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  1. Senegal.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Attention in this discussion of Senegal is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between Senegal and the US. Senegal, which lies on the bulge of western Africa, is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, Mauritania, Mali, Guinea, and Guinea-Bissau. About 70% of the population is rural. French, the official language, is used regularly only by the literate minority. Most Senegalese speak Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo, or other ethnic languages. Senegal was inhabited in prehistoric times. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the area came under the influence of the great Mandingo empires to the east. The Jolof Empire of Senegal was founded during this time. French commercial establishments date from the 17th century. During the 19th century, the French gradually established control over the interior regions and administered them as a protectorate until 1920 and as a colony thereafter. In January 1959, Senegal and the French Soudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent on June 20, 1960. After the breakup of the Mali Federation on August 20, 1960, President Senghor and Prime Minister Mamdou Dia governed together under a parliamentary system. A 1970 constitutional amendment recreated the post of prime minister, but this post was subsequently abolished in 1983. The 1963 constitution transformed Senegal's government into an executive-presidential system; the president is elected by universal adult suffrage to a 5-year term. Senegal's governing political party is the Socialist Party, and in 1981 the constitution was amended to legitimize previously unrecognized parties. President Diouf continues to pursue a longterm structural adjustment program designed to reverse more than a decade of economic decline. The economy now seems to have stabilized as a result of financial austerity measures and fiscal restraint. The country is overwhelmingly

  2. Senegal.

    PubMed

    1991-07-01

    Background notes and statistics on Senegal are provided in the document. 196,840 sq. km. of diversified terrain are encompassed by the country, with a 1990 population of 7 million growing at the annual rate of 3%. The work force totals 3 million. Senegal claims a population comprised of 5 ethnic groups and various others, 3 religious beliefs, and speaking 5 languages. No period of education is listed as compulsory, with the country overall experiencing 28% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 78/1,000, while life expectancy is 48 years. 1989 GDP was $5 billion, and was growing at the rate of 6%. 1988 per capita GDP was $630, with a 1989 inflation rate of 2%. Agriculture accounts for 22% of GDP, industry for 24%; 1990 international trade deficit totalled $209 million. Additional data are provided on Senegal's people, government, economy, international affiliations, defense, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. Senegal suffers from a resource-poor economy vulnerable to environmental and international commodity price fluctuations. The country depends heavily on international donor assistance. 70% of the labor force is engaged in farming, with peanuts accounting for 1/2 of agricultural output. Agroindustry investment is planned to bring Senegal further along toward food self-sufficiency. Fishing, phosphate production, and tourism are all areas for economic growth. Economic reforms along with favorable weather in recent years have resulted in real GDP growth. Foreign investment is welcomed in Senegal, as demonstrated by revised terms set forth in the investment code of 1987.

  3. Development of a Model for Estimation of Acacia Senegal Tree Biomass Using Allometry and Aster Satellite Imagery at Ennuhud, West Kordofan State, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamin, Hatim; Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    The current paper deals with the development of a biomass model for Acacia senegal trees by applying allometric equations for ground data combined with ASTER satellite data sets. The current study is conducted around Ennuhud area which is located in Ennuhud locality in West Kordofan State, Sudan. Primary data are obtained by application of random sampling around Ennuhud town where Acacia senegal tree species is abundant. Ten sample units are taken. Each unit contains five sample plots (15x15 m), one in the centre and the others in the four directions 100 m away from the centre forming a total of 50 sample plots. The tree coordinates, diameter/diameters (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm), height and crown diameters will be recorded. Sensor data were acquired from ASTER remote sensing satellite (29.03.2007 & 26.01.2011) and integrated with the in-situ data. The expected findings allow for the calculation of the mean diameter of trees. The tree above ground biomass (TAGB), tree below ground biomass (TBGB) and the tree total biomass (TTB) of Acacia senegal are computed consequently. Remotely sensed data are integrated with the ground data for creating the data base for calculating the correlation of the relationship between the two methods of data collection. The application of allometric equations is useful as a non-destructive method for biomass estimation by the application of remote sensing is recommended for biomass modelling over large areas. Keywords: Biomass model, Acacia senegal tree, remote sensing, Ennuhud, North Kordofan

  4. Sudan.

    PubMed

    1985-08-01

    The Sudan's population characteristics, geographical features, history, political conditions, and foreign relations are profiled. The 1984 population of Sudan has been estimated at 21.1 million, with an estimated annual growth rate of 3.0%. Approximately 25% of the Sudanese population resides in urban areas. Major religions are Islam, indigenous beliefs (in southern Sudan), and Christianity. The official language is Arabic, although English and tribal languages are also spoken. Education is compulsory for 9 years, but the attendance rate is only 48%. The infant mortality rate is 118.0/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 47 years. 78.4% of the work force is engaged in agriculture, 9.8% in industry and commerce, and 6% in government. The estimated gross national product for 1981-83 was $27.36 billion, with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.7% in 1982-83. Per capit income was approximately $361 in 1982, with an average annual inflation rate of 20-30%. Sudan's population is composed of 2 distinct cultures, Arab and black African, and effective collaboration between them poses one of the nation's principal internal problems. The 5 northern regions cover almost 2/3 of Sudan and include most urban centers. Most of the 13 million Sudanese who live in this area are Arabic-speaking Muslims of several distinct tribal groups. The southern region has a population of about 5.5 million and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. The south also contains many tribal groups and uses many more languages than the north. Sudan's primary resources are agricultural. Although the country is trying to diversify its cash crops, cotton and cottonseed account for more than 50% of export earnings. Another large export crop is gum arabic. Grain sorghum is the principal food crop, and wheat is grown for domestic consumption. Livestock production has vast potential and many animals, particularly camels and sheep, are exported to other Arab countries. The inadequate transportation

  5. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    This information sheet about Pakistan, by the U.S. State Dept., summarizes its geography, political history, government, economy and international relations. Pakistan, lying on the Arabian Sea between Iran and India, and neighboring Afghanistan and China, has been independent from British control since 1947. Her people, 98 million, come from several Indo-European ethnic groups, but are 97% Muslim. Most live in the fertile Indus river valley; 53% work in agriculture; 13% in industry; mean per capita income is $331. The infant mortality rate is about 119/1000; life expectancy around 51 years. The country is endowed with resources, besides farmland, of oil, gas, coal, iron and hydroelectric power. It produces cotton, rice, fruits and vegetables as well for export. Pakistan's history is filled with strife, armed or political, marked by the independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in 1970, and rivalry for power by military and democratic factions, ending with a real election of Benazir Bhutto in 1986. Despite basic resources and a net export of food and textiles, the country has a significant debt and runs a deficit, and supports a rapidly growing young population (3.1% growth rate). Pakistan partakes in a complicated net of international relations due to the alignment of countries on her borders. Religious and ethnic conflicts with India, ideological difficulties and millions of refugees flowing from Afghanistan, but good relations with Iran and China make up this pattern.

  6. Pakistan.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable

  7. Sudan and South Sudan Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in July 2011. Most of the oil production capacity is now in South Sudan, but the country is landlocked and remains dependent on Sudan because it must use Sudan's export pipelines and port. Disagreements over oil revenue sharing and armed conflict have curtailed oil production from both countries over the past few years.

  8. English Teaching Profile: Senegal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Senegal examines the role of English in society and in the educational system. It is noted that English is the principal foreign language studied, but that it is used very little as a means of communication. The English curriculum is described, especially the secondary school examinations,…

  9. [Ectopic pregnancy in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Cissé, Cheikh A Tidiane; Bernis, Luc De; Faye, El Hadj Ousseynou; Diadhiou, Fadel

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to analyse the epidemiology and prognosis of ectopic pregnancy in Senegal. From January 1 to December 31, 1996, 255 ectopic pregnancies were registered. The national rate of ectopic pregnancy was 0.6%. of expected pregnancies. However, rates differed greatly between areas in Senegal, with extremes ranging from 0.85%. in Dakar to 0.32%. in Thiès. The epidemiological profile was that of a young woman-mean age: 23 years old, mean parity=3, admitted with broken ectopic pregnancy (95%). A salpingectomy was performed in all cases. The maternal mortality rate was 1.20%, while morbidity, mainly due to post-operative infection, was found in 2.7% of the cases.

  10. Dialysis and transplantation in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Suliman, S M; Beliela, M H; Hamza, H

    1995-01-01

    In this report we present the current status of the renal replacement therapy in Sudan. Sudan is a large country with 30 million inhabitants. Peritoneal Dialysis was started in 1968, while hemodialysis was started in 1973. At present, there are only 16 hemodialysis machines serving 56 patients in two centers in Sudan. There are also 15 peritoneal dialysis beds for 70 intermittent peritoneal dialysis patients in three centers. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is not being practiced in Sudan. The first renal transplant was in 1974, and till now more than 30 transplants have been performed in two transplant centers. All the transplants have been from living donors. The scholars of Islam in Sudan oppose to donation from cadavers. There are 200 renal transplant patients being followed up in Sudan and the majority had their renal transplants abroad. We conclude that there is a tremendous shortage of renal services in Sudan. There are more efforts being made to improve these services.

  11. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard…

  12. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard…

  13. UNICEF and the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Nairobi (Kenya). Eastern Africa Regional Office.

    Coupled with poor infrastructure, vast distances, and harsh climatic conditions, the enormous physical obstacles in the Sudan (Africa's largest country) have combined to produce extremely serious problems for Sudanese children, who will soon constitute half of the 17 million people there. This booklet describes continuing projects implemented by…

  14. UNICEF and the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Nairobi (Kenya). Eastern Africa Regional Office.

    Coupled with poor infrastructure, vast distances, and harsh climatic conditions, the enormous physical obstacles in the Sudan (Africa's largest country) have combined to produce extremely serious problems for Sudanese children, who will soon constitute half of the 17 million people there. This booklet describes continuing projects implemented by…

  15. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  16. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  17. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  18. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  19. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  20. Women in Physics in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faye, Ndeye Arame Boye; Thiandoume, Coumba; Diagne, Marie Emilienne Faye; Ndiaye, Fatou Ka Gueye

    2009-04-01

    Senegal has a female adult literacy rate of 32% and societal conventions that hinder women. Less than 10% of Senalese girls finish high school. After the first IUPAP Conference on Women in Physics in 2002, problems and constraints faced by girls to study physics and women to make careers in physics in Senegal were identified and ways to overcome these problems were proposed. Progress on meeting these goals is presented.

  1. Survey report: Senegal.

    PubMed

    Kent, M M

    1988-02-01

    Senegal, situated on the west coast of Africa, has a history of high fertility and high infant mortality. Preliminary results of the 1986 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), administered by the Institute for Resource Development, Columbia, Md., indicate a slight decline in the birth rate and reveal a high prevalence of child health problems associated with poor sanitation and nutrition. Senegal's 7.1 million people (1987 estimate) are unevenly distributed throughout the country's dry, flat landscape. Some 40% of the population is urban, and about 1/2 of these urban residents live in the capital, Dakar. Heavy rural-to-urban migration has been encouraged by the high population growth rate--2.8% annually--and a poor standard of living in the countryside. With about 70% of the labor force dependent on agriculture, a drought-related drop in the yields of groundnuts and other cash crops contributed to the rural exodus and to growing unemployment in the capital. The 1986 survey of family planning and child health collected information from 4415 women 15-49 years of age, and measured the height and weight of their children between 6 and 36 months. The findings suggest that fertility may have fallen slightly since 1978. The Senegal DHS recorded a total fertility rate (TFR) of 6.5 average births/woman during the 1981 Senegal World Fertility Survey (WFS). The DHS also found that women at the end of their childbearing--age 45-49 in 1986--had borne 7.4 children on average, further evidence of a slight decline in births among the younger women. Senegalese women marry young. The average age at 1st marriage is only 16.1, according to the 1986 DHS, and family planning within marriage is not widely accepted. In 1986, 11.7% of the currently married women 15-49 used some form of birth control, but only 2.7% used a modern method. While this is a large increase over the 3.9% rate of contraceptive use recorded in the 1978 WFS, almost 3/4 of the gain was due to a higher reported use of

  2. Vegetation impoverishment despite greening: a case study from central Senegal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrmann, Stefanie M.; Tappan, G. Gray

    2013-01-01

    Recent remote sensing studies have documented a greening trend in the semi-arid Sahel and Sudan zones of West Africa since the early 1980s, which challenges the mainstream paradigm of irreversible land degradation in this region. What the greening trend means on the ground, however, has not yet been explored. This research focuses on a region in central Senegal to examine changes in woody vegetation abundance and composition in selected sites by means of a botanical inventory of woody vegetation species, repeat photography, and perceptions of local land users. Despite the greening, an impoverishment of the woody vegetation cover was observed in the studied sites, indicated by an overall reduction in woody species richness, a loss of large trees, an increasing dominance of shrubs, and a shift towards more arid-tolerant, Sahelian species since 1983. Thus, interpretation of the satellite-derived greening trend as an improvement or recovery is not always justified. The case of central Senegal represents only one of several possible pathways of greening throughout the region, all of which result in similar satellite-derived greening signals.

  3. Pakistan. Spotlight.

    PubMed

    Greene, M

    1985-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Pakistan is on demographic factors, the issue of ethnic versus national solidarity, and economic and social development. The population was estimated at 99.2 million in 1985. The birthrate was 43/1000 in 1984 and the deaths were 15/1000. The infant mortality rate is 105 infant deaths/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth is 51 years. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$390. The population of Pakistan is concentrated around Karachi on the Arabian Sea and in the crescent formed by Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Pakistan was a British colony, part of the Indian subcontinent until partition in 1947, when Britain gave Pakistan and India their freedom. Pakistan is not a theocracy, but the military government turns to traditional Islam for affirmation of its authority. Its martial law regime, established in 1977, is headed by President Ziaul Haq. The issue of ethnic versus national solidarity has been a problem since independence. Bengali-speaking East Pakistanis felt they did not have equal power in their country whose official language was Urdu and whose capital was in West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan ended up in armed conflict with the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 as the result. Regional and ethnic conflict is exacerbated by the low rate of literacy and the low status of certain ethnic groups in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan suffers problems typical of many developing nations: a low per capita income, a large and growing population, and a highly stratified traditional society. In 1981 doctors, engineers, and craftsmen were in short supply, but there was a surplus of 300,000 agricultural workers. Agriculture makes up 30% of the GNP and employs 55% of the work force. In Pakistan's 6th Five Year Plan, initiated in July 1983, the government acknowledged for the 1st time the extremely poor conditions for women as indicated by literacy, health, and fertility. The total fertility rate is 6.4 average births

  4. Operation Lifeline Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, S

    2002-01-01

    The provision of aid in war zones can be fraught with political difficulties and may itself foster inequalities, as it is rare to be allowed access to civilians on both sides of a conflict. Over the past decade, a United Nations (UN) brokered agreement has allowed Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), a UN "umbrella" organisation, to provide the diplomatic cover and operational support to allow long term humanitarian and emergency food aid to both the government and the rebel sides in the long-running south Sudanese civil war. Over the years, the destruction of infrastructure in the country has meant that the provision of basic health care has been seriously hampered. Operation Lifeline Sudan has coordinated the work of most of the non-governmental organisations (NGOs), working in this part of Africa. Each NGO has had responsibility for a particular area of the country and has worked closely with the local Sudanese authorities on either side of the conflict, conforming to strict codes of conduct or "ground rules", based on neutrality. Operation Lifeline Sudan has provided an air-bridge for emergency relief supplies in regions where road access is impossible, either because of landmines, or simply because the roads do not exist. The war continues, however, and the underlying causes of war—economic exploitation, marginalisation of communities, lack of political representation, and systematic violence and abuse remain unsolved. The warring factions have brought some OLS operations in south Sudan to a standstill recently, for certain political reasons that could have compromised the neutrality of the OLS-coordinated humanitarian aid schemes. It would appear that the only resolution to the country's problems are external political pressure to get the respective combatants to negotiate and, less probably, an undertaking by countries of the developed world not to continue to supply arms. Nevertheless, OLS may serve as a model for how medical aid can be delivered in an even

  5. Operation Lifeline Sudan.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, S D

    2002-02-01

    The provision of aid in war zones can be fraught with political difficulties and may itself foster inequalities, as it is rare to be allowed access to civilians on both sides of a conflict. Over the past decade, a United Nations (UN) brokered agreement has allowed Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), a UN "umbrella" organisation, to provide the diplomatic cover and operational support to allow long term humanitarian and emergency food aid to both the government and the rebel sides in the long-running south Sudanese civil war. Over the years, the destruction of infrastructure in the country has meant that the provision of basic health care has been seriously hampered. Operation Lifeline Sudan has coordinated the work of most of the non-governmental organisations (NGOs), working in this part of Africa. Each NGO has had responsibility for a particular area of the country and has worked closely with the local Sudanese authorities on either side of the conflict, conforming to strict codes of conduct or "ground rules", based on neutrality. Operation Lifeline Sudan has provided an air-bridge for emergency relief supplies in regions where road access is impossible, either because of landmines, or simply because the roads do not exist. The war continues, however, and the underlying causes of war-economic exploitation, marginalisation of communities, lack of political representation, and systematic violence and abuse remain unsolved. The warring factions have brought some OLS operations in south Sudan to a standstill recently, for certain political reasons that could have compromised the neutrality of the OLS-coordinated humanitarian aid schemes. It would appear that the only resolution to the country's problems are external political pressure to get the respective combatants to negotiate and, less probably, an undertaking by countries of the developed world not to continue to supply arms. Nevertheless, OLS may serve as a model for how medical aid can be delivered in an even

  6. Changing School Science in Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of Senegal, formerly a French colony, is the westernmost country in Africa. It is a three-party democracy, with 92% of the population being Muslim. The structure of education is still closely modelled on the French system of "Elementaire" (Basic) from 7 to 13, "Moyen" (Middle) from 13 to 16 and…

  7. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Land use and land cover classification, changes and analysis in gum Arabic belt in North Kordofan, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Hassan E.; Csaplovics, Elmar; Elhaja, Mohamed E.; El Abbas, Mustafa M.

    2013-10-01

    The gum arabic belt in Sudan plays a significant role in environmental, social and economical aspects. This research was conducted in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends in the gum arabic belt as in the rest of the Sahelian Sudan zone. The objective of the paper is to study the classification, changes and analysis of the land use and land cover in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan State in Sudan. The study used imageries from different satellites (Landsat and ASTER) and multi-temporal dates (MSS 1972, TM 1985, ETM+ 1999 and ASTER 2007) acquired in dry season. The imageries were geo-referenced and radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Image classification (pixel-based) and accuracy assessment were applied. Application of multi-temporal remote sensing data demonstrated successfully the identification and mapping of land use and land cover into five main classes. Forest dominated by Acacia senegal class was separated covering an area of 21% in the year 2007. The obvious changes and reciprocal conversions in the land use and land cover structure indicate the trends and conditions caused by the human interventions as well as ecological impacts on Acacia senegal trees. Also the study revealed that a drastic loss of forest resources occurred in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan during 1972 to 2007 (25% for Acacia senegal trees). The study concluded that, using of traditional Acacia senegal-based agro-forestry as one of the most successful form in the gum belt.

  10. Distance Teaching in the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badri, Hagga Kashif

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the history, social climate, and country of Sudan as they relate to several educational projects. It is suggested that a satisfactory rate of development cannot be achieved while illiteracy remains at its present high level. (Author/JEG)

  11. [Geriatrics and gerontology in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Coumé, Mamadou; Touré, Kamadore; Faye, Atoumane; Moreira, Therese Diop

    2013-01-01

    Senegal is dealing positively with its demographic transition. On September 1st 2006, the Senegalese government introduced the "Plan Sesame", a national free health care program for elderly people aged 60 years and over. The University of Dakar academic authorities support the Sesame plan through an innovative training program in geriatrics and gerontology. Such programs aim to address the challenge of ageing in a developing country.

  12. [Televised education: experience in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Toure, C T

    2002-01-01

    As a possible response to the shortage of qualified teachers in Africa, a promising pilot study using television is being carried out at the A. Le Dantec University Hospital in Dakar, Senegal. Trainees at the Dakar Medical School receive long-distance coaching mainly in video-assisted surgery from experts at several partner centers in Europe, namely: Rangueil Hospital in Toulouse, France, IRCAD in Strasbourg, France and Saint Peter's Hospital in Brussels, Belgium. Results support more widespread use of televised courses.

  13. Fires in Mali and Senegal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from October 19, 2001, shows dozens of fires burning in the African countrie of Senegal (left) and Mali (right). North is Mauritania. In roughly the center of Mauritania, the dark brown area indicates the location of seasonal lakes and rivers--apparently dry at this time. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Rights of the Child in Senegal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, Anne-Laurence; Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Senegal. Part 1 of the report, "Preliminary Observations," discusses Senegal's ratification of the…

  15. Ecoregions and land cover trends in Senegal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Sall, M.; Wood, E.C.; Cushing, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines long-term changes in Senegal's natural resources. We monitor and quantify land use and land cover changes occurring across Senegal using nearly 40 years of satellite imagery, aerial surveys, and fieldwork. We stratify Senegal into ecological regions and present land use and land cover trends for each region, followed by a national summary. Results aggregated to the national level show moderate change, with a modest decrease in savannas from 74 to 70 percent from 1965 to 2000, and an expansion of cropland from 17 to 21 percent. However, at the ecoregion scale, we observed rapid change in some and relative stability in others. One particular concern is the decline in Senegal's biodiverse forests. However, in the year 2000, Senegal's savannas, woodlands, and forests still cover more than two-thirds of the country, and the rate of agricultural expansion has slowed.

  16. Ticks infesting animals in the Sudan and Southern Sudan: past and current status.

    PubMed

    Elghali, Ahmed A; Hassan, Shawgi M

    2012-12-06

    In this review, we collate information about ticks identified in different parts of the Sudan and South Sudan since 1956 in order to identify gaps in tick prevalence and create a map of tick distribution. This will avail basic data for further research on ticks and policies for the control of tick-borne diseases. In this review, we discuss the situation in the Republic of South Sudan as well as Sudan. For this purpose we have divided Sudan into four regions, namely northern Sudan (Northern and River Nile states), central Sudan (Khartoum, Gazera, White Nile, Blue Nile and Sennar states), western Sudan (North and South Kordofan and North, South and West Darfour states) and eastern Sudan (Red Sea, Kassala and Gadarif states).

  17. Senegal outlaws female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ciment, J

    1999-02-06

    Senegal has joined Burkina Faso, the Central African Republic, Djibouti, Ghana, and Togo in outlawing female genital mutilation and assigning penalties of up to five years imprisonment to those who order or perform the procedure. Currently, 20% of Senegalese women have undergone female genital mutilation, and many girls are thought to have died as a result. UN agencies have made their opposition to female genital mutilation clear and have argued that women attempting to avoid the procedure should be granted asylum in other countries.

  18. Multi-temporal and Change Analysis of Land Use Land Cover in the Gum Arabic Belt in Kordofan, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Hassan Elnour; Csaplovics, Elmar

    2012-07-01

    The gum arabic belt in Sudan plays a significant role in environmental, social and economical aspects. The belt has suffered from deforestation and degradation due to natural hazards and human activities. The research was conducted in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends in the gum arabic belt as in the rest of the Sahelian Sudan zone. The research investigated the possibility of identification, monitoring and mapping of the land use land cover changes and dynamics in the gum arabic belt during the last 35 years. Also a newly approach of object-based classification was applied for image classification. The study used imageries from different satellites (Landsat and ASTER) and multi-temporal dates (MSS 1972, TM 1985, ETM+ 1999 and ASTER 2007) acquired in dry season (November). The imageries were geo-referenced and radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Application of multi-temporal remote sensing data in gum arabic belt demonstrated successfully the identification and mapping of land use land cover into five main classes. Forest dominated by Acacia senegal class was separated covering an area of 21% and 24% in the year 2007 for areas A and B, respectively. The land use land cover structure in the gum arabic belt has obvious changes and reciprocal conversions between the classes indicating the trends and conditions caused by the human interventions as well as ecological impacts on Acacia senegal trees. The study revealed a drastic loss of Acacia senegal cover by 25% during the period of 1972 to 2007. The study come out with some valuable recommendations and comments which could contribute positively in using remotely sensed imagery and GIS techniques to explore management tools of Acacia senegal stands in gum Arabic belt.

  19. Senegal: The Battle to Create Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diop, Papa Amet

    1970-01-01

    Senegal suffers from an exodus from rural to urban areas and severe unemployment and underemployment. Efforts are made to adapt manpower training programs to economic reality. Programs include electrical engineering, rural nursing, handicrafts, and midwifery. (NL)

  20. Senegal: The Battle to Create Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diop, Papa Amet

    1970-01-01

    Senegal suffers from an exodus from rural to urban areas and severe unemployment and underemployment. Efforts are made to adapt manpower training programs to economic reality. Programs include electrical engineering, rural nursing, handicrafts, and midwifery. (NL)

  1. Return of the Lost Boys to South Sudan: A Strategy to Building a Stronger South Sudan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    conflict South Sudan. Thus, it is stated in the South Sudan Development Plan (SSDP), 2011–2013 that “educated and skilled South Sudanese from the...during the conference with the USAID, Juba, South Sudan, June 15, 2009), www.gurtong.net (Accessed December 14, 2010). 11 South Sudan Development Plan ...you are married and have children, you have to consider them when making plans ,” he explained.44 Concerns about the welfare of nuclear family seem

  2. Battle against poliovirus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Kaneez; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2013-11-15

    On 22 Feb 2013, the Polio Monitoring Cell of Pakistan announced that the 2012-2013 polio campaign ended, and that 1.6 million children could not be vaccinated due to security concerns in several regions where polio workers had been killed. Those who could not be vaccinated included 50,000 children from the Federally Administrated Tribal Area (FATA), 150,000 form Khyber Pakhtoon Khao, 400,000 from a Quetta, 400,000 from Karachi, and a small number from the Rawalpindi District. These statistics are worrying, as several districts in the large metropolitan cities of Karachi and Quetta were also excluded. The fear of advanced medicine, ideas, or complex devices is a new phenomenon in many conservative and poor countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sudan, and Somalia. To safeguard the safety of the rest of the world, the failure in the implementation of WHO guidelines for vaccination must be regulated by the UN. There are a number of reasons for the phobias surrounding vaccination, but as technology continues to evolve at such a rapid rate, those with self-determined ideologies cannot cope with such advances. They become vocal to gain popularity and prevent the use of these technologies and medicine by creating and spreading rumors and propaganda of expediency. The struggle to vaccinate children is not easily understood by anyone living in the developed world. The irrational fear of vaccines and the lack of vaccination pose a serious global health risk and must be curbed through a wide variety of pro-vaccination media and religious campaigns.

  3. Epidemiology of seasonal falciparum malaria in an urban area of Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Vercruysse, J.; Jancloes, M.; Van de Velden, L.

    1983-01-01

    A 15-month longitudinal survey was carried out to examine entomological and parasitological aspects of human malaria transmission in Pikine, a city located in the Sudan savanna zone on the Cap Vert peninsula in the west of Senegal. The anopheline population was sampled twice weekly indoors by night human bait capture. During the same period, thick and thin blood films were collected from 296 children at 2-month intervals. Anopheles arabiensis was the only species responsible for transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. The parasite rate showed a positive correlation with both the entomological inoculation rate and the vectorial capacity. In Pikine, malaria is epidemic and probably unstable, and the population enjoys a variable degree of immunity. PMID:6360402

  4. Republic of Senegal. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Gold, D

    1985-04-01

    The demographic and economic characteristics and some of the cultural traditions of the Republic of Senegal are described. Senegal obtained its independence from France in 1960. Despite the fact that the majority of the population derives its living from agriculture, the country must import additional food staples to feed its population. Conditions contributing to poor crop yields in recent years include 1) the frequent occurrence of droughts, 2) soil depletion caused by overintensive cultivation practices, and 3) land dessication caused by poor forestry management. In 1984 crop yields were only 10% of the normal crop yields. The government under the leadership of the president, Adbou Diouf, is currently developing plans to improve agricultural conditions and to encourage the industrial development of the country. The tourist industry is also growing. In 1976 Senegal conducted it 1st national census. According to the census the total population was 5,068,741 and the population growth rate was 2.6%. The US Census Bureau estimates that the population growth rate is now 3.2% and that 654,000 people were added to the population between 1976 and 1985. 27% of the population is urban, and the majority of the urban population resides in Dakar. In recent years, the rate of rural to urban migration increased rapidly as a result of the deteriorating agricultural conditions. The population is unevenly distributed throughout the country; 82% of the population lives in 39% of the country's territory. In 1977, 18% of the population lived in housing with electricity, and in 1983, 37% of the population lived in housing with running water. Most rural residents live in villages consisting of clusters of clay structures with thatched roofs and dirt floors. Most of the urban poor live in crowded shantytowns, which lack urban services. More than 1/2 of the population is under the age of 18. According to the 1978 World Fertility Survey, 83% of all women of reproductive age are married

  5. Agricultural fields, Khartoum, Sudan, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This herringbone pattern of irrigated agricultural fields near Khartoum, Sudan (14.5N, 33.5E) is very distinctive in both size and shape. The region contains thousands of these rectangular fields bounded by canals which carry water from both the White and Blue Nile Rivers. A crop rotation system is used so that some fields are in cotton, millit, sorghum or fallow to conserve moisture and control weeds and insects. See also STS049-96-003.

  6. Agricultural fields, Khartoum, Sudan, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This herringbone pattern of irrigated agricultural fields near Khartoum, Sudan (14.5N, 33.5E) is very distinctive in both size and shape. The region contains thousands of these rectangular fields bounded by canals which carry water from both the White and Blue Nile Rivers. A crop rotation system is used so that some fields are in cotton, millit, sorghum or fallow to conserve moisture and control weeds and insects. See also STS049-96-003.

  7. Human Resources for Information Development in Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Cecile

    1992-01-01

    Describes the state of human resources development in Sudan's information industry. Training problems and the emigration of high level personnel are discussed, guidelines for human resource development are suggested, and national strategies to develop and retain Sudan's human resources are suggested. (EA)

  8. Language Situation in Post-War Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2010-01-01

    The theme behind this paper is to review the language policy and language planning in the Sudan, after the institutionalization of peace; by exploring the recent policy of political factions in the North and the South towards languages in post-war Sudan. This effort aims at encouraging non-Arabic speaking-ethnic-groups to accept the Arabic…

  9. 75 FR 75865 - Presidential Determination on Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... enables the United Nations to facilitate the referendum in Southern Sudan pursuant to the Comprehensive... Sudan Memorandum for the Secretary of State President of the Export-Import Bank of the United States By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States...

  10. Demanding strategic leadership. Sudan. The Hague Forum.

    PubMed

    Garang, G D

    1999-01-01

    The establishment of the Sudan National Population Council in the wake of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) showed strong political commitment to implementing the ICPD's program of action at the national level. Sudan has also participated in a number of regional and international meetings which recommended various ways of accelerating the implementation of the program of action. The successful implementation of Sudan's national population policy demands strategic leadership at various levels to ensure that the government, with the active participation of the civil society, work together to design, implement, coordinate, monitor, and evaluate population and development programs. However, the country's longstanding civil war and other manmade and natural disasters have caused ongoing population displacement and resettlement processes, impeding development efforts. Sudan's government is concentrating mainly upon ending the war and addressing its negative consequences upon population development before addressing any development plans and programs. The ICPD quantitative targets will be hard to reach in Sudan given current conditions.

  11. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. (a) The term Government of Sudan includes: (1) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  12. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  13. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. (a) The term Government of Sudan includes: (1) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  14. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  15. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  16. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. The term Government of Sudan includes: (a) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  17. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  18. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  19. Religious Extremism in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    and Palestine to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Indonesia , radical Islamist groups have enjoyed broad support—especially among the poorer segments of...R. Iannaccone and Eli Berman observe that: From Egypt and Palestine to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Indonesia , radical Islamist groups have enjoyed...radicalize their supporters, who thus develop an affinity for terrorism as means to achieve their objectives. We see this happening in Pakistan where

  20. Senegal: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-16

    Radio France Internationale (RFI), “Abdoulaye Wade Déclare Sa Candidature Pour 2012,” September 17, 2009. 7 See Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU...Sénégalais,” April 14, 2010. 16 Wal Fadjri, “Face à la Crise Sociale, Politique, Economique - La Société Civile Vers la Création d’un Système d’Alerte et...2010. 42 IHS Global Insight, “Senegal (Country Intelligence ),” updated April 20, 2010. Senegal: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional

  1. Population policy in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Rushwan, H

    1990-07-01

    Preliminary results from Sudan's 1983 census point to an annual national population growth rate of 2.8%. Population size was expected to increase from 20.6 million in 1983, to 25 million by 1987. Such ongoing, rapid increase stymies national socioeconomic development, and is accordingly not in the best interest of developing countries. Only recently, however, has the government seriously worked to adopt a policy to control national population growth. Inadequate demographic data, lack of awareness of the problem, poor understanding of development goals, and the influence of pronatalist political leaders formerly combined to delay policy development. The 3rd National Population Conference in Khartoum, October, 1988, however, marked the occasion of the Prime Minister to announce steps for a 4-year government plan integrating policy for the control of rapid population growth. Sudan's population policy will aim to redistribute population through the settling of nomads, and retaining or attracting population to rural areas. The National Population Committee has been coordinating key issues with public and private sectors since the 1988 Conference. Demographic factors, population problems, evolution of population policy, goals, strategy, policy content, policy implementation, and overall conclusions are presented and discussed in detail in the text.

  2. Mycetoma in children in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Fahal, A H; Sabaa, A H Abu

    2010-02-01

    We report on 722 children with confirmed mycetoma seen at the Mycetoma Research Centre, Khartoum, Sudan during May 1991 to March 2009. There were 531 males (73.5%) and 191 females (26.5%) with an age range of 4-17 years (mean 13.7+/-2.9 years); most were students. The majority of patients were from Central and Western Sudan. The disease duration ranged between 6 months and 14 years (mean 2.27+/-2.12 years). Most of the patients had eumycetoma (79.1%). The clinical course was typical in the majority of the patients. Family history of mycetoma was reported in 15% of patients. The foot was affected most, followed by knee, hand, head and neck, chest wall and buttocks. In the foot, the metatarsal bones and calcaneum were affected most. Cytological and ultrasonic examinations of the lesions and histological examination of the surgical biopsies were the cornerstone in the diagnosis of mycetoma. Combined medical treatment and surgical excision was the standard treatment. Disease recurrence after surgical excision was reported in 17.9% of patients. The morbidity rate in this study was high, and it had led to high school dropout and many socioeconomic impacts on patients, families and community. Children with mycetoma need psychological support to identify and to treat their psychosocial problems. Copyright 2009 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sudan challenges the sand dragon.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J

    1978-01-01

    Formerly productive areas have become wasteland as the desert advances in the Sudan. To understand how desertification is undermining the very survival of the Sahel, one ecosystem is reviewed in detail here: the gum arabic zone of Kordofan. After cotton, gum arabic is Sudan's largest export, worth from $14-26 million in recent years. In this zone the ecologically balanced cycle of gum gardens, fire, grain crops, and fallow is now breaking down; the 1968-1973 drought having in many areas delivered the final blow. Because of a growing population, the cultivation period is extended, and the soil becomes impoverished. Overgrazing in the fallow period, and the lopping of gum trees for firewood is producing a low return on the gum trees. Without this gum to harvest for cash, farmers must repeatedly replant their subsistence crops until the land becomes useless sand. The Sudanese have recognized the problem earlier than most, and a number of imaginative and practicable pilot projects are already in use: 1) waterpoint management; 2) construction of firebreaks; 3) land threatened by shifting dunes has been enclosed by stockproof fence and afforested with local trees; and 4) shelter belts have been planted around town perimeters where old gum tree stumps have started to sprout and the grass is reseeding itself. Out of these pilot projects, and with the advice of the U.N. Environment Program, the U.N. Development Program, and FAO, the Sudanese have developed a modest $26 million desert encroachment control and rehabilitation program (DECARP).

  4. Socio-economic aspects of Gum Arabic production in Dalanj area, South Korodofan, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Koli, A O; Eltayeb, A M; Sanjak, E M; Mohammed, M H

    2013-11-01

    Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season) the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers' associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production.

  5. Greenhouse gas emission inventory for Senegal, 1991.

    PubMed

    Sokona, Y

    1995-01-01

    The first greenhouse gas (GHG) emission estimates for Senegal, for the year 1991, were produced according to the draft IPCC/OECD guidelines for national inventories of GHGs. Despite certain discrepancies, nonavailability of data, the quality of some of the data collected, and the methodology, the estimates provide a provisional basis for Senegal to fulfill its obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. This inventory reveals that GHG emissions in Senegal, like those in many developing countries, can mainly be attributed to the use of biomass for energy, land-use change and forestry, and savanna burning. Taking into account the direct global warming potential of the main GHGs (CO2, CH4, and N2O), Senegal's emissions are estimated at 17.6 Tg ECO2. The major gases emitted are CO2 (61% of GHG emissions), followed by CH4 (35%) and N2O (4%). Energy accounts for 45% of total emissions (12% from fossil energy and 33% from traditional biomass energy); land-use change and forests, 18%; agriculture, 24%; waste, 12%; and industry, 1%.

  6. Partnerships in the Education System of Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndiaye, Malick

    2006-01-01

    After gaining independence, at the Addis Ababa meeting (1961) most African countries, including Senegal, decided to develop their education systems. In 1980, a number of objectives were set out, including the democratization of primary education and universal sustainable schooling. According to its economic possibilities, its human resources and…

  7. Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

  8. Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

  9. Pakistan and Afghanistan Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    In March and April 1968, the author was a guest of the U.S. Information Service on a two week trip to Pakistan and Afghanistan. During this stay, 30 libraries in five cities were visited. This paper describes this trip and relates the library happenings in these countries. It was obvious that Pakistan librarianship had advanced beyond the…

  10. Bibliographical Control in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadally, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the main aspects of national bibliographical control in Pakistan--legal deposit, national bibliographical agency, and retrospective and current national bibliographies. Highlights include registration of publications, copyright, the National Bibliographic Unit, National Book Council of Pakistan, and Library of Congress Office. Works…

  11. Training traditional birth attendants in southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Haarsager, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Traditional birth attendants are currently the principal service providers to pregnant women in southern Sudan. A training program provides education to promote maternal and newborn health as well as birth preparedness and establishes mechanisms for supportive supervision.

  12. Rift Valley fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Aradaib, Imadeldin E; Erickson, Bobbie R; Elageb, Rehab M; Khristova, Marina L; Carroll, Serena A; Elkhidir, Isam M; Karsany, Mubarak E; Karrar, Abdelrahim E; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Nichol, Stuart T

    2013-02-01

    To elucidate whether Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) diversity in Sudan resulted from multiple introductions or from acquired changes over time from 1 introduction event, we generated complete genome sequences from RVFV strains detected during the 2007 and 2010 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of small, medium, and large RNA segment sequences indicated several genetic RVFV variants were circulating in Sudan, which all grouped into Kenya-1 or Kenya-2 sublineages from the 2006-2008 eastern Africa epizootic. Bayesian analysis of sequence differences estimated that diversity among the 2007 and 2010 Sudan RVFV variants shared a most recent common ancestor circa 1996. The data suggest multiple introductions of RVFV into Sudan as part of sweeping epizootics from eastern Africa. The sequences indicate recent movement of RVFV and support the need for surveillance to recognize when and where RVFV circulates between epidemics, which can make data from prediction tools easier to interpret and preventive measures easier to direct toward high-risk areas.

  13. Senegal: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-25

    searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments...violence against gay men (and men perceived as gay ), including by police, is common.37 Human rights organizations have criticized the government for...Development (OECD), Social Institutions and Gender Index, at http://genderindex.org/country/senegal. 37 HRW, Fear for Life: Violence Against Gay

  14. The United States and Sudan: Recommendations for Re-Engagement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-13

    htm, Feb. 3, 2006. 5 Save the Children , et al. “Comprehensive Peace? Causes and consequences of underdevelopment and instability in eastern Sudan...Westview Press, 2003. Save the Children , et al. “Comprehensive Peace? Causes and consequences of underdevelopment and instability in eastern Sudan...from southern Sudan, the repatriation of refugees and national elections. In addition, after a period of six years, the people of southern Sudan

  15. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies.

  16. International Interdisciplinary Research Institute Project in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueye, Paul

    2010-02-01

    The project of an interdisciplinary research institute in Senegal was initiated in 1993 in Senegal (West Africa) and became a template for a similar project in the US in 1999. Since then, numerous meetings and presentations have been held at various national and international institutions, workshops and conferences. The current development of this partnership includes drafts for a full design of all systems at each facility, as well as the physics, applied health and educational programs to be implemented. The Senegal facility was conceived for scientific capacity building and equally to act as a focal point aimed at using the local scientific expertise. An anticipated outcome would be a contribution to the reduction of an ever-growing brain drain process suffered by the country, and the African continent in general. The development of the project led also to a strong African orientation of the facility: built for international collaboration, it is to be a pan-African endeavor and to serve primarily African countries. The facility received a presidential approval in a 2003 meeting and will develop an interdisciplinary program centered on a strong materials science research which will also allow for the establishment of an advanced analytical (physical chemistry) laboratory. A central part of the facility will be linked to state-of-the art accelerator mass spectrometry, cyclotron and low energy electromagnetic accelerator systems. )

  17. Pakistan, Madrassas, and Militancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    the Sindh, and ‘TAN’ for Baluchistan. Bengal, latter to be called East Pakistan and then Bangladesh after securing its independence in 1971, was... Bangladesh . The loss of East Pakistan demonstrated the pitfall of using religion as a common unifying factor for a national identity. This is...creation of Bangladesh , Bhutto nationalized education but left the madrassas free of government control in order to consolidate support from the various

  18. 75 FR 62069 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General..., Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan, to add specific... on awarding a contract to a contractor that conducts business in Sudan should be waived....

  19. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  20. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  1. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  2. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  3. 76 FR 68037 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. This rule adds... that conducts restricted business operations in Sudan. The rule also describes the consultation...

  4. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  5. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  6. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  7. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  8. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  9. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  10. Job Satisfaction in the Coastal Pelagic Fisheries of Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sall, Aliou

    2012-01-01

    The marine fishery in Senegal, West Africa, is a major source of employment and food security. It currently faces the consequences of ecological degradation. This paper examines job satisfaction among small-scale purse seine fishers, who constitute one of the dominant fishing metiers in Senegal. The research sample consists of 80 purse seine…

  11. Job Satisfaction in the Coastal Pelagic Fisheries of Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sall, Aliou

    2012-01-01

    The marine fishery in Senegal, West Africa, is a major source of employment and food security. It currently faces the consequences of ecological degradation. This paper examines job satisfaction among small-scale purse seine fishers, who constitute one of the dominant fishing metiers in Senegal. The research sample consists of 80 purse seine…

  12. ASTER Maps Continued Pakistan Flooding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-07

    On Sept. 3, 2010, when NASA Terra spacecraft captured this image strip over the Indus River in Pakistan, severe flooding was still causing a major humanitarian crisis in Pakistan. The city of Hyderabad is near the middle of the image.

  13. A climate trend analysis of Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Eilerts, Gary; Verdin, Jim; Rowland, Jim; Marshall, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Summer rains in western and southern Sudan have declined by 10-20 percent since the mid-1970s. Observed warming of more than 1 degree Celsius is equivalent to another 10-20 percent reduction in rainfall for crops. The warming and drying have impacted southern Darfur and areas around Juba. Rainfall declines west of Juba threaten southern Sudan's future food production prospects. In many cases, areas with changing climate are coincident with zones of substantial conflict, suggesting some degree of association; however, the contribution of climate change to these conflicts is not currently understood. Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a more variable climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Sudan over the next 20 years.

  14. Red Sea and Dust Pall, Sudan, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This relatively small - 40 x 70 miles - dust storm, that reportedly lasted for at least three days, was photographed as it spread over the Red Sea from the Sudan coast near Port Sudan (21.0N, 38.0E). Several more diffuse dust palls may be seen in the distance farther north over both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The general haziness of the overall scene is because of atmospheric dust throughout the local atmosphere. See STS043-75-054 for overhead view.

  15. The ethnic distribution of sickle cell disease in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Sabahelzain, Majdi Mohammed; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common inherited disorders of haemoglobin in Africa and it is expected that sickle cell trait varies in frequency in different areas in Sudan. An extensive literature search was carried out accessing the US National Library of Medicine, the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region resources, the Catalogue for Transmission Genetics in Arabs and papers and documents published in Sudan that included data on the prevalence of sickle cell anaemia and trait. Rates of SCA and trait varied in different areas in Sudan with the highest rates reported from Western and Eastern Sudan where one in every 123 children born in Messeryia tribe in Western Sudan is at risk of having SCD. High consanguinity rates and malaria endemicity are strong related factors with sickle cell gene in Sudan. This review will present what is known about the rates of sickle cell gene in different ethnic groups in Sudan.

  16. Barite in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klinger, F.L.; Richards, R.L.

    1973-01-01

    Before 1953 almost no barite deposits were known in Pakistan. Discovery of such deposits relatively close to oil fields in northern Pakistan in 1953 led to increased barite production from 1957 to 1961 and to doubling of production in 1962, firmly establishing new industry for the country. During 1962 and 1963, most of the known barite deposits in Pakistan were geologically mapped, and minimum reserves were estimated to be 1,423,000 short tons. The largest single deposit, Ehuzdar, is estimated to contain more than 1,100,000 short tons of barite. Barite has been found in Pakistan principally in the Hazara, Khuzdar, and Las Bela districts. Although several vein deposits contain good quality barite, 90 percent of estimated reserves are in replacement deposits concordant to bedding in sedimentary rocks. Host rocks range in age from Precambrian to Pleistocene, but the periods of barite deposition are probably Jurassic or younger. Some barite concentrated in sandstone may be of detrital origin. In late 1962, demand for barite in Pakistan was estimated at about 8,000 tons annually. Although domestic barite resources exceed this figure, less than 40 percent of demand was being supplied by domestic nines in 1963. Transportation costs and limited production facilities are partly responsible for output, but the lack of quality control is a major obstacle. Producers are not generally familiar with commercial specifications for barite and have net recognized that their products are too impure to be successfully marketed without installing the necessarycontrol procedures of sampling and beneficiation.

  17. Production of the polyclonal antibody against Sudan 3 and Immunoassay of Sudan dyes in food samples.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yong Hua; Shan, Wen Chong; Liu, Yan Zheng; Zhang, Yu Jie; Wang, Jian Ping

    2012-03-07

    In this study, 4-aminophenylacetic acid was covalently coupled to aniline to synthesize an intermediate hapten and the intermediate hapten was coupled to β-naphthol to synthesize a tentative hapten of Sudan 3. The hapten was coupled to bovine serum albumin as the immunogen to produce the polyclonal antibody. The obtained antibody was highly specific to Sudan 3, Sudan 1, and Para red, but showed relative low binding ability to Sudan 2, Sudan 4, and Sudan red G. After evaluation of different coating antigens, a heterologous indirect competitive immunoassay was developed to multidetermine the six red dyes in food samples. The cross reactivities to the six analytes were in a range of 21-105%, and the limits of detection were in a range of 0.1-0.8 ng/mL depending on the compound. Intra- and interassay recoveries from the standard fortified blank samples were in a range of 74.5-96.3% with coefficients of variation lower than 15.1%.

  18. [Poisoning by ingestion of ditakh (Senegal)].

    PubMed

    Adam, F; Adam, J C; Hasselot, N

    1991-01-01

    In regard to food poisoning as a result of the eating of non edible fruit, we have noticed the particular case of a well-known fruit in Senegal: the DITAKH (woloff local name). It would appear that some trees produce poisonous fruit and others perfectly safe edible fruit. Following a description of the habitat and morphological and physical characteristics, the authors wonder whether or not they should consider, because of the edible/non edible characteristics of Detarium, the existence of two different species or two different varieties.

  19. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan.

  20. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Onyango, Clayton O.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Sow, Abdourahmane; Swanepoel, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, an outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic fever, caused by yellow fever virus, occurred in southern Sudan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the East African genotype, which supports the contention that yellow fever is endemic in East Africa with the potential to cause large outbreaks in humans. PMID:15498174

  1. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031

  2. Cholera outbreak--southern Sudan, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-10

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its 22-year civil war with North Sudan; as a result, IDPs and refugees are returning to the south. During April--June 2007, investigators from the Southern Sudan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (SS-FELTP) and CDC investigated a cholera outbreak in the town of Juba, Southern Sudan. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 3,157 persons were diagnosed with suspected cholera during January--June 2007, with 74 deaths resulting from the disease. An environmental investigation revealed suboptimal hygiene practices and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure in Juba. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Contaminated food or water were not identified as possible sources of the cholera outbreak in Juba. However, this might be attributed to limitations of the study, including small sample size. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for current and new residents in Juba to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and optimal hygiene practices to prevent the spread of cholera.

  3. Sudan dyes: are they dangerous for human health?

    PubMed

    Fonovich, Teresa M

    2013-07-01

    Azo and diazo compounds include Sudan dyes, which were widely used in industry. Although they are not permitted in food, they had been found contaminating different food products and their presence is investigated regularly (since 2003) in these products. Sudan III, as well as Sudan Black B, was included in different laboratory techniques for tissue ceroid and lipofucsin analysis and blood-cell staining. Also, Sudan Black B has been recently included in in vivo evaluations in human beings (through oral intake), and Sudan III is still allowed in cosmetics. These azo dyes were metabolized to possible carcinogenic colorless amines, both in the liver of mammalians and by the micro flora present in human skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Both human and laboratory animal cytochrome P450s (CYPs) were able to oxidize Sudan I, whereas Sudan III modified CYP activities. In vitro genotoxic effects were reported for Sudan I, and some DNA adducts formed through exposure to its metabolites were identified. Sudan I was also found to be carcinogenic in the rat, but not in the mouse. The aim of the present review is to put together the most relevant information concerning Sudan dye uses and toxicity to provide some tools for the identification of the risk they represent for human health.

  4. Physics in Africa: The Case of Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arame Boye-Faye, Ndeye

    2009-03-01

    For many years, the research activity in Senegal has been managed through the division of the Ministry of Education. In 2004 the current government established a full-fledged Ministry of Research. This has led to a renewed focus on the organization of the funding of research in Senegal. One important issue to underline is the lack of a budget line devoted to research in most of the local institutions, distinct from support for academic purposes. As a result, the research activity is funded through direct support from the government or thanks to international programs. The main tool for the government to support key research directions is the FIRST program, with a yearly budget of 700,000 US. For the last call for projects, up to 12 projects have been funded, which translates to about 58,000 US per project. The other option for research funding lies in different international programs specifically aimed at institutions within the least developed countries. The dominant ones are provided by the French-speaking community, the French-supported AIRE, the European Union framework and ICTP Abdus Salam Centre. In this general context of limited resources, physics is the least supported discipline both in terms of researchers and active laboratories. As a result, particular efforts have to be made to increase the impact of physics and the role of physicists so as to enable them to claim their proper role as the major player in making science and technology the driving forces in the development process of Africa.

  5. Pakistan's breastfeeding campaign.

    PubMed

    Martin, L

    1989-01-01

    A campaign to promote and protect breastfeeding in Pakistan was launched March 1988 with the adoption by the Pakistan Pediatric Association (PPA) of a twenty-point statement in support of breastfeeding. A national committee on breastfeeding comprised of representatives of the PPA, UNICEF, USAID, and the Nutrition Section of the Government of Pakistan was subsequently formed. The committee prepared over the course of six months a bibliography on breastfeeding studies in Pakistan, developed and coordinated two research studies on infant feeding practices, and planned a series of six regional seminars and a national workshop on Breastfeeding for Child Survival. The two-day seminars brought together almost 1000 health professionals, government officials, and representatives from the media, family planning associations, social welfare groups, and private voluntary organizations. Seminar recommendations formed the basis for discussion at the national workshop. The National Breastfeeding Committee has tried to sustain the momentum generated during the seminars through personal communication with health professionals and through journal articles and conferences. Over the next few months, the committee will be developing a national newborn feeding policy to issue to health facilities. The committee will also be identifying ways to train health care providers so that they are better able to assist lactating mothers. A study tour of infant feeding programs is being planned for health policymakers.

  6. Pakistan: Lifelong Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Work, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The article reports on progress towards lifelong literacy education in Pakistan, covering the project's introduction in 1972 and reviewing current activities in brief but concrete sketches of such topics as materials, operation of projects, and student drop-outs. Appendixes include a map and occupational breakdowns of teachers and students. (AJ)

  7. Country Profiles, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

    A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  8. Mapping the potential risk of mycetoma infection in Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling.

    PubMed

    Samy, Abdallah M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A Townsend

    2014-10-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease.

  9. Sickle cell disease in western Sudan: genetic epidemiology and predictors of knowledge attitude and practices.

    PubMed

    Daak, Ahmed A; Elsamani, Elfatih; Ali, Eltigani H; Mohamed, Fatma A; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E; Elderdery, Abozer Y; Talbot, Octavious; Kraft, Peter; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of sickle cell disease (SCD) and determinants of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards SCD in western Kordofan State, Sudan. A community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in three towns. Three hundred and seventy-two households were polled, and blood samples for haemoglobin phenotyping were collected from 1116 individuals. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and KAP data were collected using investigator-administered questionnaires. Descriptive, frequency distribution and multiple regression analyses were performed. About 50.9% of the study population were Misseriya tribes. Consanguineous marriages were reported by 67.5% of the households. The highest percentage of homozygous SCD was 2.8% among children under 5 years of age. About 24.9% were carriers of HbS allele (HbAS). HbS allele frequency was highest in children aged 5-11 years (18.3%, CI: 13.7-22.9%) and lowest in males >15 years old (12.0%, CI: 6.1-17.9%). The average HbS frequency across all age groups was 14.5% (95% CI: 12.2-16.8%). The most frequent β-globin gene cluster haplotype was the Cameroon (30.8%), followed by the Benin (21.8%), the Senegal (12.8%) and the Bantu (2.2%) haplotypes. About 17.0% of all-cause child deaths were due to SCD. The estimated change in log odds of having the SS genotype per year increase in age was (-) 0.0058 (95% CI -0.0359, 0.0242). This represents a non-statistically significant 2.9% increase in 5-year mortality for individuals with the SS genotype relative to those with AS and AA genotypes. About 46.9% of the households had poor knowledge, 26.1% had satisfactory knowledge, and 26.9% had good knowledge about sickle cell disease. Mothers' and fathers' educational levels were significant predictors of good knowledge about SCD (P < 0.05). About 48.0% had a satisfactory attitude towards sickle cell disease while 30.7% had poor attitude and only 21.3 showed good attitudes. Poor knowledge about SCD and low socio

  10. Retrospective measles outbreak investigation: Sudan, 2004.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Fátima; Musa, Nisreen; El Tayeb, El Sayed Ahmed; Haithami, Salah; Dabbagh, Alya; Mahoney, Frank; Nandy, Robin; Cairns, Lisa

    2006-10-01

    Recent population-based studies of measles incidence and deaths in Sudan are not available. To determine the epidemiology and case-fatality rate (CFR) of measles, we conducted a retrospective outbreak investigation in two states in northern Sudan. Of 1144 case-patients identified, 92% were <15 years; 48.6% were vaccinated; and 62% received vitamin A before illness. Ten measles-associated deaths were identified (CFR 0.9%; 95% confidence interval 0.16-1.91). CFR determined by this investigation is lower than expected for the region but remains 10 times higher than that in developed countries. Measles control should be strengthened by improving vaccine coverage, measles surveillance and case-management.

  11. A climate trend analysis of Senegal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Adoum, Alkhalil; Eilerts, Gary; Verdin, James; White, Libby

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), identifies modest declines in rainfall, accompanied by increases in air temperatures. These analyses are based on quality-controlled station observations. Conclusions: * Summer rains have remained steady in Senegal over the past 20 years but are 15 percent below the 1920-1969 average. * Temperatures have increased by 0.9° Celsius since 1975, amplifying the effect of droughts. * Cereal yields are low but have been improving. * The amount of farmland per person is low and declining rapidly. * Current population and agriculture trends could lead to a 30-percent reduction in per capita cereal production by 2025.

  12. Vanguard family planning acceptors in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Nichols, D; Ndiaye, S; Burton, N; Janowitz, B; Gueye, L; Gueye, M

    1985-01-01

    This study examines contraceptive use among clients at the three clinics providing family planning services in Dakar, Senegal in early 1983. Most clients first became interested in family planning following the birth of a child, and most are interested in spacing future pregnancies, although one-third state that they want no more children. The clinic itself was found to be an important determinant of the type of contraceptive used, with only the government-operated clinic providing a balance between IUDs, oral contraceptives, and barrier methods. Nearly half of the clients interviewed said that a lack of knowledge about contraception is the reason for the low contraceptive prevalence rates among Senegalese women; another frequently cited reason was the opposition of the husband. Most clients reported the broadcast media to be the best means of providing family planning information to potential acceptors.

  13. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah; Maiga, Abdou; Moussa, Ibrahim Bouzou; Barbier, Bruno; Diouf, Awa; Diallo, Drissa; Da, Evariste Dapola; Dabi, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic changes and their perceptions were compared across north-south and west-east rainfall gradients. More than 80% of all households found that rainfall had decreased, especially in the wettest areas. Increases in wind speeds and temperature were perceived by an overall 60-80% of households. Contrary to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources, vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500-900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region, especially in the 500-900 mm zones and the western part of SSWA.

  14. Hypertension and Obesity in Dakar, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Macia, Enguerran; Gueye, Lamine; Duboz, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a major public health problem in many sub-Saharan African countries, but data on the main cardiovascular risk factors–hypertension and obesity–are almost nonexistent in Senegal. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to report the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in Dakar, (ii) to assess the prevalence of general and central obesity, and (iii) to analyze the association between hypertension and general and central obesity. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2015 on a representative sample of 1000 dwellers of the Senegalese capital aged 20–90. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension was 24.7%. Among hypertensive respondents, 28.4% were aware of their condition; 16.0% were on antihypertensive medication; 4.9% had controlled blood pressure. The frequency of doctor visits was a significant predictor of awareness (OR = 2.16; p<0.05) and treatment (OR = 2.57; p<0.05) of hypertension. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and general obesity were 12.6%, 19.2% and 9.7% respectively. The prevalence of central obesity was 26% by WC and 39.8% by WHtR. General obesity and central obesity by WHtR significantly predicted HTN among men and women, but not central obesity by WC. Conclusions This study has demonstrated a high prevalence of hypertension in Dakar and a high prevalence of obesity among women–particularly among older women. The awareness, treatment, and effective control of hypertension are unacceptably low. The blood pressure of women with general obesity, and men with central obesity, in the community should be monitored regularly to limit the burden of cardiovascular disease in Senegal. PMID:27622534

  15. Female Employment Reduces Fertility in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities. PMID:25816301

  16. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  17. Lagrangian tracing of Sahelian Sudan moisture sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Tjernström, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Sahelian Sudan is an arid to semiarid region that depends on the seasonal rainfall as the main source of water, but its rainfall has large interannual variability. Such dry regions usually have their main moisture sources elsewhere; thus, the rainfall variability is directly related to the moisture transport. This study seeks to identify source regions of water vapor for Sahelian Sudan during the monsoon period, from July to September. We have used the Lagrangian trajectory model FLEXPART driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the time period 1998 to 2008. The results show that most of the air masses that reach this region during the monsoon period have their major origins over the Arabian Peninsula, Central Africa, or are associated with the tropical easterly jet. Flow associated with Intertropical Convergence Zone contributes almost half of the total precipitated water; most of it comes from Central Africa. This suggests that moisture recycling is the major contributor, compared to Oceanic sources. The flows from the northeast (Arabian Peninsula and north Asia) and east (Horn of Africa and north Indian Ocean) contribute about one third of the precipitated water. The rest of precipitated water comes from the Mediterranean, subtropical Atlantic, and western Sahel, all with smaller contribution. Our results also indicate that different subregions of Sahelian Sudan have different moisture sources. Such result needs to be taken into account in seasonal forecasting practices.

  18. Country watch: Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Toll, K; Agha, S

    1999-01-01

    In Pakistan, which has a high fertility rate, affordable prices of condoms and family planning services attract low-income residents. This was shown by the two projects: the condom distribution scheme and the family planning franchise. A condom social marketing (CSM) program started by Population Services International (PSI) increased contraceptive use in urban areas and sold low-priced condoms. However, in 1991 the price doubled in order to recover the costs, which resulted in a decline in sales. Thus, in 1995 PSI and Social Marketing Pakistan franchised the Green Star project that aimed to raise the quality of private sector family planning clinics serving low-income women and to increase the availability and use of female-controlled contraception. By 1996, the CSM project was selling over 80 million condoms annually.

  19. Pakistan: Frontline State Again?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    leader Mohammed Ali Jinnah embarked on a new strategy against Indian Congress domination stating that Islam was in danger and the congress was...A. OUTLINE OF THE STUDY ............................. 4 II. A COLD W AR W ITHIN ...................................... 9 A. LEGACY OF PARTITION ...in the region, one absolute of Indo-Pak relations remains after the end of the cold war. Since the partition of India in 1947, Pakistan has been

  20. Palliative care in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Robyna Irshad

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country of South East Asia, with all the incumbent difficulties currently being faced by the region. Insufficient public healthcare facilities, poorly regulated private health sector, low budgetary allocation for health, improper priority setting while allocating limited resources, have resulted essentially in an absence of palliative care from the healthcare scene. Almost 90% of healthcare expenditure is out of the patient's pocket with more than 45% of population living below the poverty line. All these factors have a collective potential to translate into an end-of-life care disaster as a large percentage of population is suffering from chronic debilitating/terminal diseases. So far, such a disaster has not materialised, the reason being a family based culture emphasising the care of the sick and old at home, supported by religious teachings. This culture is not limited to Pakistan but subsists in the entire sub-continent, where looking after the sick/elderly at home is considered to be the duty of the younger generation. With effects of globalisation, more and more older people are living alone and an increasing need for palliative care is being realised. However, there does not seem to be any plan on the part of the public or private sectors to initiate palliative care services. This paper seeks to trace the social and cultural perspectives in Pakistan with regards to accessing palliative care in the context of healthcare facilities available.

  1. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contribution to the military potential of Sudan, including its military logistics capability, or could enhance... part 742 if destined to military, police, intelligence or other sensitive end-users in Sudan are... of the “License Requirements” section of an ECCN on the CCL. (ii) Military-related items controlled...

  2. 31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...

  3. 31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...

  4. The Dinka of Sudan: Family Traditions in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Kate

    This paper examines the core values of the Dinka tribe of Sudan, focusing on the most prominent aspects of their family life. The paper also examines how the Dinka family is changing in the face of Sudan's civil war and modernization. It concludes with suggestions for new directions that social work can take to facilitate the transition of the…

  5. 31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...

  6. 31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...

  7. Education in the Sudan: The Privileging of an Islamic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the educational discourse in the part of the Sudan administered by the Government of the Sudan. It first analyses the value system upon which the Sudanese education is based by focusing on the nature of Islamism. Such a discussion is necessary because the dominant discourse is a discourse where power and Islamic theocracy…

  8. 31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...

  9. 31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in Sudan....

  10. 31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in Sudan....

  11. 31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in Sudan....

  12. The Birth of a New Nation: The Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In early July, the country of Sudan, wracked by civil war since the 1980s, officially split into two separate nations, Sudan and South Sudan. Six months earlier, over a seven-day period, the people in southern Sudan had voted in a national referendum on whether to secede from the North. The voters had two choices: "Separation" or…

  13. 31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in Sudan....

  14. 31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in Sudan....

  15. The Birth of a New Nation: The Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In early July, the country of Sudan, wracked by civil war since the 1980s, officially split into two separate nations, Sudan and South Sudan. Six months earlier, over a seven-day period, the people in southern Sudan had voted in a national referendum on whether to secede from the North. The voters had two choices: "Separation" or…

  16. Reasons behind the Failure of Teaching Sudan Practical Integrated National English (SPINE 5) in Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamad, Mona M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the development of English language learning and curriculum design, English language series became a very important issue that affects education globally and in Sudan. In specific, this study reports reasons behind the failure of teaching SPINE 5 (which is one of SPINE series) from the teachers' point of view. In Bahry Locality in…

  17. Mapping the Potential Risk of Mycetoma Infection in Sudan and South Sudan Using Ecological Niche Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Abdallah M.; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease. PMID:25330098

  18. Lagrangian tracing of Sahelian Sudan moisture sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Tjernström, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Sahelian Sudan, 10° to 16°N, is an arid to semi-arid zone that separates the Saharan to the north and the wet Savannah to the south. The region is characterized by, relatively, limited water resources, and hence has a high dependency on the annual rainfall. According to the latest IPCC report, regions that have such limited water resources are highly vulnerable to the ongoing climate change and variability. Taking into account that the agriculture is the main economical activity, the variability in annual rainfall is of direct soci-economical relevance. Similar to the rest of the African Sahel, the rainy season, June through September, across Sahelian Sudan is connected to the annual march of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). However, there still a limited understanding of the actual sources of moisture that supplies this region with water vapor during the rainy season. Broadly speaking, the Atlantic, the Congo rain forest, the Read Sea and the Indian Ocean are the main potential sources. In this study we use Lagrangian tracing technique to indentify the sources of moisture of Sahelian Sudan and attempt quantifying their contribution to the total annual moisture convergence. For this we utilized output from the Lagrangian trajectory model FLEXPART driven by the meteorological fields from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast ERA-interim for period of ten years 2000 to 2009. We trace back, for ten days each mass element to indentify the source region. The models also accounts for precipitation and moisture uptakes through the course of the transport of the air parcel from source to destination. Identifying the sources of moisture is of great importance, and can help in two connected directions. First, identifying sources of moisture will help in understanding the variability and will provide insight about the drought causes and mechanisms. Second, revealing the moisture sources would enhance ongoing efforts in seasonal forecasting.

  19. Highest priority in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Adil, E

    1968-01-01

    Responding to the challenge posed by its population problem, Pakistan's national leadership gave the highest priority to family planning in its socioeconomic development plan. In Pakistan, as elsewhere in the world, the first family planning effort originated in the private sector. The Family Planning Association of Pakistan made a tentative beginning in popularizing family planning in the country. Some clinics were opened and some publicity and education were undertaken to emphasize the need for family limitation. It was recognized soon that the government needed to assume the primarily responsibility if family planning efforts were to be successful. For the 1st plan period, 1955-60, about $10 million was allocated by the central government in the social welfare sector for voluntary family planning. The level of support continued on the same basis during the 2nd plan, 1960-65, but has been raised 4-fold in the 1965-70 scheme of family planning. Pakistan's Family Planning Association continues to play vital collaborative roles in designing and pretesting of prototype publicity material, involvement of voluntary social workers, and functional research in the clinical and public relations fields. The real breakthrough in the program came with the 3rd 5-year plan, 1965-70. High priority assigned to family planning is reflected by the total initial budget of Rs.284 million (about $60,000,000) for the 5-year period. Current policy is postulated on 6 basic assumptions: family planning efforts need to be public relations-oriented; operations should be conducted through autonomous bodies with decentralized authority at all tiers down to the grassroots level, for expeditious decision making; monetary incentives play an important role; interpersonal motivation in terms of life experience of the clientele through various contacts, coupled with mass media for publicity, can produce a sociological breakthrough; supplies and services in all related disciplines should be

  20. Anthocyanins of Hibiscus sabdiffera calyces from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Cahliková, Lucie; Ali, Badreldin H; Havliková, Lucie; Ločárek, Mirek; Siatka, Tomáš; Opletal, Lubomir; Blunden, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Extracts of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa are widely used in folk medicine to combat many illnesses. The active constituents of the extracts have been shown on several occasions to be anthocyanins. In our current studies the biological activities of an extract of H. sabdariffa calyces purchased in Oman, but grown in Sudan, are being compared with those of the anthocyanins isolated from them, and, for this, the anthocyanin profile of the extract needed to be ascertained. Although several anthocyanins were detected by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS, delphinidin-3-sambubioside (major) and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were predominant.

  1. Dracunculiasis Eradication: And Now, South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Weiss, Adam; Withers Jr., P. Craig; Eberhard, Mark L.; Roy, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of the global Dracunculiasis Eradication Program as of the end of 2012. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) has been eliminated from 17 of 21 countries where it was endemic in 1986, when an estimated 3.5 million cases occurred worldwide. Only 542 cases were reported from four countries in 2012, and 103 villages still had indigenous transmission. Most remaining cases were reported from the new Republic of South Sudan, whereas Chad, Ethiopia, and Mali each reported 10 cases or less. Political instability and insecurity in Mali may become the main obstacles to interrupting dracunculiasis transmission forever. PMID:23843492

  2. Area Handbook Series: Sudan: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Khartoum average 15’C in January and have dropped as low as 6°C after the passing of a cool front in winter. The haboob , a violent dust storm, can occur...information on the sources of Sudan’s arms can be found in Forecast International/DMS Market Intelligence Report: Middle East and Africa. Reports by two...information from The Miliary Balance, 1991-1992, London, 1991, 119; and Forecast International/DMS Market Intelligence Report, Middle East andAfti- ca

  3. [Control of sexually transmitted diseases in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Ridet, J; Selby, P

    1979-05-01

    STD are an important public health problem in numerous developing countries. Although satisfactory diagnostic and therapeutic means are available, the incidence of STD is increasing. Among the causes for this are sociological factors, like the weakening of customs and the family unit, and the development of tourism, which stimulates prostitution. There is a marked ignorance of the population in respect to STD. The Senegalese Government, WHO, and the Geneva-based Sandoz Institute launched in 1976 a joint programme of service, training and sesearch. The research aims at developing a preventive approach, especially through health education. While the three centers set up have accomplished good work locally, results are still disappointing from a public health point of view. Weak spots are in particular: - inadequacy of the social and contact-tracing services; -lack of action at the periphery and of integration with primary health care; -lack of coordination with other sectors (including police), and with professionals of various disciplines who should contribute to the socio-economic investigation of the problem. Several groups have recently been created in Senegal to support the project. An evaluation will soon be carried out. Such programmes should be implemented in other countries of the region.

  4. [Technical quality of prenatal visits in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Tal-Dia, A; Garnier, P; Toure, K; Mbow, E H; Wone, I

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the quality of antenatal care in Senegal. A survey was conducted in 49 health centers near 70 health workers practising antenatal cares for pregnant women. The quality of cares was assessed on 13 essential actions, which were classified in 4 components. The global score of quality and the specific score of each component were calculated and analysed according to the qualification and the duration of time in the work of the health workers, the location and the equipment of the centers. Global quality of prenatal cares was linked with the qualification of agents. The component "screening for risk factors" had low and worse score and "reception of pregnant women" also. These 2 components were not linked with the qualification of agents, contrary to the 2 others, pregnancy and mother health surveillance. The duration of time in service and the equipment had no influence in global and specific scores. The health workers qualification was linked with many components of quality, but a good basic training is not sufficient to provide prenatal care of high quality. It must be define a framework with screening for unfavorable ends of pregnancy.

  5. Counterinsurgency in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    As one assessment noted, “[n]ot a single shop [in Spinkai] . . . is now intact. Even petrol stations and local factories have been razed to the...Director of Opera- tions, Nurith Berstein. She can be reached by email at Nurith_Ber stein@rand.org; by phone at 703-413-1100, extension 5469; or by...Pakistan supported numerous covert cells within Indian-administered Kashmir, sometimes using operatives based in the Pakistani embassy in New Delhi. In

  6. Psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, F

    1997-01-01

    Psychiatric services in Pakistan have undergone considerable changes since independence 50 years ago. There has been an increased awareness of psychiatric illness on both public and professional levels and great emphasis has been laid on the education and training of medical and related professions in recent years. Although old traditional methods still prevail, it is becoming increasingly common to seek professional psychiatric advice. Like any developing country, however, much remains to be done especially on a government level in order to meet the basic mental health needs of the nation.

  7. Pakistan RAPID III.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, M U

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the software called RAPID (Resources for the Awareness of Population Impact on Development), which was developed by the Futures Group, a U.S. company. The software is designed for IBM-PCs and compatibles, with a configuration that includes 640K RAM, a fixed disk drive, and DOS 2.0 or higher. The application in Pakistan of this software in an information, education, and communication program sponsored by the National Institute of Population Studies, including the translation of the software into Urdu, is briefly outlined.

  8. High Prevalence of Mansonella perstans Filariasis in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Bassene, Hubert; Sambou, Masse; Fenollar, Florence; Clarke, Siân; Djiba, Sawdiatou; Mourembou, Gaël; L. Y., Alioune Badara; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Large parts of African and American countries are colonized by Mansonella, a very common but poorly described filarial nematode. Bloodsucking flies of the genus Culicoides are suspected to be the vector of Mansonella perstans, but no study in Senegal has confirmed that Culicoides can transmit the parasite. Designed specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can be used to identify microfilaria in stained blood smears. This study was performed in July and December 2010 in the southeastern Senegal, which is known to be endemic for M. perstans. We analyzed 297 blood smears from febrile and afebrile resident people by qPCR. The global prevalence of M. perstans was approximately 14.5% in both febrile and afebrile individuals. The age group of > 30 years had the highest prevalence (22.0%). No Culicoides among 1,159 studied specimens was positive for M. perstans and its vector in Senegal still requires identification. PMID:26078318

  9. Land use change and terrestrial carbon stocks in Senegal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woomer, P.L.; Tieszen, L.L.; Tappan, G.; Toure, A.; Sall, M.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental degradation resulting from long-term drought and land use change has affected terrestrial carbon (C) stocks within Africa's Sahel. We estimated Senegal's terrestrial carbon stocks in 1965, 1985, and 2000 using an inventory procedure involving satellite images revealing historical land use change, and recent field measurements of standing carbon stocks occurring in soil and plants. Senegal was divided into eight ecological zones containing 11 land uses. In 2000, savannas, cultivated lands, forests, and steppes were the four largest land uses in Senegal, occupying 70, 22, 2.7, and 2.3 percent of Senegal's 199,823 km2. System C stocks ranged from 9 t C ha−1 in degraded savannas in the north, to 113 t C ha−1 in the remnant forests of the Senegal River Valley. This approach resulted in estimated total C stocks of 1019 and 727 MT C between 1965 and 2000, respectively, indicating a loss of 292 MT C over 35 years. The proportion of C residing in biomass decreased with time, from 55 percent in 1965 to 38 percent in 2000. Calculated terrestrial C flux for 1993 was −7.5 MT C year−1 and had declined by 17 percent over the previous 18 years. Most of the terrestrial C flux in 1993 was attributed to biomass C reduction. Human disturbance accounted for only 22 percent of biomass C loss in 1993, suggesting that the effects of long-term Sahelian drought continue to play an overriding role in ecosystem change. Some carbon mitigation strategies for Senegal were investigated, including potential C sequestration levels. Opportunities for C mitigation exist but are constrained by available knowledge and access to resources.

  10. Data Performativity, Performing Health Work: Malaria and Labor in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Tichenor, Marlee

    2017-07-01

    In this article, I investigate the ramifications of health data production in the health fight against malaria in and around Dakar, Senegal. Malaria health development funding at the community level is contingent on performativity; the Global Fund's "performance-based funding," for example, requires that local actors produce certain forms of evidence and that intermediaries synthesize this evidence into citable data. Analyzing the practices of diagnosis and approximation in health clinics and in global malaria documents, I argue that data production in Senegal is conditioned by and reifies preconceived notions of malaria as a problem addressable by the enumeration of technological fixes.

  11. Determinants of neonatal mortality in central Sudan.

    PubMed

    Taha, T E; Gray, R H; Abdelwahab, M M

    1993-01-01

    A follow-up study was conducted in six community health centres during the period April 1989 to March 1990 to determine the risk factors which influence neonatal survival in central Sudan. The estimated neonatal mortality rate ranged between 20.0 and 36.0 per 1000 live births per year, and the major cause of death was tetanus neonatorum (29% of neonatal deaths). The mortality rate was lowest when tetanus toxoid was received during pregnancy and the umbilical cord was cleaned by a modern hygienic method (mortality rate of 11 per 1000). In contrast, the mortality rate was highest when no tetanus toxoid was received and no or traditional cord cleaning was used (mortality rate of 62 per 1000; relative risk (RR) = 5.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-14.9). The major predictors of neonatal mortality were tetanus, short birth-to-conception interval, multiparity, reported malaria during pregnancy, low birthweight, low maternal weight and low socio-economic status. The population attributable risks were high, and the preventable factors collectively accounted for 93.5% of neonatal mortality. Safe deliveries and wider immunization coverage are needed to control neonatal tetanus in this community. Other interventions to lower neonatal mortality in central Sudan should include accessible family planning programmes and measures to lower the incidence of low birthweight.

  12. The rebirth of cardiac surgery in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Elnur, Elamin Elawad

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac surgery is nowadays an integral part of a complete national health service. Methods In this paper the rebirth of cardiac surgery in Sudan from 1998 till 2007 is given by means of a literature search, personal interviews and searching hospital records. Results A summary of the initial birth of these services in 1959 till its demise in 1993 is first mentioned to set the stage for the subsequent period of sustainable growth. The surgical workforce and the surgical workload in the latter period is documented and showed that in the period from 1998 to 2007 2,868 open heart operations were done in three centers in Sudan. All these centers are based in Khartoum but they cater for all the country. It is estimated that (with the addition of two centers after the study period) the service provided would need to be quadrupled (by doubling the number of centers to 10 and increasing their capacity so as to cater for the whole country). The case mix of operations done is predominantly valvular comprising 63.2% of the total followed by congenital cardiac cases at 22.8% and then ischaemic at 11.9%. Conclusions The results imply that a big effort has to be done in the primary healthcare sector to try and eradicate rheumatic heart disease which is the main cause of the valvular lesions. PMID:27904841

  13. Implementing haemophilia care in Senegal, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Diop, S; Seck, M; Sy-Bah, D; Faye, B F; Sow-Ndoye, A; Gueye, Y B; Senghor, A B; Sall-Fall, A; Toure-Fall, A O; Dièye, T N; Thiam, D; Diakhate, L

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant progres on haemophilia care in developed world, this disease remains unknown in many sub-Saharan African countries. The objectives of this article were to report Senegalese experience on the management of haemophilia care through 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study included 140 patients (127 haemophilia A, 13 haemophilia B), followed in Dakar's haemophilia treatment centre from 1995 to 2012. Our study reported a prevalence of 2.3/100,000 male births, accounting for 11.6% of what is expected in Senegal. From the period 1995-2003 to 2004-2012, significant progress was seen including 67.9% increase in new patient's identification, 11.3 years reduction in mean age at diagnosis (from 15.5 to 4.2 years), lower mortality rate (from 15.3% to 6.8%) and age at death evolved from 6.5 to 23.3 years. Of the 50 haemophilia A patients who were tested for inhibitor presence, 10 were positive (eight severe and two moderate) that is prevalence of 20%. All patients were low responders since inhibitor titre was between 1.5 and 3.8 BU. Disabilities were seen in 36.5% of patients above 20 years old who had musculoskeletal sequels and 39% had no scholar or professional activities in our setting. Implementing haemophilia care in sub-Saharan Africa is a great challenge as this disease is not yet counted in national health problems in many countries. Lessons learned from this study show a significant improvement in diagnosis and prognosis parameters. This emphasizes the needs to set up such follow-up initiatives and to enhance medical and lay cooperation for better results.

  14. Khyber Pass, Afghanistan-Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-08

    The ASTER instrument onboard NASA Terra spacecraft imaged the Khyber Pass, a mountain pass that links Afghanistan and Pakistan. Throughout its history it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and South Asia.

  15. Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.

    PubMed

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

    2015-04-15

    Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region.

  16. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-24

    further tightening of monetary policy , but still come in above the central bank’s target. Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the...of 157 countries. The index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal burden, weak property ownership protections, and limited financial...democratization. Pakistan remains a vital U.S. ally in U.S.-led anti-terrorism efforts. Yet the outcomes of U.S. policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while not

  17. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-26

    seek future civil nuclear assistance from Beijing, including potential provision of complete power reactors, especially in light of Washington’s...nuclear proliferation to North Korea, Iran, and Libya may complicate future Pakistan-U.S. relations. Security International Terrorism. After the...an apparent arms race between India and Pakistan to be among the most likely potential causes of the future use of nuclear weapons by states. In May

  18. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-06

    2008. 3 See http://islamabad.usembassy.gov/pr_03272008.html. 4 Talat Masood, “Managing Pakistan-U.S. Relations” (op-ed), Hindu ( Chennai ), June 25...Taleban Bring New Fear to Peshawar,” BBC News, November 13, 2008. Paramilitary commanders reported having secured most areas surrounding the city ...Pakistan.”40 34 “Pakistan’s Deal With the Devil,” Salon, July 8, 2008; “In City of

  19. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-10

    and the ensuing enlistment of Pakistan as a key ally in U.S.- led counterterrorism efforts. Top U.S. officials have praised Pakistan for its ongoing...military rule for more than half of its existence. In 1999, the elected government was ousted in a coup led by Army Chief General Pervez Musharraf...Bhutto. However, February 2008 parliamentary elections were relatively credible and seated a coalition led by Bhutto’s widower, Asif Zardari, and

  20. Phylogenetic position of Leishmania isolates from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazma Habib; Messenger, Louisa A; Wahid, Sobia; Sutherland, Colin J

    2016-08-01

    Several species of the genus Leishmania are causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan. This study aimed to determine phylogenetic placement of Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan (34 Leishmania tropica, 3 Leishmania infantum), in-relation to species from other geographical areas using gene sequences encoding cytochrome b (cytb) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2). Based on cytochrome b sequence analysis, L. tropica strains from Pakistan and other geographical regions were differentiated into two genotype groups, A and B. Within the province, five distinct L. tropica genotypes were recognized; two in group A, three in group B. Two L. infantum isolates from the province were closely associated with both Afro-Eurasian and American species of the Leishmania donovani complex, including Leishmania chagasi, L. infantum and L. donovani from Sudan and Ethiopia; while a third L. infantum isolate could not be differentiated from visceralizing Kenyan and Indian L. donovani. We observed apposite phylogenetic placement of CL-causing L. tropica and L. infantum from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Affinities ascribed to Leishmania spp. From the region are valuable in tracing potential importation of leishmaniasis.

  1. Coastal Ocean Circulation Experiment off Senegal (COCES - II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    SST), chlorophyll concentration (<Chl>) and sea level height (SSH). Numerical model simulations are performed with ROMS and are compared to the...collaborators in Senegal, the COCES-II project has benefited from a synergy with the GDP (P.I.’s: Dr. Luca Centurioni, SIO, La Jolla, and Dr. R. Lumpkin

  2. Urban Epidemic of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection, Senegal, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Faye, Oumar; Talla, Cheikh; Diallo, Diawo; Chen, Rubing; Mondo, Mireille; Ba, Rouguiétou; Macondo, Edgard; Siby, Tidiane; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    An urban epidemic of dengue in Senegal during 2009 affected 196 persons and included 5 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and 1 fatal case of dengue shock syndrome. Dengue virus serotype 3 was identified from all patients, and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were identified as the primary vector of the virus. PMID:24572297

  3. Borrelia crocidurae infection in acutely febrile patients, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Socolovschi, Cristina; Bassene, Hubert; Diatta, Georges; Ratmanov, Pavel; Fenollar, Florence; Sokhna, Cheikh; Raoult, Didier

    2014-08-01

    As malaria cases in Africa decline, other causes of acute febrile illness are being explored. To determine incidence of Borrelia crocidurae infection during June 2010-October 2011, we collected 1,566 blood specimens from febrile patients in Senegal. Incidence was high (7.3%). New treatment strategies, possibly doxycycline, might be indicated for febrile patients.

  4. Urban epidemic of dengue virus serotype 3 infection, Senegal, 2009.

    PubMed

    Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Faye, Oumar; Talla, Cheikh; Diallo, Diawo; Chen, Rubing; Mondo, Mireille; Ba, Rouguiétou; Macondo, Edgard; Siby, Tidiane; Weaver, Scott C; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-03-01

    An urban epidemic of dengue in Senegal during 2009 affected 196 persons and included 5 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and 1 fatal case of dengue shock syndrome. Dengue virus serotype 3 was identified from all patients, and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were identified as the primary vector of the virus.

  5. Furuncular myiasis in 2 American travelers returning from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Rimoin, Lauren; Jackson, Julie; Yang, Aparche; Goh, Carolyn; Soriano, Teresa

    2014-12-01

    Furuncular myiasis caused by Cordylobia anthropophaga larvae is commonly seen in Africa but rarely is diagnosed in travelers returning from the sub-Saharan region. We report 2 cases of furuncular myiasis due to Cordylobia species in adolescent American travelers returning from Senegal.

  6. Survey report: Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J

    1991-10-01

    Pakistan suffers an unsuccessful population policy, with a resultant annual population growth of greater than 3%. Cultural and religious objections to family planning (FP) are recognized as the major obstacles to reducing fertility. Accordingly, a 1990-91 demographic and health survey was conducted to elicit information or fertility, family planning, marriage patterns, breastfeeding, and child health for planners and policymakers. The survey was jointly funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development and the government of Pakistan, and interviewed 6,494 ever-married women aged 15-49. The average total fertility rate for the 6-year period prior to the survey was 5.5 lifetime births/woman, less than the figure of greater than 6 found in previous surveys. Increasing age at 1st marriage and a slightly higher level of contraceptive use may be causal factors for the observed decline. Decreased fertility notwithstanding, contraceptive prevalence is low compared to other developing countries in Asia. 1 out of 5 Pakistani women report ever having used contraceptives, and no single method has ever been used by more than 7% of married women. 7% use condoms, 5% the pill, 3% female sterilization, and 3 the IUD and injections, with male sterilization virtually nonexistent, and only limited knowledge of barrier methods. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional methods, among married women was 12%, with higher coverage in cities, especially among educated women. 37% desire no additional children, and 18% wish to delay child birth for 2 years. Intervention strategy may include working to improve the status of women, fostering greater educational opportunities for women, changing traditional attitudes toward large families and son preference, providing sufficient FP services, and getting commitments for support and action from government and community leaders.

  7. Renal transplantation in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S A H; Naqvi, S A A; Zafar, M N

    2002-01-01

    The economic indicators of Pakistan show that the GNP is dollar 70 billion and foreign exchange reserves stand at dollar 8.0 billion and foreign debt at more than dollar 36 billion. Against this backdrop, the government is unlikely to provide state-of-the-art facilities for management of end-stage organ failure. The unequal distribution of wealth leaves more than 40% below the poverty line. Economic solutions are based on temporary fixes where foreign aid and loans keeps the government machinery operational. Many of the basic health measures such as immunization are also foreign funded. Under such a scenario, local philanthropy has come to play a vital role. SIUT developed a model based on self-help--a model based on a community-government partnership, where the doctor plays the pivotal role and the beneficiary is the patient. SIUT acquired funds by developing a community-government partnership. The government fulfills about 40% of the total budget and the rest comes from the community as donations. The scheme has been extremely successful in providing free medical care and renal support to thousands of patients. It has been sustained over the past 15 years through complete transparency, public audit and accountability. These confidence-building means stimulate the community to come forward and donate money, equipment and medicines. The goal of transplantation is to provide organs to all with long-term survival of the graft. The emerging challenges to achieve this goal and efforts that can be made to increase and sustain transplant activity in Pakistan require a concerted effort on the part of the government, society and the medical profession.

  8. Characterization of Sudan Ebolavirus infection in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, Andrea; He, Shihua; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Wong, Gary; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2017-07-11

    Sudan virus (SUDV) outbreaks in Africa are highly lethal; however, the development and testing of novel antivirals and vaccines for this virus has been limited by a lack of suitable animal models. Non-human primates (NHP) remain the gold standard for modeling filovirus disease, but they are not conducive to screening large numbers of experimental compounds and should only be used to test the most promising candidates. Therefore, other smaller animal models are a valuable asset. We have recently developed a guinea-pig adapted SUDV virus that is lethal in guinea pigs. In our current study, we show that ferrets are susceptible to wild-type SUDV, providing a small animal model to directly study clinical isolates, screen experimental anti-SUDV compounds and potentially study viral transmission.

  9. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Imatong, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ofula, Victor O.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Konongoi, Samson L.; Sow, Abdourahmane; De Cock, Kevin M.; Tukei, Peter M.; Okoth, Fredrick A.; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J.; Waters, Norman C.; Coldren, Rodney L.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, the World Health Organization received reports about a possible outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease of unknown cause in the Imatong Mountains of southern Sudan. Laboratory investigations were conducted on 28 serum samples collected from patients in the Imatong region. Serum samples from 13 patients were positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to flavivirus, and serum samples from 5 patients were positive by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction with both the genus Flavivirus–reactive primers and yellow fever virus–specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons obtained with the genus Flavivirus oligonucleotide primers confirmed yellow fever virus as the etiologic agent. Isolation attempts in newborn mice and Vero cells from the samples yielded virus isolates from five patients. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis enabled an interagency emergency task force to initiate a targeted vaccination campaign to control the outbreak. PMID:15207058

  10. Nile River Fluctuations Near Khartoum, Sudan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-29

    Throughout history, the rising and falling waters of the mighty Nile River have directly impacted the lives of the people who live along its banks. These images of the area around Sudan's capital city of Khartoum capture the river's dynamic nature. Acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, they display the extent of the Nile waters before and after the onset of the rainy seasons of 2000 (top pair) and 2001 (bottom pair). The images are displayed in "false color," using the camera's near-infrared, green, and blue bands. With this particular spectral combination, water appears in shades of blue and turquoise, and highly vegetated areas show up as bright red. Originating in Uganda and Ethiopia, respectively, the waters of the White Nile (western branch) and Blue Nile (eastern branch) converge at Khartoum (about half-way between image center and the left-hand side), and continue to flow northward as the Great Nile. Although the most obvious feature in these images is the increased width of the White Nile between spring and summer, careful inspection shows that the Great Nile is at its widest in August 2001 (note in particular the area between the clouds near the top of this panel). Heavy rains in the Blue Nile catchment area of the Ethiopian highlands led to a rapid overflow of the river's floodwaters into the main stream of the Great Nile, leading to extensive flooding, the worst effects of which occurred north of Khartoum. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, tens of thousands of people have fled their homes, and the number of people in need of urgent food assistance in Sudan, estimated at three million earlier in the year, was likely to increase with the onset of these floods. South of the confluence of the White Nile and the Blue Nile, the area of a cross-hatched appearance is the irrigated plain of El Gezira. The Gezira irrigation scheme uses water from the Makwar Dam (now called

  11. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  12. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Khadime; Tine, Roger Clément Kouly; Ndiaye, Magatte; Sow, Doudou; Sarr, Aïssatou; Mbuyi, Marie Louise Tshibola; Diouf, Ibrahima; Lô, Amy Colé; Abiola, Annie; Seck, Mame Cheikh; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Badiane, Aïda Sadikh; N'Diaye, Jean Louis A; Ndiaye, Daouda; Faye, Oumar; Dieng, Thérèse; Dieng, Yémou; Ndir, Oumar; Gaye, Oumar; Faye, Babacar

    2015-07-16

    In Senegal, a significant decrease of malaria transmission intensity has been noted the last years. Parasitaemia has become lower and, therefore, more difficult to detect by microscopy. In the context of submicroscopic parasitaemia, it has become relevant to rely on relevant malaria surveillance tools to better document malaria epidemiology in such settings. Serological markers have been proposed as an essential tool for malaria surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate the sero-epidemiological situation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in two sentinel sites in Senegal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in Velingara (south Senegal) and Keur Soce (central Senegal) between September and October 2010. Children under 10 years old, living in these areas, were enrolled using two-level, random sampling methods. P. falciparum infection was diagnosed using microscopy. P. falciparum antibodies against circumsporozoite protein (CSP), apical membrane protein (AMA1) and merozoite surface protein 1_42 (MSP1_42) were measured by ELISA method. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was done to assess factors associated with P. falciparum antibodies carriage. A total of 1,865 children under 10 years old were enrolled. The overall falciparum malaria prevalence was 4.99% with high prevalence in Velingara of 10.03% compared to Keur Soce of 0.3%. Symptomatic malaria cases (fever associated with parasitaemia) represented 17.37%. Seroprevalence of anti-AMA1, anti-MSP1_42 and anti-CSP antibody was 38.12, 41.55 and 40.38%, respectively. The seroprevalence was more important in Velingara and increased with age, active malaria infection and area of residence. The use of serological markers can contribute to improved malaria surveillance in areas with declining malaria transmission. This study provided useful baseline information about the sero-epidemiological situation of malaria in Senegal and can contribute to the identification of malaria hot spots in order to concentrate

  13. Assessment of water availability and demand in Lake Guiers , Senegal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambou, D.; Weihrauch, D.; Hellwing, V.; Diekkrüger, B.; Höllermann, B.; Gaye, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of water availability and demand in Lake Guiers, SenegalWater resources are critical to economic growth and social development. In most African countries, supply of drinking water to satisfy population needs is a key issue because of population growth and climate and land use change. During the last three decades, increasing population, changing patterns of water demand, and concentration of population and economic activities in urban areas has pressurize Senegal's freshwater resources. To overcome this deficit, Senegal turned, to the exploitation of the Lake Guiers. It is the sole water reservoir which can be used extensively as a stable freshwater. Its water is use for irrigating crops and sugar refinery and as a drinking water resource for urban centres, including Dakar, the capital city of Senegal, as well as for the local population and animal herds. To ensure sustainability, a greater understanding of Lake Guiers's water resources and effective management of its use will be required. In this study we developed and quantified future water situation (water availability and demand) in Lake Guiers under scenarios of climate change and population growth until 2050, using the water management model WEAP (Water Evaluation And Planning system). The results show that the pressure on Lake Guiers's water resources will increase, leading to greater competition between agriculture and municipal demand site. Decreasing inflows due to climate change will aggravate this situation. WEAP results offer basis to assister lake Guiers water resources manager for an efficient long-term planning and management. Keywords: climate change, population growth , IWRM, Lake Guiers, Senegal

  14. Application of Raman spectroscopy technology to studying Sudan I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Guoping; Chen, Chen

    2006-06-01

    Being an industrial dye, the Sudan I may have a toxic effect after oral intake on the body, and has recently been shown to cause cancer in rats, mice and rabbits. Because China and some other countries have detected the Sudan I in samples of the hot chilli powder and the chilli products, it is necessary to study the characteristics of this dye. As one kind of molecule scattering spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is characterized by the frequency excursion caused by interactions of molecules and photons. The frequency excursion reflects the margin between certain two vibrational or rotational energy states, and shows the information of the molecule. Because Raman spectroscopy can provides quick, easy, reproducible, and non-destructive analysis, both qualitative and quantitative, with no sample preparation required, Raman spectroscopy has been a particularly promising technique for analyzing the characteristics and structures of molecules, especially organic ones. Now, it has a broad application in biological, chemical, environmental and industrial applications. This paper firstly introduces Sudan I dye and the Raman spectroscopy technology, and then describes its application to the Sudan I. Secondly, the fingerprint spectra of the Sudan I are respectively assigned and analyzed in detail. Finally, the conclusion that the Raman spectroscopy technology is a powerful tool to determine the Sudan I is drawn.

  15. Iodized salt consumption in Sudan: present status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Control Programme in Sudan adopted salt iodization as the long-term strategy in 1994. In 2000, it was found that less than 1% of households were using adequately-iodized salt. The objectives of this study were to: (i) study the coverage and variation of different geographical regions of Sudan regarding access to and use of iodized salt, (ii) explore the possible factors which influence the use of iodized salt, (iii) develop recommendations to help in the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategy in Sudan. This paper is based on the Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) dataset. A total sample of 24,507 households was surveyed, and 18,786 cooking salt samples were tested for iodine levels with rapid salt-testing kits. Nationally, the percentage of households using adequately-iodized salt increased from less than 1% in 2000 to 14.4%, with wide variations between states. Access to iodized salt ranged from 96.9% in Central Equatoria to 0.4% in Gezira state. Population coverage with iodized salt in Sudan remains very low. The awareness and political support for USI programme is very weak. National legislation banning the sale of non-iodized salt does not exist. Utilization of the already-existing laws, like the National Standardization and Metrology Law (2008), to develop a compulsory national salt specification, will accelerate the USI in Sudan.

  16. Morocco and Senegal: Faces of Islam in Africa. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1999 (Morocco and Senegal).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Morocco and Senegal in 1999. The participants represented various regions of the United States and different grade levels and subject areas. The 13 curriculum projects in the collection are: (1) "Doorway to Morocco: A Student Guide" (Sue Robertson); (2)…

  17. Pakistan’s Impact on Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    never loses CI • Baloch five insurgencies: 1948, 1958-59, 1962-63, 1973-77, and 2002+ (Talibanizing) • Suppressed 75 million Bengalis in 1970-71 with...1962-1963 sporadic infiltration • Pakistan: Lesson Learned : Local security • 1963-1973 Royal Peace with Pakistan • Afghanistan supports Pakistan

  18. Pakistan’s Search for Identity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    50Ibid., pp. 378-379. 51-Gustav F. Papanek , Pakistan: The Development Miracle, p. 12. ->^Lord Birdwood, A Continent Decides, pp. 95-97. "Fazal Muqeem...pp. 269- 403. (DS35 K3 1963) 46. Papanek , Gustav F. Pakistan: The Development Miracle. Washington: Embassy of Pakistan, Information Division

  19. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  20. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2014-06-15

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  1. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-02-04

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  2. Widespread Rift Valley Fever Emergence in Senegal in 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Diallo, Diawo; Fall, Gamou; Faye, Oumar; Bob, Ndeye Sakha; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Richard, Vincent; Dia, Anta Tal; Diallo, Mawlouth; Malvy, Denis; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), which caused epizootics and epidemics among human and livestock populations, occurred in Senegal in 2013–2014. A multidisciplinary field investigation was carried out in 3 regions of Senegal. We found 11 confirmed human cases of Rift Valley fever, including severe cases with encephalitis and retinitis, 1 pool of mosquito (Aedes ochraceus), and 52 animals tested positive for the disease. Symptoms such as encephalitis and macular retinitis were the most severe cases reported so far in Senegal. The outbreak was widespread due to animals' movements, leading to the largest RVF outbreak in Senegal in terms of geographic spreading and reaching areas that never reported RVF activity previously. PMID:27704007

  3. Giving Reconciliation a Chance in Sudan: Seeking an Alternative Response to the Darfur Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    5E4CC6&lang=e Bradbury, M ., Ryle, J , Medly, M . and Sansculotte-Greenidge, K. (2006). Local Peace Process in Sudan: A Baseline Study. Rift Valley...MILOB Military Observer NGO Non Governmental Organization SLA/ M Sudan Liberation Army/Movement SLA/AW Sudan Liberation Army Abdul Wahid al-Nur...Movement (SLA/ M ), and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) attacked Sudanese government installations (SudanNews, June 2005). The emergence of these

  4. Space Radar Image of Sudan Collision Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of a region in northern Sudan called the Keraf Suture that reveals newly discovered geologic features buried beneath layers of sand. This discovery is being used to guide field studies of the region and has opened up new perspectives on old problems, such as what controls the course of the Nile, a question that has perplexed geologists for centuries. The Nile is the yellowish/green line that runs from the top to the bottom of the image. A small town, Abu Dis, can be seen as the bright, white area on the east (right) bank of the Nile (about a third of the way down from the top) at the mouth of a dry stream valley or 'wadi' that drains into the river. Wadis flowing into the Nile from both east and west stand out as dark, reddish branch-like drainage patterns. The bright pink area on the west (left) side of the Nile is a region where rocks are exposed, but the area east (right) of the Nile is obscured by layers of sand, a few inches to several feet thick. Virtually everything visible on the right side of this radar image is invisible when standing on the ground or when viewing photographs or satellite images such as the United States' Landsat or the French SPOT satellite. A sharp, straight fault cuts diagonally across the image, to the right of the Nile river. The area between the fault and the Nile is part of the collision zone where the ancient continents of East and West Gondwana crashed into each other to form the supercontinent Greater Gondwana more than 600 million years ago. On this image, the Nile approaches but never crosses the fault, indicating that this fault seems to be controlling the course of the Nile in this part of Sudan. The image is centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude, 33.35 degrees east longitude, and shows an area approximately 18 km by 20 km (10 miles by 12 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: Red is L-band, vertically transmitted and vertically

  5. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...

  6. 3 CFR - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United Nations Mission in South Sudan Consistent With Section 2005 of the American Servicemembers... Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan Consistent With Section... members of the U.S. Armed Forces participating in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan are...

  7. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...

  8. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  9. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury....532 Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for...

  10. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961... Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act... services to the Republic of South Sudan will strengthen the security of the United States and promote...

  11. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the International...

  13. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  14. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  15. 75 FR 67585 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Notice of November 1, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0... National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International Emergency...

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of October 30, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the International...

  17. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  18. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  19. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of October 27, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

  20. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  1. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

  3. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...

  4. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...

  5. 77 FR 66357 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No... ] Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan...

  6. 78 FR 65865 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... ] Notice of October 30, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan...

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

  8. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gutierrez, S; Borondo, J; Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Tarquis, A M; Benito, R M

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  9. Greenwich turbine supplies Senegal with 25 MW in six months

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Greenwich Turbine, Inc. (GTi) of East Granby, CT is a specialist firm in gas turbine repair/overhaul which has, in recent years, expanded into supplying gas turbine power plants in the 20- to 90-MW range. The sixteenth and latest power project was their most ambitious, a turbine plant for the West African nation of Senegal. The engine is a Pratt & Whitney FT4C-3F gas generator and power turbine. The plant was completed and commissioned on January 27, 1995, with the presidents of Senegal and Ivory Coast in attendance. The equipment is now going through a shake-down period, providing intermediate-duty power. And the GTi staff is justifiably proud of how quickly they were able to get this power online. 2 figs.

  10. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Gutierrez, S.; Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Benito, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  11. Japan plans population assistance for Ghana and Senegal.

    PubMed

    1995-05-01

    Ghana and Senegal are among the twelve priority countries for assistance under the Japanese government's Global Issues Initiative on Population and AIDS. As such, Japan recently sent an high-level government mission on economic and technical cooperation to the two countries to conduct policy dialogue on economic cooperation for the medium and long term. The 17-member mission, including representatives of seven government ministries, also discussed the future orientation of Japanese cooperation in priority areas. Basic human needs including water supply, education, population and AIDS, and children's health; agriculture; and roads and power generation were agreed upon with Ghana to be priority areas, while basic human needs including water supply, education, primary health care, population, and AIDS; agriculture and fisheries; and the environment, with a particular emphasis upon desertification, were agreed upon for Senegal. Both sides will select projects to form the basis of future cooperation.

  12. Bloodfeeding patterns of sylvatic arbovirus vectors in southeastern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Diawo; Chen, Rubing; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Sall, Amadou A.; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses circulate in sylvatic, enzootic transmission cycles in southeastern Senegal, but understanding of the vector–host interactions involved is limited. Methods The vertebrate hosts of several potential mosquito vectors of the three viruses were identified by PCR amplification and sequencing portions of the cytochrome b gene from bloodmeals of mosquitoes collected in Kedougou, Senegal, June 2010–January 2011. Results We identified the sources of 65 bloodmeals of 82 engorged mosquitoes. Aedes taylori was the only species that fed on monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus and Papio papio). The majority of the avian-derived blood-meals were from the Western Plantain-eater (Crinifer piscator). Conclusion These findings corroborate the importance of Ae. taylori and African monkeys in the sylvatic cycles of YFV, DENV and CHIKV and suggest the possible involvement of other vertebrates. PMID:23423342

  13. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-11

    tightening of monetary policy , but still come in above the central bank’s target. Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the budget...ranked it 89th out of 157 countries. The index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal burden, weak property ownership protections, and...democratization. Pakistan remains a vital U.S. ally in U.S.-led anti-terrorism efforts. Yet the outcomes of U.S. policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while

  14. Cholera outbreak in Senegal in 2005: was climate a factor?

    PubMed

    de Magny, Guillaume Constantin; Thiaw, Wassila; Kumar, Vadlamani; Manga, Noël M; Diop, Bernard M; Gueye, Lamine; Kamara, Mamina; Roche, Benjamin; Murtugudde, Raghu; Colwell, Rita R

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by Vibrio cholerae and occurs as widespread epidemics in Africa. In 2005, there were 31,719 cholera cases, with 458 deaths in the Republic of Senegal. We retrospectively investigated the climate origin of the devastating floods in mid-August 2005, in the Dakar Region of Senegal and the subsequent outbreak of cholera along with the pattern of cholera outbreaks in three other regions of that country. We compared rainfall patterns between 2002 and 2005 and the relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and precipitation over Senegal for 2005. Results showed a specific pattern of rainfall throughout the Dakar region during August, 2005, and the associated rainfall anomaly coincided with an exacerbation of the cholera epidemic. Comparison of rainfall and epidemiological patterns revealed that the temporal dynamics of precipitation, which was abrupt and heavy, was presumably the determining factor. Analysis of the SST gradient showed that the Atlantic Ocean SST variability in 2005 differed from that of 2002 to 2004, a result of a prominent Atlantic meridional mode. The influence of this intense precipitation on cholera transmission over a densely populated and crowded region was detectable for both Dakar and Thiès, Senegal. Thus, high resolution rainfall forecasts at subseasonal time scales should provide a way forward for an early warning system in Africa for cholera and, thereby, trigger epidemic preparedness. Clearly, attention must be paid to both natural and human induced environmental factors to devise appropriate action to prevent cholera and other waterborne disease epidemics in the region.

  15. Cholera Outbreak in Senegal in 2005: Was Climate a Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Thiaw, Wassila; Kumar, Vadlamani; Manga, Noël M.; Diop, Bernard M.; Gueye, Lamine; Kamara, Mamina; Roche, Benjamin; Murtugudde, Raghu; Colwell, Rita R.

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by Vibrio cholerae and occurs as widespread epidemics in Africa. In 2005, there were 31,719 cholera cases, with 458 deaths in the Republic of Senegal. We retrospectively investigated the climate origin of the devastating floods in mid-August 2005, in the Dakar Region of Senegal and the subsequent outbreak of cholera along with the pattern of cholera outbreaks in three other regions of that country. We compared rainfall patterns between 2002 and 2005 and the relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and precipitation over Senegal for 2005. Results showed a specific pattern of rainfall throughout the Dakar region during August, 2005, and the associated rainfall anomaly coincided with an exacerbation of the cholera epidemic. Comparison of rainfall and epidemiological patterns revealed that the temporal dynamics of precipitation, which was abrupt and heavy, was presumably the determining factor. Analysis of the SST gradient showed that the Atlantic Ocean SST variability in 2005 differed from that of 2002 to 2004, a result of a prominent Atlantic meridional mode. The influence of this intense precipitation on cholera transmission over a densely populated and crowded region was detectable for both Dakar and Thiès, Senegal. Thus, high resolution rainfall forecasts at subseasonal time scales should provide a way forward for an early warning system in Africa for cholera and, thereby, trigger epidemic preparedness. Clearly, attention must be paid to both natural and human induced environmental factors to devise appropriate action to prevent cholera and other waterborne disease epidemics in the region. PMID:22952995

  16. High Prevalence of Mansonella perstans Filariasis in Rural Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bassene, Hubert; Sambou, Masse; Fenollar, Florence; Clarke, Siân; Djiba, Sawdiatou; Mourembou, Gaël; L Y, Alioune Badara; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-09-01

    Large parts of African and American countries are colonized by Mansonella, a very common but poorly described filarial nematode. Bloodsucking flies of the genus Culicoides are suspected to be the vector of Mansonella perstans, but no study in Senegal has confirmed that Culicoides can transmit the parasite. Designed specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can be used to identify microfilaria in stained blood smears. This study was performed in July and December 2010 in the southeastern Senegal, which is known to be endemic for M. perstans. We analyzed 297 blood smears from febrile and afebrile resident people by qPCR. The global prevalence of M. perstans was approximately 14.5% in both febrile and afebrile individuals. The age group of > 30 years had the highest prevalence (22.0%). No Culicoides among 1,159 studied specimens was positive for M. perstans and its vector in Senegal still requires identification. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Female genital mutilation in Kenya and Sudan.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Female genital mutilation is still practiced in 28 African countries despite international calls for its abolishment. A 1991 survey of 1365 14-year-old girls undertaken by a nongovernmental organization in Kenya revealed that 90% had suffered mutilation ranging from the least mutilating form, "sunna" to excision to infibulation. Most of the procedures had taken place when the girls were aged 10-14 years as part of a ritual where the same unsterile knife was used on several girls. Whereas 65% of respondents stated that they approved of female genital mutilation, a little more than a third would abolish the practice. In Sudan, a 1989-90 Demographic and Health Survey of 5860 ever married women aged 15-49 included a number of questions related to female genital mutilation. 89% of respondents were mutilated, and 82% of these had suffered infibulation. This prevalence rate showed a decrease from the 96% level recorded in 1977-78. Among younger women, the incidence of sunna is increasing. Most of these procedures were performed by medical workers such as trained midwives or traditional birth attendants. 79% of the respondents favored continuation of the procedure, but women with a secondary-level education and urban women showed strong opposition. Most women cite tradition as the reason for their approval, and almost half of the women who disapprove cite medical complications. This survey provided the necessary data to implement a policy of eradication of this harmful practice through increasing women's education and provoking open discussion about the procedure.

  18. 31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. 538.537 Section 538.537 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.537 Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan... transshipment of goods, technology, and services through Sudan to or from the Republic of South Sudan...

  19. 31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. 538.537 Section 538.537 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.537 Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan... transshipment of goods, technology, and services through Sudan to or from the Republic of South Sudan...

  20. 31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. 538.537 Section 538.537 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.537 Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan... transshipment of goods, technology, and services through Sudan to or from the Republic of South Sudan...

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Glanders, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O’Neill, Matthew; DeShazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera

    2009-01-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines. PMID:19961695

  2. Democracy and Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that…

  3. Democracy and Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that…

  4. Iodine deficiency among goiter patients in rural South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Chuot, Chep C; Galukande, Moses; Ibingira, Charles; Kisa, Nicholas; Fualal, Jane Odubu

    2014-10-23

    It is estimated that 2.2 billion or approximately 30% of the world's population live in iodine-deficient areas. In a 2005 study households consuming iodized salt in South Sudan increased from 40% to 73%. Despite this achievement, there are still many goiter cases in rural South Sudan and iodine deficiency remains as a major public health problem in this part of sub Saharan Africa.The purpose of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency among rural Southern Sudan goiter patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three South Sudan counties, adults with goiter were from three centers following a mobilization campaign that lasted 4 weeks for free medical care. They were clinically evaluated and completed interviewer administered questionnaires to determine their age, gender, diet, family history, drug history, and medical history. Urine samples were then taken for urinary iodine levels. The outcome was iodine deficiency measured as urinary iodine less than 100 μg per/ L. Multiple logistic regression was used to establish the factors associated with iodine deficiency in South Sudan. Ethical approval was obtained. A total of 286 goitre patients were recruited. The mean age was 38 years (SD 9), 262(92%) were females (F: M ratio 11:1), and 257(90%) were rural- peasants, 25% (20/286) had moderate to severe iodine deficiency. 174(62%) consumed non-iodized salts. Iodine deficiency is highly prevalent among rural South Sudan communities and a likely cause for goiters. Rural poor women are highly vulnerable.

  5. Nutrition and child feeding patterns in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Harrison, G G

    1992-12-01

    Only 14% of the 208 million potentially cultivable acres in the Sudan are being cultivated. Insufficient infrastructure keeps the Sudan from reaching its socioeconomic potential. Recurring localized drought, agricultural pests, and environmental degradation plague the country. Studies estimate that moderate to severe undernutrition ranges from 15% to 75% in the Sudan. Geographical location of residence and age of child were the most significant predictors of malnutrition. Geographic differences were due to local food availability and differential availability of food aid in different regions at different times. Chronic and acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in children are endemic in the Sudan. Some relatively common micronutrient deficiencies include vitamin A deficiency, iodine deficiency, and scurvy. Child eating patterns depend largely on the cereal staple in the region. Wheat is an important cereal staple in Northern Province, while millet is important in North and South Darfour and in Kordofan. Men and older boys eat meals before women and young children. In wealthy traditional households, the two groups eat in separate areas of the house. Almost every mother breast feeds her infant. In fact, traditional breast feeding is the single most important factor protecting the health of Sudanese children. Children are breast fed for 15-21 months. A 1987 study shows that 62% of mothers in rural Khartoum supplemented breast milk with bottle feeding as early as the first few days of life. Mothers tend to directly introduce children to a household diet without transitional weaning foods at around 9 months. Mothers tend to withhold breast milk during illness. The Sudan has some taboos against some foods. For example, pregnant women should avoid fattening foods to keep the fetus small and to make for an easier delivery. These findings should be used to strengthen the nutrition communications project in the Sudan.

  6. Lookback Exercise with Imported Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Senegal and France

    PubMed Central

    Nabeth, Pierre; Tattevin, Pierre; Michelet, Christian; Zeller, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    A patient with suspected malaria was hospitalized successively in 2 hospitals, first in Dakar, Senegal, then in Rennes, France, where tests diagnosed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. An international incident management group was set up in France and Senegal, which traced 181 contacts and analyzed 50 samples from 3 countries. No secondary cases were identified clinically. PMID:17073094

  7. The Senegal Project: A Cultural Foods Unit for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The Senegal Project is the culminating project in a unit on cultural foods in an 8th grade family and consumer sciences (FCS) course. Initially, students take a quick world tour by studying and cooking foods from Mexico, Italy, China, and India followed by a "more depth and less breadth" study of Senegal, a country with a culture vastly…

  8. [Bibliography: Senegalese emigration and immigration to Senegal (publications 1990-1995)].

    PubMed

    Bredeloup, S

    1995-01-01

    This is an unannotated bibliography on migration affecting Senegal. It is organized alphabetically by author under the following subjects: West African migration systems; History of Senegalese migrations; Senegalese migration in France, Italy, Spain, and the United States; Return migration and remittances; and Migration from elsewhere in Africa to Senegal.

  9. Satellite image maps of Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Georeferenced Landsat satellite image maps of Pakistan are now being made available for purchase from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The first maps to be released are a series of Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) color image maps compiled from Landsat scenes taken before 1979. The Pakistan image maps were originally developed by USGS as an aid for geologic and general terrain mapping in support of the Coal Resource Exploration and Development Program in Pakistan (COALREAP). COALREAP, a cooperative program between the USGS, the United States Agency for International Development, and the Geological Survey of Pakistan, was in effect from 1985 through 1994. The Pakistan MSS image maps (bands 1, 2, and 4) are available as a full-country mosaic of 72 Landsat scenes at a scale of 1:2,000,000, and in 7 regional sheets covering various portions of the entire country at a scale of 1:500,000. The scenes used to compile the maps were selected from imagery available at the Eros Data Center (EDC), Sioux Falls, S. Dak. Where possible, preference was given to cloud-free and snow-free scenes that displayed similar stages of seasonal vegetation development. The data for the MSS scenes were resampled from the original 80-meter resolution to 50-meter picture elements (pixels) and digitally transformed to a geometrically corrected Lambert conformal conic projection. The cubic convolution algorithm was used during rotation and resampling. The 50-meter pixel size allows for such data to be imaged at a scale of 1:250,000 without degradation; for cost and convenience considerations, however, the maps were printed at 1:500,000 scale. The seven regional sheets have been named according to the main province or area covered. The 50-meter data were averaged to 150-meter pixels to generate the country image on a single sheet at 1:2,000,000 scale

  10. Anaemia among adults in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The increased heterogeneity in the distribution of social and biological risk factors makes the epidemiology of anaemia a real challenge. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kassala, Eastern Sudan during the period of January — March 2011 to investigate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia among adults (> 15 years old). Findings Out of 646, 234 (36.2%) adults had anaemia; 68 (10.5%); 129 (20.0%) and 37 (5.7%) had mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In logistic regression analyses, age (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.9–1, P = 0.7), rural vs. urban residency (OR = 0.9, CI = 0.7–1.3, P = 0.9), female vs. male gender (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1.1, P = 0.3), educational level ≥ secondary level vs. < secondary level (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.6–1.6, P = 0.8) and Hudandawa vs. non-Hudandawa ethnicity (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1, P = 0.1) were not associated with anaemia. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of anaemia in this setting, anaemia affected adults regardless to their age, sex and educational level. Therefore, anaemia is needed to be screened for routinely and supplements have to be employed in this setting. PMID:22537662

  11. Panel Analyzes Pakistan's Internal Water Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    Although transboundary water issues between Pakistan and neighboring countries may be exciting and interesting, Pakistan's real water and security nexus is at the local level, according to Daanish Mustafa, coauthor of a new report, "Understanding Pakistan's Water-Security Nexus." Mustafa, a reader in politics and environment at King's College, London, U.K., was a panelist at a 30 May forum in Washington, D. C., sponsored by the United States Institute of Peace, which published the report.

  12. Mycetoma in the Sudan: an update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; El Hassan, Ahmed M; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh

    2015-03-01

    This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, Sudan experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991-2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old) males (76%). The majority (68%) were from the Sudan mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%). In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%). History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76%) and hand (8%) were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%), thigh (2%), buttock (2%) and arm and forearm (1%). Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2%) of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7%) had postoperative recurrence. Different types of amputations

  13. Mycetoma in the Sudan: An Update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, EL Sheikh; Hassan, Ahmed M. EL; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh

    2015-01-01

    This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, Sudan experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991–2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old) males (76%). The majority (68%) were from the Sudan mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%). In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%). History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76%) and hand (8%) were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%), thigh (2%), buttock (2%) and arm and forearm (1%). Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2%) of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7%) had postoperative recurrence. Different types of

  14. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  15. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  16. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  17. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section 538.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Assets Control's Web site: http://www.treasury.gov/sdn. Additional information pertaining to the SDN List...

  18. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section 538.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Assets Control's Web site: http://www.treasury.gov/sdn. Additional information pertaining to the SDN List...

  19. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... part 742 if destined to military, police, intelligence or other sensitive end-users in Sudan are... of the “License Requirements” section of an ECCN on the CCL. (ii) Military-related items controlled...)(1) of this section, will be denied if the export or reexport is destined to a military end-user or...

  20. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... part 742 if destined to military, police, intelligence or other sensitive end-users in Sudan are... of the “License Requirements” section of an ECCN on the CCL. (ii) Military-related items controlled...)(1) of this section, will be denied if the export or reexport is destined to a military end-user or...

  1. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... part 742 if destined to military, police, intelligence or other sensitive end-users in Sudan are... of the “License Requirements” section of an ECCN on the CCL. (ii) Military-related items controlled...)(1) of this section, will be denied if the export or reexport is destined to a military end-user or...

  2. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... part 742 if destined to military, police, intelligence or other sensitive end-users in Sudan are... of the “License Requirements” section of an ECCN on the CCL. (ii) Military-related items controlled...)(1) of this section, will be denied if the export or reexport is destined to a military end-user or...

  3. New sources of grain mold resistance among accessions from Sudan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifty-nine sorghum accessions from Sudan were evaluated in replicated plots at Isabela, Puerto Rico, for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum, one of the causal agents of grain mold. The environmental conditions during this study, especially at and after physiological maturity were optimal for gra...

  4. Sudanese Images of the Other: Education and Conflict in Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Education can contribute to peace and reconciliation as well as to conflict and strife. The complex, often contradictory role of education in conflict is explored in this article in relation to Sudan. The focus of the article is the North-South conflict, bearing in mind that other, "minor" wars and military clashes in both the North and…

  5. Child Prodigy in Astronomy: A Biographical Study from the Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleefa, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have been conducted in the West regarding child prodigies, no such studies have taken place in indigenous Arab cultures--particularly not in Sudan. The present study attempts to bridge the existing gap in this area by focusing on a Sudanese child prodigy with extraordinary inclination towards astronomy. It is a qualitative…

  6. Tertiary age for upper Nubian sandstone formation, central Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, G.; Lejal-Nicol, A.; Vaudois-Mieja, N.

    1986-02-01

    In central and northern Sudan, oil exploration is now active in the basins containing sediments of the Nubian Sandstone Formation. On the evidence of planned pipeline construction, significant volumes of oil appear to have been discovered in southwestern Sudan. A newly discovered flora from the upper Nubian Sandstone Formation near Khartoum in central Sudan is Tertiary in age. The flora is well preserved, and comprises leaves, flowers, and fruits, many not yet described. At the generic level, they are comparable to forms that are known fro the Eocene to Miocene. Aquatic plants indicate a lacustrine paleoenvironment; humid tropical forests thrived on the lakeshores. The Nubian Sandstone Formation of Sudan had been considered to be entirely of Cretaceous age; this new flora shifts the upper boundary into the Tertiary. The Tertiary Hudi Chert, found in scattered outcrops in the region of Atbara, was considered to overlie the Nubian Sandstone Formation. The authors suggest that the Hudi Chert is partly age equivalent to the Tertiary upper Nubian Sandstone at Jebel Mudaha.

  7. South Sudan: Solutions for Moving beyond an "Ethnic Conflict"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzelman, Christa Charbonneau

    2013-01-01

    Although ethnicity is a contributing factor to the ongoing crisis in South Sudan, particularly after the re-escalation of violence in December of 2013, the characterization of the conflict as an ethnic crisis is insufficient. This analysis will reframe the violence in terms of both its proximate and root causes, including a comprehensive…

  8. From College to Work: The Case of the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanyal, Bikas C.; And Others

    The transition of college graduates to the world of work in the Sudan was studied as a follow-up of earlier research on the relation of education and employment. Of concern were: higher education's response to the changing needs of Sudanese society; students' choices in higher education and their performance; the match between students'…

  9. Sudan as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-10-14

    AS7-06-1718 (14 Oct. 1968) --- Sudan, showing White Nile and Blue Nile rivers below Khartoum, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 44th revolution of Earth. Photographed from an altitude of approximately 130 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 69 hours and 10 minutes. Note quilted-patchwork effect created by irrigated cultivated land.

  10. Arabic in the Sudan: Current Problems and Future Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurreiz, Sayyid Hamid

    1975-01-01

    Using as a framework Ferguson's diglossia model with its division into a high and a low variety of the language used, the linguistic situation in the Sudan in described as a continuum. At one end is found the very formal classical Arabic, used for special occasions. At the other end is a casual form which dominates meetings and social gatherings…

  11. Schistosoma hematobium and S. mansoni among Children, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Deganello, Roberto; Beltramello, Claudio; Duncan, Otine; Oyugi, Vincent; Montresor, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a survey of schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in 2 villages in Southern Sudan. In Lui (West Equatoria region), prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 51.5%; no cases of S. hematobium infection were detected. In Nyal (Upper Nile region), prevalence of S. hematobium infection was 73% and S. mansoni infection, 70%. PMID:18257996

  12. Optical limiting behavior of Sudan III dye doped polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Allaf, A. W.; Ajji, Z.; Allahham, A.

    2010-04-01

    The optical limiting performance of Sudan III dye doped into ethylene propylene diene polymethylene polymer (EPDM) is investigated using 532 nm, 10 ns pulses from a frequency-doubled Nd-YAG laser. The optical limiting behavior is investigated by transmission measurement through the sample at different concentrations. Our results show that the optical limiting efficiency is concentration dependent.

  13. Unsafe abortion and abortion care in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kinaro, Joyce; Ali, Tag Elsir Mohamed; Schlangen, Rhonda; Mack, Jessica

    2009-11-01

    Unsafe abortion in Sudan results in significant morbidity and mortality. This study of treatment for complications of unsafe abortion in five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan, included a review of hospital records and a survey of 726 patients seeking abortion-related care from 27 October 2007 to 31 January 2008, an interview of a provider of post-abortion care and focus group discussions with community leaders. Findings demonstrate enormous unmet need for safe abortion services. Abortion is legally restricted in Sudan to circumstances where the woman's life is at risk or in cases of rape. Post-abortion care is not easily accessible. In a country struggling with poverty, internal displacement, rural dwelling, and a dearth of trained doctors, mid-level providers are not allowed to provide post-abortion care or prescribe contraception. The vast majority of the 726 abortion patients in the five hospitals were treated with dilatation and curettage (D&C), and only 12.3% were discharged with a contraceptive method. Some women waited long hours before treatment was provided; 14.5% of them had to wait for 5-8 hours and 7.3% for 9-12 hours. Mid-level providers should be trained in safe abortion care and post-abortion care to make these services accessible to a wider community in Sudan. Guidelines should be developed on quality of care and should mandate the use of manual vacuum aspiration or misoprostol for medical abortion instead of D&C.

  14. Mitogenomic phylogeny of cone snails endemic to Senegal.

    PubMed

    Abalde, Samuel; Tenorio, Manuel J; Afonso, Carlos M L; Zardoya, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    Cone snails attain in Senegal one of their highest peaks of species diversity throughout the continental coast of Western Africa. A total of 15 endemic species have been described, all placed in the genus Lautoconus. While there is ample data regarding the morphology of the shell and the radular tooth of these species, virtually nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of one of the most endangered groups of cones. In this work, we determined the complete or near-complete (only lacking the control region) mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 17 specimens representing 11 endemic species (Lautoconus belairensis, Lautoconus bruguieresi, Lautoconus cacao, Lautoconus cloveri, Lautoconus cf. echinophilus, Lautoconus guinaicus, Lautoconus hybridus, Lautoconus senegalensis, Lautoconus mercator, Lautoconus taslei, and Lautoconus unifasciatus). We also sequenced the complete mt genome of Lautoconus guanche from the Canary Islands, which has been related to the cones endemic to Senegal. All mt genomes share the same gene arrangement, which conforms to the consensus reported for Conidae, Neogastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods recovered three major lineages, whose divergence coincided in time with sea level and ocean current changes as well as temperature fluctuations during the Messinian salinity crisis and the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Furthermore, the three lineages corresponded to distinct types of radular tooth (robust, small, and elongated), suggesting that dietary specialization could be an additional evolutionary driver in the diversification of the cones endemic to Senegal. The reconstructed phylogeny showed several cases of phenotypic convergence (cryptic species) and questions the validity of some species (ecotypes or phenotypic plasticity), both results having important taxonomic and conservation consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The management of the Diama reservoir (Senegal River)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvail, S.; Hamerlynck, O.

    2003-04-01

    The Senegal River is regulated by 2 dams built in the 1980's by the "Organisation pour la Mise en Valeur du fleuve Sénégal" (OMVS), a river basin management organisation grouping Mali, Senegal and Mauritania. The initial objectives of OMVS, which were to regulate the Senegal flows in order to develop irrigated agriculture, produce hydropower and facilitate river navigation has been only partially met. The maintenance of the annual flood by the upstream dam (Manantali), initially to be phased out when irrigated agriculture would have replaced the traditional recession agriculture, is now scheduled to continue indefinitely on the basis of socio-economic and environmental concerns. This change of mindset has however not affected the management of the downstream dam (Diama). Initially conceived as a salt-wedge dam, its function evolved to a reservoir dam with a high and constant water level. During the dry season, the water level is maintained high and constant in order to reduce the pumping costs for the irrigated agriculture in the delta. During the flood season (July-October) the dam is primarily managed for risk avoidance: limit flooding downstream of the dam (especially the city of St. Louis) and secure the infrastructure of the dam itself. The permanent freshwater reservoir lake has adverse effects on ecosystems, on human and animal health and a high social cost for the traditional stakeholders of the deltaic floodplain (fishermen, livestock keepers and gatherers). Upstream of the reservoir there is an excess of stagnant freshwater and managers are confronted with the development of invasive species while substantial downstream flooding is essential for the estuarine ecosystems and local livelihoods. The presentation will review the different approaches to the management of the Diama reservoir and proposes different management scenarios and compares their economical, environmental, and social costs and benefits.

  16. Seroprevalence of Pertussis in Senegal: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaayeb, Lobna; Sarr, Jean Biram; Ndiath, Mamadou O.; Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Seck, Modou; Schacht, Anne-Marie; Remoué, Franck; Hermann, Emmanuel; Riveau, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Background Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a vaccine-preventable respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis infection, against which Senegalese children are immunized with the diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP). Seroepidemiology of pertussis has been widely described in industrialized countries, but rare are the studies referring to it in developing countries. Methods We conducted a longitudinal survey in Northern Senegal to investigate the epidemiology of B. pertussis by evaluating the IgG antibody (Ab) response against pertussis toxin (PT). A cohort of 410 children aged 1 to 9 from five villages in the Middle Senegal River Valley were followed-up for 18 months. During that period, five visits were made to assess the immunological status of the children. Principal Findings PT-specific IgG responses were significantly different according to age. Until the age of 3, there was a decrease in the Ab response, which then increased in the older groups. Assessment of IgG antibodies to PT (IgG-PT) suggested evidence of recent exposures to the pathogen. Surprisingly, in one of the five villages the average Ab response to PT was very low at all ages during the first 6 months of the study. At the third visit, IgG-PT concentrations peaked to very high levels, to slightly decline at the end of the survey. This indicates an outbreak of B. pertussis, whereas in the other villages a pertussis endemic profile could be observed. Conclusions Pertussis is endemic in Northern Senegal despite the introduction of vaccination. The circulation of the bacteria seems to differ between geographic locations and over time. A more complete understanding of the epidemiology of pertussis and its environmental determinants could provide information to adapt vaccination programs. PMID:23119090

  17. [Acute myelitis related to hepatitis A after travel to Senegal].

    PubMed

    Ficko, C; Imbert, P; Mechaï, F; Barruet, R; Nicand, E; Rapp, C

    2010-02-01

    Neurological complications are rare following hepatitis A. Acute myelitis is even more uncommon. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of acute myelitis related to hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a 43-year-old-woman returning from Senegal. Diagnosis of myelitis was confirmed by spinal MRI and detection of anti-HAV Ig M antibodies in serum. The patient made a spontaneous clinical recovery in one month. Spinal MRI findings were normal at three months. Hepatitis A should be considered in the diagnostic approach to acute myelitis in returning travelers and patients living in highly endemic countries where prophylactic vaccination is unavailable.

  18. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  19. UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of Sudan dyes and Para Red in food.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Wu, Y L; Shen, J Z

    2010-09-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes (Sudan Red G, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan Red 7B and Sudan IV) and Para Red in food by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and water added into the extract. The supernatant was analysed by UPLC-MS/MS after refrigeration and centrifugation. The sample was separated on an Acquity BEH C(18) column, and detected by MS/MS with the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Matrix calibration was used for quantitative testing of the method. The linear matrix calibrations of Sudan dyes and Para Red were 2-50 and 10-250 ng g(-1), respectively, and the regression coefficients were >0.9945. The recoveries were 83.4-112.3% with good coefficients of variation of 2.0-10.8%. The limits of detection were between 0.3 and 1.4 ng g(-1) for the six Sudan dyes, and between 3.7 and 6.0 ng g(-1) for Para Red. The limits of quantification were between 0.9 and 4.8 ng g(-1) for the six Sudan dyes, and between 12.2 and 19.8 ng g(-1) for Para Red.

  20. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever (subsequently named Ebola haemorrhagic fever) occurred in southern Sudan between June and November 1976. There was a total of 284 cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, 213 in Maridi, 3 in Tembura, and 1 in Juba. The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory. The disease in Maridi was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital. Transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, it appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba Zone of Zaire. In this outbreak Ebola haemorrhagic fever was a unique clinical disease with a high mortality rate (53% overall) and a prolonged recovery period in those who survived. Beginning with an influenza-like syndrome, including fever, headache, and joint and muscle pains, the disease soon caused diarrhoea (81%), vomiting (59%), chest pain (83%), pain and dryness of the throat (63%), and rash (52%). Haemorrhagic manifestations were common (71%), being present in half of the recovered cases and in almost all the fatal cases. Two post mortems were carried out on patients in November 1976. The histopathological findings resembled those of an acute viral infection and although the features were characteristic they were not exclusively diagnostic. They closely resembled the features described in Marburg virus infection, with focal eosinophilic necrosis in the liver and destruction of lymphocytes and their replacement by plasma cells. One case had evidence of renal tubular necrosis. Two strains of Ebola virus were isolated from acute phase sera collected from acutely ill patients in Maridi hospital during the investigation in November 1976. Antibodies to Ebola virus were detected by immunofluorescence in 42 of 48 patients in Maridi who

  1. Blinding trachoma in postconflict southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ole-Sempele, Francis; Onsarigo, Alice; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul

    2006-12-01

    Trachoma is a leading cause of preventable blindness. Reports from eye surgery camps and anecdotal data indicated that blinding trachoma is a serious cause of visual impairment in Mankien payam (district) of southern Sudan. We conducted this study to estimate the prevalence of trachoma, estimate targets for interventions, and establish a baseline for monitoring and evaluation. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2005. A two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample population. Participants were examined for trachoma by experienced graders using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme. A total of 3,567 persons were examined (89.7% of those enumerated) of whom 2,017 were children aged less than 15 y and 1,550 were aged 15 y and above. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1-9 y was: trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) = 57.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.5%-60.4%); trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) = 39.8% (95% CI, 36.3%-43.5%); and TF and/or TI (active trachoma) = 63.3% (95% CI, 60.1%-66.4%). Prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis was 9.6% (95% CI, 8.4%-10.9%) in all ages, 2.3% (95% CI, 1.6%-3.2%) in children aged under 15 y, and 19.2% (95% CI, 17.0%-21.7%) in adults. Men were equally affected by trichiasis as women: odds ratio = 1.09 (95% CI, 0.81%-1.47%). It is estimated that there are up to 5,344 persons requiring trichiasis surgery in Mankien payam. Trachoma is a serious public health problem in Mankien, and the high prevalence of trichiasis in children underscores the severity of blinding trachoma. There is an urgent need to implement the surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental change (SAFE) strategy for trachoma control in Mankien payam, and the end of the 21-y civil war affords an opportunity to do this.

  2. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-04

    of monetary policy , but still come in above the central bank’s target. Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the budget deficit will...index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal burden, weak property ownership protections, and limited financial freedoms.155 Corruption is...Yet the outcomes of U.S. policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while not devoid of meaningful successes, have seen a failure to neutralize anti-Western

  3. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-23

    but still come in above the central bank’s target. Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the budget deficit will widen slightly, as...Pakistan’s economy as being “mostly unfree” and ranked it 89th out of 157 countries. The index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal ... policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while not devoid of meaningful successes, have neither neutralized anti-Western militants and reduced religious

  4. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-18

    Spurred by an expansionary , pro-growth fiscal policy , the budget deficit will widen slightly, as will the current account deficit. The medium-term...ranked it 89th out of 157 countries. The index identified restrictive trade policies , a heavy fiscal burden, weak property ownership protections, and...anti-terrorism efforts. Yet the outcomes of U.S. policies toward Pakistan since 9/11, while not devoid of meaningful successes, have neither

  5. Internal Security Threats to Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Niazi Qazi Hussain Ahmed Mln Fazlur Rehman Mln Sami-ul-Haq Allam Ahsan llali Zahir Armed Militias Apparently none Hizb-ul-Mujahiddin...special tribute to Bannett Jones, Christopher Jaffrelot, Rodney W. Jones, P.W. Singer, John M . Olin, Stephen Philip Cohen, Jessica Stern, Riffat... Hussain , Iftikhar H. Malik, Shahid Javed Burki, Moonis Ahmar, and Ishrat Husain. I am also thankful to the Pakistan Army for giving me an opportunity

  6. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-25

    beyond the operational control of its nominal administrators. Yet many informed observers conclude that the ISI, while sometimes willing to “push the...on Pakistani- controlled territory. With indications that terrorism on Indian soil beyond the Jammu and Kashmir state may have been linked to Pakistan...international guidelines; establishment of a modern, effective systems to control the export of sensitive dual-use items related to WMD; and the conduct of

  7. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, Tucker

    2017-01-01

    International trade and related economic activities in Central and South Asia are increasing as developing economies, particularly India and Pakistan, grow. China continues to emerge as a major regional and global power and has embarked upon numerous regional economic and political initiatives . A major development is the China - Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a host of infrastructure and trade projects worth over 40 billion American dollars . This report analyzes CPEC a nd its potential regional effects, including the trade security implications of the port and land infrastructure developments . As trade increase s in the reg ion and the major CPEC infrastructure projects are completed, there will be numerous implications on trade security and geopolitics within South Asia. CPEC projects uniquely intersect numerous regional situations, including territorial disputes in Kashmir, the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, and Chinese foreign policy a mbitions. A nuanced understanding of these effects can influence future policy adjustments in this region . The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of Sandia National Laboratories or the author's current and past institutions.

  8. Somatoform disorders: perspectives from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Fareed A; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin

    2006-02-01

    Somatoform disorders represent widespread and largely unsolved problems at the border between psychiatry and medicine. Patients with somatoform disorders often present difficult diagnostic and management problems. A series of three community-based epidemiological surveys of rural and urban populations in Pakistan found high prevalence of common mental disorders where the core presentations were somatic complaints. All the three epidemiological surveys used the Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI), which was developed from symptom reports by psychiatric patients in Pakistan; these enquired about somatic symptoms in the local language, taking into account local cultural idioms of distress. At a conservative estimate, 66% of women and 25% men suffered from anxiety and depressive disorders whereby the complaints predominantly were somatic in nature. People in rural non-Western cultures are not psychologically minded and do not have abstract language or concepts of emotional distress and therefore communicate their emotions somatically. In Pakistan somatoform disorders possess a prominent diagnostic dilemma. The cornerstone of the management is a comprehensive medical, psychiatric and psychosocial evaluation of the patient. Patients with multiple somatic complaints not only present formidable management problems but also often have severe functional impairments that may outweigh those of patients with other so-called severe mental illnesses. Since somatoform disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders to present in non-psychiatric settings, it is important that training about them begin at undergraduate level. It should also be incorporated in the training of a wide variety of non-psychiatric specialists, both medical and non-medical.

  9. The Origin and Evolutionary History of HIV-1 Subtype C in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Matthieu; Leye, Nafissatou; Vidal, Nicole; Fargette, Denis; Diop, Halimatou; Toure Kane, Coumba; Gascuel, Olivier; Peeters, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Background The classification of HIV-1 strains in subtypes and Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs) has helped in tracking the course of the HIV pandemic. In Senegal, which is located at the tip of West Africa, CRF02_AG predominates in the general population and Female Sex Workers (FSWs). In contrast, 40% of Men having Sex with Men (MSM) in Senegal are infected with subtype C. In this study we analyzed the geographical origins and introduction dates of HIV-1 C in Senegal in order to better understand the evolutionary history of this subtype, which predominates today in the MSM population Methodology/Principal Findings We used a combination of phylogenetic analyses and a Bayesian coalescent-based approach, to study the phylogenetic relationships in pol of 56 subtype C isolates from Senegal with 3,025 subtype C strains that were sampled worldwide. Our analysis shows a significantly well supported cluster which contains all subtype C strains that circulate among MSM in Senegal. The MSM cluster and other strains from Senegal are widely dispersed among the different subclusters of African HIV-1 C strains, suggesting multiple introductions of subtype C in Senegal from many different southern and east African countries. More detailed analyses show that HIV-1 C strains from MSM are more closely related to those from southern Africa. The estimated date of the MRCA of subtype C in the MSM population in Senegal is estimated to be in the early 80's. Conclusions/Significance Our evolutionary reconstructions suggest that multiple subtype C viruses with a common ancestor originating in the early 1970s entered Senegal. There was only one efficient spread in the MSM population, which most likely resulted from a single introduction, underlining the importance of high-risk behavior in spread of viruses. PMID:22470456

  10. Revolution, Modernity and (Trans)National Shi`i Islam: Rethinking Religious Conversion in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Leichtman, Mara A

    2009-07-01

    The establishment of a Shi`i Islamic network in Senegal is one alternative to following the country's dominant Sufi orders. I examine Senegalese conversion narratives and the central role played by the Iranian Revolution, contextualizing life stories (trans)nationally in Senegal's political economy and global networks with Iran and Lebanon. Converts localize foreign religious ideologies into a 'national' Islam through the discourse that Shi`i education can bring peace and economic development to Senegal. Senegalese Shi`a perceive that proselytizing, media technologies, and Muslim networking can lead to social, cultural and perhaps even political change through translating the Iranian Revolution into a non-violent reform movement.

  11. India and Pakistan Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    culturally similar militaries and both countries faced tremendous stresses during their independence. However, in Pakistan the military became involved...and Pakistan. Both countries achieved their independence from Great Britain. They had culturally similar militaries and both countries faced tremendous...countries had culturally similar militaries, and both countries faced tremendous stresses during their early years after independence. However, in

  12. Militancy in Pakistan: Rebottling the Genie

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Pakistan. Pakistan is very different today from what was envisioned by its founding father, Quaid-e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.1 A culture of ruling...running the country affairs in accordance to Quran and Sunnah of prophet. 32 Ibid., 517. 33 Jacob N . Shapiro and C. Christine Fair

  13. Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

    2011-01-01

    Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

  14. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  15. ASTER Captures New Image of Pakistan Flooding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-20

    NASA Terra spacecraft captured this cloud-free image over the city of Sukkur, Pakistan, on Aug. 18, 2010. Sukkur, located in southeastern Pakistan Sindh Province, is visible as the grey, urbanized area in the lower left center of the image.

  16. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  17. A Review of Pakistan School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooq, Muhammad Sabil; Kai, Yuan Tong

    2017-01-01

    It is mandated in the Constitution of Pakistan to enhance adult literacy and quality education at primary level through provide free and compulsory education to all children between the ages of 5-16 years. The year 2015 was the deadline for the participants of Dakar declaration [Education for All (EFA) commitment] including Pakistan but they fail…

  18. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  19. English-Teaching Institutions in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Tariq

    2001-01-01

    Discusses English medium teaching in Pakistan and suggests that at the moment it is an elitist preserve and a stumbling block for Pakistanis not taught through English. Indicates that exposing other students to English could counteract growing cultural and religious intolerance in Pakistan. (Author/VWL)

  20. Pakistan's Education Crisis: The Real Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naviwala, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan suffers from an extensive education crisis. Millions of Pakistani children do not attend school, and those that do must deal with absent teachers and poor learning environments, among other challenges. While this crisis is frequently discussed in Pakistan and beyond, it is often misunderstood. This new Wilson Center report, based on…

  1. Staff Development Needs in Pakistan Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Muhammad Hameed; Khan, Muhammad Naeem Ullah; Murtaza, Ali; Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer

    2011-01-01

    Staff development is very significant for the achievement of overall goals of higher education in Pakistan. The success of innovations depends largely upon the skills of instructors; but in Pakistan, the people with a simple masters degree (without any pedagogical training) are inducted as teaching staff at the university level, so it is time to…

  2. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  3. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  4. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  5. Heat waves in Senegal : detection, characterization and associated processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnacoussa Sambou, Marie Jeanne; Janicot, Serge; Badiane, Daouda; Pohl, Benjamin; Dieng, Abdou L.; Gaye, Amadou T.

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric configuration and synoptic evolution of patterns associated with Senegalese heat wave (HW) are examined on the period 1979-2014 using the Global Surface Summary of the Day (GSOD) observational database and ERA-Interim reanalysis. Since there is no objective and uniform definition of HW events, threshold methods based on atmospheric variables as daily maximum (Tmax) / minimum (Tmin) temperatures and daily mean apparent temperature (AT) are used to define HW threshold detection. Each criterion is related to a specific category of HW events: Tmax (warm day events), Tmin (warm night events) and AT (combining temperature and moisture). These definitions are used in order to characterize as well as possible the warm events over the Senegalese regions (oceanic versus continental region). Statistics on time evolution and spatial distribution of warm events are carried out over the 2 seasons of maximum temperature (March-May and October-November). For each season, a composite of HW events, as well as the most extended event over Senegal (as a case study) are analyzed using usual atmospheric fields (sea level pressure, geopotential height, total column water content, wind components, 2m temperature). This study is part of the project ACASIS (https://acasis.locean-ipsl.upmc.fr/doku.php) on heat waves occurrences over the Sahel and their impact on health. Keywords: heat wave, Senegal, ACASIS.

  6. Vision, touch and object manipulation in Senegal parrots Poicephalus senegalus.

    PubMed

    Demery, Zoe P; Chappell, Jackie; Martin, Graham R

    2011-12-22

    Parrots are exceptional among birds for their high levels of exploratory behaviour and manipulatory abilities. It has been argued that foraging method is the prime determinant of a bird's visual field configuration. However, here we argue that the topography of visual fields in parrots is related to their playful dexterity, unique anatomy and particularly the tactile information that is gained through their bill tip organ during object manipulation. We measured the visual fields of Senegal parrots Poicephalus senegalus using the ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and also report some preliminary observations on the bill tip organ in this species. We found that the visual fields of Senegal parrots are unlike those described hitherto in any other bird species, with both a relatively broad frontal binocular field and a near comprehensive field of view around the head. The behavioural implications are discussed and we consider how extractive foraging and object exploration, mediated in part by tactile cues from the bill, has led to the absence of visual coverage of the region below the bill in favour of more comprehensive visual coverage above the head.

  7. Morphological and genetic variability within Aedes aegypti in Niakhar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Paupy, Christophe; Brengues, Cécile; Ndiath, Ousmane; Toty, Céline; Hervé, Jean-Pierre; Simard, Frédéric

    2010-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (Linné, 1762) is a major vector of arboviruses such as Yellow Fever, Dengue and Chikungunya. In Africa, where the species exhibits major variations in morphology, ecology, behavior and vector competence, two subspecies have been described: a light form, named Ae. aegypti aegypti (Aaa) with highly domestic and anthropophilic habits and a cosmotropical distribution; and a dark form, referred to as Ae. aegypti formosus (Aaf), which is endemic to Africa and thrives in sylvan environments. In East Africa, both forms were described to occur in sympatry whereas only Aaf was reported from Central/West Africa. However, recent findings suggest Aaa was also common in Senegal. Here, we report on a longitudinal survey of morphological and genetic variability of Ae. aegypti sampled in the rural environment of Niakhar, Senegal. In agreement with recent findings, most of specimens we analyzed were classified as Aaa suggesting typical Aaf was scarce in the studied area. Among Aaa, significant temporal variations in abdominal pale scales pattern were detected. Depending on the season and the nature of larval breeding places, the specimens (particularly females) tend to segregate in two main morphological groups. Microsatellite-based estimates of genetic differentiation did not provide any clear evidence that the two groups were genetically distinct. Overall, these results improve our understanding of the diversity of Ae. aegypti in West Africa, where data are crucially lacking.

  8. Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes.

    PubMed

    Zakerhamidi, M S; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh; Shamkhali, A N

    2014-06-05

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

  9. Occurrence of Sudan I in paprika fruits caused by agricultural environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yunhe; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Wu, Naiying; Lu, Qingguo; Han, Wenjie; Tie, Xiaowei

    2014-05-07

    Current research has demonstrated the presence of sub parts per billion levels of Sudan dye in paprika fruits during the vegetation process, which is difficult to understand on the basis of the conventional concept of cross-contamination or malicious addition. Detailed surveys on Sudan dyes I-IV in paprika fruits, soils, and agronomic materials used from seven fields of Xinjiang (China) were conducted to investigate the natural contamination. Results revealed that Sudan dyes II-IV were never detected and that Sudan I existed in almost all samples except for the mulching film and irrigation water. The higher total amount of Sudan I in soils, pesticides, and fertilizers compared to coated seeds indicated the combination of Sudan I-contaminated soils and application of Sudan I-containing agronomic materials constitutes a major source of 0.18-2.52 μg/kg levels of Sudan I in fruits during the growth period. The study offers a more reasonable explanation for the previously observed Sudan I in paprika fruits.

  10. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Restricted business operations means business operations in Sudan that include power production activities, mineral extraction activities, oil-related activities, or the production of military equipment, as those...

  11. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Restricted business operations means business operations in Sudan that include power production activities, mineral extraction activities, oil-related activities, or the production of military equipment, as those...

  12. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Restricted business operations means business operations in Sudan that include power production activities, mineral extraction activities, oil-related activities, or the production of military equipment, as those...

  13. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and A. seyal (Del.) Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Galiana, Antoine; Le Roux, Christine; Kane, Aboubacry; Duponnois, Robin; Ndoye, Fatou; Fall, Dioumacor; Noba, Kandioura; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Diouf, Diégane

    2015-04-01

    Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. senegal and A. seyal in Senegal. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes (nodA and nodC). All A. senegal rhizobial strains showed identical nodA, nodC, and nifH gene sequences. By contrast, A. seyal rhizobial strains exhibited different symbiotic gene sequences. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and specific acetylene reduction activity (SARA) of plants. However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis (PCA). This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. senegal and A. seyal in the framework of reafforestation programs requires a preliminary step of rhizobial strain selection for both Acacia species.

  14. A gravity and magnetic traverse from Port Sudan to Abu Hamad, NE Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadig, Abdel Ati; Almond, David C.; Ahmed, Farouk

    Gravity and magnetic measurements were recorded while making a geotraverse from the Red Sea at Port Sudan to the River Nile at Abu Hamad. Much of the region is poorly known geologically and the geophysical interpretations have been constrained by new observations along and near to the traverse line. There are close correlations between gravity, magnetics and many of the major geological features of the region. Western, central and eastern blocks can be distinguished on the basis of combined geology and geophysics. The largely metasedimentary western block shows flat geophysical profiles, whereas the batholith which composes most of the central block shows minor anomalities related to its inhomogenous primary composition and to zones of later N-S shearing. The eastern block is composed largely of low-grade metavolcanic rocks but has a local basement of higher grade rocks, and there are numerous intrusions of granite and gabbro, with ophiolitic lenses within the NE-trending Nakasib shear zone. The strong geophysical anomalies over the Nakasib zone are in keeping with interpretation of this zone as a reworked oceanic suture. Other strong anomalies relate to the presence of basic intrusions and the distribution of basic basement rocks. The regional gravity profile is similar to those measured elsewhere on the flanks of the Red Sea and reflects thinning of the lithosppheric units as the Red Sea axis is approached.

  15. [Diabetes of rich, diabetes of poor. Diabetes as an evidence for health inequalities in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Dimé, Mamadou

    2013-01-01

    This paper's objective is to show how diabetes is the place of polarization of new uncertainties in Senegal and also to highlight how this "disease of modernity" is the source of pronounced health inequalities in urban and rural Senegalese areas.

  16. Aedes aegypti in Senegal: genetic diversity and genetic structure of domestic and sylvatic populations.

    PubMed

    Huber, Karine; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Mathiot, Christian; Sall, Amadou A; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2008-08-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue viruses. The epidemiology of dengue fever remains poorly understood in Senegal. A sylvatic transmission seems to predominate. However, despite the sylvatic circulation of the dengue virus and the presence of vectors in urban areas, only sporadic cases have been reported. Ae. aegypti is a polytypic species. In Senegal, a purely sylvatic form is found in the forest gallery areas and a domestic form is found in the villages in savannah and sahelian areas and in urban areas. Using allozymes, we analyzed the genetic diversity and the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations differing in their ecological characteristics. Populations from Senegal were significantly structured but with a low level of genetic differentiation. Ae. aegypti from the "domestic" populations show a decreased genetic diversity and a lower genetic differentiation compared with "sylvatic" populations. These findings suggest that environmental conditions, ecological factors, and human activities may impact the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations in Senegal.

  17. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  18. Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-01-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

  19. Tylenchida associated with different crops in Sennar State (Sudan).

    PubMed

    Elbadri, G A; Bert, W; Geraert, E

    2001-01-01

    A study was done on the taxonomy and morphology of plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) found in Sennar State (Sudan). Sixty samples of different crops were collected in the sugarcane area. Thirty samples originated from soil around the roots of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) from different ratoons and thirty samples were collected from other crops (Mangifera indica; Citrus limon; Citrus aurantifolia; Citrus paradisi; Citrus sinensis, Phoenix dactylifera, Musa sapentium; Cassia italica, Capsicum annuum, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum sudanensis, Gossypium barbadense, Ficus nitida, Khaya senegalensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, Azardichta indica, Cajanus cajana, Caltropsis spp. and Liguster ovalifolium). Seven species belonging to seven different genera of Tylenchida were identified: Paratrophurus lobatus, Scutellonema clathricaudatum, Hoplolaimus aegypti and Filenchus cylindricus. Helicotylenchus plumariae, Pratylenchus thornei and Malenchus andrassyi are new records for Sudan. These seven species were compared with the descriptions given in the literature and differences and variations were discussed. Additional morphological data were described by means of SEM microscopy.

  20. The 2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Osama Ahmed; Ahlm, Clas; Sang, Rosemary; Evander, Magnus

    2011-09-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health and economy. RVF is caused by RVF virus (RVFV) affecting humans and a wide range of animals. The virus is transmitted through bites from mosquitoes and exposure to viremic blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals. During 2007 a large RVF outbreak occurred in Sudan with a total of 747 confirmed human cases including 230 deaths (case fatality 30.8%); although it has been estimated 75,000 were infected. It was most severe in White Nile, El Gezira, and Sennar states near to the White Nile and the Blue Nile Rivers. Notably, RVF was not demonstrated in livestock until after the human cases appeared and unfortunately, there are no records or reports of the number of affected animals or deaths. Ideally, animals should serve as sentinels to prevent loss of human life, but the situation here was reversed. Animal contact seemed to be the most dominant risk factor followed by animal products and mosquito bites. The Sudan outbreak followed an unusually heavy rainfall in the country with severe flooding and previous studies on RVF in Sudan suggest that RVFV is endemic in parts of Sudan. An RVF outbreak results in human disease, but also large economic loss with an impact beyond the immediate influence on the directly affected agricultural producers. The outbreak emphasizes the need for collaboration between veterinary and health authorities, entomologists, environmental specialists, and biologists, as the best strategy towards the prevention and control of RVF.

  1. Agricultural water and energy use in the Senegal River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiyandima, M. C.; Sow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of the productivity of irrigation water is important measuring the performance of irrigation schemes especially in water scarce areas. Equally important for performance is the energy cost of providing water for irrigation. Sahel irrigation schemes are dependent on pumping water from rivers into a network of gravity operated channels. In the Senegal River valley in Senegal the cost of pumping water and for irrigation has been estimated to be 20-25% of total rice production costs. Irrigation schemes in the valley are characterized by low water productivity. We analysed rice production, irrigation water use and energy use for supplying irrigation water at Pont Gendarme, Ndiawar and Ngallenka MCA irrigation schemes in the Senegal River valley. For the 2013 rainfall season the mean yield ranged between 6 and 8t ha-1. Dry season yield ranged between 1.7 and 6.8t ha-1. Energy use for irrigation in the Ndiawar irrigation scheme was 8kg MJ-1 and 6.4kg MJ-1 in the 2013 and 2014 rainfall seasons respectively. In 2014 (rainfall season) energy productivity of irrigation water was 8.5, 8.0 and 16.4 kg MJ-1 at Ngallenka MCA, Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme respectively. Dry season (2014) energy productivity at Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme was 3.4 and 11.2kg MJ-1 respectively. Productivity of irrigation water was similar for all schemes (0.37kg m-3 at Pont Gendarme, 0.42kg m-3 at Ngallenka MCA, and 0.41kg m-3 Ndiawar). Energy use for the supply of irrigation water in the rainfall season ranged from 403 to 1,002MJ ha-1. Dry season irrigation energy use was 589MJ ha-1 Pont Gendarme and 331MJ ha-1 at Ndiawar. Reducing water use in these schemes through better water management will result in lower production costs and increased margins for the farmers. The observations from 2013 - 2014 highlight the importance of using both water and energy productivity to assess performance of irrigation schemes.

  2. [Appraisal of snakebite incidence in Senegal, West Africa].

    PubMed

    Chippaux, J P; Vieillefosse, S; Sall, O; Mafouta, R; Diallo, A

    2005-11-01

    Surveys were carried out in four savannah areas of Senegal. The studied zones had different climatic, economic and demographic characteristics. Two types of studies were performed: on the one hand, a retrospective survey carried out in health centres and, on the other, household surveys in the corresponding areas; all households were questioned in Niakhar, but only selected households in other areas following WHO method of cluster survey for vaccine coverage. Questions involved the circumstances of the bite, symptoms and treatment. The retrospective survey reported very few cases of snakebites over the prospected period. In addition, two zones of surveys were population study areas under observation since more than 20 years and, it has been possible to check certain information in the data base. In the first zone, Thies, a sub-urban area (population density higher than 150 inhabitants per km2), primarily occupied by fruit plantations (mangos, oranges, lemons) and gardens, the annual incidence of snakebites (i.e. all snakebites including those without any symptoms) reached 43 bites per 100,000 and mortality was 1.8 deaths per 100,000. In the study zone of Niakhar, located in the groundnut culture area of Senegal which is also highly populated (130 inhabitants per km2), the incidence of snakebites was 23 bites per 100,000 and mortality was close to 1.8 deaths per 100,000 a year. The area of Nioro du Rip is a mixed agricultural area (food producing and revenue agriculture) and less populated (100 inhabitants per km2). The annual incidence was roughly of 304 per 100,000 and the mortality 3.6 per 100,000. Finally, the fourth area, Bandafassi in the extreme South-East of Senegal is a mountainous zone exclusively occupied by bush and food producing agriculture, and sparsely populated (20 inhabitants per km2). The incidence was 915 per 100,000 and the mortality 11 deaths per 100,000. The population at risk involved males from 15 to 45 years. Pastoral work (agriculture and

  3. Rapid evolution of water resources in the Senegal delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngom, F. D.; Tweed, S.; Bader, J.-C.; Saos, J.-L.; Malou, R.; Leduc, C.; Leblanc, M.

    2016-09-01

    In recent decades major water developments have led to an agricultural transformation of the Senegal delta both in Senegal and Mauritania. This otherwise, semi-arid region of the Sahel band now has an abundant supply of freshwater all year round mostly used for irrigation and urban water supply, including for the capital cities of the two countries. Archives from the Landsat satellites and in-situ hydrographs were used in this paper to retrace and analyse the hydrological changes that have taken place in the region since the middle of the 20th century. The satellite archives indicate that the area covered by irrigation increased by one order of magnitude from 73 km2 in 1973 to 770 km2 in 2010. The observed hydrological changes are complex, multi-faceted and often of great magnitude. If the water cycle was representative of natural conditions in the early 1980s, it is now representative of a heavily modified system controlled and impacted by human activities. The first hydraulic infrastructure was installed in 1947 to enable the Lake of Guiers to become the main water supply for Dakar. Two large dams were built on the Senegal River in the mid-1980s that modified the hydrological regime of the river by 1) preventing seawater intrusion, 2) raising the stage of the river and of Lake of Guiers and 3) moderating floods. Another recent hydrological change in the delta was the opening of river mouth in 2003, which has led to a reduction of the average water level while increasing the semi-diurnal tidal wave between the river mouth and Diama. Each phase of these river regime changes and each step of the irrigation expansion are expressed in localised changes in the physical groundwater system. Increasingly, the retroaction from the shallow aquifer systems is observed as a rise of the saline water table. This poses a threat to the environmental and agricultural value of the region, and the salinization of the soils. Mitigating actions for this threat are currently being

  4. Malaria Risk Mapping for Control in the Republic of Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Abdisalan M.; ElMardi, Khalid A.; Abdelgader, Tarig M.; Patil, Anand P.; Amine, Ahmed A. A.; Bakhiet, Sahar; Mukhtar, Maowia M.; Snow, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence shows that malaria risk maps are rarely tailored to address national control program ambitions. Here, we generate a malaria risk map adapted for malaria control in Sudan. Community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) data from 2000 to 2010 were assembled and were standardized to 2–10 years of age (PfPR2–10). Space-time Bayesian geostatistical methods were used to generate a map of malaria risk for 2010. Surfaces of aridity, urbanization, irrigation schemes, and refugee camps were combined with the PfPR2–10 map to tailor the epidemiological stratification for appropriate intervention design. In 2010, a majority of the geographical area of the Sudan had risk of < 1% PfPR2–10. Areas of meso- and hyperendemic risk were located in the south. About 80% of Sudan's population in 2011 was in the areas in the desert, urban centers, or where risk was < 1% PfPR2–10. Aggregated data suggest reducing risks in some high transmission areas since the 1960s. PMID:23033400

  5. Ticks infesting cattle in Central Equatoria region of South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Marcellino, Wani L; Julla, Ibrahim I; Salih, Diaeldin A; El Hussein, Abdel R M

    2011-11-15

    Ticks infesting cattle represent a serious problem for improvement of cattle productivity in South Sudan. There has been limited information on ticks and tick-borne diseases in southern Sudan. This study was initiated to update the current distribution of ticks infesting cattle in the Central Equatoria region of South Sudan. The surveys for the present study were conducted at various cattle camps in Juba, Mangalla and Terekeka between December 2004 and June 2005. A total of 2322 ticks were collected from the bodies of 88 randomly selected cattle. Ticks were preserved in 70% ethanol for later identification. Seven ixodid tick species were found to infest cattle in Juba whilst six species were recorded in Mangalla and only four species in Terekeka. Amblyomma variegatum was the most common and widely distributed species found on cattle across all the study locations. Amblyomma lepidum was not found during this study. Based on these findings, it would be advisable to preempt the situation and institute containment procedures before possible East Coast fever outbreaks occur.

  6. Nasopharyngeal Cancer in Sudan: Epidemiology, Clinical and Histological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Nazik E.; Adam, Ameera A.M.; Khalifa, Eman H.; EL Hassan, Lamyaa A.M.; Ibrahim, M.E.; Hamad, K.M.; El Hassan, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study the epidemiology, clinical features, staging, etiology and pathology of nasopharyngeal cancer in Sudan. Study design: This is a retrospective study. Setting: Ear, Nose and Throat Department Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Khartoum City, Sudan. Subjects and methods: Patients suspected to have nasopharyngeal cancer were assessed during the period March 2004 to May 2010. Data from confirmed cases was obtained; it included clinical and epidemiological information. Results: Three hundred and eighty five cases were studied. Bimodal age distribution of the disease was noted with two peaks, one at 15–19 years and one at 50–54 years. The male to female ratio was 2.6:1 and a distinct geographical distribution of the disease was noted, with clustering of cases in the towns of Dilling, Kadogli and the surrounding rural area of the Nuba Mountains. These areas in the Western States were reported to be of high background radiation due to naturally produced radioactive uranium. The Nuba tribe headed the list among other tribes, demonstrating a clear ethnic predilection. Sixty-eight cases presented at stage IV. There was a predominance of Type II (15.58%) and Type III (65.97%). Patients were treated by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusions: NPC is an important form of cancer in Sudan. Some tribes are significantly more affected than others. Patients present with advanced disease. Environmental and genetic factors need further studies. Screening at risk populations that aim at early diagnosis and management of patients is recommended. PMID:24179400

  7. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  8. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  9. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  10. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  11. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  12. Releasing the development potential of return migration: the case of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diatta, M A; Mbow, N

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses return migration and evaluates the government's role in developing the potential of return migrants in Senegal. The three sections give a profile of return migrants, Senegal's pertinent official policies, and recommendations for action to improve reintegration into the local context. Although capital and goods flow freely in the global marketplace, globally, the flows of workers are constrained by restrictive immigration policies of host countries. Senegal and France have agreed to cooperate by containing migration flows and promoting migrants as agents of development, who can bring needed skills back to the countries of origin. Senegal has out-migration of about 50% of the poorest households. Receiving countries are scattered throughout the world. France receives about 105,000 and Cote d'Ivoire receives about 150,000. Migrants may be registered or unregistered. Migrants maintain close ties in their homeland and send remittances. Since 1980, France has provided specific training in Senegal and France for migrants willing voluntarily to return to Senegal. The aim is to involve migrants in national development. The Organization for Scientific and Technical Research is studying the impact of "brain drain" and seeks to enable native countries to reap rewards from their nationals without seeking repatriation.

  13. N Isotopes in Nile Sediments (ethiopia, Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padoan, M.; Villa, I. M.; Garzanti, E.; Galbusera, M.; Quistini, S.; Peruta, L.; El Kammar, A.

    2009-04-01

    , values vary from 0.51240-0.51242 for tributaries draining basement rocks only (e.g., Gash, wadi Guba) to 0.51275-0.51280 for tributaries draining mostly basaltic rocks (Atbara); tributaries draining both record mixed signals (e.g., 0.51259; Beles). Nd ratios for Atbara sediments correspond closely with signatures of volcanic source rocks (0.51271-0.51298; Pik et al., 1999), revealing involvement of various mantle and crustal components in petrogenesis of flood basalts. Corresponding Nd model ages (tDM) cluster around 0.84 Ga for the mostly volcanic-derived Blue Nile, Atbara, and Main Nile muds, range 1.2 - 1.5 Ga for tributaries draining Ethiopian basement rocks, and reach as high as 2.4 Ga for the Bahr Ez Zeraf. The different Nd isotopic signal between mud and sand samples is closely controlled by mineralogical composition, Nd and other REE being chiefly contributed by ultradense minerals (e.g., monazite), and consequently concentrated in the finest size fractions of each sample (Garzanti et al., 2008). FREYDIER, R., MICHARD, A., DE LANGE G., THOMSON, J., 2001. Nd isotopic composition of Eastern Mediterranean sediments: tracers of the Nile influence during sapropel S1 formation. Mar. Geol., 177, 45-62. GARZANTI, E., ANDÒ, S., VEZZOLI, G., ABDEL MEGID, A.A., EL KAMMAR, A., 2006. Petrology of Nile River sands (Ethiopian and Sudan): Sediment budgets and erosion patterns. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 252, 327-341. GARZANTI, E., ANDÒ, S., VEZZOLI, G., 2008. Settling-equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 273, 138-151. HARLAVAN Y., GARZANTI, E., PADOAN, M., EL KAMMAR, A. Geochemical characterization of Nile River sands; Rare earth elements, Pb and Sr isotopes of the fine fraction. In preparation. KROM, M.D., CLIFF, R.A., EIJSINK, L.M., HERUT, B., CHESTER, R., 1999a. The characterisation of Saharan dusts and Nile particulate matter in surface sediments from the Levantine basin using Sr isotopes. Mar. Geol

  14. Adsorption behavior of Sudan I-IV on a coastal soil and their forecasted biogeochemical cycles.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yong; Zhou, Qixing

    2017-04-01

    Sudan I-IV as synthetic azo dyes have been concerned worldwide and ever caused a panic on food safety because of illegal addition into foodstuffs. In the past decades, various methods are being developed to identify and determine Sudan dyes in foodstuffs. However, relevant studies about their biogeochemical behaviors and potential environmental effects are rarely reported, although it is of great importance and necessity accounting for their potential environmental contamination from various sources. In this work, the experimental studies on adsorption behavior of Sudan I-IV acting on soil (10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) were carried out, and their transport in soil compartments and between soil-water, and air-soil interfaces were discussed. Results showed that the amount of Sudan I-IV adsorbed on soil increased accordingly with the increasing concentration of Sudan dyes in aqueous solution, and Sudan II and IV were more likely adsorbed on the tested soils than Sudan I and III based on their maximum adsorption amount. However, for Sudan I, III, and IV, in some high concentrations (under the treatment of 75 mg/L for Sudan III, 100 mg/L for Sudan I and IV), the adsorption was significantly increased, and then came back to the "normal" level (under the treatment of 100 mg/L for Sudan III). It is expected that relevant researches on their biogeochemical behaviors in soil compartments, and between soil-water and air-soil interfaces would be concerned and addressed.

  15. Domestic animals as carriers of Bordetella species in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Ngom, Abdoulaye; Boulanger, Denis; Ndiaye, Tofène; Mboup, Souleymane; Bada-Alambedji, Rianatou; Simondon, François; Ayih-Akakpo, Ayayi Justin

    2006-01-01

    Despite intense efforts to maintain a high level of vaccine coverage against human whooping cough, rural senegalese areas are still endemic for Bordetella pertussis. One explanation being the potential existence of animal reservoirs, the objective of this work was to precise the carriage by domestic animals of bacteria belonging to the genus Bordetella in Senegal. Bacteriological samples (swabs and aspirates) were obtained from various domestic animals living in different parts of the country. No B. pertussis nor B. parapertussis were isolated. However, for the first time to our knowledge, B. bronchiseptica was identified from small ruminants located in Africa. The positive animals were two goats and two sheep from Dakar slaughterhouse together with a goat living in a rural compound. The fact that it was identified in goats and sheep underlines the potential zoonotic of that bacterial species in countries where small ruminants are of economical and cultural relevance.

  16. Rift Valley fever in small ruminants, Senegal, 2003.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Véronique; Lancelot, Renaud; Thiongane, Yaya; Sall, Baba; Diaité, Amadou; Mondet, Bernard

    2005-11-01

    During the 2003 rainy season, the clinical and serologic incidence of Rift Valley fever was assessed in small ruminant herds living around temporary ponds located in the semi-arid region of the Ferlo, Senegal. No outbreak was detected by the surveillance system. Serologic incidence was estimated at 2.9% (95% confidence interval 1.0-8.7) and occurred in 5 of 7 ponds with large variations in the observed incidence rate (0%-20.3%). The location of ponds in the Ferlo Valley and small ponds were correlated with higher serologic incidence (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.005, respectively). Rift Valley fever surveillance should be improved to allow early detection of virus activity. Ruminant vaccination programs should be prepared to confront the foreseeable higher risks for future epidemics of this disease.

  17. Interethnic genetic differentiation: GM polymorphism in eastern Senegal.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, M; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Van Blyenburgh, N H; Sevin, A; Pison, G; Langaney, A

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of GM polymorphism has been performed on 1,806 individuals representing three sympatric ethnic groups--Bedik, Fulani, and Mandenkalu--of eastern Senegal. Haplotype frequencies estimated by maximum likelihood have been used to compute common genetic pools between the three samples and a number of other sub-Saharan African populations. Despite extreme linguistic and sociocultural differentiations and very high levels of endogamy, especially in the Bedik and Niokholo Mandenkalu, the three populations share about 90%-95% of their haplotype frequencies in a system which commonly provides strong genetic differentiations. This supports the view that, despite its importance at a large continental scale level, as it is discussed for a set of populations from many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, sociocultural differentiation usually has little effect on local genetic diversity. PMID:2105642

  18. Post-ivermectin encephalopathy in Senegal: a case report.

    PubMed

    Massi, Daniel Gams; Mansare, Mohamed Lelouma; Traoré, Mariétou; Ndiaye, Moustapha; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Ivermectin is an ant parasitic drug used for combating onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. It works by inhibiting the function of neurons and muscles, thus causing paralysis of microfilariae. Side effects of this drug have been reported including post-ivermectin encephalopathy requiring emergency care in hospital. We report the case of a 35 years old patient living in rural areas of Senegal who presented two days after a mistake in administration of a second dose of ivermectin, headaches, altered consciousness and bilateral blindness. The workup revealed brain white matter lesions, abnormal liver function tests and biological inflammation without evidence of Loa loa microfilariae in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Corticosteroid treatment was administered in emergency and patient recovered despite the persistence of bilateral blindness. Inflammatory process seems to have an important role in the pathophysiology of this encephalopathy. We should therefore carefully control the administration of this drugs.

  19. Strategic behavior and marriage payments: theory and evidence from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Gaspart, Frederic; Platteau, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes an original theory of marriage payments based on insights gained from firsthand information collected in the Senegal River valley. This theory postulates that decisions about the bride-price, which are made by the bride's father, take into account the likely effects of the amount set on the risk of ill-treatment of the wife and the risk of marriage failure. Based on a sequential game with three players (the bride's father, the husband, and the wife) and a matching process, it leads to a number of important predictions that are tested against Senegalese data relating to bride-prices and various characteristics of women. The empirical results confirm that parents behave strategically by keeping bride-prices down so as to reduce the risk of marriage failure for their daughters. Other interesting effects on marriage payments and the probability of separation are also highlighted, stressing the role of the bride's bargaining power in her own family.

  20. Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro Resistance to Monodesethylamodiaquine, Dakar, Senegal, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Bécaye; Madamet, Marylin; Camara, Cheikhou; Amalvict, Rémy; Fall, Mansour; Nakoulima, Aminata; Diatta, Bakary; Diémé, Yaya; Wade, Boubacar

    2016-01-01

    We successfully cultured 36 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from blood samples of 44 malaria patients admitted to the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Dakar, Senegal) during August–December 2014. The prevalence of isolates with in vitro reduced susceptibility was 30.6% for monodesethylamodiaquine, 52.8% for chloroquine, 44.1% for mefloquine, 16.7% for doxycycline, 11.8% for piperaquine, 8.3% for artesunate, 5.9% for pyronaridine, 2.8% for quinine and dihydroartemisinin, and 0.0% for lumefantrine. The prevalence of isolates with reduced in vitro susceptibility to the artemisinin-based combination therapy partner monodesethylamodiaquine increased from 5.6% in 2013 to 30.6% in 2014. Because of the increased prevalence of P. falciparum parasites with impaired in vitro susceptibility to monodesethylamodiaquine, the implementation of in vitro and in vivo surveillance of all artemisinin-based combination therapy partners is warranted. PMID:27088703

  1. [Non-religious prohibitions of meat consumption in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Seydi, M; Ba, Y M

    1993-01-01

    680 persons belonging to all ethnical and religious groups in various regions of Senegal, have been questioned to know types of meat they avoid for non religious beliefs. The results show that: 25% of responses are related to prohibited meat for patronymic names (family names), reason comparable to "totemism". Camel flesh is in this group. 75% of responses deal with prohibitions of consumption connected with various beliefs. So is the case of goat meat avoided by 13% of persons, because it would transmit leprosy or reveal incubating diseases. 14% of persons questioned said that Spiegel lobule of liver must be exclusively consumed by only sons or only daughters. Meat taboos connected with socio-cultural beliefs (totemism, mimetism) have a minor impact on the global consumption of this food.

  2. Cultural Considerations for Security Cooperation Operations in South Sudan: Understanding the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Author: Major Barian A. Woodward, USMC Thesis : Given the complex operational environment of South Sudan, U.S. war-fighters must conduct an in...SOOMI IJI ttus m~ d:el ~ rrpy ofioaii!CC1plal a efl !orsemert d f1fJ ~)SICa! p:Jik:il bCM.nil’iiMi orlemreni¥T’f3S 1Jyf1e ...,_ad Nalkns or ote

  3. Correlation between NDVI and the annual groundnut yield in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Samuel; Borondo, Javier; Morales, Alfredo; Losada, Juan Carlos; Tarquis, Ana M.; Benito, Rosa M.

    2016-04-01

    A key strategy to assert and minimize risk in agriculture is to gather information about the factors that may affect the production. That is why remote sensing measurements have become a fundamental tool in this area. Between all the existing measurements, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is one of the most useful. The NDVI, which is computed using satellite images, takes into account the physicochemical mechanism of the photosynthesis in order to quantify the photosynthetic activity of a an area. A natural question that arises from the risk and hazard management point of view is if this index can help us estimate or even forecast the yield of a given harvest. Intuitively, this should be possible if a correlation between NDVI and yield is found. We have focused our study in the country of Senegal, where more than 70% of the work force is employed in the agricultural sector. Since Senegal is also one of the most important peanut oil producer and exporter, the crop we have chosen for this research is the peanut. The economic relevance of this product guarantees that a significant fraction of the soil will be used for this crop. We have worked with NDVI data computed from satellite images taken with the MODIS instrument of the Terra satellite launched by NASA on 1999. In order to explore the correlations with agricultural yield, we have also retrieved production data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. The results we have obtained suggest that a linear correlation between NDVI and yield do exist; moreover, this correlation can be enhanced if, instead of yearly averages of NDVI, the NDVI corresponding to a smaller time period -which lies within the growing season - is taken. Acknowledgements First author acknowledges the Research Grant obtained from CEIGRAM in 2015

  4. Mermithid nematodes found in adult Anopheles from southeastern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over two dozen mermithid nematodes have been described parasitizing mosquitoes worldwide, however, only two species were found in Africa. Mermithid nematodes kill their mosquito host upon emergence, which suggests that they could be developed as biological control agents of mosquitoes. Both Romanomermis culicivorax and Romanomermis iyengari have been reared for mass release to control numerous Anopheles species vector populations, and in one instance this may have led to reduced malaria prevalence in a human population. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected during a malaria study in southeastern Senegal. Two different adult blood fed mosquitoes had a single mermithid nematode emerge from their anus while they were being held post-capture. Primers from the 18 S rDNA were developed to sequence nematode DNA and screen mosquitoes for mermithid DNA. 18 S rDNA from the Senegalese mermithid and other mermithid entries in GenBank were used to create a Maximum Parsimony tree of the Mermithidae family. Results The mermithid was present in 1.8% (10/551) of the sampled adult Anopheles species in our study area. The mermithid was found in An. gambiae s.s., An. funestus, and An. rufipes from the villages of Ndebou, Boundoucondi, and Damboucoye. Maximum parsimony analysis confirmed that the nematode parasites found in Anopheles were indeed mermithid parasites, and of the mermithid sequences available in GenBank, they are most closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of mermithids from adult Anopheles mosquitoes in Senegal. The mermithid appears to infect Anopheles mosquitoes that develop in diverse larval habitats. Although maximum parsimony analysis determined the mermithid was closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus, several characteristics of the mermithid were more similar to the Empidomermis genus. Future mermithid isolations will hopefully allow: formal taxonomic identification

  5. Zika Virus Emergence in Mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18∶00 to 21∶00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment. PMID

  6. Water management in the Senegal River Delta: a continuing uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietton, M.; Dumas, D.; Hamerlynck, O.; Kane, A.; Coly, A.; Duvail, S.; Pesneaud, F.; Baba, M. L. O.

    2007-11-01

    Water management is the driving force behind the productivity of the ecosystems of the Senegal River Estuary and floodplains. It is dependent on human decision-making, but has been separated from the River's flooding since the building of the Diama Dam. The current objectives of the Office de Mise en Valeur du fleuve Sénégal (OMVS: Senegal River Development Agency) are mainly turned towards the development of irrigated agriculture on the former floodplains and since 2002 the production of hydroelectric power at Manantali. In October 2003, a four-metre-wide runoff canal, which quickly widened into a breach several hundred metres across, was dug in the Barbary Spit area to protect the city of Saint-Louis from heavy flooding. The hydraulic quality of the area downstream from the dam has improved to the extent that there is no longer any flooding there, but as the management of the dams concerns only the section of the river between Manantali and Diama, a certain amount of flood risk probably still persists. The intrusion of seawater into the estuary is also threatening ecosystems and fresh water supplies, and abruptly altering agricultural practices such as fruit and vegetable growing in the Gandiolais district. When added to the tentative efforts to coordinate the management of the two dams, with no management objective downstream from Diama, such permanent modifications impose serious constraints on the managers and residents of the lower delta. This paper presents an overview of the constraints and uncertainties at different levels and scales. This wholly human-wrought environment can be considered as a learning experience, where a large number of variables need to be monitored closely and an ongoing process of participatory analysis should be backed up by multidisciplinary research.

  7. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  8. 31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of Sudan is prohibited....

  9. 31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of Sudan is prohibited....

  10. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  11. 31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of Sudan is prohibited....

  12. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  13. 31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of Sudan is prohibited....

  14. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  15. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  16. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  17. Overcoming Structural Adjustment Policies in Africa: Strategies for Vocational Education and Training in the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washi, Sidiga; Pitamber, Sunita

    Most developing countries have been debt ridden since the mid-1970s. This continuing debt burden has resulted in increasing prices and inflation, growing unemployment, and daily life difficulties. This problem has been acute for the Sudan. Sudan received help from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1978 and negotiated new credit terms. By…

  18. The Birth of a Nation Is Only the Beginning: The Travails of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Just three years since it broke away from Sudan, the new country of South Sudan is embroiled in a violent civil war. This article examines what went wrong and why, by discussing the incredible difficulty of building a new nation from scratch following years of conflict, war, suspicion, and great expectations. How this tragedy will end is anyone's…

  19. Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "Sudan" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "Sudan Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "Sudan Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy…

  20. The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences…

  1. Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "Sudan" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "Sudan Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "Sudan Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy…

  2. Teaching the Violent Past in Secondary Schools in Newly Independent South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skårås, Merethe; Breidlid, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the teaching and learning of South Sudan history from 1955--2005 in secondary schools in South Sudan with a specific focus on national unity. The article draws on two periods of focused ethnography, from September to December 2014 and July to September 2015, including classroom observation and interviews with teachers,…

  3. 76 FR 68053 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No... ] Notice of November 1, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to...

  4. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as...

  5. 78 FR 16028 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to South Sudan, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  6. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as...

  7. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as...

  8. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as...

  9. The Cultural Politics of Language in Sudan: Against the Racialising Logic of Language Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf; Eljak, Nada; Mugaddam, AbdelRahim; Makoni, Sinfree

    2017-01-01

    The sociolinguistic repertoires of individuals in Sudan are products of institutionalised orders of normalisation. The visibility of language in popular and official discourses in Sudan is always linked with wider cultural and political projects. This paper intends to engage with and explicate this observation by, first, examining how the dominant…

  10. Sudan. A Country Guide Series Report from the AACRAO-AID Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Holly A.

    This report provides information on the education system of the Democratic Republic of Sudan, and is designed to assist college admissions officers and registrars in the United States with the admission and placement of students from that country. The report contains general information on the geography, history, and people of Sudan, as well as…

  11. The Birth of a Nation Is Only the Beginning: The Travails of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Just three years since it broke away from Sudan, the new country of South Sudan is embroiled in a violent civil war. This article examines what went wrong and why, by discussing the incredible difficulty of building a new nation from scratch following years of conflict, war, suspicion, and great expectations. How this tragedy will end is anyone's…

  12. The Politics of Writing Tribal Identities in the Sudan: The Case of the Colonial Nuba Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Linguistics is implicated in the colonial project of the invention of "self-contained" "racial" and "tribal units" in the Sudan. This paper has two objectives. First, to historicise the notions of "language" in the postcolonial discourse of language planning in the Sudan by reviewing one of the significant…

  13. Viewing the Reconstruction of Primary Schooling in Southern Sudan through Education Data, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, HyeJin; Moses, Kurt D.; Jang, Bosun; Wils, Annababette

    2011-01-01

    After one of the longest wars in the history of Africa, Southern Sudan accomplished one of the world's quickest education reconstruction programmes. Once the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in 2005, the international donor community and the government and people of Southern Sudan united under a common goal: to increase access to…

  14. The Politics of Writing Tribal Identities in the Sudan: The Case of the Colonial Nuba Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Linguistics is implicated in the colonial project of the invention of "self-contained" "racial" and "tribal units" in the Sudan. This paper has two objectives. First, to historicise the notions of "language" in the postcolonial discourse of language planning in the Sudan by reviewing one of the significant…

  15. The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences…

  16. NASA's IMERG Measures Flooding Rainfall in Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA used satellite data and added up heavy rainfall that has been occurring in northwestern Pakistan that caused flooding that killed more than 50 people. NASA's IMERG added up rainfall in northwe...

  17. Population and population policy in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1963-02-01

    Pakistan is a divided country with different religious groups represented. Since independence in 1941, the Muslim population has increased more rapidly than the Hindu population, the West Pakistan population more rapidly and steadily than the East Pakistan population. In the late 1950s the Pakistan government initiated a family planning program. The program has trained medical and paramedical personnel in family planning, added family planning services to existing medical centers, planned for a National Research Institute of Family Planning, employed mobile units to reach outlying areas, conducted limited clinical studies on some contraceptives, and used mass media advertising. Only India and Japan are doing more with government-sponsored family planning. A weak organizational structure and an inadequate number of trained personnel are the main weakness of the program. It is too early to assess the success of the program. A 10-point reduction in annual birth rates will be considered successful.

  18. NASA AIRS Detects Extent of Pakistan Flooding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-19

    This image from NASA Aqua spacecraft shows how surface emissivity -- how efficiently Earth surface radiates heat -- changed in several regions of Pakistan over a 32-day period between July 11 pre-flood and August 12 post-flood.

  19. NASA MISR Tracks Massive Flooding in Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-18

    In late July 2010, flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains began in several regions of Pakistan, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and parts of Baluchistan. This image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft on August 11, 2010.

  20. Damselflies (Zygoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Ahmed; Naeem, Muhammad; Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Naz, Falak; Afsheen, Sumera; Ilyas, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an effort to document bio-geographical distribution for Zygoptera of Pakistan. Damselflies were collected throughout the country and territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir during 2004–2009. A total of 2692 specimens were collected yielding 9 families, 21 genera, and 48 species and subspecies. Three of these species, Libellago lineata lineata (Burmeister), Elattoneura atkinsoni (Selys), and Elattoneura souteri (Fraser), are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Distribution, habitats, previous records, and Zoogeographic affiliation for all collected taxa are discussed. Help was also taken from published literature on Zygoptera of Pakistan, and specimens housed at National Insect Museum were also studied. In total, 53 species are accounted for providing an updated record for all modern taxa of damselfly fauna of Pakistan. PMID:22221175

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia: Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-15

    to "hear no evil", "see no evil" and "speak no Factories boss Maj. Gen. Mahmood Ali Durrani, an evil" are secretly decided in advance by mutual...nuclear technology, especially to the Middle East..." [Text] Whether the recent meeting between Pakistan’s Federal Minister, Chaudhry Nisar Ali , who...Nisar Ali , On his part, gave Mr Warren Christopher every obtain Russian cyrogenic [as published] rocket engines assurance that Pakistan was opposed

  2. Phylogenetic and ecologic perspectives of a monkeypox outbreak, southern Sudan, 2005.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Emerson, Ginny L; Carroll, Darin S; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yu; Reynolds, Mary G; Karem, Kevin L; Olson, Victoria A; Lash, R Ryan; Davidson, Whitni B; Smith, Scott K; Levine, Rebecca S; Regnery, Russell L; Sammons, Scott A; Frace, Michael A; Mutasim, Elmangory M; Karsani, Mubarak E M; Muntasir, Mohammed O; Babiker, Alimagboul A; Opoka, Langova; Chowdhary, Vipul; Damon, Inger K

    2013-02-01

    Identification of human monkeypox cases during 2005 in southern Sudan (now South Sudan) raised several questions about the natural history of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in Africa. The outbreak area, characterized by seasonally dry riverine grasslands, is not identified as environmentally suitable for MPXV transmission. We examined possible origins of this outbreak by performing phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences of MPXV isolates from the outbreak in Sudan and from differing localities. We also compared the environmental suitability of study localities for monkeypox transmission. Phylogenetically, the viruses isolated from Sudan outbreak specimens belong to a clade identified in the Congo Basin. This finding, added to the political instability of the area during the time of the outbreak, supports the hypothesis of importation by infected animals or humans entering Sudan from the Congo Basin, and person-to-person transmission of virus, rather than transmission of indigenous virus from infected animals to humans.

  3. Determination of Sudan I and a newly synthesized Sudan III positional isomer in the color additive D&C Red No. 17 using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Adrian; James, India C; Tae, Christian J; Ridge, Clark D; Ito, Yoichiro

    2017-07-12

    Specifications in the Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Red No. 17 (Colour Index 26100) limit the levels of two subsidiary colors, 1-(phenylazo)-2-naphthol (Sudan I) and 1-[[2-(phenylazo)phenyl]azo]-2-naphthalenol (Sudan III o-isomer), to 3% and 2%, respectively. The present work reports the development of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitative determination of these subsidiary colors. Since Sudan III o-isomer needed to be synthesized for use as a reference material, a two-step procedure was devised: (i) preparative-scale synthesis of the intermediate 2-aminoazobenzene (2AAB) and its purification by counter-current chromatography and (ii) diazotization of 2AAB and coupling with 2-naphthol. Characterization of the newly synthesized Sudan III o-isomer is also reported. Sudan I and Sudan III o-isomer were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points ranging from 0.108 to 3.240% and 0.077 to 2.227% by weight, respectively. The HPLC method is rapid (14 min for the total analysis cycle) and simple to implement. It was applied to the analysis of test portions from 25 batches of D&C Red No. 17 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) for certification, and it has recently been implemented by USFDA for routine batch certification of that color additive.

  4. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.; Kok, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Background In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities. PMID:27900934

  5. Availability, affordability, and prescribing pattern of medicines in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Idries, Amjad Mohammed

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate availability, affordability and prescribing pattern of medicines in both public and private health sectors of Sudan. Availability, affordability, and rational use of medicines were evaluated in primary health care centers in six states of Sudan. The survey followed the WHO guidelines for monitoring and assessing the pharmaceutical situation in countries. For this survey, a total of 36 public health facilities selected from the six geographic areas were identified. The survey confirmed the good availability and acceptable affordability of essential medicines in the public health centers and private pharmacies. Despite acceptable stocking of the medicines in these facilities, storage quality of medicines was low. On average, 82% of the core medicines monitored were available in the centers and 85% of the medicines prescribed by the physician were dispensed to the patients. The average score for quality of storage in store room and dispensing were 56% and 65%, respectively. On average, a complete course of treatment of malaria in public centers costs 0.62 and for treatment of pneumonia in adults and children costs 3.13 and 0.57 days of the lowest government salary, respectively. The average number of medicines per prescription was 2.3. On average, the number of prescriptions containing at least one antibiotic was 66% and 27% of the prescriptions containing an injectable medicine. Adherence of prescribers to standard treatment guidelines for treating uncomplicated diarrhea and diarrhea was 45% and 64%, respectively. The acceptable medicine labeling criteria were met only in 50% of the prescriptions. The overall availability of essential medicines in the public health centers and private pharmacies of Sudan was acceptable. Although affordability of medicines for some common diseases such as malaria and child pneumonia could be considered acceptable, it was much higher for some other conditions including adult pneumonia. Prescription of antibiotics was high

  6. Development of Automated Assignment Model for Sailors in Pakistan Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Haider, Clifton Karachi, Pakistan 7. library, PNEC , PNS JAUHAR 1 Habib Rehmatullah Road Karachi, Pakistan 8. LCDR Sukhdev 1 Staff Officer Maintenance Fleet Operation Command 32100 Naval Base Lumut Malaysia 78

  7. Preliminary field trials of acrolein in the Sudan*

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Frederick F.; Dawood, Ismail K.; Blondeau, René

    1965-01-01

    Field trials of acrolein for the simultaneous control of aquatic weeds and snails were conducted in the Sudan. Phytotoxicity studies at 25 and 50 ppm showed minor or no damage to furrow-irrigated crops, but flood irrigation of vegetable seedlings at 15 ppm was toxic. Effective downstream carriage of acrolein was demonstrated for a distance of 1.6 km at a concentration of 25 ppm. Planorbid snails (Bulinus and Biomphalaria) were almost completely eliminated (98-99% kills). All submersed aquatic weeds were destroyed. PMID:14310912

  8. [Ebola contacts' surveillance: social impact and ethical issues in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Desclaux, A; Ndione, A G; Badji, D; Sow, K

    2016-10-01

    Quarantine has been widely used during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa mainly to control transmission chains. This measure raises ethical issues that require documentation of the modalities of quarantine at the field level and its social effects for contact persons. In Senegal, 74 people were in contact with the Ebola case coming from Guinea in September 2014. Of these, 34 members of the case's household were contained together at home and monitored by officers. The remaining 40 health care workers from two facilities were dispersed in their family households and monitored by telephone or during doctors' visits. The study is based on in-depth interviews with 43 adult contacts about their experiences and perceptions, with additional observation for interpretation and contextualization.Containment at home was applied differently to contacts who lived with patient zero than to professional health care contacts. No coercion was used at first since all contacts adhered to surveillance, but some of them did not fully comply with movement restrictions. Contacts found biosafety precautions stigmatizing, especially during the first days when health workers and contacts were feeling an acute fear of contagion. The material support that was provided-food and money-was necessary since contacts could not work nor get resources, but it was too limited and delayed. The relational support they received was appreciated, as well as the protection from stigmatization by the police and follow-up workers. But the information delivered to contacts was insufficient, and some of them, including health workers, had little knowledge about EVD and Ebola transmission, which caused anxiety and emotional suffering. Some contacts experienced the loss of their jobs and loss of income; several could not easily or fully return to their previous living routines.Beyond its recommendations to enhance support measures, the study identifies the ethical stakes of quarantine in Senegal regarding

  9. [Ethnic dimension to migration in the Senegal river valley].

    PubMed

    Traore, S

    1993-08-01

    Studies of the factors determining migratory patterns in the Senegal River Valley usually stress the importance of economic factors related to colonial domination. But when cultural factors and the social relations governing them are examined in a comparative study of ethnic groups, distinct population subgroups may be revealed to have differential migratory patterns. The Soninka and the Poular, two groups highly affected by migration, were chosen for an analysis of the impact of specific historical experiences on migratory behavior. A historical analysis of colonial archives and anthropological and historical monographs and the 1982-83 "Survey of Migration in the Valley of the Senegal River" provided data. The survey indicated that Soninka and Poular migratory patterns differed from each other, but that both differed from the migratory patterns of all other ethnic groups in the region. Soninka migration is international and oriented primarily toward Europe. It has recently become more intense than that of the poular. The determinants of migration in the two groups appear related more to the structure of households than to lack of educational and health facilities or even of food at the village level. Pastoral life and its associated beliefs and religious ideology appear to have been the principal determinants of precolonial movement among the Poular, while Soninka migration responded more to competition over control of manpower. Itinerant commercial activity was coupled with use of slave labor to ensure food production. But the suppression of slavery and crises of subsistence aggravated by colonial policy provoked ever more distant migration, which found a focus in the French demand for labor after World War II. Migration as an alternative does not appear to have been as significant for the Poular until more recently, when subsistence agriculture and the sale of animals were no longer sufficient to cover monetary needs. Male migration among the Soninka is a

  10. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Heera; Jatwa, Rameshwar; Purohit, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae) seeds are essential ingredient of “Pachkutta,” a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil) for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels; atherogenic index (AI); cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO); planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34 ± 0.72) and increased lumen volume (51.65 ± 3.66), administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:25544897

  11. A feather disease in Senegal doves (Streptopelia senegalensis) morphologically similar to psittacine beak and feather disease.

    PubMed

    Raidal, S R; Riddoch, P A

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenesis and epidemiology of a feather disease in wild Senegal doves (Streptopelia senegalensis) which is morphologically similar to psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) was investigated. Although the lesions in doves resembled PBFD there was little evidence for the presence of psittacine circovirus (PsCV). Haemagglutination activity (HA) using type A galah (Eolophus roseicapillus) erythro-cytes was not detected in feathers or livers of affected doves as would occur in PBFD. Low concentrations of HA excreted in the faeces of affected doves was not caused by psittacine circovirus (PsCV) because the antigen in faeces also caused haemagglutination of PsCV-insensitive type B galah erythrocyte and was not inhibited by anti-PsCV antibody. Similar HA of unknown cause was also detected in faeces from clinically normal Senegal doves. Anti-PsCV haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody was not detected in the serum of affected doves or in the blood of 206 clinically normal wild Senegal doves or 17 captive columbid birds in close contact with a flock of psittacine birds that was known to be PsCV-infected. Senegal doves also failed to seroconvert after two inoculations with PsCV purified from the feathers of a PBFD-affected long-billed corella (Cacatua tenuirostris). The results indicate that the feather disease seen in feral Senegal doves in Perth is not due to PsCV although the possibility that it is due to another antigenically distinct circovirus was not eliminated.

  12. Low seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among pregnant women in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diawara, Silman; Toure Kane, Coumba; Legoff, Jérôme; Gaye, Astou Gueye; Mboup, Souleymane; Bélec, Laurent

    2008-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is considered as a major co-factor of both sexual transmission and acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV epidemic in Senegal is characterized by a remarkable and stable low prevalence. Whether HSV-2 may also constitute a possible co-factor favouring the spreading of HIV epidemic in Senegal is yet unknown. This prompted us to evaluate the HSV-2 seroprevalence in the sentinel population of pregnant women in Senegal. Two hundred and sixty pregnant women attending Roi Baudouin maternity in the capital city Dakar (n = 14; 135) and the antenatal clinic in Kaolack (n = 125), the third city of Senegal, were prospectively recruited between March and August 2003. Fifty-six women (22%) were positive for HSV-2 serology. The prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity was higher in women living in Dakar (26%) than in those living in Kaolack (16%) (P < 0.01). Only two women from Dakar and two other from Kaolack were found to be HIV-1-infected. Our observations suggest a seemingly low seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection in adult women Senegal, comparable with those usually reported in Western countries. Further, epidemiological surveys are needed to confirm these results in the general population.

  13. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ram, Heera; Jatwa, Rameshwar; Purohit, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae) seeds are essential ingredient of "Pachkutta," a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil) for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels; atherogenic index (AI); cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO); planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34 ± 0.72) and increased lumen volume (51.65 ± 3.66), administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics.

  14. Unconventional Warfare and Counterinsurgency in Pakistan: A Brief History

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    When British India was divided, Pakistan inherited 18 percent of the subcontinent’s population, but only 10 percent of its industrial base and 6...Daily Times (Pakistan), July 6, 2004. 56 Naveed Miraj, “250 Tribesmen to be Freed in Wana, Shakai,” The News (Pakistan), November 11, 2004. 22

  15. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15–25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience. PMID:25113152

  16. [Epidemiology and prognosis of childhood injuries in Dakar, Senegal].

    PubMed

    Ka, A S; Imbert, P; Diagne, I; Seye, M N; Gerardin, P; Guyon, P; Debonne, J M

    2003-01-01

    The impact of accidental injury on childhood morbidity and mortality in Africa is underestimated. The frequency and severity of accidents is high. This retrospective study includes 381 children (3% of admission) between the ages of 0 and 15 years hospitalized for accidental injury at the Principal Hospital in Dakar, Senegal, between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2000. The annual incidence of childhood injury doubled over the 4-year study period. Mean age was 48 months and the M/F sex ratio was 1.7. The causes were trauma (n = 184) due to domestic accidents (n = 109 including 91 falls) or road accidents (n = 75), poisoning (n = 129 including 38 caustic soda burns), foreign body aspiration or ingestion (n = 30), burns (n = 18), and miscellaneous accidents (n = 20). Most fatalities (9%) were due to road accidents and falls. Rapid uncontrolled urbanization and problems of displaced rural populations in adapting to city living may account for the high frequency of falls from high buildings and road accidents. As in industrialized countries road accidents, though not the most frequent, are the most lethal. Lack of emergency services accounts for severity. Vigorous information campaigns and prevention action will be needed to lower the high morbidity and mortality of childhood injury in developing countries.

  17. Spatial dynamics of pertussis in a small region of Senegal.

    PubMed Central

    Broutin, Hélène; Elguero, Eric; Simondon, François; Guégan, Jean-François

    2004-01-01

    Extended time-series analysis of infectious diseases raises two issues: the spread of disease, and its persistence in space and time. Most studies are based on both data and models, corresponding to conditions encountered in developed countries. The present work sought to determine the impact of local heterogeneity on these two issues, regarding pertussis in tropical conditions. First, we tested the 'cities and villages' model in a small community of 30 villages in rural Senegal. Second, we focused on the impact of population size and density, as well as geographic distance, on population dynamics of pertussis. Results showed that pertussis initially arrived in urban centres, and then spread to surrounding areas. Both population size and density are implicated in the persistence of pertussis within the study area, whereas geographical distance between villages is not. This is the first study on pertussis in a developing country carried out on a very fine spatial scale. Furthermore, it confirms previous results for measles in England and Wales. PMID:15475327

  18. [Conditions of dental extractions in areas health centers of Senegal].

    PubMed

    Faye, D; Tine, S D; Cisse, D; Lo, C M; Mbodj, El B; Diouf, M; Diallo, P D

    2009-12-01

    Dental extraction is a surgical act frequently carried out in the African dental structures. It requires the rigorous respect of the conditions of asepsis and antisepsis. Equipments and anaesthetic and avulsional products must be also sufficient. Our study undertaken among 46 dental services in areas health centers of Senegal aimed to determine the conditions under which dental extractions are carried out. The principle results of our study showed that 93% of dental practitioners wore sterilized gloves. 49% of the dentist's care activity consisted in dental extractions. 50% of the practitioners re-use anaesthetic needles, 2% re-use anaesthetic carpules. We noticed that the dental structures were facing a deficit of materials and products of extraction. Face to the outbreak of serious illnesses as infections of HIV and Hepatitis B, the practitioner and his team must be sensitized and trained to struggle against the transmissible infections and to carry out the dental extraction only if the conditions of asepsis and antisepsis are joined together. A pleading towards the medical authorities must be done to support the services in equipments and periodic renewals of the materials and products of extractions.

  19. Spatial dynamics of pertussis in a small region of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Broutin, Hélène; Elguero, Eric; Simondon, François; Guégan, Jean-François

    2004-10-22

    Extended time-series analysis of infectious diseases raises two issues: the spread of disease, and its persistence in space and time. Most studies are based on both data and models, corresponding to conditions encountered in developed countries. The present work sought to determine the impact of local heterogeneity on these two issues, regarding pertussis in tropical conditions. First, we tested the 'cities and villages' model in a small community of 30 villages in rural Senegal. Second, we focused on the impact of population size and density, as well as geographic distance, on population dynamics of pertussis. Results showed that pertussis initially arrived in urban centres, and then spread to surrounding areas. Both population size and density are implicated in the persistence of pertussis within the study area, whereas geographical distance between villages is not. This is the first study on pertussis in a developing country carried out on a very fine spatial scale. Furthermore, it confirms previous results for measles in England and Wales.

  20. Genetic characterization of Moniezia species in Senegal and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Diop, Gora; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Ito, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Genetic diversity of Moniezia spp. from domestic ruminants in Senegal and Ethiopia was investigated based on the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA). A total of 64 adult tapeworms were collected from sheep, goat and cattle, and the tapeworms from cattle were all morphologically identified as Moniezia benedeni. On the other hand, the tapeworms obtained from sheep and goat were identified as Moniezia expansa or could not be identified because of the lack of diagnostic morphologic character, i.e. interproglottidal glands (IPGs). Phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 gene sequences revealed that the worms from sheep/goat and cattle formed distinct clades, and three mitochondrial lineages were confirmed within the sheep/goat tapeworms. The maximum pairwise divergences among the three mitochondrial linages were about 3% in cox1 and 0.1% in SSU rDNA, while that between the worms from sheep/goat and cattle reached 13% in cox1 and 2.7% in SSU rDNA. All of the three mitochondrial lineages contained tapeworms morphologically identified as M. expansa, and the tapeworms without IPGs were confirmed in one of the three lineages, indicating the tapeworms without IPGs were also M. expansa.

  1. Regulating sex work: subjectivity and stigma in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ellen E

    2017-01-01

    Senegal provides a unique example of a sub-Saharan African country with a legal framework for the regulation of commercial sex work. While registering as a legal sex worker affords women access to valuable social and medical resources, sex work is condemned by Senegalese society. Women who engage in sex work occupy a socially marginal status and confront a variety of stigmatising discourses and practices that legitimate their marginality. This paper examines two institutions that provide social and medical services to registered sex workers in Dakar: a medical clinic and a non-governmental organisation. It highlights the discourses about sex work that women encounter within these institutions and in their everyday lives. Women's accounts reveal a variety of strategies for managing stigma, from discretion and deception to asserting self-worth. As registered sex workers negotiate their precarious social position, their strategies both reproduce and challenge stigmatising representations of sex work. Their experiences demonstrate the contradictory outcomes of the Senegalese approach to regulating sex work.

  2. Energy assessment of Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goering, P.

    1986-11-01

    This report is an overview of the energy market in four West African countries: The Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal. We feel these countries are representative of the West African region. Together they account for 75% of the total energy use in West Africa, 78% of GDP, and 76% of population. The purpose of the study is to analyze the evolution of energy demand in the context of the general socio-economic background of the region. The study also examines energy supply and trade related to the energy sector. The analysis focuses on the study of commercial fuels. Although we have reviewed studies of wood, solar, wind, and agricultural residues, we leave out detailed discussions of these non-commercial energy forms. The first part of the report is an assessment of the trends in energy demand in the four study countries. We discuss the main factors driving energy demand sector by sector. This is followed by a review of the primary energy resources of the countries, and of the capacity for production of secondary fuels. The last section looks at energy trade, with particular emphasis on the role of the United States.

  3. Oceanic influence on seasonal malaria outbreaks over Senegal and Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diouf, Ibrahima; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Belen; Deme, Abdoulaye; Cisse Cisse, Moustapha; Ndione Ndione, Jaques-Andre; Gaye, Amadou T.; Suarez, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Beyond assessment and analysis of observed and simulated malaria parameters, this study is furthermore undertaken in the framework of predictability of malaria outbreaks in Senegal and remote regions in Sahel, which are found to take place two months after the rainy season. The predictors are the sea surface temperature anomalous patterns at different ocean basins mainly over the Pacific and Atlantic as they are related to changes in air temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind. A relationship between El Niño and anomalous malaria parameters is found. The malaria parameters are calculated with the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM) using meteorological datasets from different reanalysis products. A hindcast of these parameters is performed using the Sea Surface temperature based Statistical Seasonal ForeCAST (S4CAST) model developed at UCM in order to predict malaria parameters some months in advance. The results of this work will be useful for decision makers to better access to climate forecasts and application on malaria transmission risk.

  4. Porcine Cysticercosis and Risk Factors in The Gambia and Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Secka, Arss; Marcotty, Tanguy; De Deken, Redgi; Van Marck, Eric; Geerts, Stanny

    2010-01-01

    During a stratified cross-sectional survey, 1705 pigs were sampled from 279 randomly selected households, 63 randomly selected communities and villages, from four study areas in The Gambia and Senegal during the period October 2007 to January 2008. Porcine cysticercosis prevalence detected by tongue inspection at animal level per study area ranged from 0.1% to 1.0%. Using an antigen-detection ELISA the seroprevalence of cysticercosis at both community/village and animal levels for the four selected study areas is: Western region 80.0% (95%CI: 52.4%–93.6%) and 4.8% (95%CI: 3.4%–6.5%), Bignona 86.7% (95%CI: 59.8%–96.6%) and 8.9% (95%CI: 5.0%–15.5%), Kolda 82.4% (95%CI: 46.8%–96.1%) and 13.2% (95%CI: 10.8%–16.0%), and Ziguinchor 81.3% (95%CI: 43.5%–96.1%) and 6.4% (95%CI: 4.0%–10.1%), respectively. No risk factors for cysticercosis were found significant in this study. This study proved that porcine cysticercosis is endemic and distributed widely in the study areas though its incidence might be suppressed by the generalised use of toilets and latrines in the study areas. PMID:20981349

  5. Modeling malaria genomics reveals transmission decline and rebound in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Rachel F; Schaffner, Stephen F; Wenger, Edward A; Proctor, Joshua L; Chang, Hsiao-Han; Wong, Wesley; Baro, Nicholas; Ndiaye, Daouda; Fall, Fatou Ba; Ndiop, Medoune; Ba, Mady; Milner, Danny A; Taylor, Terrie E; Neafsey, Daniel E; Volkman, Sarah K; Eckhoff, Philip A; Hartl, Daniel L; Wirth, Dyann F

    2015-06-02

    To study the effects of malaria-control interventions on parasite population genomics, we examined a set of 1,007 samples of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum collected in Thiès, Senegal between 2006 and 2013. The parasite samples were genotyped using a molecular barcode of 24 SNPs. About 35% of the samples grouped into subsets with identical barcodes, varying in size by year and sometimes persisting across years. The barcodes also formed networks of related groups. Analysis of 164 completely sequenced parasites revealed extensive sharing of genomic regions. In at least two cases we found first-generation recombinant offspring of parents whose genomes are similar or identical to genomes also present in the sample. An epidemiological model that tracks parasite genotypes can reproduce the observed pattern of barcode subsets. Quantification of likelihoods in the model strongly suggests a reduction of transmission from 2006-2010 with a significant rebound in 2012-2013. The reduced transmission and rebound were confirmed directly by incidence data from Thiès. These findings imply that intensive intervention to control malaria results in rapid and dramatic changes in parasite population genomics. The results also suggest that genomics combined with epidemiological modeling may afford prompt, continuous, and cost-effective tracking of progress toward malaria elimination.

  6. Legislating Change? Responses to Criminalizing Female Genital Cutting in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Shell-Duncan, Bettina; Hernlund, Ylva; Wander, Katherine; Moreau, Amadou

    2014-01-01

    Although the international community has recently promoted legislation as an important reform strategy for ending female genital cutting (FGC), there exist divergent views on its potential effects. Supporters argue that legal prohibition of FGC has a general deterrent effect, while others argue legislation can be perceived as coercive, and derail local efforts to end the practice. This study examines the range of responses observed in rural Senegal, where a 1999 anti-FGC law was imposed on communities in which the practice was being actively contested and targeted for elimination. Drawing on data from a mixed-methods study, we analyze responses in relation to two leading theories on social regulation, the law and economics and law and society paradigms, which make divergent predictions on the interplay between social norms and legal norms. Among supporters of FGC, legal norms ran counter to social norms, and did little to deter the practice, and in some instances incited reactance or drove the practice underground. Conversely, where FGC was being contested, legislation served to strengthen the stance of those contemplating or favoring abandonment. We conclude that legislation can complement other reform strategies by creating an “enabling environment” that supports those who have or wish to abandon FGC. PMID:24771947

  7. Diaspora, faith, and science: building a Mouride hospital in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ellen E; Babou, Cheikh Anta

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a development initiative spearheaded by the members of a transnational diaspora – the creation of a medical hospital in the holy city of Touba in central Senegal. Although the construction of the hospital is decidedly a philanthropic project, Hôpital Matlaboul Fawzaini is better understood as part of the larger place-making project of the Muridiyya and the pursuit of symbolic capital by a particular Mouride "dahira". The "dahira's" project illuminates important processes of forging global connections and transnational localities, and underscores the importance of understanding the complex motivations behind diaspora development. The hospital's history reveals the delicate negotiations between state actors and diaspora organizations, and the complexities of public–private partnerships for development. In a reversal of state withdrawal in the neo-liberal era, a diaspora association was able to wrest new financial commitments from the state by completing a large infrastructure project. Despite this success, we argue that these kinds of projects, which are by nature uneven and sporadic, reflect particular historical conjunctures and do not offer a panacea for the failure of state-led development.

  8. A climate distribution model of malaria transmission in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Musa, Mohammed I; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Hashim, Nor R; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy

    2012-11-01

    Malaria remains a major health problem in Sudan. With a population exceeding 39 million, there are around 7.5 million cases and 35,000 deaths every year. The predicted distribution of malaria derived from climate factors such as maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity was compared with the actual number of malaria cases in Sudan for the period 2004 to 2010. The predictive calculations were done by fuzzy logic suitability (FLS) applied to the numerical distribution of malaria transmission based on the life cycle characteristics of the Anopheles mosquito accounting for the impact of climate factors on malaria transmission. This information is visualized as a series of maps (presented in video format) using a geographical information systems (GIS) approach. The climate factors were found to be suitable for malaria transmission in the period of May to October, whereas the actual case rates of malaria were high from June to November indicating a positive correlation. While comparisons between the prediction model for June and the case rate model for July did not show a high degree of association (18%), the results later in the year were better, reaching the highest level (55%) for October prediction and November case rate.

  9. Sahara Desert, Sudan, Northeast Africa as seen from STS-62

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-05

    STS062-151-182Z (4-18 March 1994) --- This east-looking view shows most of the east-west extent of the country of Sudan. The foreground shows a vegetation-less and almost uninhabited region of northwest Sudan. The rich earth colors are ancient soils (browner and redder tones), a concentrated mass of what may be volcanic cinder cones (dark brown dots - center) and dune and younger river sediments (yellows). The photo would have been difficult to locate had it not been for two recognizable features in the background: a visually well-known inselberg ("island mountain" -- top center) on a large west-bank tributary of the White Nile; and the confluence of the Blue and White Nile's, with the great cotton developments of the Gezira Scheme between them (top left). The Red Sea coast is almost obscured by a dust cloud but can be discerned running across the top of the picture. The clouds at top may be developing over the coastal ranges of Saudi Arabia beyond the Red Sea.

  10. Seasonal variation and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ali, A A; Adam, G K; Abdallah, T M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in eastern Sudan, in the period between January 2008 and December 2010. The medical files of women attending at Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan with hypertension, with or without proteinuria were retrospectively retrieved. The data of patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were compared with a similar number of controls that were normotensive and non-proteinuric. During the study period, there were 9,578 deliveries; 153 patients had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, yielding an incidence rate of 1.6%. Of all cases and controls (306), there were 183 (59.8%) deliveries in winter, 84 (27.5%) in summer and 39 (12.7%) in autumn. The highest rate of pre-eclampsia was in winter (1.1%) (CI = 1.1-2.7, OR = 1.7, p = 0.004) and the lowest rate was in autumn (0.2%) (CI = 0.4-1.8, OR = 0.8, p = 0.758.). Our study revealed significant association between the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the winter season (103 (67.3%) vs 80 (52.3%), p = 0.001). Thus, more attention in the winter season might reduce the morbidity and mortality of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

  11. Oil exploration in nonmarine rift basins of interior Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, T.J.

    1984-04-01

    In early 1975 Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc. commenced a major petroleum exploration effort in previously unexplored interior Sudan. With the complete cooperation of the Sudanese Government, Chevron has acquired a vast amount of geologic and geophysical data during the past 9 years. These data include extensive aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, 25,000 mi (40,200 km) of seismic data, and the results of 66 wells. This information has defined several large rift basins which are now recognized as a major part of the Central African rift system. The sedimentary basins of interior Sudan are characterized by thick Cretaceous and Tertiary nonmarine clastic sequences. Over 35,000 ft (10,600 m) of sediment have been deposited in the deepest trough, and extensive basinal areas are underlain by more than 20,000 ft (6100 m) of sediment. The depositional sequence includes thick lacustrine shales and claystones, flood plain claystones, and lacustrine, fluvial, and alluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Those lacustrine claystones which were deposited in an anoxic environment provide oil-prone source rocks. Reservoir sandstones have been found in a wide variety of nonmarine sandstone facies. The extensional tectonism which formed these basins began in the Early Cretaceous. Movement along major fault trends continued intermittently into the Miocene. This deformation resulted in a complex structural history which led to the formation of several deep fault-bounded troughs, major interbasin high trends, and complex basin flanks. This tectonism has created a wide variety of structures, many of which have become effective hydrocarbon traps.

  12. Molecular detection of equine trypanosomes in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Salim, Bashir; Bakheit, Mohammed Ahmed; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2014-03-01

    Equine trypanosomosis (ET) is a protozoan disease affecting equines in many parts of the world. We examined 509 samples collected from geographically distinct regions in eastern, central and western Sudan to estimate the endemicity of ET using the generic ITS1-PCR diagnostic methods. Results revealed that horses and donkeys were infected by Trypanosoma brucei subgroup, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma simiae and Trypanosoma congolense. The prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. was higher in horses (12.7%, n=393) than in donkeys (3.4%, n=116). The highest prevalence was observed in South Darfur State (19.3%, n=202), followed by Kassala State (15.1%, n=86), Gadaref State (3.7%, n=82), and Khartoum State (2.6%, n=76). No trypanosomes were detected in the 63 samples collected from North Kurdofan State. We report for the first time the presence of T. simiae and T. congolense in horses in the Sudan. This study should alert veterinary services, authorized bodies to take action toward ET by undertaking countrywide epidemiological studies of the disease and adopting control strategies.

  13. Statistical Methods for Predicting Malaria Incidences Using Data from Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Awadalla, Khidir E.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in Sudan. The entire population is at risk of malaria epidemics with a very high burden on government and population. The usefulness of forecasting methods in predicting the number of future incidences is needed to motivate the development of a system that can predict future incidences. The objective of this paper is to develop applicable and understood time series models and to find out what method can provide better performance to predict future incidences level. We used monthly incidence data collected from five states in Sudan with unstable malaria transmission. We test four methods of the forecast: (1) autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA); (2) exponential smoothing; (3) transformation model; and (4) moving average. The result showed that transformation method performed significantly better than the other methods for Gadaref, Gazira, North Kordofan, and Northern, while the moving average model performed significantly better for Khartoum. Future research should combine a number of different and dissimilar methods of time series to improve forecast accuracy with the ultimate aim of developing a simple and useful model for producing reasonably reliable forecasts of the malaria incidence in the study area. PMID:28367352

  14. Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Badreldin Abdelrhman; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To assess participants' knowledge about HIV/AIDS and to identify the factors associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan. Methods. Observational cross-sectional study carried out at Omdurman National Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre, Sudan covered 870 participants. Sociodemographic data as well as information related to sexual behavior were collected. Results. Most of the respondents were knowledgeable about the true transmission modes for AIDS virus. Very few respondents knew someone infected with AIDS (4.5%), died of AIDS (8.1%), accepted to live with someone infected with AIDS (4.7%) or to work with someone infected with AIDS (2.1%). Regarding sexual behavior, 96.5% had reported their first sexual experience between 20 and 30 years, with 85.7% reporting one or two partners, and only 1.8% reported using condom. Multivariate logistic regression showed that circumcision, religion, marital status, age at first sex, number of sexual partners, education level, and misconception of knowledge are the main risk factors associated with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. Our results showed that a number of diversity risk factors were associated with HIV/AIDS. It is unlikely that a holistic approach will be found to immediately change sexual-risk-relating behavior. Interventions including sustained educational programs, promotion of condom, and encouragement of voluntary testing and active involvement of the country's political and religious leaders will be needed to alleviate this problem. PMID:23957014

  15. Revolution, Modernity and (Trans)National Shi`i Islam: Rethinking Religious Conversion in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Leichtman, Mara A.

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of a Shi`i Islamic network in Senegal is one alternative to following the country's dominant Sufi orders. I examine Senegalese conversion narratives and the central role played by the Iranian Revolution, contextualizing life stories (trans)nationally in Senegal's political economy and global networks with Iran and Lebanon. Converts localize foreign religious ideologies into a ‘national’ Islam through the discourse that Shi`i education can bring peace and economic development to Senegal. Senegalese Shi`a perceive that proselytizing, media technologies, and Muslim networking can lead to social, cultural and perhaps even political change through translating the Iranian Revolution into a non-violent reform movement. PMID:23833329

  16. Low Seroprevalence Indicates Vulnerability of Eastern and Central Sudan to Infection with Chikungunya Virus.

    PubMed

    Adam, Awadalkareem; Seidahmed, Osama M E; Weber, Christopher; Schnierle, Barbara; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Reiche, Sven; Jassoy, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Outbreaks of infections with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have previously been reported from Sudan but the prevalence in the general population is unknown. We investigated the seroprevalence of CHIKV infection in 379 serum samples from patients with fever in the outpatient clinics of three hospitals in eastern and central Sudan. The seroprevalence was 1.8%, indicating that CHIKV infections are rare in these parts of Sudan. As the vector Aedes aegypti is endemic in this area, the population is at risk for a CHIKV epidemic.

  17. Vitamin A deficiency in the Sudan: a call for a surveillance system.

    PubMed

    el Bushra, H E

    1992-05-01

    This short review summarizes all the published and unpublished reports on vitamin A deficiency in the Sudan in the last four decades. Different local terms used by people to indicate vitamin A deficiency were enlisted. There is evidence that vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in eastern Sudan and among communities from western and southern Sudan living around Greater Khartoum, who were displaced from their homelands because of drought, famine conditions and civil unrest. There are reports indicative of vitamin A deficiency problem in the central and the far western provinces. There were no reports from the northern provinces. The need for a surveillance system was discussed.

  18. Comparison of Malaria Simulations Driven by Meteorological Observations and Reanalysis Products in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Ibrahima; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Deme, Abdoulaye; Caminade, Cyril; Morse, Andrew P; Cisse, Moustapha; Sy, Ibrahima; Dia, Ibrahima; Ermert, Volker; Ndione, Jacques-André; Gaye, Amadou Thierno

    2017-09-25

    The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of climate parameters is crucial to study the impact of climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases such as malaria. The use of malaria models is an alternative way of producing potential malaria historical data for Senegal due to the lack of reliable observations for malaria outbreaks over a long time period. Consequently, here we use the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM), driven by different climatic datasets, in order to study and validate simulated malaria parameters over Senegal. The findings confirm that the risk of malaria transmission is mainly linked to climate variables such as rainfall and temperature as well as specific landscape characteristics. For the whole of Senegal, a lag of two months is generally observed between the peak of rainfall in August and the maximum number of reported malaria cases in October. The malaria transmission season usually takes place from September to November, corresponding to the second peak of temperature occurring in October. Observed malaria data from the Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme (PNLP, National Malaria control Programme in Senegal) and outputs from the meteorological data used in this study were compared. The malaria model outputs present some consistencies with observed malaria dynamics over Senegal, and further allow the exploration of simulations performed with reanalysis data sets over a longer time period. The simulated malaria risk significantly decreased during the 1970s and 1980s over Senegal. This result is consistent with the observed decrease of malaria vectors and malaria cases reported by field entomologists and clinicians in the literature. The main differences between model outputs and observations regard amplitude, but can be related not only to reanalysis deficiencies but also to other environmental and socio-economic factors that are not included in this mechanistic malaria model framework. The present study can be considered as a

  19. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  20. The United States in Pakistan: Toward a More Unified Effort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-25

    Rashid, Pakistan on the Brink: The Future of America, Pakistan and Afghanistan. (Viking Press, 2012). 14 Stephen D . Krasner , ―Talking Tough to...39 ―America and Pakistan: Sorry Story,‖ The Economist, December 22, 2011. 40 Stephen D . Krasner , ―Talking Tough to Pakistan,‖ Foreign Affairs, Jan...pomed-notes-cap-8-12-09.pdf 43 Stephen D . Krasner , ―Talking Tough to Pakistan,‖ Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb 2012, 90-93. 44 K. Alan Kronstadt

  1. [Simultaneous determination of canthaxanthin and Sudan Red in salted duck egg yolk by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanlin; Shi, Pingping; Zhang, Shufen; Shen, Jian; Fu, Xiao

    2007-11-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of canthaxanthin, Sudan Red I , Sudan Red II , Sudan Red III and Sudan Red IV in salted duck egg yolk has been developed. These canthaxanthin and Sudan Red dyes were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol, and chloroform (1 : 0.5 : 0.5, v/v). The extract was dried by a rotary evaporator. The residue was transferred to a graduated tube and diluted to 10 mL with acetonitrile. The canthaxanthin and Sudan Red dyes were separated on a XDB-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm), with acetonitrile-water (95:5, v/v) as mobile phase. They were then detected at 478 nm - 520 nm - 471 nm at different retention times by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The recoveries of sudan I , sudan II, sudan II, sudan IV, and canthaxanthin were 97.34%, 89.56%, 90.98%, 93.63% and 95.15% respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 4.7%, 4.3%, 5.1%, 4.9% and 3.1%, respectively. The method is simple, rapid and accurate.

  2. Staining histological lung sections with Sudan Black B or Sudan III for automated identification of alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jan Philipp; Pedersen, Lars; Mühlfeld, Christian; Ochs, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells produce, store and secrete pulmonary surfactant and serve as progenitor cells for the alveolar epithelium. They are thus an interesting target in wide fields of pulmonary research. Stereological methods allow their quantification based on measurements on histological sections. A proper AE2 cell quantification, however, requires a method of tissue processing that results in little tissue shrinkage during processing. It was recently shown that a primary fixation with a mixture of glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde, postfixation with osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate and embedding in glycol methacrylate fulfills this requirement. However, a proper quantification, furthermore, requires a secure identification of the cells under the microscope. Classical approaches using routine stainings, high magnifications and systematic uniform random sampling can result in a tedious counting procedure. In this article we show that Sudan Black B and Sudan III staining in combination with the previously described "low shrinkage method" of tissue processing result in good staining of lamellar bodies of AE2 cells (their storing organelles of surfactant) and thus provide a good signal of AE2 cells, which allows their easy and secure identification even at rather low magnifications. We further show that this signal enables automated detection of AE2 cells by image analysis, which should make this method a suitable staining method for the recently developed and more efficient proportionator sampling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  4. Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kari, I.B. )

    1993-02-01

    Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

  5. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.

  6. Advisory board approves Pakistan SMC marketing plan.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Under a 2-year contract funded by the US Agency for International Development, PSI Marketing Associates is providing technical assistance for the development of a social marketing project in Pakistan. The national launch of a new condom, Sathi, is planned for 1987. This new social marketing of contraceptives project emphasizes child spacing and will use the slogan, "Until you want another child." As a result of the Pakistan Government's generic family planning advertising and promotion campaigns, there is a high degree of public awareness of contraception. However, this awareness is not reflected in levels of contraceptive use. A 3-month test market for Sathi (which means "companion") will take place in 2 areas representative of Pakistan's socioeconomic and ethnic composition. All printed materials (including posters, stickers, mobiles, and shop signs) will use the Sathi logo--2 birds flying into the sun. Other project materials include a 1-minute video and pamphlets for consumers, dealers, and medical professionals.

  7. Peste des petits ruminants infection in domestic ruminants in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Intisar, K S; Ali, Y H; Haj, M A; Sahar, M A T; Shaza, M M; Baraa, A M; Ishag, O M; Nouri, Y M; Taha, K M; Nada, E M; Ahmed, A M; Khalafalla, A I; Libeau, G; Diallo, A

    2017-04-01

    The existence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in domestic ruminants and camels in Sudan during 2008-2012 was investigated. Lung tissues and serum samples were randomly collected from sheep, goats, cattle, and camels at different areas of Sudan. A total of 12,384 serum samples were collected from clinically healthy 7413 sheep, 1988 camels, 1501 cattle, 1459 goats, and 23 gazelles at different areas in the Sudan. They were examined for PPR antibodies using competitive ELISA (cELISA). The overall detected seroprevalence of PPR in tested sera was 49.4%; seroprevalence values within species were 67.1, 48.2, 25.8, 2.1, and 21.7% in sheep, goat, cattle, camels, and gazelles, respectively. The highest seroprevalence (68.1%) was observed in sera collected from Darfur states, then the central states (54.3%). A total of 1276 lung tissue samples (623 sheep, 324 cattle, 220 camels, and 109 goats) were collected. The majority of lung samples were collected from clinically healthy animals that showed lesions on PM in slaughterhouses (95%) and during PPR outbreaks; samples were tested for PPR antigen using immunocapture ELISA (IcELISA). PPR antigen was detected in 233 out of the 1276 tested samples (18.3%). Positive results were observed in samples collected from clinically healthy and diseased animals. The observed prevalence values in each species were 33.6, 21.1, 15.4, and 12.3% in camel, goat, sheep, and cattle, respectively. PPR antigen was detected in samples from different areas; however, the highest prevalence (63.9%) was found in samples collected from the eastern states, then Khartoum state (28%). Trials for virus isolation were done in different cell cultures. Out of 30 IcELISA-positive samples inoculated in primary bovine and ovine kidney cells, Vero cells, the PPR virus was successfully isolated from 15 (eight sheep, five camels, and two goats) samples in the three cell culture types. Using RT-PCR, PPRV nucleic acid was detected in all 25 IcELISA-positive tested

  8. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum Collected from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Ryo; Qiu, Yongjin; Salim, Bashir; Hassan, Shawgi Mohamed; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2015-05-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of the importance of emerging vector-borne diseases, human tick-borne diseases, particularly rickettsial infections, are overlooked, especially in the countries such as Sudan with limited resources to perform molecular-based surveys. This study aimed at detection and genetic characterization of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from Sudan. The samples were first screened for the presence of rickettsial agents by gltA real-time PCR and subsequently characterized by gltA and ompA PCR and size-based multispacer typing. The results demonstrated the wide distribution of Rickettsia africae and/or closely related species across Sudan. The results of this report highlight the need for careful consideration of rickettsial infections in patients with nonmalarial febrile illness in this country. Nationwide surveillance on ticks associated with human rickettsial infections in Sudan is warranted.

  9. Levels and causes of maternal mortality in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Kodio, Belco; de Bernis, Luc; Ba, Mariame; Ronsmans, Carine; Pison, Gilles; Etard, Jean-François

    2002-06-01

    To report the findings of a direct, community-based, assessment of maternal mortality and medical causes of death using verbal autopsy in three unique cohorts in rural Senegal. Methods from ongoing demographic surveillance systems. We obtained records of all deaths and births in women of age 15-49 over a period of 14 years in Niakhar, 10 years in Bandafassi and 13 years in Mlomp. Relatives of all women who died were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Causes of death were assigned by three physicians independently. Maternal deaths were defined according to the ninth and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases. The maternal mortality ratio was similar in Mlomp [436 per 100 000 live births (95% confidence interval 209-802)] and Niakhar [516 per 100 000 (413-636)] but significantly higher in the more remote area of Bandafassi [852 (587-1196)] [relative risk compared with Niakhar 1.6 (1.0-2.4)]. Two-thirds of the maternal deaths were from direct obstetric causes, haemorrhage being the most common. Abortion was rare. Demographic surveillance systems are useful tools for the measurement of maternal mortality provided special studies are carried out to arrive at the levels and causes of maternal death. The estimates of maternal mortality reported here are lower than those published by the WHO and UNICEF but remain extremely high, particularly in the very remote areas with very limited health infrastructure, where as many as one in 19 women may be expected to die as a consequence of childbirth.

  10. Health-related media use among youth audiences in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Accepted monitoring or endured quarantine? Ebola contacts' perceptions in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Desclaux, Alice; Badji, Dioumel; Ndione, Albert Gautier; Sow, Khoudia

    2017-04-01

    During the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic, transmission chains were controlled through contact tracing, i.e., identification and follow-up of people exposed to Ebola cases. WHO recommendations for daily check-ups of physical symptoms with social distancing for 21 days were unevenly applied and sometimes interpreted as quarantine. Criticisms arose regarding the use of coercion and questioned contact tracing on ethical grounds. This article aims to analyze contact cases' perceptions and acceptance of contact monitoring at the field level. In Senegal, an imported case of Ebola virus disease in September 2014 resulted in placing 74 contact cases in home containment with daily visits by volunteers. An ethnographic study based on in-depth interviews with all stakeholders performed in September-October 2014 showed four main perceptions of monitoring: a biosecurity preventive measure, suspension of professional activity, stigma attached to Ebola, and a social obligation. Contacts demonstrated diverse attitudes. Initially, most contacts agreed to comply because they feared being infected. They adhered to the national Ebola response measures and appreciated the empathy shown by volunteers. Later, acceptance was improved by the provision of moral, economic, and social support, and by the final lack of any new contamination. But it was limited by the socio-economic impact on fulfilling basic needs, the fear of being infected, how contacts' family members interpreted monitoring, conflation of contacts as Ebola cases, and challenging the rationale for containment. Acceptance was also related to individual aspects, such as the professional status of women and health workers who had been exposed, and contextual aspects, such as the media's role in the social production of stigma. Ethnographic results show that, even when contacts adhere rather than comply to containment through coercion, contact monitoring raises several ethical issues. These insights should contribute to

  12. [Knowledge and use of contraceptive methods in rural Sereer, Senegal].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Cheikh A T; Delaunay, Valérie; Adjamagbo, Agnès

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results from a retrospective survey carried out in a rural setting in Senegal (on 804 20-to-69-year-old men and 1,039 15-to-54-year-old women), and aims at improving the understanding of contraceptive knowledge and practice. Contraceptive knowledge was measured through spontaneous and recognized contraceptive methods; contraceptive practice was measured through the past and present use of contraception. The gap between spontaneously-cited methods and recognized methods is important. While about 80% of men and 70% of women had ever heard about any contraceptive method, only 46% of men and 23% of women could spontaneously mention a specific contraceptive method (respectively 33% and 17% mentioned a modern method). Analyses have shown that individual characteristics such as age, education, migration are all determinants of contraceptive knowledge. Married men and women are more likely to know about methods such as the pill, intra-uterine device (IUD) and injections, as a result of family planning campaigns, which have focused on these methods and targeted married women. Nevertheless, contraceptive practice is still low. Only 16% of men and 4% of women have ever used any method. Contraceptive prevalence (current use) of women is only 1.9% for all methods and 1.5% for modern methods. The more widespread use of condoms by young men (about 30% of single men have ever used a condom, against only 7% of ever married men) reflects its recent diffusion associated with a decrease in male age at first intercourse. The low contraceptive use by women reveals their lack of accessibility to contraception. Young generations are not able to find an adequate answer to their needs in the villages, where family planning still targets marital contraception. Recommendations are formulated in order to integrate adolescents more fully in policy programs.

  13. Senegal moves nearer the goals of Alma-Ata.

    PubMed

    Unger, J P; Daveloose, P; Bâ, A; Toure-Sene, N N; Mercenier, P

    1989-01-01

    In Senegal, the Thies project adopted a new approach to defining and putting health development strategies in effect for each district. This is in response to the Alma-Ata Conference which advocated comprehensive primary health care (PHC) in a development spirit. Health administration follows territorial divisions. 30 medical division cover the 30 departments and form 10 medical regions. The 1st level is the health post. In villages far from health posts, health huts have been set up. About 15 health posts are administered by a health center under a physician. A medical district is made up of many health posts, a health center, and the administrative structure. By 1984, the Ministry of Health wanted to improve the service quality and integrate the services into PHC, District medical officers (DMO) were trained in public health and health districts were organized. The teaching methods were based on the doctor's observations of local health services. The district chief medical officer is the only supervisor. But there is too much for 1 person to do. So, it was suggested that he should be the head of a coordinating team. After 2 years of the project, 25 of the 47 medical districts have a trained medical officer; 8 of the 10 regions do also. 6 of the 19 districts begun to take shape as an integrated system. There have been pilot projects which should serve as a model for the nation. However, general application of results has been slow. Training given an entry point into the health system. The project cost US$ 632,000 over 2 years, and gains have been made in basic PHC.

  14. Plasmodium falciparum population structure in Sudan post artemisinin-based combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Bakhiet, Amani M A; Abdel-Muhsin, Abdel-Muhsin A; Elzaki, Salah-Eldin G; Al-Hashami, Zainab; Albarwani, Hamida S; AlQamashoui, Badar A; Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Idris, Mohamed A; Elagib, Atif A; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Babiker, Hamza A

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, Sudan has stepped up malaria control backed by WHO, and this has resulted in significant reduction in parasite rate, malaria morbidity and mortality. The present study analyzed Plasmodium falciparum parasites in four geographical separated areas, to examine whether the success in malaria control following the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has disrupted the population structure and evolution of the parasite. We examined 319 P. falciparum isolates collected between October 2009 and October 2012 in four different areas in Sudan (Jazira [central Sudan], Southern Darfur [western Sudan], Upper Nile [southern Sudan] and Kasala [eastern Sudan]). Twelve microsatellites were analyzed for allelic diversity, multi-locus haplotype and inter-population differentiation. Level of diversity was compared to that detected for three of the above microsatellites among P. falciparum parasites in central and eastern Sudan in 1999, prior to introduction of ACT. Diversity at each locus (unbiased heterozygosity [H]) was high in all areas (Jazira, H=0.67), (Southern Darfur, H=0.71), (Upper Nile, H=0.71), and (Kasala, H=0.63). Microsatellites were distributed widely and private alleles, detected in a single population, were rare. The extent of diversity in the above sites was similar to that seen, in 1999, in central (Khartoum, H=0.73) and eastern Sudan (Gedaref, H=0.75). Significant Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between the microsatellites in all populations. Pairwise FST analysis revealed that parasites in the four areas could be considered as one population. However, the parasites in Sudan clustered away from parasites in West Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Despite marked reduction in malaria risk in Sudan, the extent of diversity and parasite genetic structure are indicative of a large population size. Further considerable reduction in transmission would be needed before fragmented sub-population can be seen. In addition, the large

  15. Rhizobial Inoculation Increases Soil Microbial Functioning and Gum Arabic Production of 13-Year-Old Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Trees in the North Part of Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Dioumacor; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Nourou Sall, Saïdou; Zoubeirou, Alzouma Mayaki; Sylla, Samba N.; Diouf, Diegane

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobial inoculation has been widely used in controlled conditions as a substitute for chemical fertilizers to increase plants growth and productivity. However, very little is known about such effects on mature trees in natural habitats. In this study, we investigated the effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil total microbial biomass, mineral nitrogen content, potential CO2 respiration, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), acid phosphatase activities, and gum arabic production by 13-year-old Senegalia senegal (synonym: Acacia senegal) under natural conditions in the north part of Senegal during two consecutive years. Rhizobial inoculation was performed at the beginning of the rainy season (July) for both years with a cocktail of four strains (CIRADF 300, CIRADF 301, CIRADF 302, and CIRADF 303). Rhizospheric soils were collected in both dry and rainy seasons to a depth of 0–25 cm under uninoculated and inoculated trees. Trees were tapped in November (beginning of dry season) using traditional tools. Gum arabic was harvested every 15 days from December to March. The results obtained from both years demonstrated that rhizobial inoculation increased significantly the percentage of trees producing gum arabic, gum arabic production per tree, soil microbial biomass, FDA, and acid phosphatase activities. However, there was no significant effect on C mineralization and mineral nitrogen (N) content. Gum arabic production was positively correlated to rainfall, soil microbial biomass, and mineral nitrogen content. Our results showed a positive effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production by mature S. senegal trees. These important findings deserve to be conducted in several contrasting sites in order to improve gum arabic production and contribute to increase rural population incomes. PMID:27656192

  16. Rhizobial Inoculation Increases Soil Microbial Functioning and Gum Arabic Production of 13-Year-Old Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Trees in the North Part of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Fall, Dioumacor; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Nourou Sall, Saïdou; Zoubeirou, Alzouma Mayaki; Sylla, Samba N; Diouf, Diegane

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobial inoculation has been widely used in controlled conditions as a substitute for chemical fertilizers to increase plants growth and productivity. However, very little is known about such effects on mature trees in natural habitats. In this study, we investigated the effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil total microbial biomass, mineral nitrogen content, potential CO2 respiration, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), acid phosphatase activities, and gum arabic production by 13-year-old Senegalia senegal (synonym: Acacia senegal) under natural conditions in the north part of Senegal during two consecutive years. Rhizobial inoculation was performed at the beginning of the rainy season (July) for both years with a cocktail of four strains (CIRADF 300, CIRADF 301, CIRADF 302, and CIRADF 303). Rhizospheric soils were collected in both dry and rainy seasons to a depth of 0-25 cm under uninoculated and inoculated trees. Trees were tapped in November (beginning of dry season) using traditional tools. Gum arabic was harvested every 15 days from December to March. The results obtained from both years demonstrated that rhizobial inoculation increased significantly the percentage of trees producing gum arabic, gum arabic production per tree, soil microbial biomass, FDA, and acid phosphatase activities. However, there was no significant effect on C mineralization and mineral nitrogen (N) content. Gum arabic production was positively correlated to rainfall, soil microbial biomass, and mineral nitrogen content. Our results showed a positive effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production by mature S. senegal trees. These important findings deserve to be conducted in several contrasting sites in order to improve gum arabic production and contribute to increase rural population incomes.

  17. Displaced persons' perceptions of human rights in Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pavlish, C; Ho, A

    2009-12-01

    A human rights framework has become more important in advancing equitable health and development opportunities. However, in post-conflict settings, human rights violations persist. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to discrimination and violence. To deepen understanding about the social context that influences human rights experiences and gender relationships in a post conflict setting. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted in an ethnographic study among displaced persons, government officials and community-based organizations in Southern Sudan. Participants defined human rights as the right to good governance, self-determination and participation in society's development, security and equality. Human rights violations included discrimination, insecurity and inadequate health and development opportunities. Education, language and geographic location influenced human rights perspectives. Some social groups were at higher risk for human rights violations. Community perspectives on human rights indicated complex connections between obligations, claims, conditions and social relationships. Nurses can create conditions that advance people's human rights and improve their health.

  18. Nairobi fly (Paederus) dermatitis in South Sudan: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V; Walton, Emily K

    2012-09-01

    A 28-year-old nursing student working in Juba, South Sudan, suddenly developed a rash over her mid-right clavicle. Beginning as a 10-cm-diameter erythematous patch with an irregular border, within 24 hours it had developed an increasingly gray, necrotic center, appearing similar to a burn. The patient was seen by 2 local physicians without a diagnosis being made. Ultimately, it was diagnosed as being caused by the toxic hemolymph, pederin, from the Nairobi fly (Paederus). The rash usually affects body parts not covered by clothing; healing time ranges from 7 to 28 days, usually with permanent skin discoloration. Preventive measures include typical antivector precautions, including bed nets, long-sleeve clothing, and avoiding fluorescent lights. If the beetles are found on the skin, brushing them off, rather than crushing them, avoids producing dermatitis. Treatment includes rapidly washing the affected area, applying cold, wet compresses, and possibly treating with antibiotics, steroids, and antihistamines.

  19. Constraints on weaning: evidence from Ethiopia and Sudan.

    PubMed

    Almedom, A M; de Waal, A

    1990-10-01

    Evidence on infant weaning processes provided by field research in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and among a refugee population of Eritreans in the Sudan is presented. The study in Addis Ababa, where households were economically disadvantaged but the situation was nutritionally stable, allowed the identification of factors constraining weaning, which includes both the introduction of supplementary foods and the termination of breast-feeding. While the timing of each aspect of weaning was the outcome of the interaction between mother and infant factors, 'infant-centred' factors were more important in the commencement and 'mother-centred' factors in the completion of weaning. The refugee population had in normal times a similar weaning regime, but under the unstable conditions of flight and life in a refugee camp the process had been significantly altered. Investigation of the factors which have led to altered weaning processes elaborates and confirms the model derived from the Addis Ababa study.

  20. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ishag, Osama M; Saeed, Intisar K; Ali, Yahia H

    2015-08-21

    Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54%) were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells.

  1. Albian ammonites from northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, William James; Fatmi, Ali N.

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence of rich Albian ammonite faunas in what is now northern Pakistan has been known for more than 80 years, but there has been no comprehensive account of the assemblages present. A total of 36 taxa are described below. The middle part of the Lumshiwal Formation yields Upper Aptian ammonites south of the Samana Range. Elsewhere, it yields Douvilleiceras leightonense Casey, 1962, of the lower Lower Albian Leymeriella regularis Zone and the Sonneratia perinflata and S. kitchini Subzones of the Sonneratia chalensis Zone of the northwest European sequence. The top one to two metres of the Lumshiwal yields an abundant fauna of rolled and phosphatised ammonites that includes elements from much of the Albian. Of these, Prolyelliceras gevreyi (Jacob, 1907) first appears in the lower Lower Albian Leymeriella tardefurcata Zone. The commonest ammonite is Douvilleiceras mammillatum (Schlotheim, 1813) sensu lato, which ranges from the perinflata Subzone of the chalensis Zone to the Otohoplites bulliensis Subzone of the O. auritiformis Zone of the Lower Albian. The presence of Lyelliceras pseudolyelli (Parona and Bonarelli, 1897) indicates the uppermost, pseudolyelli Subzone of the auritiformis Zone. The presence of Lyelliceras lyelli (d'Orbigny, 1841) indicates the basal Middle Albian lyelli Subzone of the Hoplites dentatus Zone. There is no evidence for the higher parts of the Middle Albian. Dipoloceras (Rhytidoceras ) sp. indicates the presence of lower Upper Albian, possibly the pricei Zone. There is evidence, in the form of specifically indeterminate Mortoniceras (Mortoniceras) sp., of a level within the inflatum to fallax Zone inteval from a single locality, but no evidence of the succeeding parts of the upper Upper Albian. The base of the Kawagarth Formation that succeeds the Lumshiwal yields lower Upper Albian Mortoniceras (M.) geometricum Spath, 1932 of the Mortoniceras pricei Zone, northwest of Darmasand in the Samana range.

  2. The Impact of Conflict on Forests in South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, V.; Kasischke, E. S.; Dempewolf, J.; Loboda, T. V.; Geores, M.

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of armed conflict on ecosystems are complex and difficult to assess due to restricted access to affected areas making satellite remote sensing a useful tool for studying direct and indirect effects of conflict on the landscape. The Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) in South Sudan together with the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) in Northern Uganda share a boundary and encompass a biologically diverse montane ecosystem. This study used satellite data combined with general human population trends to examine the impact of armed conflict and its outcome on similar forest ecosystems both during and after hostilities. A Disturbance Index (DI) was used to investigate the location and extent of forest cover loss and gain in three areas for two key time periods. Results indicate that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the ICFR. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by some gains in forest cover. Discussions with local inhabitants confirmed these findings and provided further insights into the underlying causes impacting forest cover and wildlife. South Sudan is the latest nation to join the Global Environment Facility (GEF). While the GEF does not explicitly address conflict, many of the projects it supports occur in conflict and post-conflict zones with wide-ranging repercussions for both people and the environment. In an effort to assess best practices for working in conflict and post-conflict areas, the GEF Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) will undertake an analysis of GEF-funded projects over the last two decades to identify where the GEF has promoted cooperation between groups and states, and/or made a positive contribution toward conflict avoidance resulting in shared environmental benefits.

  3. A comparison of pixel-based and object-based approaches for land use land cover classification in semi-arid areas, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, H. E.; Csaplovics, E.; Elhaja, M. E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the comparison between application of pixel-based and object- based approaches in land use land cover classification in semi-arid areas in Sudan. The second aim is to assess the accuracy of classification for each approach. The study was conducted in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends. The study used ASTER L1B registered radiance at the sensor image acquired on (19.10.2010). The image was radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Subset with an area of (40880) ha was created. The image classification (pixel-based and object-based) and accuracy assessment were conducted. Total number of (47) GCPs were surveyed and used in accuracy assessment using ERDAS 9.1. Image segmentation process was implemented using Definiens eCognition 7.1 software. Segmentation level 4 of scale parameter 25 was selected for classification based on colour and form homogeneity. Land use land cover classes were derived by classification using the nearest neighbor classifier with membership functions (fuzzy logic) for each class. The land use land cover distribution in the area for forest dominated by Acacia Senegal is (20%) and for residential area is (1.50%) for the two methods of classification. While for bare and farm land, grass and bush land and mixed woodland classes are (6.69% and 1.63%), (18.62% and 15.16%) and (53% and 61%) for pixel based and object based methods, respectively. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic of the classification produced by the pixel-based and object-based were (72.92%, and 54.17%) and (0.6259 and 0.3810), respectively. The pixel based approach performed slightly better than the object-based approach in land use land cover classification in the semi-arid land in gum Arabic belt.

  4. Politics, Gender and Youth Citizenship in Senegal: Youth Policing of Dissent and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossouard, Barbara; Dunne, Máiréad

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on empirical research on youth as active citizens in Senegal with specific reference to their education and their sexual and reproductive health rights. In a context of postcoloniality which claims to have privileged secular, republican understandings of the constitution, the authors seek to illuminate how youth activists…

  5. Ecology and Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Transmission in the Republic of Senegal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    1 13 Stone-Partridge Ptilopachus petrosus 2 2 2 2 8 Grey-Breasted Helmet Guinea Fowl Numida meleagris 3 1 1 2 1 3 13 Senegal Bustard Eupodotis...senegalensis 2 2 1 2 2 9 Black-bellied Bustard Eupodotis aelanogaster 2 2 Laughing Dove Streptopella senegalensis 3 8 2 7 10 10 4 5 1 so Red-eyed Dove

  6. Ecology and Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Transmission in the Republic of Senegal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    bicalcaratus 1 1 3 5 Stone-Partridge Ptilopachus Retrosus 3 3 Grey-Breasted Helmet Guinea Fowl Numida meleagris 4 3 7 Senegal Bustard Eupodotis senegalensis 3...2 5 Black-bellied Bustard Eupodotis melanogaster 2 2 Laughing Dove Streptovelia senegalensis 9 3 1 2 2 2 3 22 Vinaceous Dove Streptopelia vinacea 2 1

  7. Polyploidy can Confer Superiority to West African Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Trees

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Adja M.; Nielsen, Lene R.; Kjær, Erik D.; Petersen, Karen K.; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy is a common phenomenon in the evolution of angiosperms. It has been suggested that polyploids manage harsh environments better than their diploid relatives but empirical data supporting this hypothesis are scarce, especially for trees. Using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry, we examine the frequency of polyploids and diploids in a progeny trial testing four different populations of Acacia senegal, a species native to sub-Saharan regions of Africa. We compare growth between cytotypes and test whether polyploid seedlings grow better than diploids. Our results show that polyploids coexist with diploids in highly variable proportions among populations in Senegal. Acacia senegal genotypes were predominantly diploid and tetraploid, but triploid, pentaploid, hexaploid, and octaploid forms were also found. We find that polyploids show faster growth than diploids under our test conditions: in an 18 years old field trial, polyploid superiority was estimated to be 17% in trunk diameter and 9% in height while in a growth chamber experiment, polyploids grew 28% taller, but only after being exposed to drought stress. The results suggest that polyploid A. senegal can have an adaptive advantage in some regions of Africa. PMID:27379120

  8. CTX-M-15-producing Morganella morganii from Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Diene, S M; Fenollar, F; Fall, B; Sow, K; Niang, B; Samba Ba, P; Wade, B; Raoult, D; Rolain, J-M

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection and molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-lactamases in a series of 112 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from the Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal, including five CTX-M-15-producing Morganella morganii isolates, which are reported for the first time in this country. PMID:25356341

  9. Glycemic Control in a Clinic-Based Sample of Diabetics in M'Bour Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BeLue, Rhonda; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; NDao, Fatou; Ba, Fatou Niass Niang; Diaw, Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Senegal is faced with a significant and increasing burden of type 2 diabetes. However, little information is available about diabetes management among Senegalese diabetics. Purpose: The current study aims to describe the level of glycemic control among a convenience sample of diabetics who receive…

  10. Polyploidy can Confer Superiority to West African Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Trees.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Adja M; Nielsen, Lene R; Kjær, Erik D; Petersen, Karen K; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy is a common phenomenon in the evolution of angiosperms. It has been suggested that polyploids manage harsh environments better than their diploid relatives but empirical data supporting this hypothesis are scarce, especially for trees. Using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry, we examine the frequency of polyploids and diploids in a progeny trial testing four different populations of Acacia senegal, a species native to sub-Saharan regions of Africa. We compare growth between cytotypes and test whether polyploid seedlings grow better than diploids. Our results show that polyploids coexist with diploids in highly variable proportions among populations in Senegal. Acacia senegal genotypes were predominantly diploid and tetraploid, but triploid, pentaploid, hexaploid, and octaploid forms were also found. We find that polyploids show faster growth than diploids under our test conditions: in an 18 years old field trial, polyploid superiority was estimated to be 17% in trunk diameter and 9% in height while in a growth chamber experiment, polyploids grew 28% taller, but only after being exposed to drought stress. The results suggest that polyploid A. senegal can have an adaptive advantage in some regions of Africa.

  11. Linkages between observed, modeled Saharan dust loading and meningitis in Senegal during 2012 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diokhane, Aminata Mbow; Jenkins, Gregory S.; Manga, Noel; Drame, Mamadou S.; Mbodji, Boubacar

    2016-04-01

    The Sahara desert transports large quantities of dust over the Sahelian region during the Northern Hemisphere winter and spring seasons (December-April). In episodic events, high dust concentrations are found at the surface, negatively impacting respiratory health. Bacterial meningitis in particular is known to affect populations that live in the Sahelian zones, which is otherwise known as the meningitis belt. During the winter and spring of 2012, suspected meningitis cases (SMCs) were with three times higher than in 2013. We show higher surface particular matter concentrations at Dakar, Senegal and elevated atmospheric dust loading in Senegal for the period of 1 January-31 May during 2012 relative to 2013. We analyze simulated particulate matter over Senegal from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model during 2012 and 2013. The results show higher simulated dust concentrations during the winter season of 2012 for Senegal. The WRF model correctly captures the large dust events from 1 January-31 March but has shown less skill during April and May for simulated dust concentrations. The results also show that the boundary conditions are the key feature for correctly simulating large dust events and initial conditions are less important.

  12. English in Education Policy Shift in Senegal: From Traditional Pedagogies to Communicative Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diallo, Ibrahima

    2014-01-01

    Despite its allegiance to French, language-in-education planning in Senegal has given top priority to English in its education system. In the 1980s, policy-makers shifted English language teaching pedagogy from the Centre de Linguistique Appliquée de Dakar (CLAD) [Centre for Applied Linguistics of Dakar] teaching methods to Communicative Language…

  13. Glycemic Control in a Clinic-Based Sample of Diabetics in M'Bour Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BeLue, Rhonda; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; NDao, Fatou; Ba, Fatou Niass Niang; Diaw, Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Senegal is faced with a significant and increasing burden of type 2 diabetes. However, little information is available about diabetes management among Senegalese diabetics. Purpose: The current study aims to describe the level of glycemic control among a convenience sample of diabetics who receive…

  14. Politics, Gender and Youth Citizenship in Senegal: Youth Policing of Dissent and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossouard, Barbara; Dunne, Máiréad

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on empirical research on youth as active citizens in Senegal with specific reference to their education and their sexual and reproductive health rights. In a context of postcoloniality which claims to have privileged secular, republican understandings of the constitution, the authors seek to illuminate how youth activists…

  15. Science and Religion on the Blackboard: Exploring Schoolmasters' Beliefs and Practices in Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croché, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article treats the various forms of adjustment between scientific and religious discourses at school. It aims to analyse the beliefs and practices of schoolmasters and to explore how the oppositions between the "dominant" discourses of Western science and those of religion are addressed in secondary education in Senegal. The…

  16. Growth and nitrogen acquisition strategies of Acacia senegal seedlings under exponential phosphorus additions.

    PubMed

    Isaac, M E; Harmand, J M; Drevon, J J

    2011-05-15

    There remains conflicting evidence on the relationship between P supply and biological N(2)-fixation rates, particularly N(2)-fixing plant adaptive strategies under P limitation. This is important, as edaphic conditions inherent to many economically and ecologically important semi-arid leguminous tree species, such as Acacia senegal, are P deficient. Our research objective was to verify N acquisition strategies under phosphorus limitations using isotopic techniques. Acacia senegal var. senegal was cultivated in sand culture with three levels of exponentially supplied phosphorus [low (200 μmol of P seedling(-1) over 12 weeks), mid (400 μmol) and high (600 μmol)] to achieve steady-state nutrition over the growth period. Uniform additions of N were also supplied. Plant growth and nutrition were evaluated. Seedlings exhibited significantly greater total biomass under high P supply compared to low P supply. Both P and N content significantly increased with increasing P supply. Similarly, N derived from solution increased with elevated P availability. However, both the number of nodules and the N derived from atmosphere, determined by the (15)N natural abundance method, did not increase along the P gradient. Phosphorus stimulated growth and increased mineral N uptake from solution without affecting the amount of N derived from the atmosphere. We conclude that, under non-limiting N conditions, A. senegal N acquisition strategies change with P supply, with less reliance on N(2)-fixation when the rhizosphere achieves a sufficient N uptake zone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Language Use along the Urban Street in Senegal: Perspectives from Proprietors of Commercial Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiohata, Mariko

    2012-01-01

    Senegal adopted French as the country's sole official language at the time of independence in 1960, since when the language has been used in administration and other formal domains. Similarly, French is employed throughout the formal education system as the language of instruction. Since the 1990s, however, government has mounted an ambitious…

  18. Language Use along the Urban Street in Senegal: Perspectives from Proprietors of Commercial Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiohata, Mariko

    2012-01-01

    Senegal adopted French as the country's sole official language at the time of independence in 1960, since when the language has been used in administration and other formal domains. Similarly, French is employed throughout the formal education system as the language of instruction. Since the 1990s, however, government has mounted an ambitious…

  19. Science and Religion on the Blackboard: Exploring Schoolmasters' Beliefs and Practices in Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croché, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article treats the various forms of adjustment between scientific and religious discourses at school. It aims to analyse the beliefs and practices of schoolmasters and to explore how the oppositions between the "dominant" discourses of Western science and those of religion are addressed in secondary education in Senegal. The…

  20. Scaling up Sexuality Education in Senegal: Integrating Family Life Education into the National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Katie; Traoré Seck, Aminata; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, school-based sexuality education has evolved over 20 years from family life education (FLE) pilot projects into cross-curricular subjects located within the national curriculum of primary and secondary schools. We conducted a literature review and semi-structured interviews to gather information regarding the scale and nature of FLE…

  1. Peace Corps Rural Energy Survey: Senegal. Training for Development Series. Training Manual No. T-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This survey was undertaken by the Peace Corps to assist Senegal in identifying energy needs in rural areas and in implementing alternative, renewable energy projects at the community level. This book describes the sample, energy use, energy needs, and resources. Fifteen villages of fewer than 5,000 people were selected for data collection. The…

  2. Linkages between observed, modeled Saharan dust loading and meningitis in Senegal during 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Diokhane, Aminata Mbow; Jenkins, Gregory S; Manga, Noel; Drame, Mamadou S; Mbodji, Boubacar

    2016-04-01

    The Sahara desert transports large quantities of dust over the Sahelian region during the Northern Hemisphere winter and spring seasons (December-April). In episodic events, high dust concentrations are found at the surface, negatively impacting respiratory health. Bacterial meningitis in particular is known to affect populations that live in the Sahelian zones, which is otherwise known as the meningitis belt. During the winter and spring of 2012, suspected meningitis cases (SMCs) were with three times higher than in 2013. We show higher surface particular matter concentrations at Dakar, Senegal and elevated atmospheric dust loading in Senegal for the period of 1 January-31 May during 2012 relative to 2013. We analyze simulated particulate matter over Senegal from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model during 2012 and 2013. The results show higher simulated dust concentrations during the winter season of 2012 for Senegal. The WRF model correctly captures the large dust events from 1 January-31 March but has shown less skill during April and May for simulated dust concentrations. The results also show that the boundary conditions are the key feature for correctly simulating large dust events and initial conditions are less important.

  3. Examining trends in family planning among harder-to-reach women in Senegal 1992–2014

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, Francesca L.; Benova, Lenka; Macleod, David; Faye, Adama; Lynch, Caroline A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent increases in family planning (FP) use have been reported among women of reproductive age in union (WRAU) in Senegal. However, trends have not been monitored among harder-to-reach groups (including adolescents, unmarried and rural poor women), key to understanding whether FP progress is equitable. We combined data from six Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Senegal between 1992/93 and 2014. We examined FP trends over time among WRAU and subgroups, and trends in knowledge of FP and intention to use among women with unmet need for FP. Our results show that percent demand satisfied is lower among rural poor women and adolescents than WRAU, although higher among unmarried women. Marked recent increases have been observed in all subgroups, however fewer than 50% of women in need of FP use modern contraception in Senegal. Knowledge of FP has risen steadily among women with unmet need; however, intention to use FP has remained stable at around 40% since 2005 for all groups except unmarried women (75% of whom intend to use). Significant progress in meeting the need for FP has been achieved in Senegal, but more needs to be done particularly to improve acceptability of FP, and to strategically target interventions toward adolescents and rural poor women. PMID:28106100

  4. Scaling up Sexuality Education in Senegal: Integrating Family Life Education into the National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Katie; Traoré Seck, Aminata; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, school-based sexuality education has evolved over 20 years from family life education (FLE) pilot projects into cross-curricular subjects located within the national curriculum of primary and secondary schools. We conducted a literature review and semi-structured interviews to gather information regarding the scale and nature of FLE…

  5. Antibody Treatment of Ebola and Sudan Virus Infection via a Uniquely Exposed Epitope within the Glycoprotein Receptor Binding Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-14

    1 Antibody treatment of Ebola and Sudan virus infection via a uniquely exposed epitope within the glycoprotein receptor-binding site Katie A...interaction with the endosomal receptor NPC-1, cross neutralizes Ebola (EBOV), Sudan (SUDV), and Bundibugyo viruses, and protects mice and guinea pigs...Filoviridae include two marburgviruses: Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV), and five ebolaviruses: Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV

  6. The hawkmoth fauna of Pakistan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Sultan, Amir; Kitching, Ian J; Pittaway, Anthony R; Markhasiov, Maxim; Khan, Muhammad Rafique; Naz, Falak

    2014-05-07

    This study represents the first complete modern account of the Sphingidae of Pakistan and takes the form of an annotated checklist, based on several national collections and those of a number of individuals. Of the 60 species and subspecies found, 14 are new records to the fauna of Pakistan, namely Agnosia orneus, Langia zenzeroides subsp. zenzeroides, Polyptychus trilineatus subsp. trilineatus, Dolbina inexacta, Ambulyx sericeipennis subsp. sericeipennis, Thamnoecha uniformis, Macroglossum belis, Macroglossum stellatarum, Cechetra scotti, Hippotion boerhaviae, Hyles euphorbiae subsp. euphorbiae, Rhagastis olivacea, Rethera brandti subsp. euteles and Theretra latreillii subsp. lucasii. Anambulyx elwesi subsp. kitchingi and Clanis deucalion subsp. thomaswitti are not recognised as valid subspecies and are synonymized with their respective nominotypical subspecies. An additional list is given of 30 taxa which may yet be found in Pakistan as they are present in neighbouring countries close to the border. Of the species/subspecies found, 24 are part of the Palaearctic fauna, 27 are part of the Oriental fauna and nine are Palaeo-Oriental/Palaeotropical. This reconfirms the transitional biogeographical position of the Pakistan fauna.

  7. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  8. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented.

  9. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  10. Population Bulletin. Pakistan: A Demographic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report presents a brief history of Pakistan as a nation and reviews a number of demographic variables. Major topics discussed are population growth and shifts, urbanization, and labor characteristics and problems. Based on this information and projections, the report concludes with a discussion of the failure of family planning programs and…

  11. Pakistan: Key Current Issues and Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    2009/0707_counterinsurgency_cohen.aspx; “Haider Ali Hussein Mullik, “Lions and Jackals ,” Foreign Affairs (online), July 15, 2009, at http...www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/65200/haider-ali-hussein-mullick/lions-and- jackals . 165 “Pakistan: Countering Militancy in FATA,” International Crisis Group

  12. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  13. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  14. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  15. BCG-vaccination programme in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Roelsgaard, Erik; Christensen, Hans; Iversen, Erik

    1957-01-01

    The authors outline the development and organization of the BCG-vaccination campaign that was launched in August 1949 by the Government of Pakistan, with assistance from the International Tuberculosis Campaign. They present some statistical data on the work done up to the end of December 1954 and briefly discuss the pattern of tuberculin sensitivity found in various parts of the country. PMID:13489463

  16. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  17. Assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas of the Senegal province, Mauritania, Senegal, the Gambia, and Guinea-Bissau, northwest Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2003-01-01

    Undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources were assessed in the Senegal Province as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 (U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000). Although several total petroleum systems may exist in the province, only one composite total petroleum system, the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, was defined with one assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, having sufficient data to allow quantitative assessment. The primary source rocks for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System are the Cenomanian-Turonian marine shales. The Turonian shales can be as much as 150 meters thick and contain Type II organic carbon ranging from 3 to 10 weight percent. In the Senegal Province, source rocks are mature even when situated at depths relatively shallow for continental passive margin basins. Reservoir rocks consist of Upper Cretaceous sandstones and lower Tertiary clastic and carbonate rocks. The Lower Cretaceous platform carbonate rocks (sealed by Cenomanian shales) have porosities ranging from 10 to 23 percent. Oligocene carbonate rock reservoirs exist, such as the Dome Flore field, which contains as much as 1 billion barrels of heavy oil (10? API, 1.6 percent sulfur) in place. The traps are a combination of structural closures and stratigraphic pinch-outs. Hydrocarbon production in the Senegal Province to date has been limited to several small oil and gas fields around Cape Verde (also known as the Dakar Peninsula) from Upper Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs bounded by normal faults, of which three fields (two gas and one oil) exceed the minimum size assessed in this study (1 MMBO; 6 BCFG). Discovered known oil resources in the Senegal Province are 10 MMBO, with known gas resources of 49 BCFG (Petroconsultants, 1996). This study estimates that 10 percent of the total number of potential oil and gas fields (both discovered and undiscovered) of at

  18. Determinants of malaria prophylaxis among German travelers to Kenya, Senegal, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ropers, Gwendolin; Du Ry van Beest Holle, Mirna; Wichmann, Ole; Kappelmayer, Lutz; Stüben, Uwe; Schönfeld, Christian; Stark, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Malaria chemoprophylaxis is a mainstay of malaria prevention in travelers. Adequate pretravel advice forms the basis for efficient malaria prophylaxis. This study assessed the determinants for seeking pretravel advice and evaluated the quality of advice from each source and its influence on the patterns and outcome of malaria prophylaxis intake. In March and April 2004, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed by cabin crews to passengers flying back to Germany from three popular tourist destinations: Kenya, Senegal, and Thailand. To evaluate the quality of advice and actual intake, figures were assessed against the official recommendations of the German Society of Travel Medicine and International Health (DTG). A total of 1,001 passengers were included in the study (Kenya, 492; Senegal, 131; and Thailand, 378), of which 81% had sought any kind of pretravel health advice. Travelers' age and time of pretravel consultation were associated with the source of information consulted. Seventy-five percent of travelers from Senegal and Kenya received DTG compliant advice compared to only 17% of travelers from areas with low malaria risk in Thailand. Travelers returning from Kenya and Senegal had used correct chemoprophylaxis in only 65 and 47% of trips, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the factors determining correct intake among Senegal and Kenya travelers were receiving pretravel advice (from nonmedical professionals: OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.9-10.0 and from medical professionals: OR 15.4, 95% CI 7.3-32.4), a correct risk perception (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.5), 2 to 3 weeks of travel abroad (vs a duration >3 wk: OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.8), and travel to Kenya (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1). Malaria prevention among a large proportion of German travelers to tropical destinations is inadequate. Public health efforts should be made to raise awareness among travelers, travel agencies, and medical institutions in Germany.

  19. Transboundary water resources management and livelihoods: interactions in the Senegal river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckmann, Laurent; Beltrando, Gérard

    2016-04-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 90 % of wetlands provide ecosystem services to societies, especially for agriculture and fishing. However, tropical rivers are increasingly regulated to provide hydroelectricity and irrigated agriculture. Modifications of flows create new hydrological conditions that affect floodplains ecology and peoples' livelihoods. In the Senegal river valley, large dams were built during the 1980's to secure water resources after a decade of water scarcity in the 1970's: Manantali in the upper basin with a reservoir of 12km3 and Diama close to estuary to avoid saltwater intrusion during dry season. Senegal river water resources are known under the supervision of Senegal River Basin Development Organization (OMVS), which defines water allocation between different goals (electricity, irrigation, traditional activities). This study, based on the concept of socio-hydrology, analyses socio-ecological changes following thirty years of dam management. The work enlightens adaptation mechanisms of livelihoods from people living along the river floodplain and feedback on water ressources. The study uses a mixed method approach, combining hydrological analyses, literature review and data collection from surveys on stakeholders and key informants level in the middle Senegal valley. Our results suggest that in all the Senegal river valley, socio-ecological changes are driven by new hydrological conditions. If dam management benefit for peoples with electrification and development of an irrigated agriculture, it has also emphasized the floodplain degradation. Flooded area has decline and are more irregular, causing an erosion of floodplain supporting services (traditional activities as fishing, grazing and flood-recession agriculture). These conditions reduce peoples' livelihood possibilities and irrigation is the only regular activity. As a feedback, irrigated agriculture increases withdrawals in the river and, recently, in aquifers posing a new uncertainty on water

  20. Aid cutoff threatens condom program in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Barron, T

    1991-01-01

    The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth.

  1. [Malaria in mangrove areas of the Saloum delta (Senegal)].

    PubMed

    Diop, Abdoulaye; Konate, Lassana; Molez, Jean-François; Diouf, Malick; Gaye, Oumar; Fontenille, Didier; Diagne, Moussa; Faye, Ousmane

    2006-01-01

    This study of malaria biodiversity in Senegal used an entomological approach that combined parasite surveys and clinical investigations in the mangrove area of the Saloum delta from 1996 to 1998. The parasitologic studies took place in two of the six villages in the coastal area of Palmarin (Djifère and Diakhanor) during three distinct periods: at the end of the dry season, in the middle of the rainy season, and at the end of the rainy season. The clinical investigations at the Palmarin health station took place from July 1996 through February 1998. A malaria attack was defined as the presence of malaria symptoms (including fever, headaches, sweating, and shivering) associated with plasmodic parasitemia > 3,000 trophozoites/microL of blood. All the positive thick smears were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, one also with P. falciparum, and none with P. ovale. The average plasmodic index (5.6%) classifies the delta of Saloum as a hypoendemic area. The average parasite load was estimated at 2,239 trophozoites (95% CI: 1,660-3,020) of P. falciparum per microliter of blood, and 86.9% of patients with symptoms of a malaria attack were febrile. Malaria attacks accounted for 1.9% of the total consultations, 12.2% of the presumed malaria cases, and 14.0% of the febrile subjects. The finding that malaria attacks affected all age groups confirms the weakness of anti-malaria immunity among the population of the Saloum delta. Malaria cases were more frequent at the end of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season, periods when parasite loads were highest. In this area, which is increasingly attractive to tourists and has a quite superficial fresh water table, man-made environmental changes favor mosquito breeding sites that promote the development of An. arabiensis and An. gambiae spp, both known to be major malaria vectors. In view of the population's weak anti-malaria immunity, this situation may increase malaria transmission and could be followed by

  2. Evaluation of impact of exposure of Sudan azo dyes and their metabolites on human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongmiao; Feng, Jinhui; He, Gui-Xin; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

    2012-08-01

    Sudan azo dyes are banned for food usage in most countries, but they are illegally used to maintain or enhance the color of food products due to low cost, bright staining, and wide availability of the dyes. In this report, we examined the toxic effects of these azo dyes and their potential reduction metabolites on 11 prevalent human intestinal bacterial strains. Among the tested bacteria, cell growth of 2, 3, 5, 5, and 1 strains was inhibited by Sudan I, II, III, IV, and Para Red, respectively. At the tested concentration of 100 μM, Sudan I and II inhibited growth of Clostridium perfringens and Lactobacillus rhamnosus with decrease of growth rates from 14 to 47%. Sudan II also affected growth of Enterococcus faecalis. Growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, C. perfringens, E. faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Peptostreptococcus magnus was affected by Sudan III and IV with decrease in growth rates from 11 to 67%. C. perfringens was the only strain in which growth was affected by Para Red with 47 and 26% growth decreases at 6 and 10 h, respectively. 1-Amino-2-naphthol, a common metabolite of the dyes, was capable of inhibiting growth of most of the tested bacteria with inhibition rates from 8 to 46%. However, the other metabolites of the dyes had no effect on growth of the bacterial strains. The dyes and their metabolites had less effect on cell viability than on cell growth of the tested bacterial strains. Clostridium indolis and Clostridium ramosum were the only two strains with about a 10 % decrease in cell viability in the presence of Sudan azo dyes. The present results suggested that Sudan azo dyes and their metabolites potentially affect the human intestinal bacterial ecology by selectively inhibiting some bacterial species, which may have an adverse effect on human health.

  3. Exploring the China-Pakistan Relationship. Roundtable Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Mumbai Terror Strikes: Pro-Pakistan Bias? South Asia Analysis Group, Paper No. 2972, December 8, 2008. (Rajan is the Director of the Chennai Centre...for Chinese Studies in Chennai , India.) that China should support Pakistan in such a case.s Other views in China appear more harshly critical of India...its northern end, the Chinese city of Kashgar with key points in northern Pakistan (see figure 2). The highway remains a critical connection between

  4. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  5. Environment Friendly Coal Based Power Generation in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S. A.; Javed, M. Adnan

    2010-06-01

    The main emphasis of this paper is on the engineering economics and design developments in the field of thermal power generation in Pakistan. Pakistan is rich with coal fields but is making no use of this available natural resource to fulfil its energy demands. The shortage of power is getting worst day by day and to align with the power requirements, Pakistan needs to add 2000 MW each year to national grid. With the increasing prices of natural gas and oil, Pakistan should consider coal, the abundantly available natural resource, as an alternate fuel for its new power plants to overcome the power crises.

  6. The Burden of Trachoma in Ayod County of Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    King, Jonathan D.; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Gatpan, Gideon; Lopidia, Ben; Becknell, Steve; Emerson, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Blindness due to trachoma is avoidable through Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial hygiene and Environmental improvements (SAFE). Recent surveys have shown trachoma to be a serious cause of blindness in Southern Sudan. We conducted this survey in Ayod County of Jonglei State to estimate the need for intervention activities to eliminate blinding trachoma. Methodology and Findings A cross-sectional two-stage cluster random survey was conducted in November 2006. All residents of selected households were clinically assessed for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading scheme. A total of 2,335 people from 392 households were examined, of whom 1,107 were over 14 years of age. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children 1–9 years of age was: trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) = 80.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73.9–86.3); trachomatous inflammation intense (TI) = 60.7% (95% CI, 54.6–66.8); and TF and/or TI (active trachoma) = 88.3% (95% CI, 83.7–92.9). Prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was 14.6% (95% CI, 10.9–18.3) in adults over 14 years of age; 2.9% (95% CI, 0.4–5.3) in children 1–14 years of age; and 8.4% (95% CI, 5.5–11.3) overall. The prevalence of corneal opacity in persons over 14 years of age with TT was 6.4% (95% CI, 4.5–8.3). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of trachoma signs between genders. Trachoma affected almost all households surveyed: 384/392 (98.0%) had at least one person with active trachoma and 130 (33.2%) had at least one person with trichiasis. Conclusions Trachoma is an unnecessary public health problem in Ayod. The high prevalence of active trachoma and trichiasis confirms the severe burden of blinding trachoma found in other post-conflict areas of Southern Sudan. Based on WHO recommended thresholds, all aspects of the SAFE strategy are indicated to eliminate blinding trachoma in Ayod. PMID:18820746

  7. 78 FR 68499 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as Ansaru Aso Known as Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan Also Known as Vanguards for the Protection of Muslims in Black Africa Also Known as JAMBS Also Known as Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan as a...

  8. 78 FR 68500 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as Ansaru Also Known as Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan Also Known as Vanguards for the Protection of Muslims in Black Africa Also Known as JAMBS Also Known as Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan as a...

  9. Epidemiology and Genetic Characterization of Measles Strains in Senegal, 2004-2013

    PubMed Central

    Dia, Ndongo; Fall, Ameth; Ka, Rouguiyatou; Fall, Amary; Kiori, David E.; Goudiaby, Deborah G.; Fall, Aichatou D.; Faye, El Hadj Abdourahmane; Dosseh, Annick; Ndiaye, Kader; Diop, Ousmane M.; Niang, Mbayame Nd.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Senegal, with the variable routine vaccination coverage, the risk for illness and death from measles still exists as evidenced by the measles epidemic episode in 2009. Since 2002 a laboratory-based surveillance system of measles was established by the Ministry of Health and the Institut Pasteur de Dakar. The present study analysed the data collected over the 10 years inclusive between 2004-2013 in order to define a measles epidemiological profile in Senegal, and we carried out a phylogenetic analysis of measles virus circulating in Senegal over the period 2009-2012. Methodology and Results A total number of 4580 samples were collected from suspected cases, with the most cases between 2008 and 2010 (2219/4580; 48.4%). The majority of suspected cases are found in children from 4-6 years old (29%). 981 (21.4%) were measles laboratory-confirmed by IgM ELISA. The measles confirmation rate per year is very high during 2009-2010 periods (48.5% for each year). Regarding age groups, the highest measles IgM-positivity rate occurred among persons aged over 15 years with 39.4% (115/292) followed by 2-3 years old age group with 30.4% (323/1062) and 30% (148/494) in children under one year old group. The majority of suspected cases were collected between February and June and paradoxically confirmed cases rates increased from July (77/270; 28.6%) and reached a peak in November with 60% (93/155). Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the 29 sequences from strains that circulated in Senegal between 2009 and 2012 belong to the B3 genotype and they are clustered in B3.1 (2011-2012) and B3.3 (2009-2011) sub-genotypes according to a temporal parameter. Conclusion Improvements in the measles surveillance in Senegal are required and the introduction of oral fluid and FTA cards as an alternative to transportation of sera should be investigated to improve surveillance. The introduction of a national vaccine database including number of doses of measles-containing vaccine

  10. A review of analytical techniques for determination of Sudan I-IV dyes in food matrixes.

    PubMed

    Rebane, Riin; Leito, Ivo; Yurchenko, Sergei; Herodes, Koit

    2010-04-23

    Sudan dyes are a family of lipophilic azo dyes, extensively used in industrial and scientific applications but banned for use as food colorants due to their carcinogenicity. Due to the continuing illicit use of Sudan dyes as food colorants their determination in different food matrices--especially in different chilli and tomato sauces and related products--has during the recent years received increasing attention all over the world. This paper critically reviews the published determination methods of Sudan I-IV dyes. LC-UV-vis and LC-MS are the dominating methods for analysis of Sudan I-IV dyes. Sudan dyes are usually found in food at mg kg(-1) levels at which it may be necessary to use a preconcentration step in order to attain the desired detection limits. Liquid-solid extraction is the dominating sample preparation procedure. In recent years it has been supplemented by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction. Various solid phase extraction types have been used for sample cleanup. The large majority of works use conventional C18 columns and conventional LC eluents. Traditionally the UV-vis absorbance detection has been the most frequently used. In the recent years MS detection is applied more and more often as it offers more reliable identification possibilities.

  11. Sudan dyes in adulterated saffron (Crocus sativus L.): Identification and quantification by (1)H NMR.

    PubMed

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2017-02-15

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is considered as one of the most expensive spices worldwide, and as such, it is prone to adulteration. This study introduces an NMR-based approach to identify and determine the adulteration of saffron with Sudan I-IV dyes. A complete (1)H and (13)C resonance assignment for Sudan I-IV, achieved by two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments, is reported for the first time. Specific different proton signals for the identification of each Sudan dye in adulterated saffron can be utilised for quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR), a well-established method for quantitative analysis. The quantification of Sudan III, as a paradigm, was performed in varying levels (0.14-7.1g/kg) by considering the NMR signal occurring at 8.064ppm. The high linearity, accuracy and rapidity of investigation enable high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy to be used for evaluation of saffron adulteration with Sudan dyes.

  12. Extraction of Sudan dyes from environmental water by hemimicelles-based magnetic titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenyu; Chen, Ligang; You, Xiaoxiao

    2014-11-01

    A novel method for the extraction of Sudan dyes including Sudan I, II, III, and IV from environmental water by magnetic titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4@TiO2) coated with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as adsorbent was reported. Fe3O4@TiO2 was synthesized by a simple method and was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic separation was quite efficient for the adsorption and desorption of Sudan dyes. The effect of the amount of SDS, extraction time, pH, desorption condition, maximal extraction volume, and humic acid on the extraction process were investigated. This method was employed to analyze three environmental water samples. The results demonstrated that our proposed method had wide linear range (25-5,000 ng L(-1)) with a good linearity (R (2) > 0.999) and low detection limits (2.9-7.3 ng L(-1)). An enrichment factor of 1,000 was achieved. In all three spiked levels (25, 250, and 2,500 ng L(-1)), the recoveries of Sudan dyes were in the range of 86.9-93.6 %. The relative standard deviations obtained were ranging from 2.5 to 9.3 %. That is to say, the new method was fast and effective for the extraction of Sudan dye from environmental water.

  13. The Relationship between Leadership Style and Motivation among Faculty Members in Two Public Universities in the Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malok, Malok N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership style and motivation among faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of the South Sudan. The researcher examined this issue by surveying and interviewing faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of South Sudan, a total of 67 for…

  14. The Relationship between Leadership Style and Motivation among Faculty Members in Two Public Universities in the Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malok, Malok N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership style and motivation among faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of the South Sudan. The researcher examined this issue by surveying and interviewing faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of South Sudan, a total of 67 for…

  15. 76 FR 41046 - Addition of the New State of the Republic of South Sudan to the Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to add controls on exports and reexports of U.S.-origin... Sudan as a sovereign state in July, 2011. BIS is therefore amending the EAR to reflect the July 9, 2011... reexport License Exceptions. The controls that continue to apply to ``Sudan'' under the EAR will not...

  16. Adopting Cloud Computing in the Pakistan Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Department of Defense, the U.S. Navy, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology cloud architectures , a framework has been laid out for... architecture , DoD cloud 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 83 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...National Institute of Standards and Technology cloud architectures , a framework has been laid out for adopting cloud computing in the Pakistan Navy

  17. The Status of Women Physicists in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Jabeen

    2009-04-01

    A significant number of women physicists work in high-ranking positions in the universities and research institutes of Pakistan; however, the number of women is much lower compared with men. We surveyed these women about the challenges they faced in the workplace and the pace of their progress and scientific work in a male-dominant society. We also surveyed girls' attitudes toward studying physics at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

  18. Security Decision-Making in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    towards the other direction; for me, homosexuality is such a big crime against humanity that chopping off hands for stealing -95- in Pakistan, I do not...consider to be against humanity. You consider such things [liberalization of laws con- cerning homosexuality ] to be a step forward, we consider it to be...must be cured first. The sooner we realize this, the better. 3 Virtually the sane argument was made by a distinguished retired corps commander

  19. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  20. Pakistan’s Domestic Political Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-19

    two parliamentary seats in the 1993 and 1997 elections). Notable Leaders of Pakistan Governor-General Mohammed Ali Jinnah 1947-1948 Prime Minister...Nation) Muhammed Ali Jinnah and his lieutenant, Liaquat Ali Khan, the PML was weakened upon their premature deaths in 1948 and 1951 ( Jinnah by natural...Liaquat Ali Khan 1947-1951 President Iskandar Ali Mirza 1955-1958 President-General Mohammed Ayub Khan 1958-1969 President-General Mohammed Yahya Khan

  1. Pakistan: social basis of the economy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    Pakistan's gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at an average of 5.3%/year since 1950 and real per capita income has increased 3.7%/year over the past decade, despite a 3% annual population growth rate. Contributing to this dynamic economic growth have been migration, the construction of a new national economy following independence, controlled irrigation, foreign exchange availability, and an expectation on the part of the public of higher earnings and consumption. Despite these trends, the Pakistan economy is structurally weak and there have been rapid increases in both the domestic and foreign debt. Economic growth has been based largely on trading and soft services. Government departments are known for their corruption. This self-contradictory economic picture derives directly from the structure of Pakistani society, which is dominated by the elite of Punjab Province. Urbanization is increasing economic inequality in the society, and government taxation policies are biased toward big agriculture and industry. Pakistan's poor performance in education, social development, and family planning are expected to inhibit future economic development. Only 26% of Pakistanis are literate, reflecting the low social value placed on education. Even in urban areas, there is no evidence of a decline in fertility. This results from the psychological and economic need for children, women's limited roles, Islamic opposition to family planning, and inefficient government delivery of social services. Within a few years, population growth will magnify the structural weaknesses of the Pakistan economy. It is hoped that the dynamic nature of Panjabi values and behavior, especially of the new middle class, will lead to a redress of this situation.

  2. US-Pakistan Relations: The Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    of British India under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah . Jinnah is considered the father of Pakistan and set in motion many...political platforms that became the foundation for Pakistan’s society. Jinnah was influenced by both his life experiences and the challenges he overcame. A...Muslim from Karachi, Jinnah had received most of his higher education in law from London. As a barrister, he soon became the leading lawyer of

  3. Radio and distance learning in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbas, R

    1987-01-01

    Radio is a powerful communication vehicle in Pakistan able to reach 3/4 of urban and 2/3 of rural households. Until 1974, most radio broadcasts of the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, a state monopoly, were in the categories of music, drama, and features; news and current affairs; and religious broadcasts. The Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), a distance learning educational institution, was established through an act of the Pakistan Parliament in 1974 and is the only institution in the country to use radio broadcasts for its curriculum. Also established in 1974 within the AIOU was the Institute of Educational Technology (IET). The IET channels the transmission and flow of well-designed educational messages and lessons from the teachers to the students by employing distance teaching methodology that seeks to reinforce students' weekly lessons. IET closely integrates its activities within the University's academic departments. IET staff members not only participate in the development of course curriculum and syllabi, but also help to identify course content needing reinforcement through radio. While the teachers at AIOU convert the course curricula into distance-learning self-study activity-oriented correspondence texts, IET producers transcribe these scripts into actual production scripts. Feedback from students and findings of the University's Research and Statistical Cell are used to make revisions in the scripts. The AIOU enrolls an average of 100,000 students each year. Expansion is being limited only by the costs of purchasing time from the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Rs 2000 for a 15-minute lesson) and the availability of appropriate time slots.

  4. Women's experiences in the armed conflict situation in Sudan.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The negative impact of war is apparent at various levels of the Sudanese society. Economic, social, and political instability is occurring on a large scale and the most vulnerable groups are women and children. This report aimed to document women's human rights violations in the ongoing armed conflict situation in Sudan, with the emphasis on rape; investigate the forms of violence against women in a situation of armed conflict; present testimonies of women survivors; and use the document for advocacy. A total of 20 testimonies were obtained, which clearly indicated that rape is a systematic practice in areas of conflict regardless of whether the Sudanese People's Liberation Army, the Khartoum government, or bandit groups that take advantage of the chaos, have attacked civilians. In view of this, regional agencies should show more seriousness in finding solutions for the war, and perpetrators of rape should be brought to justice so as to change the perception of rape as an unfortunate but inevitable side effect of war.

  5. Ocular disorders among schoolchildren in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Rushood, A A; Azmat, S; Shariq, M; Khamis, A; Lakho, K A; Jadoon, M Z; Sial, N; Rushood, A A; Kamil, E A

    2013-03-01

    From December 2005 to June 2007, a total screening of all 1418 government primary schools in Khartoum State, Sudan, was performed to estimate ocular problems among children aged 6-15 years. We screened 671,119 children (56.7% males) for significant refractive error and other eye ailments. Ocular problems were found in 20,321 (3.03%) children. The 3 localities with highest ocular pathology were Karary (26.2%), Ummbada (21.0%) and Jabal Awlia (15.7%). The overall prevalence of refractive error was 2.19%. Myopia was found in 10,064 (1.50%) children while 4661 (0.70%) were hyperopic. Other ocular problems included vernal keratoconjunctivitis, vitamin A deficiency, microbial conjunctivitis, strabismus and corneal opacity. Only 288 (0.04%) children were diagnosed with active trachoma: 86.5% of these were from Ummbada locality, on the periphery ofthe State, where transportation facilities are poor and poverty is widespread. Overall, 99% of the eye ailments identified are either treatable or preventable. To reduce these and to achieve the goals of Vision 2020, an effective and efficient school health programme is needed.

  6. Human rights barriers for displaced persons in southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pavlish, Carol; Ho, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This community-based research explores community perspectives on human rights barriers that women encounter in a postconflict setting of southern Sudan. An ethnographic design was used to guide data collection in five focus groups with community members and during in-depth interviews with nine key informants. A constant comparison method of data analysis was used. Atlas.ti data management software facilitated the inductive coding and sorting of data. Participants identified three formal and one set of informal community structures for human rights. Human rights barriers included shifting legal frameworks, doubt about human rights, weak government infrastructure, and poverty. The evolving government infrastructure cannot currently provide adequate human rights protection, especially for women. The nature of living in poverty without development opportunities includes human rights abuses. Good governance, protection, and human development opportunities were emphasized as priority human rights concerns. Human rights framework could serve as a powerful integrator of health and development work with community-based organizations. Results help nurses understand the intersection between health and human rights as well as approaches to advancing rights in a culturally attuned manner.

  7. Standard case management of asthma in Sudan: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    El Sony, A I; Chiang, C-Y; Malik, E; Hassanain, S A; Hussien, H; Khamis, A H; Bassilli, A F; Enarson, D A

    2013-09-21

    A pilot project for asthma management in selected hospitals in Khartoum and Gezira States, Sudan. To assess standard case management of asthma in 2007-2008. Local adaptation of guidelines, followed by situational analysis, pre-intervention study, training and implementation. Treatment outcome was assessed 1 year after patient enrolment. Situational analysis revealed that inhaled beclometasone was not available in the public sector. During the project, 2068 patients were enrolled: severity of asthma was intermittent in 185 (9.0%), mild persistent in 231 (11.2%), moderate persistent in 640 (31.0%), severe persistent in 812 (39.3%) and unclassified in 200 (9.7%). Of the 1654 patients with persistent asthma who were treated with inhaled corticosteroids, 1157 (70.0%) had treatment cards available for outcome assessment. Of these, 652 (56.4%) did not attend their annual evaluation, among whom 1 (0.1%) died and 651 (56.3%) were lost to follow-up. Of the 505 patients who attended their annual evaluation, 417 (82.6%) improved, 32 (6.3%) were stable and 56 (11.1%) were worse. The frequency of emergency visits and hospitalisation decreased substantially among those who presented for the 1 year follow-up assessment. The results of standard case management of asthma were encouraging; however, a high proportion of patients did not return for long-term management.

  8. Epidemiology of Substance Use among University Students in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Tarig; Victor, Cathrine; Abdulmoneim, Alaa; Mohammed, Hala; Abdalla, Fatima; Ahmed, Asma; Ali, Eiman; Mohammed, Wael

    2016-01-01

    Background. Youth populations are vulnerable to substance use particularly in developing countries where circumstances may be favorable for it. There is no published data on substance use among the youth in Sudan other than on tobacco use. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, circumstances, and factors associated with substance use. Methods. An institution-based survey was conducted on a sample of 500 students. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed by the WHO for student drug surveys and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results. The overall prevalence of substance use is 31%. The current prevalence of tobacco, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamines, tranquilizers, inhalants, opiates, cocaine, and heroin use was 13.7%, 4.9%, 2.7%, 2.4%, 3.2%, 1%, 1.2%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. Curiosity (33.1%) was the main reason for initiation of substance use. The main adverse effects reported were health problems (19.7%) and theft (19.7%). Peers (40.9%) were the prime source of substance use. On multivariate analysis, male sex was the principle predictor for substance use (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 3.38, 9.17). Conclusion. Strategies to control substance use should encompass the role of the university and parents in observing and providing education to improve awareness of substances and their consequences. PMID:27006856

  9. [Sudan and other illegal dyes--food adulteration].

    PubMed

    Gajda, Joanna; Switka, Agnieszka; Kuźma, Katarzyna; Jarecka, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    As foodstuffs adulterated by illegal dyes, such as Sudan I, II, III IIV, para-Red, have appeared on the European Union market, the emergency measures to eliminate this problem have been taken. The illegal dyes are added to dried, ground chilli, curry, curcuma and to palm oil. These products are imported from countries outside the E.U. The adulteration concerns also ready to eat products which contain the ingredients mentioned above. Apart from the adulteration, the presence of illegal dyes in foodstuffs can be a threat to consumer's health. In 2003-2005 three Commission Decisions on emergency measures regarding some products which can contain illegal dyes were published. Since May 2003 to March 2006, 651 notifications on food adulteration by illegal dyes were sent to the RASFF system. As a result of the taken measures, the number of notifications have decreased. The possibility of food adulteration by illegal dyes different from the ones which are used now are considered. This is the reason why the continuation of food control and cooperation between official control authorities and food producers are necessary.

  10. Respiratory symptoms and occupational bronchitis in chromite ore miners, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ballal, S G

    1986-10-01

    Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis was determined in a group of 122 subjects (77 exposed miners, 18 partially exposed, 27 controls) working at chromite ore mines in Sudan. The mean ages (+/- s.d.) of the three groups were 36.4 (+/- 7.8), 35.2 (+/- 6.8) and 34.6 (+/- 7.5) years respectively. Methods included a respiratory symptoms questionnaire based on the British Medical Research Council (MRC 1976) questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, determination of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC%. The majority (66%) of the exposed subjects were non-smokers (NS) and 20 (77%) of the 'ever-smokers' (current and ex-smokers) were smokers of less than 15 cigarettes day-1. Respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, dyspnoea) were more frequent among the miners and so was chronic bronchitis. The prevalence of the latter was 26% among the miners compared to 11% and 7% among the partially exposed and the controls respectively. These differences could not be accounted for by cigarette smoking. Sixty-five per cent of the miners diagnosed as having asthma, chronic bronchitis or both were non-smokers. Although the values for the FEV1/FVC% remained normal or near the lower limits of the normal range, the mean value was significantly lower among the miners. It was concluded that the mine dust was the prime cause of the respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis among the miners.

  11. Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Doggale, Constantino; Pasquale, Harriet; Azairwe, Robert; Baba, Samson; Mnzava, Abraham

    2013-02-08

    Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM) strategic plan 2007-2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements.

  12. Economic development and the allocation of petroleum products in Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, M. ); Yousif, M.A.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The Sudanese economy has been characterized in recent years by severe energy shortages which have affected all economic activity. More than 94% of the commercial energy is imported and the level of such imports is seriously limited by the current foreign exchange crisis. However, the problem is not just one of foreign exchange; there is also the problem of utilization of resources to avoid bottleneck problems of supply. The allocation of petroleum products in Sudan has had a severe effect on all aspects of economic life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and to build a model to optimize the distribution of petroleum products in order to achieve at least a minimal supply in all regions. A large linear programming model has been developed and the solution indicates that current facilities should be able to satisfy 96% of the 1986 demand, about 30% more than the actual supply. Furthermore, with a little investment in storage facilities and extra trucks, the supply could satisfy total demand in the immediate future.

  13. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, A. Y. A.; Ali, Y. S. A.; Roelvink, J. A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.

    2015-04-01

    Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River in Sudan, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the vast upper river catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir has already lost more than one-third of its storage capacity due to sedimentation in the last four decades. Appropriate management of the eroded soils in the upper basin could mitigate this problem. In order to do that, the areas providing the highest sediment volumes to the river have to be identified, since they should have priority with respect to the application of erosion control practices. This requires studying the sedimentation record inside Roseires Reservoir in order to assess when and how much sediment is deposited and to identify its source. This paper deals with the identification of deposition time and soil stratification inside the reservoir, based on historical bathymetric data, numerical modelling and newly acquired soil data. The remoteness of the study area and the extreme climate result in coring campaigns being expensive and difficult. Therefore, these activities need to be optimised and coring locations selected beforehand. This was done by combining bathymetric data and the results of a depth-averaged morphodynamic model recording the vertical stratification in sediment deposits. The model allowed for recognising the areas that are potentially subject to neither net erosion nor bar migration during the lifespan of the reservoir. Verification of these results was carried out by analysing sediment stratification from the data collected during the subsequent field campaign.

  14. Correlation of measles and dengue infection in Kassala, Eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Tajeldin M; Karsany, Mubarak S; Ali, AbdelAziem A

    2015-01-01

    Using the clinical case definition adopted by the World Health Organization, a total of 275 suspected cases of measles were enrolled in this study during January-March 2012 in Kassala Teaching Hospital, Eastern Sudan. Various clinical manifestations (fever, headache, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, skin rash, vomiting, diarrhoea, convulsion, and hemorrhagic manifestations) were reported among these patients. Blood was withdrawn from the first 64 (23.3%) patients. Two samples were hemolyzed and only 60 samples (21.8%) were investigated for measles and dengue IgM antibodies. Antibodies for measles, dengue, and co-infection were detected in the plasma of 12 (20%), seven (11.7%), and 10 (16.7%) samples, respectively. Although there was no significant difference in age, residence, occupation, and vaccination status among the different groups, a high proportion of male patients (P = 0.011), severe cases (P = 0.004), and death ((P = 0.001) were reported among co-infected cases.

  15. Rift basins of interior Sudan: petroleum exploration and discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Schull, T.J.

    1988-10-01

    The sedimentary basins of interior Sudan are characterized by thick nonmarine clastic sequences of Jurassic(.)-Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Over 45,000 ft (13,716 m) of sediment was deposited in the deepest trough and extensive basinal areas are underlain by more than 20,000 ft (6096 m) of sedimentary rocks. The depositional sequences include thick lacustrine shales and claystones, flood plain claystones, and lacustrine, fluvial, and alluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Those lacustrine claystones deposited in a suboxic environment provide good oil-prone source rocks. Reservoir sandstones have been found in a wide variety of nonmarine sandstone facies. The extensional tectonism that formed these basins began in the Jurassic(.)-Early Cretaceous. Movement along major fault trends continued intermittently into the Miocene. This deformation resulted in a complex structural history that led to the formation of several deep fault-bounded troughs, major interbasinal highs, and complex basin flanks. This tectonism has created a wide variety of structures, many of which have become effective hydrocarbon traps. During the past eight years, several important oil discoveries have been made. Significant accumulations have been delineated in the Heglig and Unity areas, where estimated recoverable reserves are 250-300 million bbl of oil. 14 figures.

  16. Cystic echinococcosis in Mundari tribe-members of South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Barclay T; Jacob, Joseph; Finn, Timothy; Lado, Mounir; Napoleon, Robert; Brooker, Simon; Sidhu, Paul S; Kolaczinski, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Many neglected tropical diseases, including the zoonotic disease cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), are endemic to East Africa. However, their geographical distribution is heterogenous and incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if Mundari pastoralists harbor endemic human hydatidosis. The survey was conducted in cattle camps randomly selected from accessible sites provided by officials in Terekeka, South Sudan. Following informed consent, a questionnaire collected demographic data and hydatid exposure risk. A systematic sonographic abdominal exam was performed using General Electric's LOGIQ Book XP with a 3C-RS 2-5 MHz curvilinear transducer. Six hundred and ten individuals were screened from 13 camps. Four infections were identified, all in women. The prevalence of abdominal hydatid disease in the Mundari tribe-members in cattle camps was 0·7% and all individuals reporting at least one high-risk exposure to hydatid disease. Cystic echinococcosis is endemic among Mundari pastoralists; however, it would appear to be less endemic than in neighboring tribes.

  17. Cystic echinococcosis in Mundari tribe-members of South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay T; Jacob, Joseph; Finn, Timothy; Lado, Mounir; Napoleon, Robert; Brooker, Simon; Sidhu, Paul S; Kolaczinski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Many neglected tropical diseases, including the zoonotic disease cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), are endemic to East Africa. However, their geographical distribution is heterogenous and incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if Mundari pastoralists harbor endemic human hydatidosis. The survey was conducted in cattle camps randomly selected from accessible sites provided by officials in Terekeka, South Sudan. Following informed consent, a questionnaire collected demographic data and hydatid exposure risk. A systematic sonographic abdominal exam was performed using General Electric’s LOGIQ Book XP with a 3C-RS 2–5 MHz curvilinear transducer. Six hundred and ten individuals were screened from 13 camps. Four infections were identified, all in women. The prevalence of abdominal hydatid disease in the Mundari tribe-members in cattle camps was 0.7% and all individuals reporting at least one high-risk exposure to hydatid disease. Cystic echinococcosis is endemic among Mundari pastoralists; however, it would appear to be less endemic than in neighboring tribes. PMID:24139620

  18. Aflatoxins in peanut butter in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elzupir, Amin Osman; Salih, Amar O A; Suliman, Suliman A; Adam, Ali A; Elhussein, Abdelrahim M

    2011-08-01

    Forty-three peanut butter samples from Khartoum State, Sudan, were analyzed for aflatoxins (AFs, AFB1 + AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection after extraction with methanol:water (8:1, v/v) and clean-up using chloroform. All samples were contaminated with AFs, with total AF levels ranging between 26.7 and 853 μg/kg, and a mean total AF level of 287 ± 200.5 μg/kg. The highest concentrations were found for AFB1, (28 positive samples, maximum 534 μg/kg), while AFG1 was most frequently detected (43 positive samples, maximum 401 μg/kg). AFB2 (42 positive samples, maximum 3.2 μg/kg) and AFG2 (4 positive samples, maximum 30 μg/kg) were also present in these samples. The mean AF contamination levels found in this study exceeded by far all international regulations concerning maximum levels for this group of toxins. From the data, it is concluded that the levels of AF contamination in peanut butter from the Kartoum area are quite alarming, and may pose serious health hazards to consumers. Therefore, an intervention strategy to manage AF in peanut butter is urgently needed.

  19. Agricultural pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in central Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Taha, T. E.; Gray, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Hospital- and community-based studies were conducted in central Sudan to investigate the association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality. The cases were 197 stillbirths in the hospital and 36 perinatal deaths in the community; the controls were 812 liveborn, normal-birth-weight infants in the hospital, and 1505 liveborn infants who survived for the first 7 days after birth in the community. The odds ratio (OR) of perinatal death associated with pesticide exposure was estimated using multiple logistic regression. There was a consistent and significant association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in the hospital (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-2.8) and the community populations (adjusted OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.4). The OR was significantly higher among women engaged in farming (3.6; 95% CI: 1.6-8.0), but not among women in nonfarming occupations (1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.3). The estimated attributable risks of perinatal death owing to pesticide exposure were 22.6% for hospital stillbirths and 15.7% for community perinatal deaths; but among women engaged in farming in the hospital population the attributable risks were substantially higher (34.5%). PMID:8324850

  20. Epidemiology of anaemia among pregnant women in Geizera, central Sudan.

    PubMed

    Abdelgadir, M A; Khalid, A R; Ashmaig, A L; Ibrahim, A R M; Ahmed, A-Aziz M; Adam, I

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between August and September 2010 at the antenatal care clinic of the Araba Waeshreen Hospital (Geizera), central Sudan. Sociodemographic, medical, obstetric and use of pica information were gathered. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Haemoglobin levels were measured and blood films and stools were examined for malaria and schistosomiasis. Out of the 292 women, 119 (40.8%) had anaemia (HB < 11 g/dl); eight (2.7%) had severe anaemia (HB < 7 g/dl). One patient had a positive blood film for malaria. A total of 38 (13.0%) out of the 292 pregnant women had S. mansoni infections. While age, parity, gestational age, education, occupation, interpregnancy interval and BMI were not associated with anaemia, pica (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0-2.9, p = 0.02) and S. mansoni infections (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2-6.7, p = 0.01) were significantly associated with anaemia using univariate and multivariate analyses. The high prevalence of anaemia among these women needs to be controlled through preventive measurement of S. mansoni infections and health education to prevent practising pica.