Giannessi, Francesco; Ruffoli, Riccardo; von Bartheld, Christopher S
One-hundred years ago, the Italian anatomist Giovanni Vitali reported the discovery of the paratympanic organ, a sense organ in the middle ear of birds, in two issues of the Anatomischer Anzeiger (1911, 1912). In this minireview, we summarize Vitali's biography, and examine the scientific impact of his discovery of this sense organ. We also compile - for the first time - the entire bibliography of published papers on the paratympanic organ. Vitali described the ontogenetic development of this sense organ, examined its distribution among species, recognized its evolutionary relationship with the spiracular sense organ of fishes, and he developed the theory that it functions as a detector of changes in air pressure. He was the first to postulate that the paratympanic and spiracular sense organs were homologous organs that originate from homologous placodes - currently a hotly debated topic. His morphological work indicating the sensory nature of the PTO was validated by subsequent ultrastructural studies. Vitali's discovery of the paratympanic organ prompted his nomination for the Nobel Prize in 1934. Nevertheless, the paratympanic organ and the presumed barometric sense of hundreds of billions of living birds have failed to receive the recognition they deserve. Conclusive evidence of the function of the paratympanic organ remains a formidable challenge in vertebrate sensory physiology.
Giannessi, Francesco; Ruffoli, Riccardo; von Bartheld, Christopher S.
Summary One-hundred years ago, the Italian anatomist Giovanni Vitali reported the discovery of the paratympanic organ, a sense organ in the middle ear of birds, in two issues of the Anatomischer Anzeiger (1911 , 1912). In this minireview, we summarize Vitali’s biography, and examine the scientific impact of his discovery of this sense organ. We also compile – for the first time – the entire bibliography of published papers on the paratympanic organ. Vitali described the ontogenetic development of this sense organ, examined its distribution among species, recognized its evolutionary relationship with the spiracular sense organ of fishes, and he developed the theory that it functions as a detector of changes in air pressure. He was the first to postulate that the paratympanic and spiracular sense organs were homologous organs that originate from homologous placodes – currently a hotly debated topic. His morphological work indicating the sensory nature of the PTO was validated by subsequent ultrastructural studies. Vitali’s discovery of the paratympanic organ prompted his nomination for the Nobel Prize in 1934. Nevertheless, the paratympanic organ and the presumed barometric sense of hundreds of billions of living birds have failed to receive the recognition they deserve. Conclusive evidence of the function of the paratympanic organ remains a formidable challenge in vertebrate sensory physiology. PMID:22999077
Thomas, Sarah; Fazakarley, Louise; Thomas, Peter W; Collyer, Sarah; Brenton, Sarah; Perring, Steve; Scott, Rebecca; Thomas, Fern; Thomas, Charlotte; Jones, Kelly; Hickson, Jo; Hillier, Charles
While the health and well-being benefits of physical activity are recognised, people with multiple sclerosis (MS) often face greater barriers than the general population. The Nintendo Wii potentially offers a fun, convenient way of overcoming some of these. The aim was to test the feasibility of conducting a definitive trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Mii-vitaliSe; a home-based, physiotherapist-supported Nintendo Wii intervention. A single-centre wait-list randomised controlled study. MS service in secondary care. Ambulatory, relatively inactive people with clinically confirmed MS. Thirty participants were randomised to receive Mii-vitaliSe either immediately (for 12 months) or after a 6-month wait (for 6 months). Mii-vitaliSe consisted of two supervised Nintendo Wii familiarisation sessions in the hospital followed by home use (Wii Sports, Sports Resort and Fit Plus software) with physiotherapist support and personalised resources. Included self-reported physical activity levels, quality of life, mood, self-efficacy, fatigue and assessments of balance, gait, mobility and hand dexterity at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Interviews (n=25) explored participants' experiences and, at study end, the two Mii-vitaliSe facilitators' experiences of intervention delivery (main qualitative findings reported separately). Mean (SD) age was 49.3 (8.7) years, 90% female, with 47% diagnosed with MS <6 years ago and 60% new to active gaming. The recruitment rate was 31% (95% CI 20% to 44%). Outcome data were available for 29 (97%) at 6 months and 28 (93%) at 12 months. No serious adverse events were reported during the study. Qualitative data indicated that Mii-vitaliSe was well-received. Mean Wii use across both groups over the initial 6-month intervention period was twice a week for 27 min/day. Mean cost of delivering Mii-vitaliSe was £684 per person. Mii-vitaliSe appears acceptable and a future trial feasible and warranted. These findings will inform its
Testing the feasibility and acceptability of using the Nintendo Wii in the home to increase activity levels, vitality and well-being in people with multiple sclerosis (Mii-vitaliSe): protocol for a pilot randomised controlled study
Thomas, Sarah; Fazakarley, Louise; Thomas, Peter W; Brenton, Sarah; Collyer, Sarah; Perring, Steve; Scott, Rebecca; Galvin, Kathleen; Hillier, Charles
Introduction The benefits of physical activity for people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) have been recognised. However, exercise regimens can be difficult to maintain over the longer term and pwMS may face unique barriers to physical activity engagement. Pilot research suggests the Nintendo Wii can be used safely at home by pwMS with minimal mobility/balance issues and may confer benefits. We have developed a home-based physiotherapist supported Wii intervention (‘Mii-vitaliSe’) for pwMS that uses commercial software. This is a pilot study to explore the feasibility of conducting a full scale clinical and cost-effectiveness trial of Mii-vitaliSe. Methods and analysis 30 ambulatory, relatively inactive pwMS will be randomised to receive Mii-vitaliSe immediately, or after 6 months. Outcomes, measured at baseline and 6 and 12 months later, will include balance, gait, mobility, hand dexterity and self-reported physical activity levels, fatigue, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life. Interviews conducted on a purposive sample of participants will explore experiences of participation in the study and barriers and facilitators to using the Wii. Mean recruitment, adherence rate and standard deviations (SDs) of potential primary outcomes for the full trial will be estimated and precision summarised using 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Interview transcripts will be thematically analysed using a generic qualitative approach. Ethics and dissemination National Health Service (NHS; ref 12/SC/0420) and university ethical approvals have been obtained as has NHS Research and Development permission from the relevant trust. A home risk assessment will be undertaken for all potential participants. All adverse events will be closely monitored, documented and reported to the study Safety Monitoring Committee. At least one publication in a peer reviewed journal will be produced and research findings presented at a national and international conference. With service users, we
2. Photocopy of Promotional Sketch (from the Historical Museum of Southeast Florida and the Caribbean, Miami, Florida, G.E. Merrick Collection) Phineas T. Paist, artist CRAFTSCENTER - Coral Gables (Entrances, Streets, Gates, & Squares), Coral Gables, Miami-Dade County, FL
Neeser, Jason A; von Bartheld, Christopher S
The paratympanic organ (PTO) in the middle ear has been described in numerous bird species, but little is known about the distribution of this presumed lateral line remnant in other vertebrate classes. Here we provide evidence for a PTO in juvenile alligators, and make the first detailed description of its location and relation to ligaments in the reptilian middle ear. The alligator PTO measures about 450 micro m in diameter. The alligator PTO contains hair cells whose cilia extend into a mucous substance within the lumen. The PTO connects though a ligament to the ear drum, suggesting that pressure onto the tympanic membrane might induce fluid movement in the PTO. Labeling of innervating nerve fibers with the fluorescent dye, DiI, indicates that the alligator PTO is connected with the vestibular brainstem. Because all bird species examined possess a PTO except for owls and possibly parakeets, we verified the absence of a PTO in parakeets by examination of serial sections combined with GABA immunolabeling for potential hair cells. Bird species with significant upper beak movement lack a PTO, suggesting that PTO function is incompatible with upper beak movement. We also examined the middle ear of an armadillo, a mammal that has a very basal position within the eutherian phylogenetic tree. A small vesicle with ciliated cells was found, but did not label with a hair-cell specific marker, antibodies to myosin VIIa, and thus is not likely to represent a true PTO. Our evidence for a PTO in a non-avian species, the alligator, together with previous reports suggesting the presence of a PTO in some mammals, indicates that ancestral stem amniotes possessed a PTO, and that the PTO was not a de novo invention of birds. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
Recently the fabrication of novel nanostructures by oblique deposition has drawn much attention due to their potential application in electronic and mechanical devices as well as the interesting morphologies observed in various experiments, such as nanorods, nanocolumns, and nanohelicoids. Unlike self-organization by misfit strain in heteroepitaxial growth, oblique deposition provides a relatively direct way of controlling surface structures of growing films. Recent experiments indicate that oblique incidence deposition can significantly alter materials properties such as surface roughness, magnetic anisotropy, optical transmittance, and porosity. After a review of these experimental results, we first show that a series of morphological transitions observed in oblique incidence Cu/Cu(100) growth near room temperature can be explained primarily by geometrical shadowing effects . We then discuss the modifying effects of steering due to short-range and long-range attraction  as well as of substrate rotation on the surface morphology. Finally, we present the results of recent multiscale simulations of Cu/Cu(100) growth at lower temperature (T = 160 - 200 K)  as well as parallel accelerated dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations at very low temperature . Based on these simulations we have been able to explain a number of recent intriguing but previously unexplained experimental results including the strong dependence of the surface morphology and roughening behavior on temperature as well as the development of compressive strain in metal thin film growth. [4pt]  Y. Shim and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 046103 (2007).[0pt]  Y. Shim, V. Borovikov and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. B 77, 235423 (2008).[0pt]  V. Borovikov, Y. Shim and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. B 76, 241401(R) (2007).[0pt]  Y. Shim, V. Borovikov, B. P. Uberuaga, A. F. Voter, and J. G. Amar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116101 (2008).
Vasil'ev, V. A.
A graphical geometric characterization is given of local lacunae (domains of regularity of the fundamental solution) near the simple singular points of the wave fronts of nondegenerate hyperbolic operators. To wit: a local (near a simple singularity of the front) component of the complement of the front is a local lacuna precisely when it satisfies the Davydov-Borovikov signature condition near all the nonsingular points on its boundary, and its boundary has no edges of regression near which the component in question is a "large" component of the complement of the front.
Erford, Bradley T.; Stephens, Vicki M.
Technical characteristics of the Reading Essential Skills Screener-Elementary Version (RESS-E; B. T. Erford, G. Vitali, R. Haas, & R. R. Boykin, 1995) were studied using 4 independent samples of boys and girls between the ages of 6 and 8 years. Evidence of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, decision efficiency, factorial validity,…
1400 Wilson Boulevard Washington, DC 20451 Arlington, VA 22209-2308 Ms. Michelle Van Cleave Dr. Fred E. Saalfeld Assistant Director for National...VA 22217-5000 17th and Pennsylvania Avenue Washington, DC 20506 BGEN Anson Schulz Acting Deputy Director Mr. Richard Vitali Strategic Defense
University Washington, DC 20451 Ithaca, NY 14853 Ms. Michelle Van Cleave Dr. Fred E. Saalfeld Assistant Director for National Security Director Affairs...and Pennsylvania Avenue Washington, DC 20506 BGEN Anson Schultz Acting Deputy Director Mr. Richard Vitali Strategic Defense Initiative Organization
Erford, Bradley T.; Pauletta, Deborah
When developing efficient treatment plans for a client or student, professional counselors frequently rely on information about intellectual ability. The Slosson Intelligence Test-Primary (SIT-P; Erford, Vitali, & Slosson, 1999) is an expansion of the Slosson Intelligence Test-Revised (SIT-R; Nicholson & Hibpshman, 1991) and includes a…
O'Brocki, Catherine M.; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Erford, Bradley T.
The technical characteristics of scores on the Reading Essential Skills Screener-Upper Elementary Version (B. T. Erford, G. Vitali, R. Hass. & R. R. Boykin, 1995) were studied using 4 independent samples of boys and girls in Grades 4-6. Decision efficiency, principal axis factor analysis, internal consistency, 30-day test-retest reliability,…
Three species of Caribbomerus Vitali are newly recorded for the Dominican Republic: C. decoratus (Zayas), C. elongatus (Fisher), and C. asperatus (Fisher). The first two also represent first records for Hispaniola. Caribbomerus elongatus (Fisher) is redescribed based on additional material, includi...
Vitaly Davyidov, second from right, Deputy Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency, answers reporter’s questions during a Soyuz post-docking press conference at the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia on Saturday, Dec. 18, 2010. The Soyuz TMA-20 docked to the International Space Station carrying Expedition 26 Soyuz Commander Dmitry Kondratyev, Flight Engineer Catherine Coleman and European Space Agency Flight Engineer Paolo Nespoli. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)
New records of Caribbomerus from Hispaniola and Dominica with redescription of C. elongatus (Fisher) and a key to species of the genus in the West Indies (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Graciliini)
Lingafelter, Steven W.
Abstract Three species of Caribbomerus Vitali are newly recorded for the Dominican Republic: Caribbomerus decoratus (Zayas), Caribbomerus elongatus (Fisher), and Caribbomerus asperatus (Fisher). The first two also represent first records for Hispaniola. Caribbomerus elongatus (Fisher) is redescribed based on additional material, including the first known males. Caribbomerus similis (Fisher) is newly recorded for Dominica. A key to the species of the genus from the West Indies is provided. PMID:21594096
Rea, N.; Testa, V.; Israel, G. L.; Antonelli, A.; Jonker, P.; Belloni, T.; Campana, S.; Stella, L.
on behalf of E. Molinari, G. Chincarini, F.M. Zerbi, S. Covino, G. Tosti, P. Conconi, G. Cutispoto, L. Nicastro, E. Palazzi, F. Vitali, F. D'Alessio, E. Meurs, P. Goldoni and the REMIR/ROSS collaboration We report on infrared observations of the newly discovered transient X-ray pulsar SWIFT J1626.6-5156 (Palmer et al., ATEL #678, Markwardt & Swank, ATEL #679 and Campana et al., ATEL #688).
Vitaly Lopota, President, General Designer, RSC-Energia, answers reporters questions during a Soyuz post-docking press conference at the Russian mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia on Saturday March 28, 2009. The Soyuz TMA-14 docked to the International Space Station carrying Expedition 19 Commander Gennady I. Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt and Spaceflight Participant Charles Simonyi. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)
We study operator-valued measures , where stands for the space of all continuous linear operators between real Banach spaces X and Y and [Sigma] is a [sigma]-algebra of sets. We extend the Bartle-Dunford-Schwartz theorem and the Orlicz-Pettis theorem for vector measures to the case of operator-valued measures. We generalize the classical Vitali-Hahn-Saks theorem to sets of operator-valued measures which are compact in the strong operator topology.
thick). For more information on shaped charges, see Walters and Zukas (1989) and Zukas (1991). In addition, there are numerous BRL reports written or...V. Kucher, J. Longbardi, J. Majerus, A. Merendino, J. Panzarella, J. Regan, W. Rodas, B. Scott, S. Segletes, R. Shear, J. Simon, R. Vitali, W. Walters ...PLATE 2 0.80 mm WILD STEEL ’- PLATE 1 0.50 . WILD STEEL 0.41, m .b4..- Figure 9. Typical Witness Pack. particular program. Figure 9 shows a breakout
NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Anatoly Perminov, center, and Deputy Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Vitaly A. Davyidov listen to reporters questions during a press conference at Mission Control Center Moscow in Korolev, Russia shortly after the successful docking of the Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft with the International Space Station (ISS) marking the start of Expedition 21 with Flight Engineer Jeffrey N. Williams, Expedition 21 Flight Engineer Maxim Suraev, and Spaceflight Participant Guy Laliberté, Friday, Oct. 2, 2009. The entire crew onboard the ISS can be seen in the monitor below. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)
Expedition 32 Flight Engineer Sunita Williams, right, Soyuz Commander Yuri Malenchenko and JAXA Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide, left, receive a formal go for launch from Vitaly Alexandrovich Lopota, President of Energia, left, and Vladimir Popovkin, Director of Roscosmos prior to their launch onboard the Soyuz TMA-05M on Sunday, July 15, 2012 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz spacecraft with Malenchenko, Williams and Hoshide onboard launched at 8:40 a.m. later that morning Kazakhstan time. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)
Expedition 31 Flight Engineer Joe Acaba, left, Soyuz Commander Gennady Padalka, and, Flight Engineer Sergei Revin, right, receive a formal go for launch from Vitaly Alexandrovich Lopota, President of Energia, left, and Vladimir Popovkin, Director of Roscosmos prior to their launch onboard the Soyuz TMA-04M on Tuesday, May 15, 2012 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz spacecraft with Padalka, Revin, and Acaba onboard, launched at 9:01 a.m. Kazakhstan time on Tuesday, May 15. Photo Credit: (NASA/GCTC/Andrey Shelepin)
Expedition 33/34 Russian Cosmonaut and Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy is escorted to the Soyuz rocket by President of the S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia Vitaly Lopota, prior to his launch onboard a Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft with fellow crew members, NASA Astronaut and Flight Engineer Kevin Ford, and, Russian Cosmonaut and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, Tuesday, October 23, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send Ford, Novitskiy and Tarelkin on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)
Davis, P.A.; Berlin, G.L.
This geologic reconnaissance study centers on a 90 by 140 km area about 100 km southwest of Semipalatinsk near the east border of the Kazakstan Republic of the USSR. Semipalatinsk, a regional center for grain growing, and several other cities along the Irtysh River were originally established as fortified outposts by the Russians during the 18th and 19th centuries to contain the indigenous, nomadic Kazak herdsmen. The Kazakstan region remained largely undeveloped until after the 1917 Russian Revolution, when exploration geologists began discovering many large mineral deposits. Today, known resources include coal, copper, iron ore, lead, zinc, and barite; most of these are of national significance. These vast mineral resources have prompted development of many metallurgical and chemical industries in the republic. Despite the extensive exploration for mineral resources in this region, published geologic maps (Nalivkin, 1960; Esenov, 1971; Borovikov, 1972) are all at scales of 1:1,100,000 or smaller, and there are no detailed descriptions of the geology around Semipalatinsk in the open literature. Our preliminary examination of commercial remote-sensing, data indicated that the lithology and structure of this area are extremely varied and complex at all scales -- much more so than that portrayed on the published geologic maps. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to use commercially available remotely sensed data for the area and remotely sensed data obtained for analog study sites, as well as the sparse, sketchy information in the published literature, to better define and map the geologic units (Sheet 1), structure (Sheet 2), and drainage features (Sheet 3) of this area.
Rutilio Staderini was one of the leading Italian anatomists of the twentieth century, together with some scientists, such as Giulio Chiarugi, Giovanni Vitali, and others. He was also a member of a new generation of anatomists. They had continued the tradition of the most famous Italian scientists, which started from the Renaissance up until the nineteenth century. Although he carried out important studies of neuroanatomy and comparative anatomy, as well as embryology, his name is rarely remembered by most medical historians. His name is linked to the nucleus he discovered: the Staderini nucleus or intercalated nucleus, a collection of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata located lateral to the hypoglossal nucleus. This article focuses on the biography of the neuroanatomist as well as the nucleus that carries his name and his other research, especially on comparative anatomy and embryology.
Expedition 33/34 crew members, NASA Astronaut and Flight Engineer Kevin Ford, front left, Russian Cosmonaut and Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, and Russian Cosmonaut and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, back left, stop at the base of the Soyuz rocket for a formal farewell from President of the S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia Vitaly Lopota, back right, General Director of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, Vladimir Popovkin, right center, and NASA Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations William Gerstenmaier prior to the crews launch onboard a Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft to the International Space Station, Tuesday, October 23, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send Ford, Novitskiy and Tarelkin on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/GCTC/Andrey Shelepin)
Kellermann, Kenneth I.
As in many other countries, radio astronomy in the Soviet Union began as an outgrowth of wartime radar research. The early leaders of Soviet radio astronomy, including Simon Braude, Vladimir Kotelnikov, Vladimir Troitskii, and Viktor Vitkevitch, all began their careers during WWII. Although the theoretical contributions of people like Iosef Shklovsky and Vitaly Ginzburg were well known in the West, the early experimental and observational programs received much less attention, partially the result of cold war military secrecy. When they were noticed, the Soviet observations were largely ignored or declared wrong. We will discuss the controversial Soviet contributions to the detection of polarized cosmic radio emission, the development of very long baseline interferometry, the prediction and verification of radio recombination lines, and the first detection of variability in an extragalactic radio source.
Eremenko, Vitaly A.; Droppo, James G.
The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident occurred in 1986. The plume from the explosions and fires was highly radioactive and resulted in very high exposure levels in the surrounding regions. This paper describes how the people in Kiev, Ukraine, a city 90 miles (120 km) south of Chernobyl, and in particular one individual in that city, Professor Vitaly Eremenko, became aware of the threat before the official announcement and the steps he took to mitigate potential impacts to his immediate family. The combination of being informed and using available resources led to greatly reduced consequences for his family and, in particular, his newborn granddaughter. He notes how quickly word of some aspects of the hazard spread in the city and how other aspects appear to not have been understood. Although these events are being recalled as the 20th anniversary of the terrible event approaches, the lessons are still pertinent today. Threats of possible terrorist use of radiation dispersal devices makes knowledge of effective individual actions for self-protection from radiation exposures a topic of current interest.
This essay was delivered as a commencement address at the University of California-Berkeley School of Public Health on May 17, 2015. Reflecting on events spanning from 1990 to 1999 to 2015, when I gave my first, second, and third commencement talks at the school, I discuss four notable features of our present era and offer five insights for ensuring that health equity be the guiding star to orient us all. The four notable features are: (1) growing recognition of the planetary emergency of global climate change; (2) almost daily headlines about armed conflicts and atrocities; (3) growing public awareness of and debate about epic levels of income and wealth inequalities; and (4) growing activism about police killings and, more broadly, "Black Lives Matter." The five insights are: (1) public health is a public good, not a commodity; (2) the "tragedy of the commons" is a canard; the lack of a common good is what ails us; (3) good science is not enough, and bad science is harmful; (4) good evidence--however vital--is not enough to change the world; and (5) history is vital, because we live our history, embodied. Our goal: a just and sustainable world in which we and every being on this planet may truly thrive.
Gaina, Alex B.
The Internet proceeding contains various photographs and autographs of scientists from the Moscow State University, made during 70-th and 80-th years of XX-th Century. While no the album refers to Physics in totality, the main part of the album does refer. It includes photographs and autographs of the Members of the Academy of Sciences of U.S.S.R. Il'ya M. Lifshitz, Alexander I. Ishlinskii, Leonid V. Keldysh, Nobel Prize Winners Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Andrej D. Sakharov, Professors: I.M. Ternov, M.I. Kaganov, V.I. Grigor'ev, V.R. Khalilov, V.Ch. Zhukovskij, V.G. Bagrov (Tomsk State University) and other. Another part of peoples on the photographs became later University professors and Members of Academies. A photo concerns the graduated from the Moscow University, astronomer Vladimir A. Albitzky (1892-1952) made in Odessa during the First World War, while another concerns the School "Quantum Particles in intense fields" held in Chisinau in May 1985.
Giannessi, F; Pera, L
The structure of the paratympanic organ in chickens was investigated by means of the transmission electron microscope. The epithelium lining the lumen of the paratympanic organ consists of sensory and non-sensory components. The sensory epithelium is composed of supporting and hair cells. The hair cells are similar to the type II receptor cells present in the neuroepithelia of the vestibule and of the lateral line organs. The afferent synapses at the bases of the hair cells are also described. The non-sensory epithelium is made up of cells with a clear cytoplasm and arranged in a single layer. It also contains dark, flattened cells which sometimes possess motile cilia. Special emphasis is given to the fact that the results agree with Vitali's theory that the paratympanic organ and the lateral line organs are homologous. It is concluded, therefore, that present knowledge about this structure is not yet sufficient to allow a definitive functional interpretation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3693071
Méheut, Merlin; Lazzeri, Michele; Balan, Etienne; Mauri, Francesco
Hydrogen fractionation laws between selected hydrous minerals (brucite, kaolinite, lizardite, and gibbsite) and perfect water gas have been computed from first-principles quantum-mechanical calculations. The β-factor of each phase was calculated using the harmonic phonon dispersion curves obtained within density functional theory. All the fractionation laws show the same shape, with a minimum between 200 °C (brucite) and 500 °C (gibbsite). At low temperatures, the mineral/liquid water fractionation laws have been obtained using the experimental gas/liquid water fractionation laws. The resulting fractionation laws systematically overestimate measurements by 15‰ at low temperatures to 8‰ at ≈400 °C. Based on this general agreement, all calculated laws were empirically corrected with reference to brucite/water data. These considerations suggest that the experimental or natural calibrations by Xu and Zheng (1999) and Horita et al. (2002) (brucite/water), Gilg and Sheppard (1996) (kaolinite/water), Wenner and Taylor (1973) (lizardite/water), and in some extents Vitali et al. (2001) (gibbsite/water) are representative of equilibrium fractionations. Besides, internal isotopic fractionation of hydrogen between inner-surface and inner hydroxyl groups has been computed for kaolinite and lizardite. The obtained fractionation is large, of opposite sign for the two systems (respectively, -23‰ and +63‰ at 25 °C) and is linear in T-2. Internal fractionation of hydrogen in TO phyllosilicates might thus be used in geothermometry.
We discuss eternal inflation in the context of classical probability spaces defined by a triplet: sample space, σ -algebra, and probability measure. We show that the measure problem is caused by the countable additivity axiom applied to the maximal σ -algebra of countably infinite sample spaces. This is a serious problem if the bulk space-time is treated as a sample space which is thought to be effectively countably infinite due to local quantum uncertainties. However, in semiclassical description of eternal inflation the physical space expands exponentially which makes the sample space of infinite trajectories uncountable and the (future) boundary space effectively continuous. Then the measure problem can be solved by defining a probability measure on the continuum of trajectories or holographically on the future boundary. We argue that the probability measure which is invariant under the symmetries of the tree-like structure of eternal inflation can be generated from the Lebesgue measure on unit interval. According to Vitali theorem the Lebesgue measure leaves some sets without a measure which means that there are certain probabilistic questions in eternal inflation that cannot be answered.
Greene, Chris H.
In 1969, Vitaly Efimov stunned nuclear physicists with a paper that made a bizarre prediction: that a system of 3 uncharged particles can possess an infinite number of weakly bound states, even when none of its 2-particle subsystems are sufficiently attracted to one another to form even one bound state. This counterintuitive effect was initially controversial, but subsequent theoretical studies of 3-body nuclear states as well as analogous states for atoms and molecules confirmed Efimov's universal prediction. Until last year, these states had little or no experimental evidence, but their first confirmation has now been reported. In the meantime theoretical understanding of Efimov states and their implications for seemingly unrelated observables like 3-body recombination has been making exciting advances. This invited talk will summarize our present understanding and recent generalizations, describe an intuitive way of visualizing the Efimov effect, and review its implications for modern day experiments in ultracold quantum gases that manipulate Fano-Feshbach resonances.  T. Kraemer et al., Nature 440, 315 (2006).  B. D. Esry and C. H. Greene, Nature 440, 289 (2006).
Naidon, Pascal; Endo, Shimpei
This article reviews theoretical and experimental advances in Efimov physics, an array of quantum few-body and many-body phenomena arising for particles interacting via short-range resonant interactions, that is based on the appearance of a scale-invariant three-body attraction theoretically discovered by Vitaly Efimov in 1970. This three-body effect was originally proposed to explain the binding of nuclei such as the triton and the Hoyle state of carbon-12, and later considered as a simple explanation for the existence of some halo nuclei. It was subsequently evidenced in trapped ultra-cold atomic clouds and in diffracted molecular beams of gaseous helium. These experiments revealed that the previously undetermined three-body parameter introduced in the Efimov theory to stabilise the three-body attraction typically scales with the range of atomic interactions. The few- and many-body consequences of the Efimov attraction have been since investigated theoretically, and are expected to be observed in a broader spectrum of physical systems.
Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Meech, K. J.; Rodríguez, D.; Sánchez, A.; Lacruz, J.
Comet C/2012 S1 ISON was discovered on Sept. 21st, 2012 by Russian amateur astronomers Vitaly Nevski and Artyom Novichonok in the framework of a monitoring program called the International Scientific Optical Network (giving the acronym ISON from which the comet has been named). At discovery the comet was at a heliocentric distance of 6.29 A.U. and its magnitude was +18.8, but the computed orbit indicated that the comet was following a nearly parabolic orbit. The current orbit brings C/2012 S1 ISON to an extremely small perihelion distance of about 1 milion km on Nov. 28th, 2013. We have set up a multiband photometric monitoring of this sungrazing comet using 0.8m Telescope Joan Oró of the Montsec Astronomical Observatory (OAdM: www.oadm.cat) and several medium-size amateur telescopes with dedicated experience in cometary photometry [1, 2]. Comet sungrazers are interesting objects as they probably originate from the dynamical evolution of long period comets that typically end their lives colliding with the Sun . They are though to be fragments of primitive ice-rich bodies gravitationally dispersed during the early stages of solar system evolution .
In spite of the accomplishments of science-oriented medicine, we are still confronted with a multitude of "alternative" or "complementary" therapies which claim to heal "holistically" without adverse effects. Common to alternative treatment methods, which are several or many centuries old, is the notion that a special force ("vis vitalis", "entelechy", "spiritual bioforce", etc.) is responsible for life that, ultimately, cannot be investigated. According to this perception, which is termed "vitalism", diseases are a result of changes in the immaterial force of life. Therefore, treatments have to be directed at this central regulator ("regulatory therapy"). The medicine that is based on the natural sciences, in contrast, presumes that all expressions of life including diseases are amenable to critical and rational analysis. According to this school of thought, a causal therapy can be derived only from a detailed knowledge of the various body functions down to the molecular level and the effects of drugs on these functions. Corresponding therapeutic theories have to be verified or falsified experimentally, excluding bias as much as possible. Using such "objective" methods, a statistical assessment of the beneficial and adverse effects of a treatment may be possible ("evidence-based medicine"). In the final analysis, an incompatibility of scientific concepts is at the heart of the controversy between alternative treatment methods and the medicine based on natural sciences.
Nichols, Jason J
The purpose of this study was to characterize the literature associated with the dry eye field. An advanced search using Thomson Reuters Web of Science's Science Citation Index yielded 7,225 unique articles related to dry eye disease. All results underwent visual inspection to ensure that the final list included only literature associated with dry eye in some way. The most frequently cited articles were characterized by number of citations, author, institution, country of origin, year of publication, and source title. The h-index (Hirsch index) of literature associated with dry eye was 100. The two most frequent topics among the top 25 cited articles were lacrimal gland structure and physiology and treatment methods for ocular surface disease. The top-cited author, institution, country, and source title were Kazuo Tsubota, Harvard University, the United States, and Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, respectively. The most highly cited article associated with the dry eye field (n=1, 180) was "Preliminary criteria for the classification of Sjogrens syndrome - Results of a prospective concerted action supported by the European Community," authored in 1993 by C. Vitali. This analysis reviewed the citation frequency of the top-cited articles related to dry eye disease. This information aids understanding of the history and development of dry eye research, in addition to the impact and characteristics of the contributors to the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The impact of high-pressure studies on fundamental physics and chemistry, and especially on the Earth and planetary sciences, has been enormous. While experiments in diamond anvil cells (DACs) at pressures of ~250 - 400 GPa are proven to be very difficult but possible, at higher static pressures any matter has not been investigated so until very recently [Ref. 1]. We have developed a method of synthesis of balls and semi-balls (of 10 to 50 μm in diameter) made of nanodiamond (with individual nano-particles of linear dimensions below 100 nm) and used them as second-stage or indentor-type anvils in conventional DACs. In experiments on rhenium, osmium, and gold we were able to generate pressures above 650 GPa [Ref. 1] and demonstrated crucial necessity of the ultra-high pressure measurements for accurate determination of the equation of state (EOS) of materials at extreme conditions. In collaboration with Leonid Dubrovinsky, Bayerisches Geoinstitut, University of Bayreuth; Vitali Prakapenka, University of Chicago; Artem Abukumov, University of Antwerp; and Michael Hanfland; ESRF, Grenoble.
The 2nd International School and Conference ''Saint Petersburg OPEN 2015'' on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures was held on April 6 - 8, 2015 at St. Petersburg Academic University. The School and Conference included a series of invited talks given by leading professors with the aim to introduce young scientists with actual problems and major advances in physics and technology. The keynote speakers were Mikhail V. Maximov (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia) Vladimir G. Dubrovskii (St. Petersburg Academic University and St. Petersburg State University, Russia) Anton Yu. Egorov (JSC Connector Optics, Russia) Victor V. Luchinin (St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, Russia) Vladislav E. Bugrov (St. Petersburg University of Internet Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Russia) Vitali A. Schukin (VI Systems, Germany) Yuri P. Svirko (University of Eastern Finland, Finland) During the poster session all undergraduate and graduate students attending the conference presented their works. A sufficiently large number of participants, with more than 170 student attendees from all over the world, allowed the Conference to provide a fertile ground for fruitful discussions between the young scientists as well as to become a perfect platform for valuable discussions between student authors and highly experienced scientists. The best student papers, which were selected by the Program Committee and by the invited speakers basing on the theses and their poster presentation, were awarded with diplomas of the conference - see the photos. This year ''Saint Petersburg OPEN 2015'' is organized by St. Petersburg Academic University in cooperation with Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. The School and Conference is supported by Russian Science Foundation, SPIE (The International Society for Optics and Photonics), OSA (The Optical Society) and by Skolkovo Foundation. It is a continuation of the annual schools and seminars for
Buchholz, Klaus; Collins, John
Early biotechnology (BT) had its roots in fascinating discoveries, such as yeast as living matter being responsible for the fermentation of beer and wine. Serious controversies arose between vitalists and chemists, resulting in the reversal of theories and paradigms, but prompting continuing research and progress. Pasteur's work led to the establishment of the science of microbiology by developing pure monoculture in sterile medium, and together with the work of Robert Koch to the recognition that a single pathogenic organism is the causative agent for a particular disease. Pasteur also achieved innovations for industrial processes of high economic relevance, including beer, wine and alcohol. Several decades later Buchner, disproved the hypothesis that processes in living cells required a metaphysical 'vis vitalis' in addition to pure chemical laws. Enzymes were shown to be the chemical basis of bioconversions. Studies on the formation of products in microbial fermentations, resulted in the manufacture of citric acid, and chemical components required for explosives particularly in war time, acetone and butanol, and further products through fermentation. The requirements for penicillin during the Second World War lead to the industrial manufacture of penicillin, and to the era of antibiotics with further antibiotics, like streptomycin, becoming available. This was followed by a new class of high value-added products, mainly secondary metabolites, e.g. steroids obtained by biotransformation. By the mid-twentieth century, biotechnology was becoming an accepted specialty with courses being established in the life sciences departments of several universities. Starting in the 1970s and 1980s, BT gained the attention of governmental agencies in Germany, the UK, Japan, the USA, and others as a field of innovative potential and economic growth, leading to expansion of the field. Basic research in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology dramatically widened the field of life
Salakhov, M. Kh; Samartsev, V. V.; Gainutdinov, R. Kh
Kazan Federal University has held the annual International Youth School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy" since 1997. The choice of the topic is not accidental. Kazan is the home of photon echo which was predicted at Kazan Physical-Technical Institute in 1963 by Prof. U.G. Kopvil'em and V.R. Nagibarov and observed in Columbia University by N.A. Kurnit, I.D. Abella, and S.R. Hartmann in 1964. Since then, photon echo has become a powerful tool of coherent optical spectroscopy and optical information processing, which have been developed here in Kazan in close collaboration between Kazan Physical-Technical Institute and Kazan Federal University. The main subjects of the XVIII International Youth School are: Nonlinear and coherent optics; Atomic and molecular spectroscopy; Coherent laser spectroscopy; Problems of quantum optics; Quantum theory of radiation; and Nanophotonics and Scanning Probe Microscopy. The unchallenged organizers of that school are Kazan Federal University and Kazan E.K. Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute. The rector of the School is Professor Myakzyum Salakhov, and the vice-rector is Professor Vitaly Samartsev. The International Youth Scientific School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy" follows the global pattern of comprehensive studies of matter properties and their interaction with electromagnetic fields. Since 1997 more than 100 famous scientists from the USA, Germany, Ukraine, Belarus and Russia have given plenary lecture presentations. Here over 1000 young scientists had an opportunity to participate in lively discussions about the latest scientific news. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on photonics, quantum electronics, laser physics, quantum optics, traditional optical and laser spectroscopy, non-linear optics, material science and nanotechnology. Here we are publishing the fullsize papers prepared from the most interesting lectures and reports selected by the Program Committee of the School. The
Santos, Alejandro; Martins, Maria João; Guimarães, João Tiago; Severo, Milton; Azevedo, Isabel
There is a strong positive correlation between sodium chloride intake and hypertension. In industrialized countries the ingestion of carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water is an important source of calorie-free fluids. The mineral content of these waters varies greatly, with many brands containing high levels of sodium. However, some mineral waters contain greater amounts of bicarbonate instead of chloride as the anion associated with the sodium cation. This is relevant because it is well established that the effect of sodium on blood pressure depends on the corresponding anion. Additionally the pressor effect of sodium bicarbonate is much lower than that of equivalent amounts of sodium chloride. The aim of our work was to evaluate the effect of ingesting a sodium-rich carbonated mineral water (Agua das Pedras) on blood pressure values in normotensive individuals. This crossover, non-blinded study evaluated 17 individuals (9 female and 8 male), aged 24-53 years, median body mass index (BMI) < 23, randomly allocated in two groups, ingesting 500 ml/day of Agua das Pedras or Agua Vitalis. Each arm of the study lasted 7 weeks, with 6 weeks of washout between them. Twenty-four hour urinary samples were collected at the beginning and end of each arm to determine pH and sodium and potassium excretion. Blood pressure and body weight were measured weekly throughout the study. A mixed-effects model was used to compare groups (p < 0.05). The Wilcoxon test was used to analyze electrolyte excretion. No differences were observed in blood pressure values between treatments or from baseline values. We found a positive correlation between BMI and blood pressure. The daily ingestion of 500 ml of Agua das Pedras had no effect on blood pressure. A study by Schorr and co-workers found that the ingestion of bicarbonate-rich water (1.5 l/day) had hypotensive effects in an elderly population. However, these results should be verified in hypertensive subjects, who are more likely to
Hamilton, R; Patel, P; Balaggan, K; Restori, M; Ilginis, T; Drew, M; McGovern, M; Vitali, J; Marsteller, L
. Study was sponsored by Salutaris Medical Devices, Ltd., a subsidiary of Salutaris Medical Devices, Inc. Hamilton and Marsteller are founders of Salutaris Medical Devices, Inc. Drew, McGovern and Vitali are minor equity holders in Salutaris Medical Devices, Inc.
van der Zande, Wim J.
possible by generous sponsors, whom we thank wholeheartedly: The Radboud University Nijmegen, The Institute for Molecules and Materials of the Radboud University Nijmegen, The Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (Stichting FOM), The Foundation PHYSICA (Stichting Physica), and The Netherlands Royal Academy of Sciences (KNAW). The organisational support by Erna Gouwens van Oss before and during the conference was essential for its success. The help of Thanja Lambrechts and Vitali Zhaunerchyk during the preparation of the proceedings is greatly appreciated. The delay in the publication of these proceedings is entirely caused by the editor. The authors of the contributions are thanked for the quality of their contributions, Wim J van der Zande, Editor Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, PO Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Conference photograph Participants of the 7th International Conference on Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiments and Applications, taken in front of d'Amelander Kaap, the conference venue in Ameland, one of the Wadden Islands in the North of the Netherlands. 1. Dror Shafir21. Annemieke Petrignani41. Oumanou Motopan 2. Ioan Scheider22. Johanna Roos42. Max Berg 3. Nigel Adams23. Erna Gouwens van Oss43. Henrik Buhr 4. Hajime Tanuma24. Natalie de Ruette44. Ilya Fabrikant 5. Jonathan Tennyson25. Francois Wameu Tamo45. Claude Krantz 6. Vitali Zhaunerchyk26. Rainer Johnsen46. Michael Stenrup 7. Robert Continetti27. Viatcheslav Kokoouline47. Xavier Urbain 8. Stefan Rosén28. Hidekazu Takagi48. Evelyne Roueff 9. Erik Vigren29. Hans-Jakob Wörner49. Dirk Schwalm 10. Magdalena Kaminska30. Oskar Asvany50. Valery Ngassam 11. Chris Greene31. Lutz Lammich51. Julien Lecointre 12. Steffen Novotny32. Brandon Jordon-Thaden52. Ann Orel 13. Amy Schumak33. Wolf Diettrich Geppert53. Ihor Korolov 14. Gerard van Rooij34. Alexander Faure54. Romain Guerot 15. Wim van der Zande35. Mathias
Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.
systems, the second by T Prosen, discussing chaos and complexity in quantum systems. Both topics have theoretical as well as experimental relevance and are likely to witness a fast growing development in the near future. The remaining contributions present more specific and very recent results. They involve the study of the structure of quantum states and their estimation (B Baumgartner et al, C King et al, S Olivares et al, D Petz et al and W van Dam et al), of entanglement generation and its quantification (G Brida et al, F Ciccarello et al, G Costantini et al, O Romero-Isart et al, D Rossini et al, A Serafini et al and D Vitali et al), of randomness related effects on entanglement behaviour (I Akhalwaya et al, O Dahlsten et al and L Viola et al), and of abstract and applied aspects of quantum computation and communication (K Audenart, G M D'Ariano et al, N Datta et al, L C Kwek et al and M Nathanson et al). We would like to express our gratitude to the European Commission, the Abdus Salam ICTP, SISSA and Eurotech SpA (Amaro, Udine, Italy) for financial and/or logistic support. Special thanks also go to the workshop secretary Marina De Comelli, and the secretaries of the Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Trieste, Sabrina Gaspardis and Rosita Glavina for their precious help and assistance.
Spichtinger, Peter; Cziczo, Daniel J.
of water which have not yet been fully defined, for example cubic ice, are considered. The impact of natural aerosols on clouds, for example mineral dust, is also discussed, as well as other natural but highly sensitive effects such as the Wegener Bergeron Findeisen process. It is our belief that this focus issue represents a leap forward not only in reducing the uncertainty associated with the interaction of aerosols and clouds but also a new link between groups that must work together to continue progress in this important area of climate science. Focus on Aerosol Cloud Interactions Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. The global influence of dust mineralogical composition on heterogeneous ice nucleation in mixed-phase clouds C Hoose, U Lohmann, R Erdin and I Tegen Ice formation via deposition nucleation on mineral dust and organics: dependence of onset relative humidity on total particulate surface area Zamin A Kanji, Octavian Florea and Jonathan P D Abbatt The Explicit-Cloud Parameterized-Pollutant hybrid approach for aerosol cloud interactions in multiscale modeling framework models: tracer transport results William I Gustafson Jr, Larry K Berg, Richard C Easter and Steven J Ghan Cloud effects from boreal forest fire smoke: evidence for ice nucleation from polarization lidar data and cloud model simulations Kenneth Sassen and Vitaly I Khvorostyanov The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of mineral dust aerosols O Möhler, S Benz, H Saathoff, M Schnaiter, R Wagner, J Schneider, S Walter, V Ebert and S Wagner Enhanced formation of cubic ice in aqueous organic acid droplets Benjamin J Murray Quantification of water uptake by soot particles O B Popovicheva, N M Persiantseva, V Tishkova, N K Shonija and N A Zubareva Meridional gradients of light absorbing carbon over northern Europe D Baumgardner, G Kok, M Krämer and F Weidle
Zhuravlev, K. K.; Goncharov, A. F.; Tkachev, S. N.; Prakapenka, V.
spectroscopy up to 1 Mbar in pressure at room temperature in the diamond-anvil cell and we show that our data can be used to determine both the density and elastic parameters of the crystals with the precision of about 1%. Those parameters can be further reduced to the pressure values and we will show that the pressures obtained are consistent with the existing pressure scales. Goncharov, Alexander F., Sinogeikin, Stanislav, Crowhurst, Jonathan C., Ahart, Muhtar, Lakshtanov, Dmitry, Prakapenka, Vitali, Bass, Jay, Beck, Pierre, Tkachev, Sergei N., Zaug, Joseph M., Fei, Yingwei (2007) ‘Cubic boron nitride as a primary calibrant for a high temperature pressure scale’ High Pressure Research, 27:4, 409-417. Mao, H.K., Xu, J., and Bell. P.M. (1986) ‘Calibration of the ruby pressure gauge up to 800 kbar under quasihydrostatic conditions’ Journal of Geophysical Research, 91:B5, 4673-4676.
Seddon, James R. T.
)—hard core statistics with real numbers are now what matters. Also, carrying out molecular dynamics simulations with either zero-Kelvin walls or Lennard-Jones (LJ) potentials is almost definitely insufficient (the first necessarily forces the production of micropancakes, whilst for the second the community knows that using 'real' water models most often gives different results to their simplistic LJ counterparts). This cautionary note also extends to the new wave of experiments using optical visualization: yes we can now access fast dynamics, but (and I am writing from personal experience) we have an even bigger and necessary job to prove that the objects are not droplet contamination from, e.g. oil (AFM allows us to 'poke' bubbles and coalesce them; ATR allows us to 'see' that the bubbles contain gas; no such probe exists for optical measurements). I think in the future we will see many strong contributions to the field where a combination of several techniques is used to tell a coherent story—the level of complexity and rigor must advance in order for the field to follow. It is great to see some of the contributions to this special section taking a closer look at the interpretative difficulties that are involved in the field, but which are, we hope, close to being understood. I would like to thank the invited authors whom have contributed to this special section. I am also grateful to the editorial staff of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for their help in producing this special section. Surface nanobubbles and micropancakes Surface nanobubbles and micropancakesJames R T Seddon Nanobubble assisted nanopatterning utilized for ex situ identification of surface nanobubblesH Tarábková and P Janda Transient nanobubbles in short-time electrolysisVitaly B Svetovoy, Remco G P Sanders and Miko C Elwenspoek Nanobubbles and their role in slip and dragAbdelhamid Maali and Bharat Bhushan Modeling of bubble nucleation of an air--water mixture near hydrophobic wallsDi Zhou
Segura, Luis Elvira; Resa López, Pablo; Salazar, Jordi; Benedito Fort, José Javier; Martínez Graullera, Óscar
The following describes most of the presentations (both oral and poster) given at the International Symposium of Ultrasound in the Control of Industrial Processes (UCIP 2012) celebrated in Madrid between 18 and 20 April 2012. This event was intended to be a meeting point for scientists, engineers and professionals from all over the world in the field of ultrasonics applied to the characterization and control of materials and processes in the industry. More precisely, the topics included were: 1. Novel applications of ultrasound in the industry (including high-power ultrasound) Food science Biotechnology and microbiology Pharmaceutics and cosmetics Petrochemistry and civil engineering 2. New insights in the ultrasonic characterization of media: Fluids and emulsions Nano- and micro-particle dispersions Soft materials Porous bodies and inhomogeneous materials 3. New developments in ultrasonic measuring techniques: Acoustic microscopy Piezoelectric sensors Ultrasonic imaging Signal processing The symposium was organized by the Centro de Acústica Aplicada y Evaluación No Destructiva (CAEND, UPM-CSIC) in collaboration with the Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and the University of Leeds. During the conference, 32 posters and 33 oral communications were presented. In addition, 4 invited lectures were imparted: 'Acoustic microscopy, spectroscopy and nanoparticle detection' by Dr Malcolm Povey; 'Acoustic and electroacoustic spectroscopy' by Dr Andrei Dukhin; 'High-Resolution Ultrasonic Spectroscopy and its application for material analysis by Dr Vitaly Buckin; 'Ultrasonic sensors for process applications - state of the art' by Dr Bern Henning; and three tutorials were given: 'PZFlex - Finite Element Analysis for Virtual Prototyping' by Weidlinger Associates; 'SITAU - A flexible architecture controlled by MATLAB for the development of ultrasonic applications' by DASEL; 'Ultra-SCATTERERTM (Acoustics Suite) - The R&D Tool for
"REM observations of GRB060418 and GRB060607A: the onset of the afterglow and the initial fireball Lorentz factor determination", by E. Molinari, S. D. Vergani, D. Malesani, S. Covino, et al. The paper is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20077388 (A&A, 469, L13-L16, 2007). The REM team is formed by G. Chincarini, E. Molinari, F.M. Zerbi, L.A. Antonelli, S. Covino, P. Conconi, L. Nicastro, E. Palazzi, M. Stefanon, V. Testa, G. Tosti, F. Vitali, A. Monfardini, F. D'Alessio, P. D'Avanzo, D. Fugazza, G. Malaspina, S. Piranomonte, S.D. Vergani, P.A. Ward, S. Campana, P. Goldoni, D. Guetta, D. Malesani, N. Masetti, E.J.A. Meurs, L. Norci, E. Pian, A. Fernandez-Soto, L. Stella, G. Tagliaferri, G. Ihle, L. Gonzalez, A. Pizarro, P. Sinclair, and J. Valenzuela. Notes Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short flashes of energetic gamma-rays lasting from less than a second to several minutes. They release a tremendous quantity of energy in this short time making them the most powerful events since the Big Bang. They come in two different flavours, long and short ones. Over the past few years, international efforts have convincingly shown that long gamma-ray bursts are linked with the ultimate explosion of massive stars (hypernovae; see e.g. ESO PR 16/03) while the short ones most likely originate from the violent collision of neutron stars and/or black holes (see e.g. ESO PR 26/05 and 32/05). Irrespective of the original source of the GRB energy, the injection of so much energy into a confined volume will cause a fireball to form. Gamma-ray photons have nearly a million times more energy than the 'visual' photons the eye can see. Strictly speaking, the Lorentz factor is the ratio between the total and rest-mass energy of the fireball. REM (Rapid Eye Mount) is a small (60 cm mirror diameter) rapid reaction automatic telescope dedicated to monitor the prompt afterglow of Gamma Ray Burst events. It is located at the ESO La Silla Observatory in Chile. For more information, see
Bernasconi, M.; Miret-Artés, S.; Toennies, J. P.
Chulkov Surface phonons on Pb(111) I Yu Sklyadneva, R Heid, K-P Bohnen, P M Echenique and E V Chulkov Using evidence from nanocavities to assess the vibrational properties of external surfaces G F Cerofolini, F Corni, S Frabboni, G Ottaviani, E Romano, R Tonini and D Narducci Magnetic properties and relaxation dynamics of a frustrated Ni7 molecular nanomagnet E Garlatti, S Carretta, M Affronte, E C Sañudo, G Amoretti and P Santini A theoretical study of rotational and translational diffusion dynamics of molecules with a six-fold point symmetry adsorbed on a hexagonal lattice by neutron scattering I Calvo-Almazán, S Miret-Artés and P Fouquet Vibrational dynamics and surface structure of Bi(111) from helium atom scattering measurements M Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, A Tamtögl, P Kraus, K H Rieder and W E Ernst Double and triple ionization of silver clusters by electron impactAvik Halder, Anthony Liang, Chunrong Yin and Vitaly V Kresin Scattering of O2 from a graphite surface W W Hayes, Junepyo Oh, Takahiro Kondo, Keitaro Arakawa, Yoshihiko Saito, Junji Nakamura and J R Manson Zero-phonon lines of systems with different dimensions and unconventional vibronic interactions V Hizhnyakov A kinetic Monte Carlo approach to investigate antibiotic translocation through bacterial porins Matteo Ceccarelli, Attilio V Vargiu and Paolo Ruggerone Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in surface diffusion of interacting adsorbates H C Peñate-Rodrìguez, R Martìnez-Casado, G Rojas-Lorenzo, A S Sanz and S Miret-Artés Weakly bound finite systems: (4He)N-Rb2(3Σu), clustering structures from a quantum Monte Carlo approach D López-Durán, R Rodrìguez-Cantano, T González-Lezana, G Delgado-Barrio, P Villarreal, E Yurtsever and F A Gianturco Multiphonon atom-surface scattering from corrugated surfaces: derivation of the inelastic scattering spectrum for diffraction statesBranko Gumhalter Probing the non-pairwise interactions between CO molecules moving on a Cu(111) surfacePepijn R Kole, Holly
Aspelmeyer, Markus; Schwab, Keith
Mechanical feedback in the high-frequency limit R El Boubsi, O Usmani and Ya M Blanter Back-action evasion and squeezing of a mechanical resonator using a cavity detector A A Clerk, F Marquardt and K Jacobs Simultaneous cooling and entanglement of mechanical modes of a micromirror in an optical cavity Claudiu Genes, David Vitali and Paolo Tombesi Dispersive optomechanics: a membrane inside a cavity A M Jayich, J C Sankey, B M Zwickl, C Yang, J D Thompson, S M Girvin, A A Clerk, F Marquardt and J G E Harris Cavity-assisted backaction cooling of mechanical resonators I Wilson-Rae, N Nooshi, J Dobrindt, T J Kippenberg and W Zwerger Cavity cooling of a nanomechanical resonator by light scattering I Favero and K Karrai Probing the quantum coherence of a nanomechanical resonator using a superconducting qubit: II. Implementation M P Blencowe and A D Armour Probing the quantum coherence of a nanomechanical resonator using a superconducting qubit: I. Echo scheme A D Armour and M P Blencowe Nanoelectromechanics of suspended carbon nanotubes A K Hüttel, M Poot, B Witkamp and H S J van der Zant Prospects for cooling nanomechanical motion by coupling to a superconducting microwave resonator J D Teufel, C A Regal and K W Lehnert
Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Nelson, Jeanette E.
Cagliari, Italy) Roberto De Pietri (Università di Parma, Italy) Giuseppe De Risi (Università di Bari, Italy) Hans-Thomas Elze (Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) Alessandro Fabbri (Università di Bologna, Italy) Sergey Fadeev (VNIIMS, Moscow, Russia) Serena Fagnocchi (Università di Bologna, Italy) Sara Farese (Universidad de Valencia, Spain) Alessandra Feo (Università di Parma, Italy) Dario Francia (Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy) Francesco Fucito (Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy) Dmitri Fursaev (JINR, Dubna, Russia) Daniel Galehouse (University of Akron, Ohio, USA) Remo Garattini (Università di Bergamo, Italy) Florian Girelli (Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Canada) Luca Griguolo (Università di Parma, Italy) Daniel Grumiller (Universität Leipzig, Germany) Shinichi Horata (Hayama Center of Advanced Research, Japan) Giorgio Immirzi (Università di Perugia, Italy) Roman Jackiw (MIT, Cambridge, USA) Matyas Karadi (DAMTP, University of Cambridge, UK) Mikhail Katanaev (Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow, Russia) Claus Kiefer (Universität Koln, Germany) John Klauder (University of Florida, Gainesville, USA) Pavel Klepac (Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic) Jen-Chi Lee (National Chiao-Tung University, Taiwan) Carlos Leiva (Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile) Stefano Liberati (SISSA/ISAS, Trieste, Italy) Jorma Louko (University of Nottingham, UK) Luca Lusanna (INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Italy) Roy Maartens (University of Portsmouth, UK) Fotini Markopoulou (Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Canada) Annalisa Marzuoli (Università di Pavia, Italy) Evangelos Melas (QMW, University of London, UK) Maurizio Melis (Università di Cagliary, Italy) Vitaly Melnikov (VNIIMS, Moscow, Russia) Guillermo A. Mena Marugan (CSIC, Madrid, Spain) Pietro Menotti (Università di Pisa, Italy) Salvatore Mignemi (Università di Cagliari, Italy) Aleksandar Mikovic (Universidade Lusófona, Lisboa, Portugal) Leonardo Modesto (Université de la Mediterranée, Marseille
BOOK REVIEW Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr
, where he wrote his seminal paper. The second strength of this book is that it shows how Kerr's discovery related to other developments in the field. Progress in physics is rarely made in isolation and there is a strong supporting cast in this drama. The key to his breakthrough was the simplification of Einstein's equations entailed in studying what are termed `shear-free' solutions. The first clue came from Ray Sachs, whose studies of asymptotically shear-free bundles of light-rays reduced Einstein's equations to manageable form. Ivor Robinson and Andrzej Trautman then considered bundles which are shear-free everywhere but they were looking for solutions with gravity waves rather than time-independent ones and so missed the great discovery. Kerr learnt about these developments at a 1962 meeting on Gravitation and General Relativity in Warsaw, which clearly played a seminal role in the development of his ideas. But what most excited him was the enthusiastic summary of Vitaly Ginzburg, extolling the virtues of general relativity and emphasizing the need to understand strong gravity effects such as rotation. In any case, he returned to Austin convinced that he had the tools required to solve the problem. At first, he was discouraged when Newman claimed to prove that no shear-free space is possible but fortunately Kerr found a mistake in this work. By using coordinates which incorporated the rotational symmetry of the problem, he was able to find an exact solution in which the metric contains an event horizon and is asymptotically rotating. Since the Warsaw meeting played such a crucial role, it is interesting to recall that Richard Feynman also attended the meeting and described it in rather unflattering terms in a letter to his wife : `I am not getting anything out of the meeting. I am learning nothing. Because there are no experiments, this field is not an active one, so few of the best men are doing work in it. The result is that there are hosts of dopes here and it