reference determinant are discussed in detail. As in the closed-shell case, only three cutoff parameters control the average number of PNOs per electron pair, the size of the significant pair list, and the number of contributing auxiliary basis functions per PNO. The chosen threshold default values ensure robustness and the results of the parent canonical methods are reproduced to high accuracy. Comprehensive numerical tests on absolute and relative energies as well as timings consistently show that the outstanding performance of the LPNO methods carries over to the open-shell case with minor modifications. Finally, hyperfine couplings calculated with the variational LPNO-CEPA/1 method, for which a well-defined expectation value type density exists, indicate the great potential of the LPNO approach for the efficient calculation of molecular properties.

  5. DSP-4, a noradrenergic neurotoxin, produces sex-specific effects on pairing and courtship behavior in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Vahaba, Daniel M; Lacey, William H; Tomaszycki, Michelle L

    2013-09-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) is involved in a variety of behaviors across vertebrate species. In songbirds, NE is involved in singing and auditory perception, fundamental components of pair formation. Mechanisms of pairing remain poorly understood in avian species. NE is likely involved given its role in vocal communication and perception. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DSP-4 treatments (a noradrenergic neurotoxin that decreases NE) decreases singing in males, song perception in females and pairing in both sexes using a naturalistic paradigm. Females were tested for preferences of either control or DSP-4 males in a two-choice paradigm using live males. Both sexes were then tested for courtship and pair formation in aviaries. In the two-choice paradigm, control females showed a significant preference for control males over DSP-4 males, whereas DSP-4 females showed no such preference. In the aviary tests, DSP-4 males engaged in less courtship behavior, showed decreased pairing behaviors and increased pair latencies compared to control males. In females, DSP-4 treatments did not alter courtship or pairing behavior. Lower neural densities of noradrenergic fibers in song, auditory, and affiliative regions were observed in DSP-4 animals of both sexes. Furthermore, DBH-ir densities in these regions explained variations in courtship and pairing behaviors, as well as pairing status. Our results extend previous findings to naturalistic contexts, provide evidence that DBH-ir densities in specific regions correlate with pairing-related behaviors, and inform us of sex differences in the role of NE in pairing.

  6. Dissipative particle dynamics with an effective pair potential from integral equation theory of molecular liquids.

    PubMed

    Kobryn, Alexander E; Nikolić, Dragan; Lyubimova, Olga; Gusarov, Sergey; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2014-10-16

    We present a method of DPD simulation based on a coarse-grained effective pair potential obtained from the DRISM-KH molecular theory of solvation. The theory is first used to calculate the radial distribution functions of all-atom solute monomers in all-atom solvent and then to invert them into an effective pair potential between coarse-grained beads such that their fluid without solvent accounts for molecular specificities and solvation effects in the all-atom system. Bonded interactions are sampled in relatively short MD of the all-atom system and modeled with best multi-Gaussian fit. Replacing the heuristically defined conservative force potential in DPD, the coarse-grained effective pair potential is free from the artificial restrictions on potential range and shape and on equal volume of solute and solvent blobs inherent in standard DPD. The procedure is flexible in specifying coarse-grained mapping and enormously increases computational efficiency by eliminating solvent. The method is validated on polystyrene chains of various length in toluene at finite concentrations for room and polystyrene glass transition temperature. It yields the chain elastic properties and diffusion coefficient in good agreement with experiment and all-atom MD simulations. DPD with coarse-grained effective pair potential is capable of predicting both structural and dynamic properties of polymer solutions and soft matter with high accuracy and computational efficiency.

  7. Correlations of thermodynamic effects for developed cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billet, M. L.; Holl, J. W.; Weir, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    The net positive suction head (NPSH) requirements for a pump are determined by the combined effects of cavitation, fluid properties, pump geometry, and pump operating point. An important part of this determination is the temperature depression (Delta T). Correlations are presented of the temperature depression for various degrees of developed cavitation on venturis and ogives. These correlations, based on a semi-empirical entrainment theory, express Delta T in terms of the dimensionless numbers of Nusselt, Reynolds, Froude, Weber, and Peclet, and dimensionless cavity length (L/D). The Delta T data were obtained in Freon 114, hydrogen and nitrogen for the venturis and in Freon 113 and water for the ogives.

  8. Effects of the plasma profiles on photon and pair production in ultrahigh intensity laser solid interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Y. X.; Jin, X. L. Yan, W. Z.; Li, J. Q.; Li, B.; Yu, J. Q.

    2015-12-15

    The model of photon and pair production in strong field quantum electrodynamics is implemented into our 1D3V particle-in-cell code with Monte Carlo algorithm. Using this code, the evolution of the particles in ultrahigh intensity laser (∼10{sup 23} W/cm{sup 2}) interaction with aluminum foil target is observed. Four different initial plasma profiles are considered in the simulations. The effects of initial plasma profiles on photon and pair production, energy spectra, and energy evolution are analyzed. The results imply that one can set an optimal initial plasma profile to obtain the desired photon distributions.

  9. Pair-breaking effects by parallel magnetic field in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabeta, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kenta K.; Onari, Seiichiro; Ichioka, Masanori

    2016-11-01

    We study paramagnetic pair-breaking in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity, when magnetic field is applied parallel to the surface. The calculation is performed by Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory with s-wave pairing, including the screening effect of electric fields by the induced carriers near the surface. Due to the Zeeman shift by applied fields, electronic states at higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like. Therefore, the magnetic field dependence of Fermi-energy density of states reflects the multi-gap structure in the surface superconductivity.

  10. The Effect of Input on Children's Cross-Categorical Use of Polysemous Noun-Verb Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippeveld, Marie; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko

    2015-01-01

    Using an observational task followed by an experimental task with an Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm, we examined the effect of input on children's acquisition of class extension rules by investigating the relationship between the amount of polysemous noun-verb pairs in French-speaking 2-year-olds' input and both their spontaneous…

  11. Measuring the Effects of Virtual Pair Programming in an Introductory Programming Java Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharis, N. Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of virtual pair programming (VPP) on student performance and satisfaction in an introductory Java course. Students used online tools that integrated desktop sharing and real-time communication, and the metrics examined showed that VPP is an acceptable alternative to individual programming experience.…

  12. Juvenile social experience affects pairing success at adulthood: congruence with the loser effect?

    PubMed Central

    Mariette, Mylene M.; Cathaud, Charlène; Chambon, Rémi; Vignal, Clémentine

    2013-01-01

    Social interactions with adults are often critical for the development of mating behaviours. However, the potential role of other primary social partners such as juvenile counterparts is rarely considered. Most interestingly, it is not known whether interactions with juvenile females improve males’ courtship and whether, similar to the winner and loser effects in a fighting context—outcome of these interactions shapes males’ behaviour in future encounters. We investigated the combined effects of male quality and juvenile social experience on pairing success at adulthood in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We manipulated brood size to alter male quality and then placed males in either same- or mixed-sex juvenile dyads until adulthood. We found that males from reduced broods obtained more copulations and males from mixed-sex dyads had more complete courtships. Furthermore, independent of their quality, males that failed to pair with juvenile females, but not juvenile males, had a lower pairing success at adulthood. Our study shows that negative social experience with peers during adolescence may be a potent determinant of pairing success that can override the effects of early environmental conditions on male attractiveness and thereby supports the occurrence of an analogous process to the loser effect in a mating context. PMID:23902911

  13. The Effect of Incorporating Cooperative Learning Principles in Pair Programming for Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentz, E.; van der Walt, J. L.; Goosen, L.

    2008-01-01

    Based on their quantitative and qualitative investigations, the authors conclude that pair programming as a strategy for teaching student teachers could be made more effective through the incorporation of principles associated with cooperative learning. They substantiate this claim by referring to a literature study about the advantages and…

  14. Effects of Worked Examples, Example-Problem, and Problem-Example Pairs on Novices' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Paas, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that instruction that relies more heavily on example study is more effective for novices' learning than instruction consisting of problem solving. However, "a heavier reliance on example study" has been implemented in different ways. For example, worked examples only (WE), example-problem pairs (WE-PS), or problem-example…

  15. A critical base pair in k-turns that confers folding characteristics and correlates with biological function

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, Scott A.; Huang, Lin; Lilley, David M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Kink turns (k-turns) are widespread elements in RNA that mediate tertiary contacts by kinking the helical axis. We have found that the ability of k-turns to undergo ion-induced folding is conferred by a single base pair that follows the conserved A·G pairs, that is, the 3b·3n position. A Watson–Crick pair leads to an inability to fold in metal ions alone, while 3n=G or 3b=C (but not both) permits folding. Crystallographic study reveals two hydrated metal ions coordinated to O6 of G3n and G2n of Kt-7. Removal of either atom impairs Mg2+-induced folding in solution. While SAM-I riboswitches have 3b·3n sequences that would predispose them to ion-induced folding, U4 snRNA are strongly biased to an inability to such folding. Thus riboswitch sequences allow folding to occur independently of protein binding, while U4 should remain unfolded until bound by protein. The empirical rules deduced for k-turn folding have strong predictive value. PMID:25351101

  16. A critical base pair in k-turns that confers folding characteristics and correlates with biological function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, Scott A.; Huang, Lin; Lilley, David M. J.

    2014-10-01

    Kink turns (k-turns) are widespread elements in RNA that mediate tertiary contacts by kinking the helical axis. We have found that the ability of k-turns to undergo ion-induced folding is conferred by a single base pair that follows the conserved A·G pairs, that is, the 3b·3n position. A Watson-Crick pair leads to an inability to fold in metal ions alone, while 3n=G or 3b=C (but not both) permits folding. Crystallographic study reveals two hydrated metal ions coordinated to O6 of G3n and G2n of Kt-7. Removal of either atom impairs Mg2+-induced folding in solution. While SAM-I riboswitches have 3b·3n sequences that would predispose them to ion-induced folding, U4 snRNA are strongly biased to an inability to such folding. Thus riboswitch sequences allow folding to occur independently of protein binding, while U4 should remain unfolded until bound by protein. The empirical rules deduced for k-turn folding have strong predictive value.

  17. Effect of Exposure to Lithium-Paired or Amphetamine-Paired Saccharin Solution on Open Arm Avoidance in an Elevated Plus Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rana, Shadna A.; Parker, Linda A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that drug-induced conditioned taste avoidance may be mediated by conditioned fear (e.g., Parker, 2003). The experiments reported here evaluated the effect of exposure to a drug-paired flavor on open arm exploration in an elevated plus maze (EPM), a measure of fear. When rats were tested on a familiar (trial 2) EPM, but not…

  18. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT REST INTERVALS BETWEEN ANTAGONIST PAIRED SETS ON REPETITION PERFOMANCE AND MUSCLE ACTIVATION.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Maia, Marianna; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; Miranda, Humberto

    2014-03-11

    Recent evidence suggests that exercising the antagonist musculature acutely enhances subsequent performance for the agonist musculature. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets for exercises that involve antagonistic muscle groups; a technique referred to as antagonist paired sets (APS). Fifteen recreationally-trained men were tested for knee extension (KE) exercise performance, with or without prior knee flexion (KF) exercise for the antagonist musculature. The following protocols were performed in random order and with 10 repetition maximum (10RM) loads for the KF and KE exercises: 1) traditional protocol (TP) - one set of KE only to repetition failure; 2) paired sets with minimal allowable rest (PMR) - one set of KF followed immediately by a set of KE; 3) P30 - 30 seconds rest between paired sets of KF and KE; 4) P1 - 1-minute rest between paired sets; 5) P3 - 3-minutes rest between paired sets; and 6) P5 - 5-minutes rest between paired sets. The number of repetitions performed and EMG activity of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were recorded during the KE set in each protocol. It was demonstrated that significantly greater KE repetitions were completed during the PMR, P30 and P1 protocols versus the TP protocol. Significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the RF muscle during the KE exercise in the PMR and P30 versus the TP, P3 and P5, respectively. In addition, significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the VM muscle during the PMR versus all other protocols. The results of the current study indicate that no rest or relatively shorter rest intervals (30 sec and 1 min) between APS might be more effective to elicit greater agonist repetition enhancement and muscle activation.

  19. Effects of different rest intervals between antagonist paired sets on repetition performance and muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Maia, Marianna F; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Paz, Gabriel A; Miranda, Humberto

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that exercising the antagonist musculature acutely enhances subsequent performance for the agonist musculature. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets for exercises that involve antagonistic muscle groups, a technique referred to as antagonist paired sets (APS). Fifteen recreationally trained men were tested for knee extension (KE) exercise performance, with or without previous knee flexion (KF) exercise for the antagonist musculature. The following protocols were performed in random order with 10 repetition maximum loads for the KF and KE exercises: (a) traditional protocol (TP)-1 set of KE only to repetition failure; (b) paired sets with minimal allowable rest (PMR)-1 set of KF followed immediately by a set of KE; (c) P30-30-second rest between paired sets of KF and KE; (d) P1-1-minute rest between paired sets; (e) P3-3-minute rest between paired sets; and (f) P5-5-minute rest between paired sets. The number of repetitions performed and electromyographic (EMG) activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were recorded during the KE set in each protocol. It was demonstrated that significantly greater KE repetitions were completed during the PMR, P30, and P1 protocols vs. the TP protocol. Significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the RF muscle during the KE exercise in the PMR and P30 vs. the TP, P3, and P5, respectively. In addition, significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the VM muscle during the PMR vs. all other protocols. The results of this study indicate that no rest or relatively shorter rest intervals (30 seconds and 1 minute) between APS might be more effective to elicit greater agonist repetition enhancement and muscle activation.

  20. Pairing of Fermions with Unequal Effective Charges in an Artificial Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal, F. Nur; Oktel, M. Ö.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial magnetic fields (AMFs) created for ultracold systems depend sensitively on the internal structure of the atoms. In a mixture, each component experiences a different AMF depending on its internal state. This enables the study of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing of fermions with unequal effective charges. In this Letter, we investigate the superconducting (SC) transition of a system formed by such pairs as a function of field strength. We consider a homogeneous two-component Fermi gas of unequal effective charges but equal densities with attractive interactions. We find that the phase diagram is altered drastically compared to the usual balanced charge case. First, for some AMFs there is no SC transition and isolated SC phases are formed, reflecting the discrete Landau level (LL) structure. SC phases become reentrant both in AMF and temperature. For extremely high fields where both components are confined to their lowest LLs, the effect of the charge imbalance is suppressed. Charge asymmetry reduces the critical temperature even in the low-field semiclassical regime. We discuss a pair breaking mechanism due to the unequal Lorentz forces acting on the components of the Cooper pairs to identify the underlying physics.

  1. Suppression of the noninvolved pair of the myeloma isotype correlates with poor survival in newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory patients with myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Milosavljevic, Dejan; Berlanga, Oscar; Zojer, Niklas; Hübl, Wolfgang; Fritz, Veronique; Harding, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Heavy light chain (HLC) assays allow precise measurement of the monoclonal and of the noninvolved polyclonal immunoglobulins of the same isotype as the M‐protein (e.g., monoclonal IgAκ and polyclonal IgAλ in case of an IgAκ myeloma), which was not possible before. The noninvolved polyclonal immunoglobulin is termed ‘HLC‐matched pair’. We investigated the impact of the suppression of the HLC‐matched pair on outcome in 203 patients with multiple myeloma, a phenomenon that likely reflects the host's attempt to control the myeloma clone. Severe (>50%) HLC‐matched pair suppression was identified in 54.5% of the 156 newly diagnosed patients and was associated with significantly shorter survival (45.4 vs. 71.9 months, P = 0.019). This correlation was statistically significant in IgG patients (46.4 vs. 105.1 months, P = 0.017), but not in patients with IgA myelomas (32.9 vs. 54.1 months, P = 0.498). At best response, HLC‐matched pair suppression improved only in patients with ≥VGPR, indicating partial or complete humoral immune reconstitution during remission in those with excellent response. Severe HLC‐matched pair suppression retained its prognostic impact also during follow‐up after first response. In the 47 pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory disease, a similar correlation between severe HLC suppression and survival was noted (22.8 vs. not reached, P = 0.028). Suppression of the polyclonal immunoglobulins of the other isotypes than the myeloma protein correlated neither with HLC‐matched pair suppression, nor with outcome. Multivariate analysis identified severe HLC‐matched pair suppression as independent risk factor for shorter survival, highlighting the impact of isotype specific immune dysregulation on outcome in multiple myeloma. Am. J. Hematol. 91:295–301, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Hematology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26662888

  2. Leaf habit does not determine the investment in both physical and chemical defences and pair-wise correlations between these defensive traits.

    PubMed

    Moreira, X; Pearse, I S

    2016-12-23

    Plant life-history strategies associated with resource acquisition and economics (e.g. leaf habit) are thought to be fundamental determinants of the traits and mechanisms that drive herbivore pressure, resource allocation to plant defensive traits, and the simultaneous expression (positive correlations) or trade-offs (negative correlations) between these defensive traits. In particular, it is expected that evergreen species - which usually grow slower and support constant herbivore pressure in comparison with deciduous species - will exhibit higher levels of both physical and chemical defences and a higher predisposition to the simultaneous expression of physical and chemical defensive traits. Here, by using a dataset which included 56 oak species (Quercus genus), we investigated whether leaf habit of plant species governs the investment in both physical and chemical defences and pair-wise correlations between these defensive traits. Our results showed that leaf habit does not determine the production of most leaf physical and chemical defences. Although evergreen oak species had higher levels of leaf toughness and specific leaf mass (physical defences) than deciduous oak species, both traits are essentially prerequisites for evergreenness. Similarly, our results also showed that leaf habit does not determine pair-wise correlations between defensive traits because most physical and chemical defensive traits were simultaneously expressed in both evergreen and deciduous oak species. Our findings indicate that leaf habit does not substantially contribute to oak species differences in plant defence investment.

  3. A truncation hierarchy of coupled cluster models of strongly correlated systems based on perfect-pairing references: The singles+doubles models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhill, John A.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2010-09-01

    Paired, active-space treatments of static correlation are augmented with additional amplitudes to produce a hierarchy of parsimonious and efficient cluster truncations that approximate the total energy. The number of parameters introduced in these models grow with system size in a tractable way: two powers larger than the static correlation model it is built upon: for instance cubic for the models built on perfect pairing, fourth order for a perfect quadruples (PQ) reference, and fifth order for the models built on perfect hextuples. These methods are called singles+doubles (SD) corrections to perfect pairing, PQ, perfect hextuples, and two variants are explored. An implementation of the SD methods is compared to benchmark results for F2 and H2O dissociation problems, the H4 and H8 model systems, and the insertion of beryllium into hydrogen. In the cases examined even the quartic number of parameters associated with PQSD is able to provide results which meaningfully improve on coupled-cluster singles doubles (CCSD) (which also has quartic amplitudes) and compete with existing multi-reference alternatives.

  4. Investigations of fission characteristics and correlation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundorin, N. A.; Zeinalov, Sh. S.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Popov, A. B.; Furman, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    We review the experimental results on the P-even and P-odd angular correlations of fission fragments in the fission of the 235U and 239Pu nuclei induced by unpolarized and polarized resonance neutrons, and on the TRI and ROT effects in the ternary and binary fission of actinides induced by polarized thermal neutrons. Also reported are the measured yields of prompt and delayed neutrons per fission event. The experimental data are analyzed within a novel theoretical framework developed by the JINR—RNC KI Collaboration, whereby the reduction of the multidimensional phase space of fission fragments to the JπK-channel space is consistently validated and the role of resonance interference in the observed correlation effects is revealed.

  5. Interplay between electron pairing and Dicke effect in triple quantum dot structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Głodzik, S.; Wójcik, K. P.; Weymann, I.; Domański, T.

    2017-03-01

    We study the influence of the proximity-induced pairing on an electronic version of the Dicke effect in a heterostructure, comprising three quantum dots vertically coupled between the metallic and superconducting leads. We discuss a feasible experimental procedure for detecting the narrow/broad (subradiant/superradiant) contributions by means of the subgap Andreev spectroscopy. In the Kondo regime and for small energy level detuning the Dicke effect is manifested in the differential conductance.

  6. Effects of removing food on maintenance of drinking initiated by pairings of sipper and food.

    PubMed

    Tomie, Arthur; Costea, Nicu R; Vohra, Kashfia; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2011-05-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of removing food presentations on the maintenance of drinking induced by experience with sipper - food pairings. In Exp 1, ethanol drinking was induced in non-deprived Long-Evans rats by Pavlovian conditioning procedures employing an ethanol sipper as conditioned stimulus (CS) and food pellet as unconditioned stimulus (US). The Paired/Ethanol group received presentations of the ethanol sipper CS followed immediately by the response-independent presentation of the food pellet US. The Random/Ethanol group received the ethanol sipper CS and food US randomly with respect to one another. For both groups, the concentration of ethanol in the sipper CS [(3%, 4%, 6%, 8% (vol./vol.)] was increased across sessions, and, as in previous studies employing low concentrations of ethanol in non-deprived rats (i.e., maintained with free access to food in their home cages), the two procedures induced comparable levels of sipper CS-directed ethanol drinking. Removing food US presentations had no effect on sipper CS-directed ethanol drinking in either group. In Exp 2, groups of non-deprived Long-Evans rats were trained either with water or ethanol in the sipper CS paired with food US. Removing food US presentations had no effect on ethanol drinking in the Paired/Ethanol group, but water drinking in the Paired/Water group declined systematically across sessions. Results indicate that food US presentations contribute to the maintenance of water drinking but not to the maintenance of ethanol drinking. Implications for accounts of ethanol drinking based on Pavlovian sign-tracking, behavioral economics and intermittent sipper procedures are considered.

  7. Effects of paired-pulse and repetitive stimulation on neurons in the rat medial geniculate body.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, E L; Smith, P H

    2002-01-01

    Many behaviorally relevant sounds, including language, are composed of brief, rapid, repetitive acoustic features. Recent studies suggest that abnormalities in producing and understanding spoken language are correlated with abnormal neural responsiveness to such auditory stimuli at higher auditory levels [Tallal et al., Science 271 (1996) 81-84; Wright et al., Nature 387 (1997) 176-178; Nagarajan et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 6483-6488] and with abnormal anatomical features in the auditory thalamus [Galaburda et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 (1994) 8010-8013]. To begin to understand potential mechanisms for normal and abnormal transfer of sensory information to the cortex, we recorded the intracellular responses of medial geniculate body thalamocortical neurons in a rat brain slice preparation. Inferior colliculus or corticothalamic axons were excited by pairs or trains of electrical stimuli. Neurons receiving only excitatory collicular input had tufted dendritic morphology and displayed strong paired-pulse depression of their large, short-latency excitatory postsynaptic potentials. In contrast, geniculate neurons receiving excitatory and inhibitory collicular inputs could have stellate or tufted morphology and displayed much weaker depression or even paired-pulse facilitation of their smaller, longer-latency excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Depression was not blocked by ionotropic glutamate, GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptor antagonists. Facilitation was unaffected by GABA(A) receptor antagonists but was diminished by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade. Similar stimulation of the corticothalamic input always elicited paired-pulse facilitation. The NMDA-independent facilitation of the second cortical excitatory postsynaptic potential lasted longer and was more pronounced than that seen for the excitatory collicular inputs. Paired-pulse stimulation of isolated collicular inhibitory postsynaptic potentials generated little change in the

  8. Flexibility of short DNA helices with finite-length effect: From base pairs to tens of base pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuan-Yan; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Xi; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2015-03-01

    Flexibility of short DNA helices is important for the biological functions such as nucleosome formation and DNA-protein recognition. Recent experiments suggest that short DNAs of tens of base pairs (bps) may have apparently higher flexibility than those of kilo bps, while there is still the debate on such high flexibility. In the present work, we have studied the flexibility of short DNAs with finite-length of 5-50 bps by the all-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and Monte Carlo simulations with the worm-like chain model. Our microscopic analyses reveal that short DNAs have apparently high flexibility which is attributed to the significantly strong bending and stretching flexibilities of ˜6 bps at each helix end. Correspondingly, the apparent persistence length lp of short DNAs increases gradually from ˜29 nm to ˜45 nm as DNA length increases from 10 to 50 bps, in accordance with the available experimental data. Our further analyses show that the short DNAs with excluding ˜6 bps at each helix end have the similar flexibility with those of kilo bps and can be described by the worm-like chain model with lp ˜ 50 nm.

  9. Flexibility of short DNA helices with finite-length effect: From base pairs to tens of base pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuan-Yan; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Xi; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2015-03-28

    Flexibility of short DNA helices is important for the biological functions such as nucleosome formation and DNA-protein recognition. Recent experiments suggest that short DNAs of tens of base pairs (bps) may have apparently higher flexibility than those of kilo bps, while there is still the debate on such high flexibility. In the present work, we have studied the flexibility of short DNAs with finite-length of 5–50 bps by the all-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and Monte Carlo simulations with the worm-like chain model. Our microscopic analyses reveal that short DNAs have apparently high flexibility which is attributed to the significantly strong bending and stretching flexibilities of ∼6 bps at each helix end. Correspondingly, the apparent persistence length l{sub p} of short DNAs increases gradually from ∼29 nm to ∼45 nm as DNA length increases from 10 to 50 bps, in accordance with the available experimental data. Our further analyses show that the short DNAs with excluding ∼6 bps at each helix end have the similar flexibility with those of kilo bps and can be described by the worm-like chain model with l{sub p} ∼ 50 nm.

  10. Flexibility of short DNA helices with finite-length effect: From base pairs to tens of base pairs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Yan; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Xi; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2015-03-28

    Flexibility of short DNA helices is important for the biological functions such as nucleosome formation and DNA-protein recognition. Recent experiments suggest that short DNAs of tens of base pairs (bps) may have apparently higher flexibility than those of kilo bps, while there is still the debate on such high flexibility. In the present work, we have studied the flexibility of short DNAs with finite-length of 5-50 bps by the all-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and Monte Carlo simulations with the worm-like chain model. Our microscopic analyses reveal that short DNAs have apparently high flexibility which is attributed to the significantly strong bending and stretching flexibilities of ∼6 bps at each helix end. Correspondingly, the apparent persistence length lp of short DNAs increases gradually from ∼29 nm to ∼45 nm as DNA length increases from 10 to 50 bps, in accordance with the available experimental data. Our further analyses show that the short DNAs with excluding ∼6 bps at each helix end have the similar flexibility with those of kilo bps and can be described by the worm-like chain model with lp ∼ 50 nm.

  11. Nuclear quantum effect and temperature dependency on the hydrogen-bonded structure of base pairs.

    PubMed

    Daido, Masashi; Kawashima, Yukio; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2013-10-30

    The structure of Watson-Crick-type adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine pairs has been studied by hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) and path integral hybrid Monte Carlo (PIHMC) simulations with the use of semiempirical PM6-DH+ method in the gas phase. We elucidated the nuclear quantum effect and temperature dependency on the hydrogen-bonded moiety of base pairs. It was shown that the contribution of nuclear quantum effect on the hydrogen-bonded structure is significant not only at low temperature 150 K but also at temperature as high as 450 K. The relative position of hydrogen-bonded proton between two heavy atoms and the nuclear quantum nature of the proton are also shown. Furthermore, we have applied principal component analysis to HMC and PIHMC simulations to analyze the nuclear quantum effect on intermolecular motions. We found that the ratio of Buckle mode (lowest vibrational mode from normal mode analysis) decreases due to the nuclear quantum effect, whereas that of Propeller mode (second lowest vibrational mode) increases. In addition, nonplanar structures of base pairs were found to become stable due to the nuclear quantum effect from two-dimensional free energy landscape along Buckle and Propeller modes.

  12. Theory of correlation effects in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Avinash, K.

    2015-03-15

    A theory of correlation effects in dusty plasmas based on a suitably augmented Debye Huckel approximation is proposed. A model which takes into account the confinement of the dust within the plasma (by external fields) is considered. The dispersion relation of compressional modes with correlation effects is obtained. Results show that strong coupling effects may be subdominant even when Γ ≫ 1. Thus, in the limit Γ→0 and/or κ → ∞, one obtains the weakly coupled dust thermal mode. In the range of values of Γ ≫ 1, the strong coupling effects scale with κ instead of Γ; increasing Γ increases the dust acoustic waves phase velocity C{sub DAW} in this regime. In the limit Γ≫1,κ≪1, one obtains the weakly coupled dust acoustic wave. Only in the limit Γ≫1,κ≥1, one obtains strong coupling effects, e.g., the dust lattice waves (κ=a/λ{sub d}, a is the mean particle distance and λ{sub d} is the Debye length). Observations from a number of experiments are explained.

  13. Electron-hole pair effects in methane dissociative chemisorption on Ni(111).

    PubMed

    Luo, Xuan; Jiang, Bin; Juaristi, J Iñaki; Alducin, Maite; Guo, Hua

    2016-07-28

    The dissociative chemisorption of methane on metal surfaces has attracted much attention in recent years as a prototype of gas-surface reactions in understanding the mode specific and bond selective chemistry. In this work, we systematically investigate the influence of electron-hole pair excitations on the dissociative chemisorption of CH4/CH3D/CHD3 on Ni(111). The energy dissipation induced by surface electron-hole pair excitations is modeled as a friction force introduced in the generalized Langevin equation, in which the independent atomic friction coefficients are determined within the local-density friction approximation. Quasi-classical trajectory calculations for CH4/CH3D/CHD3 have been carried out on a recently developed twelve-dimensional potential energy surface. Comparing the dissociation probabilities obtained with and without friction, our results clearly indicate that the electron-hole pair effects are generally small, both on absolute reactivity of each vibrational state and on the mode specificity and bond selectivity. Given similar observations in both water and methane dissociation processes, we conclude that electron-hole pair excitations would not play an important role as long as the reaction is direct and the interaction time between the molecule and metal electrons is relatively short.

  14. Effect of drug-paired exteroceptive stimulus presentations on methamphetamine reinstatement in rats.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Keith L; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of drug-paired cues on methamphetamine reinstatement. Three groups of rats were trained to self-administer 0.1 mg/kg/infusion methamphetamine. Each methamphetamine infusion was accompanied by a 6 s flashing light+tone stimulus (cues). After training, the groups were then given 12, daily extinction sessions either with or without response-contingent drug-paired cues and then tested for 1 mg/kg i.p. methamphetamine priming-induced reinstatement either with or without cues. Methamphetamine priming significantly reinstated drug-appropriate responding regardless of whether response-contingent cues were omitted during both extinction and testing, presented during both extinction and testing, or omitted during extinction but presented during reinstatement testing. The group in which cues were omitted during extinction and presented during reinstatement exhibited significantly greater reinstatement than did the other two groups. A separate group of rats was also tested demonstrating that response-contingent presentation of previously methamphetamine-paired cues alone, without methamphetamine priming, significantly reinstated drug-appropriate responding. These data show that methamphetamine priming produces a robust reinstatement effect which can be influenced by drug-paired cues.

  15. Unconventional Disorder Effects in Correlated Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastiasoro, Maria N.; Bernardini, Fabio; Andersen, Brian M.

    2016-12-01

    We study the effects of disorder on unconventional superconductors in the presence of correlations, and explore a novel correlated disorder paradigm dominated by strong deviations from standard Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory due to generation of local bound states and cooperative impurity behavior driven by Coulomb interactions. Specifically we explain under which circumstances magnetic disorder acts as a strong poison destroying high-Tc superconductivity at the sub-1% level, and when nonmagnetic disorder, counterintuitively, hardly affects the unconventional superconducting state while concomitantly inducing an inhomogeneous full-volume magnetic phase. Recent experimental studies of Fe-based superconductors have discovered that such unusual disorder behavior seems to be indeed present in those systems.

  16. Unconventional Disorder Effects in Correlated Superconductors.

    PubMed

    Gastiasoro, Maria N; Bernardini, Fabio; Andersen, Brian M

    2016-12-16

    We study the effects of disorder on unconventional superconductors in the presence of correlations, and explore a novel correlated disorder paradigm dominated by strong deviations from standard Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory due to generation of local bound states and cooperative impurity behavior driven by Coulomb interactions. Specifically we explain under which circumstances magnetic disorder acts as a strong poison destroying high-T_{c} superconductivity at the sub-1% level, and when nonmagnetic disorder, counterintuitively, hardly affects the unconventional superconducting state while concomitantly inducing an inhomogeneous full-volume magnetic phase. Recent experimental studies of Fe-based superconductors have discovered that such unusual disorder behavior seems to be indeed present in those systems.

  17. Effects of the protein denaturant guanidinium chloride on aqueous hydrophobic contact-pair interactions.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Ryan D; Khajehpour, Mazdak

    2015-01-01

    Guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) is one of the most common protein denaturants. Although GdmCl is well known in the field of protein folding, the mechanism by which it denatures proteins is not well understood. In fact, there are few studies looking at its effects on hydrophobic interactions. In this work the effect of GdmCl on hydrophobic interactions has been studied by observing how the denaturant influences model systems of phenyl and alkyl hydrophobic contact pairs. Contact pair formation is monitored through the use of fluorescence spectroscopy, i.e., measuring the intrinsic phenol fluorescence being quenched by carboxylate ions. Hydrophobic interactions are isolated from other interactions through a previously developed methodology. The results show that GdmCl does not significantly affect hydrophobic interactions between small moieties such as methyl groups and phenol; while on the other hand, the interaction of larger hydrophobes such as hexyl and heptyl groups with phenol is significantly destabilized.

  18. Thermal and dynamical effects of pair production on two-temperature accretion flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Sikora, Marek; Rees, Martin J.

    1987-01-01

    The two-temperature criterion for quasi-spherical (ion-pressure supported) accretion onto a black hole, including the effects of electron-positron pair production is studied. For an interesting range of accretion rates, Coulomb interactions between protons and pairs can cool the innermost regions of the accretion flow. The cooled plasma, assumed to possess some angular momentum, will collapse onto the equatorial plane, forming an optically thick annulus. Hysteresis effects involved in the cooling criterion are expected to lead to bistability or time dependence, which may be associated with variability in certain classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Radiation from the annulus may be responsible for the EUV/soft X-ray excess observed in some AGNs.

  19. Expression of paired basic amino acid-cleaving enzyme 4 (PACE4) correlated with prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yun-En; Wu, Qi-Nian; Lin, Xiao-Dong; Li, Guang-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Background Paired basic amino acid-cleaving enzyme 4 (PACE4) was shown to enhance tumor cells proliferation and invasive. This study provides the first investigation of PACE4 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the correlation with clinicopathologic features, prognostic indicators of 172 cases. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence (IF) were applied to detect PACE4 expression in NSCLC and 16HBE cell lines, then 172 consecutive NSCLC and 15 normal lung tissues were studied through immunohistochemistry (IHC). The association between PACE4 expression and clinicopathological parameters was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of PACE4 expression on survival. Results PACE4 expression in NSCLC were significantly higher than normal lung cell and tissues (P<0.05). PACE4 had cytoplasmic expression and was observed in 111 of the 172 (64.5%) NSCLC patients. Clinicopathologically, PACE4 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (N stage) (P=0.007), and clinical stage (P=0.024). Multivariable analysis confirmed that PACE4 expression increased the hazard of death after adjusting for other clinicopathological factors [hazards ratio (HR): 1.584; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.167-2.151; P<0.001]. Overall survival (OS) was significantly prolonged in PACE4 negative group when compared with PACE4 positive group (5-year survival rates, 23.1% vs. 54.5%, log-rank test, χ2=17.717, P<0.001), as was disease-free survival (DFS) (5-year survival rates, 23.4% vs. 55.4%, log-rank test, χ2=20.486, P<0.001). Conclusions Our results suggest that positive expression of PACE4 is an independent factor for NSCLC patients and it might serve as a potential prognostic biomarker for patients with NSCLC. PMID:26101640

  20. Correlation effects in the iron pnictides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jian-xin; Si, Qimiao; Abrahams, Elihu; Dai, Jianhui

    2009-01-01

    One of the central questions about the iron pnictides concerns the extent to which their electrons are strongly correlated. Here we address this issue through the phenomenology of the charge transport and dynamics, single-electron excitation spectrum, and magnetic ordering and dynamics. We outline the evidence that the parent compounds, while metallic, have electron interactions that are sufficiently strong to produce incipient Mott physics. In other words, in terms of the strength of electron correlations compared to the kinetic energy, the iron pnictides are closer to intermediately-coupled systems lying at the boundary between itinerancy and localization, such as V{sub 2}O{sub 3} a or Se-doped NiS{sub 2} , rather than to simple antiferromagnetic metals like Cr. This level of electronic correlations produces a new small parameter for controlled theoretical analyses, namely the fraction of the single-electron spectral weight that lies in the coherent part. Using this expansion parameter, we construct the effective low-energy Hamiltonian and discuss its implications for the magnetic order and magnetic quantum criticality. Finally, this approach sharpens the notion of magnetic frustration for such a metallic system, and brings about a multi band matrix t-J{sub 1}-J{sub 2} model for the carrier-doped iron pnictides.

  1. Renormalization group-induced phenomena of top pairs from four-quark effective operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunghoon; Ko, P.; Yoon, Yeo Woong; Yu, Chaehyun

    2014-08-01

    We study the renormalization group(RG) evolution of four-quark operators that contribute to the top pair production. In particular, we focus on the cases in which certain observables are first induced from the one-loop RG while being absent at tree-level. From the operator mixing pattern, we classify all such RG-induced phenomena and underlying models that can induce them. We then calculate the full one-loop QCD RG evolution as the leading estimator of the effects and address the question of which RG-induced phenomena have largest and observable effects. The answer is related to the color structure of QCD. The studied topics include the RG-induction of top asymmetries, polarizations and polarization mixings as well as issues arising at this order. The RG-induction of top asymmetries is further compared with the generation of asymmetries from QCD and QED at one-loop order. We finally discuss the validity of using the RG as the proxy of one-loop effects on the top pair production. As an aside, we clarify the often-studied relations between top pair observables.

  2. Correlated Uncertainties in Radiation Shielding Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werneth, Charles M.; Maung, Khin Maung; Blattnig, Steve R.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    The space radiation environment is composed of energetic particles which can deliver harmful doses of radiation that may lead to acute radiation sickness, cancer, and even death for insufficiently shielded crew members. Spacecraft shielding must provide structural integrity and minimize the risk associated with radiation exposure. The risk of radiation exposure induced death (REID) is a measure of the risk of dying from cancer induced by radiation exposure. Uncertainties in the risk projection model, quality factor, and spectral fluence are folded into the calculation of the REID by sampling from probability distribution functions. Consequently, determining optimal shielding materials that reduce the REID in a statistically significant manner has been found to be difficult. In this work, the difference of the REID distributions for different materials is used to study the effect of composition on shielding effectiveness. It is shown that the use of correlated uncertainties allows for the determination of statistically significant differences between materials despite the large uncertainties in the quality factor. This is in contrast to previous methods where uncertainties have been generally treated as uncorrelated. It is concluded that the use of correlated quality factor uncertainties greatly reduces the uncertainty in the assessment of shielding effectiveness for the mitigation of radiation exposure.

  3. Effect of isospin dependence of radius on transverse flow and fragmentation in isobaric pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Sakshi

    2013-11-01

    We study the role of nuclear structure effects through radius in reaction dynamics via transverse flow and multifragmentation of isobaric colliding pairs. Our study reveals that isospin-dependent radius [proposed by Royer and Rousseau [Eur. Phys. J. A10.1140/epja/i2008-10745-8 42, 541 (2009)] has significant effect towards isospin effects. The collective flow behavior and fragmentation pattern of neutron-rich system with respect to neutron-deficient system is found to get reversed with isospin-dependent radius compared to that with liquid drop radius.

  4. Allowing for Correlations between Correlations in Random-Effects Meta-Analysis of Correlation Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevost, A. Toby; Mason, Dan; Griffin, Simon; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Sutton, Stephen; Spiegelhalter, David

    2007-01-01

    Practical meta-analysis of correlation matrices generally ignores covariances (and hence correlations) between correlation estimates. The authors consider various methods for allowing for covariances, including generalized least squares, maximum marginal likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, illustrated using a 6-dimensional response in a series of…

  5. A critical base pair in k-turns determines the conformational class adopted, and correlates with biological function

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Wang, Jia; Lilley, David M. J.

    2016-01-01

    k-turns are commonly-occurring motifs that introduce sharp kinks into duplex RNA, thereby facilitating tertiary contacts. Both the folding and conformation of k-turns are determined by their local sequence. k-turns fall into two conformational classes, called N3 and N1, that differ in the pattern of hydrogen bonding in the core. We show here that this is determined by the basepair adjacent to the critical G•A pairs. We determined crystal structures of a series of Kt-7 variants in which this 3b,3n position has been systematically varied, showing that this leads to a switch in the conformation. We have previously shown that the 3b,3n position also determines the folding characteristics of the k-turn, i.e. whether or not the k-turn can fold in the presence of metal ions alone. We have analyzed the distribution of 3b,3n sequences from four classes of k-turns from ribosomes, riboswitches and U4 snRNA, finding a strong conservation of properties for a given k-turn type. We thus demonstrate a strong association between biological function, 3b,3n sequence and k-turn folding and conformation. This has strong predictive power, and can be applied to the modeling of large RNA architectures. PMID:27016741

  6. A critical base pair in k-turns determines the conformational class adopted, and correlates with biological function.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Wang, Jia; Lilley, David M J

    2016-06-20

    k-turns are commonly-occurring motifs that introduce sharp kinks into duplex RNA, thereby facilitating tertiary contacts. Both the folding and conformation of k-turns are determined by their local sequence. k-turns fall into two conformational classes, called N3 and N1, that differ in the pattern of hydrogen bonding in the core. We show here that this is determined by the basepair adjacent to the critical G•A pairs. We determined crystal structures of a series of Kt-7 variants in which this 3b,3n position has been systematically varied, showing that this leads to a switch in the conformation. We have previously shown that the 3b,3n position also determines the folding characteristics of the k-turn, i.e. whether or not the k-turn can fold in the presence of metal ions alone. We have analyzed the distribution of 3b,3n sequences from four classes of k-turns from ribosomes, riboswitches and U4 snRNA, finding a strong conservation of properties for a given k-turn type. We thus demonstrate a strong association between biological function, 3b,3n sequence and k-turn folding and conformation. This has strong predictive power, and can be applied to the modeling of large RNA architectures.

  7. Effects of thermal shape fluctuations and pairing fluctuations on the giant dipole resonance in warm nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhine Kumar, A. K.; Arumugam, P.; Dang, N. Dinh

    2015-04-01

    Apart from the higher limits of isospin and temperature, the properties of atomic nuclei are intriguing and less explored at the limits of lowest but finite temperatures. At very low temperatures there is a strong interplay between the shell (quantal fluctuations), statistical (thermal fluctuations), and residual pairing effects as evidenced from the studies on giant dipole resonance (GDR). In our recent work [Phys. Rev. C 90, 044308 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevC.90.044308], we have outlined some of our results from a theoretical approach for such warm nuclei where all these effects are incorporated along within the thermal shape fluctuation model (TSFM) extended to include the fluctuations in the pairing field. In this article, we present the complete formalism based on the microscopic-macroscopic approach for determining the deformation energies and a macroscopic approach which links the deformation to GDR observables. We discuss our results for the nuclei 97Tc,120Sn,179Au, and 208Pb, and corroborate with the experimental data available. The TSFM could explain the data successfully at low temperature only with a proper treatment of pairing and its fluctuations. More measurements with better precision could yield rich information about several phase transitions that can happen in warm nuclei.

  8. Spectroscopic Evidence of the Aharonov-Casher Effect in a Cooper Pair Box.

    PubMed

    Bell, M T; Zhang, W; Ioffe, L B; Gershenson, M E

    2016-03-11

    We observe the effect of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) interference on the spectrum of a superconducting system containing a symmetric Cooper pair box (CPB) and a large inductance. By varying the charge n_{g} induced on the CPB island, we observe oscillations of the device spectrum with the period Δn_{g}=2e. These oscillations are attributed to the charge-controlled AC interference between the fluxon tunneling processes in the CPB Josephson junctions. The measured phase and charge dependences of the frequencies of the |0⟩→|1⟩ and |0⟩→|2⟩ transitions are in good agreement with our numerical simulations. Almost complete suppression of the single fluxon tunneling due to destructive interference is observed for the charge n_{g}=e(2n+1). The CPB in this regime enables fluxon pairing, which can be used for the development of parity-protected superconducting qubits.

  9. Spectroscopic Evidence of the Aharonov-Casher Effect in a Cooper Pair Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. T.; Zhang, W.; Ioffe, L. B.; Gershenson, M. E.

    2016-03-01

    We observe the effect of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) interference on the spectrum of a superconducting system containing a symmetric Cooper pair box (CPB) and a large inductance. By varying the charge ng induced on the CPB island, we observe oscillations of the device spectrum with the period Δ ng=2 e . These oscillations are attributed to the charge-controlled AC interference between the fluxon tunneling processes in the CPB Josephson junctions. The measured phase and charge dependences of the frequencies of the |0 ⟩→|1 ⟩ and |0 ⟩→|2 ⟩ transitions are in good agreement with our numerical simulations. Almost complete suppression of the single fluxon tunneling due to destructive interference is observed for the charge ng=e (2 n +1 ). The CPB in this regime enables fluxon pairing, which can be used for the development of parity-protected superconducting qubits.

  10. Strong-field Breit-Wheeler pair production in short laser pulses: Relevance of spin effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, M. J. A.; Kamiński, J. Z.; Krajewska, K.; Müller, C.

    2016-07-01

    Production of electron-positron pairs in the collision of a high-energy photon with a high-intensity few-cycle laser pulse is studied. By utilizing the frameworks of laser-dressed spinor and scalar quantum electrodynamics, a comparison between the production of pairs of Dirac and Klein-Gordon particles is drawn. Positron energy spectra and angular distributions are presented for various laser parameters. We identify conditions under which predictions from Klein-Gordon theory either closely resemble or largely differ from those of the proper Dirac theory. In particular, we address the question to which extent the relevance of spin effects is influenced by the short duration of the laser pulse.

  11. Neural correlates of the numerical distance effect in children

    PubMed Central

    Mussolin, Christophe; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Pesenti, Mauro; Grandin, Cécile; De Volder, Anne G.

    2013-01-01

    In number comparison tasks, the performance is better when the distance between the numbers to compare increases. It has been shown that this so-called numerical distance effect (NDE) decreases with age but the neuroanatomical correlates of these age-related changes are poorly known. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we recorded the brain activity changes in children aged from 8 to 14 years while they performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits and a control color comparison task on non-numerical symbols. On the one hand, we observed developmental changes in the recruitment of frontal regions and the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS), with lower activation as age increased. On the other hand, we found that a behavioral index of selective sensitivity to the NDE was positively correlated with higher brain activity in a right lateralized occipito-temporo-parietal network including the IPS. This leads us to propose that the left IPS would be engaged in the refinement of cognitive processes involved in number comparison during development, while the right IPS would underlie the semantic representation of numbers and its activation would be mainly affected by the numerical proximity between them. PMID:24151473

  12. Spatial Instabilities, Homogeneities and Proximity Effects: Highly Correlated Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Dynes, Robert C.

    2008-10-31

    We have developed a superconducting scanning tunneling microscope (S-STM) which is a direct and local probe of the pair wave function of superconducting materials via the Josephson effect and quasiparticle spectra via scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The novel feature of this device is a superconducting tip (Pb with an Ag capping layer) in close proximity to a superconducting sample to form a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction. The operation of this S-STM has been verified in the observation of Josephson tunneling between the tip and different sample systems including Pb films and NbSe{sub 2}. This instrument was employed in the study of High T{sub c} superconductors and spatial inhomogeneities. The major accomplishments in the current grant period are observations of c-axis Josephson tunneling between a conventional superconductor (Pb) and variously doped BSSCO samples. These observations are reported: (1) C-axis Josephson couplings between Pb and both OP and OV-BSCCO. This is surprising if BSCCO is strictly a d-wave superconductor; (2) ICRN of the OP sample seemed to be much smaller than those of OV samples; (3) ICRN inhomogeneity is correlated with the gap inhomogeneity on the length scale of ξ in the OV samples; (4) Inverse correlation between ICRN and Δ in OV samples; (5) Degradations of the superconductivity of BSCCO by high current density.

  13. Multifrequency sources of quantum correlated photon pairs on-chip: a path toward integrated Quantum Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspani, Lucia; Reimer, Christian; Kues, Michael; Roztocki, Piotr; Clerici, Matteo; Wetzel, Benjamin; Jestin, Yoann; Ferrera, Marcello; Peccianti, Marco; Pasquazi, Alessia; Razzari, Luca; Little, Brent E.; Chu, Sai T.; Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments in quantum photonics have initiated the process of bringing photonic-quantumbased systems out-of-the-lab and into real-world applications. As an example, devices to enable the exchange of a cryptographic key secured by the laws of quantum mechanics are already commercially available. In order to further boost this process, the next step is to transfer the results achieved by means of bulky and expensive setups into miniaturized and affordable devices. Integrated quantum photonics is exactly addressing this issue. In this paper, we briefly review the most recent advancements in the generation of quantum states of light on-chip. In particular, we focus on optical microcavities, as they can offer a solution to the problem of low efficiency that is characteristic of the materials typically used in integrated platforms. In addition, we show that specifically designed microcavities can also offer further advantages, such as compatibility with telecom standards (for exploiting existing fibre networks) and quantum memories (necessary to extend the communication distance), as well as giving a longitudinal multimode character for larger information transfer and processing. This last property (i.e., the increased dimensionality of the photon quantum state) is achieved through the ability to generate multiple photon pairs on a frequency comb, corresponding to the microcavity resonances. Further achievements include the possibility of fully exploiting the polarization degree of freedom, even for integrated devices. These results pave the way for the generation of integrated quantum frequency combs that, in turn, may find important applications toward the realization of a compact quantum-computing platform.

  14. Observation of Noise Correlated by the Hawking Effect in a Water Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euvé, L.-P.; Michel, F.; Parentani, R.; Philbin, T. G.; Rousseaux, G.

    2016-09-01

    We measured the power spectrum and two-point correlation function for the randomly fluctuating free surface on the downstream side of a stationary flow with a maximum Froude number Fmax≈0.85 reached above a localized obstacle. On such a flow the scattering of incident long wavelength modes is analogous to that responsible for black hole radiation (the Hawking effect). Our measurements of the noise show a clear correlation between pairs of modes of opposite energies. We also measure the scattering coefficients by applying the same analysis of correlations to waves produced by a wave maker.

  15. Observation of Noise Correlated by the Hawking Effect in a Water Tank.

    PubMed

    Euvé, L-P; Michel, F; Parentani, R; Philbin, T G; Rousseaux, G

    2016-09-16

    We measured the power spectrum and two-point correlation function for the randomly fluctuating free surface on the downstream side of a stationary flow with a maximum Froude number F_{max}≈0.85 reached above a localized obstacle. On such a flow the scattering of incident long wavelength modes is analogous to that responsible for black hole radiation (the Hawking effect). Our measurements of the noise show a clear correlation between pairs of modes of opposite energies. We also measure the scattering coefficients by applying the same analysis of correlations to waves produced by a wave maker.

  16. Predicting Bond Dissociation Energies of Transition-Metal Compounds by Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory and Second-Order Perturbation Theory Based on Correlated Participating Orbitals and Separated Pairs.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Odoh, Samuel O; Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G

    2017-02-14

    We study the performance of multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT) and multireference perturbation theory for the computation of the bond dissociation energies in 12 transition-metal-containing diatomic molecules and three small transition-metal-containing polyatomic molecules and in two transition-metal dimers. The first step is a multiconfiguration self-consistent-field calculation, for which two choices must be made: (i) the active space and (ii) its partition into subspaces, if the generalized active space formulation is used. In the present work, the active space is chosen systematically by using three correlated-participating-orbitals (CPO) schemes, and the partition is chosen by using the separated-pair (SP) approximation. Our calculations show that MC-PDFT generally has similar accuracy to CASPT2, and the active-space dependence of MC-PDFT is not very great for transition-metal-ligand bond dissociation energies. We also find that the SP approximation works very well, and in particular SP with the fully translated BLYP functional SP-ftBLYP is more accurate than CASPT2. SP greatly reduces the number of configuration state functions relative to CASSCF. For the cases of FeO and NiO with extended-CPO active space, for which complete active space calculations are unaffordable, SP calculations are not only affordable but also of satisfactory accuracy. All of the MC-PDFT results are significantly better than the corresponding results with broken-symmetry spin-unrestricted Kohn-Sham density functional theory. Finally we test a perturbation theory method based on the SP reference and find that it performs slightly worse than CASPT2 calculations, and for most cases of the nominal-CPO active space, the approximate SP perturbation theory calculations are less accurate than the much less expensive SP-PDFT calculations.

  17. Effect of ambient turbulence on the evolution of a counter-rotating vortex pair.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Madiha; Hussain, Fazle

    2007-11-01

    In an attempt to explain and develop strategy for control of aircraft wake vortex in a turbulent atmosphere, the evolution of a vortex column dipole (a pair of counter-rotating vortices) in the presence of fine-scale (homogeneous and isotropic) freestream turbulence is studied via DNS of the Navier-Stokes equations. The freestream turbulence is found to significantly accelerate the vortex decay via a complex vortex-turbulence coupling scenario, which we study. External fine-scale turbulence is first stretched into azimuthal filaments (see also Melander & Hussain, PRE, vol 48 (1993)) which merge into threads through successive pairings and advect along the column dipole by self-induction. Oppositely-directed advection of opposite-signed threads forms thread dipoles which then move outward by mutual-induction and also eject column fluid (see also J. S. Marshall, JFM, vol 345 (1997)). This has the effect of enhancing both mixing with the ambient fluid and the nominally planar reconnection (cross-diffusion) between the column vortex pair. We then further explore the column vortex dipole-turbulence interaction scenario and vortex decay dependence on parameters like the column vortex Reynolds number, separation of the vortices, and the intensity and scale of freestream turbulence.

  18. Correlates of Baclofen Effectiveness in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Lekhansh; Shukla, Tulika; Bokka, Spandana; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek; Murthy, Pratima; Chand, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201) or Baclofen (348). ‘Time to first drink’ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75) and Acamprosate group (M = 3.73, SD = 2.19); t (547) = 2.45, P = 0.01. Initial regression analysis with six predictor variables (average daily alcohol units, current age, age at onset of dependence, family history, duration of dependence and dose of baclofen in mg/day) showed significant correlation of outcome variable with only two predictor variables — dose of baclofen and average daily intake. Using the hierarchical method it was found that ‘dose of baclofen’ and ‘average alcohol intake’ explain a significant amount of variance in ‘time to first drink’. [F (1, 345) = 182.8, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.52, R2adjusted = 0.51]. This information can be used to select patients in long term longitudinal studies and may explain variable results seen in clinical trials of baclofen done earlier. PMID:26664095

  19. Double transverse wave-vector correlations in photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by Bessel-Gauss beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicuña-Hernández, Verónica; Santiago, José T.; Jerónimo-Moreno, Yasser; Ramírez-Alarcón, Roberto; Cruz-Ramírez, Héctor; U'Ren, Alfred B.; Jáuregui-Renaud, Rocio

    2016-12-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of type I, frequency-degenerate spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) with a Bessel-Gauss pump in which we include both paraxial and nonparaxial pump beam configurations. We present measurements of the SPDC angular spectrum (AS), of the conditional angular spectrum (CAS) of signal-mode single photons as heralded by the detection of an idler photon, and of the transverse wave-vector signal-idler correlations (TWC). We show that as the pump is made increasingly nonparaxial, the AS acquires a nonconcentric double-cone structure, with the CAS shape depending on the azimuthal location of the heralding detector, while the signal-idler wave-vector correlation region splits into characteristic doublet stripes, representing as yet unexplored nontrivial, nonlocal quantum correlations between the signal and idler photons. Our work provides further understanding of SPDC with a particular class of structured pump beams, and we believe that the controlled presence of double wave-vector correlations represents an interesting resource for photon-pair quantum-state engineering.

  20. Effects of multivalent hexacyanoferrates and their ion pairs on water molecule dynamics measured with terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    DiTucci, Matthew J; Böhm, Fabian; Schwaab, Gerhard; Williams, Evan R; Havenith, Martina

    2017-02-27

    The valency of aqueous solutes plays a large role in determining the extent of ion-water dynamics, which can greatly influence the chemical and physical properties of solutions. In these experiments, broadband Fourier transform terahertz spectroscopy is used to probe perturbations to the low-frequency dynamics of water molecules by three different multivalent hexacyanoferrate salts. K3Fe(CN)6, K4Fe(CN)6 and Na4Fe(CN)6 were investigated as a function of concentration up to their solubility limits using spectral subtractions and fitting with damped harmonic lineshapes. Regions with subtle nonlinearities in amplitude with respect to solute concentration provide insight into ion-pairing events. The extent of nonlinearity suggests that ion pairs are major constituents in solution for all concentrations measured and is consistent with ion-pairing observed at millimolar concentrations by potentiometric and spectroscopic measurements. A lower estimate for the number of water molecules that are influenced by each ion is obtained from the damped harmonic fits. Values of 19, 28 and 25 water molecules with perturbed dynamics are obtained for KFe(CN)6(2-), KFe(CN)6(3-) and NaFe(CN)6(3-) ion pairs, respectively. These values represent dynamical perturbations into a second solvation shell and are consistent with the long-range structural effects observed in recent aqueous nanodrop spectroscopy experiments. Furthermore, the spectral absorptions for hexacyanoferrates are in agreement with a wide range of solutes studied previously using the developing methodology for interpreting terahertz spectra.

  1. Pairing Learners by Companionship: Effects on Motor Skill Performance and Comfort Levels in the Reciprocal Style of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatoupis, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Mosston and Ashworth's (2008) reciprocal style of teaching gives learners the opportunity to work in pairs to support each other's learning (one practices a task and the other gives feedback). The effects of pairing learners by companionship (friend and nonacquaintance) on 8-year-old children's motor skill performance and comfort levels were…

  2. The Effects of Answer Copying on the Ability Level Estimates of Cheater Examinees in Answer Copying Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of answer copying on the ability level estimates of cheater examinees in answer copying pairs. The study generated answer copying pairs for each of 1440 conditions, source ability (12) x cheater ability (12) x amount of copying (10). The average difference between the ability level estimates…

  3. The second law of thermodynamics and multifractal distribution functions: Bin counting, pair correlations, and the Kaplan Yorke conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.; Posch, H. A.; Codelli, J. A.

    2007-03-01

    We explore and compare numerical methods for the determination of multifractal dimensions for a doubly-thermostatted harmonic oscillator. The equations of motion are continuous and time-reversible. At equilibrium the distribution is a four-dimensional Gaussian, so that all the dimension calculations can be carried out analytically. Away from equilibrium the distribution is a surprisingly isotropic multifractal strange attractor, with the various fractal dimensionalities in the range 1 < D < 4. The attractor is relatively homogeneous, with projected two-dimensional information and correlation dimensions which are nearly independent of direction. Our data indicate that the Kaplan-Yorke conjecture (for the information dimension) fails in the full four-dimensional phase space. We also find no plausible extension of this conjecture to the projected fractal dimensions of the oscillator. The projected growth rate associated with the largest Lyapunov exponent is negative in the one-dimensional coordinate space.

  4. SparseMaps—A systematic infrastructure for reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. IV. Linear-scaling second-order explicitly correlated energy with pair natural orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavošević, Fabijan; Pinski, Peter; Riplinger, Christoph; Neese, Frank; Valeev, Edward F.

    2016-04-01

    We present a formulation of the explicitly correlated second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2-F12) energy in which all nontrivial post-mean-field steps are formulated with linear computational complexity in system size. The two key ideas are the use of pair-natural orbitals for compact representation of wave function amplitudes and the use of domain approximation to impose the block sparsity. This development utilizes the concepts for sparse representation of tensors described in the context of the domain based local pair-natural orbital-MP2 (DLPNO-MP2) method by us recently [Pinski et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 034108 (2015)]. Novel developments reported here include the use of domains not only for the projected atomic orbitals, but also for the complementary auxiliary basis set (CABS) used to approximate the three- and four-electron integrals of the F12 theory, and a simplification of the standard B intermediate of the F12 theory that avoids computation of four-index two-electron integrals that involve two CABS indices. For quasi-1-dimensional systems (n-alkanes), the O (" separators="N ) DLPNO-MP2-F12 method becomes less expensive than the conventional O (" separators="N5 ) MP2-F12 for n between 10 and 15, for double- and triple-zeta basis sets; for the largest alkane, C200H402, in def2-TZVP basis, the observed computational complexity is N˜1.6, largely due to the cubic cost of computing the mean-field operators. The method reproduces the canonical MP2-F12 energy with high precision: 99.9% of the canonical correlation energy is recovered with the default truncation parameters. Although its cost is significantly higher than that of DLPNO-MP2 method, the cost increase is compensated by the great reduction of the basis set error due to explicit correlation.

  5. Neutron-Proton Pairing Correlation for the Rotational Motion of N = Z 72Kr, 76Sr, and 80Zr Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Prianka; Dhiman, Shashi K.

    The high-spin state properties of the neutron-proton (np) residual effective interaction are analyzed in N = Z 72Kr, 76Sr, and 80Zr nuclei. The self-consistent microscopic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) equations have been solved by employing monopole corrected two-body effective interaction. A band crossing is observed in 72Kr nucleus at J = 14ℏ state with monopole corrected "HPU1" and "HPU2" effective interactions. The VAP-HFB theory suggests that the "4p-4h" excitations by np residual interaction are the essential ingredients of the mean-field description of the occurence of backbending in 72Kr nucleus.

  6. Tagging the EMC effect with Short-Range Correlated protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilad, Shalev; Schmookler, Barak

    2014-09-01

    A linear correlation is observed between the slope of the typical EMC curve for 0.3 correlated (SRC) nucleon pairs in nuclei. This correlation is surprising because of the vastly different energy and distance scales of EMC and SRC. A possible explanation is that the modification of the nucleon structure-functions F2(A) in the nucleus depend on the virtuality of nucleons and is pronounced for SRC nucleons that are highly virtual. We are studying this hypothesis by tagging EMC events with high-momentum protons recoiling backward to the transferred-momentum direction, which have been shown to be spectators in scattering off their SRC partners. The DIS data off several nuclei were collected during the eg2 running period using the CLAS detector at JLab. These data are being analyzed now as part of the data mining project. We shall present preliminary results of ratios of inclusive DIS A(e,e')X/d(e,e')X, semi-exclusive DIS A(e , e 'precoil)X/d(e,e'precoil)X and semi-exclusive to inclusive DIS A(e,e'precoil)X/d(e,e')X. We shall discuss these results with respect to our hypothesis that the EMC effect is related to DIS from highly virtual, SRC nucleons.

  7. Electron-Hole Pair Effects in Polyatomic Dissociative Chemisorption: Water on Ni(111).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Alducin, Maite; Guo, Hua

    2016-01-21

    The influence of electron-hole pairs in dissociative chemisorption of a polyatomic molecule (water) on metal surfaces is assessed for the first time using a friction approach. The atomic local density dependent friction coefficients computed based on a free electron gas embedding model are employed in classical molecular dynamics simulations of the water dissociation dynamics on rigid Ni(111) using a recently developed nine dimensional interaction potential energy surface for the system. The results indicate that nonadiabatic effects are relatively small and they do not qualitatively alter the mode specificity in the dissociation.

  8. Approaching magnetic field effects in biology using the radical pair mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Jeffrey Michael

    1997-11-01

    The overall goal of this thesis has been to explain any of the reported magnetic field effects in biology (magnetic orientation of many species and/or health effects, such as cancer, due to man-made electromagnetic fields) using the radical pair mechanism, a quantum mechanical mechanism known for over 20 years that lets singlet-to-triplet yields (which can be related to reaction rates) of radical pair reactions depend on applied magnetic fields. This goal seems reasonable considering the known roles of many biological free radicals in cancer, disease, aging, development, and cellular signaling, the constant reminders in the media to take anti-oxidant vitamins to protect against certain deleterious free radicals, and the success of the radical pair mechanism in explaining magnetic field effects in photosynthetic reaction centers. To approach the above goal, this thesis develops several methods (using perturbation theory and other techniques in the Schrodinger and Liouville formalisms) for calculating singlet-to-triplet yields in combinations of steady and oscillating fields (some of these algorithms are more versatile or efficient while others give more insight, and all serve as cross-checks on each other) and uses these tools to explore and explain a number of interesting phenomena such as yields sensitive to the magnitude and orientation of earth-strength (0.5 G) steady fields as well as the magnitude, orientation, and frequency of very weak (7 mG or less) oscillating fields. In particular, this thesis examines such effects in several coenzyme B12 systems, systems long studied by EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, the chief method for determining the spin Hamiltonians, spin relaxation rates, and other parameters needed for calculations) in which organometallic cobalt-carbon bonds are often cleaved homolytically to form radical pairs. Among the B12-dependent enzymes are ribonucleotide reductase (which converts RNA to DNA nucleotides), methyl malonyl CoA mutase

  9. Enol tautomers of Watson-Crick base pair models are metastable because of nuclear quantum effects.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Alejandro; Tuckerman, Mark E; Hjalmarson, Harold P; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2010-08-25

    Intermolecular enol tautomers of Watson-Crick base pairs could emerge spontaneously via interbase double proton transfer. It has been hypothesized that their formation could be facilitated by thermal fluctuations and proton tunneling, and possibly be relevant to DNA damage. Theoretical and computational studies, assuming classical nuclei, have confirmed the dynamic stability of these rare tautomers. However, by accounting for nuclear quantum effects explicitly through Car-Parrinello path integral molecular dynamics calculations, we find the tautomeric enol form to be dynamically metastable, with lifetimes too insignificant to be implicated in DNA damage.

  10. Fluctuation-driven anisotropy in effective pair interactions between nanoparticles: Thiolated gold nanoparticles in ethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabes, B. Shadrack; Yadav, Hari O. S.; Kumar, Sanat K.; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2014-10-01

    Fluctuations within the ligand shell of a nanoparticle give rise to a significant degree of anisotropy in effective pair interactions for low grafting densities [B. Bozorgui, D. Meng, S. K. Kumar, C. Chakravarty, and A. Cacciuto, Nano Lett. 13, 2732 (2013)]. Here, we examine the corresponding fluctuation-driven anisotropy for gold nanocrystals densely passivated with short ligands. In particular, we consider gold nanocrystals capped by alkylthiols, both in vacuum and in ethane solvent at high density. As in the preceding study, we show that the anisotropy in the nanoparticle pair potential can be quantified by an angle-dependent correction term to the isotropic potential of mean force (PMF). We find that the anisotropy of the ligand shells is distance dependent, and strongly influenced by ligand interdigitation effects as well as expulsion of ligand chains from the interparticle region at short distances. Such fluctuation-driven anisotropy can be significant for alkylthiol-coated gold nanoparticles, specially for longer chain lengths, under good solvent conditions. The consequences of such anisotropy for self-assembly, specially as a function of grafting density, solvent quality and at interfaces, should provide some interesting insights in future work. Our results clearly show that an isotropic two-body PMF cannot adequately describe the thermodynamics and assembly behavior of nanoparticles in this dense grafting regime and inclusion of anisotropic effects, as well as possibly many-body interactions, is necessary. Extensions of this approach to other passivated nanoparticle systems and implications for self-assembly are considered.

  11. Estimation of intervention effect using paired interval-censored data with clumping below lower detection limit.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Lam, K F; Cowling, Benjamin J; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2015-01-30

    Outcome variables that are semicontinuous with clumping at zero are commonly seen in biomedical research. In addition, the outcome measurement is sometimes subject to interval censoring and a lower detection limit (LDL). This gives rise to interval-censored observations with clumping below the LDL. Level of antibody against influenza virus measured by the hemagglutination inhibition assay is an example. The interval censoring is due to the assay's technical procedure. The clumping below LDL is likely a result of the lack of prior exposure in some individuals such that they either have zero level of antibodies or do not have detectable level of antibodies. Given a pair of such measurements from the same subject at two time points, a binary 'fold-increase' endpoint can be defined according to the ratio of these two measurements, as it often is in vaccine clinical trials. The intervention effect or vaccine immunogenicity can be assessed by comparing the binary endpoint between groups of subjects given different vaccines or placebos. We introduce a two-part random effects model for modeling the paired interval-censored data with clumping below the LDL. Based on the estimated model parameters, we propose to use Monte Carlo approximation for estimation of the 'fold-increase' endpoint and the intervention effect. Bootstrapping is used for variance estimation. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation. We analyze antibody data from an influenza vaccine trial for illustration.

  12. Fluctuation-driven anisotropy in effective pair interactions between nanoparticles: Thiolated gold nanoparticles in ethane

    SciTech Connect

    Jabes, B. Shadrack; Yadav, Hari O. S.; Chakravarty, Charusita; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2014-10-21

    Fluctuations within the ligand shell of a nanoparticle give rise to a significant degree of anisotropy in effective pair interactions for low grafting densities [B. Bozorgui, D. Meng, S. K. Kumar, C. Chakravarty, and A. Cacciuto, Nano Lett. 13, 2732 (2013)]. Here, we examine the corresponding fluctuation-driven anisotropy for gold nanocrystals densely passivated with short ligands. In particular, we consider gold nanocrystals capped by alkylthiols, both in vacuum and in ethane solvent at high density. As in the preceding study, we show that the anisotropy in the nanoparticle pair potential can be quantified by an angle-dependent correction term to the isotropic potential of mean force (PMF). We find that the anisotropy of the ligand shells is distance dependent, and strongly influenced by ligand interdigitation effects as well as expulsion of ligand chains from the interparticle region at short distances. Such fluctuation-driven anisotropy can be significant for alkylthiol-coated gold nanoparticles, specially for longer chain lengths, under good solvent conditions. The consequences of such anisotropy for self-assembly, specially as a function of grafting density, solvent quality and at interfaces, should provide some interesting insights in future work. Our results clearly show that an isotropic two-body PMF cannot adequately describe the thermodynamics and assembly behavior of nanoparticles in this dense grafting regime and inclusion of anisotropic effects, as well as possibly many-body interactions, is necessary. Extensions of this approach to other passivated nanoparticle systems and implications for self-assembly are considered.

  13. When mothers make sons sexy: maternal effects contribute to the increased sexual attractiveness of extra-pair offspring

    PubMed Central

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Rutstein, Alison N.; Griffith, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    Quality differences between offspring sired by the social and by an extra-pair partner are usually assumed to have a genetic basis, reflecting genetic benefits of female extra-pair mate choice. In the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), we identified a colour ornament that is under sexual selection and appears to have a heritable basis. Hence, by engaging in extra-pair copulations with highly ornamented males, females could, in theory, obtain genes for increased offspring attractiveness. Indeed, sons sired by extra-pair partners had larger ornaments, seemingly supporting the genetic benefit hypothesis. Yet, when comparing ornament size of the social and extra-pair partners, there was no difference. Hence, the observed differences most likely had an environmental basis, mediated, for example, via differential maternal investment of resources into the eggs fertilized by extra-pair and social partners. Such maternal effects may (at least partly) be mediated by egg size, which we found to be associated with mean ornament expression in sons. Our results are consistent with the idea that maternal effects can shape sexual selection by altering the genotype–phenotype relationship for ornamentation. They also caution against automatically attributing greater offspring attractiveness or viability to an extra-pair mate's superior genetic quality, as without controlling for differential maternal investment we may significantly overestimate the role of genetic benefits in the evolution of extra-pair mating behaviour. PMID:21957136

  14. Paired stable isotopologues in precipitation and vapor: A case study of the amount effect within western tropical Pacific storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Jessica L.; Noone, David; Cobb, Kim M.; Moerman, Jessica W.; Konecky, Bronwen L.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding controls on the stable isotopic composition of precipitation and vapor in the West Pacific Warm Pool is vital for accurate representation of convective processes in models and correct interpretation of isotope-based paleoclimate proxies, yet a lack of direct observational evidence precludes the utility of these isotopic tracers. Results from a measurement campaign at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea from 28 April to 8 May 2013 demonstrate variability in the stable isotopic composition (δD and δ18O) of precipitation and vapor in individual precipitation events and over a 10 day period. Isotope ratios in water vapor and precipitation progressively increased throughout the period of measurement, coincident with a transition from high to low regional convective activity. Vapor isotope ratios approached equilibrium with seawater during the quiescent period and likely reflected downwind advection of distilled vapor and re-evaporation of rainfall during the period of regional convection. On a 5 min timescale across individual storms, isotope ratios in precipitation were strongly correlated with isotope ratios in surface vapor. However, individual precipitation isotope ratios were not strongly correlated with surface meteorological data, including precipitation rate, in all storms. Yet across all events, precipitation deuterium excess was negatively correlated with surface temperature, sea level pressure, and cloud base height and positively correlated with precipitation rate and relative humidity. Paired surface precipitation and vapor isotope ratios indicate condensation at boundary layer temperatures. The ratio of these paired values decreased with increasing precipitation rate during some precipitation events, suggesting rain re-evaporation and precipitation in equilibrium with an isotopically distinct upper level moisture source. Results from the short campaign support the interpretation that isotope ratios in precipitation and vapor in the western

  15. Using full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo in a seniority zero space to investigate the correlation energy equivalence of pair coupled cluster doubles and doubly occupied configuration interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, James J.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2016-03-01

    Over the past few years, pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) has shown promise for the description of strong correlation. This promise is related to its apparent ability to match results from doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), even though the latter method has exponential computational cost. Here, by modifying the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo algorithm to sample only the seniority zero sector of Hilbert space, we show that the DOCI and pCCD energies are in agreement for a variety of 2D Hubbard models, including for systems well out of reach for conventional configuration interaction algorithms. Our calculations are aided by the sign problem being much reduced in the seniority zero space compared with the full space. We present evidence for this and then discuss the sign problem in terms of the wave function of the system which appears to have a simplified sign structure.

  16. Effect of the relative velocity on the collision dipole in a pair of atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, J.; Galatry, L.

    1983-08-01

    It is shown that the dispersive collision induced dipole in a pair of atoms is dependent on the relative velocity of the partners. Two formulations taking into account this effect are successively presented. In the first one, the origin of the induced dipole lies in the energy coupling between the fluctuating instantaneous dipole of an atom and the reaction field due to the presence of the neighbor; the effect of the relative velocity is introduced through a Fourier expansion of the time dependent internuclear distance. The second method is based on the consideration of the secular equation for approximate instantaneous normal modes of the whole system. In the two cases, the vanishing velocity limit allows to find again a known result. For a nonzero relative velocity, a limited expansion is obtained and the two lowest order terms are given. Order of magnitude of the effects are estimated in a model of harmonic oscillators.

  17. Experimental investigation of the role of the triplet pairing in the superconducting spin-valve effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leksin, P. V.; Kamashev, A. A.; Garif'yanov, N. N.; Validov, A. A.; Fominov, Ya. V.; Schumann, J.; Kataev, V. E.; Büchner, B.; Garifullin, I. A.

    2016-11-01

    An important role of the morphology of a superconducting layer in the superconducting spin-valve effect has been established. The triplet pairing induced by the superconductor/ferromagnet proximity effect has been experimentally investigated for samples CoO x /Py1/Cu/Py2/Cu/Pb (where Py = Ni0.81Fe0.19) with a smooth superconducting layer. The optimization of the parameters of this structure has demonstrated a complete switching between the normal and superconducting states with a change in the relative orientation of magnetizations of the ferromagnetic layers from the antiparallel to orthogonal orientation. A pure triplet contribution has been observed for the sample with a permalloy layer thickness at which the superconducting spin-valve effect vanishes. A direct comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical calculation of the temperature of the transition to the superconducting state has been performed for the first time.

  18. Effects of citalopram on the excitability of the human motor cortex: a paired magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Robol, Elisa; Fiaschi, Antonio; Manganotti, Paolo

    2004-06-15

    Several recent reports suggest the possibility of monitoring pharmacological effects on brain excitability through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Different drugs have been studied using paired magnetic stimulation in normal subjects and patients. In particular, it has been suggested that antidepressant drugs may have an appreciable effect on motor excitability. The aim of the present study was to investigate motor area excitability in normal subjects after oral administration of a single dose of citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant. Motor cortex excitability was studied by single and paired transcranial magnetic stimulation before and 2.5 and 36 (t1/2=36 h) h after oral administration of 30 mg of citalopram. Cortical excitability was measured using different transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters: motor threshold (MT), motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and latency, motor recruitment, duration of cortical silent period (CSP), intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation. Spinal excitability and peripheral nerve conduction were measured by F response and M wave. Temporary but significant increases in motor threshold, motor-evoked potentials, silent period and intracortical inhibition were observed 2.5 h after drug administration, without any significant changes in motor-evoked potential amplitude and latency and spinal excitability parameters. Our findings suggest that a single oral dose of citalopram can induce significant but transitory suppression of motor cortex excitability in normal subjects.

  19. Electron Correlation Effects in Biological Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. L.; Endres, R.; Kulkarni, R. V.; Labute, M.; Singh, R. R. P.

    2002-07-01

    Allosteric (conformation changing) proteins with transition metal atoms are at the heart of much important biological function (e.g., myoglobin hemoglobin used for storing and transporting oxygen in the bloodstream). In the case of myoglobin and hemoglobin, oxygen ligation to the iron center induces a spin crossover (high to low) coupled to a structural change; apart from the role of Hunds' exchange in the spin crossover, electron interaction effects have been ignored. We argue that the spin crossover/structure change observed in the similarly structured but far simpler cobalt valence tautomer molecules1 necessitates an inclusion of underscreened Kondo like correlations for a complete description of the energetics of the transition and dynamics, e.g., for x-ray absorption data. We carry this study out with Varma-Yafet-Gunnarsson-Schonhammer wave functions, which, in chemistry language, are basis set restricted configuration interaction in character. We briefly review the applicability of such wave functions to the description of the putative Kondo molecules cerocene (Ce[(CH)5]2) and ytterbocene bipyridine (Yb[(CH)5]2(bipy)) and to the problem of electron transfer in biological molecules and organic conductors, where anomalous long range tunneling may occur.

  20. Electron Correlation Effects in Biological Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. L.; Endres, R.; Kulkarni, R. V.; Labute, M.; Singh, R. R. P.

    Allosteric (conformation changing) proteins with transition metal atoms are at the heart of much important biological function (e.g., myoglobin hemoglobin used for storing and transporting oxygen in the bloodstream). In the case of myoglobin and hemoglobin, oxygen ligation to the iron center induces a spin crossover (high to low) coupled to a structural change; apart from the role of Hunds' exchange in the spin crossover, electron interaction effects have been ignored. We argue that the spin crossover/structure change observed in the similarly structured but far simpler cobalt valence tautomer molecules1 necessitates an inclusion of underscreened Kondo like correlations for a complete description of the energetics of the transition and dynamics, e.g., for x-ray absorption data. We carry this study out with Varma-Yafet-Gunnarsson-Schonhammer wave functions, which, in chemistry language, are basis set restricted configuration interaction in character. We briefly review the applicability of such wave functions to the description of the putative Kondo molecules cerocene (Ce[(CH)5]2) and ytterbocene bipyridine (Yb[(CH)5]2(bipy)) and to the problem of electron transfer in biological molecules and organic conductors, where anomalous long range tunneling may occur. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Research.

  1. Ordered pairing in liquid metallic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlsson, A. E.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1983-01-01

    We study two possible types of pairing involving the protons of a proposed low-temperature liquid phase metallic hydrogen. Electron-proton pairing, which can result in an insulating phase, is investigated by using an approximate solution of an Eliashberg-type equation for the anomalous self-energy. A very low estimate of the transition temperature is obtained by including proton correlations in the effective interaction. For proton-proton pairing, we derive a new proton pair potential based on the Abrikosov wave function. This potential includes the electron-proton interaction to all orders and has a much larger well depth than is obtained with linear screening methods. This suggests the possibility of either a superfluid paired phase analogous to that in He-3, or alternatively a phase with true molecular pairing.

  2. An effective pair potential for thermodynamics and structural properties of liquid mercury.

    PubMed

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Bretonnet, Jean-Louis

    2006-02-07

    The properties of liquid mercury are investigated by using an empirical effective pair potential. Its parameters are determined with the aid of Monte Carlo simulation along the liquid branch of the liquid-vapor coexistence curve. The complexity of the electronic structure of dense metal mercury supposes a state dependence of the interatomic interactions, while no more state dependence is found in the metal-nonmetal transition region. It is shown that the use of this effective potential leads to an accurate description of the structural and thermodynamic properties of the expanded liquid mercury. Then, the melting and freezing phenomena are investigated with that potential. Sharp melting and freezing temperatures are observed at 234 and 169 K, respectively. This large hysteresis loop between freezing and melting is consistent with the experiments for the bulk mercury.

  3. Effect of phenolic radicals on the geometry and electronic structure of DNA base pairs: computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei, Mohammad; Seif, Abdolvahab; Azizi, Khaled; Zarei, Mohanna; Bahrami, Jamil

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we show the reaction of a hydroxyl, phenyl and phenoxy radicals with DNA base pairs by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The influence of solvation on the mechanism is also presented by the same DFT calculations under the continuum solvation model. The results showed that hydroxyl, phenyl and phenoxy radicals increase the length of the nearest hydrogen bond of adjacent DNA base pair which is accompanied by decrease in the length of furthest hydrogen bond of DNA base pair. Also, hydroxyl, phenyl and phenoxy radicals influenced the dihedral angle between DNA base pairs. According to the results, hydrogen bond lengths between AT and GC base pairs in water solvent are longer than vacuum. All of presented radicals influenced the structure and geometry of AT and GC base pairs, but phenoxy radical showed more influence on geometry and electronic properties of DNA base pairs compared with the phenyl and hydroxyl radicals.

  4. Ecology of dark matter haloes -II. Effects of interactions on the alignment of halo pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2017-01-01

    We use the Horizon Run 4 cosmological N-body simulation to study the effects of distant and close interactions on the alignments of the shapes, spins, and orbits of targets haloes with their neighbours, and their dependence on the local density environment and neighbour separation. Interacting targets have a significantly lower spin and higher sphericity and oblateness than all targets. Interacting pairs initially have anti-parallel spins, but the spins develop parallel alignment as time goes on. Neighbours tend to evolve in the plane of rotation of the target, and in the direction of the major axis of prolate haloes. Moreover, interactions are preferentially radial, while pairs with non-radial orbits are preferentially prograde. The alignment signals are stronger at high-mass and for close separations, and independent on the large-scale density. Positive alignment signals are found at redshifts up to 4, and increase with decreasing redshifts. Moreover, the orbits tend to become prograde at low redshift, while no alignment is found at high redshift (z = 4).

  5. Effects of dorsal hippocampus catecholamine depletion on paired-associates learning and place learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Roschlau, Corinna; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2017-04-14

    Growing evidence suggests that the catecholamine (CA) neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline support hippocampus-mediated learning and memory. However, little is known to date about which forms of hippocampus-mediated spatial learning are modulated by CA signaling in the hippocampus. Therefore, in the current study we examined the effects of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced CA depletion in the dorsal hippocampus on two prominent forms of hippocampus-based spatial learning, that is learning of object-location associations (paired-associates learning) as well as learning and choosing actions based on a representation of the context (place learning). Results show that rats with CA depletion of the dorsal hippocampus were able to learn object-location associations in an automated touch screen paired-associates learning (PAL) task. One possibility to explain this negative result is that object-location learning as tested in the touchscreen PAL task seems to require relatively little hippocampal processing. Results further show that in rats with CA depletion of the dorsal hippocampus the use of a response strategy was facilitated in a T-maze spatial learning task. We suspect that impaired hippocampus CA signaling may attenuate hippocampus-based place learning and favor dorsolateral striatum-based response learning.

  6. Effect of an external electric field on the escape probability in groups of multiple ion pairs in irradiated nonpolar liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachiya, M.; Hummel, A.

    1989-02-01

    The effect of an external electric field on the probability for ions to escape from recombination in groups of multiple ion pairs in irradiated nonpolar liquids is studied theoretically. It is shown analytically that the escape probability increases linearly with increasing field in the low-field limit and that the slope-to-intercept ratio in this limit is given by the same constant as that derived by Onsager for the case of a single ion pair. This result is in agreement with recent Monte Carlo results on multi-pair spurs reported by Bartczak and Hummel.

  7. Inverse Temperature Dependence of Nuclear Quantum Effects in DNA Base Pairs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite the inherently quantum mechanical nature of hydrogen bonding, it is unclear how nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) alter the strengths of hydrogen bonds. With this in mind, we use ab initio path integral molecular dynamics to determine the absolute contribution of NQEs to the binding in DNA base pair complexes, arguably the most important hydrogen-bonded systems of all. We find that depending on the temperature, NQEs can either strengthen or weaken the binding within the hydrogen-bonded complexes. As a somewhat counterintuitive consequence, NQEs can have a smaller impact on hydrogen bond strengths at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperature. We rationalize this in terms of a competition of NQEs between low-frequency and high-frequency vibrational modes. Extending this idea, we also propose a simple model to predict the temperature dependence of NQEs on hydrogen bond strengths in general. PMID:27195654

  8. Autoinduced catalysis and inverse equilibrium isotope effect in the frustrated Lewis pair catalyzed hydrogenation of imines.

    PubMed

    Tussing, Sebastian; Greb, Lutz; Tamke, Sergej; Schirmer, Birgitta; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Luy, Burkhard; Paradies, Jan

    2015-05-26

    The frustrated Lewis pair (FLP)-catalyzed hydrogenation and deuteration of N-benzylidene-tert-butylamine (2) was kinetically investigated by using the three boranes B(C6F5)3 (1), B(2,4,6-F3-C6H2)3 (4), and B(2,6-F2-C6H3)3 (5) and the free activation energies for the H2 activation by FLP were determined. Reactions catalyzed by the weaker Lewis acids 4 and 5 displayed autoinductive catalysis arising from a higher free activation energy (2 kcal mol(-1)) for the H2 activation by the imine compared to the amine. Surprisingly, the imine reduction using D2 proceeded with higher rates. This phenomenon is unprecedented for FLP and resulted from a primary inverse equilibrium isotope effect.

  9. Inverse Temperature Dependence of Nuclear Quantum Effects in DNA Base Pairs.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Chen, Ji; Rossi, Mariana; Feng, Yexin; Li, Xin-Zheng; Michaelides, Angelos

    2016-06-02

    Despite the inherently quantum mechanical nature of hydrogen bonding, it is unclear how nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) alter the strengths of hydrogen bonds. With this in mind, we use ab initio path integral molecular dynamics to determine the absolute contribution of NQEs to the binding in DNA base pair complexes, arguably the most important hydrogen-bonded systems of all. We find that depending on the temperature, NQEs can either strengthen or weaken the binding within the hydrogen-bonded complexes. As a somewhat counterintuitive consequence, NQEs can have a smaller impact on hydrogen bond strengths at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperature. We rationalize this in terms of a competition of NQEs between low-frequency and high-frequency vibrational modes. Extending this idea, we also propose a simple model to predict the temperature dependence of NQEs on hydrogen bond strengths in general.

  10. Drag effect and Cooper electron-hole pair fluctuations in a topological insulator film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimkin, D. K.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2013-12-01

    Manifestations of fluctuating Cooper pairs formed by electrons and holes populating opposite surfaces of a topological insulator film in the Coulomb drag effect are considered. A fluctuational Aslamazov-Larkin contribution to the transresistance between surfaces of the film is calculated. The contribution is the most singular one in the vicinity of critical temperature Td and diverges in the critical manner as (T-Td)-1. In the realistic conditions γ˜Td, where γ is the average scattering rate of electrons and holes, the Aslamazov-Larkin contribution plays an important role and can dominate the fluctuation transport. The macroscopic theory based on the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation is developed for a description of the transport in the system. The results can be easily generalized for other realizations of an electron-hole bilayer.

  11. The effects of neonatal paternal deprivation on pair bonding, NAcc dopamine receptor mRNA expression and serum corticosterone in mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; An, Shucheng; Tai, Fadao; Zhang, Xia; He, Fengqin; Wang, Jianli; An, Xiaolei; Wu, Ruiyong

    2012-05-01

    High levels of paternal care are important for the development of social behavior in monogamous rodents. However, the effects of paternal care on the formation of pair bonding and underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms, especially the involvements of dopamine system and corticosterone, are not well understood. We investigated effects of paternal deprivation on pair bonding in mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), a socially monogamous rodent. Paternal deprivation was found to inhibit the formation of pair bonding in females according to partner preference tests (PPT). Paternal deprivation also reduced body contact behavior and increased aggression in males and females in PPT. During social interaction tests (SIT), paternal deprivation was found to reduce investigative and aggressive behaviors but increase body contact and self-grooming in females, and reduce staring, aggression, body contact and self-grooming in males when interacting with the opposite sex. Paternal deprivation reduced the expression of dopamine 1-type receptor (D1R) mRNA and dopamine 2-type receptor (D2R) mRNA in the nucleus accumbens of female offspring in later life, but enhanced mRNA expression of these two dopamine receptors in males. After three days of cohabitation the expression of D1R mRNA and D2R mRNA was negatively correlated for voles reared by two parents, but positively correlated in paternally deprived animals. Paternal deprivation reduced serum corticosterone levels in females but had the opposite effect in males. Three days of cohabitation did not alter corticosterone levels of PD females, but reduced it in PC females. Our results provide substantial evidence that paternal deprivation inhibits the formation of pair bonding in female mandarin voles and alters social behavior later in life. These behavioral variations were possibly associated with sex-specific alterations in the expression of two types of dopamine receptors and serum corticosterone levels induced by paternal

  12. Examining Estimates of Effect Using Non-Overlap of All Pairs in Multiple Baseline Studies of Academic Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Karich, Abbey C.; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    The inclusion of single-case design (SCD) studies in meta-analytic research is an important consideration in identifying effective evidence-based practices. Various SCD effect sizes have been previously suggested; non-overlap of all pairs (NAP) is a recently introduced effect size. Preliminary field tests investigating the adequacy of NAP are…

  13. Thermodynamic stability and Watson-Crick base pairing in the seed duplex are major determinants of the efficiency of the siRNA-based off-target effect.

    PubMed

    Ui-Tei, Kumiko; Naito, Yuki; Nishi, Kenji; Juni, Aya; Saigo, Kaoru

    2008-12-01

    Short interfering RNA (siRNA) may down-regulate many unintended genes whose transcripts possess complementarity to the siRNA seed region, which contains 7 nt. The capability of siRNA to induce this off-target effect was highly correlated with the calculated melting temperature or standard free-energy change for formation of protein-free seed duplex, indicating that thermodynamic stability of seed duplex formed between the seed and target is one of the major factor in determining the degree of off-target effects. Furthermore, unlike intended gene silencing (RNA interference), off-target effect was completely abolished by introduction of a G:U pair into the seed duplex, and this loss in activity was completely recovered by a second mutation regenerating Watson-Crick pairing, indicating that seed duplex Watson-Crick pairing is also essential for off-target gene silencing. The off-target effect was more sensitive to siRNA concentration compared to intended gene silencing, which requires a near perfect sequence match between the siRNA guide strand and target mRNA.

  14. Highly effective sequencing whole chloroplast genomes of angiosperms by nine novel universal primer pairs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Bo; Li, De-Zhu; Li, Hong-Tao

    2014-09-01

    Chloroplast genomes supply indispensable information that helps improve the phylogenetic resolution and even as organelle-scale barcodes. Next-generation sequencing technologies have helped promote sequencing of complete chloroplast genomes, but compared with the number of angiosperms, relatively few chloroplast genomes have been sequenced. There are two major reasons for the paucity of completely sequenced chloroplast genomes: (i) massive amounts of fresh leaves are needed for chloroplast sequencing and (ii) there are considerable gaps in the sequenced chloroplast genomes of many plants because of the difficulty of isolating high-quality chloroplast DNA, preventing complete chloroplast genomes from being assembled. To overcome these obstacles, all known angiosperm chloroplast genomes available to date were analysed, and then we designed nine universal primer pairs corresponding to the highly conserved regions. Using these primers, angiosperm whole chloroplast genomes can be amplified using long-range PCR and sequenced using next-generation sequencing methods. The primers showed high universality, which was tested using 24 species representing major clades of angiosperms. To validate the functionality of the primers, eight species representing major groups of angiosperms, that is, early-diverging angiosperms, magnoliids, monocots, Saxifragales, fabids, malvids and asterids, were sequenced and assembled their complete chloroplast genomes. In our trials, only 100 mg of fresh leaves was used. The results show that the universal primer set provided an easy, effective and feasible approach for sequencing whole chloroplast genomes in angiosperms. The designed universal primer pairs provide a possibility to accelerate genome-scale data acquisition and will therefore magnify the phylogenetic resolution and species identification in angiosperms.

  15. Interference effects for Higgs boson mediated Z-pair plus jet production

    DOE PAGES

    Campbell, John M.; Ellis, R. Keith; Furlan, Elisabetta; ...

    2014-11-25

    Here, we study interference effects in the production channel ZZ + jet, in particular focusing on the role of the Higgs boson. This production channel receives contributions both from Higgs boson mediated diagrams via the decay H → ZZ (signal diagrams), as well as from diagrams where the Z bosons couple directly to a quark loop (background diagrams). We consider the partonic processes gggZZ and gqmore » $$\\bar{q}$$ZZ in which interference between signal and background diagrams first occurs. Since interference is primarily an off-resonant effect for the Higgs boson, we treat the Z bosons as on shell. Thus our analysis is limited to the region above threshold, where the invariant mass of the Z-pair mZZ satisfies the condition mZZ>2mZ. In the region mZZ > 300 GeV we find that the interference in the ZZ + jet channel is qualitatively similar to interference in the inclusive ZZ channel. Moreover, the rates are sufficient to study these effects at the LHC once jet-binned data become available.« less

  16. Effect of Paired-Pulse Electrical Stimulation on the Activity of Cortical Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kei; Onishi, Hideaki; Miyaguchi, Shota; Kotan, Shinichi; Fujimoto, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the transient effect of short-duration paired-pulse electrical stimulation (ppES) on corticospinal excitability and the after-effect of long-duration ppES on excitability, short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), and afferent facilitation (AF). Methods: A total of 28 healthy subjects participated in two different experiments. In Experiment 1, motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured in the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles before and immediately after short-duration ppES (5 s) at various inter-pulse intervals (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 30 ms). In Experiment 2, MEPs, SAI, and AF were measured before, immediately, and 20 and 40 min after long-duration ppES (20 min, inter-pulse interval of 5 and 15 ms) and peripheral electrical stimulation (20 min, 10 and 20 Hz). Results: Short-duration ppES with inter-pulse intervals of 5 and 20 ms significantly increased MEP measured in APB but not in ADM. Long-duration ppES with an inter-pulse interval of 5 ms significantly decreased SAI but not MEPs in APB. In contrast, long-duration ppES did not affect ADM. Conclusion: The afferent inputs induced by ppES-5 ms were effective for transiently increasing MEP and sustaining SAI reduction. PMID:26733847

  17. Effect of Serotonin on Paired Associative Stimulation-Induced Plasticity in the Human Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Batsikadze, Giorgi; Paulus, Walter; Kuo, Min-Fang; Nitsche, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin modulates diverse brain functions. Beyond its clinical antidepressant effects, it improves motor performance, learning and memory formation. These effects might at least be partially caused by the impact of serotonin on neuroplasticity, which is thought to be an important foundation of the respective functions. In principal accordance, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance long-term potentiation-like plasticity induced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in humans. As other neuromodulators have discernable effects on different kinds of plasticity in humans, here we were interested to explore the impact of serotonin on paired associative stimulation (PAS)-induced plasticity, which induces a more focal kind of plasticity, as compared with tDCS, shares some features with spike timing-dependent plasticity, and is thought to be relative closely related to learning processes. In this single-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study, we administered a single dose of 20 mg citalopram or placebo medication and applied facilitatory- and excitability-diminishing PAS to the left motor cortex of 14 healthy subjects. Cortico-spinal excitability was explored via single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation-elicited MEP amplitudes up to the next evening after plasticity induction. After citalopram administration, inhibitory PAS-induced after-effects were abolished and excitatory PAS-induced after-effects were enhanced trendwise, as compared with the respective placebo conditions. These results show that serotonin modulates PAS-induced neuroplasticity by shifting it into the direction of facilitation, which might help to explain mechanism of positive therapeutic effects of serotonin in learning and medical conditions characterized by enhanced inhibitory or reduced facilitatory plasticity, including depression and stroke. PMID:23680943

  18. Effect of serotonin on paired associative stimulation-induced plasticity in the human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Batsikadze, Giorgi; Paulus, Walter; Kuo, Min-Fang; Nitsche, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    Serotonin modulates diverse brain functions. Beyond its clinical antidepressant effects, it improves motor performance, learning and memory formation. These effects might at least be partially caused by the impact of serotonin on neuroplasticity, which is thought to be an important foundation of the respective functions. In principal accordance, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance long-term potentiation-like plasticity induced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in humans. As other neuromodulators have discernable effects on different kinds of plasticity in humans, here we were interested to explore the impact of serotonin on paired associative stimulation (PAS)-induced plasticity, which induces a more focal kind of plasticity, as compared with tDCS, shares some features with spike timing-dependent plasticity, and is thought to be relative closely related to learning processes. In this single-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study, we administered a single dose of 20 mg citalopram or placebo medication and applied facilitatory- and excitability-diminishing PAS to the left motor cortex of 14 healthy subjects. Cortico-spinal excitability was explored via single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation-elicited MEP amplitudes up to the next evening after plasticity induction. After citalopram administration, inhibitory PAS-induced after-effects were abolished and excitatory PAS-induced after-effects were enhanced trendwise, as compared with the respective placebo conditions. These results show that serotonin modulates PAS-induced neuroplasticity by shifting it into the direction of facilitation, which might help to explain mechanism of positive therapeutic effects of serotonin in learning and medical conditions characterized by enhanced inhibitory or reduced facilitatory plasticity, including depression and stroke.

  19. Development of a generalized correlation for phase-velocity measurements obtained from impedance-probe pairs in two-phase flow systems. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.T.; Keshock, E.G.; McGill, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    A flag type electrical impedance probe has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) to measure liquid- and vapor-phase velocities in steam-water mixtures flowing through rod bundles. Measurements are made by utilizing the probes in pairs, installed in line, parallel to the flow direction, and extending out into the flow channel. The present study addresses performance difficulties by examining from a fundamental point of view the two-phase flow system which the impedance probes typically operate in. Specifically, the governing equations (continuity, momentum, energy) were formulated for both air-water and steam-water systems, and then subjected to a scaling analysis. The scaling analysis yielded the appropriate dimensionless parameters of significance in both kinds of systems. Additionally, with the aid of experimental data obtained at ORNL, those parameters of significant magnitude were established. As a result, a generalized correlation was developed for liquid and vapor phase velocities that makes it possible to employ the impedance probe velocity measurement technique in a wide variety of test configurations and fluid combinations.

  20. The Effects of Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving on High School Students' Chemistry Problem-Solving Performance and Verbal Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Kyungmoon; Huffman, Douglas; Noh, Taehee

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a thinking aloud pair problem solving (TAPPS) approach on students' chemistry problem-solving performance and verbal interactions. A total of 85 eleventh grade students from three classes in a Korean high school were randomly assigned to one of three groups; either individually using a problem-solving strategy, using a problem-solving strategy with TAPPS, or the control group. After instruction, students' problem-solving performance was examined. The results showed that students in both the individual and TAPPS groups performed better than those in the control group on recalling the related law and mathematical execution, while students in the TAPPS group performed better than those in the other groups on conceptual knowledge. To investigate the verbal behaviors using TAPPS, verbal behaviors of solvers and listeners were classified into 8 categories. Listeners' verbal behavior of "agreeing" and "pointing out", and solvers' verbal behavior of "modifying" were positively related with listeners' problem-solving performance. There was, however, a negative correlation between listeners' use of "point out" and solvers' problem-solving performance. The educational implications of this study are discussed.

  1. Joint Action of a Pair of Rowers in a Race: Shared Experiences of Effectiveness Are Shaped by Interpersonal Mechanical States

    PubMed Central

    R’Kiouak, Mehdi; Saury, Jacques; Durand, Marc; Bourbousson, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how a single pair of expert individual rowers experienced their crew functioning in natural conditions when asked to practice a joint movement for the first time. To fulfill this objective, we conducted a field study of interpersonal coordination that combined phenomenological and mechanical data from a coxless pair activity, to analyze the dynamics of the (inter)subjective experience compared with the dynamics of the team coordination. Using an enactivist approach to social couplings, these heterogeneous data were combined to explore the salience (and accuracy) of individuals’ shared experiences of their joint action. First, we determined how each rower experienced the continuous crew functioning states (e.g., feelings of the boat’s glide). Second, the phenomenological data helped us to build several categories of oar strokes (i.e., cycles), experienced by the rowers as either detrimentally or effectively performed strokes. Third, the mechanical signatures that correlated with each phenomenological category were tracked at various level of organization (i.e., individual-, interpersonal-, and boat-levels). The results indicated that (a) the two rowers did not pay attention to their joint action during most of the cycles, (b) some cycles were simultaneously lived as a salient, meaningful experience of either a detrimental (n = 15 cycles) or an effective (n = 18 cycles) joint action, and (c) the mechanical signatures diverged across the delineated phenomenological categories, suggesting that the way in which the cycles were experienced emerged from the variance in some mechanical parameters (i.e., differences in peak force level and mean force). Notably, the mechanical measures that helped to explain differences within the phenomenological categories were found at the interpersonal level of analysis, thus suggesting an intentional inter-personal mode of regulation of their joint action. This result is further challenged

  2. What fraction of DNA double-strand breaks produced by the direct effect is accounted for by radical pairs?

    PubMed

    Peoples, Anita R; Mercer, Kermit R; Bernhard, William A

    2010-07-22

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine what fraction of double strand breaks (dsb's), generated by the direct effect of ionizing radiation on DNA, can be accounted for by radical pairs. A radical pair is defined as two radicals trapped within a separation distance of <3 nm. Q-band EPR was used to measure the yield of radical pairs in calf thymus DNA films X-irradiated at 4 K. The EPR spectrum of DNA showed no evidence of radical pairs. To determine the relative sensitivity for radical pair detection via Q-band EPR, we measured the yield of radical pairs in single crystals of thymine, G(rp-Thy). Under the same conditions employed for DNA, G(rp-Thy) was approximately 8 nmol/J. The value of G(rp-Thy), in conjunction with the measured signal-to-noise, was used to calculate an upper limit for the yield of radical pairs in DNA, G(max)(rp-DNA) < 0.7-1.4 nmol/J. The upper limit, G(max)(rp-DNA), was compared with the yield of dsb's, G(total)(dsb) = 10 nmol/J, previously measured in pUC18 DNA films by Purkayastha, S.; Milligan, J. R.; Bernhard, W. A. Radiat. Res. 2007, 168, 357. We found that G(total)(dsb) > 2 x G(max)(rp-DNA), implying that a significant fraction of dsb's were not derived from a pair of trappable radicals. At least one of the two precursors needed to form a dsb was a diamagnetic (molecular) product. The hypothesis is that EPR silent lesions are formed through a molecular pathway. For example, a two-electron oxidation of deoxyribose would result in a deoxyribose carbocation intermediate that ultimately leads to a strand break.

  3. Dual origin of pairing in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idini, A.; Potel, G.; Barranco, F.; Vigezzi, E.; Broglia, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    The pairing correlations of the nucleus 120Sn are calculated by solving the Nambu-Gor'kov equations, including medium polarization effects resulting from the interweaving of quasiparticles, spin and density vibrations, taking into account, within the framework of nuclear field theory (NFT), processes leading to self-energy and vertex corrections and to the induced pairing interaction. From these results one can not only demonstrate the inevitability of the dual origin of pairing in nuclei, but also extract information which can be used at profit to quantitatively disentangle the contributions to the pairing gap Δ arising from the bare and from the induced pairing interaction. The first is the strong 1 S 0 short-range NN potential resulting from meson exchange between nucleons moving in time reversal states within an energy range of hundreds of MeV from the Fermi energy. The second results from the exchange of vibrational modes between nucleons moving within few MeV from the Fermi energy. Short- ( v p bare) and long-range ( v p ind) pairing interactions contribute essentially equally to nuclear Cooper pair stability. That is to the breaking of gauge invariance in open-shell superfluid nuclei and thus to the order parameter, namely to the ground state expectation value of the pair creation operator. In other words, to the emergent property of generalized rigidity in gauge space, and associated rotational bands and Cooper pair tunneling between members of these bands.

  4. Effects of age on contextually mediated associations in paired associate learning

    PubMed Central

    Provyn, Jennifer P.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Howard, Marc W.

    2008-01-01

    Older and younger participants learned single-function lists of paired associates with no contextual overlap (e.g., J-K, L-M) and double-function lists of paired associates consisting of chains of pairs (e.g., A-B, B-C). Although younger adults out-performed older adults on both pair types, there was a robust pair-type by age interaction. Evidence from intrusion analyses argues that older adults performed better than would be expected on the contextually overlapping double-function pairs because they were less subject to response competition for the double-function pairs. Younger adults made a larger proportion of backward and remote intrusions to double-function probes than did older adults. Thus, group differences in both correct recall probabilities and intrusion analysis suggest that backward and transitive associations are sensitive to aging. The results are discussed within the theoretical framework of the temporal context model and the hypothesis that older adults are impaired at forming new item-context associations. PMID:18179302

  5. Nucleon-pair states of even-even Sn isotopes based on realistic effective interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. Y.; Qi, C.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study yrast states of 128,126,124Sn and 104,106,108Sn by using the monopole-optimized realistic interactions in terms of both the shell model (SM) and the nucleon-pair approximation (NPA). For yrast states of 128,126Sn and 104,106Sn, we calculate the overlaps between the wave functions obtained in the full SM space and those obtained in the truncated NPA space, and find that most of these overlaps are very close to 1. Very interestingly, for most of these states with positive parity and even spin or with negative parity and odd spin, the SM wave function is found to be well represented by one nucleon-pair basis state, viz., a simple picture of "nucleon-pair states" (nucleon-pair configuration without mixings) emerges. In 128,126Sn, the positive-parity (or negative-parity) yrast states with spin J >10 (or J >7 ) are found to be well described by breaking one or two S pairs in the 101+ (or 71-) state, i.e., the yrast state of seniority-two, spin-maximum, and positive-parity (or negative-parity), into non-S pair(s). Similar regularity is also pointed out for 104,106Sn. The evolution of E 2 transition rates between low-lying states in 128,126,124Sn is discussed in terms of the seniority scheme.

  6. Effective theory of squeezed correlation functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Simonović, Marko E-mail: markos@ias.edu

    2016-03-01

    Various inflationary scenarios can often be distinguished from one another by looking at the squeezed limit behavior of correlation functions. Therefore, it is useful to have a framework designed to study this limit in a more systematic and efficient way. We propose using an expansion in terms of weakly coupled super-horizon degrees of freedom, which is argued to generically exist in a near de Sitter space-time. The modes have a simple factorized form which leads to factorization of the squeezed-limit correlation functions with power-law behavior in k{sub long}/k{sub short}. This approach reproduces the known results in single-, quasi-single-, and multi-field inflationary models. However, it is applicable even if, unlike the above examples, the additional degrees of freedom are not weakly coupled at sub-horizon scales. Stronger results are derived in two-field (or sufficiently symmetric multi-field) inflationary models. We discuss the observability of the non-Gaussian 3-point function in the large-scale structure surveys, and argue that the squeezed limit behavior has a higher detectability chance than equilateral behavior when it scales as (k{sub long}/k{sub short}){sup Δ} with Δ < 1—where local non-Gaussianity corresponds to Δ = 0.

  7. The Effects of L2 Proficiency Differences in Pairs on Idea Units in a Collaborative Text Reconstruction Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sun-Young; Lidster, Ryan; Sabraw, Stacy; Yeager, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative text reconstruction tasks such as dictogloss have been suggested as effective second language (L2) learning tasks that promote meaningful interaction between learners and their awareness of L2 target grammatical structures. However, it should be noted that the effect of pair interaction on the final product may differ depending on…

  8. The influence of anharmonic and solvent effects on the theoretical vibrational spectra of the guanine-cytosine base pairs in Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen configurations.

    PubMed

    Bende, Attila; Muntean, Cristina M

    2014-03-01

    The theoretical IR and Raman spectra of the guanine-cytosine DNA base pairs in Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen configurations were computed using DFT method with M06-2X meta-hybrid GGA exchange-correlation functional, including the anharmonic corrections and solvent effects. The results for harmonic frequencies and their anharmonic corrections were compared with our previously calculated values obtained with the B3PW91 hybrid GGA functional. Significant differences were obtained for the anharmonic corrections calculated with the two different DFT functionals, especially for the stretching modes, while the corresponding harmonic frequencies did not differ considerable. For the Hoogtseen case the H⁺ vibration between the G-C base pair can be characterized as an asymmetric Duffing oscillator and therefore unrealistic anharmonic corrections for normal modes where this proton vibration is involved have been obtained. The spectral modification due to the anharmonic corrections, solvent effects and the influence of sugar-phosphate group for the Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pair configurations, respectively, were also discussed. For the Watson-Crick case also the influence of the stacking interaction on the theoretical IR and Raman spectra was analyzed. Including the anharmonic correction in our normal mode analysis is essential if one wants to obtain correct assignments of the theoretical frequency values as compared with the experimental spectra.

  9. Modulation of paired-pulse responses in the dentate gyrus: effects of prenatal protein malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Blaise, J H; Mokler, D J; Galler, J R; Morgane, P J

    1999-12-04

    Since our major hypothesis is that prenatal protein malnutrition significantly affects hippocampal neuroplasticity, this study examined the effects of prenatal protein malnutrition on the modulation of dentate granule cell excitability in freely moving rats at 15, 30 and 90 days of age across the vigilance states of quiet waking (QW), slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Using paired-pulse stimulation, the paired-pulse index (PPI), a measure of the type and degree of modulation of dentate granule cell excitability elicited by stimulation of the medial perforant path, was obtained for each vigilance state at each stage of development. Four specific measures of granule cell excitability were computed, namely, PPI using both population spike amplitude (PSA) and EPSP slope measures, absolute values of PSA(1) and EPSP(1) slope. PPI values obtained at 15, 30 and 90 days of age, however, were altered during normal ontogenetic development, but not by vigilance state. At 15 days of age, the malnourished group exhibits greater early inhibition of the PPI using the PSA measure at IPIs between 20 and 30 ms regardless of vigilance state, while at 30 days of age, the malnourished group exhibits greater facilitation at IPIs between 50 and 70 ms during QW and SWS, but not during REM sleep. In the control adult (PND90) and juvenile (PND30) animal, PSA(1) values are significantly higher during SWS than in QW or REM sleep. However, for the younger malnourished animals (PND15 and PND30), PSA(1) values were found to be significantly greater during REM sleep rather than SWS. Therefore, as the animal matures, there appears to be a shift in vigilance state dependent synaptic transmission through the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit from REM sleep to SWS in both control and malnourished animals, with the change occurring later in malnourished animals when compared to control ones. Furthermore, our findings suggests that prenatal protein malnutrition significantly alters

  10. Pair bonding prevents reinforcing effects of testosterone in male California mice in an unfamiliar environment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Marler, Catherine A

    2014-08-07

    Testosterone (T) can be released by stimuli such as social interactions, and thereby influence future social behaviours. Because the reinforcing effects of T can induce preferences for specific environmental locations, T has the potential to alter behaviour through space use. In a monogamous species, this T pulse may contribute differently to space use in sexually naive (SN) and pair-bonded (PB) males: SN males may be more likely to explore new areas to set up a territory than PB males, which are more likely to defend an existing, established territory. In this study, we test for variation in T-driven space use by examining variation in the formation of conditioned place preferences (CPPs) in SN and PB male California mice. In the three-chambered CPP apparatus, subcutaneous administrations of physiological levels of T were used to repeatedly condition SN and PB males to a side chamber, which is an unfamiliar/neutral environment. The final tests revealed that T-induced CPPs in the side chamber are developed in SN, but not PB males. This study fills a gap in our knowledge about plasticity in the rewarding nature of T pulses, based on past social experience.

  11. Ion pair dissociation effects of aza-based anion receptors on lithium salts in polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; Xiang, C.; McBreen, J.; Choi, L.S.; Okamoto, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The addition of aza-based anion receptors greatly increases the conductivity of polymer electrolytes based on LiCl and KI complexes with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). In some cases the conductivity increase is more than two orders of magnitude. Also the addition of the anion acceptors imparts a rubber like consistency to the normally stiff PEO salt films. Ion-ion, ion-polymer and anion-complex interactions were studied using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at the K and Cl K edges and at the I L{sub I} edge. The NEXAFS results show that Cl{sup {minus}} and I{sup {minus}} anions are complexed with the nitrogen groups of the anion receptors. The degree of complexation is related the chain length of the complexing agent and the number of R{double_bond}CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2} groups that are used to substitute for the amine hydrogen atoms in these aza-ether compounds. NEXAFS spectra at potassium K edge provide supplemental evidence for the ion pair dissociation effects of the anion receptors. The results show that dissociated K{sup +} cations are complexed with oxygen atoms of the PEO chains.

  12. Steric Effects in Ionic Pairing and Polyelectrolyte Interdiffusion within Multilayered Films: A Neutron Reflectometry Study

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Li; Ankner, John Francis; Sukhishvili, Prof. Svetlana A.

    2011-01-01

    Using a series of polycations synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), we investigate the effects of the polymer charge density and hydrophobicity on salt-induced interdiffusion of polymer layers within polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films. Polycations with two distinct hydrophobicities and various quaternization degrees (QPDMA and QPDEA) were derived from parent polymers of matched molecular weights poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMA) and poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDEA) by quaternization with either methyl or ethyl sulfate. Multilayers of these polycations with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) were assembled in low-salt conditions, and annealed in NaCl solutions to induce layer intermixing. As revealed by neutron reflectometry (NR), polycations with lower charge density resulted in a faster decay of film structure with distance from the substrate. Interestingly, when comparing polymer mobility in QPDEA/PSS and QPDMA/PSS films, layer intermixing was faster in the case of more hydrophobic QPDEA as compared to QPDMA, because of the weaker ionic pairing (due to the presence of a bulky ethyl spacer) between QPDEA and PSS.

  13. Nonadiabatic effects in the lowest 0+(3P) ion-pair states of CIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokh, Daria B.; Li, Yan; Buenker, Robert J.; Alekseyev, Aleksey B.; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter; Alekseev, Vadim A.

    2001-02-01

    Nonadiabatic calculations of vibrational energies and wave functions are carried out for the E(0+, 3P2) and f(0+, 3P0) ion-pair states of the ClF molecule. It is shown that strong radial coupling between these 0+ states is caused by a significant variation of their 3Σ- and 3Π Λ-S contributions with internuclear distance and results in vibrational energy shifts as well as changes in the corresponding adiabatic vibrational wave functions. Both resonance and nonresonance interactions between vibronic levels of these two adiabatic states are found to be important, but significant mixing of the adiabatic wave functions can occur only for the nearly resonant levels located around f,v=3; E,v=7 and f,v=8; E,v=13. Nonadiabatic interactions are found to be responsible for the appearance of long-wavelength maxima in the f,v=3,4 emission spectra that was the subject of the discrepancy between theoretical and experimental data discussed in the previous paper [A. B. Alekseyev, H.-P. Liebermann, R. J. Buenker, and D. B. Kokh, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 2274 (2000)]. Inclusion of nonadiabatic effects leads to notably better agreement between the calculated and measured bound-free emission spectra.

  14. Effect of ionophores on the rate of intramolecular cation exchange in durosemiquinone ion pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, M. P.; Bruno, G. V.; Mcguyer, C. A.; Gutierrez, A. R.; Shannon, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the ionophores 15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6), dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DBC) and cryptand 222 (C222) on intramolecular cation exchange in ion pairs of the sodium salt of the durosemiquinone anion in benzene solution are investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the 18C6 and 15C5 complexes with durosemiquinone reduced by contact with a sodium mirror show an alternating line width which indicates that the sodium ion is being exchanged between equivalent sites near the oxygens of the semiquinone with activation energies of 8.7 and 6.0 kcal/mole and Arrhenius preexponential factors of 9 x 10 to the 12th/sec and 10 to the 12th/sec, respectively. Spectra obtained for the DBC complexes show no evidence of exchange, while those of C222 indicate rapid exchange. It is also noted that the hyperfine splitting constants measured do not change over the 50-K temperature interval studied.

  15. Supersymmetric QCD one-loop effects in (un)polarized top-pair production at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, Stefan; Hollik, Wolfgang; Mosle, Wolf M.; Wackeroth, Doreen

    2007-08-01

    We study the effects of O({alpha}{sub s}) supersymmetric QCD (SQCD) corrections on the total production rate and kinematic distributions of polarized and unpolarized top-pair production in pp and pp collisions. At the Fermilab Tevatron pp collider, top-quark pairs are mainly produced via quark-antiquark annihilation, qq{yields}tt, while at the CERN LHC pp collider gluon-gluon scattering, gg{yields}tt, dominates. We compute the complete set of O({alpha}{sub s}) SQCD corrections to both production channels and study their dependence on the parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. In particular, we discuss the prospects for observing strong, loop-induced SUSY effects in top-pair production at the Tevatron run II and the LHC.

  16. Topological defect-phase soliton and the pairing symmetry of a two-band superconductor: role of the proximity effect.

    PubMed

    Vakaryuk, Victor; Stanev, Valentin; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Levchenko, Alex

    2012-11-30

    We suggest a mechanism which promotes the existence of a phase soliton--a topological defect formed in the relative phase of superconducting gaps of a two-band superconductor with s(+-) type of pairing. This mechanism exploits the proximity effect with a conventional s-wave superconductor which favors the alignment of the phases of the two-band superconductor which, in the case of s(+-) pairing, are π shifted in the absence of proximity. In the case of a strong proximity such an effect can be used to reduce the soliton's energy below the energy of a soliton-free state, thus making the soliton thermodynamically stable. Based on this observation we consider an experimental setup, applicable for both stable and metastable solitons, which can be used to distinguish between ss(+-) and s(++) types of pairing in the iron-based multiband superconductors.

  17. Effects of pairing stimuli with reinforcement on multiple schedule performance of children

    PubMed Central

    Birnbrauer, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    A nonsense word was paired with reinforcement to determine if pairing affected emission of a response that produced the word in the signalled absence of reinforcement. Children were trained on a multiple schedule that consisted of a reinforcement component, conditioned reinforcement component, and control component, each set of contingencies being signalled by a different colored light. In the primary reinforcement component, lever presses produced reinforcers which, in some phases, were paired with a word. In the other two components, lever presses were not reinforced and a button was made accessible. Button presses in the conditioned reinforcement component produced the word to be (or being) paired, e.g., “yafeh”, while button presses in the control component produced another word, e.g., “grunch”. Button pressing increased when one of the words was being paired and decreased when pairing was discontinued, but directly related rate changes occurred also in the control component. The order of components was shown to be a contributing variable. PMID:5150046

  18. Urca Cooling Pairs in the Neutron Star Ocean and Their Effect on Superbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deibel, Alex; Meisel, Zach; Schatz, Hendrik; Brown, Edward F.; Cumming, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    An accretion outburst onto a neutron star deposits hydrogen-rich and/or helium-rich material into the neutron star’s envelope. Thermonuclear burning of accreted material robustly produces Urca pairs—pairs of nuclei that undergo cycles of {e}--capture and {β }--decay. The strong T 5 dependence of the Urca cooling neutrino luminosity means that Urca pairs in the neutron star interior potentially remove heat from accretion-driven nuclear reactions. In this study, we identify Urca pairs in the neutron star’s ocean—a plasma of ions and electrons overlaying the neutron star crust—and demonstrate that Urca cooling occurs at all depths in the ocean. We find that Urca pairs in the ocean and crust lower the ocean’s steady-state temperature during an accretion outburst and that unstable carbon ignition, which is thought to trigger superbursts, occurs deeper than it would otherwise. Cooling superburst light curves, however, are only marginally impacted by cooling from Urca pairs because the superburst peak radiative luminosity {L}{peak} is always much greater than the Urca pair neutrino luminosity {L}ν in the hot post-superburst ocean.

  19. Effect of Base-Pairing Partner on the Thermodynamic Stability of the Diastereomeric Spiroiminodihydantoin Lesion.

    PubMed

    Gruessner, Brian; Dwarakanath, Megana; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bae, Yoon; Jamieson, Elizabeth R

    2016-03-21

    Oxidation of guanine by reactive oxygen species and high valent metals produces damaging DNA base lesions like 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG). 8-oxoG can be further oxidized to form the spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) lesion, which is even more mutagenic. DNA polymerases preferentially incorporate purines opposite the Sp lesion, and DNA glycosylases excise the Sp lesion from the duplex, although the rate of repair is different for the two Sp diastereomers. To further understand the biological processing of the Sp lesion, differential scanning calorimetry studies were performed on a series of 15-mer DNA duplexes. The thermal and thermodynamic stabilities of each of the Sp diastereomers paired to the four standard DNA bases were investigated. It was found that, regardless of the base-pairing partner, the Sp lesion was always highly destabilizing in terms of DNA melting temperature, enthalpic stability, and overall duplex free energy. We found no significant differences between the two Sp diastereomers, but changing the base-pairing partner of the Sp lesion produced slight differences in stability. Specifically, duplexes with Sp:C pairings were always the most destabilized, whereas pairing the Sp lesion with a purine base modestly increased stability. Overall, these results suggest that, although the stability of the Sp diastereomers cannot explain the differences in the rates of repair by DNA glycosylases, the most stable base-pairing partners do correspond with the nucleotide preference of DNA polymerases.

  20. Effects of Aging on Paired-Pulse Behavior of Rat Somatosensory Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dinse, Hubert R.

    2010-01-01

    Aging affects all levels of neural processing including changes of intracortical inhibition and cortical excitability. The paired-pulse stimulation protocol, the application of 2 stimuli in close succession, is used to investigate cortical excitability. The paired-pulse behavior is characterized by the fact that the second response is significantly suppressed at short interstimulus intervals (ISIs) but approaches the first response with increasing ISIs. However, there are controversial reports about the influence of age on paired-pulse behavior. We therefore used pairs of tactile stimuli (ISIs from tens to hundreds of milliseconds) to record extracellular responses of somatosensory cortical neurons of young and aged rats. Paired-pulse behavior was quantified as the ratio of the amplitude of the second response divided by the first. For all ISIs, we found significantly higher ratios in the old animals indicating reduced paired-pulse suppression (PPS). Evaluation of the single response components revealed a significant reduction of the response to the first stimulus for old animals but no age-dependent decrement to the second. Changes in PPS are usually mediated by modulating the second response characteristics. Thus, our data demonstrate reduced PPS due to an overall reduction of the first response as a form of modified PPS developing at old age. PMID:19745019

  1. Pick a Pair. Pancake Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Pat

    2005-01-01

    Cold February weather and pancakes are a traditional pairing. Pancake Day began as a way to eat up the foods that were abstained from in Lent--traditionally meat, fat, eggs and dairy products. The best-known pancake event is The Pancake Day Race in Buckinghamshire, England, which has been run since 1445. This column describes pairs of books that…

  2. Correlation and relativistic effects in actinide ions

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.

    2011-11-15

    Wavelengths, line strengths, and transition rates are calculated for the multipole (E1, M1, E2, M2, E3, and M3) transitions between the excited 6s{sup 2}6p{sup 5}nl and 6s6p{sup 6}nl states and the ground 6s{sup 2}6p{sup 6} state in Ac{sup 3+}, Th{sup 4+}, and U{sup 6+} Rn-like ions. Relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT), including the Breit interaction, is used to evaluate energies and transition rates for multipole transitions in these hole-particle systems. The RMBPT method agrees with multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculations in lowest order, includes all second-order correlation corrections, and includes corrections from negative-energy states. The calculations start from a [Xe]4f{sup 14}5d{sup 10}6s{sup 2}6p{sup 6} Dirac-Fock potential. First-order perturbation theory is used to obtain intermediate-coupling coefficients, and second-order RMBPT is used to determine the matrix elements. Evaluated multipole matrix elements for transitions from excited states to the ground states are used to determine the line strengths, transition rates, and multipole polarizabilities. This work provides a number of yet unmeasured properties of these actinide ions for various applications and for benchmark tests of theory and experiment.

  3. Paired carbon stable-isotope records for the Cenomanian Stage (100.5 -93.9 Ma): correlation tool and Late Cretaceous pCO2 record?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Ian; Gröcke, Darren; Laurin, Jiří; Selby, David; Roest-Ellis, Sascha; Miles, Andrew; Lignum, John; Gale, Andrew; Kennedy, Jim

    2016-04-01

    Carbon stable-isotope stratigraphy of marine carbonates (δ13Ccarb) provides remarkable insights into past variation in the global carbon cycle, and has become firmly established as a powerful global correlation tool. Continuous δ13Ccarb time series are becoming increasingly available for much of the geological record, including the Upper Cretaceous. However, our knowledge of stratigraphic variation in the carbon isotopic composition of sedimentary organic matter (δ13Corg) is much poorer, and is generally restricted to organic-rich sedimentary successions and/or key boundary intervals. Close coupling exists between the global isotopic composition of the reduced and oxidised carbon reservoirs on geological time scales, but the stratigraphic resolution of most long-term δ13Corg Mesozoic records is inadequate to identify leads and lags in the responses of the two reservoirs to carbon cycle perturbations. Cenomanian times (100.5-93.9 Ma) represent perhaps the best documented episode of eustatic rise in sea level in Earth history and the beginning of the Late Mesozoic thermal maximum, driving global expansion of epicontinental seas and the onset of widespread pelagic and hemipelagic carbonate deposition. Significant changes occurred in global stable-isotope records, including two prominent perturbations of the carbon cycle - the Mid-Cenomanian Event I (MCEI; ~96.5-96.2 Ma) and Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2; ~94.5-93.8 Ma). OAE2, one of two truly global Cretaceous OAEs, was marked by the widespread deposition of black shales, and a global positive carbon stable-isotope excursion of 2.0 - 2.5‰ δ13Ccarb, and up to 7‰ in the sulphur-bound phytane biomarker. MCEI, by contrast, shows a <1‰ δ13Ccarb excursion and no associated black shales in most areas. Here, we present detailed paired δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg stable-isotope records for the entire Cenomanian Stage, based on an Upper Albian - Lower Turonian composite reference section from the Vocontian Basin of SE

  4. Constrained-pairing mean-field theory. V. Triplet pairing formalism.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jason K; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A; Henderson, Thomas M; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2011-07-21

    Describing strong (also known as static) correlation caused by degenerate or nearly degenerate orbitals near the Fermi level remains a theoretical challenge, particularly in molecular systems. Constrained-pairing mean-field theory has been quite successful, capturing the effects of static correlation in bond formation and breaking in closed-shell molecular systems by using singlet electron entanglement to model static correlation at mean-field computational cost. This work extends the previous formalism to include triplet pairing. Additionally, a spin orbital extension of the "odd-electron" formalism is presented as a method for understanding electron entanglement in molecules.

  5. From Cooper pairs to molecules: Effective field theories for ultra-cold atomic gases near Feshbach resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milstein, J. N.

    Feshbach resonances in dilute atomic gases are a powerful tool used to control the strength of atom-atom interactions. In practice, the tuning is accomplished by varying a magnetic field, affording experiments on dilute atomic gases a knob with which they can arbitrarily adjust the interactions. This precision control makes atomic gases an ideal place to study many-body phenomena. The resonance works by introducing a closed channel containing a bound, molecular state within the open channel of continuum scattering states. The molecular state greatly modifies the scattering responsible for the interactions, as it is tuned near resonance, introducing pair correlations throughout the sample. The size of these correlations may range from either very small, where they appear as molecules, to very large, where they resemble Cooper pairs. This leads to a "crossover" problem of connecting the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of Cooper pairing, which describes conventional superconductors, to the process of Bose-Einstein condensation of molecules. To answer this question, it is necessary to develop an appropriate field theory for both Bosons and Fermions that can account for the Feshbach processes and, therefore, properly describe resonant, ultra-cold atomic gases.

  6. Phase space matching and finite lifetime effects for top-pair production close to threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Andre H.; Reisser, Christoph J.; Ruiz-Femenia, Pedro

    2010-07-01

    The top-pair tt production cross section close to threshold in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions is strongly affected by the small lifetime of the top quark. Since the cross section is defined through final states containing the top decay products, a consistent definition of the cross section depends on prescriptions of how these final states are accounted for the cross section. Experimentally, these prescriptions are implemented, for example, through cuts on kinematic quantities such as the reconstructed top quark invariant masses. As long as these cuts do not reject final states that can arise from the decay of a top and an antitop quark with a small off-shellness compatible with the nonrelativistic power counting, they can be implemented through imaginary phase space matching conditions in nonrelativistic QCD. The prescription-dependent cross section can then be determined from the optical theorem using the e{sup +}e{sup -} forward scattering amplitude. We compute the phase space matching conditions associated to cuts on the top and antitop invariant masses at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic order and partially at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic order in the nonrelativistic expansion accounting also for higher order QCD effects. Together with finite lifetime and electroweak effects known from previous work, we analyze their numerical impact on the tt cross section. We show that the phase space matching contributions are essential to make reliable nonrelativistic QCD predictions, particularly for energies below the peak region, where the cross section is small. We find that irreducible background contributions associated to final states that do not come from top decays are strongly suppressed and can be neglected for the theoretical predictions.

  7. The Effects of Dominance on Leadership and Energetic Gain: A Dynamic Game between Pairs of Social Foragers

    PubMed Central

    Rands, Sean A.

    2011-01-01

    Although social behaviour can bring many benefits to an individual, there are also costs that may be incurred whenever the members of a social group interact. The formation of dominance hierarchies could offer a means of reducing some of the costs of social interaction, but individuals within the hierarchy may end up paying differing costs dependent upon their position within the hierarchy. These differing interaction costs may therefore influence the behaviour of the group, as subordinate individuals may experience very different benefits and costs to dominants when the group is conducting a given behaviour. Here, a state-dependent dynamic game is described which considers a pair of social foragers where there is a set dominance relationship within the pair. The model considers the case where the subordinate member of the pair pays an interference cost when it and the dominant individual conduct specific pairs of behaviours together. The model demonstrates that if the subordinate individual pays these energetic costs when it interacts with the dominant individual, this has effects upon the behaviour of both subordinate and the dominant individuals. Including interaction costs increases the amount of foraging behaviour both individuals conduct, with the behaviour of the pair being driven by the subordinate individual. The subordinate will tend to be the lighter individual for longer periods of time when interaction costs are imposed. This supports earlier suggestions that lighter individuals should act as the decision-maker within the pair, giving leadership-like behaviours that are based upon energetic state. Pre-existing properties of individuals such as their dominance will be less important for determining which individual makes the decisions for the pair. This suggests that, even with strict behavioural hierarchies, identifying which individual is the dominant one is not sufficient for identifying which one is the leader. PMID:22028645

  8. Strong enhancement of Penning ionization for asymmetric atom pairs in cold Rydberg gases: the Tom and Jerry effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, D. K.; Miculis, K.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Ekers, A.

    2016-06-01

    We consider Penning ionization of Rydberg atom pairs as an Auger-type process induced by the dipole-dipole interaction and employ semiclassical formulae for dipole transitions to calculate the autoionization width as a function of the principal quantum numbers, n d , n i , of both atoms. While for symmetric atom pairs with {n}d={n}i={n}0 the well-known increase of the autoionization width with increasing n 0 is obtained, the result for asymmetric pairs is counterintuitive—for a fixed n i of the ionizing atom of the pair, the autoionization width strongly increases with decreasing n d of the de-excited atom. For H Rydberg atoms this increase reaches two orders of magnitude at the maximum of the n d dependence, and the same type of counterintuitive behavior is exhibited also by Na, Rb and Cs atoms. This is a purely quantum-mechanical effect, which points towards existence of optimal (we call them ‘Tom’ and ‘Jerry’ for ‘big’ and ‘small’) pairs of Rydberg atoms with respect to autoionization efficiency. Building on the model of population redistribution in cold Rydberg gases proposed in [1], we demonstrate that population evolution following the initial laser excitation of Rydberg atoms in state n 0 would eventually lead to the formation of such Tom-Jerry pairs with {n}i\\gt {n}0\\gt {n}d which feature autoionization widths that are enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared to that of two atoms in the initial laser-excited state n 0. We also show that in the high-density regime of cold Rydberg gas experiments the ionization rate of Tom-Jerry pairs can be substantially larger than the blackbody radiation-induced photoionization rate.

  9. PLASMA EFFECTS ON FAST PAIR BEAMS. II. REACTIVE VERSUS KINETIC INSTABILITY OF PARALLEL ELECTROSTATIC WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Schlickeiser, R.; Krakau, S.; Supsar, M. E-mail: steffen.krakau@rub.de

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of TeV gamma-rays from distant blazars with the extragalactic background light produces relativistic electron-positron pair beams by the photon-photon annihilation process. Using the linear instability analysis in the kinetic limit, which properly accounts for the longitudinal and the small but finite perpendicular momentum spread in the pair momentum distribution function, the growth rate of parallel propagating electrostatic oscillations in the intergalactic medium is calculated. Contrary to the claims of Miniati and Elyiv, we find that neither the longitudinal nor the perpendicular spread in the relativistic pair distribution function significantly affect the electrostatic growth rates. The maximum kinetic growth rate for no perpendicular spread is even about an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding reactive maximum growth rate. The reduction factors in the maximum growth rate due to the finite perpendicular spread in the pair distribution function are tiny and always less than 10{sup –4}. We confirm earlier conclusions by Broderick et al. and our group that the created pair beam distribution function is quickly unstable in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium. Therefore, there is no need to require the existence of small intergalactic magnetic fields to scatter the produced pairs, so that the explanation (made by several authors) for the Fermi non-detection of the inverse Compton scattered GeV gamma-rays by a finite deflecting intergalactic magnetic field is not necessary. In particular, the various derived lower bounds for the intergalactic magnetic fields are invalid due to the pair beam instability argument.

  10. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  11. Effect of simple solutes on the long range dipolar correlations in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baul, Upayan; Kanth, J. Maruthi Pradeep; Anishetty, Ramesh; Vemparala, Satyavani

    2016-03-01

    Intermolecular correlations in liquid water at ambient conditions have generally been characterized through short range density fluctuations described through the atomic pair distribution functions. Recent numerical and experimental results have suggested that such a description of order or structure in liquid water is incomplete and there exist considerably longer ranged orientational correlations in water that can be studied through dipolar correlations. In this study, using large scale classical, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using TIP4P-Ew and TIP3P models of water, we show that salts such as sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), caesium chloride (CsCl), and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) have a long range effect on the dipolar correlations, which cannot be explained by the notion of structure making and breaking by dissolved ions. Observed effects are explained through orientational stratification of water molecules around ions and their long range coupling to the global hydrogen bond network by virtue of the sum rule for water. The observations for single hydrophilic solutes are contrasted with the same for a single methane (CH4) molecule. We observe that even a single small hydrophobe can result in enhancement of long range orientational correlations in liquid water, contrary to the case of dissolved ions, which have been observed to have a reducing effect. The observations from this study are discussed in the context of hydrophobic effect.

  12. The Effects of Pair Problem Solving Technique Incorporating Polya's Problem Solving Strategy on Undergraduate Students' Performance in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilgin, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pair problem solving technique incorporating Polya's problem solving strategy on undergraduate students' performance in conceptual and algorithmic questions in chemistry. The subjects of this study were 89 students enrolled from two first year chemistry classes. The experimental group was…

  13. The Effects of Instruction in a Paired Associates Learning Strategy as an Intervention for College Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Justin T.; Lingo, Amy Shearer; Whitney, Todd; Slaton, Deborah Bott

    2011-01-01

    A multiple probe across subjects design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction in a Paired Associates Strategy provided to nine college students with learning disabilities on their ability to identify and recall important information from textbooks. Students received instruction in the strategy in the context of an on-campus…

  14. Matched-pair classification

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, James P

    2009-01-01

    Following an analogous distinction in statistical hypothesis testing, we investigate variants of machine learning where the training set comes in matched pairs. We demonstrate that even conventional classifiers can exhibit improved performance when the input data has a matched-pair structure. Online algorithms, in particular, converge quicker when the data is presented in pairs. In some scenarios (such as the weak signal detection problem), matched pairs can be generated from independent samples, with the effect not only doubling the nominal size of the training set, but of providing the structure that leads to better learning. A family of 'dipole' algorithms is introduced that explicitly takes advantage of matched-pair structure in the input data and leads to further performance gains. Finally, we illustrate the application of matched-pair learning to chemical plume detection in hyperspectral imagery.

  15. An analysis of the effects of initial velocity errors on geometric pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schricker, Bradley C.; Ford, Louis

    2007-04-01

    For a number of decades, among the most prevalent training media in the military has been Tactical Engagement Simulation (TES) training. TES has allowed troops to train for practical missions in highly realistic combat environments without the associated risks involved with live weaponry and munitions. This has been possible because current TES has relied largely upon the Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) and similar systems for a number of years for direct-fire weapons, using a laser to pair the shooter to the potential target(s). Emerging systems, on the other hand, will use a pairing method called geometric pairing (geo-pairing), which uses a set of data about both the shooter and target, such as locations, weapon orientations, velocities, and weapon projectile velocities, nearby terrain to resolve an engagement. A previous paper [1] introduces various potential sources of error for a geo-pairing solution. This paper goes into greater depth regarding the impact of errors that originate within initial velocity errors, beginning with a short introduction into the TES system (TESS). The next section will explain the modeling characteristics of the projectile motion followed by a mathematical analysis illustrating the impacts of errors related to those characteristics. A summary and conclusion containing recommendations will close this paper.

  16. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  17. Effect of correlated observation error on parameters, predictions, and uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, Claire R.; Green, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Correlations among observation errors are typically omitted when calculating observation weights for model calibration by inverse methods. We explore the effects of omitting these correlations on estimates of parameters, predictions, and uncertainties. First, we develop a new analytical expression for the difference in parameter variance estimated with and without error correlations for a simple one-parameter two-observation inverse model. Results indicate that omitting error correlations from both the weight matrix and the variance calculation can either increase or decrease the parameter variance, depending on the values of error correlation (ρ) and the ratio of dimensionless scaled sensitivities (rdss). For small ρ, the difference in variance is always small, but for large ρ, the difference varies widely depending on the sign and magnitude of rdss. Next, we consider a groundwater reactive transport model of denitrification with four parameters and correlated geochemical observation errors that are computed by an error-propagation approach that is new for hydrogeologic studies. We compare parameter estimates, predictions, and uncertainties obtained with and without the error correlations. Omitting the correlations modestly to substantially changes parameter estimates, and causes both increases and decreases of parameter variances, consistent with the analytical expression. Differences in predictions for the models calibrated with and without error correlations can be greater than parameter differences when both are considered relative to their respective confidence intervals. These results indicate that including observation error correlations in weighting for nonlinear regression can have important effects on parameter estimates, predictions, and their respective uncertainties.

  18. Disorder effects in correlated topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Barr, Aaron; Prodan, Emil; Fiete, Gregory A.

    2016-12-01

    Using exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo calculations we investigate the effects of disorder on the phase diagram of both noninteracting and interacting models of two-dimensional topological insulators. In the fermion sign problem-free interacting models we study, electron-electron interactions are described by an on-site repulsive Hubbard interaction and disorder is included via the one-body hopping operators. In both the noninteracting and interacting models we make use of recent advances in highly accurate real-space numerical evaluation of topological invariants to compute phase boundaries and in the noninteracting models determine critical exponents of the transitions. We find different models exhibit distinct stability conditions of the topological phase with respect to interactions and disorder. We provide a general analytical theory that accurately predicts these trends.

  19. Strong electronic correlation effects in coherent multidimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Karadimitriou, M E; Kavousanaki, E G; Dani, K M; Fromer, N A; Perakis, I E

    2011-05-12

    We discuss a many-body theory of the coherent ultrafast nonlinear optical response of systems with a strongly correlated electronic ground state that responds unadiabatically to photoexcitation. We introduce a truncation of quantum kinetic density matrix equations of motion that does not rely on an expansion in terms of the interactions and thus applies to strongly correlated systems. For this we expand in terms of the optical field, separate out contributions to the time-evolved many-body state due to correlated and uncorrelated multiple optical transitions, and use "Hubbard operator" density matrices to describe the exact dynamics of the individual contributions within a subspace of strongly coupled states, including "pure dephasing". Our purpose is to develop a quantum mechanical tool capable of exploring how, by coherently photoexciting selected modes, one can trigger nonlinear dynamics of strongly coupled degrees of freedom. Such dynamics could lead to photoinduced phase transitions. We apply our theory to the nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a magnetic field. We coherently photoexcite the two lowest Landau level (LL) excitations using three time-delayed optical pulses. We identify some striking temporal and spectral features due to dynamical coupling of the two LLs facilitated by inter-Landau-level magnetoplasmon and magnetoroton excitations and compare to three-pulse four-wave-mixing (FWM) experiments. We show that these features depend sensitively on the dynamics of four-particle correlations between an electron-hole pair and a magnetoplasmon/magnetoroton, reminiscent of exciton-exciton correlations in undoped semiconductors. Our results shed light into unexplored coherent dynamics and relaxation of the quantum Hall system (QHS) and can provide new insight into non-equilibrium co-operative phenomena in strongly correlated systems.

  20. Josephson effect studies of pairing symmetry in Fe-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohang

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the pairing symmetry in the recently discovered Fe-based superconductors, Josephson effect studies have been performed on two types of c-axis junctions incorporating 122-type iron pnictide superconductors: junctions between s-wave superconductors and iron pnictide superconductors [1] and junctions between electron-doped and hole-doped iron pnictide superconductors [2]. The ac Josephson effect was observed in the I-V characteristics for both types of junctions under microwave irradiation. By applying external magnetic fields parallel to the junction interfaces, Fraunhofer-like patterns were obtained. Analysis based on the obtained modulation patterns suggests that the Josephson current is flowing along the c-axis direction within a typical area of 10 x 10 (μm)^2. The presence of Josephson coupling between an s-wave superconductor and a 122-type iron pnictide superconductor along the c-axis strongly supports an s-wave symmetry in the iron pnictide superconductor. Moreover, our observed Josephson effect in the bicrystal junctions indicates that phase coherence can be established between electron-doped and hole-doped iron pnictide superconductors. Such a phase-coherent p-n structure is an important component [3] for performing definitive phase-sensitive tests for the proposed s± symmetry in Fe-based superconductors. Progress in carrying out such tests will be discussed. Recent results on systematic measurements of the energy gap using Andreev reflection spectroscopy with highly transparent contacts will also be presented. This work is supported by the NSF (DMR-0653535) and performed in collaboration with S. R. Saha, N. P. Butch, K. Kirshenbaum, J. Paglione, R. L. Greene, I. Takeuchi at UMD, and Y. S. Oh, Y. Liu, L. Q. Yan, K. H. Kim at SNU. [4pt] [1] X. H. Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 147002 (2009).[0pt] [2] X. H. Zhang et al., Appl. Phy. Lett. 95, 062510 (2009).[0pt] [3] D. Parker and I. I. Mazin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 227007 (2009).

  1. Hot accretion disks with pairs: Effects of magnetic field and thermal cyclocsynchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusunose, Masaaki; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    1994-01-01

    We show the effects of thermal cyclosynchrotron radiation and magnetic viscosity on the structure of hot, two-temperature accretion disks. Magnetic field, B, is assumed to be randomly oriented and the ratio of magnetic pressure to either gas pressure, alpha = P(sub mag)/P(sub gas), or the sum of the gas and radiation pressures, alpha = (P(sub mag)/P(sub gas) + P(sub rad)), is fixed. We find those effects do not change the qualitative properties of the disks, i.e., there are still two critical accretion rates related to production of e(sup +/-) pairs, (M dot)((sup U)(sub cr)) and (M dot)((sup L)(sub cr)), that affect the number of local and global disk solutions, as recently found by Bjoernsson and Svensson for the case with B = 0. However, a critical value of the alpha-viscosity parameter above which those critical accretion rates disappear becomes smaller than alpha(sub cr) = 1 found in the case of B = 0, for P(sub mag) = alpha(P(sub gas) + P(sub rad)). If P(sub mag) = alpha P(sub gas), on the other hand, alpha(sub cr) is still about unity. Moreover, when Comptonized cyclosynchrotron radiation dominates Comptonized bremsstrahlung, radiation from the disk obeys a power law with the energy spectral index of approximately 0.5, in a qualitative agreement with X-ray observations of active galactic nuclei (AGNS) and Galactic black hole candidates. We also extend the hot disk solutions for P(sub mag) = alpha(P(sub gas) + P(sub rad)) to the effectively optically thick region, where they merge with the standard cold disk solutions. We find that the mapping method by Bjoernsson and Svensson gives a good approximation to the disk structure in the hot region and show where it breaks in the transition region. Finally, we find a region in the disk parameter space with no solutions due to the inability of Coulomb heating to supply enough energy to electrons.

  2. Effect of lone-pair stereoactivity on polyhedral volume and structural flexibility: application to Te(IV)O6 octahedra.

    PubMed

    Christy, Andrew G; Mills, Stuart J

    2013-10-01

    The Distortion Theorem implies that the irregularity of bond distances in a distorted coordination polyhedron causes an increase of mean bond distance. Examination of 40 polyhedra containing the lone-pair cation Te(IV) shows that this does not imply an increase in polyhedral volume. Volumes of these polyhedra are 10.3-23.7 Å(3), compared with the 12.83 Å(3) expected for a hypothetical regular octahedron. There is little correlation between volume and measures of polyhedral distortion such as quadratic elongation, bond-angle variance or vector bond valence. However, the oxygens of our polyhedra lie very close to a sphere of best fit, centred at ~ 1 Å from the Te(IV) atom. The Te(IV)-centre distance is an index of lone-pair stereoactivity and is linearly related to the radius Rsph of the sphere; this is explained by a more localized lone pair repelling the anions more strongly, leading to a longer non-bonded distance between the lone pair and anions. Polyhedral volume still varies considerably for a given Rsph, because the oxygen ligands may be distributed over the whole sphere surface, or confined to a small portion of it. The uniformity of this distribution can be estimated from the distance between the sphere centre and the centroid of the O6 polyhedron. Te(IV)-centre and centroid-centre distances alone then account for 95% of the variation observed in volume for polyhedra which are topologically octahedral. Six of the polyhedra studied that are outliers are closer in shape to pentagonal pyramids than octahedra. These have short distances from the central Te(IV) cation to other Te(IV) and/or to large, polarizable cations, suggesting additional weak bonding interactions between these species and the central lone pair. The flexibility of lone-pair polyhedra is further enhanced by the ability of a single polyhedron to accommodate different cations with different degrees of lone-pair activity, which facilitates more diverse solid solution behaviour than would

  3. A correlation study applied to biomarkers of internal and effective dose for acrylonitrile and 4-aminobiphenyl in smokers.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Gerhard; Newland, Kirk; Papadopoulou, Ermioni; Minet, Emmanuel

    2014-06-01

    The urinary metabolites 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid and 4-aminobiphenyl have been correlated with tobacco smoke exposure. Similarly, 2-cyanoethylvaline and 4-aminobiphenyl haemoglobin adducts have been used as biomarkers of effective dose for the exposure to acrylonitrile and 4-aminobiphenyl, respectively. Each pair of biomarkers is derived from the same parent chemical; however, the correlation between the urinary and the haemoglobin biomarkers has not been investigated. Using clinical study samples, we report a weak correlation between urinary and haemoglobin biomarkers due to different accumulation and elimination rates. Time course analysis showed that a reduction in exposure was paralleled by a delayed reduction in haemoglobin adducts.

  4. Effects of correlated variability on information entropies in nonextensive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hideo

    2008-08-01

    We have calculated the Tsallis entropy and Fisher information matrix (entropy) of spatially correlated nonextensive systems, by using an analytic non-Gaussian distribution obtained by the maximum entropy method. The effects of the correlated variability on the Fisher information matrix are shown to be different from those on the Tsallis entropy. The Fisher information is increased (decreased) by a positive (negative) correlation, whereas the Tsallis entropy is decreased with increasing absolute magnitude of the correlation, independently of its sign. This fact arises from the difference in their characteristics. It implies from the Cramér-Rao inequality that the accuracy of an unbiased estimate of fluctuation is improved by a negative correlation. A critical comparison is made between the present study and previous ones employing the Gaussian approximation for the correlated variability due to multiplicative noise.

  5. The Effect of the Temporal Structure of Spoken Words on Paired-Associate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Dahan, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    In a series of experiments, participants learned to associate black-and-white shapes with nonsense spoken labels (e.g., "joop"). When tested on their recognition memory, participants falsely recognized as correct a shape paired with a label that began with the same sounds as the shape's original label (onset-overlapping lure; e.g., "joob") more…

  6. Magnetic field effects as a result of the radical pair mechanism are unlikely in redox enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Messiha, Hanan L.; Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Jones, Alex R.; Scrutton, Nigel S.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposure to electromagnetic fields is potentially carcinogenic. The radical pair mechanism is considered the most feasible mechanism of interaction between weak magnetic fields encountered in our environment and biochemical systems. Radicals are abundant in biology, both as free radicals and reaction intermediates in enzyme mechanisms. The catalytic cycles of some flavin-dependent enzymes are either known or potentially involve radical pairs. Here, we have investigated the magnetic field sensitivity of a number of flavoenzymes with important cellular roles. We also investigated the magnetic field sensitivity of a model system involving stepwise reduction of a flavin analogue by a nicotinamide analogue—a reaction known to proceed via a radical pair. Under the experimental conditions used, magnetic field sensitivity was not observed in the reaction kinetics from stopped-flow measurements in any of the systems studied. Although widely implicated in radical pair chemistry, we conclude that thermally driven, flavoenzyme-catalysed reactions are unlikely to be influenced by exposure to external magnetic fields. PMID:25505136

  7. Is Pair Programming More Effective than Other Forms of Collaboration for Young Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Colleen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates differences between collaboration methods in two summer enrichment classes for students entering the sixth grade. In one treatment, students used pair programming. In the other treatment, students engaged in frequent collaboration, but worked on their own computer. Students in the two treatments did not differ significantly…

  8. On the analysis of phylogenetically paired designs

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Jennifer L; Rakovski, Cyril S; Macpherson, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    As phylogenetically controlled experimental designs become increasingly common in ecology, the need arises for a standardized statistical treatment of these datasets. Phylogenetically paired designs circumvent the need for resolved phylogenies and have been used to compare species groups, particularly in the areas of invasion biology and adaptation. Despite the widespread use of this approach, the statistical analysis of paired designs has not been critically evaluated. We propose a mixed model approach that includes random effects for pair and species. These random effects introduce a “two-layer” compound symmetry variance structure that captures both the correlations between observations on related species within a pair as well as the correlations between the repeated measurements within species. We conducted a simulation study to assess the effect of model misspecification on Type I and II error rates. We also provide an illustrative example with data containing taxonomically similar species and several outcome variables of interest. We found that a mixed model with species and pair as random effects performed better in these phylogenetically explicit simulations than two commonly used reference models (no or single random effect) by optimizing Type I error rates and power. The proposed mixed model produces acceptable Type I and II error rates despite the absence of a phylogenetic tree. This design can be generalized to a variety of datasets to analyze repeated measurements in clusters of related subjects/species. PMID:25750719

  9. Theoretical and numerical results on effects of attenuation on correlation functions of ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2013-09-01

    We study analytically and numerically effects of attenuation on cross-correlation functions of ambient noise in a 2-D model with different attenuation constants between and outside a pair of stations. The attenuation is accounted for by quality factor Q(ω) and complex phase velocity. The analytical results are derived for isotropic far-field source distribution assuming the Fresnel approximation and mild attenuation. More general situations including cases with non-isotropic source distributions are examined with numerical simulations. The results show that homogeneous attenuation in the interstation regions produces symmetric amplitude decay of the causal and anticausal parts of the noise cross-correlation function. The attenuation between the receivers and far-field sources generates symmetric exponential amplitude decay and may also cause asymmetric reduction of the causal/anticausal parts that increases with frequency. This frequency dependence can be used to distinguish asymmetric amplitudes due to attenuation from frequency-independent asymmetry in noise correlations generated by non-isotropic source distribution. The attenuations both between and outside station pairs also produce phase shifts that could affect measurements of group and phase velocities. In terms of noise cross-spectra, the interstation attenuation is governed by Struve functions while the attenuation between the far-field sources and receivers is associated with exponential decay and the imaginary part of complex Bessel function. These results are fundamentally different from previous studies of attenuated coherency that append the Bessel function with an exponential decay that depends on the interstation distance.

  10. Effects of degree correlation on scale-free gradient networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Gui-Jun; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Wei-Chuan; Luo, Yi-Hui; Huang, Zhong-Bing

    2010-05-01

    We have studied the effects of degree correlation on congestion pressure in scale-free gradient networks. It is observed that the jamming coefficient J is insensitive to the degree correlation coefficient r for assortative and strongly disassortative scale-free networks, and J markedly decreases with an increase in r for weakly disassortative scale-free networks. We have also investigated the effects of degree correlation on the topology structure of scale-free gradient networks, and discussed the relation between the topology structure properties and transport efficiency of gradient networks.

  11. Correlation effects in two-dimensional topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Hohenadler, M; Assaad, F F

    2013-04-10

    Topological insulators have become one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. This article reviews progress on the topic of electronic correlation effects in the two-dimensional case, with a focus on systems with intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and numerical results. Topics addressed include an introduction to the noninteracting case, an overview of theoretical models, correlated topological band insulators, interaction-driven phase transitions, topological Mott insulators and fractional topological states, correlation effects on helical edge states, and topological invariants of interacting systems.

  12. Effect of Correlation on Multi-Engine Rocket Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. R.; Breneman, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    A matter of great concern in the design and operation of multi-engine rocket propulsion systems is the effect of the premature shutdown of one engine on the vehicle. This probability that a premature shutdown will cause a vehicle loss is termed correlation. Based on airbreathing experiences as well as rocket engine data the best estimate of this correlation is made and then applied to the overall multi-engine reliability problem to demonstrate its potential effect. At this point, follow-on analyses are pointed out that illustrate how any potential failures that may cause a correlatable event can be eliminated; thus bringing this correlation to almost 0.

  13. The effect of direct electron-positron pair production on relativistic feedback rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodopiyanov, I. B.; Dwyer, J. R.; Cramer, E. S.; Lucia, R. J.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Runaway electron avalanches developing in thunderclouds in high electric field become self-sustaining due to relativistic feedback via the production of backward propagating positrons and backscattered X-rays. To date, only positrons created from pair production by gamma rays interacting with the air have been considered. In contrast, direct electron-positron pair production, also known as "trident process," occurs from the interaction of energetic runaway electrons with atomic nuclei, and so it does not require the generation of a gamma ray mediator. The positrons produced in this process contribute to relativistic feedback and become especially important when the feedback factor value approaches unity. Then the steady state flux of runaway electrons increases significantly. In certain cases, when the strong electrostatic field forms in a narrow area, the direct positrons become one of processes dominating relativistic feedback. Calculations of the direct positron production contribution to relativistic feedback are presented for different electric field configurations.

  14. Effects of prenatal protein malnutrition on kindling-induced alterations in dentate granule cell excitability. II. Paired-pulse measures.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Austin-LaFrance, R J; Morgane, P J; Galler, J R

    1991-05-01

    The effects of prenatal protein malnutrition on kindling-induced changes in inhibitory modulation of dentate granule cell activity were examined by analysis of extracellular field potentials recorded from the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus in response to paired-pulse stimulation of the perforant pathway in freely-moving rats. Since we have shown that kindling results in enhanced synaptic transmission at the level of the perforant path/granule cell synapse (see preceding paper), we sought to determine if the kindling process might induce changes in inhibitory modulation of granule cell excitability which could be involved in the slower acquisition of the kindled state we have previously reported in malnourished animals. Beginning at 120-150 days of age, the response of dentate granule cells to paired-pulse stimulation of the perforant path was examined at interpulse intervals (IPIs) ranging from 20-1000 ms. A paired-pulse index (PPI) was constructed based on the mean percent change in population spike amplitudes of the two responses resulting from application of the pulse pair. PPI measures obtained during the kindling process were compared with individual prekindling measures to determine the mean percent change in excitatory/inhibitory modulation of granule cell activity. Significant inhibition of the second population response was apparent at all IPIs tested for both diet groups following the first kindled afterdischarge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Studies of base pair sequence effects on DNA solvation based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Surjit B; Mezei, Mihaly; Beveridge, David L

    2012-07-01

    Detailed analyses of the sequence-dependent solvation and ion atmosphere of DNA are presented based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on all the 136 unique tetranucleotide steps obtained by the ABC consortium using the AMBER suite of programs. Significant sequence effects on solvation and ion localization were observed in these simulations. The results were compared to essentially all known experimental data on the subject. Proximity analysis was employed to highlight the sequence dependent differences in solvation and ion localization properties in the grooves of DNA. Comparison of the MD-calculated DNA structure with canonical A- and B-forms supports the idea that the G/C-rich sequences are closer to canonical A- than B-form structures, while the reverse is true for the poly A sequences, with the exception of the alternating ATAT sequence. Analysis of hydration density maps reveals that the flexibility of solute molecule has a significant effect on the nature of observed hydration. Energetic analysis of solute-solvent interactions based on proximity analysis of solvent reveals that the GC or CG base pairs interact more strongly with water molecules in the minor groove of DNA that the AT or TA base pairs, while the interactions of the AT or TA pairs in the major groove are stronger than those of the GC or CG pairs. Computation of solvent-accessible surface area of the nucleotide units in the simulated trajectories reveals that the similarity with results derived from analysis of a database of crystallographic structures is excellent. The MD trajectories tend to follow Manning's counterion condensation theory, presenting a region of condensed counterions within a radius of about 17 A from the DNA surface independent of sequence. The GC and CG pairs tend to associate with cations in the major groove of the DNA structure to a greater extent than the AT and TA pairs. Cation association is more frequent in the minor groove of AT than the GC pairs. In general, the

  16. Pseudo-cyclic face-to-face rigid structure caused by the intramolecular ion pair effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng-Ling; Huang, Zhi-Shu; Gu, Lian-Quan

    2009-04-14

    Six 3-methylpyridine zwitterions and six quinoline zwitterions were synthesized through the reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarins, p-benzoquinone and the corresponding N-aromatics. The novel pseudo-cyclic face-to-face rigid structure of the zwitterion was elucidated by (1)H-NMR at different temperatures, and assumed to be caused by both the intramolecular ion pair attraction and the steric interaction.

  17. Genotype and extra-pair paternity in the house wren: a rare-male effect?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Brian S; Hicks, Bonnie G; Johnson, L Scott; Erb, Lori A

    2003-01-01

    Females in socially monogamous species may select extra-pair (EP) mates to increase the heterozygosity, and hence fitness, of their offspring. We tested this hypothesis in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon), a largely monogamous songbird in which EP young are common. We typed paired males and females, nestlings, and males on neighbouring territories, at five to seven microsatellite loci over 2 years in a Wyoming, USA, population. We identified EP sires at 20 nests with EP young. In pairwise comparisons, we found no significant differences between cuckolded within-pair (WP) males and EP sires in three measures of heterozygosity (mean d2, standardized heterozygosity and internal relatedness). However, EP sires had fewer alleles that were common within the population than did the WP males they cuckolded. Nearby males who were EP sires also had fewer common alleles than did nearby males who did not sire EP young. Females in our population may be more prone to accept copulations from males with rare genotypes than from males with common genotypes. Alternatively, selection of rare-male sperm may occur within the female reproductive tract. Because mating with rare males is likely to increase offspring heterozygosity, our data suggest that EP mating may provide genetic benefits to females. PMID:12965031

  18. Effect of diltiazem and low-dose aspirin on platelet aggregation and ATP release induced by paired agonists.

    PubMed

    Zucker, M L; Budd, S E; Dollar, L E; Chernoff, S B; Altman, R

    1993-08-02

    The authors studied the effects of diltiazem, administered alone and together with low-dose aspirin, on the platelet response to paired agonists. After a baseline period, 25 healthy volunteers were given oral diltiazem for 1 week (120, 240, or 360 mg/day), and then crossed over randomly between 1 week on diltiazem plus aspirin (81 mg/day), and 1 week on aspirin (81 mg/day) alone. Platelet function was tested on 2 consecutive days in each period. Synergistic platelet aggregation and ATP release were obtained at baseline using a subthreshold concentration of arachidonic acid combined with platelet activating factor, ADP, or epinephrine. Diltiazem resulted in significant decrease from baseline in platelet aggregation and ATP release using the arachidonic acid-epinephrine combination (35% and 40% decrease, respectively, p < 0.01) and a significant decrease in aggregation using the arachidonic acid-ADP combination (22% decrease, p < 0.01). The effects were neither dose-related, nor accompanied by any significant change in serum thromboxane B2 levels or bleeding times. There was no significant difference between the effects of aspirin alone and aspirin plus diltiazem on the synergistic platelet aggregation and ATP release induced by the paired agonists, or on thromboxane B2 levels or bleeding times. Diltiazem administered in vivo partially inhibits the synergistic platelet aggregation and ATP release induced by paired agonists; however, in contrast to a previous in vitro study it does not potentiate the platelet-inhibitory effect of aspirin.

  19. Pairing-induced speedup of nuclear spontaneous fission

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Sheikh, J. A.; Baran, A.

    2014-12-22

    Collective inertia is strongly influenced at the level crossing at which the quantum system changes its microscopic configuration diabatically. Pairing correlations tend to make the large-amplitude nuclear collective motion more adiabatic by reducing the effect of these configuration changes. Competition between pairing and level crossing is thus expected to have a profound impact on spontaneous fission lifetimes. To elucidate the role of nucleonic pairing on spontaneous fission, we study the dynamic fission trajectories of 264Fm and 240Pu using the state-of-the-art self-consistent framework. We employ the superfluid nuclear density functional theory with the Skyrme energy density functional SkM* and a density-dependent pairing interaction. Along with shape variables, proton and neutron pairing correlations are taken as collective coordinates. The collective inertia tensor is calculated within the nonperturbative cranking approximation. The fission paths are obtained by using the least action principle in a four-dimensional collective space of shape and pairing coordinates. Pairing correlations are enhanced along the minimum-action fission path. For the symmetric fission of 264Fm, where the effect of triaxiality on the fission barrier is large, the geometry of the fission pathway in the space of the shape degrees of freedom is weakly impacted by pairing. This is not the case for 240Pu, where pairing fluctuations restore the axial symmetry of the dynamic fission trajectory. The minimum-action fission path is strongly impacted by nucleonic pairing. In some cases, the dynamical coupling between shape and pairing degrees of freedom can lead to a dramatic departure from the static picture. As a result, in the dynamical description of nuclear fission, particle-particle correlations should be considered on the same footing as those associated with shape degrees of freedom.

  20. Pairing-induced speedup of nuclear spontaneous fission

    DOE PAGES

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; ...

    2014-12-22

    Collective inertia is strongly influenced at the level crossing at which the quantum system changes its microscopic configuration diabatically. Pairing correlations tend to make the large-amplitude nuclear collective motion more adiabatic by reducing the effect of these configuration changes. Competition between pairing and level crossing is thus expected to have a profound impact on spontaneous fission lifetimes. To elucidate the role of nucleonic pairing on spontaneous fission, we study the dynamic fission trajectories of 264Fm and 240Pu using the state-of-the-art self-consistent framework. We employ the superfluid nuclear density functional theory with the Skyrme energy density functional SkM* and a density-dependentmore » pairing interaction. Along with shape variables, proton and neutron pairing correlations are taken as collective coordinates. The collective inertia tensor is calculated within the nonperturbative cranking approximation. The fission paths are obtained by using the least action principle in a four-dimensional collective space of shape and pairing coordinates. Pairing correlations are enhanced along the minimum-action fission path. For the symmetric fission of 264Fm, where the effect of triaxiality on the fission barrier is large, the geometry of the fission pathway in the space of the shape degrees of freedom is weakly impacted by pairing. This is not the case for 240Pu, where pairing fluctuations restore the axial symmetry of the dynamic fission trajectory. The minimum-action fission path is strongly impacted by nucleonic pairing. In some cases, the dynamical coupling between shape and pairing degrees of freedom can lead to a dramatic departure from the static picture. As a result, in the dynamical description of nuclear fission, particle-particle correlations should be considered on the same footing as those associated with shape degrees of freedom.« less

  1. Effects of interlayer Sn-Sn lone pair interaction on the band gap of bulk and nanosheet SnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, Naoto; Zhou, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Effects of interlayer lone-pair interactions on the electronic structure of SnO are firstly explored by the density-functional theory. Our comprehensive study reveals that the band gap of SnO opens as increase in the interlayer Sn-Sn distance. The effect is rationalized by the character of band edges which consists of bonding and anti-bonding states from interlayer lone pair interactions. The band edges for several nanosheets and strained double-layer SnO are estimated. We conclude that the double-layer SnO is a promising material for visible-light driven photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution. This work is supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO) program.

  2. Size effects on thermoelectricity in a strongly correlated oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth; Siemons, Wolter; McGuire, Michael A; Ramesh, R.; Yadav, A.K.; Wu, Vincent; Vailionis, Arturas; Majumdar, Arunava

    2012-01-01

    We investigated size effects on thermoelectricity in thin films of a strongly correlated layered cobaltate. At room temperature, the thermopower is independent of thickness down to 6 nm. This unusual behavior is inconsistent with the Fuchs-Sondheimer theory, which is used to describe conventional metals and semiconductors, and is attributed to the strong electron correlations in this material. On the other hand, the resistivity increases below a critical thickness of {approx}30 nm, as expected. The temperature-dependent thermopower is similar for different thicknesses but the resistivity shows systematic changes with thickness. Our experiments highlight the differences in thermoelectric behavior of strongly correlated and uncorrelated systems when subjected to finite-size effects. We use the atomic-limit Hubbard model at the high-temperature limit to explain our observations. These findings provide new insights into decoupling electrical conductivity and thermopower in correlated systems.

  3. Effect of correlations on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, D. K.; Garg, P.; Netrakanti, P. K.

    2016-02-01

    We study the effects of correlations on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distributions which have been measured for central (0%-5%) Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied by assuming individual proton and antiproton distributions as a Poisson or negative binomial distribution (NBD). In spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation, and kinematical correlations of protons and antiprotons, the measured cumulants of the net-proton distribution follow the independent-production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of the correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and antiproton distributions obtained from the hijing event generator.

  4. Effects of adiabatic, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamics interactions on the pair potential and thermophysical properties of helium.

    PubMed

    Cencek, Wojciech; Przybytek, Michał; Komasa, Jacek; Mehl, James B; Jeziorski, Bogumił; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2012-06-14

    The adiabatic, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamics (QED) contributions to the pair potential of helium were computed, fitted separately, and applied, together with the nonrelativistic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) potential, in calculations of thermophysical properties of helium and of the properties of the helium dimer. An analysis of the convergence patterns of the calculations with increasing basis set sizes allowed us to estimate the uncertainties of the total interaction energy to be below 50 ppm for interatomic separations R smaller than 4 bohrs and for the distance R = 5.6 bohrs. For other separations, the relative uncertainties are up to an order of magnitude larger (and obviously still larger near R = 4.8 bohrs where the potential crosses zero) and are dominated by the uncertainties of the nonrelativistic BO component. These estimates also include the contributions from the neglected relativistic and QED terms proportional to the fourth and higher powers of the fine-structure constant α. To obtain such high accuracy, it was necessary to employ explicitly correlated Gaussian expansions containing up to 2400 terms for smaller R (all R in the case of a QED component) and optimized orbital bases up to the cardinal number X = 7 for larger R. Near-exact asymptotic constants were used to describe the large-R behavior of all components. The fitted potential, exhibiting the minimum of -10.996 ± 0.004 K at R = 5.608 0 ± 0.000 1 bohr, was used to determine properties of the very weakly bound (4)He(2) dimer and thermophysical properties of gaseous helium. It is shown that the Casimir-Polder retardation effect, increasing the dimer size by about 2 Å relative to the nonrelativistic BO value, is almost completely accounted for by the inclusion of the Breit-interaction and the Araki-Sucher contributions to the potential, of the order α(2) and α(3), respectively. The remaining retardation effect, of the order of α(4) and higher, is practically negligible for the bound

  5. Fermi surface and electron correlation effects of ferromagnetic iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, J.; Hoinkis, M.; Rotenberg, Eli; Blaha, P.; Claessen, R.

    2005-10-01

    The electronic band structure of bulk ferromagnetic iron is explored by angle-resolved photoemission for electron correlation effects. Fermi surface cross sections as well as band maps are contrasted with density functional calculations. The Fermi vectors and band parameters obtained from photoemission and their prediction from band theory are analyzed in detail. Generally good agreement is found for the Fermi surface. A bandwidth reduction for shallow bands of ˜30% is observed. Additional strong quasiparticle renormalization effects are found near the Fermi level, leading to a considerable mass enhancement. The role of electronic correlation effects and the electronic coupling to magnetic excitations is discussed in view of the experimental results.

  6. How to assess and compare inter-rater reliability, agreement and correlation of ratings: an exemplary analysis of mother-father and parent-teacher expressive vocabulary rating pairs

    PubMed Central

    Stolarova, Margarita; Wolf, Corinna; Rinker, Tanja; Brielmann, Aenne

    2014-01-01

    This report has two main purposes. First, we combine well-known analytical approaches to conduct a comprehensive assessment of agreement and correlation of rating-pairs and to dis-entangle these often confused concepts, providing a best-practice example on concrete data and a tutorial for future reference. Second, we explore whether a screening questionnaire developed for use with parents can be reliably employed with daycare teachers when assessing early expressive vocabulary. A total of 53 vocabulary rating pairs (34 parent–teacher and 19 mother–father pairs) collected for two-year-old children (12 bilingual) are evaluated. First, inter-rater reliability both within and across subgroups is assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Next, based on this analysis of reliability and on the test-retest reliability of the employed tool, inter-rater agreement is analyzed, magnitude and direction of rating differences are considered. Finally, Pearson correlation coefficients of standardized vocabulary scores are calculated and compared across subgroups. The results underline the necessity to distinguish between reliability measures, agreement and correlation. They also demonstrate the impact of the employed reliability on agreement evaluations. This study provides evidence that parent–teacher ratings of children's early vocabulary can achieve agreement and correlation comparable to those of mother–father ratings on the assessed vocabulary scale. Bilingualism of the evaluated child decreased the likelihood of raters' agreement. We conclude that future reports of agreement, correlation and reliability of ratings will benefit from better definition of terms and stricter methodological approaches. The methodological tutorial provided here holds the potential to increase comparability across empirical reports and can help improve research practices and knowledge transfer to educational and therapeutic settings. PMID:24994985

  7. Base-pairing energies of protonated nucleobase pairs and proton affinities of 1-methylated cytosines: model systems for the effects of the sugar moiety on the stability of DNA i-motif conformations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Moehlig, Aaron R; Frieler, C E; Rodgers, M T

    2015-02-05

    Expansion of (CCG)n·(CGG)n trinucleotide repeats leads to hypermethylation of cytosine residues and results in Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability in humans. The (CCG)n·(CGG)n repeats adopt i-motif conformations that are preferentially stabilized by base-pairing interactions of noncanonical protonated nucleobase pairs of cytosine (C(+)·C). Previously, we investigated the effects of 5-methylation of cytosine on the base-pairing energies (BPEs) using threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID) techniques. In the present work, we extend our investigations to include protonated homo- and heteronucleobase pairs of cytosine, 1-methylcytosine, 5-methylcytosine, and 1,5-dimethylcytosine. The 1-methyl substituent prevents most tautomerization processes of cytosine and serves as a mimic for the sugar moiety of DNA nucleotides. In contrast to permethylation of cytosine at the 5-position, 1-methylation is found to exert very little influence on the BPE. All modifications to both nucleobases lead to a small increase in the BPEs, with 5-methylation producing a larger enhancement than either 1-methyl or 1,5-dimethylation. In contrast, modifications to a single nucleobase are found to produce a small decrease in the BPEs, again with 5-methylation producing a larger effect than 1-methylation. However, the BPEs of all of the protonated nucleobase pairs examined here significantly exceed those of canonical G·C and neutral C·C base pairs, and thus should still provide the driving force stabilizing DNA i-motif conformations even in the presence of such modifications. The proton affinities of the methylated cytosines are also obtained from the TCID experiments by competitive analyses of the primary dissociation pathways that occur in parallel for the protonated heteronucleobase pairs.

  8. Surfactant-mediated dissolution of metformin hydrochloride tablets: wetting effects versus ion pairs diffusivity.

    PubMed

    Desai, Divyakant; Wong, Benjamin; Huang, Yande; Ye, Qingmei; Tang, Dan; Guo, Hang; Huang, Ming; Timmins, Peter

    2014-03-01

    The aqueous solubility of metformin (pKa: 2.8 and 11.5) in the pH range of 1.2-6.8 is 300 mg/mL. Thus, the dissolution of metformin hydrochloride tablets should be pH independent. However, 850 mg metformin hydrochloride tablets dissolved more slowly in pH 1.2 and 4.5 dissolution media than in pH 6.8 medium. It is hypothesized that the additional protonation of metformin at the acidic pH results in higher solvation and a larger hydrodynamic radius, leading to slower diffusion and dissolution. This hypothesis was supported by the observation that cationic metformin and anionic sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), 0.1% (w/v), formed an insoluble salt (1:2 molar ratio) at pH 1.2 and 4.5, but not at pH 6.8. SLS at 0.01% (w/v) in all three media enhanced metformin dissolution. The slower metformin dissolution at pH 1.2 and 4.5 media with SLS can be attributed to the formation of metformin-lauryl sulfate (Met-LS) (1:2 and 1:1) ion pairs, which are more hydrophobic than Met-LS (1:1) ion pairs at pH 6.8. Slower metformin diffusivity in pH 4.5 with 0.05% (w/v) SLS was observed by diffusion-ordered spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance. Improved metformin wetting by SLS outweighed the lower diffusivity of metformin-LS ion pairs because similar enhancement in dissolution was noted with 0.5% (w/v) nonionic polysorbate 80.

  9. Effect of Porosity Correlations on Sensitivity of Contaminant Travel Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlmann, K. F.; Zhu, J.; Chapman, J. B.; Russell, C. E.; Shafer, D. S.; Carroll, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    Effective porosity of hydrogeologic units (HGUs) is an important parameter influencing contaminant travel time and is particularly significant for applications where steady state Darcy flux is calculated from calibrated groundwater flow models. Under such circumstances, the effective porosities of HGUs along flowpaths are the primary control on advective velocities of particles and therefore contaminant travel times. As a result, the uncertainty in effective porosity is a critical source of uncertainty in the prediction of contaminant travel time, which is often required for designing networks for monitoring long-term migration of contaminants. In this study, uncorrelated and correlated sensitivities of advective contaminant travel times to porosities of HGUs were quantified using the advective travel time of contaminants from underground nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site to the Yucca Mountain area in Nevada U.S. as an example. First we investigated the importance of HGU porosities to the uncertainty of advective contaminant travel time based on Monte Carlo sampling techniques. We then partitioned the uncertainty of the advective travel time of contaminants into two portions: the correlated portion by the correlated variances (i.e. variances of an HGU porosity which are correlated with other HGU porosities) and the uncorrelated portion by the uncorrelated variations (i.e. the unique variations of an HGU porosity which cannot be expressed from other HGU porosities). Various correlation scenarios of HGU porosities were considered to examine the impacts of porosity correlations on the uncertainty and sensitivity of advective contaminant travel times. The emphasis is on how HGU porosity correlation scenarios influence uncorrelated and correlated uncertainty contributions.

  10. Temporal correlations and structural memory effects in break junction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyarkuti, A.; Lauritzen, K. P.; Balogh, Z.; Nyáry, A.; Mészáros, G.; Makk, P.; Solomon, G. C.; Halbritter, A.

    2017-03-01

    We review data analysis techniques that can be used to study temporal correlations among conductance traces in break junction measurements. We show that temporal histograms are a simple but efficient tool to check the temporal homogeneity of the conductance traces, or to follow spontaneous or triggered temporal variations, like structural modifications in trained contacts, or the emergence of single-molecule signatures after molecule dosing. To statistically analyze the presence and the decay time of temporal correlations, we introduce shifted correlation plots. Finally, we demonstrate that correlations between the opening and subsequent closing traces may indicate structural memory effects in atomic-sized metallic and molecular junctions. Applying these methods on measured and simulated gold metallic contacts as a test system, we show that the surface diffusion induced flattening of the broken junctions helps to produce statistically independent conductance traces at room temperature, whereas at low temperature repeating tendencies are observed as long as the contacts are not closed to sufficiently high conductance setpoints. Applying opening-closing correlation analysis on Pt-CO-Pt single-molecule junctions, we demonstrate pronounced contact memory effects and recovery of the molecule for junctions breaking before atomic chains are formed. However, if chains are pulled the random relaxation of the chain and molecule after rupture prevents opening-closing correlations.

  11. The stabilization effect of dielectric constant and acidic amino acids on arginine-arginine (Arg-Arg) pairings: database survey and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengyan; Xu, Zhijian; Yang, Zhuo; Liu, Yingtao; Wang, Jin'an; Shao, Qiang; Li, Shujin; Lu, Yunxiang; Zhu, Weiliang

    2013-05-02

    Database survey in this study revealed that about one-third of the protein structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) contain arginine-arginine (Arg-Arg) pairing with a carbon···carbon (CZ···CZ) interaction distance less than 5 Å. All the Arg-Arg pairings were found to bury in a polar environment composed of acidic residues, water molecules, and strong polarizable or negatively charged moieties from binding site or bound ligand. Most of the Arg-Arg pairings are solvent exposed and 68.3% Arg-Arg pairings are stabilized by acidic residues, forming Arg-Arg-Asp/Glu clusters. Density functional theory (DFT) was then employed to study the effect of environment on the pairing structures. It was revealed that Arg-Arg pairings become thermodynamically stable (about -1 kcal/mol) as the dielectric constant increases to 46.8 (DMSO), in good agreement with the results of the PDB survey. DFT calculations also demonstrated that perpendicular Arg-Arg pairing structures are favorable in low dielectric constant environment, while in high dielectric constant environment parallel structures are favorable. Additionally, the acidic residues can stabilize the Arg-Arg pairing structures to a large degree. Energy decomposition analysis of Arg-Arg pairings and Arg-Arg-Asp/Glu clusters showed that both solvation and electrostatic energies contribute significantly to their stability. The results reported herein should be very helpful for understanding Arg-Arg pairing and its application in drug design.

  12. The Application of Meta-analysis within a Matched-pair Randomized Control Trial: An Illustration Testing the Effects of Communities That Care on Delinquent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Use of meta-analytic strategies to test intervention effects is an important complement to traditional design-based analyses of intervention effects in randomized control trials. In the present paper, we suggest that meta-analyses within the context of matched-pair designs can provide useful insight into intervention effects. We illustrate the advantages to this analytic strategy by examining the effectiveness of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on 8th-grade delinquent behavior in a randomized matched-pair trial. We estimate the intervention effect within each of the matched-pair communities, aggregate the effect sizes across matched pairs to derive an overall intervention effect, and test for heterogeneity in the effect of CTC on delinquency across matched pairs of communities. The meta-analysis finds that CTC reduces delinquent behavior and that the effect of CTC on delinquent behavior varies significantly across communities. The use of meta-analysis in randomized matched-pair studies can provide a useful accompaniment to other analytic approaches because it opens the possibility of identifying factors associated with differential effects across units or matched pairs in the context of a randomized control trial. PMID:23111547

  13. The application of meta-analysis within a matched-pair randomized control trial: an illustration testing the effects of communities that care on delinquent behavior.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kathryn C; Hawkins, J David; Abbott, Robert D

    2013-02-01

    Use of meta-analytic strategies to test intervention effects is an important complement to traditional design-based analyses of intervention effects in randomized control trials. In the present paper, we suggest that meta-analyses within the context of matched-pair designs can provide useful insight into intervention effects. We illustrate the advantages to this analytic strategy by examining the effectiveness of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on 8th-grade delinquent behavior in a randomized matched-pair trial. We estimate the intervention effect within each of the matched-pair communities, aggregate the effect sizes across matched pairs to derive an overall intervention effect, and test for heterogeneity in the effect of CTC on delinquency across matched pairs of communities. The meta-analysis finds that CTC reduces delinquent behavior and that the effect of CTC on delinquent behavior varies significantly across communities. The use of meta-analysis in randomized matched-pair studies can provide a useful accompaniment to other analytic approaches because it opens the possibility of identifying factors associated with differential effects across units or matched pairs in the context of a randomized control trial.

  14. Correlation effects during liquid infiltration into hydrophobic nanoporous media

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, V. D. Belogorlov, A. A.; Byrkin, V. A.; Lisichkin, G. V.; Tronin, V. N.; Troyan, V. I.

    2011-03-15

    To explain the thermal effects observed during the infiltration of a nonwetting liquid into a disordered nanoporous medium, we have constructed a model that includes correlation effects in a disordered medium. It is based on analytical methods of the percolation theory. The infiltration of a porous medium is considered as the infiltration of pores in an infinite cluster of interconnected pores. Using the model of randomly situated spheres (RSS), we have been able to take into account the correlation effect of the spatial arrangement and connectivity of pores in the medium. The other correlation effect of the mutual arrangement of filled and empty pores on the shell of an infinite percolation cluster of filled pores determines the infiltration fluctuation probability. This probability has been calculated analytically. Allowance for these correlation effects during infiltration and defiltration makes it possible to suggest a physical mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis and to calculate the dependences of the contact angles on the degree of infiltration, porosity of the medium, and temperature. Based on the suggested model, we have managed to describe the temperature dependences of the infiltration and defiltration pressures and the thermal effects that accompany the absorption of energy by disordered porous medium-nonwetting liquid systems with various porosities in a unified way.

  15. Neutron scattering studies of short-range order, atomic displacements, and effective pair interactions in a null-matrix Ni0.5262Pt0.48 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. A.; Moss, S. C.; Robertson, J. L.; Copley, J. R. D.; Neumann, D. A.; Major, J.

    2006-09-01

    The best known exception to the Heine-Sampson and Bieber-Gauthier arguments for ordering effects in transition metal alloys (similar to the Hume-Rothery rules) is a NiPt alloy, whose phase diagram is similar to that of the CuAu system. Using neutron scattering we have investigated the local atomic order in a null-matrix Ni0.5262Pt0.48 single crystal. In a null-matrix alloy, the isotopic composition is adjusted so that the average neutron scattering length vanishes ( Ni62 has a negative scattering length nearly equal in magnitude to that of Pt). Consequently, all contributions to the total scattering depending on the average lattice are suppressed. The only remaining components of the elastic scattering are the short-range order (SRO) and size effect terms. These data permit the extraction of the SRO parameters (concentration-concentration correlations) as well as the displacement parameters (concentration-displacement correlations). Using the Krivoglaz-Clapp-Moss theory, we obtain the effective pair interactions (EPIs) between near neighbors in the alloy. The results can be used by theorists to model the alloy in the context of the electronic theory of alloy phase stability, including a preliminary evaluation of the local species-dependent displacements. Our maps of V(q) , the Fourier transform of the EPIs, show very similar shapes in the experimental and reconstructed data. This is of importance when comparing to electronic structure calculations.

  16. Modeling Correlation Effects in Nickelates with Slave Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Alexandru Bogdan; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    Nickelate interfaces display interesting electronic properties including orbital ordering similar to that of cuprate superconductors and thickness dependent metal-insulator transitions. One-particle band theory calculations do not include dynamic localized correlation effects on the nickel sites and thus often incorrectly predict metallic systems or incorrect ARPES spectra. Building on two previous successful slave-particle treatments of local correlations, we present a generalized slave-particle method that includes prior models and allows us to produce new intermediate models. The computational efficiency of these slave-boson methods means that one can readily study correlation effects in complex heterostructures. We show some predictions of these methods for the electronic structure of bulk and thin film nickelates. Work supported by NSF Grant MRSEC DMR-1119826.

  17. Enantiomeric pair of copper(II) polypyridyl-alanine complexes: Effect of chirality on their interaction with biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chew Hee; Chan, Cheang Wei; Lai, Jing Wei; Ooi, Ing Hong; Chong, Kok Vei; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Seng, Hoi Ling

    2016-07-01

    Like chiral organic drugs, the chemical and biological properties of metal complexes can be dependent on chirality. Two pairs of [Cu(phen)(ala)(H2O)]X·xH2O (phen=1.10-phenanthroline: X=NO3(-); ala: l-alanine (l-ala), 1 and d-alanine (d-ala) 2; and (X=Cl(-); ala: l-ala, 3 and d-ala, 4) complex salts (x=number of lattice water molecules) have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of 3 has been determined. The same pair of enantiomeric species, viz. [Cu(phen)(l-ala)(H2O)](+) and [Cu(phen)(d-ala)(H2O)](+), have been identified to be present in the aqueous solutions of both 1 and 3, and in those of both 2 and 4 respectively. Both 3 and 4 bind more strongly to ds(AT)6 than ds(CG)6. There is no or insignificant effect of the chirality of 3 and 4 on the production of hydroxyl radicals, binding to deoxyribonucleic acid from calf thymus (CT-DNA), ds(CG)6, G-quadruplex and 17-base pair duplex, and inhibition of both topoisomerase I and proteasome. Among the three proteasome proteolytic sites, the trypsin-like site is inhibited most strongly by these complexes. However, the chirality of 3 and 4 does affect the number of restriction enzymes inhibited, and their binding constants towards ds(AT)6 and serum albumin.

  18. Transfer of (13) C between paired Douglas-fir seedlings reveals plant kinship effects and uptake of exudates by ectomycorrhizas.

    PubMed

    Pickles, Brian J; Wilhelm, Roland; Asay, Amanda K; Hahn, Aria S; Simard, Suzanne W; Mohn, William W

    2017-04-01

    Processes governing the fixation, partitioning, and mineralization of carbon in soils are under increasing scrutiny as we develop a more comprehensive understanding of global carbon cycling. Here we examined fixation by Douglas-fir seedlings and transfer to associated ectomycorrhizal fungi, soil microbes, and full-sibling or nonsibling neighbouring seedlings. Stable isotope probing with 99% (13) C-CO2 was applied to trace (13) C-labelled photosynthate throughout plants, fungi, and soil microbes in an experiment designed to assess the effect of relatedness on (13) C transfer between plant pairs. The fixation and transfer of the (13) C label to plant, fungal, and soil microbial tissue was examined in biomass and phospholipid fatty acids. After a 6 d chase period, c. 26.8% of the (13) C remaining in the system was translocated below ground. Enrichment was proportionally greatest in ectomycorrhizal biomass. The presence of mesh barriers (0.5 or 35 μm) between seedlings did not restrict (13) C transfer. Fungi were the primary recipients of (13) C-labelled photosynthate throughout the system, representing 60-70% of total (13) C-enriched phospholipids. Full-sibling pairs exhibited significantly greater (13) C transfer to recipient roots in two of four Douglas-fir families, representing three- and fourfold increases (+ c. 4 μg excess (13) C) compared with nonsibling pairs. The existence of a root/mycorrhizal exudation-hyphal uptake pathway was supported.

  19. Peer Deviance, Alcohol Expectancies, and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Explaining Shared and Nonshared Environmental Effects Using an Adoptive Sibling Pair Design

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests adolescent alcohol use is largely influenced by environmental factors, yet little is known about the specific nature of this influence. We hypothesized that peer deviance and alcohol expectancies would be sources of environmental influence because both have been consistently and strongly correlated with adolescent alcohol use. The sample included 206 genetically related and 407 genetically unrelated sibling pairs assessed in mid-to-late adolescence. The heritability of adolescent alcohol use (e.g., frequency, quantity last 12 months) was minimal and not significantly different from zero. The associations among peer deviance, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use were primarily due to shared environmental factors. Of special note, alcohol expectancies also significantly explained nonshared environmental influence on alcohol use. This study is one of few that have identified specific environmental variants of adolescent alcohol use while controlling for genetic influence. PMID:23644917

  20. The effects of correlation on goodness of fit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Autocorrelated normal random variates were generated via computer and the effects of various levels of correlation on goodness of fit problems were studied. The results are useful in determining the distribution or estimating the parameters of populations that correlate observations such as wind speeds and temperature. The model used to generate the autocorrelated data is an autoregressive process of order 1. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and chi-square statistics are used in the analysis. It was observed in the simulation that high positive correlations tend to shift the sample mean away from the population mean and negative correlations tend to shift the sample mean towards the population mean. In many cases, it was observed that positive and negative correlations tend to decrease the standard deviation. However, since this did not occur in all cases, no definite conclusion can be made regarding the standard deviation. Since the autoregressive process is a linear transformation, it is not surprising that normality was preserved. However, a possible extension of this problem could be to generate non-normal data and observe how the distribution is affected by correlation. Another extension might utilize another model such as autoregressive of order k or a moving average process of order k.

  1. Correlates, Causes, Effects, and Treatment of Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembree, Ray

    1988-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the results of 562 studies illustrates the nature, effect, and treatment of academic test anxiety (TA). TA correlated inversely to students' self-esteem and directly to their fears of negative evaluation, defensiveness, and other forms of anxiety. Ability, gender, and school grade level also affect TA. (TJH)

  2. Selection effects on GRB spectral-energy correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, Lara; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2009-05-25

    Instrumental selection effects can act upon the estimates of the peak energy E{sub peak}{sup obs}, the fluence F and the peak flux P of GRBs. If this were the case, then the correlations involving the corresponding rest frame quantities (i.e. E{sub peak}, E{sub obs} and the peak luminosity L{sub iso}) would be questioned. We estimated, as a function of E{sub peak}{sup obs}, the minimum peak flux necessary to trigger a GRB and the minimum fluence a burst must have to determine the value of E{sub peak}{sup obs} by considering different instruments (BATSE, Swift, BeppoSAX). We find that the latter dominates over the former. We then study the E{sub peak}{sup obs}-fluence (and flux) correlation in the observer plane. GRBs with redshift show well defined E{sub peak}{sup obs}-F and E{sub peak}{sup obs}-P correlations: in this planes the selection effects are present, but do not determine the found correlations. This is not true for Swift GRBs with redshift, for which the spectral analysis threshold does affect their distribution in the observer planes. Extending the sample to GRBs without z, we still find a significant E{sub peak}{sup obs}-F correlation, although with a larger scatter than that defined by GRBs with redshift. We find that 6% are outliers of the Amati correlation. The E{sub peak}{sup obs}-P correlation of GRBs with or without redshift is the same and no outlier is found among bursts without redshift.

  3. Effect of correlations on controllability transition in network control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Sen; Wang, Xu-Wen; Wang, Bing-Hong; Jiang, Luo-Luo

    2016-04-01

    The network control problem has recently attracted an increasing amount of attention, owing to concerns including the avoidance of cascading failures of power-grids and the management of ecological networks. It has been proven that numerical control can be achieved if the number of control inputs exceeds a certain transition point. In the present study, we investigate the effect of degree correlation on the numerical controllability in networks whose topological structures are reconstructed from both real and modeling systems, and we find that the transition point of the number of control inputs depends strongly on the degree correlation in both undirected and directed networks with moderately sparse links. More interestingly, the effect of the degree correlation on the transition point cannot be observed in dense networks for numerical controllability, which contrasts with the corresponding result for structural controllability. In particular, for directed random networks and scale-free networks, the influence of the degree correlation is determined by the types of correlations. Our approach provides an understanding of control problems in complex sparse networks.

  4. Quantum coherence rather than quantum correlations reflect the effects of a reservoir on a system's work capability.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Zou, Jian; Yu, Wen-Li; Xu, Bao-Ming; Li, Jun-Gang; Shao, Bin

    2014-05-01

    We consider a model of an optical cavity with a nonequilibrium reservoir consisting of a beam of identical two-level atom pairs (TLAPs) in the general X state. We find that coherence of multiparticle nonequilibrium reservoir plays a central role on the potential work capability of the cavity. We show that no matter whether there are quantum correlations in each TLAP (including quantum entanglement and quantum discord) or not, the coherence of the TLAPs has an effect on the work capability of the cavity. Additionally, constructive and destructive interferences could be induced to influence the work capability of the cavity by adjusting only the relative phase, with which quantum correlations have nothing to do. In this paper, the coherence of the reservoir, rather than the quantum correlations, effectively reflecting the effects of the reservoir on the system's work capability is demonstrated clearly.

  5. A Paired watershed Evaluation of Agroforestry effects on Water Quality on a Corn/Soybean Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udawatta, Ranjith; Jose, Shibu; Garrett, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited and thus limit the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world. The objective of the study was to examine non point source pollution (NPSP) reduction by agroforestry buffers in row-crop watersheds. The study consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Knox County, Missouri, USA. Watersheds were established in 1991 and treatments of agroforestry (trees+grass) and grass buffers were established on two watersheds in 1997 after a 7-year calibration period. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2009 to 2010 period. Results indicated that agroforestry and grass buffers on row crop watersheds significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with row crop management reduced runoff by 26% during the study period as compared to the control treatments. Average sediment loss for row crop management and buffer watersheds was 14.8 and 9.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared to the control treatments. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in management, soils, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be implemented to reduce NPSP to water bodies while improving land value and environmental quality.

  6. Ion-pair dissociation of highly excited carbon clusters: Size and charge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launoy, Thibaut; Béroff, Karine; Chabot, Marin; Martinet, Guillaume; Le Padellec, Arnaud; Pino, Thomas; Bouneau, Sandra; Vaeck, Nathalie; Liévin, Jacques; Féraud, Géraldine; Loreau, Jérôme; Mahajan, Thejus

    2017-02-01

    We present measurements of ion-pair dissociation (IPD) of highly excited neutral and ionized carbon clusters Cn=2 -5 (q =0 -3 )+. The tool for producing these species was a high-velocity collision between Cn+ projectiles (v =2.25 a.u.) and helium atoms. The setup allowed us to detect in coincidence anionic and cationic fragments, event by event, leading to a direct and unambiguous identification of the IPD process. Compared with dissociation without anion emission, we found typical 10-4 IPD rates, not depending much on the size and charge of the (n ,q ) species. Exceptions were observed for C2+ and, to a lesser extent, C43 + whose IPDs were notably lower. We tentatively interpret IPDs of C2+ and C3+ by using a statistical approach based on the counting of final states allowed by energetic criteria. The model is able to furnish the right order of magnitude for the experimental IPD rates and to provide a qualitative explanation of the lower IPD rate observed in C2+.

  7. Correlation effects on a topological insulator at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tsuneya; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Kawakami, Norio

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the effects of the local Coulomb interaction on a topological band insulator (TBI) by applying the dynamical mean-field theory to a generalized Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model having electron correlations. It is elucidated how the correlation effects modify electronic properties in the TBI phase at finite temperatures. In particular, the band inversion character of the TBI inevitably leads to the large reduction of the spectral gap via the renormalization effect, which results in the strong temperature dependence of the spin Hall conductivity. We clarify that a quantum phase transition from the TBI to a trivial Mott insulator, if it is nonmagnetic, is of first order with a hysteresis. This is confirmed via the interaction dependence of the double occupancy and the spectral function. A magnetic instability is also addressed. All these results imply that the spectral gap does not close at the transition.

  8. Effects of Reynolds Number and Stokes Number on Particle-pair Relative Velocity in Isotropic Turbulence: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zhongwang; Bragg, Andrew; Hammond, Adam; Liang, Zach; Collins, Lance; Meng, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Effects of Reynolds number (Rλ) and Stokes number (St) on particle-pair relative velocity (RV) were studied using four-frame particle tracking in an enclosed turbulence chamber. Two tests were performed: varying Rλ between 246 and 357 at six St values, and varying St between 0.02 and 4.63 at five Rλ values. By comparing experimental and DNS results of mean inward particle-pair RV, , we observed excellent agreement for all test conditions across a large range of particle separation distance (r) ; however at r <= 10 η (η: Kolmogorov length scale), experimental values were higher than simulation. At fixed St , was found to be independent of Rλ in the observable St , r, and Rλ ranges. At fixed Rλ, increased with St at small r and decreased with St at large r. We further compared and variance of RV, , between experiments, DNS and theoretical predictions by Pan and Padoan (2010). At 0 < St <= 1 , theory-predicted and matched with DNS and experiment in the range of r = 1 - 60 η . As St increased, theoretical predictions were lower than experiment and DNS results. The potential causes of these trends are explored. Additionally, we discuss the observed electrostatic charge effect on particle relative motion in isotropic turbulence and our plans of studying this effect using an integrated experimental, numerical and theoretical approach. This work was supported by NSF CBET-0967407 and CBET-0967349.

  9. Increased New lncRNA-mRNA Gene Pair Levels in Human Cumulus Cells Correlate With Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Cao, Yunxia; Xu, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Huifen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Beili; Hao, Yan; Wei, Zhaolian; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Dawei

    2015-08-01

    The close relationship between cumulus cells and oocyte indicates that the analysis of cumulus gene expression is a potential noninvasive method to aid embryo selection and in vitro fertilization outcome. Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) could regulate essential pathways that contribute to human oocyte maturation, fertilization, and embryo development, which indicates that lncRNA would be valuable biomarkers. In our previous study, AK124742 is a newly detected lncRNA that was identified as being natural antisense to PSMD6, but its role in oocyte and embryo development is still not elucidated and needs to be investigated. Here, the expression of AK124742 and PSMD6 was measured in 40 pairs of cumulus cells from oocytes that result in high-quality embryos (HCCs) and from oocytes that result in poor-quality embryos (PCCs) by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The predictive value of AK124742 and PSMD6 was evaluated using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Notably, elevated expression levels of AK124742 and PSMD6 were observed in HCCs compared to PCCs (72.5% and 62.5%, respectively; P < .01). Expression of AK124742 was potentially positively associated with the PSMD6 levels. The relative expression levels of AK124742 and PSMD6 in the pregnancy group were significantly higher than those in the nonpregnancy group (P < .01).The area under the ROC curve of AK124742 was 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.64-0.93). In conclusion, AK124742 and PSMD6 as a new lncRNA-messenger RNA gene pair in human cumulus cells may be considered as potential biomarkers to aid embryo selection.

  10. DNA-based nanobiostructured devices: The role of quasiperiodicity and correlation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, E. L.; Fulco, U. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Lyra, M. L.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to present a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the main physical properties of DNA-based nanobiostructured devices, stressing the role played by their quasi-periodicity arrangement and correlation effects. Although the DNA-like molecule is usually described as a short-ranged correlated random ladder, artificial segments can be grown following quasiperiodic sequences as, for instance, the Fibonacci and Rudin-Shapiro ones. They have interesting properties like a complex fractal spectra of energy, which can be considered as their indelible mark, and collective properties that are not shared by their constituents. These collective properties are due to the presence of long-range correlations, which are expected to be reflected somehow in their various spectra (electronic transmission, density of states, etc.) defining another description of disorder. Although long-range correlations are responsible for the effective electronic transport at specific resonant energies of finite DNA segments, much of the anomalous spread of an initially localized electron wave-packet can be accounted by short-range pair correlations, suggesting that an approach based on the inclusion of further short-range correlations on the nucleotide distribution leads to an adequate description of the electronic properties of DNA segments. The introduction of defects may generate states within the gap, and substantially improves the conductance, specially of finite branches. They usually become exponentially localized for any amount of disorder, and have the property to tailor the electronic transport properties of DNA-based nanoelectronic devices. In particular, symmetric and antisymmetric correlations have quite distinct influence on the nature of the electronic states, and a diluted distribution of defects lead to an anomalous diffusion of the electronic wave-packet. Nonlinear contributions, arising from the coupling between electrons and the molecular vibrations

  11. Time- and space-order effects in timed discrimination of brightness and size of paired visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Patching, Geoffrey R; Englund, Mats P; Hellström, Ake

    2012-08-01

    Despite the importance of both response probability and response time for testing models of choice, there is a dearth of chronometric studies examining systematic asymmetries that occur over time- and space-orders in the method of paired comparisons. In this study, systematic asymmetries in discriminating the magnitude of paired visual stimuli are examined by way of log odds ratios of binary responses as well as by signed response speed. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling is used to map response probabilities and response speed onto constituent psychological process, and processing capacity is also assessed using response time distribution hazard functions. The findings include characteristic order effects that change systematically in magnitude and direction with changes in the magnitude and separation of the stimuli. After Hellström (1979, 2000), sensation weighting (SW) model analyses show that such order effects are reflected in the weighted accumulation of noisy information about the difference between stimulus values over time, and interindividual differences in weightings asymmetries are related to the relative processing capacity of participants. An account of SW based on the use of reference level information and maximization of signal-to-noise ratios is posited, which finds support from theoretically driven analyses of behavioral data.

  12. Targeted estimation and inference for the sample average treatment effect in trials with and without pair-matching.

    PubMed

    Balzer, Laura B; Petersen, Maya L; van der Laan, Mark J

    2016-09-20

    In cluster randomized trials, the study units usually are not a simple random sample from some clearly defined target population. Instead, the target population tends to be hypothetical or ill-defined, and the selection of study units tends to be systematic, driven by logistical and practical considerations. As a result, the population average treatment effect (PATE) may be neither well defined nor easily interpretable. In contrast, the sample average treatment effect (SATE) is the mean difference in the counterfactual outcomes for the study units. The sample parameter is easily interpretable and arguably the most relevant when the study units are not sampled from some specific super-population of interest. Furthermore, in most settings, the sample parameter will be estimated more efficiently than the population parameter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to propose using targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) for estimation and inference of the sample effect in trials with and without pair-matching. We study the asymptotic and finite sample properties of the TMLE for the sample effect and provide a conservative variance estimator. Finite sample simulations illustrate the potential gains in precision and power from selecting the sample effect as the target of inference. This work is motivated by the Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health (SEARCH) study, a pair-matched, community randomized trial to estimate the effect of population-based HIV testing and streamlined ART on the 5-year cumulative HIV incidence (NCT01864603). The proposed methodology will be used in the primary analysis for the SEARCH trial. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Correlation effects in dilute particle-polymer mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.P.; Schweizer, K.S.

    1998-12-01

    The influence of chain connectivity and polymer excluded volume correlations on macromolecule-induced depletion interactions between spherical particles in the athermal limit is analyzed based on integral equation methods. Results for the sphere{endash}sphere second virial coefficient (B{sub 2}{sup cc}) and polymer-induced potential of mean force derived within the Percus{endash}Yevick (PY) and hypernetted chain (HNC) closure approximations for the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) are compared with those from prior theories for the depletion interaction which employ simplified models for macromolecules and/or ignore intermolecular packing effects. Distinctive differences are often found depending on system parameters, which are interpreted in terms of many-body correlation effects or nonathermal solvent quality. Comparisons with scaling and field-theoretic approaches in the dilute polymer limit, and limitations of the PY closure, are briefly addressed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Effect of critical dimension variation on SAW correlator energy.

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Jack L.

    2005-04-01

    The effect of critical dimension (CD) variation and metallization ratio on the efficiency of energy conversion of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator is examined. We find that a 10% variation in the width of finger electrodes predicts only a 1% decrease in the efficiency of energy conversion. Furthermore, our model predicts that a metallization ratio of 0.74 represents an optimum value for energy extraction from the SAW by the interdigitated transducer (IDT).

  15. Effect of ion pairing on in vitro transcorneal permeability of a Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol prodrug: potential in glaucoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Tushar; Gul, Waseem; Elsohly, Mahmoud; Repka, Michael A; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and improve the in vitro transcorneal permeability characteristics of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) through prodrug derivatization and formulation approaches. In vitro corneal permeability of THC and its hemisuccinate (THC-HS) and hemiglutarate (THC-HG) ester prodrugs and WIN 55-212-2 (WIN), a synthetic cannabinoid, was determined using isolated rabbit cornea. The formulations studied included hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HPβCD) or randomly methylated beta cyclodextrin (RMβCD), as well as prodrug-ion-pair complexes with l-arginine or tromethamine. Corneal permeability of WIN was found to be two-fold higher than THC in the presence of HPβCD. THC-HS and THC-HG exhibited pH-dependent permeability. In the presence of HPβCD, at pH 5 (donor solution pH), both prodrugs exhibited six-fold higher permeability compared with THC. However, permeability of the prodrugs was about three-fold lower than that of THC at pH 7.4. RMβCD, at pH 7.4, led to a significant improvement in permeability. Formation of ion-pair complexes markedly improved the solubility and permeability of THC-HG (sevenfold and threefold greater permeability compared with THC and WIN, respectively) at pH 7.4. The in vitro results demonstrate that the use of an ion-pair complex of THC-HG could be an effective strategy for topical delivery of THC.

  16. Quantum dust magnetosonic waves with spin and exchange correlation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Maroof, R.; Qamar, A.; Mushtaq, A.

    2016-01-15

    Dust magnetosonic waves are studied in degenerate dusty plasmas with spin and exchange correlation effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, spin magnetization energy, and exchange correlation, a generalized dispersion relation is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. The exchange-correlation potentials are used, based on the adiabatic local-density approximation, and can be described as a function of the electron density. For three different values of angle, the dispersion relation is reduced to three different modes under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effects of quantum corrections in the presence of dust concentration significantly modify the dispersive properties of these modes. The results are useful for understanding numerous collective phenomena in quantum plasmas, such as those in compact astrophysical objects (e.g., the cores of white dwarf stars and giant planets) and in plasma-assisted nanotechnology (e.g., quantum diodes, quantum free-electron lasers, etc.)

  17. Pair-collision between heterogeneous capsules in simple shear: Effect of membrane stiffness and membrane constitutive laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajesh; Sarkar, Kausik

    2012-11-01

    Deformability of red blood cells affects hydrodynamic properties of blood and thereby physiological functions in many cardiovascular diseases, e.g. in sickle cell anemia and malaria, the cell membrane becomes stiff affecting their circulation through microvessels. Here, we numerically simulate the hydrodynamic interaction between a pair of cell-like capsules in a free shear flow, using a front-tracking method. The membrane is modeled using various constitutive equations. By varying the stiffness of one capsule (C2) and keeping all other parameters constant, we find a significant effect on the deformation and trajectory of the other (C1) . Increasing the stiffness of C2 surprisingly increases the peak deformation of C1 while decreasing the cross-stream shift in its trajectory However, the relative trajectory between capsules remains the same. Effects of constitutive laws and difference in behaviors between capsules and drops are investigated explaining underlying physics. partial support from NSF.

  18. The Effect of Homoeologous Meiotic Pairing in Tetraploid Hordeum bulbosum L. × H. vulgare L. Hybrids on Alien Introgressions in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Margret; Pendinen, Galina

    2016-01-01

    The pairing behaviour of the individual chromosome arms of Hordeum vulgare (Hv) with their homoeologous arms of H. bulbosum (Hb) at metaphase I of meiosis in tetraploid Hb × Hv hybrids and the frequencies of recombined Hv chromosome arms in selfed offspring were studied on differentially visualized chromosomes after fluorescent in situ hybridisation. The frequencies of paired Hv-Hb arms in the F2 and F3 hybrids were correlated with the frequencies of recombined Hv chromosomes in progenies. Self-generation of hybrids, the number of Hv and Hb chromosomes, and the number of recombined Hv chromosomes of the hybrids strongly influenced the Hv-Hb pairing frequency in meiosis. Within the offspring of F2 and F3 hybrids both Hv plants and hybrids were detected. In contrast, all progenies of the F4 hybrid were hybrids which exhibited centromere misdivisions. The highest frequencies of homoeologous pairing in hybrids and most recombinants were obtained for the barley chromosome 1HL. Recombinants for 4HL, 5HS, 6HS, and 7HS were rarely found. Meiotic pairing and recombinants involving chromosome 1HS were never observed. The results of this study demonstrate that fertile tetraploid interspecific hybrids with a high intergenomic pairing at meiosis are valuable basic material for introgression breeding in barley.

  19. Correlations in double parton distributions: perturbative and non-perturbative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Scopetta, Sergio; Traini, Marco; Vento, Vicente

    2016-10-01

    The correct description of Double Parton Scattering (DPS), which represents a background in several channels for the search of new Physics at the LHC, requires the knowledge of double parton distribution functions (dPDFs). These quantities represent also a novel tool for the study of the three-dimensional nucleon structure, complementary to the possibilities offered by electromagnetic probes. In this paper we analyze dPDFs using Poincaré covariant predictions obtained by using a Light-Front constituent quark model proposed in a recent paper, and QCD evolution. We study to what extent factorized expressions for dPDFs, which neglect, at least in part, two-parton correlations, can be used. We show that they fail in reproducing the calculated dPDFs, in particular in the valence region. Actually measurable processes at existing facilities occur at low longitudinal momenta of the interacting partons; to have contact with these processes we have analyzed correlations between pairs of partons of different kind, finding that, in some cases, they are strongly suppressed at low longitudinal momenta, while for other distributions they can be sizeable. For example, the effect of gluon-gluon correlations can be as large as 20 %. We have shown that these behaviors can be understood in terms of a delicate interference of non-perturbative correlations, generated by the dynamics of the model, and perturbative ones, generated by the model independent evolution procedure. Our analysis shows that at LHC kinematics two-parton correlations can be relevant in DPS, and therefore we address the possibility to study them experimentally.

  20. Pair collisions of fluid-filled elastic capsules in shear flow: Effects of membrane properties and polymer additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranay, Pratik; Anekal, Samartha G.; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan P.; Graham, Michael D.

    2010-12-01

    The dynamics and pair collisions of fluid-filled elastic capsules during Couette flow in Newtonian fluids and dilute solutions of high-molecular weight (drag-reducing) polymers are investigated via direct simulation. Capsule membranes are modeled using either a neo-Hookean constitutive model or a model introduced by Skalak et al. ["Strain energy function of red blood-cell membranes," Biophys. J. 13, 245 (1973)], which includes an energy penalty for area changes. This model was developed to capture the elastic properties of red blood cells. Polymer molecules are modeled as bead-spring trimers with finitely extensible nonlinearly elastic springs; parameters were chosen to loosely approximate 4000 kDa poly(ethylene oxide). Simulations are performed with a novel Stokes flow formulation of the immersed boundary method for the capsules, combined with Brownian dynamics for the polymer molecules. The results for isolated capsules in shear indicate that at the very low concentrations considered here, polymers have a little effect on the capsule shape. In the case of pair collisions, the effect of polymer is strongly dependent on the elastic properties of the capsules' membranes. For neo-Hookean capsules or for Skalak capsules with only a small penalty for area change, the net displacement in the gradient direction after collision is virtually unaffected by the polymer. For Skalak capsules with a large penalty for area change, polymers substantially decrease the net displacement when compared to the Newtonian case and the effect is enhanced upon increasing the polymer concentration. The differences between the polymer effects in the various cases are associated with the extensional flow generated in the region between the capsules as they leave the collision. The extension rate is highest when there is a strong resistance to a change in the membrane area and is substantially decreased in the presence of polymer.

  1. Mutagenic effects induced by the attack of NO2 radical to the guanine-cytosine base pair

    PubMed Central

    Cerón-Carrasco, José P.; Requena, Alberto; Zúñiga, José; Jacquemin, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the attack of the nitrogen dioxide radical (NO•2) to the guanine—cytosine (GC) base pair and the subsequent tautomeric reactions able to induce mutations, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The conducted simulations allow us to identify the most reactive sites of the GC base pair. Indeed, the computed relative energies demonstrate that the addition of the NO•2 radical to the C8 position of the guanine base forms to the most stable adduct. Although the initial adducts might evolve to non-canonical structures via inter-base hydrogen bonds rearrangements, the probability for the proton exchange to occur lies in the same range as that observed for undamaged DNA. As a result, tautomeric errors in NO2-attacked DNA arises at the same rate as in canonical DNA, with no macroscopic impact on the overall stability of DNA. The potential mutagenic effects of the GC–NO•2 radical adducts likely involve side reactions, e.g., the GC deprotonation to the solvent, rather than proton exchange between guanine and cytosine basis. PMID:25798437

  2. Modulation of paired-pulse responses in the dentate gyrus: effects of normal maturation and vigilance state.

    PubMed

    Blaise, J H; Bronzino, J D

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effect of normal development and vigilance state on the modulation of dentate granule cell activity in the freely moving rat at 15, 30, and 90 days of age across three vigilance states: quiet waking, slow-wave sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep. Using paired-pulse stimulation, the paired-pulse index (PPI) was obtained for the dentate evoked field potentials elicited by the stimulation of the medial perforant path. Although significant differences in PPI values were observed during development, no significant vigilance state related changes were obtained. Preweaning infant rats, i.e., 15-day old, exhibited significantly less early (interpulse intervals, IPI= 20-50 ms) and late (IPI = 300-1,000 ms) inhibition, and less facilitation (IPI = 50-150 ms) when compared to the 90-day old adult rats during all three vigilance states. PPI values obtained from the 30-day old group fell intermediate between the 15- and 90-day old animals. These changes in PPI values provide a quantitative measure of changes in the modulation of dentate granule cell excitability during normal maturation. They can now can be used to evaluate the impact of various insults, such as prenatal protein malnutrition or neonatal stress, on hippocampal development.

  3. A combined "electrochemical-frustrated lewis pair" approach to hydrogen activation: surface catalytic effects at platinum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Elliot J; Blagg, Robin J; Hughes, David L; Ashley, Andrew E; Wildgoose, Gregory G

    2015-01-07

    Herein, we extend our "combined electrochemical-frustrated Lewis pair" approach to include Pt electrode surfaces for the first time. We found that the voltammetric response of an electrochemical-frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) system involving the B(C6 F5 )3 /[HB(C6 F5 )3 ](-) redox couple exhibits a strong surface electrocatalytic effect at Pt electrodes. Using a combination of kinetic competition studies in the presence of a H atom scavenger, 6-bromohexene, and by changing the steric bulk of the Lewis acid borane catalyst from B(C6 F5 )3 to B(C6 Cl5 )3 , the mechanism of electrochemical-FLP reactions on Pt surfaces was shown to be dominated by hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) between Pt, [PtH] adatoms and transient [HB(C6 F5 )3 ](⋅) electrooxidation intermediates. These findings provide further insight into this new area of combining electrochemical and FLP reactions, and proffers additional avenues for exploration beyond energy generation, such as in electrosynthesis.

  4. A Combined "Electrochemical-Frustrated Lewis Pair" Approach to Hydrogen Activation: Surface Catalytic Effects at Platinum Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Elliot J; Blagg, Robin J; Hughes, David L; Ashley, Andrew E; Wildgoose, Gregory G

    2014-11-06

    Herein, we extend our "combined electrochemical-frustrated Lewis pair" approach to include Pt electrode surfaces for the first time. We found that the voltammetric response of an electrochemical-frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) system involving the B(C6 F5 )3 /[HB(C6 F5 )3 ](-) redox couple exhibits a strong surface electrocatalytic effect at Pt electrodes. Using a combination of kinetic competition studies in the presence of a H atom scavenger, 6-bromohexene, and by changing the steric bulk of the Lewis acid borane catalyst from B(C6 F5 )3 to B(C6 Cl5 )3 , the mechanism of electrochemical-FLP reactions on Pt surfaces was shown to be dominated by hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) between Pt, [PtH] adatoms and transient [HB(C6 F5 )3 ](⋅) electrooxidation intermediates. These findings provide further insight into this new area of combining electrochemical and FLP reactions, and proffers additional avenues for exploration beyond energy generation, such as in electrosynthesis.

  5. Effects of solute-solvent attractive forces on hydrophobic correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Lawrence R.; Chandler, David

    1980-10-01

    A theory is presented for the effect of slowly varying attractive forces on correlations between nonpolar solutes in dilute aqueous solution. We find that hydrophobic correlations are sensitive to relatively long range slowly varying interactions. Thus, it is possible to make qualitative changes in these correlations by introducing small changes in the attractive forces. Several model calculations are presented to illustrate these facts. The contributions of the Lennard-Jones attractive forces to the computer simulation results of Pangali, Rao, and Berne are calculated. For this case it is found that the potential of mean force between spherical nonpolar solutes is hardly affected by inclusion of attractive forces. However, the osmotic second virial coefficient is dominated by the contributions of the attractive forces. For spherical solutes which provide a reasonable model for the methane molecule, inclusion of attractive forces produces a qualitative change in the methane-methane potential of mean force. The connection between these effects of slowly varying attractive forces and the enthalpic part of Ben-Naim's δAHI is discussed.

  6. Pairing Learners in Pair Work Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Neomy; Aldosari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although pair work is advocated by major theories of second language (L2) learning and research findings suggest that pair work facilitates L2 learning, what is unclear is how to best pair students in L2 classes of mixed L2 proficiency. This study investigated the nature of pair work in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) class in a college in…

  7. Female and male genetic effects on offspring paternity: additive genetic (co)variances in female extra-pair reproduction and male paternity success in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).

    PubMed

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Losdat, Sylvain

    2014-08-01

    Ongoing evolution of polyandry, and consequent extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems, is hypothesized to be facilitated by indirect selection stemming from cross-sex genetic covariances with components of male fitness. Specifically, polyandry is hypothesized to create positive genetic covariance with male paternity success due to inevitable assortative reproduction, driving ongoing coevolution. However, it remains unclear whether such covariances could or do emerge within complex polyandrous systems. First, we illustrate that genetic covariances between female extra-pair reproduction and male within-pair paternity success might be constrained in socially monogamous systems where female and male additive genetic effects can have opposing impacts on the paternity of jointly reared offspring. Second, we demonstrate nonzero additive genetic variance in female liability for extra-pair reproduction and male liability for within-pair paternity success, modeled as direct and associative genetic effects on offspring paternity, respectively, in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). The posterior mean additive genetic covariance between these liabilities was slightly positive, but the credible interval was wide and overlapped zero. Therefore, although substantial total additive genetic variance exists, the hypothesis that ongoing evolution of female extra-pair reproduction is facilitated by genetic covariance with male within-pair paternity success cannot yet be definitively supported or rejected either conceptually or empirically.

  8. The neural correlates of endowment effect without economic transaction.

    PubMed

    Votinov, Mikhail; Mima, Tatsuya; Aso, Toshihiko; Abe, Mitsunari; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Shinozaki, Jun; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2010-09-01

    People always concern about what they have and what they might lose even it is just imaginary property. According to Prospect Theory, the losses might be weighted by subjects higher than gain, which would cause the disparity between the willingness to accept (WTA) and willingness to pay (WTP) compensation in economic valuation. Using functional MRI, we investigated neural correlates of this inconsistent value estimation, known as the endowment effect, during a simple pricing task without economic transaction. Brain activation associated with this price discrepancy was observed in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), where voxel-based morphometry of MRI revealed the positive correlation between gray matter concentration and WTA/WTP ratio. These findings suggest the functional relevance of IFG in WTA/WTP discrepancy for pricing without any actual gain and loss, where an integration of loss aversion-related signals from insula and expected value signals may occur.

  9. Effective like- and unlike-pair interactions at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ree, F.H.; van Thiel, M.

    1991-05-01

    We describe how information on effective interactions of chemical species involving C, O, and N atoms at high pressure and high temperature may be inferred from available shock wave data of NO and CO. Our approach uses a modern statistical mechanical theory and a detailed equation of state (EOS) model for the condensed phases of carbon.

  10. On Adiabatic Pair Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickl, Peter; Dürr, Detlef

    2008-08-01

    We give here a rigorous proof of the well known prediction of pair creation as it arises from the Dirac equation with an external time dependent potential. Pair creation happens with probability one if the potential changes adiabatically in time and becomes overcritical, which means that an eigenvalue curve (as a function of time) bridges the gap between the negative and positive spectral continuum. The potential can be thought of as being zero at large negative and large positive times. The rigorous treatment of this effect has been lacking since the pioneering work of Beck, Steinwedel and Süßmann [1] in 1963 and Gershtein and Zeldovich [8] in 1970.

  11. Positional and Neighboring Base Pair Effects on the Thermodynamic Stability of RNA Single Mismatches†

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Amber R.; Znosko, Brent M.

    2010-01-01

    Many naturally occurring RNA structures contain single mismatches, many of which occur near the ends of helices. However, previous thermodynamic studies have focused their efforts on thermodynamically characterizing centrally placed single mismatches. Additionally, algorithms currently used to predict secondary structure from sequence are based on two assumptions to predict stability of RNA duplexes containing this motif. It has been assumed that the thermodynamic contribution of small RNA motifs is independent of both its position in the duplex and identity of the non-nearest neighbors. Thermodynamically characterizing single mismatches three nucleotides from both the 3′ and 5′ ends (i.e., off-center) of an RNA duplex and comparing these results to those of the same single mismatch-nearest neighbor combination centrally located has allowed for the investigation of these effects. The thermodynamic contribution of 13 single mismatch-nearest neighbor combinations are reported but only 9 combinations are studied at all three duplex positions and are used to determine trends and patterns. In general, the 5′ and 3′ shifted single mismatches are relatively similar, on average, and more favorable in free energy than centrally placed single mismatches. However, close examination and comparison shows there are several associated idiosyncrasies with these identified general trends. These peculiarities may be due, in part, to the identities of the single mismatch, the nearest neighbors, and the non-nearest neighbors, along with the effects of single mismatch position in the duplex. The prediction algorithm recently proposed by Davis and Znosko (Biochemistry 47, 10178–10187) is used to predict the thermodynamic parameters of single mismatch contribution and is compared to the measured values presented here. This comparison suggests the proposed model is a good approximation but could be improved by the addition of parameters which account for positional and/or non

  12. Electronic promotion effect of double proton transfer on conduction of DNA through improvement of transverse electronic communication of base pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiying; Li, Genqin; Zhang, Laibin; Li, Jilai; Wang, Meishan; Bu, Yuxiang

    2011-10-01

    The effect of double proton transfer (DPT) on charge migration of DNA was investigated by the nonequilibrium Green's function method combined with density functional theory. The results revealed that DPT not only lowers ionization potentials, but also improves the delocalization of the localized π-orbitals at each base moiety through adjusting energy levels and spatial distributions of their molecular orbitals. Furthermore, DPT leads to both the strengthening of the second-order interactions of the Watson-Crick H-bond zones, and the promotion of the charge transfer transitions between two pairing bases in the UV absorption spectra. Electronic transport calculations indicated that DPT can improve the charge migration along the DNA duplex for specific sequences through enhancing transverse base-to-base electronic communication. This work will provide a new insight into the understanding of DNA charge conduction which can be electronically promoted or regulated by DPT.

  13. Effective rotational correlation times of proteins from NMR relaxation interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghan; Hilty, Christian; Wider, Gerhard; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the effective rotational correlation times, τc, for the modulation of anisotropic spin-spin interactions in macromolecules subject to Brownian motion in solution is of key interest for the practice of NMR spectroscopy in structural biology. The value of τc enables an estimate of the NMR spin relaxation rates, and indicates possible aggregation of the macromolecular species. This paper reports a novel NMR pulse scheme, [ 15N, 1H]-TRACT, which is based on transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy and permits to determine τc for 15N- 1H bonds without interference from dipole-dipole coupling of the amide proton with remote protons. [ 15N, 1H]-TRACT is highly efficient since only a series of one-dimensional NMR spectra need to be recorded. Its use is suggested for a quick estimate of the rotational correlation time, to monitor sample quality and to determine optimal parameters for complex multidimensional NMR experiments. Practical applications are illustrated with the 110 kDa 7,8-dihydroneopterin aldolase from Staphylococcus aureus, the uniformly 15N-labeled Escherichia coli outer membrane protein X (OmpX) in 60 kDa mixed OmpX/DHPC micelles with approximately 90 molecules of unlabeled 1,2-dihexanoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC), and the 16 kDa pheromone-binding protein from Bombyx mori, which cover a wide range of correlation times.

  14. Suspensions of polymer-grafted nanoparticles with added polymers-Structure and effective pair-interactions.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Sivasurender; Saw, Shibu; Kandar, A K; Dasgupta, C; Sprung, M; Basu, J K

    2015-08-28

    We present the results of combined experimental and theoretical (molecular dynamics simulations and integral equation theory) studies of the structure and effective interactions of suspensions of polymer grafted nanoparticles (PGNPs) in the presence of linear polymers. Due to the absence of systematic experimental and theoretical studies of PGNPs, it is widely believed that the structure and effective interactions in such binary mixtures would be very similar to those of an analogous soft colloidal material-star polymers. In our study, polystyrene-grafted gold nanoparticles with functionality f = 70 were mixed with linear polystyrene (PS) of two different molecular weights for obtaining two PGNP:PS size ratios, ξ = 0.14 and 2.76 (where, ξ = Mg/Mm, Mg and Mm being the molecular weights of grafting and matrix polymers, respectively). The experimental structure factor of PGNPs could be modeled with an effective potential (Model-X), which has been found to be widely applicable for star polymers. Similarly, the structure factor of the blends with ξ = 0.14 could be modeled reasonably well, while the structure of blends with ξ = 2.76 could not be captured, especially for high density of added polymers. A model (Model-Y) for effective interactions between PGNPs in a melt of matrix polymers also failed to provide good agreement with the experimental data for samples with ξ = 2.76 and high density of added polymers. We tentatively attribute this anomaly in modeling the structure factor of blends with ξ = 2.76 to the questionable assumption of Model-X in describing the added polymers as star polymers with functionality 2, which gets manifested in both polymer-polymer and polymer-PGNP interactions especially at higher fractions of added polymers. The failure of Model-Y may be due to the neglect of possible many-body interactions among PGNPs mediated by matrix polymers when the fraction of added polymers is high. These observations point to the need for a new framework to

  15. Effects of Helicity on Lagrangian and Eulerian Time Correlations in Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Zhou, Ye

    1998-01-01

    Taylor series expansions of turbulent time correlation functions are applied to show that helicity influences Eulerian time correlations more strongly than Lagrangian time correlations: to second order in time, the helicity effect on Lagrangian time correlations vanishes, but the helicity effect on Eulerian time correlations is nonzero. Fourier analysis shows that the helicity effect on Eulerian time correlations is confined to the largest inertial range scales. Some implications for sound radiation by swirling flows are discussed.

  16. Signal background interference effects in heavy scalar production and decay to a top-anti-top pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hespel, B.; Maltoni, F.; Vryonidou, E.

    2016-10-01

    We analyse the production of a top quark pair through a heavy scalar at the LHC. We first review the main features of the signal as well as the interference with the top-anti-top background at leading order in QCD. We then study higher order QCD effects. While the background and the signal can be obtained at NNLO and NLO in QCD respectively, that is not the case for their interference, which is currently only approximately known at NLO. In order to improve the accuracy of the prediction for the interference term, we consider the effects of extra QCD radiation, i.e. the 2 → 3 (loop-induced) processes and obtain an estimate of the NLO corrections. As a result, we find that the contribution of the interference is important both at the total cross-section level and, most importantly, for the line-shape of the heavy scalar. In particular for resonances with widths larger than a couple of percent of the resonance mass, the interference term distorts the invariant mass distribution and generically leads to a non-trivial peak-dip structure. We study this process in a simplified model involving an additional scalar or pseudoscalar resonance as well as in the Two-Higgs-Doublet-Model for a set of representative benchmarks. We present the constraints on simplified models featuring an extra scalar as set by the LHC searches for top-anti-top resonances, and the implications of the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by CMS and ATLAS for the top pair production assuming a scalar or a pseudoscalar resonance.

  17. Evaluation of effects of pharmaceutical processing on structural disorders of active pharmaceutical ingredient crystals using nanoindentation and high-resolution total scattering pair distribution function analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Sheikh, Ahmad Y; Ho, Raimundo

    2014-12-01

    Pharmaceutical unit operations such as milling and compaction can often generate disordered regions in crystals of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This may lead to changes in a number of important pharmaceutical properties including dissolution, stability, hygroscopicity, and so on. It is therefore important for pharmaceutical industry to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical processing on API structural orders, and to investigate and develop analytical tools that are capable of accurately detecting and assessing subtle process-induced structural disorders in pharmaceutical crystals. In this study, nanoindentation was first used to determine the intrinsic mechanical properties including hardness and Young's modulus of two API crystals, compounds 1 and 2. These crystals of different mechanical properties were then milled and compacted under various conditions. The resulting structural disorders in these crystals were subsequently evaluated using synchrotron-based high-resolution total scattering pair distribution function (TS-PDF) analysis. Furthermore, principal component analysis was applied to the PDF data to assess the relative extents of disorders in the API crystals, which showed a good correlation with the process conditions. The study demonstrates that high-resolution TS-PDF analysis coupled with nanoindentation measurement is a valuable and effective tool for detecting and assessing process-induced subtle structural disorders in API crystals.

  18. Effect of protonation on the electronic properties of DNA base pairs: applications for molecular electronics.

    PubMed

    Mallajosyula, Sairam S; Pati, Swapan K

    2007-10-11

    Protonation of DNA basepairs is a reversible phenomenon that can be controlled by tuning the pH of the system. Under mild acidic conditions, the hydrogen-bonding pattern of the DNA basepairs undergoes a change. We study the effect of protonation on the electronic properties of the DNA basepairs to probe for possible molecular electronics applications. We find that, under mild acidic pH conditions, the A:T basepair shows excellent rectification behavior that is, however, absent in the G:C basepair. The mechanism of rectification has been discussed using a simple chemical potential model. We also consider the noncanonical A:A basepair and find that it can be used as efficient pH dependent molecular switch. The switching action in the A:A basepair is explained in the light of pi-pi interactions, which lead to efficient delocalization over the entire basepair.

  19. Symmetry loss of heptamethine cyanines: an example of dipole generation by ion-pairing effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Simon; Bouit, Pierre-Antoine; Le Guennic, Boris; Parola, Stéphane; Maury, Olivier; Andraud, Chantal

    2013-03-01

    The development of near-infrared dyes for third order nonlinear optical applications and particularly for optical power limiting at telecommunications wavelengths triggered the revival of old dyes like polymethine dyes featuring an odd number of carbon atoms. Currently numerous research endeavor is focused on the understanding of their spectroscopy in solution and in the solid state in close relationship with their electronic structure. In this context, the dramatic effect of the counter ion on the heptamethine optical properties was highlighted depending on the dissociating character of the media. The unusual consideration of this parameter allows us to explore the so-called "cyanine limit" and to finely tune the heptamethine absorption in view of future use as dopant in a material for optical limiting applications.

  20. Effect of UVM induction on mutation fixation at non-pairing and mispairing DNA lesions.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M S; Dunman, P M; Wang, G; Murphy, H S; Humayun, M Z

    1996-11-01

    Mutation fixation at an ethenocytosine (epsilon C) residue borne on transfected M13 single-stranded DNA is significantly enhanced in response to pretreatment of Escherichia coli cells with UV, alkylating agents or hydrogen peroxide, a phenomenon that we have called UVM for UV modulation of mutagenesis. The UVM response does not require the E. coli SOS or adaptive responses, and is observed in cells defective for oxyR, an oxidative DNA damage-responsive regulatory gene. UVM may represent either a novel DNA-repair phenomenon, or an unrecognized feature of DNA replication in damaged cells that affects a specific class of non-coding DNA lesions. To explore the range of DNA lesions subject to the UVM effect, we have examined mutation fixation at 3,N4-ethenocytosine and 1,N6-ethenoadenine, as well as at O6-methylguanine (O6mG). M13 viral single-stranded DNA constructs bearing a single mutagenic lesion at a specific site were transfected into cells pretreated with UV or 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG). Survival of transfected viral DNA was measured as transfection efficiency, and mutagenesis at the lesion site was analysed by a quantitative multiplex sequence analysis technology. The results suggest that the UVM effect modulates mutagenesis at the two etheno lesions, but does not appear to significantly affect mutagenesis at O6mG. Because the modulation of mutagenesis is observed in cells incapable of the SOS response, these data are consistent with the notion that UVM may represent a previously unrecognized DNA damage-inducible response that affects the fidelity of DNA replication at certain mutagenic lesions in Escherichia coli.

  1. Effects of Different Analysis Strategies on Paired Associative Stimulation. A Pooled Data Analysis from Three Research Labs

    PubMed Central

    List, Jonathan; Vach, Werner; Flöel, Agnes; Klöppel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is a widely used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm to non-invasively induce synaptic plasticity in the human brain in vivo. Altered PAS-induced plasticity has been demonstrated for several diseases. However, researchers are faced with a high inter- and intra-subject variability of the PAS response. Here, we pooled original data from nine PAS studies from three centers and analyzed the combined dataset of 190 healthy subjects with regard to age dependency, the role of stimulation parameters and the effect of different statistical methods. We observed no main effect of the PAS intervention over all studies (F(2;362) = 0.44; p = 0.644). The rate of subjects showing the expected increase of motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes was 53%. The PAS effect differed significantly between studies as shown by a significant interaction effect (F(16;362) = 1.77; p = 0.034) but post-hoc testing did not reveal significant effects after correction for multiple tests. There was a trend toward increased variability of the PAS effect in older subjects. Acquisition parameters differed across studies but without systematically influencing changes in MEP-size. The use of post/baseline quotients systematically indicated stronger PAS effects than post/baseline difference or the logarithm of the post/baseline quotient. The non-significant PAS effects across studies and a wide range of responder rates between studies indicate a high variability of this method. We were thus not able to replicate findings from a previous meta-analysis showing robust effects of PAS. No pattern emerged regarding acquisition parameters that at this point could guide future studies to reduce variability and help increase response rate. For future studies, we propose to report the responder rate and recommend the use of the logarithmized post/baseline quotient for further analyses to better address the possibility that results are driven by few extreme cases

  2. Effects of Age on the Neural Correlates of Retrieval Cue Processing Are Modulated by Task Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duverne, Sandrine; Motamedinia, Shahab; Rugg, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of retrieval orientation--the differential processing of retrieval cues according to the nature of the sought-for information--were investigated in healthy young (18-20 years old) and older (63-77 years old) adults. In one pair of study-test cycles, subjects studied either words or pictures presented in one of…

  3. Effect of integral yoga on psychological and health variables and their correlations

    PubMed Central

    Khemka, Sushil S; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra; Hankey, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Certain psychological and health variables are commonly measured in India. This study evaluates the effects of integral yoga practices on these variables and also the consistency of correlations observed between them. Materials and Methods: The study was a pre-post intervention study. The variables were measured at the beginning and the end of a one-month yoga course. There was no control group.The study was carried out at Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA) University, in its rural campus south of Bangalore. Based on health criteria, 108 subjects were selected out of 198 volunteers to form the experimental yoga group. Ages ranged from 17 to 63 years. The yogasanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), relaxation techniques, meditation, chanting and lectures were the components of yoga intervention. The variables measured were sustained attention, emotional intelligence – EQ, general health – GHQ, guna personality – sattva, rajas and tamas. Results: Significant pre-post changes were found in all variables. Significant correlations were found between the following pairs: The two sustained attention variables; emotional intelligence and general health; GHQ and tamas; sattva and tamas; and rajas and tamas. Conclusion: The study shows that there were significant changes in all variables (P< 0.001) except in sattva. It also confirms that EQ and general health variables correlate significantly with each other and negatively with tamas. EQ and tamas form positive and negative predictors of health respectively. Sattva correlates positively with EQ suggesting that a sattvic personality indicates better self-control. This suggests that, by improving guna personality, long-term yoga practice may stabilize EQ. PMID:22022128

  4. Radiocarbon reservoir effect from shell and plant pairs in Holocene sediments around the Yeongsan River in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Toshimichi; Hong, Wan; Sung, Ki Suk; Lim, Jaesoo

    2013-01-01

    The marine reservoir effect was measured by comparing the radiocarbon ages of shell and plant pairs obtained from the same horizons of a sediment core around the Yeongsan River in the southwestern part of the Korean Peninsula. The Holocene sediment formed in five environments: tidal flat, inner bay, shallow marine, flood plain, and embankment from bottom to top. The tidal flat and shallow marine sediments should be good indicators of marine reservoir effect, as they formed in coastal environments where it was easy to access not only marine shells but also terrestrial plants. Some old detritus could be identified and removed, based on reliable accumulation curves and sedimentological interpretation. Hence, the age differences between the plants and shells could be successfully evaluated, and they indicated that the marine reservoir effect varied over time between 0 and 500 years. There was an increase of this effect at ca. 8000 cal year BP and a decrease at ca. 5000 cal year BP, possibly linked with coastal environment changes induced by sea level changes and by changes in the circulation of seawater.

  5. Modeling of ion-pairing effect in peptide reversed-phase chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gétaz, David; Hariharan, Subrahmaniam B; Butté, Alessandro; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-08-03

    The modeling of counterion and organic modifier concentration effects in peptide APIs reversed-phase preparative chromatography is discussed in this manuscript. A stoichiometric retention model based on the counterion binding to the charged functional groups of the peptide is proposed. The model parameters were evaluated using a rather large set of retention data measured in mobile phases with various counterions and acetonitrile concentrations. The model parameters were experimentally validated by a new counterion binding measurement technique. The n(max) model parameter value was found to be equal to the peptide net charge, whereas the K model parameter value was found to be specific to the counterion type (i.e. AcO(-)

  6. Matching-to-Sample and Stimulus-Pairing-Observation Procedures in Stimulus Equivalence: The Effects of Number of Trials and Stimulus Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinloch, Jennifer May; McEwan, James Stewart Anderson; Foster, T. Mary

    2013-01-01

    Studies comparing the effectiveness of the stimulus-pairing-observation and matching-to-sample procedures in facilitating equivalence relations have reported conflicting findings. This study compared the effectiveness of these procedures and examined the effect of stimulus arrangement and the number of training trials completed prior to each…

  7. Correlation and symmetry effects in transport through an artificial molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, F.; Cota, E.; Ulloa, S.E.

    1999-02-01

    Spectral weights and current-voltage characteristics of an artificial diatomic molecule are calculated, considering cases where the dots connected in series are in general different. The spectral weights allow us to understand the effects of correlations, their connection with selection rules for transport, and the role of excited states in the experimental conductance spectra of these coupled double dot systems (DDS). An extended Hubbard Hamiltonian with varying interdot tunneling strength is used as a model, incorporating quantum confinement in the DDS, interdot tunneling as well as intra- and interdot Coulomb interactions. We find that interdot tunneling values determine to a great extent the resulting eigenstates and corresponding spectral weights. Details of the state correlations strongly suppress most of the possible conduction channels, giving rise to effective selection rules for conductance through the molecule. Most states are found to make insignificant contributions to the total current for finite biases. We find also that the symmetry of the structure is reflected in the I-V characteristics, and is in qualitative agreement with experiment. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Correlations and effects of pressure in Fe-pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, Roser

    2014-03-01

    In this talk we will explore the effects of correlations and pressure in Fe-based superconductors by considering a combination of density functional theory calculations and dynamical mean field theory and compare our results with recent ARPES and de Haas van Alphen experiments. We will discuss the importance of orbital-selective correlations in the 111 (LiFeAs, LiFeP) and 122 families (BaFe2As2,CaFe2As2, KFe2As2) and indicate how the topology of the Fermi surface, specially in KFe2As2, is influenced by these effects. In this context, we will show why MgFeGe, an isostructural and isoelectronic system to LiFeAs, doesn't superconduct. In the case of the 122 systems, we will predict and analyze changes in the electronic and magnetic properties under hydrostatic, tensile and compressive pressure and will discuss our results in relation to (i) superconductivity, (ii) magnetism and (iii) the mechanisms involved in the detwinning process of an orthorhombic iron-pnictide crystal a. Funding has been provided by the German Science Foundation (DFG).

  9. Effects of strong disorder in strongly correlated superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Debmalya; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Ghosal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of strong disorder on a system with strong electronic repulsion. In the absence of disorder, the system has a d-wave superconducting ground state with strong non-BCS features due to its proximity to a Mott insulator. We find that while strong correlations make superconductivity in this system immune to weak disorder, superconductivity is destroyed efficiently when disorder strength is comparable to the effective bandwidth. The suppression of charge motion in regions of strong potential fluctuation leads to the formation of Mott insulating patches, which anchor a larger nonsuperconducting region around them. The system thus breaks into islands of Mott insulating and superconducting regions, with Anderson insulating regions occurring along the boundary of these regions. Thus, electronic correlation and disorder, when both are strong, aid each other in destroying superconductivity, in contrast to their competition at weak disorder. Our results shed light on why zinc impurities are efficient in destroying superconductivity in cuprates, even though it is robust to weaker impurities.

  10. The correlation-based law of effect1

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1973-01-01

    It is commonly understood that the interactions between an organism and its environment constitute a feedback system. This implies that instrumental behavior should be viewed as a continuous exchange between the organism and the environment. It follows that orderly relations between behavior and environment should emerge at the level of aggregate flow in time, rather than momentary events. These notions require a simple, but fundamental, change in the law of effect: from a law based on contiguity of events to a law based on correlation between events. Much recent research and argument favors such a change. If the correlation-based law of effect is accepted, it favors measures and units of analysis that transcend momentary events, extending through time. One can measure all consequences on a common scale, called value. One can define a unit of analysis called the behavioral situation, which circumscribes a set of values. These concepts allow redefinition of reinforcement and punishment, and clarification of their relation to discriminative stimuli. PMID:16811687

  11. Pair bond characteristics and maintenance in free-flying jackdaws Corvus monedula: effects of social context and season

    PubMed Central

    Kubitza, Robin J.; Bugnyar, Thomas; Schwab, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Most birds rely on cooperation between pair partners for breeding. In long-term monogamous species, pair bonds are considered the basic units of social organization, albeit these birds often form foraging, roosting or breeding groups in which they repeatedly interact with numerous conspecifics. Focusing on jackdaws Corvus monedula, we here investigated 1) the interplay between pair bond and group dynamics in several social contexts and 2) how pair partners differ in individual effort of pair bond maintenance. Based on long-term data on free-flying birds, we quantified social interactions between group members within three positive contexts (spatial proximity, feeding and sociopositive interactions) for different periods of the year (non-breeding, pre-breeding, parental care). On the group level, we found that the number of interaction partners was highest in the spatial proximity context while in the feeding and sociopositive contexts the number of interaction partners was low and moderately low, respectively. Interactions were reciprocated within almost all contexts and periods. Investigating subgrouping within the flock, results showed that interactions were preferentially directed towards the respective pair partner compared to unmated adults. When determining pair partner effort, both sexes similarly invested most into mutual proximity during late winter, thereby refreshing their bond before the onset of breeding. Paired males fed their mates over the entire year at similar rates while paired females hardly fed their mates at all but engaged in sociopositive behaviors instead. We conclude that jackdaws actively seek out positive social ties to flock members (close proximity, sociopositive behavior), at certain times of the year. Thus, the group functions as a dynamic social unit, nested within are highly cooperative pair bonds. Both sexes invested into the bond with different social behaviors and different levels of effort, yet these are likely male and female

  12. Ion-Pair Halogen Bonds in 2-Halo-Functionalized Imidazolium Chloride Receptors: Substituent and Solvent Effects.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rafael; Costa, Paulo J

    2017-03-02

    The interaction of 2-halo-functionalized imidazolium derivatives (n-X(+) ; X=Cl, Br, I) with a chloride anion through ion-pair halogen bonds (n-X⋅Cl) was studied by means of DFT and ab initio calculations. A method benchmark was performed on 2-bromo-1H-imidazol-3-ium in association with chloride (1-Br⋅Cl); MP2 yielded the best results when compared with CCSD(T) calculations. The interaction energies (ΔE) in the gas phase are high and, although the electrostatic interaction is strong owing to the ion-pair nature of the system, large X⋅⋅⋅Cl(-) Wiberg bond orders and contributions from charge transfer (nCl- →σ*C-X) are obtained. These values drop considerably in chloroform and water; this shows that solvent plays a role in modulating the interaction and that gas-phase calculations are particularly unrealistic for experimental applications. The introduction of electron-withdrawing groups in the 4,5-positions of the imidazolium (e.g., -NO2 , -F) increases the halogen-bond strength in both the gas phase and solvent, including water. The effect of the substituents on the 1,3-positions (N-H groups) also depends on the solvent. The variation of ΔE can be predicted through a two-parameter linear regression that optimizes the weights of charge-transfer and electrostatic interactions, which are different in vacuum and in solvent (chloroform and water). These results could be used in the rational design of efficient chloride receptors based on halogen bonds that work in solution, in particular, in an aqueous environment.

  13. Emergent Gauge Fields and Their Nonperturbative Effects in Correlated Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Seok; Tanaka, Akihiro

    The history of modern condensed matter physics may be regarded as the competition and reconciliation between Stoner's and Anderson's physical pictures, where the former is based on momentum-space descriptions focusing on long wave-length fluctuations while the latter is based on real-space physics emphasizing emergent localized excitations. In particular, these two view points compete with each other in various nonperturbative phenomena, which range from the problem of high Tc superconductivity, quantum spin liquids in organic materials and frustrated spin systems, heavy-fermion quantum criticality, metal-insulator transitions in correlated electron systems such as doped silicons and two-dimensional electron systems, the fractional quantum Hall effect, to the recently discussed Fe-based superconductors. An approach to reconcile these competing frameworks is to introduce topologically nontrivial excitations into the Stoner's description, which appear to be localized in either space or time and sometimes both, where scattering between itinerant electrons and topological excitations such as skyrmions, vortices, various forms of instantons, emergent magnetic monopoles, and etc. may catch nonperturbative local physics beyond the Stoner's paradigm. In this review article we discuss nonperturbative effects of topological excitations on dynamics of correlated electrons. First, we focus on the problem of scattering between itinerant fermions and topological excitations in antiferromagnetic doped Mott insulators, expected to be relevant for the pseudogap phase of high Tc cuprates. We propose that nonperturbative effects of topological excitations can be incorporated within the perturbative framework, where an enhanced global symmetry with a topological term plays an essential role. In the second part, we go on to discuss the subject of symmetry protected topological states in a largely similar light. While we do not introduce itinerant fermions here, the nonperturbative

  14. Effect of tumor microenvironmental factors on tumor growth dynamics modeled by correlated colored noises with colored cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Ibrahim Mu'awiyya; Abu Bakar, Mohd Rizam

    2016-07-01

    The effect of non-immunogenic tumor microenvironmental factors on tumor growth dynamics modeled by correlated additive and multiplicative colored noises is investigated. Using the Novikov theorem, Fox approach and Ansatz of Hanggi, an approximate Fokker-Planck equation for the system is obtained and analytic expression for the steady state distribution Pst(x) is derived. Based on the numerical results, we find that fluctuations of microenvironmental factors within the tumor site with parameter θ have a diffusive effect on the tumor growth dynamics, and the tumor response to the microenvironmental factors with parameter α inhibits growth at weak correlation time τ. Moreover, at increasing correlation time τ the inhibitive effect of tumor response α is suppressed and instead a systematic growth promotion is noticed. The result also reveals that the strength of the correlation time τ has a strong influence on the growth effects exerted by the non-immunogenic component of tumor microenvironment on tumor growth.

  15. Interaction of parasitism and nutrition in goats: effects on haematological parameters, correlations, and other statistical associations.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, H D; Rocha, J L; Figueiredo, E P; Berne, M E; Vieira, L S; Cavalcante, A R; Rosa, J S

    1992-10-01

    Weaned wether goats (n = 144) approximately 6 months of age were placed in a 2 x 3 factorial experiment to test the effects and interaction of two levels of nutrition (growth+maintenance, NUT1; and twice growth+maintenance, NUT2) and three levels of Haemonchus contortus burden (0, 500, and 2000 larvae administered every 2 weeks; W0, W500, and W2000, respectively) on packed cell volume, red blood cell count, total serum protein and leukocytes. The statistical analysis revealed clear and proportionate differences among levels of infection for all variables. A significant (P < 0.05) nutritional effect was also found associated with all the variables except leukocytes. Nutrition by worm load interactions were found for packed cell volume and leukocytes. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was higher in the NUT1-infected animals, leading to the nutrition by worm load interaction for leukocytes. An analysis for the different leukocyte types revealed significant (P < 0.05) differences among infection levels for lymphocytes, while nutrition level was found to be a significant effect for basophil count and immature white cells. Several significant correlations were observed between pairs of variables. Faecal egg output could be predicted from actual worm count in three of the four necropsy periods. The clear differences observed for blood parameters were not present in production traits, suggesting that physiological thresholds may play an important role in framing the metabolic activity of biological organisms. Total serum protein was the best indicator of these effects on production parameters.

  16. Time- and Space-Order Effects in Timed Discrimination of Brightness and Size of Paired Visual Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patching, Geoffrey R.; Englund, Mats P.; Hellstrom, Ake

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of both response probability and response time for testing models of choice, there is a dearth of chronometric studies examining systematic asymmetries that occur over time- and space-orders in the method of paired comparisons. In this study, systematic asymmetries in discriminating the magnitude of paired visual stimuli are…

  17. Interference effects for Higgs boson mediated Z-pair plus jet production

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, John M.; Ellis, R. Keith; Furlan, Elisabetta; Rontsch, Raoul

    2014-11-25

    Here, we study interference effects in the production channel ZZ + jet, in particular focusing on the role of the Higgs boson. This production channel receives contributions both from Higgs boson mediated diagrams via the decay H → ZZ (signal diagrams), as well as from diagrams where the Z bosons couple directly to a quark loop (background diagrams). We consider the partonic processes gggZZ and gq$\\bar{q}$ZZ in which interference between signal and background diagrams first occurs. Since interference is primarily an off-resonant effect for the Higgs boson, we treat the Z bosons as on shell. Thus our analysis is limited to the region above threshold, where the invariant mass of the Z-pair mZZ satisfies the condition mZZ>2mZ. In the region mZZ > 300 GeV we find that the interference in the ZZ + jet channel is qualitatively similar to interference in the inclusive ZZ channel. Moreover, the rates are sufficient to study these effects at the LHC once jet-binned data become available.

  18. Making the illusory correlation effect appear and then disappear: the effects of increased learning.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robin A; Schmeer, Stefanie; Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Mondragón, Esther; Hilton, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of a negative evaluation of a fictitious minority social group in spite of the absence of any objective correlation between group membership and negative behaviours was described by Hamilton and Gifford (1976) as an instance of an illusory correlation. We studied the acquisition and attenuation through time of this correlation learning effect. In two experiments we asked for participants' judgements of two fictitious groups using an online version of a group membership belief paradigm. We tested how judgements of the two groups changed as a function of the amount of training they received. Results suggest that the perception of the illusory correlation effect is initially absent, emerges with intermediate amounts of absolute experience, but diminishes and is eliminated with increased experience. This illusory correlation effect can be considered to reflect incomplete learning rather than a bias due to information loss in judgements or distinctiveness.

  19. Local Correlation Effects on thes±- ands++-Wave Superconductivities Mediated by Magnetic and Orbital Fluctuations in the Five-Orbital Hubbard Model for Iron Pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Jun; Yamada, Takemi; Yanagi, Yuki; Ōno, Yoshiaki

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the electronic state and the superconductivity in the 5-orbital Hubbard model for iron pnictides by using the dynamical mean-field theory in conjunction with the Eliashberg equation. The renormalization factor exhibits significant orbital dependence resulting in the large change in the band dispersion as observed in recent ARPES experiments. The critical interactions towards the magnetic, orbital and superconducting instabilities are suppressed as compared with those from the random phase approximation (RPA) due to local correlation effects. Remarkably, the s++-pairing phase due to the orbital fluctuation is largely expanded relative to the RPA result, while the s+--pairing phase due to the magnetic fluctuation is reduced.

  20. Effect of Cross-Correlation on Geomagnetic Forecast Accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia; Wei, Zigang; Tangborn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Surface geomagnetic observation can determine up to degree L = 14 time-varying spherical harmonic coefficients of the poloidal magnetic field. Assimilation of these coefficients to numerical dynamo simulation could help us understand better the dynamical processes in the Earth's outer core, and to provide more accurate forecast of geomagnetic secular variations (SV). In our previous assimilation studies, only the poloidal magnetic field in the core is corrected by the observations in the analysis. Unobservable core state variables (the toroidal magnetic field and the core velocity field) are corrected via the dynamical equations of the geodynamo. Our assimilation experiments show that the assimilated core state converges near the CMB, implying that the dynamo state is strongly constrained by surface geomagnetic observations, and is pulled closer to the truth by the data. We are now carrying out an ensemble of assimilation runs with 1000 years of geomagnetic and archeo/paleo magnetic record. In these runs the cross correlation between the toroidal and the poloidal magnetic fields is incorporated into the analysis. This correlation is derived from the physical boundary conditions of the toroidal field at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The assimilation results are then compared with those of the ensemble runs without the cross-correlation, aiming at understanding two fundamental issues: the effect of the crosscorrelation on (1) the convergence of the core state, and (2) the SV prediction accuracies. The constrained dynamo solutions will provide valuable insights on interpreting the observed SV, e.g. the near-equator magnetic flux patches, the core-mantle interactions, and possibly other geodynamic observables.

  1. Measurement of Spin Correlation in Top-Antitop Quark Events and Search for Top Squark Pair Production in p p Collisions at s = 8 TeV Using the ATLAS Detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...

    2015-04-08

    A measurement of spin correlation in tt¯ production is presented using data collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb⁻¹. The correlation between the top and antitop quark spins is extracted from dilepton tt¯ events by using the difference in the azimuthal angle between the two charged leptons in the laboratory frame. In the helicity basis the measured degree of correlation corresponds to Ahelicity=0.38±0.04, in agreement with the standard model prediction. A search is performed for pair production of topmore » squarks with masses close to the top quark mass decaying to predominantly right-handed top quarks and a light neutralino, the lightest supersymmetric particle. Top squarks with masses between the top quark mass and 191 GeV are excluded at the 95% confidence level.« less

  2. Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) in APC-patients with 5 base pair deletion at codon 1309: Evidence for intrafamilial but not interfamilial genotype/phenotype correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Munier, E.L.; Thonney, F.; Pescia, G.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations at the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene locus cause pleiotropic expression with colonic and extracolonic manifestations. The spectrum of colonic involvement ranges from an attenuated form of APC with few polyps, to a profuse phenotype with thousands of polyps. In 70% of the cases, APC mutations also produce multiple patches of CHRPE. The molecular basis for variable colonic and ocular expression of mutant APC alleles has been recently reported. Deletion of 5 base pair at codon 1309 ({sup 3921}{triangle} AAAAG), the most common APC mutation, was associated with earlier development of polyps and earlier malignant transformation together with strong intra- and interfamilial genotype/phenotype correlation. This prompted us to investigate whether a similar correlation could be found for CHRPE in two unrelated APC pedigrees with this mutation. Fundus eye examination by indirect opthalmoscopy under maximal dilation was performed in affected patients. Assuming a Poisson distribution, the mean number of lesions significantly differed (p<<0.001) between family A (10/eye) and family B (2.5/eye). Comparing eyes or patients within each pedigree did not reveal any statistical difference with respect to the total number of lesions per eye. Interfamilial variability of CHRPE suggests that factors other than the APC gene defect itself are involved in the expression of this ocular trait. These results also indicate that CHRPE may be the only extracolonic APC sign displaying good intrafamilial genotype/phenotype correlation, unlike osteomas, epidermal cysts and desmoid tumors.

  3. Measurement of spin correlation in top-antitop quark events and search for top squark pair production in pp collisions at √s=8  TeV using the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Balek, P; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Bartsch, V; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, T T; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boutouil, S; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brelier, B; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, K; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Brown, J; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Bucci, F; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, L; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bundock, A C; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burghgrave, B; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Butt, A I; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Byszewski, M; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Caloba, L P; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S; Cameron, D; Caminada, L M; Caminal Armadans, R; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Cano Bret, M; Cantero, J; Cantrill, R; Cao, T; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Cardarelli, R; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Casolino, M; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castelli, A; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N F; Catastini, P; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Cattani, G; Caudron, J; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerio, B C; Cerny, K; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cerv, M; Cervelli, A; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chalupkova, I; Chang, P; Chapleau, B; Chapman, J D; Charfeddine, D; Charlton, D G; Chau, C C; Chavez Barajas, C A; Cheatham, S; Chegwidden, A; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, K; Chen, L; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H C; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cheremushkina, E; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chiarella, V; Chiefari, G; Childers, J T; Chilingarov, A; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chislett, R T; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Chouridou, S; Chow, B K B; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chu, M L; Chudoba, J; Chwastowski, J J; Chytka, L; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Ciftci, R; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Citron, Z H; Citterio, M; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Cleland, W; Clemens, J C; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coffey, L; Cogan, J G; Cole, B; Cole, S; Colijn, A P; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Compostella, G; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Connell, S H; Connelly, I A; Consonni, S M; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cooper-Smith, N J; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Côté, D; Cottin, G; Cowan, G; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Cree, G; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Crescioli, F; Cribbs, W A; Crispin Ortuzar, M; Cristinziani, M; Croft, V; Crosetti, G; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Cummings, J; Curatolo, M; Cuthbert, C; Czirr, H; Czodrowski, P; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M J; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W; Dafinca, A; Dai, T; Dale, O; Dallaire, F; Dallapiccola, C; Dam, M; Daniells, A C; Danninger, M; Dano Hoffmann, M; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darmora, S; Dassoulas, J; Dattagupta, A; Davey, W; David, C; Davidek, T; Davies, E; Davies, M; Davignon, O; Davison, A R; Davison, P; Davygora, Y; Dawe, E; Dawson, I; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Cecco, S; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De la Torre, H; De Lorenzi, F; De Nooij, L; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; Dearnaley, W J; Debbe, R; Debenedetti, C; Dechenaux, B; Dedovich, D V; Deigaard, I; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Deliot, F; Delitzsch, C M; Deliyergiyev, M; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Dell'Orso, M; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delsart, P A; Deluca, C; DeMarco, D A; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demilly, A; Denisov, S P; Derendarz, D; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; 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    2015-04-10

    A measurement of spin correlation in tt[over ¯] production is presented using data collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3  fb^{-1}. The correlation between the top and antitop quark spins is extracted from dilepton tt[over ¯] events by using the difference in the azimuthal angle between the two charged leptons in the laboratory frame. In the helicity basis the measured degree of correlation corresponds to A_{helicity}=0.38±0.04, in agreement with the standard model prediction. A search is performed for pair production of top squarks with masses close to the top quark mass decaying to predominantly right-handed top quarks and a light neutralino, the lightest supersymmetric particle. Top squarks with masses between the top quark mass and 191 GeV are excluded at the 95% confidence level.

  4. Crystalline arrays of pairs of molecular rotors: correlated motion, rotational barriers, and space-inversion symmetry breaking due to conformational mutations.

    PubMed

    Lemouchi, Cyprien; Iliopoulos, Konstantinos; Zorina, Leokadiya; Simonov, Sergey; Wzietek, Pawel; Cauchy, Thomas; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Canadell, Enric; Kaleta, Jiří; Michl, Josef; Gindre, Denis; Chrysos, Michael; Batail, Patrick

    2013-06-26

    The rod-like molecule bis((4-(4-pyridyl)ethynyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-1-yl)buta-1,3-diyne, 1, contains two 1,4-bis(ethynyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO) chiral rotators linked by a diyne fragment and self-assembles in a one-dimensional, monoclinic C2/c centrosymmetric structure where two equilibrium positions with large occupancy imbalance (88% versus 12%) are identified on a single rotor site. Combining variable-temperature (70-300 K) proton spin-lattice relaxation, (1)H T1(-1), at two different (1)H Larmor frequencies (55 and 210 MHz) and DFT calculations of rotational barriers, we were able to assign two types of Brownian rotators with different activation energies, 1.85 and 6.1 kcal mol(-1), to the two (1)H spin-lattice relaxation processes on the single rotor site. On the basis of DFT calculations, the low-energy process has been assigned to adjacent rotors in a well-correlated synchronous motion, whereas the high-energy process is the manifestation of an abrupt change in their kinematics once two blades of adjacent rotors are seen to rub together. Although crystals of 1 should be second harmonic inactive, a large second-order optical response is recorded when the electric field oscillates in a direction parallel to the unique rotor axle director. We conclude that conformational mutations by torsional interconversion of the three blades of the BCO units break space-inversion symmetry in sequences of mutamers in dynamic equilibrium in the crystal in domains at a mesoscopic scale comparable with the wavelength of light used. A control experiment was performed with a crystalline film of a similar tetrayne molecule, 1,4-bis(3-((trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)bicyclo[1.1.1]pent-1-yl)buta-1,3-diyne, whose bicyclopentane units can rotate but are achiral and produce no second-order optical response.

  5. Exploring Electrical and Magnetic Resonances from Coherently Correlated Long-Lived Radical Pairs towards Development of Negative Refractive-Index Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    Hualien, Taiwan, May 13-15, 2014 (7) Magneto-optic studies of photovoltaic processes at D:A interface and electrode interface in organic solar cells Bin...2013 (12) Effects of Intermolecular and Dielectric-layer Interfaces on Internal Photovoltaic Processes in Organic Solar Cells Bin Hu...June 24-25, 2013 (13) Magneto-optical Studies on Internal Photovoltaic Processes in Organic Solar Cells Bin Hu 2013 TechConnect World, National

  6. The Effect of Correlated Energetic Disorder on Charge Transport in Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jonathan; Röding, Sebastian; Cherqui, Charles; Dunlap, David

    2012-10-01

    In their 1995 paper describing a Monte Carlo simulation for dissociation of an electron-hole pair in the presence of Gaussian energetic disorder, Albrect and Bäassler reported a surprising result. They found that increasing the width σ of the energetic disorder increases the quantum yield φ. They attributed this behavior to the tendency for energy fluctuations to compete against the Coulombic pair attraction, driving the electron-hole pair apart at short distances where, without disorder, recombination would be almost certain. We have expanded upon this notion, and introduced spatial correlation into the energetic disorder. By correlating the energetic disorder, we have demonstrated even larger quantum yields in simulation, attributable to the tendency of correlation to drive the charges further apart spatially than merely random disorder. Our results generally support the findings of Greenham et al. in that a larger correlation radius gives a larger quantum yield. In addition to larger quantum yield, we believe that correlated disorder could be used to create pathways for charge transport within a material, allowing the charge carrier behavior to be tuned.

  7. The effect of roughness on the tribological behavior of the prosthetic pair UHMWPE/TiN-coated stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Gispert, M P; Serro, A P; Colaço, R; Pires, E; Saramago, B

    2008-01-01

    The effect of roughness on the tribological behavior of the prosthetic pair ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/TiN coated stainless steel was investigated. Standard and polished TiN coated stainless steel pins were tested against either standard or smooth UHMWPE disks. Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution in HBSS were used as lubricants. Friction and wear were determined using a pin-on-disk apparatus and the wear mechanisms were investigated through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that the decrease in the roughness led to a reduction of the friction coefficient and of the wear rate of UHMWPE. However, the most important effect was achieved through the decrease in the roughness of the hard TiN counterface while keeping the standard UHMWPE surface. If BSA was added to HBSS, a strong decrease of both the friction coefficient and the polymeric wear was observed independently of the roughness of both the TiN and the polyethylene surfaces. Abrasive and fatigue wear mechanisms are proposed to interpret the experimental results.

  8. Impurity effects on the d-wave state of the pair tunneling mechanism for high-T{sub c} superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    We consider the impurity effects on the d-wave state in Anderson{close_quote}s interlayer pair tunneling (IPT) mechanism for high-T{sub c} superconductors. We found that the change of density of states and the T{sub c} suppression with impurities are qualitatively the same as the conventional BCS-type d-wave theory despite different gap equations. In particular, for the T{sub c} suppression with the in-plane impurities we solve the T{sub c} equation of the IPT mechanism explicitly including strong inelastic scattering [{Sigma}{sup {double_prime}}{approximately}{alpha}({h_bar}w+{pi}k{sub B}T)]. As expected, the effect of impurities for the T{sub c} suppression is strongly reduced by inelastic scattering and the results can fit most of the experimental data by varying the impurity scattering strength. The insensitivity of T{sub c} with the out-of-plane rare-earth impurities is shown to be consistent with the IPT mechanism. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Photo association and optical Feshbach resonances in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate: Treatment of correlation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Naidon, Pascal; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we formulate the time-dependent many-body theory of photo association in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate with realistic interatomic interactions, using and comparing two approximations: the first-order cumulant approximation [Phys. Rev. A 65, 033601 (2002)], and the reduced pair wave approximation [Phys. Rev. A 68, 033612 (2003)]. The two approximations differ only by the way a pair of condensate atoms is influenced by the mean field at short interatomic separations. In both cases we identify two different regimes of photo association: the adiabatic regime and the coherent regime. The threshold for the so-called 'rogue dissociation' [Phys. Rev. Let t. 88, 090403 (2002)] (where the Gross-Pitaevskii model breaks down) is found to be different in each regime, shedding new light on the experiment of McKenzie et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120403 (2002)]. Comparing numerical solutions for the two approximations with the Gross-Pitaevskii predictions, we find two different effects: reduction of the photoassociation rate at short times, and creation of correlated pairs of atoms when the laser intensity is switched on rapidly. We also observe effects on the symmetry of the photoassociation line shapes, giving the possibility to experimentally distinguish between the two approximations.

  10. Body talk among college men: content, correlates, and effects.

    PubMed

    Engeln, Renee; Sladek, Michael R; Waldron, Heather

    2013-06-01

    Though researchers are beginning to examine body-related talk in women (often referred to as fat talk), little work has examined how men talk about their bodies with peers. The two studies presented in this article explore body talk among U.S. college men. First, an online survey examined the frequency with which college men engage in negative body talk, the content of these conversations, and the body image variables associated with engaging in this type of talk. Negative body talk in men was associated with drive for muscularity, eating disordered behavior, and appearance investment. Study 2 experimentally examined the effects of hearing male peers engage in negative body talk. Hearing muscle talk or fat talk caused decreased state appearance self-esteem and increased state body dissatisfaction. The correlates and consequences of negative body talk among men appear no less troubling than those identified among women.

  11. EFFECTS OF CORRELATED PROBABILISTIC EXPOSURE MODEL INPUTS ON SIMULATED RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, more probabilistic models have been developed to quantify aggregate human exposures to environmental pollutants. The impact of correlation among inputs in these models is an important issue, which has not been resolved. Obtaining correlated data and implementi...

  12. Higher order structural effects stabilizing the reverse Watson-Crick Guanine-Cytosine base pair in functional RNAs.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Mohit; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Oliva, Romina; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The G:C reverse Watson-Crick (W:W trans) base pair, also known as Levitt base pair in the context of tRNAs, is a structurally and functionally important base pair that contributes to tertiary interactions joining distant domains in functional RNA molecules and also participates in metabolite binding in riboswitches. We previously indicated that the isolated G:C W:W trans base pair is a rather unstable geometry, and that dicationic metal binding to the Guanine base or posttranscriptional modification of the Guanine can increase its stability. Herein, we extend our survey and report on other H-bonding interactions that can increase the stability of this base pair. To this aim, we performed a bioinformatics search of the PDB to locate all the occurencies of G:C trans base pairs. Interestingly, 66% of the G:C trans base pairs in the PDB are engaged in additional H-bonding interactions with other bases, the RNA backbone or structured water molecules. High level quantum mechanical calculations on a