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Sample records for paks und temelin

  1. Seismic monitoring system replacement at Temelin plant

    SciTech Connect

    Baltus, R.; Palusamy, S.S.

    1996-12-01

    The VVER-1000 plants under construction at Temelin (Czech Republic) were designed with an automatic reactor trip system triggered on seismic peak accelerations. Within the plant I and C upgrade, Westinghouse designed a digital Seismic Monitoring System to be integrated in an Artificial Intelligence based Diagnostic and Monitoring System. The system meets the requirements of the emerging standards prepared by the US NRC on the basis of EPRI studies, which recommend a detailed data evaluation and a pre-shutdown plant inspection before orderly shutdown, if required, rather than immediate emergency shutdown. The paper presents the arguments about automatic trip, as discussed in an IAEA meeting attended by expert consultants from Japan, Russia, US and Eastern and Western Europe. It describes the system installed at Temelin, including the plant specific criteria for OBE exceedance. Finally it presents the capabilities and limitations of the integration into an overall Diagnostic and Monitoring System.

  2. PAK signaling in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Diana Zi; Field, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Transformation of a normal cell to a cancer cell is caused by mutations in genes that regulate proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. Small GTPases such as Ras, Rho, Rac and Cdc42 orchestrate many of the signals that are required for malignant transformation. The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are effectors of Rac and Cdc42. PAKs are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases comprised of six isoforms (PAK1–6), and they play important roles in cytoskeletal dynamics, cell survival and proliferation. They act as key signal transducers in several cancer signaling pathways, including Ras, Raf, NFκB, Akt, Bad and p53. Although PAKs are not mutated in cancers, they are overexpressed, hyperactivated or amplified in several human tumors and their role in cell transformation make them attractive therapeutic targets. This review discusses the evidence that PAK is important for cell transformation and some key signaling pathways it regulates. This review primarily discusses Group I PAKs (PAK1, PAK2 and PAK3) as Group II PAKs (PAK4, PAK5 and PAK6) are discussed elsewhere in this issue (by Minden). PMID:23162742

  3. Zip Pak for Reading Readiness Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Norval C., Comp.

    Zip Paks were created by 16 participants who met in the summer of 1968 to produce a reading booklet to be used especially by migrant children. Zip Paks range from the reading readiness level through the third level. Objectives of the Zip Pak for the reading readiness level are to: (1) establish rapport with the child, (2) make the child…

  4. Direct interaction between AR and PAK6 in androgen-stimulated PAK6 activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Busby, Jennifer; John, Ciny; Wei, Jianning; Yuan, Xin; Lu, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    A p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6) was previously identified to be an androgen receptor (AR) interacting protein through a yeast two-hybrid screening. We used hormone responsive prostate cancer LAPC4 and LNCap cell lines as models to study the signaling events associated with androgen stimulation and PAK6. An androgen-stimulated PAK6 kinase activation was observed in LAPC4 cells expressing endogenous PAK6 and in LNCap cells ectopically expressing a wild type PAK6. This activation was likely mediated through a direct interaction between AR and PAK6 since siRNA knock-down of AR in LAPC4 cells downregulated androgen-stimulated PAK6 activation. In addition, LNCap cells expressing a non-AR-interacting PAK6 mutant exhibited dampened androgen-stimulated kinase activation. As a consequence of androgen-stimulated activation, PAK6 was phosphorylated at multiple serine/threonine residues including the AR-interacting domain of PAK6. Furthermore, androgen-stimulation promoted prostate cancer cell motility and invasion were demonstrated in LNCap cells ectopically expressing PAK6-WT. In contrast, LNCap expressing non-AR-interacting mutant PAK6 did not respond to androgen stimulation with increased cell motility and invasion. Our results demonstrate that androgen-stimulated PAK6 activation is mediated through a direct interaction between AR and PAK6 and PAK6 activation promotes prostate cancer cells motility and invasion.

  5. Pyrolysis of the tetra pak

    SciTech Connect

    Korkmaz, Ahmet; Yanik, Jale Brebu, Mihai; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-11-15

    This study deals with pyrolysis of tetra pak which is widely used as an aseptic beverage packaging material. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere in a batch reactor at different temperatures and by different pyrolysis modes (one- and two-step). The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified. Pyrolysis liquids produced were collected as three separate phases; aqueous phase, tar and polyethylene wax. Characterization of wax and the determination of the total amount of phenols in aqueous phase were performed. Chemical compositions of gas and char products relevant to fuel applications were determined. Pure aluminum can be also recovered by pyrolysis.

  6. Irradiation of Population in the Surrounding Area of Nuclear Power Plant Temelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thinova, Lenka; Kluson, Jaroslav

    2008-08-01

    In monitoring the impact of nuclear facilities operation on ecosystem, it is necessary to consider, what part of biota irradiation can be caused by an artificial source. For the estimation of an effective dose from natural sources were used measurements of dosimetric and gamma spectrometric characteristics of photon fields, (performed in the area of NPP Temelin since year 2000) and data from the Czech Republic radiometric chart, including the results from radon volume activity measurements in dwellings. For gamma spectrometric measurements in situ were selected two methodologies and for measurement were used corresponding types of equipment (Tesla NB3201 and spectrometer NaI(TI) 3"x3") at selected locations within the monitored area: i) determination of air kerma rate (through direct measurement and by calculationfrom spectrometric data); ii) measurement of photon spectra by an scintillating spectrometer. For a dose assessment from artificial sources resulting from past or present operation of NPP Temelin, were used records from all so far performed laboratory and field measurements of NPP releases, food baskets and also results of a 6 year ecosystem monitoring in the surrounding area of NPP Temelin. The ecosystem monitoring is based on studying the contamination of the following bioindicators: forest humus, Pine bark, Schreber's Moss, the Bay Bolete (mushroom) and forest berries. Each year 220 samples are collected and mass activity (Bq/kg) for eventual contaminants is determined using laboratory gamma spectroscopy. For measurements is used a coaxial HPGe detector, with samples in the geometry of "Marinelli" container. For evaluation of the laboratory results obtained is used trend analysis. The above described monitoring has been performed from the year 2000 until now (the year 2000 is pre-operational). In all measured laboratory spectra, of all analyzed samples, were not identified any non-natural radionuclides, with the exception of 137Cs, for which maesured

  7. Irradiation of Population in the Surrounding Area of Nuclear Power Plant Temelin

    SciTech Connect

    Thinova, Lenka; Kluson, Jaroslav

    2008-08-07

    In monitoring the impact of nuclear facilities operation on ecosystem, it is necessary to consider, what part of biota irradiation can be caused by an artificial source. For the estimation of an effective dose from natural sources were used measurements of dosimetric and gamma spectrometric characteristics of photon fields, (performed in the area of NPP Temelin since year 2000) and data from the Czech Republic radiometric chart, including the results from radon volume activity measurements in dwellings. For gamma spectrometric measurements in situ were selected two methodologies and for measurement were used corresponding types of equipment (Tesla NB3201 and spectrometer NaI(TI) 3''x3'') at selected locations within the monitored area: i) determination of air kerma rate (through direct measurement and by calculationfrom spectrometric data); ii) measurement of photon spectra by an scintillating spectrometer. For a dose assessment from artificial sources resulting from past or present operation of NPP Temelin, were used records from all so far performed laboratory and field measurements of NPP releases, food baskets and also results of a 6 year ecosystem monitoring in the surrounding area of NPP Temelin. The ecosystem monitoring is based on studying the contamination of the following bioindicators: forest humus, Pine bark, Schreber's Moss, the Bay Bolete (mushroom) and forest berries. Each year 220 samples are collected and mass activity (Bq/kg) for eventual contaminants is determined using laboratory gamma spectroscopy. For measurements is used a coaxial HPGe detector, with samples in the geometry of 'Marinelli' container. For evaluation of the laboratory results obtained is used trend analysis. The above described monitoring has been performed from the year 2000 until now (the year 2000 is pre-operational). In all measured laboratory spectra, of all analyzed samples, were not identified any non-natural radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 137}Cs, for which

  8. Republished: Tracing PAKs from GI inflammation to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dammann, Kyle; Khare, Vineeta; Gasche, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    P-21 activated kinases (PAKs) are effectors of Rac1/Cdc42 which coordinate signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Activation of PAKs drive important signalling pathways including mitogen activated protein kinase, phospoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT), NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin. Intestinal PAK1 expression increases with inflammation and malignant transformation, although the biological relevance of PAKs in the development and progression of GI disease is only incompletely understood. This review highlights the importance of altered PAK activation within GI inflammation, emphasises its effect on oncogenic signalling and discusses PAKs as therapeutic targets of chemoprevention. PMID:25335797

  9. Pak2 regulates hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation, survival and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yi; Broxmeyer, Hal E.; Staser, Karl; Chitteti, Brahmananda Reddy; Park, Su-Jung; Hahn, Seongmin; Cooper, Scott; Sun, Zejin; Jiang, Li; Yang, XianLin; Yuan, Jin; Kosoff, Rachelle; Sandusky, George; Srour, Edward F.; Chernoff, Jonathan; Clapp, Wade

    2015-01-01

    p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2), a serine/threonine kinase, has been previously shown to be essential for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment. However, Pak2 modulation of long-term hematopoiesis and lineage commitment remain unreported. Utilizing a conditional Pak2 knock out (KO) mouse model, we found that disruption of Pak2 in HSCs induced profound leukopenia and a mild macrocytic anemia. Although loss of Pak2 in HSCs leads to less efficient short- and long-term competitive hematopoiesis than wild type (WT) cells, it does not affect HSC self-renewal per se. Pak2 disruption decreased the survival and proliferation of multi-cytokine stimulated immature progenitors. Loss of Pak2 skewed lineage differentiation toward granulocytopoiesis and monocytopoiesis in mice as evidenced by 1) a three to six-fold increase in the percentage of peripheral blood granulocytes and a significant increase in the percentage of granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) in mice transplanted with Pak2-disrupted BM; 2) Pak2-disrupted BM and c-kit+ cells yielded higher numbers of more mature subsets of granulocyte-monocyte colonies and polymophonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), respectively, when cultured in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Pak2 disruption resulted respectively in decreased and increased gene expression of transcription factors JunB and c-Myc, which may suggest underlying mechanisms by which Pak2 regulates granulocyte-monocyte lineage commitment. Furthermore, Pak2 disruption led to 1) higher percentage of CD4+CD8+ double positive T cells and lower percentages of CD4+CD8− or CD4−CD8+ single positive T cells in thymus and 2) decreased numbers of mature B cells and increased numbers of Pre-Pro B cells in BM, suggesting defects in lymphopoiesis. PMID:25586960

  10. Herbal therapeutics that block the oncogenic kinase PAK1: a practical approach towards PAK1-dependent diseases and longevity.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Over 35 years research on PAKs, RAC/CDC42(p21)-activated kinases, comes of age, and in particular PAK1 has been well known to be responsible for a variety of diseases such as cancer (mainly solid tumors), Alzheimer's disease, acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other viral/bacterial infections, inflammatory diseases (asthma and arthritis), diabetes (type 2), neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, learning disability, autism, etc. Although several distinct synthetic PAK1-blockers have been recently developed, no FDA-approved PAK1 blockers are available on the market as yet. Thus, patients suffering from these PAK1-dependent diseases have to rely on solely a variety of herbal therapeutics such as propolis and curcumin that block PAK1 without affecting normal cell growth. Furthermore, several recent studies revealed that some of these herbal therapeutics significantly extend the lifespan of nematodes (C. elegans) and fruit flies (Drosophila), and PAK1-deficient worm lives longer than the wild type. Here, I outline mainly pathological phenotypes of hyper-activated PAK1 and a list of herbal therapeutics that block PAK1, but cause no side (harmful) effect on healthy people or animals.

  11. Herbal therapeutics that block the oncogenic kinase PAK1: a practical approach towards PAK1-dependent diseases and longevity.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Over 35 years research on PAKs, RAC/CDC42(p21)-activated kinases, comes of age, and in particular PAK1 has been well known to be responsible for a variety of diseases such as cancer (mainly solid tumors), Alzheimer's disease, acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other viral/bacterial infections, inflammatory diseases (asthma and arthritis), diabetes (type 2), neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, learning disability, autism, etc. Although several distinct synthetic PAK1-blockers have been recently developed, no FDA-approved PAK1 blockers are available on the market as yet. Thus, patients suffering from these PAK1-dependent diseases have to rely on solely a variety of herbal therapeutics such as propolis and curcumin that block PAK1 without affecting normal cell growth. Furthermore, several recent studies revealed that some of these herbal therapeutics significantly extend the lifespan of nematodes (C. elegans) and fruit flies (Drosophila), and PAK1-deficient worm lives longer than the wild type. Here, I outline mainly pathological phenotypes of hyper-activated PAK1 and a list of herbal therapeutics that block PAK1, but cause no side (harmful) effect on healthy people or animals. PMID:23943274

  12. PAKS--Arbeitsbericht Nr. 5. Juli 1970. [PAKS--Working Paper No. 5. July 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Univ. (Germany).

    This report, the fifth in a series of working papers issued by the Project on Applied Contrastive Linguistics (PAKS) at the University of Stuttgart, is dedicated to a consideration of error analysis in language learning, here seen as relevant not only for the teacher but for the text book writer and the curriculum planner as well. An introduction…

  13. Paleoseismology of the Hluboká Fault in the near-region of the NPP Temelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschegg, Dana; Popotnig, Ankelika; Porpaczy, Clemens; Lomax, Johanna; Decker, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    Temelin is located in the Bohemian Massif, a Variscan basement unit characterized by very low historical/instrumental seismicity. Previous seismic hazard assessments for the site revealed very low hazard (PGA<0.1g) for a non-exceedance probability of 10-4 per year. The assessments are based on historical/instrumental earthquake data of the Bohemian Massif that cover the time period since about 1800 and 1903, respectively. In this study we assess the late Variscan Hluboká fault in the vicinity of the site, which was repeatedly re-activated in Mesozoic, Miocene and Pliocene times. The fault is part of the several tens of kilometres long NW-striking Jáchymov (Joachimsthal) Fault zone. It is located about 10 to 20 km south of the NPP. Geological, geophysical, and structural data characterize the fault as a dextral strike-slip fault system. Reflection seismic shows an up to a few hundred meters wide zone with steeply dipping faults that are supposed to merge into a common master fault at depth. The fault is characterized by fault bends defining a restraining and a releasing segment. The latter coincides with a pronounced morphological scarp. Recent uplift of the footwall of the fault at this releasing bend is indicated by previously published geodetic data (P. Vyskočil, 1973) and geomorphological data comparing the tectonic morphology of the fault scarp near Hluboká nad Vltavou with slopes, which are not fault controlled. All analysed geomorphological indices characterize the Hluboká scarp as a unique morphological feature, which results from Quaternary uplift of the footwall of the Hluboká Fault with respect to its hanging wall. The assessment of the youngest tectonic history of the fault further uses correlations of Quaternary terraces of the Vltava River across the fault. We established a new Late Pleistocene stratigraphy of fluvial terraces using field and borehole data combined with OSL/IRSL age dating. The results show terrace staircases in the hanging wall

  14. Pak2 restrains endomitosis during megakaryopoiesis and alters cytoskeleton organization

    PubMed Central

    Kosoff, Rachelle E.; Aslan, Joseph E.; Kostyak, John C.; Dulaimi, Essel; Chow, Hoi Yee; Prudnikova, Tatiana Y.; Radu, Maria; Kunapuli, Satya P.; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Megakaryocyte maturation and polyploidization are critical for platelet production; abnormalities in these processes are associated with myeloproliferative disorders, including thrombocytopenia. Megakaryocyte maturation signals through cascades that involve p21-activated kinase (Pak) function; however, the specific role for Pak kinases in megakaryocyte biology remains elusive. Here, we identify Pak2 as an essential effector of megakaryocyte maturation, polyploidization, and proplatelet formation. Genetic deletion of Pak2 in murine bone marrow is associated with macrothrombocytopenia, altered megakaryocyte ultrastructure, increased bone marrow megakaryocyte precursors, and an elevation of mature CD41+ megakaryocytes, as well as an increased number of polyploid cells. In Pak2−/− mice, platelet clearance rate was increased, as was production of newly synthesized, reticulated platelets. In vitro, Pak2−/− megakaryocytes demonstrate increased polyploidization associated with alterations in β1-tubulin expression and organization, decreased proplatelet extensions, and reduced phosphorylation of the endomitosis regulators LIM domain kinase 1, cofilin, and Aurora A/B/C. Together, these data establish a novel role for Pak2 as an important regulator of megakaryopoiesis, polyploidization, and cytoskeletal dynamics in developing megakaryocytes. PMID:25824689

  15. Rac1-PAK2 pathway is essential for zebrafish heart regeneration.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiangwen; He, Quanze; Li, Guobao; Ma, Jinmin; Zhong, Tao P

    2016-04-15

    P-21 activated kinases, or PAKs, are serine-threonine kinases that play important roles in diverse heart functions include heart development, cardiovascular development and function in a range of models; however, the mechanisms by which PAKs mediate heart regeneration are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PAK2 and PAK4 expression is induced in cardiomyocytes and vessels, respectively, following zebrafish heart injury. Inhibition of PAK2 and PAK4 using a specific small molecule inhibitor impedes cardiomyocyte proliferation/dedifferentiation and cardiovascular regeneration, respectively. Cdc42 is specifically expressed in the ventricle and may function upstream of PAK2 but not PAK4 under normal conditions and that cardiomyocyte proliferentation during heart regeneration relies on Rac1-mediated activation of Pak2. Our results indicate that PAKs play a key role in heart regeneration.

  16. The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Transcriptionally Represses Pak1 in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-García, Bernadette; Vázquez-Rivera, Viviana; González-Flores, Jonathan N.; Engel, Brienne E.; Cress, W. Douglas; Santiago-Cardona, Pedro G.

    2015-01-01

    We previously characterized the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) as a regulator of adherens junction assembly and cell-to-cell adhesion in osteoblasts. This is a novel function since Rb is predominantly known as a cell cycle repressor. Herein, we characterized the molecular mechanisms by which Rb performs this function, hypothesizing that Rb controls the activity of known regulators of adherens junction assembly. We found that Rb represses the expression of the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak1), an effector of the small Rho GTPase Rac1. Rac1 is a well-known regulator of adherens junction assembly whose increased activity in cancer is linked to perturbations of intercellular adhesion. Using nuclear run-on and luciferase reporter transcription assays, we found that Pak1 repression by Rb is transcriptional, without affecting Pak1 mRNA and protein stability. Pak1 promoter bioinformatics showed multiple E2F1 binding sites within 155 base pairs of the transcriptional start site, and a Pak1-promoter region containing these E2F sites is susceptible to transcriptional inhibition by Rb. Chromatin immunoprecipitations showed that an Rb-E2F complex binds to the region of the Pak1 promoter containing the E2F1 binding sites, suggesting that Pak1 is an E2F target and that the repressive effect of Rb on Pak1 involves blocking the trans-activating capacity of E2F. A bioinformatics analysis showed elevated Pak1 expression in several solid tumors relative to adjacent normal tissue, with both Pak1 and E2F increased relative to normal tissue in breast cancer, supporting a cancer etiology for Pak1 up-regulation. Therefore, we propose that by repressing Pak1 expression, Rb prevents Rac1 hyperactivity usually associated with cancer and related to cytoskeletal derangements that disrupt cell adhesion, consequently enhancing cancer cell migratory capacity. This de-regulation of cell adhesion due to Rb loss could be part of the molecular events associated with cancer progression

  17. ARROW-PAK Macroencapsulation. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-04-01

    An ARROW-PAK is a high density polyethylene (HDPE) tube, about 21 feet long and 30 inches wide. Each ARROW-PAK can hold the equivalent of 21 55-gallon drums of mixed waste debris. Each tube is fused to HDPE endcaps using localized heating and high pressure contact. The sleeves and encaps form a tube for macroencapsulating mixed waste debris. The ARROW-PAK may achieve a mixed waste debris volume one-fourth that of the conventional macroencapsulation approach. The mixed waste debris is loaded into 55-gallon drums. Once filled a 'supercompactor' crushes the drums into 12-inch thick pucks. Three pucks can be loaded into a standard 85-gallon metal drum known as an 'overpack'. Seven overpacks fit into each ARROW-PAK.

  18. PAK1 translocates into nucleus in response to prolactin but not to estrogen.

    PubMed

    Oladimeji, Peter; Diakonova, Maria

    2016-04-22

    Tyrosyl phosphorylation of the p21-activated serine-threonine kinase 1 (PAK1) has an essential role in regulating PAK1 functions in breast cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that PAK1 serves as a common node for estrogen (E2)- and prolactin (PRL)-dependent pathways. We hypothesize herein that intracellular localization of PAK1 is affected by PRL and E2 treatments differently. We demonstrate by immunocytochemical analysis that PAK1 nuclear translocation is ligand-dependent: only PRL but not E2 stimulated PAK1 nuclear translocation. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of PAK1 is essential for this nuclear translocation because phospho-tyrosyl-deficient PAK1 Y3F mutant is retained in the cytoplasm in response to PRL. We confirmed these data by Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions. In 30 min of PRL treatment, only 48% of pTyr-PAK1 is retained in the cytoplasm of PAK1 WT clone while 52% re-distributes into the nucleus and pTyr-PAK1 shuttles back to the cytoplasm by 60 min of PRL treatment. In contrast, PAK1 Y3F is retained in the cytoplasm. E2 treatment causes nuclear translocation of neither PAK1 WT nor PAK1 Y3F. Finally, we show by an in vitro kinase assay that PRL but not E2 stimulates PAK1 kinase activity in the nuclear fraction. Thus, PAK1 nuclear translocation is ligand-dependent: PRL activates PAK1 and induces translocation of activated pTyr-PAK1 into nucleus while E2 activates pTyr-PAK1 only in the cytoplasm.

  19. PAK1 translocates into nucleus in response to prolactin but not to estrogen.

    PubMed

    Oladimeji, Peter; Diakonova, Maria

    2016-04-22

    Tyrosyl phosphorylation of the p21-activated serine-threonine kinase 1 (PAK1) has an essential role in regulating PAK1 functions in breast cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that PAK1 serves as a common node for estrogen (E2)- and prolactin (PRL)-dependent pathways. We hypothesize herein that intracellular localization of PAK1 is affected by PRL and E2 treatments differently. We demonstrate by immunocytochemical analysis that PAK1 nuclear translocation is ligand-dependent: only PRL but not E2 stimulated PAK1 nuclear translocation. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of PAK1 is essential for this nuclear translocation because phospho-tyrosyl-deficient PAK1 Y3F mutant is retained in the cytoplasm in response to PRL. We confirmed these data by Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions. In 30 min of PRL treatment, only 48% of pTyr-PAK1 is retained in the cytoplasm of PAK1 WT clone while 52% re-distributes into the nucleus and pTyr-PAK1 shuttles back to the cytoplasm by 60 min of PRL treatment. In contrast, PAK1 Y3F is retained in the cytoplasm. E2 treatment causes nuclear translocation of neither PAK1 WT nor PAK1 Y3F. Finally, we show by an in vitro kinase assay that PRL but not E2 stimulates PAK1 kinase activity in the nuclear fraction. Thus, PAK1 nuclear translocation is ligand-dependent: PRL activates PAK1 and induces translocation of activated pTyr-PAK1 into nucleus while E2 activates pTyr-PAK1 only in the cytoplasm. PMID:27003261

  20. LAT-independent Erk activation via Bam32-PLC-γ1-Pak1 complexes: GTPase-independent Pak1 activation.

    PubMed

    Rouquette-Jazdanian, Alexandre K; Sommers, Connie L; Kortum, Robert L; Morrison, Deborah K; Samelson, Lawrence E

    2012-10-26

    In T cells, the adaptor Bam32 is coupled to Erk activation downstream of the TCR by an unknown mechanism. We characterized in Jurkat cells and primary T lymphocytes a pathway dependent on Bam32-PLC-γ1-Pak1 complexes, in which Pak1 kinase activates Raf-1 and Mek-1, both upstream of Erk. In the Bam32-PLC-γ1-Pak1 complex, catalytically inactive PLC-γ1 is used as a scaffold linking Bam32 to Pak1. PLC-γ1(C-SH2) directly binds S141 of Bam32, preventing LAT-mediated activation of Ras by PLC-γ1. The Bam32-PLC-γ1 interaction enhances the binding of the SH3 domain of the phospholipase with Pak1. The PLC-γ1(SH3)-Pak1 interaction activates Pak1 independently of the small GTPases Rac1/Cdc42, previously described as being the only activators of Pak1 in T cells. Direct binding of the SH3 domain of PLC-γ1 to Pak1 dissociates inactive Pak1 homodimers, a mechanism required for Pak1 activation. We have thus uncovered a LAT/Ras-independent, Bam32-nucleated pathway that activates Erk signaling in T cells.

  1. PAK1 modulates a PPARγ/NF-κB cascade in intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Kyle; Khare, Vineeta; Lang, Michaela; Claudel, Thierry; Harpain, Felix; Granofszky, Nicolas; Evstatiev, Rayko; Williams, Jonathan M; Pritchard, D Mark; Watson, Alastair; Gasche, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are multifunctional effectors of Rho GTPases with both kinase and scaffolding activity. Here, we investigated the effects of inflammation on PAK1 signaling and its role in colitis-driven carcinogenesis. PAK1 and p-PAK1 (Thr423) were assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. C57BL6/J wildtype mice were treated with a single intraperitoneal TNFα injection. Small intestinal organoids from these mice and from PAK1-KO mice were cultured with TNFα. NF-κB and PPARγ were analyzed upon PAK1 overexpression and silencing for transcriptional/translational regulation. PAK1 expression and activation was increased on the luminal intestinal epithelial surface in inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer. PAK1 was phosphorylated upon treatment with IFNγ, IL-1β, and TNFα. In vivo, mice administered with TNFα showed increased p-PAK1 in intestinal villi, which was associated with nuclear p65 and NF-κB activation. p65 nuclear translocation downstream of TNFα was strongly inhibited in PAK1-KO small intestinal organoids. PAK1 overexpression induced a PAK1-p65 interaction as visualized by co-immunoprecipitation, nuclear translocation, and increased NF-κB transactivation, all of which were impeded by kinase-dead PAK1. Moreover, PAK1 overexpression downregulated PPARγ and mesalamine recovered PPARγ through PAK1 inhibition. On the other hand PAK1 silencing inhibited NF-κB, which was recovered using BADGE, a PPARγ antagonist. Altogether these data demonstrate that PAK1 overexpression and activation in inflammation and colitis-associated cancer promote NF-κB activity via suppression of PPARγ in intestinal epithelial cells.

  2. Development of a Hydronic Rooftop Unit-HyPak-MA

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eric; Berman, Mark

    2009-11-14

    The majority of U.S. commercial floor space is cooled by rooftop HVAC units (RTUs). RTU popularity derives chiefly from their low initial cost and relative ease of service access without disturbing building occupants. Unfortunately, current RTUs are inherently inefficient due to a combination of characteristics that unnecessarily increase cooling loads and energy use. 36% percent of annual U.S. energy, and two-thirds of electricity, is consumed in and by buildings. Commercial buildings consume approximately 4.2 quads of energy each year at a cost of $230 billion per year, with HVAC equipment consuming 1.2 quads of electricity. More than half of all U.S. commercial floor space is cooled by packaged HVAC units, most of which are rooftop units (RTUs). Inefficient RTUs create an estimated 3.5% of U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions, thus contributing significantly to global warming5. Also, RTUs often fail to maintain adequate ventilation air and air filtration, reducing indoor air quality. This is the second HyPak project to be supported by DOE through NETL. The prior project, referred to as HyPak-1 in this report, had two rounds of prototype fabrication and testing as well as computer modeling and market research. The HyPak-1 prototypes demonstrated the high performance capabilities of the HyPak concept, but made it clear that further development was required to reduce heat exchanger cost and improve system reliability before HyPak commercialization can commence. The HyPak-1 prototypes were limited to about 25% ventilation air fraction, limiting performance and marketability. The current project is intended to develop a 'mixed-air' product that is capable of full 0-100% modulation in ventilation air fraction, hence it was referred to as HyPak-MA in the proposal. (For simplicity, the -MA has been dropped when referencing the current project.) The objective of the HyPak Project is to design, develop and test a hydronic RTU that provides a quantum improvement over conventional RTU

  3. PAK2 promotes migration and proliferation of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Lei; Bu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Li, Yi-Cun; Ma, Si-Rui; Yu, Guang-Tao; Mao, Liang; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    P21 activated kinase 2 (PAK2) is a member of Group I PAKs family and highly expressed in various cancers. Current studies have demonstrated that PAK2 played a pivotal role in tumor progression. However, the role of PAK2 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma is still unclear. This study aims to explore the expression and the function of PAK2 in AdCC. Human salivary gland tissue microarray, including 18 normal salivary glands (NSG), 12 pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 72 AdCC, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of PAK2. The result showed that PAK2 was significantly increased in AdCC compared with NSG and PMA. Then the Pearson correlation analysis using serial tissue sections showed a close correlation of PAK2 with Cyclin D1, Phospho-STAT3 at Tyrosine 705 (p-STAT3) and Ki-67. Further in vitro study utilizing PAK2 knockdown via siRNA transfection revealed significantly reduced migration and proliferation of AdCC cell lines compared with control group. Knockdown of PAK2 decreased the expression of Cyclin D1 in AdCC cell lines. In addition, the inhibition of STAT3 reduced the expression of PAK2 in AdCC cell lines. These findings suggested that PAK2 promotes AdCC cell migration and proliferation and may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27648129

  4. PAK2 promotes migration and proliferation of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Lei; Bu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Li, Yi-Cun; Ma, Si-Rui; Yu, Guang-Tao; Mao, Liang; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    P21 activated kinase 2 (PAK2) is a member of Group I PAKs family and highly expressed in various cancers. Current studies have demonstrated that PAK2 played a pivotal role in tumor progression. However, the role of PAK2 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma is still unclear. This study aims to explore the expression and the function of PAK2 in AdCC. Human salivary gland tissue microarray, including 18 normal salivary glands (NSG), 12 pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 72 AdCC, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of PAK2. The result showed that PAK2 was significantly increased in AdCC compared with NSG and PMA. Then the Pearson correlation analysis using serial tissue sections showed a close correlation of PAK2 with Cyclin D1, Phospho-STAT3 at Tyrosine 705 (p-STAT3) and Ki-67. Further in vitro study utilizing PAK2 knockdown via siRNA transfection revealed significantly reduced migration and proliferation of AdCC cell lines compared with control group. Knockdown of PAK2 decreased the expression of Cyclin D1 in AdCC cell lines. In addition, the inhibition of STAT3 reduced the expression of PAK2 in AdCC cell lines. These findings suggested that PAK2 promotes AdCC cell migration and proliferation and may be a potential therapeutic target.

  5. PAK2 promotes migration and proliferation of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Lei; Bu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Li, Yi-Cun; Ma, Si-Rui; Yu, Guang-Tao; Mao, Liang; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    P21 activated kinase 2 (PAK2) is a member of Group I PAKs family and highly expressed in various cancers. Current studies have demonstrated that PAK2 played a pivotal role in tumor progression. However, the role of PAK2 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma is still unclear. This study aims to explore the expression and the function of PAK2 in AdCC. Human salivary gland tissue microarray, including 18 normal salivary glands (NSG), 12 pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 72 AdCC, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of PAK2. The result showed that PAK2 was significantly increased in AdCC compared with NSG and PMA. Then the Pearson correlation analysis using serial tissue sections showed a close correlation of PAK2 with Cyclin D1, Phospho-STAT3 at Tyrosine 705 (p-STAT3) and Ki-67. Further in vitro study utilizing PAK2 knockdown via siRNA transfection revealed significantly reduced migration and proliferation of AdCC cell lines compared with control group. Knockdown of PAK2 decreased the expression of Cyclin D1 in AdCC cell lines. In addition, the inhibition of STAT3 reduced the expression of PAK2 in AdCC cell lines. These findings suggested that PAK2 promotes AdCC cell migration and proliferation and may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27648129

  6. Zip Pak for Pre-Primer Reading Level (Teacher's Manual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Norval C., Comp.

    The Zip Pak for the pre-primer reading level was developed for use with migrant Mexican American children with reading deficiencies. Its goals are to: (1) increase and widen the child's ability to be selective in choosing his information and selecting information pertinent to a purpose; and (2) improve the child's ability to make decisions,…

  7. Zip Pak for Pre-Primer Reading Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Norval C., Comp.

    The Zip Pak for the pre-primer reading level was developed for use with migrant Mexican American children who have reading deficiencies. The area of failure with these children has not been with the visual discrimination involved in decoding, but with the interpretation of the material to be decoded. Therefore, the 5 lessons in this student…

  8. Zip Pak for Second Reader Level (Teacher's Manual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Norval C., Comp.

    Developed for use with migrant children between the ages of 8 and 12 years, working at a second grade level, this Zip Pak was created to give additional aid in reading and vocabulary building. Since the speaking vocabulary of these children tends to be normal while their reading and writing vocabulary tends to be low, an attempt was made to…

  9. PAK4 promotes kinase-independent stabilization of RhoU to modulate cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Dart, Anna E.; Box, Gary M.; Court, William; Gale, Madeline E.; Brown, John P.; Pinder, Sarah E.; Eccles, Suzanne A.

    2015-01-01

    P21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) is a Cdc42 effector protein thought to regulate cell adhesion disassembly in a kinase-dependent manner. We found that PAK4 expression is significantly higher in high-grade human breast cancer patient samples, whereas depletion of PAK4 modifies cell adhesion dynamics of breast cancer cells. Surprisingly, systematic analysis of PAK4 functionality revealed that PAK4-driven adhesion turnover is neither dependent on Cdc42 binding nor kinase activity. Rather, reduced expression of PAK4 leads to a concomitant loss of RhoU expression. We report that RhoU is targeted for ubiquitination by the Rab40A–Cullin 5 complex and demonstrate that PAK4 protects RhoU from ubiquitination in a kinase-independent manner. Overexpression of RhoU rescues the PAK4 depletion phenotype, whereas loss of RhoU expression reduces cell adhesion turnover and migration. These data support a new kinase-independent mechanism for PAK4 function, where an important role of PAK4 in cellular adhesions is to stabilize RhoU protein levels. Thus, PAK4 and RhoU cooperate to drive adhesion turnover and promote cell migration. PMID:26598620

  10. Computational design of a PAK1 binding protein.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ramesh K; Leaver-Fay, Andrew; Yin, Shuangye; Wu, Yibing; Butterfoss, Glenn L; Szyperski, Thomas; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Kuhlman, Brian

    2010-07-01

    We describe a computational protocol, called DDMI, for redesigning scaffold proteins to bind to a specified region on a target protein. The DDMI protocol is implemented within the Rosetta molecular modeling program and uses rigid-body docking, sequence design, and gradient-based minimization of backbone and side-chain torsion angles to design low-energy interfaces between the scaffold and target protein. Iterative rounds of sequence design and conformational optimization were needed to produce models that have calculated binding energies that are similar to binding energies calculated for native complexes. We also show that additional conformation sampling with molecular dynamics can be iterated with sequence design to further lower the computed energy of the designed complexes. To experimentally test the DDMI protocol, we redesigned the human hyperplastic discs protein to bind to the kinase domain of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). Six designs were experimentally characterized. Two of the designs aggregated and were not characterized further. Of the remaining four designs, three bound to the PAK1 with affinities tighter than 350 muM. The tightest binding design, named Spider Roll, bound with an affinity of 100 muM. NMR-based structure prediction of Spider Roll based on backbone and (13)C(beta) chemical shifts using the program CS-ROSETTA indicated that the architecture of human hyperplastic discs protein is preserved. Mutagenesis studies confirmed that Spider Roll binds the target patch on PAK1. Additionally, Spider Roll binds to full-length PAK1 in its activated state but does not bind PAK1 when it forms an auto-inhibited conformation that blocks the Spider Roll target site. Subsequent NMR characterization of the binding of Spider Roll to PAK1 revealed a comparably small binding 'on-rate' constant (<10(5) M(-1) s(-1)). The ability to rationally design the site of novel protein-protein interactions is an important step towards creating new proteins that are useful

  11. Functional transition of Pak proto-oncogene during early evolution of metazoans.

    PubMed

    Watari, A; Iwabe, N; Masuda, H; Okada, M

    2010-07-01

    Proto-oncogenes encode signaling molecular switches regulating cellular homeostasis in metazoans, and can be converted to oncogenes by gain-of-function mutations. To address the molecular basis for development of the regulatory system of proto-oncogenes during evolution, we screened for ancestral proto-oncogenes from the unicellular choanoflagellate Monosiga ovata by monitoring their transforming activities, and isolated a Pak gene ortholog encoding a serine/threonine kinase as a 'primitive oncogene'. We also cloned Pak orthologs from fungi and the multicellular sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis, and compared their regulatory features with that of M. ovata Pak (MoPak). MoPak is constitutively active and induces cell transformation in mammalian fibroblasts, although the Pak orthologs from multicellular animals are strictly regulated. Analyses of Pak mutants revealed that structural alteration of the auto-inhibitory domain (AID) of MoPak confers higher constitutive kinase activity, as well as greater binding ability to Rho family GTPases than the multicellular Paks, and this structural alteration is responsible for cell transformation and disruption of multicellular tissue organization. These results show that maturation of AID function was required for the development of the strict regulatory system of the Pak proto-oncogene, and suggest a potential link between the establishment of the regulatory system of proto-oncogenes and metazoan evolution.

  12. Cellular Distribution and Functions of Wild-Type and Constitutively Activated Dictyostelium PakBV⃞

    PubMed Central

    de la Roche, Marc; Mahasneh, Amjad; Lee, Sheu-Fen; Rivero, Francisco; Côté, Graham P.

    2005-01-01

    Dictyostelium PakB, previously termed myosin I heavy chain kinase, is a member of the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family. Two-hybrid assays showed that PakB interacts with Dictyostelium Rac1a/b/c, RacA (a RhoBTB protein), RacB, RacC, and RacF1. Wild-type PakB displayed a cytosolic distribution with a modest enrichment at the leading edge of migrating cells and at macropinocytic and phagocytic cups, sites consistent with a role in activating myosin I. PakB fused at the N terminus to green fluorescent protein was proteolyzed in cells, resulting in removal of the catalytic domain. C-terminal truncated PakB and activated PakB lacking the p21-binding domain strongly localized to the cell cortex, to macropinocytic cups, to the posterior of migrating cells, and to the cleavage furrow of dividing cells. These data indicate that in its open, active state, the N terminus of PakB forms a tight association with cortical actin filaments. PakB-null cells displayed no significant behavioral defects, but cells expressing activated PakB were unable to complete cytokinesis when grown in suspension and exhibited increased rates of phagocytosis and pinocytosis. PMID:15509655

  13. Gene Expression Analysis of Pak Choi in Response to Vernalization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengxia; Qi, Xianhui; Hou, Leiping; Xu, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Zhujun; Li, Meilan

    2015-01-01

    Pak choi is a seed vernalization-type plant whose vernalization mechanism is currently unclear. Therefore, it is critical to discover genes related to vernalization and research its functions during vernalization in pak choi. Here, the gene expression profiles in the shoot apex were analyzed after low temperature treatment using high-throughput RNA sequencing technology. The results showed that there are 1,664 and 1,192 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in pak choi in cold treatment ending and before flower bud differentiation, respectively, including 42 genes that exhibited similar expression trend at both stages. Detailed annotation revealed that the proteins encoded by the DEGs are located in the extracellular region, cell junction and extracellular matrix. These proteins exhibit activity such as antioxidant activity and binding protein/transcription factor activity, and they are involved in signal transduction and the immune system/biological processes. Among the DEGs, Bra014527 was up-regulated in low temperature treatment ending, Bra024097 was up-regulated before flower bud differentiation and Bra035940 was down-regulated at both stages in low temperature-treated shoot apices. Homologues of these genes in A. thaliana, AT3G59790, AT4G30200 and AT5G61150, are involved in flowering and vernalization, suggesting that they take part in the vernalization process in pak choi. Further pathway enrichment analysis revealed that most genes were enriched in the tryptophan metabolism and glucosinolate biosynthesis pathways. However, the functions of tryptophan and glucosinolate in vernalization are not yet clear and require further analysis.

  14. Gene Expression Analysis of Pak Choi in Response to Vernalization

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mengxia; Qi, Xianhui; Hou, Leiping; Xu, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Zhujun; Li, Meilan

    2015-01-01

    Pak choi is a seed vernalization-type plant whose vernalization mechanism is currently unclear. Therefore, it is critical to discover genes related to vernalization and research its functions during vernalization in pak choi. Here, the gene expression profiles in the shoot apex were analyzed after low temperature treatment using high-throughput RNA sequencing technology. The results showed that there are 1,664 and 1,192 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in pak choi in cold treatment ending and before flower bud differentiation, respectively, including 42 genes that exhibited similar expression trend at both stages. Detailed annotation revealed that the proteins encoded by the DEGs are located in the extracellular region, cell junction and extracellular matrix. These proteins exhibit activity such as antioxidant activity and binding protein/transcription factor activity, and they are involved in signal transduction and the immune system/biological processes. Among the DEGs, Bra014527 was up-regulated in low temperature treatment ending, Bra024097 was up-regulated before flower bud differentiation and Bra035940 was down-regulated at both stages in low temperature-treated shoot apices. Homologues of these genes in A. thaliana, AT3G59790, AT4G30200 and AT5G61150, are involved in flowering and vernalization, suggesting that they take part in the vernalization process in pak choi. Further pathway enrichment analysis revealed that most genes were enriched in the tryptophan metabolism and glucosinolate biosynthesis pathways. However, the functions of tryptophan and glucosinolate in vernalization are not yet clear and require further analysis. PMID:26517271

  15. PAK3 related mental disability: further characterization of the phenotype.

    PubMed

    Peippo, Maarit; Koivisto, Anne M; Särkämö, Teppo; Sipponen, Marjatta; von Koskull, Harriet; Ylisaukko-oja, Tero; Rehnström, Karola; Froyen, Guy; Ignatius, Jaakko; Järvelä, Irma

    2007-10-15

    We report clinical, neuropsychological and molecular findings in affected males and carrier females in the fourth reported family with mental retardation caused by mutation in the PAK3 gene (Xq22.3-q23), W446S. In contrast to previous reports, carrier females manifested learning problems and mild mental disability. Skewed X-inactivation was observed here for the first time in carriers of PAK3 mutation. Neuropsychological tests in affected males and carrier females suggested a common neuropsychological profile of impaired spatial cognitive abilities and defects in attentional and executive functions. The five affected males examined herein had a proportionally small head size or microcephaly, large ears, oral motor hypotonia with drooling and inarticulate speech and short attention span, anxiety, restlessness, and aggression. Brain imaging showed signs of chronic non-progressive hydrocephalus in one patient who manifested psychosis and fluctuant gait deterioration, while two other patients showed no abnormalities. EEG recordings were available from four affected males and one carrier female, and all showed similar posterior slow wave activity without epileptic discharges. Only one affected male in the family suffered from epilepsy. When comparing the affected males in this family and the three previously reported families with mental retardation due to a PAK3 mutation, similarities in their characteristics were small head size or microcephaly, large ears, speech defects, behavioral abnormalities, and psychiatric disease.

  16. PAK4 kinase activity and somatic mutation promote carcinoma cell motility and influence inhibitor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Whale, Andrew D.; Dart, Anna; Holt, Mark; Jones, Gareth E.; Wells, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (c-Met) are associated with cancer cell motility and invasiveness. p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4), a potential therapeutic target, is recruited to and activated by c-Met. In response, PAK4 phosphorylates LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) in an HGF-dependent manner in metastatic prostate carcinoma cells. PAK4 overexpression is known to induce increased cell migration speed but the requirement for kinase activity has not been established. We have used a panel of PAK4 truncations and mutations in a combination of over-expression and RNAi rescue experiments to determine the requirement for PAK4 kinase activity during carcinoma cell motility downstream of HGF. We find that neither the kinase domain alone nor a PAK4 mutant unable to bind Cdc42 is able to fully rescue cell motility in a PAK4-deficient background. Nevertheless, we find that PAK4 kinase activity and associated LIMK1 activity are essential for carcinoma cell motility, highlighting PAK4 as a potential anti-metastatic therapeutic target. We also show here that overexpression of PAK4 harboring a somatic mutation, E329K, increased the HGF-driven motility of metastatic prostate carcinoma cells. E329 lies within the G-loop region of the kinase. Our data suggest E329K mutation leads to a modest increase in kinase activity conferring resistance to competitive ATP inhibitors in addition to promoting cell migration. The existence of such a mutation may have implications for the development of PAK4-specific competitive ATP inhibitors should PAK4 be further explored for clinical inhibition. PMID:22689056

  17. IASH: PAK1 participates in vascular remodeling in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hinoki, Akinari; Kimura, Keita; Higuchi, Sadaharu; Eguchi, Kunie; Takaguri, Akira; Ishimaru, Kazuhiro; Frank, Gerald D.; Gerthoffer, William T.; Sommerville, Laura J.; Autieri, Michael V.; Eguchi, Satoru

    2009-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy, proliferation or migration occurs in hypertension, atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty leading to pathophysiological vascular remodeling. Angiotensin II and platelet-derived growth factor are well known participants of vascular remodeling, and activate a myriad of downstream protein kinases including PAK1. PAK1, an effector kinase of small GTPases, phosphorylates several substrates to regulate cytoskeletal reorganization. However, the exact role of PAK1 activation in vascular remodeling remains to be elucidated. Here, we have hypothesized that PAK1 is a critical target of intervention for prevention of vascular remodeling. Adenoviral expression of dominant-negative PAK1 inhibited both angiotensin II- and platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell migration. It also inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. PAK1 was activated in neointima of the carotid artery after balloon injury in rat. Moreover, marked inhibition of the neointima hyperplasia was observed in dominant-negative PAK1 adenovirus treated carotid artery after the balloon injury. Taken together, these results suggest that PAK1 is involved in both angiotensin II and platelet-derived growth factor mediated VSMC remodeling, and inactivation of PAK1 in vivo could be effective in preventing pathophysiological vascular remodeling. PMID:19901155

  18. Tyrosyl Phosphorylated PAK1 Regulates Breast Cancer Cell Motility in Response to Prolactin through Filamin A

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Alan; Rider, Leah; Oladimeji, Peter; Cook, Leslie; Li, Quanwen; Mattingly, Raymond R.

    2013-01-01

    The p21-activated serine-threonine kinase (PAK1) is activated by small GTPase-dependent and -independent mechanisms and regulates cell motility. Both PAK1 and the hormone prolactin (PRL) have been implicated in breast cancer by numerous studies. We have previously shown that the PRL-activated tyrosine kinase JAK2 (Janus tyrosine kinase 2) phosphorylates PAK1 in vivo and identified tyrosines (Tyr) 153, 201, and 285 in the PAK1 molecule as sites of JAK2 tyrosyl phosphorylation. Here, we have used human breast cancer T47D cells stably overexpressing PAK1 wild type or PAK1 Y3F mutant in which Tyr(s) 153, 201, and 285 were mutated to phenylalanines to demonstrate that phosphorylation of these three tyrosines are required for maximal PRL-dependent ruffling. In addition, phosphorylation of these three tyrosines is required for increased migration of T47D cells in response to PRL as assessed by two independent motility assays. Finally, we show that PAK1 phosphorylates serine (Ser) 2152 of the actin-binding protein filamin A to a greater extent when PAK1 is tyrosyl phosphorylated by JAK2. Down-regulation of PAK1 or filamin A abolishes the effect of PRL on cell migration. Thus, our data presented here bring some insight into the mechanism of PRL-stimulated motility of breast cancer cells. PMID:23340249

  19. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of the Pak1-LC8 Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lightcap,C.; Sun, S.; Lear, J.; Rodeck, U.; Polenova, T.; Williams, J.

    2008-01-01

    Pak1 (p21-activated kinase-1) and the dynein light chain, LC8, are overexpressed in breast cancer, and their direct interaction has been proposed to regulate tumor cell survival. These effects have been attributed in part to Pak1-mediated phosphorylation of LC8 at serine 88. However, LC8 is homodimeric, which renders Ser88 inaccessible. Moreover, Pak1 does not contain a canonical LC8 binding sequence compared with other characterized LC8 binding sequences. Together, these observations raise the question whether the Pak1/LC8 interaction is distinct (i.e. enabled by a unique interface independent of LC8 dimerization). Herein, we present results from biochemical, NMR, and crystallographic studies that show that Pak1 (residues 212-222) binds to LC8 along the same groove as canonical LC8 interaction partners (e.g. nNOS and BimL). Using LC8 point mutants K36P and T67A, we were able to differentiate Pak1 from canonical LC8 binding sequences and identify a key hydrogen bond network that compensates for the loss of the conserved glutamine in the consensus sequence. We also show that the target binding interface formed through LC8 dimerization is required to bind to Pak1 and precludes phosphorylation of LC8 at Ser88. Consistent with this observation, in vitro phosphorylation assays using activated Pak1 fail to phosphorylate LC8. Although these results define structural details of the Pak1/LC8 interaction and suggest a hierarchy of target binding affinities, they do not support the current model whereby Pak1 binds to and subsequently phosphorylates LC8 to promote anchorage-independent growth. Rather, they suggest that LC8 binding modulates Pak1 activity and/or nuclear localization.

  20. Several herbal compounds in Okinawa plants directly inhibit the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Taira, Nozomi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2014-12-01

    The p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is emerging as a promising therapeutic target, and the search for blockers of this oncogenic/aging kinase would be potentially useful for the treatment of various diseases/disorders in the future. Here, we report for the first time the anti-PAK1 activity of compounds derived from three distinct Okinawa plants. 5,6-Dehydrokawain (DK) and dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) from alpinia inhibited directly PAK1 more strongly than mimosine and mimosinol from leucaena. Cucurbitacin I isolated from bitter gourd/melon also exhibited a moderate anti-PAK1 activity. Hispidin, a metabolite of DK, strongly inhibited PAK1 with the IC50 = 5.7 μM. The IC50 of three hispidin derivatives (H1-3) for PAK1 inhibition ranges from 1.2 to 2.0 μM, while mimosine tetrapeptides [mimosine-Phe-Phe-Tyr (MFFY) and mimosine-Phe-Trp-Tyr (MFWY)] inhibit PAK1 at nanomolar level (IC50 of 0.13 and 0.60 μM, respectively). Thus, we hope these derivatives of hispidin and mimosine could be used as potential leading compounds for developing far more potent anti-PAK1 drugs which would be useful for clinical application in the future. PMID:25639302

  1. P21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) is required for metaphase spindle positioning and anchoring.

    PubMed

    Bompard, G; Rabeharivelo, G; Cau, J; Abrieu, A; Delsert, C; Morin, N

    2013-02-14

    The oncogenic kinase PAK4 was recently found to be involved in the regulation of the G1 phase and the G2/M transition of the cell cycle. We have also identified that PAK4 regulates Ran GTPase activity during mitosis. Here, we show that after entering mitosis, PAK4-depleted cells maintain a prolonged metaphase-like state. In these cells, chromosome congression to the metaphase plate occurs with normal kinetics but is followed by an extended period during which membrane blebbing and spindle rotation are observed. These bipolar PAK4-depleted metaphase-like spindles have a defective astral microtubule (MT) network and are not centered in the cell but are in close contact with the cell cortex. As the metaphase-like state persists, centrosome fragmentation occurs, chromosomes scatter from the metaphase plate and move toward the spindle poles with an active spindle assembly checkpoint, a phenotype that is reminiscent of cohesion fatigue. PAK4 also regulates the acto-myosin cytoskeleton and we report that PAK4 depletion results in the induction of cortical membrane blebbing during prometaphase arrest. However, we show that membrane blebs, which are strongly enriched in phospho-cofilin, are not responsible for the poor anchoring of the spindle. As PAK4 depletion interferes with the localization of components of the dynein/dynactin complexes at the kinetochores and on the astral MTs, we propose that loss of PAK4 could induce a change in the activities of motor proteins. PMID:22450748

  2. Efficient Inhibition of Human Glioma Development by RNA Interference-Mediated Silencing of PAK5

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xuefeng; Wang, Ce; Wang, Xuefeng; Ma, Guoda; Li, You; Cui, Lili; Chen, Yanyan; Zhao, Bin; Li, Keshen

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most common type of primary intracranial tumor and is highly lethal due to its pathogenetic location, high invasiveness, and poor prognosis. Even combined surgery and chemoradiotherapy do not effectively rescue glioma patients. Molecular target therapy is considered a safe and promising therapy for glioma. The identification of a novel, effective target protein in gliomas is of great interest. We found that PAK5 was highly expressed in the tumor tissues of glioma patients and human glioma cell lines. We then used a lentivirus-delivered short hairpin RNA to stably silence PAK5 expression in glioma cells and explore its influence. The results showed that the inhibition of PAK5 reduced cell viability and delayed the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase in the glioma cells with PAK5 high expression. In addition, silencing PAK5 expression in U87 cells weakened their colony formation ability and in vivo tumorigenesis ability. Further studies demonstrated that PAK5 inhibition led to an increase in cleaved caspase 3 and a decrease in β-catenin. In conclusion, our results suggest that the inhibition of PAK5 by RNA interference might efficiently suppress tumor development of glioma cells with PAK5 high expression. This finding provides a novel, promising therapeutic target for glioma treatment. PMID:25632266

  3. The PAK system links Rho GTPase signaling to thrombin-mediated platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sandra M.; Loren, Cassandra P.; Haley, Kristina M.; Itakura, Asako; Pang, Jiaqing; Greenberg, Daniel L.; David, Larry L.; Manser, Ed; Chernoff, Jonathan; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of the platelet actin cytoskeleton by the Rho family of small GTPases is essential for the proper maintenance of hemostasis. However, little is known about how intracellular platelet activation from Rho GTPase family members, including Rac, Cdc42, and Rho, translate into changes in platelet actin structures. To better understand how Rho family GTPases coordinate platelet activation, we identified platelet proteins associated with Rac1, a Rho GTPase family member, and actin regulatory protein essential for platelet hemostatic function. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that upon platelet activation with thrombin, Rac1 associates with a set of effectors of the p21-activated kinases (PAKs), including GIT1, βPIX, and guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEFH1. Platelet activation by thrombin triggered the PAK-dependent phosphorylation of GIT1, GEFH1, and other PAK effectors, including LIMK1 and Merlin. PAK was also required for the thrombin-mediated activation of the MEK/ERK pathway, Akt, calcium signaling, and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. Inhibition of PAK signaling prevented thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and blocked platelet focal adhesion and lamellipodia formation in response to thrombin. Together, these results demonstrate that the PAK signaling system is a key orchestrator of platelet actin dynamics, linking Rho GTPase activation downstream of thrombin stimulation to PAK effector function, MAP kinase activation, calcium signaling, and PS exposure in platelets. PMID:23784547

  4. An in cellulo-derived structure of PAK4 in complex with its inhibitor Inka1

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Yohendran; Ang, Khay C.; Anekal, Praju V.; Chan, Wee L.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Manser, Ed; Robinson, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    PAK4 is a metazoan-specific kinase acting downstream of Cdc42. Here we describe the structure of human PAK4 in complex with Inka1, a potent endogenous kinase inhibitor. Using single mammalian cells containing crystals 50 μm in length, we have determined the in cellulo crystal structure at 2.95 Å resolution, which reveals the details of how the PAK4 catalytic domain binds cellular ATP and the Inka1 inhibitor. The crystal lattice consists only of PAK4–PAK4 contacts, which form a hexagonal array with channels of 80 Å in diameter that run the length of the crystal. The crystal accommodates a variety of other proteins when fused to the kinase inhibitor. Inka1–GFP was used to monitor the process crystal formation in living cells. Similar derivatives of Inka1 will allow us to study the effects of PAK4 inhibition in cells and model organisms, to allow better validation of therapeutic agents targeting PAK4. PMID:26607847

  5. PAK1 mediates pancreatic cancer cell migration and resistance to MET inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Jubb, Adrian M; Lyle, Karen; Xiao, Qian; Ong, Christy C; Desai, Rupal; Fu, Ling; Gnad, Florian; Song, Qinghua; Haverty, Peter M; Aust, Daniela; Grützmann, Robert; Romero, Mally; Totpal, Klara; Neve, Richard M; Yan, Yibing; Forrest, William F; Wang, Yulei; Raja, Rajiv; Pilarsky, Christian; de Jesus-Acosta, Ana; Belvin, Marcia; Friedman, Lori S; Merchant, Mark; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Zheng, Lei; Koeppen, Hartmut; Hoeflich, Klaus P

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a major unmet medical need and a deeper understanding of molecular drivers is needed to advance therapeutic options for patients. We report here that p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is a central node in PDAC cells downstream of multiple growth factor signalling pathways, including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and MET receptor tyrosine kinase. PAK1 inhibition blocks signalling to cytoskeletal effectors and tumour cell motility driven by HGF/MET. MET antagonists, such as onartuzumab and crizotinib, are currently in clinical development. Given that even highly effective therapies have resistance mechanisms, we show that combination with PAK1 inhibition overcomes potential resistance mechanisms mediated either by activation of parallel growth factor pathways or by direct amplification of PAK1. Inhibition of PAK1 attenuated in vivo tumour growth and metastasis in a model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In human tissues, PAK1 is highly expressed in a proportion of PDACs (33% IHC score 2 or 3; n = 304) and its expression is significantly associated with MET positivity (p < 0.0001) and linked to a widespread metastatic pattern in patients (p = 0.067). Taken together, our results provide evidence for a functional role of MET/PAK1 signalling in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and support further characterization of therapeutic inhibitors in this indication. PMID:25074413

  6. Pak3 regulates apical-basal polarity in migrating border cells during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Felix, Martina; Chayengia, Mrinal; Ghosh, Ritabrata; Sharma, Aditi; Prasad, Mohit

    2015-11-01

    Group cell migration is a highly coordinated process that is involved in a number of physiological events such as morphogenesis, wound healing and tumor metastasis. Unlike single cells, collectively moving cells are physically attached to each other and retain some degree of apical-basal polarity during the migratory phase. Although much is known about direction sensing, how polarity is regulated in multicellular movement remains unclear. Here we report the role of the protein kinase Pak3 in maintaining apical-basal polarity in migrating border cell clusters during Drosophila oogenesis. Pak3 is enriched in border cells and downregulation of its function impedes border cell movement. Time-lapse imaging suggests that Pak3 affects protrusive behavior of the border cell cluster, specifically regulating the stability and directionality of protrusions. Pak3 functions downstream of guidance receptor signaling to regulate the level and distribution of F-actin in migrating border cells. We also provide evidence that Pak3 genetically interacts with the lateral polarity marker Scribble and that it regulates JNK signaling in the moving border cells. Since Pak3 depletion results in mislocalization of several apical-basal polarity markers and overexpression of Jra rescues the polarity of the Pak3-depleted cluster, we propose that Pak3 functions through JNK signaling to modulate apical-basal polarity of the migrating border cell cluster. We also observe loss of apical-basal polarity in Rac1-depleted border cell clusters, suggesting that guidance receptor signaling functions through Rac GTPase and Pak3 to regulate the overall polarity of the cluster and mediate efficient collective movement of the border cells to the oocyte boundary.

  7. p21-activated kinase1 (Pak1) is a negative regulator of NADPH-oxidase 2 in ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    DeSantiago, Jaime; Bare, Dan J; Xiao, Lei; Ke, Yunbo; Solaro, R. John; Banach, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic conditions reduce the activity of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) resulting in increased arrhythmic activity. Triggered arrhythmic activity during ischemia is based on changes in cellular ionic balance and the cells Ca2+ handling properties. In the current study we used isolated mouse ventricular myocytes (VMs) deficient for the expression of Pak1 (Pak1-/-) to determine the mechanism by which Pak1 influences the generation of arrhythmic activity during simulated ischemia. The Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics did not significantly change in wild type (WT) and Pak1-/- VMs during 15 min of simulated ischemia. However, Pak1-/- VMs exhibited an exaggerated increase in [Ca2+]i, which resulted in spontaneous Ca2+ release events and waves. The Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be suppressed with a reverse mode blocker (KB-R7943) of the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), a cytoplasmic scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS; TEMPOL) or a RAC1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Measurements of the cytoplasmic ROS levels revealed that decreased Pak1 activity in Pak1-/- VMs or VMs treated with the Pak1 inhibitor (IPA3) enhanced cellular ROS production. The Pak1 dependent increase in ROS was attenuated in VMs deficient for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2; p47phox-/-) or in VMs where NOX2 was inhibited (gp91ds-tat). Voltage clamp recordings showed increased NCX activity in Pak1-/- VMs that depended on enhanced NOX2 induced ROS production. The exaggerated Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be mimicked by low concentrations of ouabain. Overall our data show that Pak1 is a critical negative regulator of NOX2 dependent ROS production and that a latent ROS dependent stimulation of NCX activity can predispose VMs to Ca2+ overload under conditions where no significant changes in excitation-contraction coupling are yet evident. PMID:24380729

  8. p21-Activated kinase1 (Pak1) is a negative regulator of NADPH-oxidase 2 in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    DeSantiago, Jaime; Bare, Dan J; Xiao, Lei; Ke, Yunbo; Solaro, R John; Banach, Kathrin

    2014-02-01

    Ischemic conditions reduce the activity of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) resulting in increased arrhythmic activity. Triggered arrhythmic activity during ischemia is based on changes in cellular ionic balance and the cells Ca(2+) handling properties. In the current study we used isolated mouse ventricular myocytes (VMs) deficient for the expression of Pak1 (Pak1(-/-)) to determine the mechanism by which Pak1 influences the generation of arrhythmic activity during simulated ischemia. The Ca(2+) transient amplitude and kinetics did not significantly change in wild type (WT) and Pak1(-/-) VMs during 15 min of simulated ischemia. However, Pak1(-/-) VMs exhibited an exaggerated increase in [Ca(2+)]i, which resulted in spontaneous Ca(2+) release events and waves. The Ca(2+) overload in Pak1(-/-) VMs could be suppressed with a reverse mode blocker (KB-R7943) of the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), a cytoplasmic scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS; TEMPOL) or a RAC1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Measurements of the cytoplasmic ROS levels revealed that decreased Pak1 activity in Pak1(-/-) VMs or VMs treated with the Pak1 inhibitor (IPA3) enhanced cellular ROS production. The Pak1 dependent increase in ROS was attenuated in VMs deficient for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2; p47(phox-/-)) or in VMs where NOX2 was inhibited (gp91ds-tat). Voltage clamp recordings showed increased NCX activity in Pak1(-/-) VMs that depended on enhanced NOX2 induced ROS production. The exaggerated Ca(2+) overload in Pak1(-/-) VMs could be mimicked by low concentrations of ouabain. Overall our data show that Pak1 is a critical negative regulator of NOX2 dependent ROS production and that a latent ROS dependent stimulation of NCX activity can predispose VMs to Ca(2+) overload under conditions where no significant changes in excitation-contraction coupling are yet evident.

  9. Rho family-associated kinases PAK1 and rock.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Hiroshi; Nheu, Thao V; He, Hong; Hirokawa, Yumiko

    2003-01-01

    Rho family GTPases (Rho, Rac and CDC42) share around 30% sequence identity with RAS family GTPases, and are essential for RAS-induced malignant transformation, i.e., aberrant serum/anchorage-independent growth and actin cytoskeleton-linked morphological changes. Oncogenic RAS mutants such as v-Ha-RAS trigger cell cycle entry (G0-G1 transition) mainly by up-regulating cyclin D1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), and down-regulating p27, a CDK inhibitor. Although both Rac and CDC42 are clearly activated by RAS, there is so far no evidence that RAS activates Rho. In this chapter, we will discuss the role of these Rho family GTPases and their effectors, in particular the Ser/Thr kinases PAK1 and Rock, in RAS-induced serum/anchorage-independent cell cycling, and discuss several potential therapeutics, peptides or chemical compounds, that could block this oncogenic cell cycle signalling pathway.

  10. Tuning PAK Activity to Rescue Abnormal Myelin Permeability in HNPP.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Arpag, Sezgi; Zhang, Xuebao; Möbius, Wiebke; Werner, Hauke; Sosinsky, Gina; Ellisman, Mark; Zhang, Yang; Hamilton, Audra; Chernoff, Jonathan; Li, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous systems extend their membranes to wrap axons concentrically and form the insulating sheath, called myelin. The spaces between layers of myelin are sealed by myelin junctions. This tight insulation enables rapid conduction of electric impulses (action potentials) through axons. Demyelination (stripping off the insulating sheath) has been widely regarded as one of the most important mechanisms altering the action potential propagation in many neurological diseases. However, the effective nerve conduction is also thought to require a proper myelin seal through myelin junctions such as tight junctions and adherens junctions. In the present study, we have demonstrated the disruption of myelin junctions in a mouse model (Pmp22+/-) of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) with heterozygous deletion of Pmp22 gene. We observed a robust increase of F-actin in Pmp22+/- nerve regions where myelin junctions were disrupted, leading to increased myelin permeability. These abnormalities were present long before segmental demyelination at the late phase of Pmp22+/- mice. Moreover, the increase of F-actin levels correlated with an enhanced activity of p21-activated kinase (PAK1), a molecule known to regulate actin polymerization. Pharmacological inhibition of PAK normalized levels of F-actin, and completely prevented the progression of the myelin junction disruption and nerve conduction failure in Pmp22+/- mice. Our findings explain how abnormal myelin permeability is caused in HNPP, leading to impaired action potential propagation in the absence of demyelination. We call it "functional demyelination", a novel mechanism upstream to the actual stripping of myelin that is relevant to many demyelinating diseases. This observation also provides a potential therapeutic approach for HNPP.

  11. Tuning PAK Activity to Rescue Abnormal Myelin Permeability in HNPP

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Xuebao; Möbius, Wiebke; Werner, Hauke; Sosinsky, Gina; Ellisman, Mark; Zhang, Yang; Hamilton, Audra; Chernoff, Jonathan; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous systems extend their membranes to wrap axons concentrically and form the insulating sheath, called myelin. The spaces between layers of myelin are sealed by myelin junctions. This tight insulation enables rapid conduction of electric impulses (action potentials) through axons. Demyelination (stripping off the insulating sheath) has been widely regarded as one of the most important mechanisms altering the action potential propagation in many neurological diseases. However, the effective nerve conduction is also thought to require a proper myelin seal through myelin junctions such as tight junctions and adherens junctions. In the present study, we have demonstrated the disruption of myelin junctions in a mouse model (Pmp22+/-) of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) with heterozygous deletion of Pmp22 gene. We observed a robust increase of F-actin in Pmp22+/- nerve regions where myelin junctions were disrupted, leading to increased myelin permeability. These abnormalities were present long before segmental demyelination at the late phase of Pmp22+/- mice. Moreover, the increase of F-actin levels correlated with an enhanced activity of p21-activated kinase (PAK1), a molecule known to regulate actin polymerization. Pharmacological inhibition of PAK normalized levels of F-actin, and completely prevented the progression of the myelin junction disruption and nerve conduction failure in Pmp22+/- mice. Our findings explain how abnormal myelin permeability is caused in HNPP, leading to impaired action potential propagation in the absence of demyelination. We call it “functional demyelination”, a novel mechanism upstream to the actual stripping of myelin that is relevant to many demyelinating diseases. This observation also provides a potential therapeutic approach for HNPP. PMID:27583434

  12. Tuning PAK Activity to Rescue Abnormal Myelin Permeability in HNPP.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Arpag, Sezgi; Zhang, Xuebao; Möbius, Wiebke; Werner, Hauke; Sosinsky, Gina; Ellisman, Mark; Zhang, Yang; Hamilton, Audra; Chernoff, Jonathan; Li, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous systems extend their membranes to wrap axons concentrically and form the insulating sheath, called myelin. The spaces between layers of myelin are sealed by myelin junctions. This tight insulation enables rapid conduction of electric impulses (action potentials) through axons. Demyelination (stripping off the insulating sheath) has been widely regarded as one of the most important mechanisms altering the action potential propagation in many neurological diseases. However, the effective nerve conduction is also thought to require a proper myelin seal through myelin junctions such as tight junctions and adherens junctions. In the present study, we have demonstrated the disruption of myelin junctions in a mouse model (Pmp22+/-) of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) with heterozygous deletion of Pmp22 gene. We observed a robust increase of F-actin in Pmp22+/- nerve regions where myelin junctions were disrupted, leading to increased myelin permeability. These abnormalities were present long before segmental demyelination at the late phase of Pmp22+/- mice. Moreover, the increase of F-actin levels correlated with an enhanced activity of p21-activated kinase (PAK1), a molecule known to regulate actin polymerization. Pharmacological inhibition of PAK normalized levels of F-actin, and completely prevented the progression of the myelin junction disruption and nerve conduction failure in Pmp22+/- mice. Our findings explain how abnormal myelin permeability is caused in HNPP, leading to impaired action potential propagation in the absence of demyelination. We call it "functional demyelination", a novel mechanism upstream to the actual stripping of myelin that is relevant to many demyelinating diseases. This observation also provides a potential therapeutic approach for HNPP. PMID:27583434

  13. Early Results from the HexPak and GradPak Variable-Scale Dual-Head IFUs on the WIYN 3.5-meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Eric; Bershady, Matthew A.; Eigenbrot, Arthur; Wood, Corey M.; Buckley, Scott; Smith, Michael; Corson, Charles; Wolf, Marsha J.; Zhu, Guanying Y.; Vang, Andrea; Gallagher, John S.; Sheinis, Andrew; Washburn Astronomical Laboratories

    2015-01-01

    The WIYN Observatory recently installed two new integral field units (IFUs) on its 3.5-meter telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. Each IFU is unique in that it contains different sized fibers in the same head to optimize the tradeoff between spatial resolution and surface brightness sensitivity for observations of galaxies. These instruments were designed and constructed (M. Bershady, PI) at the University of Wisconsin's Washburn Astronomical Laboratory. HexPak, with a central core of 1 arcsec fibers surrounded by a halo of 3 arcsec fibers, was designed for early type, face-on disk, and quasar host galaxies. GradPak, with a series of rows of fibers of increasing diameter from 2 arcsec to 6 arcsec (5 different diameters total), was designed for edge-on galaxies, where the small fibers lie along the midplane and larger fibers sample the progressively lower surface brightnesses above the plane. The instruments were installed alongside the existing SparsePak IFU in late 2013 and have been used in several observing runs since. The different fiber sizes present additional data reduction challenges, particularly regarding flux calibration and sky subtraction. Early results on studies of the stellar populations of galaxies are quite promising and demonstrate the advantages of fiber sizes tailored to the objects under study. HexPak and GradPak were built with funds from NSF award ATI-0804576.

  14. PAK1 is involved in sensing the orientation of collagen stiffness gradients in mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Pinto, V I; Mohammadi, H; Lee, W S; Cheung, A H; McCulloch, C A

    2015-10-01

    Migrating cells sense variations of stiffness in connective tissue matrices but how cells detect and respond to stiffness orientation is not defined. We examined cell extension formation on collagen with underlying support (vertical stiffness gradient) or on collagen laterally supported by nylon (lateral stiffness gradient). At 6 h after plating, cells plated on laterally-supported collagen exhibited >2-fold more abundant and ~2-fold longer cell extensions than cells plated on collagen with underlying support. We examined whether p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) influences extension formation that is dependent on the orientation of support. At 6 h after plating on collagen with underlying support, wild-type cell extensions were 40% shorter than PAK1 knockdown cells. In contrast, on laterally-supported collagen, wild-type cell extensions were 2-fold longer than PAK1 knockdown cells. In cells plated on laterally-supported collagen, there were ~2-fold reductions of collagen fiber alignment and compaction in PAK1 knockdown cells compared with wild-type cells. PAK1 knockdown did not affect collagen fiber alignment or compaction by cells plated on collagen with underlying support. Wild-type cells with lateral support of collagen exhibited 3-fold increases of phospho-myosin staining at 6h, which was 2-fold lower in PAK1 knockdown cells. In contrast, cells on collagen with underlying support showed no increase of phospho-myosin staining at any times. PAK1 knockdown did not affect α2 or β1 integrin expression or function. We conclude that PAK1 is involved in the ability of cells to sense the orientation of stiffness in collagen substrates and generate contractile forces that affect cell extension formation.

  15. GIT1/βPIX signaling proteins and PAK1 kinase regulate microtubule nucleation.

    PubMed

    Černohorská, Markéta; Sulimenko, Vadym; Hájková, Zuzana; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Sládková, Vladimíra; Vinopal, Stanislav; Dráberová, Eduarda; Dráber, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Microtubule nucleation from γ-tubulin complexes, located at the centrosome, is an essential step in the formation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. However, the signaling mechanisms that regulate microtubule nucleation in interphase cells are largely unknown. In this study, we report that γ-tubulin is in complexes containing G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1 (GIT1), p21-activated kinase interacting exchange factor (βPIX), and p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) in various cell lines. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed association of GIT1, βPIX and activated PAK1 with centrosomes. Microtubule regrowth experiments showed that depletion of βPIX stimulated microtubule nucleation, while depletion of GIT1 or PAK1 resulted in decreased nucleation in the interphase cells. These data were confirmed for GIT1 and βPIX by phenotypic rescue experiments, and counting of new microtubules emanating from centrosomes during the microtubule regrowth. The importance of PAK1 for microtubule nucleation was corroborated by the inhibition of its kinase activity with IPA-3 inhibitor. GIT1 with PAK1 thus represent positive regulators, and βPIX is a negative regulator of microtubule nucleation from the interphase centrosomes. The regulatory roles of GIT1, βPIX and PAK1 in microtubule nucleation correlated with recruitment of γ-tubulin to the centrosome. Furthermore, in vitro kinase assays showed that GIT1 and βPIX, but not γ-tubulin, serve as substrates for PAK1. Finally, direct interaction of γ-tubulin with the C-terminal domain of βPIX and the N-terminal domain of GIT1, which targets this protein to the centrosome, was determined by pull-down experiments. We propose that GIT1/βPIX signaling proteins with PAK1 kinase represent a novel regulatory mechanism of microtubule nucleation in interphase cells.

  16. Branchen und Unternehmensbereiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Regine

    Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Haupteinsatzgebiete von Mathematikern, Informatikern, Naturwissenschaftlern und Ingenieuren in den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbranchen und Unternehmensbereichen. Dabei werden ausbildungsnahe Aufgabenbereiche ebenso beschrieben wie eher fachferne Tätigkeiten und neben den klassischen Branchen und Berufsbildern auch neue Tätigkeitsfelder für MINT-Fachkräfte beschrieben.

  17. Group I Paks as therapeutic targets in NF2-deficient meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Duron, Sergio G.; Campbell, David A.; Ong, Christy C.; Hoeflich, Klaus P.; Chang, Long-Sheng; Welling, D. Bradley; Yang, Zeng-jie; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of multiple tumors in the central nervous system, most notably schwannomas and meningiomas. Mutational inactivation of NF2 is found in 40–60% of sporadic meningiomas, but the molecular mechanisms underlying malignant changes of meningioma cells remain unclear. Because group I p21-activated kinases (Paks) bind to and are inhibited by the NF2-encoded protein Merlin, we assessed the signaling and anti-tumor effects of three group-I specific Pak inhibitors - Frax597, 716 and 1036 - in NF2−/− meningiomas in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model. We found that these Pak inhibitors suppressed the proliferation and motility of both benign (Ben-Men1) and malignant (KT21-MG1) meningiomas cells. In addition, we found a strong reduction in phosphorylation of Mek and S6, and decreased cyclin D1 expression in both cell lines after treatment with Pak inhibitors. Using intracranial xenografts of luciferase-expressing KT21-MG1 cells, we found that treated mice showed significant tumor suppression for all three Pak inhibitors. Similar effects were observed in Ben-Men1 cells. Tumors dissected from treated animals exhibited an increase in apoptosis without notable change in proliferation. Collectively, these results suggest that Pak inhibitors might be useful agents in treating NF2-deficient meningiomas. PMID:25596744

  18. PAKs supplement improves immune status and body composition but not muscle strength in resistance trained individuals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mixed formula supplements are very popular among recreational and professional weightlifters. They are usually known as PAKs and they are supposed to have a synergistic effect of their different nutrients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic (4 weeks) PAKS supplementation in combination with strength training on body composition, immune status and performance measures in recreationally trained individuals with or without PAKs supplementation. Methods: Twelve male subjects (Placebo n = 6 and PAKs supplement n = 6) were recruited for this study. The body composition, one maximum strength repetition tests and immune status were assessed before and after 4 week supplementation. Our data showed that, 4 week PAK supplementation associated with strength exercise not was effective in change strength than compared with placebo group. However, we observed that, PAK supplement was able to improve immune status and reduced body composition when compared with placebo group. These results indicate that, a mixed formula supplement is able to improve immune status and body composition but not maximum strength in recreational strength trained subjects in a 4 weeks period. PMID:21059194

  19. PAK4: a pluripotent kinase that regulates prostate cancer cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Claire M.; Whale, Andrew D.; Parsons, Maddy; Masters, John R. W.; Jones, Gareth E.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is associated with tumour progression and increases the invasiveness of prostate carcinoma cells. Migration and invasion require coordinated reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton and regulation of cell-adhesion dynamics. Rho-family GTPases orchestrate both of these cellular processes. p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4), a specific effector of the Rho GTPase Cdc42, is activated by HGF, and we have previously shown that activated PAK4 induces a loss of both actin stress fibres and focal adhesions. We now report that DU145 human prostate cancer cells with reduced levels of PAK4 expression are unable to successfully migrate in response to HGF, have prominent actin stress fibres, and an increase in the size and number of focal adhesions. Moreover, these cells have a concomitant reduction in cell-adhesion turnover rates. We find that PAK4 is localised at focal adhesions, is immunoprecipitated with paxillin and phosphorylates paxillin on serine 272. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PAK4 can regulate RhoA activity via GEF-H1. Our results suggest that PAK4 is a pluripotent kinase that can regulate both actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and focal-adhesion dynamics. PMID:20406887

  20. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of the Pak1-LC8 Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lightcap, Christine M.; Sun, Shangjin; Lear, James D.; Rodeck, Ulrich; Polenova, Tatyana E.; Williams, John C.

    2008-10-03

    Pak1 (p21-activated kinase-1) and the dynein light chain, LC8, are overexpressed in breast cancer, and their direct interaction has been proposed to regulate tumor cell survival. These effects have been attributed in part to Pak1-mediated phosphorylation of LC8 at serine 88. However, LC8 is homodimeric, which renders Ser88 inaccessible. Moreover, Pak1 does not contain a canonical LC8 binding sequence compared with other characterized LC8 binding sequences. Together, these observations raise the question whether the Pak1/LC8 interaction is distinct (i.e. enabled by a unique interface independent of LC8 dimerization). Herein, we present results from biochemical,NMR,and crystallographic studies that show that Pak1 (residues 212–222) binds to LC8 along the same groove as canonical LC8 interaction partners (e.g. nNOS and BimL). Using LC8 point mutants K36P and T67A, we were able to differentiate Pak1 from canonical LC8 binding sequences and identify a key hydrogen bond network that compensates for the loss of the conserved glutamine in the consensus sequence.

  1. Artepillin C and Other Herbal PAK1-blockers: Effects on Hair Cell Proliferation and Related PAK1-dependent Biological Function in Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Taira, Nozomi; Maruta, Hiroshi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2016-01-01

    PAK1 (RAC/CDC42-activated kinase 1) is the major oncogenic kinase, and a number of herbal PAK1-blockers such as propolis and curcumin have been shown to be anti-oncogenic and anti-melanogenic as well as anti-alopecia (promoting hair growth). Previously, we found several distinct PAK1-inhibitors in Okinawa plants including Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia). Thus, here, we tested the effects of these herbal compounds and their derivatives on the growth of cancer or normal hair cells, and melanogenesis in cell culture of A549 lung cancer, hair follicle dermal papilla cell, and B16F10 melanoma. Among these herbal PAK1-inhibitors, cucurbitacin I from bitter melon (Goya) turned out to be the most potent to inhibit the growth of human lung cancer cells with the IC50 around 140 nM and to promote the growth of hair cells with the effective dose around 10 nM. Hispidin, a metabolite of 5,6-dehydrokawain from alpinia, inhibited the growth of cancer cells with the IC50 of 25 μM as does artepillin C, the major anti-cancer ingredient in Brazilian green propolis. Mimosine tetrapeptides (MFWY, MFYY, and MFFY) and hispidin derivatives (H1-3) also exhibited a strong anti-cancer activity with the IC50 ranging from 16 to 30 μM. Mimosine tetrapeptides and hispidin derivatives strongly suppressed the melanogenesis in melanoma cells. PMID:26537230

  2. Artepillin C and Other Herbal PAK1-blockers: Effects on Hair Cell Proliferation and Related PAK1-dependent Biological Function in Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Taira, Nozomi; Maruta, Hiroshi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2016-01-01

    PAK1 (RAC/CDC42-activated kinase 1) is the major oncogenic kinase, and a number of herbal PAK1-blockers such as propolis and curcumin have been shown to be anti-oncogenic and anti-melanogenic as well as anti-alopecia (promoting hair growth). Previously, we found several distinct PAK1-inhibitors in Okinawa plants including Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia). Thus, here, we tested the effects of these herbal compounds and their derivatives on the growth of cancer or normal hair cells, and melanogenesis in cell culture of A549 lung cancer, hair follicle dermal papilla cell, and B16F10 melanoma. Among these herbal PAK1-inhibitors, cucurbitacin I from bitter melon (Goya) turned out to be the most potent to inhibit the growth of human lung cancer cells with the IC50 around 140 nM and to promote the growth of hair cells with the effective dose around 10 nM. Hispidin, a metabolite of 5,6-dehydrokawain from alpinia, inhibited the growth of cancer cells with the IC50 of 25 μM as does artepillin C, the major anti-cancer ingredient in Brazilian green propolis. Mimosine tetrapeptides (MFWY, MFYY, and MFFY) and hispidin derivatives (H1-3) also exhibited a strong anti-cancer activity with the IC50 ranging from 16 to 30 μM. Mimosine tetrapeptides and hispidin derivatives strongly suppressed the melanogenesis in melanoma cells.

  3. Comparison of the SidePak personal monitor with the Aerosol Particle Sizer (APS).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; van Tongeren, Martie; Galea, Karen S; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; MacCalman, Laura; Cherrie, John W

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and the TSI portable photometer SidePak to measure airborne oil mist particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters below 10 μm, 2.5 μm and 1 μm (PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1)). Three SidePaks each fitted with either a PM(10), PM(2.5) or a PM(1) impactor and an APS were run side by side in a controlled chamber. Oil mist from two different mineral oils and two different drilling fluid systems commonly used in offshore drilling technologies were generated using a nebulizer. Compared to the APS, the SidePaks overestimated the concentration of PM(10) and PM(2.5) by one order of magnitude and PM(1) concentrations by two orders of magnitude after exposure to oil mist for 3.3-6.5 min at concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 18.1 mg m(-3) for PM(10), 0.002 to 3.96 mg m(-3) for PM(2.5) and 0.001 to 0.418 mg m(-3) for PM(1) (as measured by the APS). In a second experiment a SidePak monitor previously exposed to oil mist overestimated PM(10) concentrations by 27% compared to measurements from another SidePak never exposed to oil mist. This could be a result of condensation of oil mist droplets in the optical system of the SidePak. The SidePak is a very useful instrument for personal monitoring in occupational hygiene due to its light weight and quiet pump. However, it may not be suitable for the measurement of particle concentrations from oil mist.

  4. Comparison of the SidePak personal monitor with the Aerosol Particle Sizer (APS).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; van Tongeren, Martie; Galea, Karen S; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; MacCalman, Laura; Cherrie, John W

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and the TSI portable photometer SidePak to measure airborne oil mist particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters below 10 μm, 2.5 μm and 1 μm (PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1)). Three SidePaks each fitted with either a PM(10), PM(2.5) or a PM(1) impactor and an APS were run side by side in a controlled chamber. Oil mist from two different mineral oils and two different drilling fluid systems commonly used in offshore drilling technologies were generated using a nebulizer. Compared to the APS, the SidePaks overestimated the concentration of PM(10) and PM(2.5) by one order of magnitude and PM(1) concentrations by two orders of magnitude after exposure to oil mist for 3.3-6.5 min at concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 18.1 mg m(-3) for PM(10), 0.002 to 3.96 mg m(-3) for PM(2.5) and 0.001 to 0.418 mg m(-3) for PM(1) (as measured by the APS). In a second experiment a SidePak monitor previously exposed to oil mist overestimated PM(10) concentrations by 27% compared to measurements from another SidePak never exposed to oil mist. This could be a result of condensation of oil mist droplets in the optical system of the SidePak. The SidePak is a very useful instrument for personal monitoring in occupational hygiene due to its light weight and quiet pump. However, it may not be suitable for the measurement of particle concentrations from oil mist. PMID:21528134

  5. Information und Kommunikation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesoly, Michael; Ohlhausen, Peter; Bucher, Michael; Hichert, Rolf; Korge, Gabriele; Schnabel, Ulrich; Gairola, Arun; Reichwald, Ralf; Habicht, Hagen; Möslein, Kathrin; Schwarz, Torsten; Schönsleben, Paul; Scherer, Eric; Schloske, Alexander; Adlbrecht, Gerald; Federhen, Jens

    Wissen ist mittlerweile unverzichtbar für den entscheidenden Vorsprung auf dem Markt. Unabhängig davon, ob sich das Wissen in Innovationen, neuen Produkten und Dienstleistungen oder in der Verbesserung interner Unternehmensprozesse manifestiert: Wissen ist Treiber von Innovation, Wissen bringt Schnelligkeit und Wissen ist die Voraussetzung für Problemlösungen [40]. Wissensmanagement ist daher der Schlüssel für Unternehmenserfolg und bezeichnet den "bewussten und systematischen Umgang mit der Ressource Wissen und den zielgerichteten Einsatz von Wissen in der Organisation“ [6]. In dieser umfassenden Sichtweise ist Wissensmanagement ein Begriff, der Konzepte, Strategien und Methoden umfasst.

  6. New realism in north Korean propaganda: The death of Pak Chong-ch`ol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, W.

    1987-04-01

    North Korea`s Voice of National Salvation (VNS) broadcasts to South Korea in January and February gave considerable attention to the 13 January 1987 death under police torture of Seoul National University student Pak Chong-ch`ol. VNS commentary emphasized the routine nature of police torture in South Korea and sharply criticized the South Korean Government for blocking attendance at memorial services on 7 February and 3 March. Many VNS comments on the Pak case closely paralleled reactions of the South Korean press and parliamentary opposition, demonstrating close North Korean attention to opinion trends in the South. In a new mood of realism, P`yongyang also used the Pak case to urge South Korean radical students to drop their `avant-gardism`, including excessively leftist slogans and violent tactics that alienate the general populace. P` yongyang clearly wants students to take advantage of issues that have wide public appeal and to broaden resistance to the Chon Tu-hwan Government to include social groups beyond the student population. In P`yongyang`s view, such issues include the Pak case and the signature campaign for constitutional revision in early 1986. If South Korea`s radical students take P`yonyyang`s advice, and if the Republic of Korea Government fails to curb and punish abuses like the Pak killing, this shift in tactics could have significant influence during the coming spring demonstration season.

  7. EhPAK2, a novel p21-activated kinase, is required for collagen invasion and capping in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Arias-Romero, Luis Enrique; de Jesús Almáraz-Barrera, Ma; Díaz-Valencia, Juan Daniel; Rojo-Domínguez, Arturo; Hernandez-Rivas, Rosaura; Vargas, Miguel

    2006-09-01

    p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a highly conserved family of enzymes that are activated by Rho GTPases. All PAKs contain an N-terminal Cdc42/Rac interacting binding (CRIB) domain, which confers binding to these GTPases, and a C-terminal kinase domain. In addition, some PAKs such as Cla4p, Skm1p and Pak2p contain an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and form a distinct group of PAK proteins involved in cell morphology, cell-cycle and gene transcription. Here, we describe a novel p21-activated kinase, denominated EhPAK2, on the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. This is the first reported Entamoeba PAK member that contains a N-terminal PH domain and a highly conserved CRIB domain. EhPAK2 CRIB domain shares 29% of amino acid identity and 53% of amino acid homology with these of DdPAKC from Dictyostelium discoideum and Cla4p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and binds in vitro and in vivo to EhRacA GTPase. This domain also possesses the conserved residues His123, Phe134 and Trp141, which are important for the interaction with the effector loop and strand beta2 of the GTPase; and the residues Met121 and Phe145, which are specific for the interaction of EhPAK2 with EhRacA. Functional studies of EhPAK2 showed that its C-terminal kinase domain had activity toward myelin basic protein. Cellular studies showed that Entamoeba trophozoites transfected with the vector pExEhNeo/kinase-myc, had a 90% decrease in the ability to invade a collagen matrix as well as severe defects in capping, suggesting the involvement of EhPAK2 in these cellular processes.

  8. Synergistic Activation of ERα by Estrogen and Prolactin in Breast Cancer Cells Requires Tyrosyl Phosphorylation of PAK1.

    PubMed

    Oladimeji, Peter; Skerl, Rebekah; Rusch, Courtney; Diakonova, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Serine/threonine kinase PAK1 is activated by estrogen and plays an important role in breast cancer. However, the integration of PAK1 into the estrogen response is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the hormone-induced activation of estrogen receptor (ERα, ESR1). We show that estrogen activated PAK1 through both the ERα and GPER1 membrane receptors. Estrogen-dependent activation of PAK1 required the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues by Etk/Bmx and protein kinase A (PKA) within an assembled signaling complex comprising pTyr-PAK1, Etk/Bmx, the heterotrimer G-protein subunits Gβ1, Gγ2, and/or Gγ5, PAK-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor (βPIX, ARHGEF7), and PKA. Moreover, the PKA RIIβ subunit is a direct target of PAK1, and thus in response to estrogen, the activated pTyr-PAK1 complex reciprocally potentiated PKA activity, suggesting a positive feedback mechanism. We also demonstrate that PKA phosphorylated Ser305-ERα in response to estrogen, but pTyr-PAK1 phosphorylated Ser305-ERα in response to prolactin (PRL), implying that maximal ERα phosphorylation is achieved when cells are exposed to both PRL and estrogen. Furthermore, S305-ERα activation led to enhanced phosphorylation of Ser118-ERα and promoted cell proliferation and tumor growth. Together, these data strongly support a critical interplay between PRL and estrogen via PAK1 and suggest that ligand-independent activation of ERα through PRL/PAK1 may impart resistance to anti-estrogen therapies. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2600-11. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26944939

  9. Expression of constitutively active alpha-PAK reveals effects of the kinase on actin and focal complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Manser, E; Huang, H Y; Loo, T H; Chen, X Q; Dong, J M; Leung, T; Lim, L

    1997-01-01

    The family of p21-activated protein kinases (PAKs) appear to be present in all organisms that have Cdc42-like GTPases. In mammalian cells, PAKs have been implicated in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, but there are no reported effects of these kinases on the cytoskeleton. Recently we have shown that a Drosophila PAK is enriched in the leading edge of embryonic epithelial cells undergoing dorsal closure (N. Harden, J. Lee, H.-Y. Loh, Y.-M. Ong, I. Tan, T. Leung, E. Manser, and L. Lim, Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:1896-1908, 1996), where it colocalizes with structures resembling focal complexes. We show here by transfection that in epithelial HeLa cells alpha-PAK is recruited from the cytoplasm to distinct focal complexes by both Cdc42(G12V) and Rac1(G12V), which themselves colocalize to these sites. By deletion analysis, the N terminus of PAK is shown to contain targeting sequences for focal adhesions which indicate that these complexes are the site of kinase function in vivo. Cdc42 and Rac1 cause alpha-PAK autophosphorylation and kinase activation. Mapping alpha-PAK autophosphorylation sites has allowed generation of a constitutively active kinase mutant. By fusing regions of Cdc42 to the C terminus of PAK, activated chimeras were also obtained. Plasmids encoding these different constitutively active alpha-PAKs caused loss of stress fibers when introduced into both HeLa cells and fibroblasts, which was similar to the effect of introducing Cdc42(G12V) or Rac1(G12V). Significantly dramatic losses of focal adhesions were also observed. These combined effects resulted in retraction of the cell periphery after plasmid microinjection. These data support our previous suggestions of a role for PAK downstream of both Cdc42 and Rac1 and indicate that PAK functions include the dissolution of stress fibers and reorganization of focal complexes. PMID:9032240

  10. PAK Inactivation Impairs Social Recognition in 3xTg-AD Mice without Increasing Brain Deposition of Tau and Aβ

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Dany; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Tremblay, Cyntia; Bennett, David A.; Guitton, Matthieu J.; De Koninck, Yves; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Defects in p21-activated kinase (PAK) are suspected to play a role in cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dysfunction in PAK leads to cofilin activation, drebrin displacement from its actin-binding site, actin depolymerization/severing, and, ultimately, defects in spine dynamics and cognitive impairment in mice. To determine the role of PAK in AD, we first quantified PAK by immunoblotting in homogenates from the parietal neocortex of subjects with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (n = 12), mild cognitive impairment (n = 12), or AD (n = 12). A loss of total PAK, detected in the cortex of AD patients (−39% versus controls), was correlated with cognitive impairment (r2 = 0.148, p = 0.027) and deposition of total and phosphorylated tau (r2 = 0.235 and r2 = 0.206, respectively), but not with Aβ42 (r2 = 0.056). Accordingly, we found a decrease of total PAK in the cortex of 12- and 20-month-old 3xTg-AD mice, an animal model of AD-like Aβ and tau neuropathologies. To determine whether PAK dysfunction aggravates AD phenotype, 3xTg-AD mice were crossed with dominant-negative PAK mice. PAK inactivation led to obliteration of social recognition in old 3xTg-AD mice, which was associated with a decrease in cortical drebrin (−25%), but without enhancement of Aβ/tau pathology or any clear electrophysiological signature. Overall, our data suggest that PAK decrease is a consequence of AD neuropathology and that therapeutic activation of PAK may exert symptomatic benefits on high brain function. PMID:23804095

  11. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    1997-05-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  12. Lymph- und Immunsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Steven F.

    Alle Lebewesen müssen sich gegen Eindringlinge wehren. Ihre Abwehrmechanismen wirken auf verschiedenen Ebenen, von übergeordneten Feindvermeidungsstrategien und Putzverhalten bis hin zu molekularen Erkennungs- und Tötungsmechanismen. Da Eindringlinge über Kontaktflächen mit der Außenwelt, wie z.B. Körperoberfläche, Darmwand und Atmungsoberflächen, in den Organismus gelangen, sind an diesen Stellen immer primäre Abwehrmechanismen zu finden. Dazu zählen (1) Schleimabsonderung (Schleimhäute bei allen Schädeltieren, Fischkiemen, epidermale Schleimdrüsen (Fische, Amphibien)), (2) Stoffwechselgifte und antibakteriell wirkende Substanzen in der Haut (Fische, Amphibien) und im Speichel (Amnioten), (3) Flimmerepithelien zum Abtransport von Eindringlingen und (4) starke Keratinbildung in der mehrschichtigen Epidermis und schützende Strukturen wie Schuppen, Federn und Haare (Amnioten) (S. 20). Auch die starke Säurebildung im Magen kann als Schutz gegen Eindringlinge betrachtet werden.

  13. A Derivative of Differentiation-Inducing Factor-3 Inhibits PAK1 Activity and Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Oladimeji, Peter; Kubohara, Yuzuru; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Rusch, Courtney; Skerl, Rebekah; Diakonova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors 1-3 (DIFs 1-3), chlorinated alkylphenones identified in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, are considered anti-tumor agents because they inhibit proliferation of a variety of mammalian tumor cells in vitro. Although the anti-proliferative effects of DIF-1 and DIF-3 are well-documented, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of DIFs have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of DIFs and their derivatives on PAK1, a key serine-threonine kinase, which is activated by multiple ligands and regulates cell proliferation. We examined the effect of DIF derivatives on PAK1 kinase activity in cells. We also examined the effect of DIF-3(+1) derivative on PAK1 kinase activity in vitro, cyclin D1 promoter activity and breast cancer cell proliferation. It was found that some derivatives strongly inhibited PAK1 kinase activity in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells stably over expressing PAK1. Among the derivatives, DIF-3(+1) was most potent, which directly inhibited kinase activity of recombinant purified PAK1 in an in vitro kinase assay. Furthermore, DIF-3(+1) strongly inhibited both cyclin D1 promoter activity and proliferation of MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells stably over expressing PAK1 in response to prolactin, estrogen, epidermal growth factor and heregulin. In the present study we propose PAK1 as DIF-3(+1) target mediating its anti-proliferative effect. PMID:26688830

  14. Glucosinolates from pak choi and broccoli induce enzymes and inhibit inflammation and colon cancer differently.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, Doris; Lehmann, Carsten; Florian, Simone; Barknowitz, Gitte; Haack, Michael; Mewis, Inga; Wiesner, Melanie; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Brigelius-Flohé, Regina; Kipp, Anna P

    2014-06-01

    High consumption of Brassica vegetables is considered to prevent especially colon carcinogenesis. The content and pattern of glucosinolates (GSLs) can highly vary among different Brassica vegetables and may, thus, affect the outcome of Brassica intervention studies. Therefore, we aimed to feed mice with diets containing plant materials of the Brassica vegetables broccoli and pak choi. Further enrichment of the diets by adding GSL extracts allowed us to analyze the impact of different amounts (GSL-poor versus GSL-rich) and different patterns (broccoli versus pak choi) of GSLs on inflammation and tumor development in a model of inflammation-triggered colon carcinogenesis (AOM/DSS model). Serum albumin adducts were analyzed to confirm the up-take and bioactivation of GSLs after feeding the Brassica diets for four weeks. In agreement with their high glucoraphanin content, broccoli diets induced the formation of sulforaphane-lysine adducts. Levels of 1-methoxyindolyl-3-methyl-histidine adducts derived from neoglucobrassicin were the highest in the GSL-rich pak choi group. In the colon, the GSL-rich broccoli and the GSL-rich pak choi diet up-regulated the expression of different sets of typical Nrf2 target genes like Nqo1, Gstm1, Srxn1, and GPx2. GSL-rich pak choi induced the AhR target gene Cyp1a1 but did not affect Ugt1a1 expression. Both colitis and tumor number were drastically reduced after feeding the GSL-rich pak choi diet while the other three diets had no effect. GSLs can act anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic but both effects depend on the specific amount and pattern of GSLs within a vegetable. Thus, a high Brassica consumption cannot be generally considered to be cancer-preventive.

  15. Glucosinolates from pak choi and broccoli induce enzymes and inhibit inflammation and colon cancer differently.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, Doris; Lehmann, Carsten; Florian, Simone; Barknowitz, Gitte; Haack, Michael; Mewis, Inga; Wiesner, Melanie; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Brigelius-Flohé, Regina; Kipp, Anna P

    2014-06-01

    High consumption of Brassica vegetables is considered to prevent especially colon carcinogenesis. The content and pattern of glucosinolates (GSLs) can highly vary among different Brassica vegetables and may, thus, affect the outcome of Brassica intervention studies. Therefore, we aimed to feed mice with diets containing plant materials of the Brassica vegetables broccoli and pak choi. Further enrichment of the diets by adding GSL extracts allowed us to analyze the impact of different amounts (GSL-poor versus GSL-rich) and different patterns (broccoli versus pak choi) of GSLs on inflammation and tumor development in a model of inflammation-triggered colon carcinogenesis (AOM/DSS model). Serum albumin adducts were analyzed to confirm the up-take and bioactivation of GSLs after feeding the Brassica diets for four weeks. In agreement with their high glucoraphanin content, broccoli diets induced the formation of sulforaphane-lysine adducts. Levels of 1-methoxyindolyl-3-methyl-histidine adducts derived from neoglucobrassicin were the highest in the GSL-rich pak choi group. In the colon, the GSL-rich broccoli and the GSL-rich pak choi diet up-regulated the expression of different sets of typical Nrf2 target genes like Nqo1, Gstm1, Srxn1, and GPx2. GSL-rich pak choi induced the AhR target gene Cyp1a1 but did not affect Ugt1a1 expression. Both colitis and tumor number were drastically reduced after feeding the GSL-rich pak choi diet while the other three diets had no effect. GSLs can act anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic but both effects depend on the specific amount and pattern of GSLs within a vegetable. Thus, a high Brassica consumption cannot be generally considered to be cancer-preventive. PMID:24714741

  16. PAK1 confers chemoresistance and poor outcome in non-small cell lung cancer via β-catenin-mediated stemness

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Jenn; Wu, De-Wei; Wang, Yao-Chen; Chen, Chi-Yi; Lee, Huei

    2016-01-01

    PAK1 confers resistance to the estrogen antagonist tamoxifen in breast cancer. However, a role for PAK1 remains to be elucidated for chemoresistance and prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We provide evidence that PAK1 confers cisplatin resistance by increasing β-catenin expression through ERK/GSK3β signaling. The increased β-catenin expression promotes sphere cell formation and expression of stemness markers and this β-catenin-induced stemness is responsible for PAK1-mediated cisplatin resistance. We enrolled 87 NSCLC patients who had received cisplatin-based chemotherapy to confirm the association between PAK1 expression and response to chemotherapy and outcomes. PAK1 expression, evaluated by immunohistochemistry, was positively correlated with pERK and β-catenin expression in lung tumors. Patients with high-PAK1, high-pERK, and high-nuclear β-catenin tumors more frequently showed an unfavorable response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy when compared to their counterparts. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis also indicated a poorer overall survival (OS) and relapse free survival (RFS) in patients with high-PAK1, high-pERK, and high-nuclear β-catenin tumors. In conclusion, PAK1 confers cisplatin resistance in NSCLC via β-catenin-mediated stemness. Therefore, we suggest that clinical use of a combination of the MEK/ERK inhibitor AZD6244 and cisplatin might improve sensitivity to cisplatin-based chemotherapy and outcomes in NSCLC patients who harbor high-PAK1-expressing tumors. PMID:27713506

  17. GL-1196 Suppresses the Proliferation and Invasion of Gastric Cancer Cells via Targeting PAK4 and Inhibiting PAK4-Mediated Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Wang, Jian; You, Liang-Hao; Zhou, Rui-Zhi; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Cheng, Mao-Sheng; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer, which is the most common malignant gastrointestinal tumor, has jumped to the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. It is of great importance to identify novel and potent drugs for gastric cancer treatment. P21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) has emerged as an attractive target for the development of anticancer drugs in consideration of its vital functions in tumorigenesis and progression. In this paper, we reported that GL-1196, as a small molecular compound, effectively suppressed the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells through downregulation of PAK4/c-Src/EGFR/cyclinD1 pathway and CDK4/6 expression. Moreover, GL-1196 prominently inhibited the invasion of human gastric cancer cells in parallel with blockage of the PAK4/LIMK1/cofilin pathway. Interestingly, GL-1196 also inhibited the formation of filopodia and induced cell elongation in SGC7901 and BGC823 cells. Taken together, these results provided novel insights into the potential therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. PMID:27077843

  18. Genotypic variation of the glucosinolate profile in pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Melanie; Zrenner, Rita; Krumbein, Angelika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Schreiner, Monika

    2013-02-27

    Thirteen different pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) cultivars were characterized regarding their glucosinolate profile analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS. The identified glucosinolates were subjected to principal component analysis, and three distinct groups of pak choi sprouts were identified. Group differences were marked mainly by variations in the aliphatic glucosinolate profile such as differing levels of 3-butenyl glucosinolate and 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl glucosinolate as well as by their varying proportional ratios. In addition, the three groups of pak choi sprouts varied by the presence or absence of 2-hydroxy-4-pentenyl glucosinolate and in level and composition of butyl glucosinolates. This classification is reflected by relative mRNA expression level of 2-oxoacid-dependent dioxygenase. As in sprouts, the major glucosinolates in mature leaves were found to be the aliphatic glucosinolates. However, unlike in sprouts, an additional aliphatic glucosinolate, 5-methylsulfinylpentyl glucosinolate, was detected as characteristic ontogenetic variation in mature leaves in 12 of the 13 pak choi cultivars analyzed.

  19. PAK4 Methylation by SETD6 Promotes the Activation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

    PubMed

    Vershinin, Zlata; Feldman, Michal; Chen, Ayelet; Levy, Dan

    2016-03-25

    Lysine methylation of non-histone proteins has emerged as a key regulator of many cellular functions. Although less studied than other post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation, the number of known methylated non-histone proteins is rapidly expanding. We have identified the p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) as a new substrate for methylation by the protein lysine methyltransferase SETD6. Our data demonstrate that SETD6 methylates PAK4 bothin vitroand at chromatin in cells. Interestingly, depletion of SETD6 in various cellular systems significantly hinders the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin target genes. PAK4 was recently shown to regulate β-catenin signaling, and we show that SETD6 is a key mediator of this pathway. In the presence of SETD6, the physical interaction between PAK4 and β-catenin is dramatically increased, leading to a significant increase in the transcription of β-catenin target genes. Taken together, our results uncover a new regulatory layer of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade and provide new insight into SETD6 biology. PMID:26841865

  20. Decontamination of the Shaft no.1 and cleaning container of 2. block NPP Paks

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcha, Jan; Mala, Zuzana; Tilky, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Meanwhile cleaning fuel assemblies on Paks NPP Unit 2. in 2003 year, the fuel assemblies were damaged, followed by contamination of cleaning container and operating shaft No. 1., in which was the container. As a part of the task - to restore operation NPP Paks, Unit 2, VUJE and.. realized decontamination of the wall of shaft prior to withdrawal of the defected fuel, decontamination of cleaning tank and in consequence decontamination of full shaft No. 1. Solution rest at finished conceptual decontamination proposal, fabrication of special purpose furnished, necessary documentation according to national legislative exigency. Real facilities on decontamination were examined on the stand and on shaft No. 1 in real conditions. This paper describes access method decontaminating procedure, applied facilities assigned on decontamination and present achievement results from decontamination shaft No. 1 realized in August 2006 and February 2007, respectively. Decontamination procedures were chosen on the base of experiments realized in laboratories VUJE and in Paks NPP. Laboratory experiments were realized on the sample of tube used for measurement of neutron flow, from NPP Paks, located in the shaft No.1 in time of event (INES-3). In NPP Paks were realized experiments on cover of cleaning container, which was in time of event situated on cleaning container. To compare decontaminated factors, the chemical and electrochemical procedures for decontamination were tested, and most effective practices were selected. Equipment ROS-740 can be used for the top part of the shaft decontamination. It allows high-pressure admission, rinse and chemical decontamination. Manipulator MAOS-170 is assigned for high-pressure admission of central part of the shaft. (authors)

  1. Rac regulation of transformation, gene expression, and actin organization by multiple, PAK-independent pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Westwick, J K; Lambert, Q T; Clark, G J; Symons, M; Van Aelst, L; Pestell, R G; Der, C J

    1997-01-01

    Rac1 and RhoA are members of the Rho family of Ras-related proteins and function as regulators of actin cytoskeletal organization, gene expression, and cell cycle progression. Constitutive activation of Rac1 and RhoA causes tumorigenic transformation of NIH 3T3 cells, and their functions may be required for full Ras transformation. The effectors by which Rac1 and RhoA mediate these diverse activities, as well as the interrelationship between these events, remain poorly understood. Rac1 is distinct from RhoA in its ability to bind and activate the p65 PAK serine/threonine kinase, to induce lamellipodia and membrane ruffling, and to activate the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). To assess the role of PAK in Rac1 function, we identified effector domain mutants of Rac1 and Rac1-RhoA chimeric proteins that no longer bound PAK. Surprisingly, PAK binding was dispensable for Rac1-induced transformation and lamellipodium formation, as well as activation of JNK, p38, and serum response factor (SRF). However, the ability of Rac1 to bind to and activate PAK correlated with its ability to stimulate transcription from the cyclin D1 promoter. Furthermore, Rac1 activation of JNK or SRF, or induction of lamellipodia, was neither necessary nor sufficient for Rac1 transforming activity. Finally, the signaling pathways that mediate Rac1 activation of SRF or JNK were distinct from those that mediate Rac1 induction of lamellipodia. Taken together, these observations suggest that Rac1 regulates at least four distinct effector-mediated functions and that multiple pathways may contribute to Rac1-induced cellular transformation. PMID:9032259

  2. Functional cooperativity by direct interaction between PAK4 and MMP-2 in the regulation of anoikis resistance, migration and invasion in glioma.

    PubMed

    Kesanakurti, D; Chetty, C; Rajasekhar Maddirela, D; Gujrati, M; Rao, J S

    2012-12-20

    Gliomas display anoikis resistance, enhanced invasion in to the adjacent brain parenchyma and eventually recur despite using the standard therapies. Our studies on increased anoikis sensitization in matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-knockdown 4910 and 5310 human glioma xenograft cells were interestingly correlated with p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) inhibition, prompting us to further investigate the role of PAK4 in glioma. Here, we report the PAK4 upregulation in positive correlation with increasing glioma pathological grades. The siRNA-mediated PAK4 knockdown elevated anoikis, and inhibited invasion and migration by downregulating MMP-2, αvβ3-integrin and phospho-epidermal growth factor receptor (phospho-EGFR). The cDNA-PCR arrays revealed a transcriptional suppression of essential proteins involved in cell proliferation and adhesion in PAK4-knockdown cells. Most importantly, glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays demonstrated the MMP-2 as a new PAK4-interacting protein which binds to PAK4 kinase domain. Individual EGFR/ErbB2 inhibitor and αvβ3 antibody treatments in PAK4si-treated cells indicated the regulation of αvβ3/EGFR survival signaling by PAK4. Overexpression of PAK4 significantly reversed the MMP2si-induced cell death in both cell lines. Codepletion of PAK4 and MMP-2 resulted in robust anoikis-mediated cell death, and severely inhibited invasive and migratory properties in these cells. PAK4si inhibited in vivo tumor growth in nude mice by inhibiting MMP-2, β3-integrin and phospho-EGFR levels in tumors. Our findings indicate a physical association between PAK4 and MMP-2, and suggest the future therapeutic potential of PAK4/MMP-2 dual targeting in glioma treatment.

  3. Geoinformation und Staat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zypries, Brigitte

    2002-09-01

    Geoinformationen besaßen als Grundlage militärischer Interventionen schon immer einen hohen Stellenwert für den Staat. Im Zeitalter der modernen Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien wächst in demokratischen Staaten die Bedeutung von Geodaten weit über den Verteidigungsbereich hinaus. Brigitte Zypries, Staatssekretärin im Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) und Vorsitzende des Interministeriellen Ausschusses für Geoinformationswesen (IMAGI), sprach mit Dipl.-Geogr. Ute C. Bauerüber die Anwendung und Koordinierung von Geodaten in Politik und Staat.

  4. Integument und Anhangsorgane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schliemann, Harald

    Das Integument umhüllt den Wirbeltierkörper lückenlos. In der embryonalen Mundbucht (Stomodaeum) und der Afterbucht (Proctodaeum) grenzt es an die Auskleidung des Darmrohres. Über die generelle Bedeutung einer Haut als Abgrenzung zwischen Körperinnenraum und Außenmedium hinaus hat es bei Schädeltieren ein breites Spektrum von Funktionen. Die wichtigsten sind: Mechanischer Schutz durch Verhornungen und Verknöch erungen; Wundheilung; Schutz vor Wasserverlust; Schutz vor Infektionen durch bakterizide Drüsensekrete und immunkompetente Zellen; Schutz vor kurzwelliger Strahlung durch Pigmente; Schutz vor Überwärmung durch Schweißdrüsensekrete und Schutz vor Wärmeverlust durch Federn und Haare; Ausbildung lokomotorisch wichtiger Strukturen wie Federn, Flug- und Schwimmhäute, Krallen und Hufe; Redukt ion des Strömungswiderstandes durch Dämpfungshaut; Abgabe von Sekreten zur Ernährung (Milch); Ausbildung von Strukturen zu Nahrungserwerb und_-bearbeitung, z. B. Zähne, Barten;

  5. Resistance to white rust in pak choi and Chinese cabbage at the cotyledon stage.

    PubMed

    Santos, M R; Dias, J S; Silva, M J; Ferreira-Pinto, M M

    2006-01-01

    The biothrofic pathogen Albugo candida (Pers.) attacks all the cultivated Brassica species and several wild crucifers causing the disease known as white rust. The symptoms consist on the initial appearance of more or less conspicuous white sori on the plant leaves and stems, followed by severe distortions of the affected organs, especially flowers and siliqua. On delicate vegetable types of Brassica rapa L., like pak choi (B. rapa var. chinensis L.) and chinese cabbages (B. rapa var. pekinensis L.) even a slight white rust infection can render all the production unmarketable. Development of resistant cultivars is the best way to control the disease and to insure low pesticide spraying and residues in vegetables. The objective of this work were: i) the screening of a collection of B. rapa accessions from several seed banks for sources of resistance to white rust; and ii) the study of the inheritance of resistance in the most resistant accessions. Forty three accessions of B. rapa chinensis and 19 accessions of B. rapapekinensis were screened at the cotyledon stage following the methods of Santos and Dias (2004) with a Portuguese A. candida isolate Ac506 (Br) collected from turnip leaves. Four accessions of B. rapa chinensis presented more than 50% of resistant plants: the pak choi (BRA 117) was the most resistant accession with 85% of resistant plants, followed by pak choi (BRA227) with 73%, pai tsai 'Ex China 1' (B00083) with 60% and pak choi 'Ai Jiao Huang' (BRA 225) with 53%. On the opposite, B. rapa pekinensis accessions were all consider as susceptible presenting only 0-11% of resistant plants. The inheritance of resistance was studied in two crosses between pak choi BRA 117 and the rapid cycling B. rapa plant line CrGC 1.19. Selfed parents and F1 and F2 generations were produced, and screened at the cotyledon stage as previously described. Analysis of the results suggests that inheritance of resistance to Ac506 in pak choi BRA 117 is controlled by two nuclear

  6. Polycomb-mediated loss of microRNA let-7c determines inflammatory macrophage polarization via PAK1-dependent NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Liu, H; Liu, W; Liu, Y; Xu, J

    2015-02-01

    Serine/threonine kinase family members p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are important regulators of cytoskeletal remodeling and cell motility in mononuclear phagocytic system, but their role in macrophage differentiation and polarization remains obscure. We have shown here that inflammatory stimuli induced PAK1 overexpression in human and murine macrophages. Elevated expression of PAK1 contributed to macrophage M1 polarization and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin shock. We further observed that epigenetic loss of microRNA let-7c due to enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) upregulation determined PAK1 elevation and inflammatory phenotype in M1 macrophages. EZH2/let-7c/PAK1 axis promotes macrophage M1 polarization via NIK-IKK-NF-κB signaling. Moreover, pharmacological and genetic ablation with EZH2/let-7c/PAK1 axis blunted inflammatory phenotype in M1 macrophages. Critically, either myeloid-restricted PAK1 deletion (PAK1(Lyz2cre)) or pharmacological and genetic ablation with EZH2/let-7c/PAK1 signal resulted in resistance to LPS-induced endotoxin shock via blunting macrophage M1 polarization. PAK1, therefore, is an essential controller of inflammatory macrophage polarization, regulating immune responses against pathogenic stimuli.

  7. The investigation of miR-221-3p and PAK1 gene expressions in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Sercan; Tayeb, Tayeb Sadiq; Arslan, Ahmet; Temiz, Ebru; Arman, Kaifee; Safdar, Muhammad; Dağlı, Hasan; Korkmaz, Murat; Nacarkahya, Gülper; Kırkbeş, Sevil; Oztuzcu, Serdar

    2015-01-25

    The most common malignancy in women is breast cancer. Drug resistance in the treatment of cancer still remains a major clinical concern. Resistance to tamoxifen is seen in half of the recurrences in breast cancer. The anti-estrogen tamoxifen gains agonistic property by transactivating ERα. PAK1-mediated phosphorylation of serine 305 (S305) of ERα leads to resistance to tamoxifen. In our study, PAK1-induced suggestive tamoxifen resistance was designed. According to our hypothesis, phosphorylation of ERα-S305 by PAK1 may be reversed by PAK1 transcriptional inhibition by miR-221-3p due to miR-221-3p targeting the 3' UTR of PAK1. For this purpose, we used Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure the expression level of miR-221-3p in ER-positive breast cancer cell lines (ZR-75-1, MCF7) and breast epithelial cell line, hTERT-HME1, as control in the laboratory in our department. The increase in the expression of PAK1 depending on miR-221-3p may be related to ZR-75-1 cell line which has invasive characteristic but other two ER+ cancer cell lines, MCF7 and HCC1500, have milder cancer severity. miR-221-3p may have a role on regulation of PAK1 expression because miR-221-3p expression level decreases while PAK1 expression level increases in SKBR3 cell line. miR-221-3p and PAK1 expressions in MDA-MB-231 cell line are higher than that of hTERT-HME1 cell line. This may mean that miR-221-3p has no regulatory effect on of PAK1 expression in this cell line. According to these results, miR-221-3p may give crucial information about molecular mechanism of the disease upon PAK1 activity or different mechanisms with respect to histopathology and severity of breast cancer.

  8. miR-129 suppresses tumor cell growth and invasion by targeting PAK5 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Jian; Qu, Shuping; Li, Xiaowei; Zhong, Jiaming; Chen, Xiaoxia; Qu, Zengqiang; Wu, Dong

    2015-08-14

    Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating HCC development and progression; however, the mechanisms by which their specific functions and mechanisms remained to be further explored. miR-129 has been reported in gastric cancers, lung cancer and colon cancer. In this study, we disclosed a new tumor suppresser function of miR-129 in HCC. We also found the downregulation of miR-129 occurred in nearly 3/4 of the tumors examined (56/76) compared with adjacent nontumorous tissues, which was more importantly, correlated to the advanced stage and vascular invasion. We then demonstrated that miR-129 overexpression attenuated HCC cells proliferation and invasion, inducing apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, we used miR-129 antagonist and found that anti-miR-129 promoted HCC cells malignant phenotypes. Mechanistically, our further investigations revealed that miR-129 suppressed cell proliferation and invasion by targeting the 3’-untranslated region of PAK5, as well as miR-129 silencing up-regulated PAK5 expression. Moreover, miR-129 expression was inversely correlated with PAK5 expression in 76 cases of HCC samples. RNA interference of PAK5 attenuated anti-miR-129 mediated cell proliferation and invasion in HCC cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated that miR-129 suppressed tumorigenesis and progression by directly targeting PAK5, defining miR-129 as a potential treatment target for HCC. - Highlights: • Decreased of miR-129 is found in HCC and associated with advanced stage and metastasis. • miR-129 suppresses proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. • miR-129 directly targets the 3′ UTR of PAK5 and diminishes PAK5 expression. • PAK5 is involved in miR-129 mediated suppression functions.

  9. Milch, Milchprodukte, Analoge und Speiseeis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coors, Ursula

    Die Produktpalette Milch und Erzeugnisse aus Milch beinhaltet Konsummilch, die aus Milch oder Bestandteilen der Milch hergestellten Milcherzeugnisse wie Sauermilch-, Joghurt-, Kefir-, Buttermilch-, Sahne-, Kondensmilch-, Trockenmilch- und Molkenerzeugnisse, Milchmisch- und Molkenmischprodukte (Produkte mit beigegebenen Lebensmitteln), Milchzucker, Milcheiweißerzeugnisse, Milchfette und Käse.

  10. Effect of Okinawa Propolis on PAK1 Activity, Caenorhabditis elegans Longevity, Melanogenesis, and Growth of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Taira, Nozomi; Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Be Tu, Pham Thi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2016-07-13

    Propolis from different areas has been reported to inhibit oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1, which is responsible for a variety of conditions, including cancer, longevity, and melanogenesis. Here, a crude extract of Okinawa propolis (OP) was tested against PAK1 activity, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) longevity, melanogenesis, and growth of cancer cells. We found that OP blocks PAK1 and exhibits anticancer activity in the A549 cell (human lung cancer cell) line with IC50 values of 6 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Most interestingly, OP (1 μg/mL) significantly reduces reproduction and prolongs the lifespan of C. elegans by activating the HSP-16.2 gene, as shown in the PAK1-deficient strain. Furthermore, OP inhibits melanogenesis in a melanoma cell line (B16F10) by downregulating intracellular tyrosinase activity with an IC50 of 30 μg/mL. Our results suggest that OP demonstrated a life span extending effect, C. elegans, anticancer, and antimelanogenic effects via PAK1 inactivation; therefore, this can be a potent natural medicinal supplement against PAK1-dependent diseases.

  11. The dynamic growth exhibition and accumulation of cadmium of Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) grown in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching

    2013-10-25

    The accumulation of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd), in leafy vegetables was compared with other vegetables. Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) is a leafy vegetable consumed in Taiwan and its safety for consumption after growing in contaminated soils is a public concern. A pot experiment (50 days) was conducted to understand the dynamic accumulation of Cd by pak choi grown in artificially contaminated soils. The edible parts of pak choi were sampled and analyzed every 2-3 days. The dry weight (DW) of pak choi was an exponential function of leaf length, leaf width, and chlorophyll content. The accumulation of Cd increased when the soil Cd concentration was raised, but was kept at a constant level during different growth stages. Pak choi had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = ratio of the concentration in the edible parts to that in the soils), at values of 3.5-4.0. The consumption of pak choi grown in soils contaminated at levels used in this study would result in the ingestion of impermissible amounts of Cd and could possibly have harmful effects on health.

  12. Bistability in the Rac1, PAK, and RhoA Signaling Network Drives Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics and Cell Motility Switches

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Kate M.; Monsefi, Naser; Dawson, John C.; Degasperi, Andrea; Bukowski-Wills, Jimi-Carlo; Volinsky, Natalia; Dobrzyński, Maciej; Birtwistle, Marc R.; Tsyganov, Mikhail A.; Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Kida, Katarzyna; Finch, Andrew J.; Carragher, Neil O.; Kolch, Walter; Nguyen, Lan K.; von Kriegsheim, Alex; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dynamic interactions between RhoA and Rac1, members of the Rho small GTPase family, play a vital role in the control of cell migration. Using predictive mathematical modeling, mass spectrometry-based quantitation of network components, and experimental validation in MDA-MB-231 mesenchymal breast cancer cells, we show that a network containing Rac1, RhoA, and PAK family kinases can produce bistable, switch-like responses to a graded PAK inhibition. Using a small chemical inhibitor of PAK, we demonstrate that cellular RhoA and Rac1 activation levels respond in a history-dependent, bistable manner to PAK inhibition. Consequently, we show that downstream signaling, actin dynamics, and cell migration also behave in a bistable fashion, displaying switches and hysteresis in response to PAK inhibition. Our results demonstrate that PAK is a critical component in the Rac1-RhoA inhibitory crosstalk that governs bistable GTPase activity, cell morphology, and cell migration switches. PMID:27136688

  13. The Dynamic Growth Exhibition and Accumulation of Cadmium of Pak Choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) Grown in Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd), in leafy vegetables was compared with other vegetables. Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) is a leafy vegetable consumed in Taiwan and its safety for consumption after growing in contaminated soils is a public concern. A pot experiment (50 days) was conducted to understand the dynamic accumulation of Cd by pak choi grown in artificially contaminated soils. The edible parts of pak choi were sampled and analyzed every 2–3 days. The dry weight (DW) of pak choi was an exponential function of leaf length, leaf width, and chlorophyll content. The accumulation of Cd increased when the soil Cd concentration was raised, but was kept at a constant level during different growth stages. Pak choi had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = ratio of the concentration in the edible parts to that in the soils), at values of 3.5–4.0. The consumption of pak choi grown in soils contaminated at levels used in this study would result in the ingestion of impermissible amounts of Cd and could possibly have harmful effects on health. PMID:24284350

  14. Neuausrichtung und Konsolidierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, Heinz

    Mit der Wahl von Wolfgang Wetzel zum Vorsitzenden der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft im Jahre 1972 begann eine 32jährige Ära, in der die praktische und die theoretische Statistik in einem ausgewogenen Verhältnis gepflegt wurden. Ein regelmäßiger vierjähriger Wechsel im Vorsitz stärkte die Gemeinschaft und die praktische wie die wissenschaftliche Arbeit gleichermaßen. Die jährlichen Hauptversammlungen behandelten gesellschaftlich aktuelle wie zukunftsorientierte Themen, und die Ausschüsse sowie weitere Veranstaltungen gaben Gelegenheit zur Förderung und Pflege einer Vielzahl von Arbeitsgebieten der Statistik. Darüber wird nicht nur in diesem Kapitel, sondern auch in den Teilen II und III des Bandes berichtet.

  15. Dbo/Henji Modulates Synaptic dPAK to Gate Glutamate Receptor Abundance and Postsynaptic Response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manyu; Chen, Pei-Yi; Wang, Chien-Hsiang; Lai, Tzu-Ting; Tsai, Pei-I; Cheng, Ying-Ju; Kao, Hsiu-Hua; Chien, Cheng-Ting

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental and physiological changes, the synapse manifests plasticity while simultaneously maintains homeostasis. Here, we analyzed mutant synapses of henji, also known as dbo, at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In henji mutants, NMJ growth is defective with appearance of satellite boutons. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates that the synaptic membrane region is expanded. The postsynaptic density (PSD) houses glutamate receptors GluRIIA and GluRIIB, which have distinct transmission properties. In henji mutants, GluRIIA abundance is upregulated but that of GluRIIB is not. Electrophysiological results also support a GluR compositional shift towards a higher IIA/IIB ratio at henji NMJs. Strikingly, dPAK, a positive regulator for GluRIIA synaptic localization, accumulates at the henji PSD. Reducing the dpak gene dosage suppresses satellite boutons and GluRIIA accumulation at henji NMJs. In addition, dPAK associated with Henji through the Kelch repeats which is the domain essential for Henji localization and function at postsynapses. We propose that Henji acts at postsynapses to restrict both presynaptic bouton growth and postsynaptic GluRIIA abundance by modulating dPAK. PMID:27736876

  16. A betaPix Pak2a signaling pathway regulates cerebral vascular stability in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Fraser, Sherri D; Faloon, Patrick W; Rollins, Evvi Lynn; Vom Berg, Johannes; Starovic-Subota, Olivera; Laliberte, Angie L; Chen, Jau-Nian; Serluca, Fabrizio C; Childs, Sarah J

    2007-08-28

    The vasculature tailors to the needs of different tissues and organs. Molecular, structural, and functional specializations are observed in different vascular beds, but few genetic models give insight into how these differences arise. We identify a unique cerebrovascular mutation in the zebrafish affecting the integrity of blood vessels supplying the brain. The zebrafish bubblehead (bbh) mutant exhibits hydrocephalus and severe cranial hemorrhage during early embryogenesis, whereas blood vessels in other regions of the embryo appear intact. Here we show that hemorrhages are associated with poor cerebral endothelial-mesenchymal contacts and an immature vascular pattern in the head. Positional cloning of bbh reveals a hypomorphic mutation in betaPix, a binding partner for the p21-activated kinase (Pak) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac and Cdc42. betaPix is broadly expressed during embryonic development and is enriched in the brain and in large blood vessels. By knockdown of specific betaPix splice variants, we show that they play unique roles in embryonic vascular stabilization or hydrocephalus. Finally, we show that Pak2a signaling is downstream of betaPix. These data identify an essential in vivo role for betaPix and Pak2a during embryonic development and illuminate a previously unrecognized pathway specifically involved in cerebrovascular stabilization. PMID:17573532

  17. Falten und fliegen: Papierflieger und ihre Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Werner

    2004-09-01

    Mit Papierfliegern können wichtige Eigenschaften der Aerodynamik anschaulich vermittelt werden: ein Blatt Papier, ein paar Faltungen und schon kann man experimentieren. Allerdings sind beim Trimmen des Fliegers einige Punkte zu beachten. Besonders wichtig ist die Y-Stellung der Flügel, die ihm Flugstabilität verleiht. Ist der Flieger fertig, dann gilt es, die dem Modell am besten angepasste Wurftechnik herauszufinden. Dazu variiert man Wurfgeschwindigkeit und Abwurfwinkel. Den Boden kann ein Papierflieger auf vier prinzipiell verschiedenen Flugkurven erreichen: Optimal ist die Gerade, dann fliegt er am weitesten.

  18. The p21-activated kinase, PAK2, is important in the activation of numerous pancreatic acinar cell signaling cascades and in the onset of early pancreatitis events.

    PubMed

    Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Ramos-Álvarez, Irene; Jensen, R T

    2016-06-01

    In a recent study we explored Group-1-p21-activated kinases (GP.1-PAKs) in rat pancreatic acini. Only PAK2 was present; it was activated by gastrointestinal-hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors in a PKC-, Src- and small-GTPase-mediated manner. PAK2 was required for enzyme-secretion and ERK/1-2-activation. In the present study we examined PAK2's role in CCK and TPA-activation of important distal signaling cascades mediating their physiological/pathophysiological effects and analyzed its role in pathophysiological processes important in early pancreatitis. In rat pancreatic acini, PAK2-inhibition by the specific, GP.1.PAK-inhibitor, IPA-3-suppressed cholecystokinin (CCK)/TPA-stimulated activation of focal-adhesion kinases and mitogen-activated protein-kinases. PAK2-inhibition reversed the dual stimulatory/inhibitory effect of CCK/TPA on the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. However, its inhibition did not affect PKC activation. PAK2-inhibition protected acini from CCK-induced ROS-generation; caspase/trypsin-activation, important in early pancreatitis; as well as from cell-necrosis. Furthermore, PAK2-inhibition reduced proteolytic-activation of PAK-2p34, which is involved in programmed-cell-death. To ensure that the study did not only rely in the specificity of IPA-3 as a PAK inhibitor, we used two other approaches for PAK inhibition, FRAX597 a ATP-competitive-GP.1-PAKs-inhibitor and infection with a PAK2-dominant negative(DN)-Advirus. Those two approaches confirmed the results obtained with IPA-3. This study demonstrates that PAK2 is important in mediating CCK's effect on the activation of signaling-pathways known to mediate its physiological/pathophysiological responses including several cellular processes linked to the onset of pancreatitis. Our results suggest that PAK2 could be a new, important therapeutic target to consider for the treatment of diseases involving deregulation of pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:26912410

  19. Tyrosyl Phosphorylated Serine-Threonine Kinase PAK1 is a Novel Regulator of Prolactin-Dependent Breast Cancer Cell Motility and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to discover the cellular pathways regulating breast cancer metastasis, little is known as to how prolactin (PRL) cooperates with extracellular environment and cytoskeletal proteins to regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion. We implicated serine-threonine kinase p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) as a novel target for PRL-activated Janus-kinase 2 (JAK2). JAK2-dependent PAK1 tyrosyl phosphorylation plays a critical role in regulation of both PAK1 kinase activity and scaffolding properties of PAK1. Tyrosyl phosphorylated PAK1 facilitates PRL-dependent motility via at least two mechanisms: formation of paxillin/GIT1/βPIX/pTyr-PAK1 complexes resulting in increased adhesion turnover and phosphorylation of actin-binding protein filamin A. Increased adhesion turnover is the basis for cell migration and phosphorylated filamin A stimulates the kinase activity of PAK1 and increases actin-regulating activity to facilitate cell motility. Tyrosyl phosphorylated PAK1 also stimulates invasion of breast cancer cells in response to PRL and three-dimensional (3D) collagen IV via transcription and secretion of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in a MAPK-dependent manner. These data illustrate the complex interaction between PRL and the cell microenvironment in breast cancer cells and suggest a pivotal role for PRL/PAK1 signaling in breast cancer metastasis. PMID:25472536

  20. Messung und Analyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathelt, Hartmut; Scheinhardt, Michael; Sell, Hendrik; Sottek, Roland; Guidati, Sandro; Helfer, Martin

    Für die Beurteilung von Akustik und Fahrkomfort eines Fahrzeugs gilt in der Fahrzeugentwicklung immer noch der alte Grundsatz: "Der Kunde fährt nicht am Prüfstand, sondern auf der Straße“. Daher werden Gesamtbeurteilungen des Entwicklungsstandes und Konkurrenzvergleiche (Benchmarking) nach wie vor auf der Straße durchgeführt, meist auf ausgewählten Fahrbahnen am Prüfgelände oder im Rahmen der regelmäßigen Winter- und Sommererprobungen unter extremen Witterungsverhältnissen.

  1. Getreide, Brot und Feine Backwaren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Grabowski, Hans-Uwe; Rolfe, Birgit

    Getreide und Getreideerzeugnisse sind ebenso wie Brot und Feine Backwaren nach dem Lebensmittel- und Futtermittel-Gesetzbuch (LFGB) [1] Lebensmittel im Sinne des Artikels 2 der VO (EG) Nr. 178/2002 (BasisVO) (s. auch Kap. 1.6/2.4.1/3.2). Gesetzlich festgelegte Begriffsbestimmungen gibt es für diese Lebensmittel nicht. Man muss sich daher allgemeiner Verkehrsauffassungen bedienen, wie sie von der Deutschen Lebensmittelbuch-Kommission in Form von Leitsätzen erarbeitet und veröffentlicht wurden [2]. Der Gesundheitsschutz und der Schutz des Verbrauchers vor Täuschung sind in der Basis-VO und dem LFGB geregelt.

  2. Pak2 Controls Acquisition of NKT Cell Fate by Regulating Expression of the Transcription Factors PLZF and Egr2.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, Kyle L; Zhao, Jie; Pryshchep, Olga; Wang, Chyung-Ru; Phee, Hyewon

    2015-12-01

    NKT cells constitute a small population of T cells developed in the thymus that produce large amounts of cytokines and chemokines in response to lipid Ags. Signaling through the Vα14-Jα18 TCR instructs commitment to the NKT cell lineage, but the precise signaling mechanisms that instruct their lineage choice are unclear. In this article, we report that the cytoskeletal remodeling protein, p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2), was essential for NKT cell development. Loss of Pak2 in T cells reduced stage III NKT cells in the thymus and periphery. Among different NKT cell subsets, Pak2 was necessary for the generation and function of NKT1 and NKT2 cells, but not NKT17 cells. Mechanistically, expression of Egr2 and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), two key transcription factors for acquiring the NKT cell fate, were markedly diminished in the absence of Pak2. Diminished expression of Egr2 and PLZF were not caused by aberrant TCR signaling, as determined using a Nur77-GFP reporter, but were likely due to impaired induction and maintenance of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule 6 expression, a TCR costimulatory receptor required for NKT cell development. These data suggest that Pak2 controls thymic NKT cell development by providing a signal that links Egr2 to induce PLZF, in part by regulating signaling lymphocyte activation molecule 6 expression. PMID:26519537

  3. Thrombin stimulation of inflammatory breast cancer cells leads to aggressiveness via the EGFR-PAR1-Pak1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Bui-Nguyen, Tri M; Divijendra Natha, Reddy S; Schwartz, Arnold M; Levine, Paul; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-12-27

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) accounts for a small fraction but aggressive form of epithelial breast cancer. Although the role of thrombin in cancer is beginning to be unfolded, its impact on the biology of IBC remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish the role of thrombin on the invasiveness of IBC cells. The IBC SUM149 cell line was treated with thrombin in the absence or presence of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) inhibitor. The effects of pharmacological inhibitors on the ability of thrombin to stimulate the growth rate and invasiveness were examined. We found that the inhibition of putative cellular targets of thrombin action suppresses both the growth and invasiveness of SUM149 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, thrombin-mediated increased invasion of SUM149 cells was routed through EGFR phosphorylation, and in turn, stimulation of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) activity in a EGFR-sensitive manner. Interestingly, thrombin-mediated activation of the Pak1 pathway stimulation was blocked by erlotinib and PAR1 inhibitor. For proof-of-principle studies, we found immunohistochemical evidence of Pak1 activation as well as expression of PAR1 in IBC. Thrombin utilizes EGFR to relay signals promoting SUM149 cell growth and invasion via the Pak1 pathway. The study provides the rationale for future therapeutic approaches in mitigating the invasive nature of IBC by targeting Pak1 and/or EGFR.

  4. Combination of immunoprecipitation (IP)-ATP_Glo kinase assay and melanogenesis for the assessment of potent and safe PAK1-blockers in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Be Tu, Pham Thi; Tawata, Shinkichi; Maruta, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Cucurbitacin I (CBI) is a triterpene from a bitter melon called Goya grown in Okinawa, Japan, and directly inhibits both the Tyr-kinase JAK2 and the G protein RAC, leading to the inactivation of PAK1 (RAC/CDC42-activated kinase 1). Bio 30, a propolis produced in New Zealand, contains CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester) as the major anti-cancer ingredient which directly down-regulates RAC, leading to the inactivation of PAK1. Since PAK1 is essential for the growth of RAS cancer cells such as A549 cell line which carry an oncogenic K-RAS mutant, and the melanogenesis in skin cells, here using these PAK1-blockers as model compounds, we introduce a new approach to the quick assessment of PAK1-blockers in cell culture. First, combining the immuno-precipitation (IP) of PAK1 from cell lysate and the in vitro ATP_Glo kinase assay kit (called "Macaroni-Western" assay), we confirmed that both CBI and Bio 30 inactivate PAK1 in A549 lung cancer cells in 24 h, and inhibit their PAK1-dependent growth in 72 h. Furthermore, we verified that CBI inhibits the PAK1/PAK4-dependent melanogenesis in melanoma cells by far more than 50%, while Bio 30 inhibits the melanogenesis only by 50%, with only a merginal effect on their growth per se. Since the "Macaroni-Western" kinase assay and melanogenesis are both rather simple and quick, the combination of these two cell culture assays would be highly useful for selecting both "potent" (highly cell-permeable) and "safe" (non-toxic) natural or synthetic PAK1-blockers. PMID:26370527

  5. Combination of immunoprecipitation (IP)-ATP_Glo kinase assay and melanogenesis for the assessment of potent and safe PAK1-blockers in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Be Tu, Pham Thi; Tawata, Shinkichi; Maruta, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Cucurbitacin I (CBI) is a triterpene from a bitter melon called Goya grown in Okinawa, Japan, and directly inhibits both the Tyr-kinase JAK2 and the G protein RAC, leading to the inactivation of PAK1 (RAC/CDC42-activated kinase 1). Bio 30, a propolis produced in New Zealand, contains CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester) as the major anti-cancer ingredient which directly down-regulates RAC, leading to the inactivation of PAK1. Since PAK1 is essential for the growth of RAS cancer cells such as A549 cell line which carry an oncogenic K-RAS mutant, and the melanogenesis in skin cells, here using these PAK1-blockers as model compounds, we introduce a new approach to the quick assessment of PAK1-blockers in cell culture. First, combining the immuno-precipitation (IP) of PAK1 from cell lysate and the in vitro ATP_Glo kinase assay kit (called "Macaroni-Western" assay), we confirmed that both CBI and Bio 30 inactivate PAK1 in A549 lung cancer cells in 24 h, and inhibit their PAK1-dependent growth in 72 h. Furthermore, we verified that CBI inhibits the PAK1/PAK4-dependent melanogenesis in melanoma cells by far more than 50%, while Bio 30 inhibits the melanogenesis only by 50%, with only a merginal effect on their growth per se. Since the "Macaroni-Western" kinase assay and melanogenesis are both rather simple and quick, the combination of these two cell culture assays would be highly useful for selecting both "potent" (highly cell-permeable) and "safe" (non-toxic) natural or synthetic PAK1-blockers.

  6. Unternehmens- und Marktstatistik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grömling, Michael; Scheinost, Ulrich

    Deutschland verfügt über ein gut ausgebautes System amtlicher und nicht amtlicher Unternehmens- und Marktstatistiken, das sich in einem fortwährenden Wandel befindet. Wird es sinnvoll genutzt, können für einzelne Marktteilnehmer wie für die gesamte Gesellschaft kostspielige Fehlentwicklungen vermieden werden. Dazu bedarf es eines sachkundigen Überblicks über die Vielfalt der Statistiken und der zwischen ihnen bestehenden Beziehungen sowie einer ständigen Anpassung an die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung. Als eine mögliche Orientierung kann der auf der Güter- und Faktorebene zu beobachtende Wandel dienen. Einer adäquaten Abbildung der ökonomischen Realität stehen in Deutschland mit seiner starken Verrechtlichung der Statistik jedoch mancherlei Schwierigkeiten im Wege. Teilweise tiefgreifende Reformbestrebungen sind vor allem auf europäischer Ebene im Gange. Als eine ergebnisorientierte Innovation für das Gesamtsystem der Unternehmens- und Marktstatistik wird ein modular aufgebautes System vorgestellt, das auch bei unterschiedlichen und sich wandelnden Rahmenbedingungen schrittweise realisiert werden kann.

  7. Datenintegration und Deduplizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiholder, Jens; Schmid, Joachim

    In Unternehmen liegen viele Daten heutzutage immer seltener vollständig an einem einzigen physikalischen Ort vor, sondern sind weltweit verteilt. Dies liegt zum einen an der immer besser gewordenen Infrastruktur, die eine solche Verteilung auf einfache Art und Weise ermöglicht, und zum anderen an der Tatsache, dass viele Unternehmen weltweit tätig sind. So fallen Daten weltweit an, werden aber jeweils lokal - vor Ort - gespeichert. Daher müssen oft mehrere Datenquellen genutzt werden, um einen aktuellen, vollständigen und genauen Überblick über die vorhandenen Daten zu gewinnen. Datenintegration hilft, indem sie Daten aus mehreren Quellen zusammenführt und einheitlich darstellt. Diese integrierten Daten können genutzt werden, um sich einen Überblick über das Unternehmen zu verschaffen, z.B. wenn Unternehmen fusionieren und nur noch eine Kundendatenbank bestehen bleiben soll, oder wenn zu einem Kunden die Daten aus den verschiedenen Fachabteilungen zusammengeführt werden sollen. Anhand eines solchen Beispiels, der Integration von Kundendaten zu Kfz- und Lebensversicherungen erläutern wir im Folgenden einzelne Techniken.

  8. Rac, PAK and p38 regulate cell contact-dependent nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Sebe, Attila; Masszi, András; Zulys, Matthew; Yeung, Tony; Speight, Pam; Rotstein, Ori D; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Mucsi, István; Szászi, Katalin; Kapus, András

    2008-01-23

    We investigated the mechanism whereby cell contact injury stimulates the alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) promoter, a key process for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during organ fibrosis. Contact disruption by low-Ca(2+) medium (LCM) activated Rac, PAK and p38 MAPK, and triggered the nuclear accumulation of myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), an inducer of the SMA promoter. Dominant negative (DN) Rac, DN-PAK, DN-p38, or the p38 inhibitor SB203580 suppressed the LCM-induced nuclear accumulation of MRTF and the activation of the SMA promoter. These studies define novel pathway(s) involving Rac, PAK, and p38 in the regulation of MRTF and the contact-dependent induction of EMT.

  9. Rac, PAK and p38 regulate cell contact-dependent nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Sebe, Attila; Masszi, András; Zulys, Matthew; Yeung, Tony; Speight, Pam; Rotstein, Ori. D.; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Mucsi, István; Szászi, Katalin; Kapus, András

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism whereby cell contact injury stimulates the α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) promoter, a key process for epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) during organ fibrosis. Contact disruption by low-Ca2+ medium (LCM) activated Rac, PAK and p38 MAPK, and triggered the nuclear accumulation of myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), an inducer of the SMA promoter. Dominant negative (DN) Rac, DN-PAK, DN-p38, or the p38 inhibitor SB203580 suppressed the LCM-induced nuclear accumulation of MRTF and the activation of the SMA promoter. These studies define novel pathway(s) involving Rac, PAK, and p38 in the regulation of MRTF and the contact-dependent induction of EMT. PMID:18154735

  10. p21-Activated kinase 6 (PAK6) inhibits prostate cancer growth via phosphorylation of androgen receptor and tumorigenic E3 ligase murine double minute-2 (Mdm2).

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Li, Yang; Gu, Hui; Zhu, Ge; Li, Jiabin; Cao, Liu; Li, Feng

    2013-02-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the development and growth of prostate malignancies. Regulation of AR homeostasis in prostate tumorigenesis has not yet been fully characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6) inhibits prostate tumorigenesis by regulating AR homeostasis. First, we demonstrated that in normal prostate epithelium, AR co-localizes with PAK6 in the cytoplasm and translocates into the nucleus in malignant prostate. Furthermore, AR phosphorylation at Ser-578 by PAK6 promotes AR-E3 ligase murine double minute-2 (Mdm2) association, causing AR degradation upon androgen stimuli. We also showed that PAK6 phosphorylates Mdm2 on Thr-158 and Ser-186, which is critical for AR ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Moreover, we found that Thr-158 collaborates with Ser-186 for AR-Mdm2 association and AR ubiquitin-mediated degradation as it facilitates PAK6-mediated AR homeostasis. PAK6 knockdown promotes prostate tumor growth in vivo. Interestingly, we found a strong inverse correlation between PAK6 and AR expression in the cytoplasm of prostate cancer cells. These observations indicate that PAK6 may be important for the maintenance of androgen-induced AR signaling homeostasis and in prostate malignancy, as well as being a possible new therapeutic target for AR-positive and hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

  11. The Role of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain-containing Protein CKIP-1 in Activation of p21-activated Kinase 1 (PAK1).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Bae; Shin, Yong Jae; Roy, Adhiraj; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2015-08-21

    Upon growth factor stimulation, PAK1 is recruited to the plasma membrane and activated by a mechanism that requires its phosphorylation at Ser-223 by the protein kinase CK2. However, the upstream signaling molecules that regulate this phosphorylation event are not clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate a major role of the CK2α-interacting protein CKIP-1 in activation of PAK1. CK2α, CKIP-1, and PAK1 are translocated to membrane ruffles in response to the epidermal growth factor (EGF), where CKIP-1 mediates the interaction between CK2α and PAK1 in a PI3K-dependent manner. Consistently, PAK1 mediates phosphorylation and modulation of the activity of p41-Arc, one of its plasma membrane substrate, in a fashion that requires PI3K and CKIP-1. Moreover, CKIP-1 knockdown or PI3K inhibition suppresses PAK1-mediated cell migration and invasion, demonstrating the physiological significance of the PI3K-CKIP-1-CK2-PAK1 signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings identify a novel mechanism for the activation of PAK1 at the plasma membrane, which is critical for cell migration and invasion.

  12. MiR-145 regulates PAK4 via the MAPK pathway and exhibits an antitumor effect in human colon cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaoping; Yang, Zhili; Du, Hangxiang; Wu, Zhenqian; Gong, Jianfeng; Yan, Jun; Zheng, Qi

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiR-145 targets a putative binding site in the 3 Prime UTR of PAK4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiR-145 played an important role in inhibiting cell growth by directly targeting PAK4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiR-145 may function as tumor suppressors. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of numerous cellular events; accumulating evidence indicates that miRNAs play a key role in a wide range of biological functions, such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer. Down-regulated expression of miR-145 has been reported in colon cancer tissues and cell lines. The molecular mechanisms underlying miR-145 and the regulation of colon carcinogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the levels of miR-145 in human colon cancer cells using qRT-PCR and found markedly decreased levels compared to normal epithelial cells. We identified PAK4 as a novel target of miR-145 using informatics screening. Additionally, we demonstrated that miR-145 targets a putative binding site in the 3 Prime UTR of PAK4 and that its abundance is inversely associated with miR-145 expression in colon cancer cells; we confirmed this relationship using the luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, restoration of miR-145 by mimics in SW620 cells significantly attenuated cell growth in vitro, in accordance with the inhibitory effects induced by siRNA mediated knockdown of PAK4. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-145 downregulates P-ERK expression by targeting PAK4 and leads to inhibition of tumor growth.

  13. Mikrostrukturtechnik und Biomaterialien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guber, Andreas E.; Saile, Volker; Weibezahn, Karl-Friedrich

    In der Biomedizintechnik zeichnet sich derzeit ein Trend zu einer verstärkten Miniaturisierung des operativen Instrumentariums und der Peripheriegeräte ab, da zur sicheren Durchführung vieler minimal invasiv auszuführender chirurgischer Eingriffe sehr kleine Instrumente und Zusatzgeräte benötigt werden. Weiterhin werden für verschiedene Anwendungen im Life-Sciences-Bereich, wie z. B. innerhalb der klinischen Diagnostik und der pharmazeutischen Chemie, in zunehmendem Masse Komponenten mit eingearbeiteten Mikrostrukturen benötigt. Mit den inzwischen verfügbaren mikrotechnischen Herstellungsverfahren (siehe Kapitel 40.2) ist man in der Lage, unterschiedliche geometrische Formen von kleinen dreidimensionalen Bauteilen und Baugruppen im Mikrometerbereich zu fertigen. Für spezielle Anwendungen können aber auch Strukturen im Bereich von einigen 100 nm erzeugt werden. Mikrostrukturierte Komponenten und Baugruppen können entweder in Form von Implantaten in den menschlichen Körper gelangen oder in extrakorporal einsetzbaren Geräten zum Einsatz kommen (siehe Kapitel 40.3). Dabei ist zwischen Kurzzeit- und Langzeitimplantaten zu unterscheiden. Typische Kurzzeitimplantate sind beispielsweise Operationsinstrumente während eines operativen Eingriffes und für kurze Zeiträume gelegte Spezialkatheter zur gezielten Entnahme von Körpersäften oder zur temporären Medikamentenapplikation. Zur Kategorie der Langzeitimplantate gehören beispielsweise auf Dauer eingesetzte Gefässendoprothesen (Stents), Herzschrittmacher, Cochleaimplantate, miniaturisierte Medikamentendosiersysteme auf Basis mikrofluidischer Baugruppen (Mikropumpen, Mikrokanäle, etc.), implantierbare Arrays von Mikroelektroden, welche innerhalb der Neurobionik verstärkt Anwendung finden werden, sowie in der Zukunft auch künstliche Organe.

  14. Crystal Structure of the SH3 Domain of beta PIX in Complex with a High Affinity Peptide from PAK2

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelz,A.; Janz, J.; Lawrie, S.; Corwin, B.; Lee, A.; Sakmar, T.

    2006-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are important effector proteins of the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac and control cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell proliferation. The direct interaction of PAKs with guanine nucleotide exchange factors from the PIX/Cool family, which is responsible for the localization of PAK kinases to focal complexes in the cell, is mediated by a 24-residue peptide segment in PAKs and an N-terminal src homology 3 (SH3) domain in PIX/Cool. The SH3-binding segment of PAK contains the atypical consensus-binding motif PxxxPR, which is required for unusually high affinity binding. In order to understand the structural basis for the high affinity and specificity of the PIX-PAK interaction, we solved crystal structures for the N-terminal SH3 domain of {beta}PIX and for the complex of the atypical binding segment of PAK2 with the N-terminal SH3 domain of {beta}PIX at 0.92 Angstroms and 1.3 Angstroms resolution, respectively. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contains two SH3 domains and two peptide ligands. The bound peptide adopts a conformation that allows for intimate contacts with three grooves on the surface of the SH3 domain that lie between the n-Src and RT-loops. Most notably, the arginine residue of the PxxxPR motif forms a salt-bridge and is tightly coordinated by a number of residues in the SH3 domain. This arginine-specific interaction appears to be the key determinant for the high affinity binding of PAK peptides. Furthermore, C-terminal residues of the peptide engage in additional interactions with the surface of the RT-loop, which significantly increases binding specificity. Compared to a recent NMR structure of a similar complex, our crystal structure reveals an alternate binding mode. Finally, we compare our crystal structure with the recently published {beta}PIX/Cbl-b complex structure, and suggest the existence of a molecular switch.

  15. Effects of selenite and selenate application on growth and shoot selenium accumulation of pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) during successive planting conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Liang, Dongli; Qin, Siyue; Feng, Puyang; Wu, Xiongping

    2015-07-01

    Selenate and selenite are two main kinds of inorganic selenium (Se) sources in soil, but these substances can pose threats to the environment. Phytoextraction is an emerging technology to remove Se from polluted soils by using a hyper-accumulator. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate Se phytoextraction potential of pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) and to determine the effects of Se on growth and Se accumulation of pak choi under successive planting conditions (four crops). Results showed that Se concentration in pak choi shoots significantly increased as selenate and selenite rates increased. Se concentration increased in successive crops on soil treated with selenite; by contrast, Se concentration decreased in crops on soil treated with selenate. Se concentrations of pak choi on soil treated with selenate were higher than those on soil treated with selenite. The maximum Se accumulations amount in crops on selenite- and selenate-treated soil were 7818 and 8828 μg · pot(-1), respectively. High bioconcentration factor (BCF) values indicated that pak choi could accumulate more Se from Se-contaminated soil. The Se phytoextraction efficiency of pak choi increased under successive planting conditions in selenite and selenate treatments; the maximum Se phytoextraction efficiencies of four successive crops of pak choi on selenite- and selenate-treated soil were 4.91 and 31.90 %, respectively. These differences between selenate and selenite treatments were attributed to the differences in Se forms in soil. Total and available Se contents in soil decreased significantly during repeated planting crops on soil treated with selenate; conversely, total and available Se contents decreased slightly in crops on soil treated with selenite. These results suggested that pak choi could highly tolerate and accumulate Se. Thus, pak choi may remove Se from contaminated soil; indeed, pak choi can be used in the phytoextraction of Se in polluted soil.

  16. PAK and other Rho-associated kinases – effectors with surprisingly diverse mechanisms of regulation

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The Rho GTPases are a family of molecular switches that are critical regulators of signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells. They are known principally for their role in regulating the cytoskeleton, and do so by recruiting a variety of downstream effector proteins. Kinases form an important class of Rho effector, and part of the biological complexity brought about by switching on a single GTPase results from downstream phosphorylation cascades. Here we focus on our current understanding of the way in which different Rho-associated serine/threonine kinases, denoted PAK (p21-activated kinase), MLK (mixed-lineage kinase), ROK (Rho-kinase), MRCK (myotonin-related Cdc42-binding kinase), CRIK (citron kinase) and PKN (protein kinase novel), interact with and are regulated by their partner GTPases. All of these kinases have in common an ability to dimerize, and in most cases interact with a variety of other proteins that are important for their function. A diversity of known structures underpin the Rho GTPase–kinase interaction, but only in the case of PAK do we have a good molecular understanding of kinase regulation. The ability of Rho GTPases to co-ordinate spatial and temporal phosphorylation events explains in part their prominent role in eukaryotic cell biology. PMID:15548136

  17. Monitoring system with automatic sampling units in the surroundings Paks NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svingor, É.; Molnár, M.; Palcsu, L.; Veres, M.; Pintér, T.; Köves, L.

    2006-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of the uncontrolled tritium emission from Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has been carried out since starting the NPP operation. In order to control the release of fission and corrosion products as well as 14C automatic samplers were designed and installed into 20 observation wells in the vicinity of the reactor units. The automatic samplers contain two columns filled with anion and cation exchanger resins and are equipped with filters for trapping the chelating agents. The samplers are placed two meters below the groundwater level. Water pumps fed by accumulator ensure the water flowing through the ion-exchange columns. After a two-month working period the trapped ions are eluted from the resins. The activity of the gamma-emitters, 14C, 90Sr and transuranium elements are measured in the dried elute, the tritium is measured in the collected water phase. The experiences of a five-year monitoring work in the surroundings of Paks NPP are given here.

  18. PAK proteins and YAP-1 signalling downstream of integrin beta-1 in myofibroblasts promote liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Katherine; Pritchett, James; Llewellyn, Jessica; Mullan, Aoibheann F.; Athwal, Varinder S.; Dobie, Ross; Harvey, Emma; Zeef, Leo; Farrow, Stuart; Streuli, Charles; Henderson, Neil C.; Friedman, Scott L.; Hanley, Neil A.; Piper Hanley, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis due to extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion from myofibroblasts complicates many chronic liver diseases causing scarring and organ failure. Integrin-dependent interaction with scar ECM promotes pro-fibrotic features. However, the pathological intracellular mechanism in liver myofibroblasts is not completely understood, and further insight could enable therapeutic efforts to reverse fibrosis. Here, we show that integrin beta-1, capable of binding integrin alpha-11, regulates the pro-fibrotic phenotype of myofibroblasts. Integrin beta-1 expression is upregulated in pro-fibrotic myofibroblasts in vivo and is required in vitro for production of fibrotic ECM components, myofibroblast proliferation, migration and contraction. Serine/threonine-protein kinase proteins, also known as P21-activated kinase (PAK), and the mechanosensitive factor, Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP-1) are core mediators of pro-fibrotic integrin beta-1 signalling, with YAP-1 capable of perpetuating integrin beta-1 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of either pathway in vivo attenuates liver fibrosis. PAK protein inhibition, in particular, markedly inactivates the pro-fibrotic myofibroblast phenotype, limits scarring from different hepatic insults and represents a new tractable therapeutic target for treating liver fibrosis. PMID:27535340

  19. Karamell und Schokolade optimal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Andreas

    In verschiedenen Situationen in Technik, Wirtschaft oder Politik ist man daran interessiert unter einer Anzahl von möglichen Entscheidungen die jeweils beste auszuwählen, also die optimale Entscheidung zu treffen, die den größtmöglichen Nutzen bringt. In den meisten Fällen sind Nutzen und Entscheidungsalternativen nicht exakt gegeben, Entscheidungen werden dann entweder sprachlichargumentativ ausgewählt und begründet oder gar aus dem Bauch heraus gefällt. In manchen Fällen ist es aber möglich, Entscheidungsalternativen und Nutzen in Zahlen und Formeln so auszudrücken, dass über diese Beschreibung im Prinzip die optimalen Entscheidungen und der maximale Nutzen festgelegt sind. Dabei ist zu beachten, dass bei mehreren (gleichzeitig oder hintereinander) zu treffenden Entscheidungen gewisse Abhängigkeiten zu berücksichtigen sind, bezüglich der möglichen Alternativen. Wenn beispielsweise die Umsetzung einer bestimmten (Teil-)Entscheidung mit bestimmten Kosten verbunden wäre, so stünde dieser Geldbetrag für andere Entscheidungen nicht mehr zur Verfügung.

  20. Technikwissenschaft - Erfinden und Entdecken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnemann, Gerhard

    Umrissen wird das allgemeine Ziel der Technikwissenschaft, konstruktiv zu verwerten und nicht-natürlich Entdeckbares zu erfinden. Wir befinden uns in einer Umwälzung der Technik im Verlauf der wissenschaftlich-technischen Revolution, auf dem Wege zu einem neuen Techniktyp. Dieser schafft und nutzt die künstliche Intelligenz. Dazu benötigt der in der Technik tätige Mensch spezielle Kenntnisse und Erfahrungen in kreativ-konstruktiver, -gestalterischer und erfinderischer Sicht mit dem Einsatz spezieller Strukturen und Sprachen. Vorschläge zur Arbeitsweise in der Technik werden gegeben.Translated AbstractTechnological Science-Invent and DiscoverThe general aim of engineering science is outlined to utilize results constructively and to invent something that cannot be discovered in nature. We are now in a period of transformation of technology in the course of scientific-technological revolution, on the way to a new type of technology. This new type creates and utilizes artificial intelligence. For this, man acitive in this field requires special knowledge and experiences in a creative, constructive, design-oriented and ultimately inventive way by deploying special structures and languages. There are also made some proposals concerning the method of working in the field of technology.

  1. Patentierung und Patentlage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Uwe

    Gewerbliche Schutzrechte nehmen in der nationalen Rechts- und Wirtschaftsordnung sowie auch auf internationaler Ebene stetig an Bedeutung zu. Sie dienen dem Schutz geistigen Eigentums und sind für jeden Gewerbetreibenden nicht nur im Hinblick darauf von Bedeutung, eigene Rechte zu sichern, sondern auch insofern von Relevanz, dass ein Verstoß gegen Rechte Dritter zu vermeiden ist. Zu den gewerblichen Schutzrechten gehören unter anderem Kennzeichenrechte, Geschmacksmusterrechte sowie die sogenannten technischen Schutzrechte in Form des Patents sowie des Gebrauchsmusters. Die folgenden Ausführungen befassen sich ausschließlich mit den technischen Schutzrechten und geben eine kurze Einführung in die Voraussetzungen, das Entstehen und den Wegfall sowie in die Wirkungen technischer Schutzrechte. Beleuchtet wird die Situation im Wesentlichen im Hinblick auf nationale technische Schutzrechte, d. h. auf Deutsche Patente und Gebrauchsmuster sowie auf Europäische Patente, die Schutz in Deutschland entfalten. Die Möglichkeit der Erlangung von Schutzrechten im außereuropäischen Ausland wird nur am Rande gestreift.

  2. Group I PAK Inhibitor IPA-3 Induces Cell Death and Affects Cell Adhesivity to Fibronectin in Human Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuželová, Kateřina; Grebeňová, Dana; Holoubek, Aleš; Röselová, Pavla; Obr, Adam

    2014-01-01

    P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are involved in the regulation of multiple processes including cell proliferation, adhesion and migration. However, the current knowledge about their function is mainly based on results obtained in adherent cell types. We investigated the effect of group I PAK inhibition using the compound IPA-3 in a variety of human leukemic cell lines (JURL-MK1, MOLM-7, K562, CML-T1, HL-60, Karpas-299, Jurkat, HEL) as well as in primary blood cells. IPA-3 induced cell death with EC50 ranging from 5 to more than 20 μM. Similar range was found for IPA-3-mediated dephosphorylation of a known PAK downstream effector, cofilin. The cell death was associated with caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage and apoptotic DNA fragmentation. In parallel, 20 μM IPA-3 treatment induced rapid and marked decrease of the cell adhesivity to fibronectin. Per contra, partial reduction of PAK activity using lower dose IPA-3 or siRNA resulted in a slight increase in the cell adhesivity. The changes in the cell adhesivity were also studied using real-time microimpedance measurement and by interference reflection microscopy. Significant differences in the intracellular IPA-3 level among various cell lines were observed indicating that an active mechanism is involved in IPA-3 transport. PMID:24664099

  3. PREX1 Protein Function Is Negatively Regulated Downstream of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation by p21-activated Kinases (PAKs).

    PubMed

    Barrows, Douglas; He, John Z; Parsons, Ramon

    2016-09-16

    Downstream of receptor tyrosine kinase and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) stimulation, the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent Rac exchange factor (PREX) family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activates Rho GTPases, leading to important roles for PREX proteins in numerous cellular processes and diseases, including cancer. PREX1 and PREX2 GEF activity is activated by the second messengers PIP3 and Gβγ, and further regulation of PREX GEF activity occurs by phosphorylation. Stimulation of receptor tyrosine kinases by neuregulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) leads to the phosphorylation of PREX1; however, the kinases that phosphorylate PREX1 downstream of these ligands are not known. We recently reported that the p21-activated kinases (PAKs), which are activated by GTP-bound Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), mediate the phosphorylation of PREX2 after insulin receptor activation. Here we show that certain phosphorylation events on PREX1 after insulin, neuregulin, and IGF1 treatment are PAK-dependent and lead to a reduction in PREX1 binding to PIP3 Like PREX2, PAK-mediated phosphorylation also negatively regulates PREX1 GEF activity. Furthermore, the onset of PREX1 phosphorylation was delayed compared with the phosphorylation of AKT, supporting a model of negative feedback downstream of PREX1 activation. We also found that the phosphorylation of PREX1 after isoproterenol and prostaglandin E2-mediated GPCR activation is partially PAK-dependent and likely also involves protein kinase A, which is known to reduce PREX1 function. Our data point to multiple mechanisms of PREX1 negative regulation by PAKs within receptor tyrosine kinase and GPCR-stimulated signaling pathways that have important roles in diseases such as diabetes and cancer. PMID:27481946

  4. Tipps und Tricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häger, Wolfgang; Bauermeister, Dirk

    Hier wollen wir einige uns nützlich erscheinende Hinweise zur Arbeit mit dem Inventor geben. Dabei geht es vor allem darum, das Arbeiten mit dem Inventor zu vereinfachen. Die Beispiele stellen eine unvollständige Aufzählung dar und sollen dazu anregen, nach alternativen Vorgehensweisen zu suchen (hier sei noch einmal ausdrücklich auf das Internet verwiesen).

  5. Kometen und Asteroiden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgeest, Ulf; Staude, Jakob; Hahn, Gerhard; Harris, Alan W.; Jaumann, Ralf; Köhler, Ulrich; Kührt, Ekkehard; Schulz, Rita; Neukum, Gerhard; Arnold, Gabriele; Keller, Horst Uwe; Denk, Tilmann; Müller, Thomas; Wulff, André; Maruhn, Nicolaus; Fischer, Daniel; Trieloff, Mario; Althaus, Tilmann

    Contents: Die Kleinkörper des Sonnensystems. Kern, Koma und Schweife. Ziele der Planetenforschung. ROSETTA: Naherkundung von Kometen. Asteroiden: Trümmer aus planetarer Urzeit. Kleinkörper im Infrarotweltall. Selbs beobachten! Apocalypse - not now! Meteoriten - Boten aus der Urzeit des Sonnensystems.

  6. Two PAK kinase genes, CHM1 and MST20, have distinct functions in Magnaporthe grisea.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Xue, Chaoyang; Bruno, Kenneth; Nishimura, Marie; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2004-05-01

    In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, the Pmk1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is essential for appressorium formation and infectious growth. PMK1 is homologous to yeast Fus3 and Kss1 MAP kinases that are known to be regulated by the Ste20 PAK kinase for activating the pheromone response and filamentation pathways. In this study, we isolated and characterized two PAK genes, CHM1 and MST20, in M. grisea. Mutants disrupted in MST20 were reduced in aerial hyphae growth and conidiation, but normal in growth rate, appressorium formation, penetration, and plant infection. In chm1 deletion mutants, growth, conidiation, and appressorium formation were reduced significantly. Even though appressoria formed by chm1 mutants were defective in penetration, chm1 mutants were able to grow invasively on rice leaves and colonize through wounds. The chm1 mutants were altered in conidiogenesis and produced conidia with abnormal morphology. Hyphae of chm1 mutants had normal septation, but the length of hyphal compartments was reduced. On nutritionally poor oatmeal agar, chm1 mutants were unstable and produced sectors that differed from original chm1 mutants in growth rate, conidiation, or colony morphology. However, none of the monoconidial cultures derived from these spontaneous sectors were normal in appressorial penetration and fungal pathogenesis. These data suggest that MST20 is dispensable for plant infection in M. grisea, but CHM1 plays a critical role in appressorium formation and penetration. Both mst20 and chm1 deletion mutants were phenotypically different from the pmk1 mutant that is defective in appressorium formation and infectious hyphae growth. It is likely that MST20 and CHM1 individually play no critical role in activating the PMK1 MAP kinase pathway during appressorium formation and infectious hyphae growth. However, CHM1 appears to be essential for appressorial penetration and CHM1 and MST20 may have redundant functions in M. grisea. PMID:15141959

  7. The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS): Introducing a pilot surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based decision making is essential for appropriate prioritization and service provision by healthcare systems. Despite higher demands, data needs for this practice are not met in many cases in low- and middle-income countries because of underdeveloped sources, among other reasons. Emergency departments (EDs) provide an important channel for such information because of their strategic position within healthcare systems. This paper describes the design and pilot test of a national ED based surveillance system suitable for the Pakistani context. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS) was pilot tested in the emergency departments of seven major tertiary healthcare centres across the country. The Aga Khan University, Karachi, served as the coordinating centre. Key stakeholders and experts from all study institutes were involved in outlining data needs, development of the study questionnaire, and identification of appropriate surveillance mechanisms such as methods for data collection, monitoring, and quality assurance procedures. The surveillance system was operational between November 2010 and March 2011. Active surveillance was done 24 hours a day by data collectors hired and trained specifically for the study. All patients presenting to the study EDs were eligible participants. Over 270,000 cases were registered in the surveillance system over a period of four months. Coverage levels in the final month ranged from 91-100% and were highest in centres with the least volume of patients. Overall the coverage for the four months was 79% and crude operational costs were less than $0.20 per patient. Conclusions Pak-NEDS is the first multi-centre ED based surveillance system successfully piloted in a sample of major EDs having some of the highest patient volumes in Pakistan. Despite the challenges identified, our pilot shows that the system is flexible and scalable, and could potentially be adapted for many other

  8. High throughput screening of CO2-tolerating microalgae using GasPak bags

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microalgae are diverse in terms of their speciation and function. More than 35,000 algal strains have been described, and thousands of algal cultures are maintained in different culture collection centers. The ability of CO2 uptake by microalgae varies dramatically among algal species. It becomes challenging to select suitable algal candidates that can proliferate under high CO2 concentration from a large collection of algal cultures. Results Here, we described a high throughput screening method to rapidly identify high CO2 affinity microalgae. The system integrates a CO2 mixer, GasPak bags and microplates. Microalgae on the microplates will be cultivated in GasPak bags charged with different CO2 concentrations. Using this method, we identified 17 algal strains whose growth rates were not influenced when the concentration of CO2 was increased from 2 to 20% (v/v). Most CO2 tolerant strains identified in this study were closely related to the species Scenedesmus and Chlorococcum. One of Scenedesmus strains (E7A) has been successfully tested in in the scale up photo bioreactors (500 L) bubbled with flue gas which contains 10-12% CO2. Conclusion Our high throughput CO2 testing system provides a rapid and reliable way for identifying microalgal candidate strains that can grow under high CO2 condition from a large pool of culture collection species. This high throughput system can also be modified for selecting algal strains that can tolerate other gases, such as NOx, SOx, or flue gas. PMID:24341988

  9. Wirkstoffe, Medikamente und Mathematische Bildverarbeitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis

    Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig und teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- und Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen und anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.

  10. PAK1-deficiency/down-regulation reduces brood size, activates HSP16.2 gene and extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yanase, S; Luo, Y; Maruta, H

    2013-02-01

    There is an increasing evidence that the oncogenic kinase PAK1 is responsible not only for malignant transformation, but also for several other diseases such as inflammatory diseases (asthma and arthritis), infectious diseases including malaria, AIDS, and flu, as well as a series of neuronal diseases/disorders (neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, epilepsy, depression, learning deficit, etc.) which often cause premature death. Interestingly, a few natural PAK1-blockers such as curcumin, caffeic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) extend the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans or fruit flies. Here, to explore the possibility that C. elegans could provide us with a quick and inexpensive in vivo screening system for a series of more potent but safe (non-toxic) PAK1-blocking therapeutics, we examined the effects of PAK1-deficiency or down-regulation on a few selected functions of this worm, including reproduction, expression of HSP16.2 gene, and lifespan. In short, we found that PAK1 promotes reproduction, whereas it inactivates HSP16.2 gene and shortens lifespan, as do PI-3 kinase (AGE-1), TOR, and insulin-like signalling /ILS (Daf-2) in this worm. These findings not only support the "trade-off" theory on reproduction versus lifespan, but also suggest the possibility that the reduced reproduction (or HSP16.2 gene activation) of this worm could be used as the first indicator of extended lifespan for a quick in vivo screening for PAK1-blockers. PMID:23524941

  11. Kinase requirements in human cells: V. Synthetic lethal interactions between p53 and the protein kinases SGK2 and PAK3.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Amy; Grueneberg, Dorre A; Hellner, Karin; Sawyer, Jacqueline; Grace, Miranda; Li, Wenliang; Harlow, Ed; Munger, Karl

    2010-07-13

    Cervical carcinomas are initiated through a series of well-defined stages that rely on the expression of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes. A panel of 100 small hairpin RNAs that target essential kinases in many tumor types was used to study the stepwise appearance of kinase requirements during cervical tumor development. Twenty-six kinases were commonly required in three cell lines derived from frank carcinomas, and each kinase requirement was traced to the specific stage in which the requirement emerged. Six kinases became required following HPV-induced immortalization, and the requirement for two kinases, SGK2 and PAK3, was mapped to the inactivation of p53 in primary human epithelial cells. Loss of the p53 tumor suppressor in other primary epithelial cells also induced dependence on SGK2 and PAK3. Hence, SGK2 and PAK3 provide important cellular functions following p53 inactivation, fulfilling the classical definition of synthetic lethality; loss of p53, SGK2, or PAK3 alone has little effect on cell viability, whereas loss of p53 together with either SGK2 or PAK3 loss leads to cell death. Whereas tumor suppressor gene mutations are not directly druggable, other proteins or pathways that become obligatory to cell viability following tumor suppressor loss provide theoretical targets for tumor suppressor-specific drug discovery efforts. The kinases SGK2 and PAK3 may thus represent such targets for p53-specific drug development.

  12. Regulation of Stat5 by FAK and PAK1 in Oncogenic FLT3- and KIT-Driven Leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anindya; Ghosh, Joydeep; Ramdas, Baskar; Mali, Raghuveer Singh; Martin, Holly; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Vemula, Sasidhar; Canela, Victor H; Waskow, Emily R; Visconte, Valeria; Tiu, Ramon V; Smith, Catherine C; Shah, Neil; Bunting, Kevin D; Boswell, H Scott; Liu, Yan; Chan, Rebecca J; Kapur, Reuben

    2014-11-20

    Oncogenic mutations of FLT3 and KIT receptors are associated with poor survival in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), and currently available drugs are largely ineffective. Although Stat5 has been implicated in regulating several myeloid and lymphoid malignancies, how precisely Stat5 regulates leukemogenesis, including its nuclear translocation to induce gene transcription, is poorly understood. In leukemic cells, we show constitutive activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) whose inhibition represses leukemogenesis. Downstream of FAK, activation of Rac1 is regulated by RacGEF Tiam1, whose inhibition prolongs the survival of leukemic mice. Inhibition of the Rac1 effector PAK1 prolongs the survival of leukemic mice in part by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of Stat5. These results reveal a leukemic pathway involving FAK/Tiam1/Rac1/PAK1 and demonstrate an essential role for these signaling molecules in regulating the nuclear translocation of Stat5 in leukemogenesis.

  13. Pak4 Is Required during Epithelial Polarity Remodeling through Regulating AJ Stability and Bazooka Retention at the ZA

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Rhian F.; Nunes de Almeida, Francisca; Vlassaks, Evi; Burden, Jemima J.; Pichaud, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability of epithelial cells to assemble into sheets relies on their zonula adherens (ZA), a circumferential belt of adherens junction (AJ) material, which can be remodeled during development to shape organs. Here, we show that during ZA remodeling in a model neuroepithelial cell, the Cdc42 effector P21-activated kinase 4 (Pak4/Mbt) regulates AJ morphogenesis and stability through β-catenin (β-cat/Arm) phosphorylation. We find that β-catenin phosphorylation by Mbt, and associated AJ morphogenesis, is needed for the retention of the apical determinant Par3/Bazooka at the remodeling ZA. Importantly, this retention mechanism functions together with Par1-dependent lateral exclusion of Par3/Bazooka to regulate apical membrane differentiation. Our results reveal an important functional link between Pak4, AJ material morphogenesis, and polarity remodeling during organogenesis downstream of Par3. PMID:27052178

  14. Towards the Seismic Hazard Reassessment of Paks NPP (Hungary) Site: Seismicity and Sensitivity Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Laszlo; Monus, Peter; Gyori, Erzsebet; Grenerczy, Gyula; Janos Katona, Tamas; Kiszely, Marta

    2015-04-01

    In context of extension of Paks Nuclear Power Plant by new units, a comprehensive site seismic hazard evaluation program has been developed that is already approved by the Hungarian Authorities. This includes a 3D seismic survey, drilling of several deep boreholes, extensive geological mapping, and geophysical investigations at the site and its vicinity, as well as on near regional, and regional scale. Furthermore, all relevant techniques of modern space geodesy (GPS, PSInSAR) will be also utilized to construct a new seismotectonic model. The implementation of the project is still in progress. In the presentation, some important elements of the new seismic hazard assessment are highlighted, and some results obtained in the preliminary phase of the program are presented and discussed. The first and most important component of the program is the compilation of the seismological database that is developed on different time scale zooming on different event recurrence rates such as paleo-earthquakes (10-1/a). In 1995, Paks NPP installed and started to operate a sensitive microseismic monitoring network capable for locating earthquakes as small as magnitude 2.0 within about 100 km of the NPP site. During the two decades of operation, the microseismic monitoring network located some 2,000 earthquakes within the region of latitude 45.5 - 49 N and longitude 16 - 23 E. Out of the total number of events, 130 earthquakes were reported as 'felt events'. The largest earthquake was an event of ML 4.8, causing significant damage in the epicenter area. The results of microseismic monitoring provide valuable data for seismotectonic modelling and results in more accurate earthquake recurrence equations. The first modern PSHA of Paks NPP site was carried out in 1995. Complex site characterization project was implemented and hazard curves had been evaluated for 10-3 - 10-5 annual frequency. As a follow-up, PSHA results have been reviewed and updated in the frame of periodic safety

  15. Pyropheophorbide und a as a catabolite of ethylene-induced chlorophyll und a degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimokawa, Keishi; Hashizume, Akihito ); Shioi, Yuzo )

    1990-05-01

    An enzyme extract prepared from ethylene-induced degreening Citrus fruits contains chlorophyll (Chl) degrading enzymes. The fate of Chl carbons during an enzymatic degradation was investigated using Chl {und a}-{sup 14}C. Accompanying the disappearance of labelled Chl {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a} appeared and accumulation of pyropheophorbide {und a} was observed. HydroxyChl {und a} was also detected, but this is thought to be an artifact during chromatography. Unlike ethylene-induced Citrus fruits (in vivo), further degradation of pyropheophorbide {und a} did not occur in vitro enzyme system. This suggests that there is a lack of enzyme(s) and/or cofactor(s) for further degradation. It is concluded that Chl {und a} degraded enzymatically by the following order: Chl {und a}, chlorophyllide {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a}.

  16. Specification of Dendritogenesis Site in Drosophila aCC Motoneuron by Membrane Enrichment of Pak1 through Dscam1.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Daichi; McGorty, Ryan; Kamiyama, Rie; Kim, Michael D; Chiba, Akira; Huang, Bo

    2015-10-12

    Precise positioning of dendritic branches is a critical step in the establishment of neuronal circuitry. However, there is limited knowledge on how environmental cues translate into dendrite initiation or branching at a specific position. Here, through a combination of mutation, RNAi, and imaging experiments, we found that a Dscam-Dock-Pak1 hierarchical interaction defines the stereotypical dendrite growth site in the Drosophila aCC motoneuron. This interaction localizes the Cdc42 effector Pak1 to the plasma membrane at the dendrite initiation site before the activation of Cdc42. Ectopic expression of membrane-anchored Pak1 overrides this spatial specification of dendritogenesis, confirming its function in guiding Cdc42 signaling. We further discovered that Dscam1 localization in aCC occurs through an inter-neuronal contact that involves Dscam1 in the partner MP1 neuron. These findings elucidate a mechanism by which Dscam1 controls neuronal morphogenesis through spatial regulation of Cdc42 signaling and, subsequently, cytoskeletal remodeling.

  17. Sequence variation of chalcone synthase gene in a spontaneous white-flower mutant of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Cao, Jiashu

    2008-12-01

    A spontaneous white-flower mutant of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinenesis, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinenesis) was found in our test fields, and all the plant characters except flower color were identical with wild type ones. We hypothesized that a mutational event had occurred in the gene coding for chalcone synthase (CHS), the key enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Two genes, later designated BcCHS and BcCHS-wf, were isolated from wild type and mutant Chinese cabbage-pak-choi, respectively, using gene-specific primer pairs. Comparison of the genomic sequences revealed two mutations in BcCHS-wf, both with A to G transitions, one at position +37 bp and the other at +970 bp. Both nucleotide substitutions occurred in AGA codes for arginine into GGA for glycin at residue +13 and into AGC coding for serine at residue +229, respectively. Homologous genes of BcCHS were isolated from another four cruciferous plants, though there were some differences among the genomic and deduced amino acid sequences, the mutation locus of the mutant, as we called it, were identical to the wild type Chinese cabbage-pak-choi.

  18. PAK1 and CtBP1 Regulate the Coupling of Neuronal Activity to Muscle Chromatin and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jean-Luc; Ravel-Chapuis, Aymeric; Valente, Carmen; Corda, Daniela; Méjat, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) expression in innervated muscle is limited to the synaptic region. Neuron-induced electrical activity participates in this compartmentalization by promoting the repression of AChR expression in the extrasynaptic regions. Here, we show that the corepressor CtBP1 (C-terminal binding protein 1) is present on the myogenin promoter together with repressive histone marks. shRNA-mediated downregulation of CtBP1 expression is sufficient to derepress myogenin and AChR expression in innervated muscle. Upon denervation, CtBP1 is displaced from the myogenin promoter and relocates to the cytoplasm, while repressive histone marks are replaced by activating ones concomitantly to the activation of myogenin expression. We also observed that upon denervation the p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) expression is upregulated, suggesting that phosphorylation by PAK1 may be involved in the relocation of CtBP1. Indeed, preventing CtBP1 Ser158 phosphorylation induces CtBP1 accumulation in the nuclei and abrogates the activation of myogenin and AChR expression. Altogether, these findings reveal a molecular mechanism to account for the coordinated control of chromatin modifications and muscle gene expression by presynaptic neurons via a PAK1/CtBP1 pathway. PMID:26416879

  19. Mangrove Colonization: Mangrove Progression Over the Growing Pak Phanang (SE Thailand) Mud Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panapitukkul, N.; Duarte, C. M.; Thampanya, U.; Kheowvongsri, P.; Srichai, N.; Geertz-Hansen, O.; Terrados, J.; Boromthanarath, S.

    1998-07-01

    A combination of remote sensing techniques and in situmeasurements along a chronosequence was used to elucidate the rate of progression of the mangrove forest in the Pak Phanang Bay (SE Thailand), a large bay with an extended and rapidly accreting mud flat. The examination of black and white aerial photographs of the forest in 1966, 1974, 1989 and 1995, and satellite images in 1985, 1990 and 1994 revealed that the mangrove forest located in the eastern bank of the bay was progressing over the mud flat. The rate of progression was estimated, from examination of changes in the position of the forest edge with time in the series of images, to average 38·6 m year -1over the 28-year interval encompassed by the images. Mangrove progression rates were fastest between 1966 and 1974 and slowest between 1974 and 1985, remaining uniform at about 30 m year -1thereafter. The in situexamination of vegetation along transects in the area of fastest mangrove progression showed an average progression rate of 53·12±5·86 m year -1, quite similar to the estimate (48·4 m year -1) derived from remote sensing techniques for the area where the transects were surveyed. Avicennia albawas found to dominate the vegetation at the progressing edge of the mangrove, followed by Sonneratia caseolaris, with Rhizophora apiculatabeing present only occasionally. The fast colonization of A. albaover the mud flat was supported by a large export flux of mangrove propagules from the channels draining the mangrove forest, which averaged 3715±920 and 1900±808 fruits day -1in each of the channels examined. Extrapolation of the long-term mean mangrove progression rate observed along the eastern bank of the Pak Phanang Bay suggested that this mangrove forest will increase by 33 ha year -1. These results provide evidence that natural mangrove colonization can be a rapid process if sufficient propagules of the pioneer species ( A. albaand S. caseolaris) are available, and point, therefore, to alternative

  20. Bildanalyse in Medizin und Biologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athelogou, Maria; Schönmeyer, Ralf; Schmidt, Günther; Schäpe, Arno; Baatz, Martin; Binnig, Gerd

    Heutzutage sind bildgebende Verfahren aus medizinischen Untersuchungen nicht mehr wegzudenken. Diverse Methoden - basierend auf dem Einsatz von Ultraschallwellen, Röntgenstrahlung, Magnetfeldern oder Lichtstrahlen - werden dabei spezifisch eingesetzt und liefern umfangreiches Datenmaterial über den Körper und sein Inneres. Anhand von Mikroskopieaufnahmen aus Biopsien können darüber hinaus Daten über die morphologische Eigenschaften von Körpergeweben gewonnen werden. Aus der Analyse all dieser unterschiedlichen Arten von Informationen und unter Konsultation weiterer klinischer Untersuchungen aus diversen medizinischen Disziplinen kann unter Berücksichtigung von Anamnesedaten ein "Gesamtbild“ des Gesundheitszustands eines Patienten erstellt werden. Durch die Flut der erzeugten Bilddaten kommt der Bildverarbeitung im Allgemeinen und der Bildanalyse im Besonderen eine immer wichtigere Rolle zu. Gerade im Bereich der Diagnoseunterstützung, der Therapieplanung und der bildgeführten Chirurgie bilden sie Schlüsseltechnologien, die den Forschritt nicht nur auf diesen Gebieten maßgeblich vorantreiben.

  1. Geochemistry and tectonic setting of the Central Loei volcanic rocks, Pak Chom area, Loei, northeastern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjasawatwong, Y.; Zaw, Khin; Chantaramee, S.; Limtrakun, P.; Pirarai, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Central Loei volcanic rocks, as evidenced by those in the Pak Chom area, were formed in the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous and can be separated into three magmatic groups: transitional tholeiitic basalt, tholeiitic microgabbro and calc-alkalic basalt/andesite on the basis of immobile-element contents and ratios of least altered samples. All the tholeiitic microgabbro possibly occurred as dikes. Chemically, the transitional tholeittic basalt and tholeiitic microgabbro have higher abundances of TiO 2, Ni and Cr relative to the calc-alkalic basalt/andesite at similar values for FeO*/MgO; they also contain higher Ti/Zr but lower Zr/Nb. The transitional tholeiitic basalt has higher concentrations of P 2O 5 and Nb relative to the tholeiitic microgabbro at similar levels of FeO*/MgO, and also has higher ratios of Nb/Y and Ti/V, but lower values for Ti/Zr and Zr/Nb. In terms of chondrite normalized REE and N-MORB normalized patterns, the transitional tholeiitic basalt, tholeiitic basalt and calc-alkalic basalt/andesite are analogous to those from North Atlantic, Southwest Indian Ridge and New Britain Arc. On this basis, the Central Loei volcanic rocks are comprised of MORBs and oceanic island-arc lavas. These arc lavas may have erupted on an oceanic basement in the same ocean basin as those in the Chiang Rai-Chiang Mai volcanic belt.

  2. Reactor Dosimetry Aspects of the Service Life Extension of the Hungarian Paks NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsolnay, Eva M.; Czifrus, Szabolcs; Fehér, Sándor; Hordósy, Gábor; Keresztúri, András; Kresz, Norbert; Oszvald, Ferenc

    2016-02-01

    The service life of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) will be extended from the originally planned 30 years to 50 years. To improve the reliability of the results obtained in frame of the old reactor pressure vessel (RPV) surveillance programme, new methods have been developed, and based on them, the old exposition data have been re-evaluated for all the four reactor units. At the same time, a new RPV surveillance programme has been developed and introduced, and long term irradiations have been performed to determine the radiation damage of the surveillance specimens due to the high fast neutron exposition. Neutron transport calculations have been performed with a validated neutron transport code system to determine the fast neutron exposition of the RPVs during the extended service life. The cavity dosimetry is in the introductory phase. This paper presents the new developments in the field of the RPV surveillance dosimetry and summarises the results obtained. According to the results the service life of the NPP can safely be extended for the planned 50 years.

  3. Beschallungstechnik, Beschallungsplanung und Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, Wolfgang; Goertz, Anselm

    Die primäre Aufgabe einer Lautsprecheranlage ist es, Musik, Sprache oder auch Signaltöne und Geräusche wiederzugeben. Diese können von einem Tonträger kommen (CD, Sprachspeicher), von einem anderen Ort übertragen (Zuspielung über Radio, TV, Telefon) oder vor Ort erzeugt werden. Letzteres umfasst Konzerte, Ansprachen, Durchsagen oder künstlerische Darbietungen, bei denen es meist darum geht, eine bereits vorhandene Quelle einer größeren oder weiter verteilten Anzahl von Personen zugänglich zu machen.

  4. Increased expression of microRNA-221 inhibits PAK1 in endothelial progenitor cells and impairs its function via c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Mao, Haian; Chen, Jin-yuan; Wen, Shengjun; Li, Dan; Ye, Meng; Lv, Zhongwei

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► MicroRNA-221 is upregulated in the endothelial progenitor cells of atherosclerosis patients. ► PAK1 is a direct target of microRNA-221. ► MicroRNA-221 inhibits EPCs proliferation through c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. -- Abstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with high mortality and occurs via endothelial injury. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) restore the integrity of the endothelium and protect it from atherosclerosis. In this study, we compared the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in EPCs in atherosclerosis patients and normal controls. We found that miR-221 expression was significantly up-regulated in patients compared with controls. We predicted and identified p21/Cdc42/Rac1-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) as a novel target of miR-221 in EPCs. We also demonstrated that miR-221 targeted a putative binding site in the 3′UTR of PAK1, and absence of this site was inversely associated with miR-221 expression in EPCs. We confirmed this relationship using a luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-221 in EPCs significantly decreased EPC proliferation, in accordance with the inhibitory effects induced by decreased PAK1. Overall, these findings demonstrate that miR-221 affects the MEK/ERK pathway by targeting PAK1 to inhibit the proliferation of EPCs.

  5. PAK2 is an effector of TSC1/2 signaling independent of mTOR and a potential therapeutic target for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Maria M.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Queiroz, Karla C.S.; Scholma, Jetse; Goorden, Susan; Anink, Jasper; Arnold Spek, C.; Hoogeveen-Westerveld, Marianne; Bruno, Marco J.; Nellist, Mark; Elgersma, Ype; Aronica, Eleonora; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by inactivating mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 and is characterized by uncontrolled mTORC1 activation. Drugs that reduce mTOR activity are only partially successful in the treatment of TSC, suggesting that mTOR-independent pathways play a role in disease development. Here, kinome profiles of wild-type and Tsc2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were generated, revealing a prominent role for PAK2 in signal transduction downstream of TSC1/2. Further investigation showed that the effect of the TSC1/2 complex on PAK2 is mediated through RHEB, but is independent of mTOR and p21RAC. We also demonstrated that PAK2 over-activation is likely responsible for the migratory and cell cycle abnormalities observed in Tsc2−/− MEFs. Finally, we detected high levels of PAK2 activation in giant cells in the brains of TSC patients. These results show that PAK2 is a direct effector of TSC1-TSC2-RHEB signaling and a new target for rational drug therapy in TSC. PMID:26412398

  6. p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) expression correlates with prognosis in solid tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Pan, Jian; Li, Yi-Ping; Li, Gang; Xu, Li-Xiao; Su, Guang-Hao; Li, Zhi-Heng; Feng, Xing; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) expression appears to be predictive of prognosis in various solid tumors, though the evidence is not yet conclusive. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between PAK1 and prognosis in patients with solid tumors. Relevant publications were searched in several widely used databases, and 15 studies (3068 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the association between PAK1 and prognosis. Associations between PAK1 expression and prognosis were observed for overall survival (HR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.07-7.39) and disease-specific survival (HR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.47-3.16). No such association was detected for time to tumor progression (HR = 1.78, 95% CI = 0.99-3.21).Our meta-analysis thus indicates that PAK1 expression may be a predictive marker of overall survival and disease-specific survival in patients with solid tumors. PMID:27027431

  7. Faszination Weltall. Sehen und Verstehen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, C.

    This book is a German translation, by T. Bührke, of the English original "The amateur astronomer's pathfinder" published in 1992. Contents: 1. Die Erde im Universum. 2. Der Nachthimmel. 3. Die Erforschung von Raum und Zeit.

  8. Renaturierung und Management von Heiden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; van Diggelen, Rudy; von Oheimb, Goddert

    Heiden zählen zu den ältesten und besonders reizvollen Kulturlandschaften Nordwesteuropas. Sie sind bezeichnend für nährstoffarme Böden in wintermilden Gebieten mit hohen Sommerniederschlägen. Während Heiden vor wenigen Jahrhunderten noch weit verbreitet und für manche Landschaften sogar prägend waren, hat sich ihr Areal heute auf wenige, meist in Naturschutzgebieten gelegene Restbestände verkleinert. Zu diesem Rückgang haben maßgeblich Änderungen der Landnutzung, aber auch Nährstoffeinträge aus umgebenden Agrarflächen und atmogene Depositionen beigetragen. In den meisten Ländern der Europäischen Union sind Heiden heute gesetzlich geschützte Ökosysteme, da diese, neben ihrem Erholungswert für den Menschen, Pflanzen- und Tierarten beherbergen, die außerhalb von Heiden nicht oder kaum überlebensfähig sind.

  9. Komet Halley: Bahnelemente und Perihelzeiten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    1985-02-01

    Verbesserte Bahnelemente und Perihelzeiten -2316 bis 2284 für Komet Halley. Zusammenfassung der für ein breiteres Publikum relevantesten Ergebnisse von "On the Motion of Comet Halley". ESTEC EP/14.7/6184 Final Report

  10. Rainfall Trends over the Indo-Pak Summer Monsoon and Related Large-Scale Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, Muhammad; Syed, Faisal; Hannachi, Abdel

    2016-04-01

    The study of regional rainfall trends over South Asia is critically important for food security and infrastructure. This study investigates the presence of trends in seasonal and sub-seasonal (June through September-JJAS) rainfall obtained from multiple observed datasets. The obtained results identified a dipole-type structure in rainfall trends over the region north of the Indo-Pak subcontinent, where significant increasing trends are seen over the core monsoon region of Pakistan and significant decreasing trends are observed over the central-north India and adjacent areas. The study strongly suggests that strengthening of Vertically Integrated Meridional Moisture Transport (VIMMT) over the Arabian Sea is likely reason for the trend of rainfall in the core monsoon region of Pakistan. In contrast, over the central-north India region, the rainfall trends are significantly decreasing due to the weakening of IMT over the Bay of Bengal. The leading EOF clearly shows the strengthening (weakening) patterns of VIMMT over the Arabian Sea (Bay of Bengal) in seasonal and sub-seasonal interannual time-scales. The regression analysis between the principal components and rainfall confirms the dipole pattern over the region. Our results also suggest that the Circumglobal Teleconnection in upper troposphere influence in maintaining the mean rainfall over Pakistan via cross-equatorial flow of moisture into the Arabian Sea. We also investigate seasonal JJAS rainfall trends using historical and climate change (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) simulations from a set of regional climate models from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Trends and asymmetry of seasonal rainfall show great variability across models. Meridional moisture transport and associated large-scale dynamics will also be discussed.

  11. PAK Paradox: Paramecium Appears To Have More K+-Channel Genes than Humans†

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, W. John; Ling, Kit-Yin; Saimi, Yoshiro; Kung, Ching

    2003-01-01

    K+-selective ion channels (K+ channels) have been found in bacteria, archaea, eucarya, and viruses. In Paramecium and other ciliates, K+ currents play an essential role in cilia-based motility. We have retrieved and sequenced seven closely related Paramecium K+-channel gene (PAK) sequences by using previously reported fragments. An additional eight unique K+-channel sequences were retrieved from an indexed library recently used in a pilot genome sequencing project. Alignments of these protein translations indicate that while these 15 genes have diverged at different times, they all maintain many characteristics associated with just one subclass of metazoan K+ channels (CNG/ERG type). Our results indicate that most of the genes are expressed, because all predicted frameshifts and several gaps in the homolog alignments contain Paramecium intron sequences deleted from reverse transcription-PCR products. Some of the variations in the 15 genomic nucleotide sequences involve an absence of introns, even between very closely related sequences, suggesting a potential occurrence of reverse transcription in the past. Extrapolation from the available genome sequence indicates that Paramecium harbors as many as several hundred of this one type of K+-channel gene. This quantity is far more numerous than those of K+-channel genes of all types known in any metazoan (e.g., ∼80 in humans, ∼30 in flies, and ∼15 in Arabidopsis). In an effort to understand this plurality, we discuss several possible reasons for their maintenance, including variations in expression levels in response to changes in the freshwater environment, like that seen with other major plasma membrane proteins in Paramecium. PMID:12912893

  12. Phosphorylation of Threonine 794 on Tie1 by Rac1/PAK1 Reveals a Novel Angiogenesis Regulatory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Reinardy, Jessica L.; Corey, Daniel M.; Golzio, Christelle; Mueller, Sarah B.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kontos, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Tie1 was discovered over 20 years ago, yet its precise function and mode of action remain enigmatic. To shed light on Tie1’s role in endothelial cell biology, we investigated a potential threonine phosphorylation site within the juxtamembrane domain of Tie1. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable mutant of this site (T794A) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) significantly disrupted vascular development, resulting in fish with stunted and poorly branched intersomitic vessels. Similarly, T794A-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells formed significantly shorter tubes with fewer branches in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. However, mutation of T794 did not alter Tie1 or Tie2 tyrosine phosphorylation or downstream signaling in any detectable way, suggesting that T794 phosphorylation may regulate a Tie1 function independent of its RTK properties. Although T794 is within a consensus Akt phosphorylation site, we were unable to identify a physiological activator of Akt that could induce T794 phosphorylation, suggesting that Akt is not the physiological Tie1-T794 kinase. However, the small GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), which is required for angiogenesis and capillary morphogenesis, was found to associate with phospho-T794 but not the non-phosphorylatable T794A mutant. Pharmacological activation of Rac1 induced downstream activation of p21-activated kinase (PAK1) and T794 phosphorylation in vitro, and inhibition of PAK1 abrogated T794 phosphorylation. Our results provide the first demonstration of a signaling pathway mediated by Tie1 in endothelial cells, and they suggest that a novel feedback loop involving Rac1/PAK1 mediated phosphorylation of Tie1 on T794 is required for proper angiogenesis. PMID:26436659

  13. Threonine 209 phosphorylation on RUNX3 by Pak1 is a molecular switch for its dualistic functions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Singhal, M; Chopra, C; Srinivasan, S; Surabhi, R P; Kanumuri, R; Tentu, S; Jagadeeshan, S; Sundaram, S; Ramanathan, K; Shankar Pitani, R; Muthuswamy, B; Abhijit, S; Nair, A S; Venkatraman, G; Rayala, S K

    2016-09-15

    P21 Activated Kinase 1 (Pak1), an oncogenic serine/threonine kinase, is known to have a significant role in the regulation of cytoskeleton and cellular morphology. Runx3 was initially known for its role in tumor suppressor function, but recent studies have reported the oncogenic role of Runx3 in various cancers. However, the mechanism that controls the paradoxical functions of Runx3 still remains unclear. In this study, we show that Runx3 is a physiologically interacting substrate of Pak1. We identified the site of phosphorylation in Runx3 as Threonine 209 by mass spectrometry analysis and site-directed mutagenesis, and further confirmed the same with a site-specific antibody. Results from our functional studies showed that Threonine 209 phosphorylation in Runx3 alters its subcellular localization by protein mislocalization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and subsequently converses its biological functions. This was further supported by in vivo tumor xenograft studies in nude mouse models which clearly demonstrated that PANC-28 cells transfected with the Runx3-T209E clone showed high tumorigenic potential as compared with other clones. Our results from clinical samples also suggest that Threonine 209 phosphorylation by Pak1 could be a potential therapeutic target and of great clinical relevance with implications for Runx3 inactivation in cancer cells where Runx3 is known to be oncogenic. The findings presented in this study provide evidence of Runx3-Threonine 209 phosphorylation as a molecular switch in dictating the tissue-specific dualistic functions of Runx3 for the first time. PMID:26898755

  14. A chemiluminescent assay for hydroperoxide level of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide fraction purified by two Sep-Pak cartridges in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Seya, K; Ohkohchi, N; Shibuya, H; Satoh, M; Oikawa, K; Fukumori, T; Satomi, S; Motomura, S

    2000-08-15

    A chemiluminescent assay for hydroperoxide level of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) fraction purified from biological samples was presented. This method utilized of two Sep-Pak cartridges. A lipid soluble fraction was isolated from each homogenized tissue or blood by Folch's method. The mixture of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PCOOH was separated from the lipid soluble fraction by a Sep-Pak silica cartridge. A Sep-Pak tC18 cartridge made complete separation of both PCOOH and PC possible. The hydroperoxide level of PCOOH fraction was quantified by the reaction with ferrous ion using 2-methyl-6-[p-methoxyphenyl]-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin++ +-3-one as a chemiluminescent dye. The mixture of positional isomers, 1-hexadecanoyl-2-[9, or 10-hydroperoxyl octadecanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was used as an authentic standard. The good recovery rate for authentic PCOOH of 87.1 +/- 11.6% (mean +/- S.E., n = 4) was obtained by using two Sep-Pak cartridges. Linear calibration curve was obtained in the range from 2.5 to 20 nmol, and the detection limit of the standard was 10 pmol (signal-to-noise ratio > 3). This method was applied to the investigation of the lipid peroxidation induced by reperfusion of the liver with cold preservation, mimicking liver transplantation in rats. The effect of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate (LEDD), which eliminate of Kupffer cells to prevent the generation of oxygen radicals on the lipid peroxidation, was compared with the untreated group as a control. After 1 h reperfusion at 37 degrees C the hydroperoxide level obtained the liver without preservation in the untreated group was 12.4 +/- 2.4 nmol/100 mg lipid (n = 4) and levels increased significantly by prolongation of the preservation time. On the other hand, the hydroperoxide level in the LEDD treated group did not change up to 24 h preservation. These results suggest that this improved assay for hydroperoxide level of PCOOH fraction in biological

  15. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  16. Characterization of flavonol conjugates in immature leaves of pak choi [Brassica rapa L. Ssp. chinensis L. (Hanelt.)] by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rochfort, Simone J; Imsic, Michael; Jones, Rod; Trenerry, V Craige; Tomkins, Bruce

    2006-06-28

    The flavonoid composition of immature leaves of pak choi [Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis L. (Hanelt.)] was investigated. Flavonol aglycone content was measured in 11 pak choi varieties, indicating significant differences (P < 0.05) in content between varieties and relatively high contents of kaempferol and isorhamnetin. Levels of quercetin ranged from 3.2 to 6.1 mg/100 g of dry weight (DW), whereas levels of isorhamnetin and kaempferol were significantly higher (8.1-35.1 and 36.0-102.6 mg/100 g of DW, respectively). A large number of glycoside and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were identified in cv. 'Shanghai' by LC/UV-DAD/ESI-MS/MS. The UV-DAD data allowed identification of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, but detailed MS/MS fragmentations were required for the structure elucidation. Pak choi could be a potentially important source of dietary flavonols, in particular, kaempferol and isorhamnetin.

  17. Kernspaltung und Westintegration Beispiel österreich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Christian

    Während des Kalten Krieges erreichte in Europa sowohl die Verflechtung physikalischer Forschung mit Staat, Politik und Industrie als auch deren öffentliche Verhandlung und Bewertung eine qualitativ neuartige Dimension. Dieser Aspekt tritt am schärfsten in der Geschichte der Kernphysik und Kerntechnik hervor.

  18. [Life and medical missionary activities of Esther K. Pak (1877-1910)].

    PubMed

    Lee, Bang Weon

    2007-12-01

    Esther K. Pak (1876-1910) is believed as the first medical doctor in Korea. Esther's life can be largely reviewed in three parts: school-hood at EwhaHaktang (currently Ewha Womans University), Education in the United States, and medical missionary work after coming back to Korea from the United States. The foreign Methodist missionaries was able to enter Korea after opening of its ports and establishing its diplomatic relationship with the United States. Esther met modern sciences and Christianity at EwhaHaktang, which was founded by those missionaries. She could dream of being an American-style medical doctor in the future, while she assisted medical missionaries at PoKuNyoKwan in EwhaHaktang. She could get substantial academic help from those missionaries. With the support of Dr. Rosetta Sherwood Hall, who first introduced the world of medial science to Esther in a real sense, Esther went to the United States to study the field in 1894. While learning it, she suffered from academic frustration, economic difficulty, her husband's death and so on, but she eventually got over those adversities and completed the four years of academic courses to become a medical doctor. Her religious faith and will to help Koreans as a doctor encouraged her to finish what she had originally planned. Esther came back to Korea in 1900 and began to work earnestly as a medical missionary delegated from Woman's Foreign Missionary Society. At PoKuNyoKwan in Seoul and Woman's Hospital in Pyongyang, She performed medical work and enlightenment campaign against the superstitious healing conduct. Esther also took part in the circuit missionary performances. She devoted herself for evangelical work at Bible Institute as well. Esther's activity made people understand the effectiveness of education. She helped people to recognize education for woman, occidental medical treatment and Christianity in a positive way. On April 28, 1909, based on these excellent performances for the social development

  19. Functional cross-talk between Cdc42 and two downstream targets, Par6B and PAK4.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dan; Durgan, Joanne; Hall, Alan

    2015-04-15

    The establishment of polarity is an essential step in epithelial morphogenesis. Polarity proteins promote an apical/basal axis, which, together with the assembly of apical adherens and tight junctions, directed vesicle transport and the reorganization of the actomyosin filament network, generate a stable epithelium. The regulation of these cellular activities is complex, but the Rho family GTPase Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42) is known to play a key role in the establishment of polarity from yeast to humans. Two Cdc42 target proteins, the kinase PAK4 [p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 4] and the scaffold partitioning defective (Par) 6B, are required to promote the assembly of apical junctions in human bronchial epithelial cells. We show in the present paper that PAK4 phosphorylates Par6B at Ser143 blocking its interaction with Cdc42. This provides a potential new mechanism for controlling the subcellular localization of Par6B and its interaction with other proteins.

  20. Molluscan associations from the Pak Phanang Bay (SW Gulf of Thailand) as a record of natural and anthropogenic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, Mauro Pietro; Sanfilippo, Rossana; Basso, Daniela; Rosso, Antonietta; Di Geronimo, Sebastiano Italo

    2014-08-01

    Recent environmental changes in the Pak Phanang Bay (SW Gulf of Thailand) are investigated by means of mollusc assemblages. The present-day water depth within the bay slightly exceeds 2 m at low tide and the seafloor is almost entirely muddy, except for the outermost part of the embayment which is directly influenced by the longshore drift that is building the Laem Talumpuk sand spit. A multivariate analysis of the molluscan fauna recovered at 16 sampling stations within the bay delineates three thanatofacies and two biofacies. The Bay Mouth thanatofacies, including several infralittoral species, is distributed around the bay entrance; the Tidal Flat thanatofacies, characterized by few brackish and freshwater taxa, occurs in the inner part of the bay; the Channel thanatofacies includes a mixed fauna and is found along the long axis of the bay. All thanatofacies are not older than a few decades. The two biofacies are significantly less diverse than their dead counterparts, and are simply identified as Bay Mouth biofacies and Inner Bay biofacies. The faunal evolution, combined with bathymetric and sedimentological data, confirms that the embayment is undergoing a confinement process. The inner bay has evolved into an undifferentiated tidal flat hosting an oligospecific fauna. The confinement trend and the consequent siltation of the bay, mainly due to natural geomorphologic processes acting since centuries, are likely to have sped up in recent years by interaction with some human activities; among these, the deforestation in the upper Pak Phanang basin and the construction of Uthokaviphatprasit Watergate.

  1. [Evidenzbasierte Leitlinien, Anspruch und Wirklichkeit].

    PubMed

    Gutsch, Johannes; Reif, Marcus; Müller-Hübenthal, Boris; Matthiessen, Peter F

    2016-01-01

    Mit der Konzeption der «Evidenzbasierten Medizin» und den «Evidenzbasierten Leitlinien» soll mithilfe von Formalisierungsprozeduren die ärztliche Irrtumsanfälligkeit kalkulierbar gemacht werden. Quantifizierte objektive Aussagen über die therapeutische Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung sollen die individuelle ärztliche Beurteilung der therapeutischen Wirksamkeit überflüssig machen. Damit kommt der Befolgung von formalen Regeln die entscheidende Rolle bei der Beantwortung der Frage nach dem Wahrheitsgehalt und dem Wirklichkeitsbezug zu. Im Rahmen evidenzbasierter Leitlinien werden vorrangig die Ergebnisse randomisierter kontrollierter Studien (RCT) oder Meta-Analysen solcher Studien herangezogen. Am Beispiel der S3-Leitlinie «Malignes Melanom» wird hier eine evidenzbasierte Urteilsbildung zur Wirksamkeit einer unkonventionellen Therapie - hier mit einem Mistelpräparat - analytisch nachvollzogen. Die für die Beurteilung dieser unkonventionellen Therapie herangezogene randomisierte Studie wird genauer methodisch analysiert. Obwohl sie keine statistisch basierte Aussage zulässt, wurde eine Leitlinienempfehlung auf Basis dieser Studie abgeleitet. Es wird gezeigt, dass 1) allein die Existenz einer einzigen RCT mit hoher Evidenz gleichgesetzt wird, 2) die Ergebnisse trotz beträchtlicher Fehlinterpretationen in eine S3-Leitlinie einfließen und 3) Meinungen anstelle kritischer wissenschaftlicher Analysen verarbeitet werden. Unsere Untersuchung zeigt, dass noch so ausgefeilte epistemologische und methodologische Formalien den Arzt nicht von der Pflicht entbinden, auf Basis seiner ärztlichen Erfahrung und professionellen Kompetenz den Realitätswert der ihm zur Verfügung stehenden Information zu beurteilen. PMID:27161555

  2. [Vegetarische und vegane Ernährung bei Kindern - Stand der Forschung und Forschungsbedarf].

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Müller, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Die Praxis vegetarischer Ernährungsformen ist in Deutschland im letzten Jahrzehnt deutlich angestiegen. Allerdings ist der Anteil vegetarischer und veganer Kinder dabei unbekannt. Studien mit Erwachsenen zeigen das präventive Potenzial, aber auch potenzielle Schwachstellen pflanzenbasierter Kostformen. Die Vorteile und Risiken einer vegetarischen bzw. veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter wurden bisher jedoch relativ selten untersucht. Außerdem lassen das unterschiedliche Alter der Kinder, das heterogene Studiendesign sowie die teilweise geringe Probandenzahl der Studien keine verbindlichen Aussagen zu. In dieser Übersichtsarbeit werden die Ergebnisse der wenigen Studien zu vegetarisch und vegan ernährten Kindern (< 12 Jahren) in Nordamerika und Europa zusammengefasst. Demnach lag die Zufuhr von Nahrungsenergie und Makronährstoffen vegetarischer und veganer Kinder meist näher an den Empfehlungen der Fachgesellschaften als die Ernährung gleichaltriger Mischkostkinder. Ebenso wiesen vegetarisch und vegan ernährte Kinder eine höhere Zufuhr von und bessere Versorgung mit verschiedenen Vitaminen und Mineralstoffen auf. Häufiger zeigten sich jedoch Defizite bei Vitamin B12, Zink, Kalzium, Eisen und Vitamin D. Das Wachstum und die Entwicklung vegetarisch und vegan ernährter Kinder entsprachen weitgehend den Referenzstandards, wobei sie dazu tendierten, leichter, schlanker und (< 5 Jahren) auch kleiner zu sein. Aufgrund der unzureichenden Studienlage besteht erheblicher Forschungsbedarf zu den Auswirkungen einer vegetarischen und veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter.

  3. [Vegetarische und vegane Ernährung bei Kindern - Stand der Forschung und Forschungsbedarf].

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Müller, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Die Praxis vegetarischer Ernährungsformen ist in Deutschland im letzten Jahrzehnt deutlich angestiegen. Allerdings ist der Anteil vegetarischer und veganer Kinder dabei unbekannt. Studien mit Erwachsenen zeigen das präventive Potenzial, aber auch potenzielle Schwachstellen pflanzenbasierter Kostformen. Die Vorteile und Risiken einer vegetarischen bzw. veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter wurden bisher jedoch relativ selten untersucht. Außerdem lassen das unterschiedliche Alter der Kinder, das heterogene Studiendesign sowie die teilweise geringe Probandenzahl der Studien keine verbindlichen Aussagen zu. In dieser Übersichtsarbeit werden die Ergebnisse der wenigen Studien zu vegetarisch und vegan ernährten Kindern (< 12 Jahren) in Nordamerika und Europa zusammengefasst. Demnach lag die Zufuhr von Nahrungsenergie und Makronährstoffen vegetarischer und veganer Kinder meist näher an den Empfehlungen der Fachgesellschaften als die Ernährung gleichaltriger Mischkostkinder. Ebenso wiesen vegetarisch und vegan ernährte Kinder eine höhere Zufuhr von und bessere Versorgung mit verschiedenen Vitaminen und Mineralstoffen auf. Häufiger zeigten sich jedoch Defizite bei Vitamin B12, Zink, Kalzium, Eisen und Vitamin D. Das Wachstum und die Entwicklung vegetarisch und vegan ernährter Kinder entsprachen weitgehend den Referenzstandards, wobei sie dazu tendierten, leichter, schlanker und (< 5 Jahren) auch kleiner zu sein. Aufgrund der unzureichenden Studienlage besteht erheblicher Forschungsbedarf zu den Auswirkungen einer vegetarischen und veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter. PMID:27160086

  4. Restaurierung von Seen und Renaturierung von Seeufern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüneberg, Björn; Ostendorp, Wolfgang; Leßmann, Dieter; Wauer, Gerlinde; Nixdorf, Brigitte

    Süßwasserseen haben als ökosysteme und Lebensraum für Pflanzen und Tiere eine herausragende Bedeutung für die Artenvielfalt auf der Erde und prägen als Landschaftselemente unsere natürliche Umwelt. Seen fungieren als natürliche Stoffsenken, vor allem für Kohlenstoff und Nährstoffe, aber auch als Senken für in ihren Einzugsgebieten emittierte gelöste und feste Schadstoffe. Darüber hinaus ist Wasser eine wichtige Naturressource. Süßwasserseen stellen in den meisten Regionen der Erde lebenswichtige Quellen für die Versorgung mit Trinkwasser und tierischem Eiweiß (Fischfang) dar. Sie dienen als Wasserspeicher für die landwirtschaftliche und industrielle Nutzung. Auch für Erholungsaktivitäten des Menschen kommt ihnen eine große Bedeutung zu.

  5. Bewegungsapparat: Postcraniales Skelett und Muskulatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Martin S.

    Der Bewegungsapparat bestimmt die Form des Wirbeltierkörpers. So lässt sich z. B. aus der Gestalt eines Fisches auf seine bevorzugt e Schwimmweise schließen (S. 61). Bei den aquatisch en Schädeltieren dominiert die Fortbewegung mit axialem Antrieb; bei den meisten Tetrapoda findet sich eine Kombination aus axialem Antrieb und Bewegung durch Gliedmaßen. Selbst beim höchst spezialisierten Gang, der bipeden Bewegung des Menschen, sind Torsionsbewegungen des Rumpfes noch maßgeblich und bestimmen auch die Grundform des menschlichen Körpers (z. B. die Taille). Obwohl die verschiedenen Antriebsmechanismen eine funktionelle Einheit bilden, werden im Folgenden das Axialskelett sowie der Schulter- und Beckengürtel mit den zugehörigen Extremitäten getrennt besprochen.

  6. Kosmologie und Teilchenphysik.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appenzeller, I.

    This book is a selection of 17 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Einführung (I. Appenzeller). 2. Sehr große Strukturen im Universum (J. O. Burns). 3. Die großräumigen Eigenbewegungen der Galaxien (A. Dressler). 4. Dunkle Materie im Universum (L. M. Krauss). 5. Der doppelte Beta-Zerfall (M. K. Moe, S. P. Rosen). 6. Quark-Lepton Familien (D. B. Cline). 7. Beschleunigerexperimente testen kosmologische Theorien (D. N. Schramm, G. Steigman). 8. Das Rätsel der kosmologischen Konstanten (L. Abbott). 9. Das Higgs-Boson (M. J. G. Veltman). 10. Die Suche nach dem Protonenzerfall (J. M. LoSecco, F. Reines, D. Sinclair). 11. Das inflationäre Universum (A. H. Guth, P. J. Steinhardt). 12. Die fünfte Dimension (E. Schmutzer). 13. Die verborgenen Dimensionen der Raumzeit (D. Z. Freedman, P. van Nieuwenhuizen). 14. Ist die Natur supersymmetrisch? (H. E. Haber, G. L. Kane). 15. Schwerkraft und Antimaterie (T. Goldman, R. J. Hughes, M. M. Nieto). 16. Superstrings (M. B. Green). 17. Kosmische Strings (A. Vilenkin).

  7. Glucosinolate Accumulation and Related Gene Expression in Pak Choi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis var. communis [N. Tsen & S.H. Lee] Hanelt) in Response to Insecticide Application.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Biao; Yang, Jing; He, Yong; Zang, Yunxiang; Zhu, Zhujun

    2015-11-11

    Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are well-known for their cancer-chemoprotective functions and biocidal activities against pathogens and generalist herbivores. Insecticides are commonly used in the production of pak choi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis var. communis [N. Tsen & S.H. Lee] Hanelt). We studied the effects of four commonly used insecticides, namely, β-cypermethrin, acephate, pymetrozine, and imidacloprid, on glucosinolate metabolism in pak choi. All insecticides significantly increased both the transcription of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and the aliphatic and total glucosinolate accumulations in pak choi. β-Cypermethrin and acephate caused gradual and continuous up-regulation of gene expression from 0.5 to 24 h after treatment, whereas pymetrozine and imidacloprid did so more rapidly, reaching a peak at 1 h and returning to normal at 3 h. Our findings indicate that the four insecticides affect glucosinolate metabolism in pak choi plants to various degrees and suggest that glucosinolates may be involved in plant insecticide metabolism.

  8. ETV TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS GLASFLOSS INDUSTRIES Z-PAK SERIES S, MODEL ZPS24241295BO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Z-Pak Series S, Model ZPS24241295B0 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Glasfloss Industries, Inc. The pressure drop across the filter was 91 Pa clean and 34...

  9. Solution secondary structure of a bacterially expressed peptide from the receptor binding domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pili strain PAK: A heteronuclear multidimensional NMR study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A P; Bautista, D L; Tripet, B; Wong, W Y; Irvin, R T; Hodges, R S; Sykes, B D

    1997-10-21

    The C-terminal receptor binding region of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilin protein strain PAK (residues 128-144) has recently been the target for the design of a synthetic peptide vaccine effective against multiple strains of P. aeruginosa infection. We have successfully cloned and bacterially expressed a 15N-labeled PAK pilin peptide spanning residues 128-144 of the intact PAK pilin protein, PAK 128-144(Hs145), and have determined the solution secondary structure of this peptide using heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. The oxidized recombinant peptide exists as a major (trans) and minor (cis) species in solution, arising from isomerization around the Ile138-Pro139 peptide bond. The pattern of NOEs, temperature coefficients, and coupling constants observed for the trans isomer demonstrate the presence of a type I beta-turn and a type II beta-turn spanning Asp134-Glu-Gln-Phe137 and Pro139-Lys-Gly-Cys142, respectively. This is in agreement with the NMR solution structure of the trans isomer of a synthetic PAK 128-144 peptide which showed a type I and a type II beta-turn in these same regions of the sequence [McInnes, C., Sönnichsen, F. D., Kay, C. M., Hodges, R. S., and Sykes, B. D. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 13432-13440; Campbell, A. P., McInnes, C., Hodges, R. S., and Sykes, B. D. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 16255-16268]. The pattern of NOEs, temperature coefficients, and coupling constants observed for the cis isomer also demonstrate a type II beta-turn spanning Pro139-Lys-Gly-Cys142, but suggest a second beta-turn spanning Asp132-Gln-Asp-Glu135. Thus, the cis isomer may also possess a double-turn motif (like the trans isomer), but with different spacing between the turns and a different placement of the first turn in the sequence. The discovery of a double-turn motif in the trans (and cis) recombinant PAK pilin peptide is an extremely important result since the double turn has been implicated as a structural requirement for the recognition of both receptor

  10. A Population Growth Trend Analysis for Neotricula aperta, the Snail Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mekongi, after Construction of the Pak-Mun Dam

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Stephen W.; Upatham, E. Suchart

    2013-01-01

    Background The Pak-Mun dam is a controversial hydro-power project on the Mun River in Northeast Thailand. The dam is sited in a habitat of the freshwater snail Neotricula aperta, which is the intermediate host for the parasitic blood-fluke Schistosoma mekongi causing Mekong schistosomiasis in humans in Cambodia and Laos. Few data are available which can be used to assess the effects of water resource development on N. aperta. The aim of this study was to obtain data and to analyze the possible impact of the dam on N. aperta population growth. Methodology/Principal Findings Estimated population densities were recorded for an N. aperta population in the Mun River 27 km upstream of Pak-Mun, from 1990 to 2011. The Pak-Mul dam began to operate in 1994. Population growth was modeled using a linear mixed model expression of a modified Gompertz stochastic state-space exponential growth model. The N. aperta population was found to be quite stable, with the estimated growth parameter not significantly different from zero. Nevertheless, some marked changes in snail population density were observed which were coincident with changes in dam operation policy. Conclusions/Significance The study found that there has been no marked increase in N. aperta population growth following operation of the Pak-Mun dam. The analysis did indicate a large and statistically significant increase in population density immediately after the dam came into operation; however, this increase was not persistent. The study has provided the first vital baseline data on N. aperta population behavior near to the Pak-Mun dam and suggests that the operation policy of the dam may have an impact on snail population density. Nevertheless, additional studies are required for other N. aperta populations in the Mun River and for an extended time series, to confirm or refine the findings of this work. PMID:24244775

  11. Abdichtungen im Verbund mit Fliesen und Platten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platts, Thomas

    Abdichtungen im Verbund mit Fliesen und Platten, im Folgenden auch als Verbundabdichtungen oder mit Kurzzeichen als AIV bezeichnet, haben sich in der Baupraxis insbesondere in Innenräumen wegen des vereinfachten konstruktiven Aufbaus gegenüber Bahnenabdichtungen nach DIN 18195-5 [14.1] in der Mehrzahl der Ausführungen durchgesetzt und bewährt. Sie können im Innen- und Außenbereich angeordnet werden und sind dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Nutzschicht in Boden- und Wandbereichen im Dünnbettverfahren unmittelbar auf die Abdichtung aufgebracht wird. Aufwändige Zwischenschichten oder Einbauteile wie armierter Putz, Telleranker etc. entfallen (Bild 14.1) und es lassen sich geringere Aufbauhöhen realisieren.

  12. Final evaluation report for Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, ARROW-PAK packaging, Docket 95-40-7A, Type A container

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the ARROW-PAK packaging. The ARROW-PAK packaging system consists of Marlex M-8000 Driscopipe (Series 8000 [gas] or Series 8600 [industrial]) resin pipe, manufactured by Phillips-Driscopipe, Inc., and is sealed with two dome-shaped end caps manufactured from the same materials. The patented sealing process involves the use of electrical energy to heat opposing faces of the pipe and end caps, and hydraulic rams to press the heated surfaces together. This fusion process produces a homogeneous bonding of the end cap to the pipe. The packaging may be used with or without the two internal plywood spacers. This packaging was evaluated and tested in October 1995. The packaging configuration described in this report is designed to ship Type A quantities of solid radioactive materials, Form No. 1, Form No. 2, and Form No. 3.

  13. Molecular evolution, characterization, and expression analysis of SnRK2 gene family in Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhinan; Tang, Jun; Duan, Weike; Wang, Zhen; Song, Xiaoming; Hou, Xilin

    2015-01-01

    The sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family members are plant-specific serine/threonine kinases that are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent plant development. Further understanding of the evolutionary history and expression characteristics of these genes will help to elucidate the mechanisms of the stress tolerance in Pak-choi, an important green leafy vegetable in China. Thus, we investigated the evolutionary patterns, footprints and conservation of SnRK2 genes in selected plants and later cloned and analyzed SnRK2 genes in Pak-choi. We found that this gene family was preferentially retained in Brassicas after the Brassica-Arabidopsis thaliana split. Next, we cloned and sequenced 13 SnRK2 from both cDNA and DNA libraries of stress-induced Pak-choi, which were under conditions of ABA, salinity, cold, heat, and osmotic treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2s have eight exons and could be divided into three groups. The subcellular localization predictions suggested that the putative BcSnRK2 proteins were enriched in the nucleus. The results of an analysis of the expression patterns of the BcSnRK2 genes showed that BcSnRK2 group III genes were robustly induced by ABA treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2 genes were activated by low temperature, and the BcSnRK2.6 genes responded to both ABA and low temperature. In fact, most of the BcSnRK2 genes showed positive or negative regulation under ABA and low temperature treatments, suggesting that they may be global regulators that function at the intersection of multiple signaling pathways to play important roles in Pak-choi stress responses.

  14. Molecular evolution, characterization, and expression analysis of SnRK2 gene family in Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhinan; Tang, Jun; Duan, Weike; Wang, Zhen; Song, Xiaoming; Hou, Xilin

    2015-01-01

    The sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family members are plant-specific serine/threonine kinases that are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent plant development. Further understanding of the evolutionary history and expression characteristics of these genes will help to elucidate the mechanisms of the stress tolerance in Pak-choi, an important green leafy vegetable in China. Thus, we investigated the evolutionary patterns, footprints and conservation of SnRK2 genes in selected plants and later cloned and analyzed SnRK2 genes in Pak-choi. We found that this gene family was preferentially retained in Brassicas after the Brassica-Arabidopsis thaliana split. Next, we cloned and sequenced 13 SnRK2 from both cDNA and DNA libraries of stress-induced Pak-choi, which were under conditions of ABA, salinity, cold, heat, and osmotic treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2s have eight exons and could be divided into three groups. The subcellular localization predictions suggested that the putative BcSnRK2 proteins were enriched in the nucleus. The results of an analysis of the expression patterns of the BcSnRK2 genes showed that BcSnRK2 group III genes were robustly induced by ABA treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2 genes were activated by low temperature, and the BcSnRK2.6 genes responded to both ABA and low temperature. In fact, most of the BcSnRK2 genes showed positive or negative regulation under ABA and low temperature treatments, suggesting that they may be global regulators that function at the intersection of multiple signaling pathways to play important roles in Pak-choi stress responses. PMID:26557127

  15. Signaling of the p21-activated kinase (PAK1) coordinates insulin-stimulated actin remodeling and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Chiu, Tim T; Ramalingam, Latha; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S; Klip, Amira; Thurmond, Debbie C

    2014-11-15

    Skeletal muscle accounts for ∼ 80% of postprandial glucose clearance, and skeletal muscle glucose clearance is crucial for maintaining insulin sensitivity and euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated glucose clearance/uptake entails recruitment of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane (PM) in a process that requires cortical F-actin remodeling; this process is dysregulated in Type 2 Diabetes. Recent studies have implicated PAK1 as a required element in GLUT4 recruitment in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo, although its underlying mechanism of action and requirement in glucose uptake remains undetermined. Toward this, we have employed the PAK1 inhibitor, IPA3, in studies using L6-GLUT4-myc muscle cells. IPA3 fully ablated insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the PM, corroborating the observation of ablated insulin-stimulated GLUT4 accumulation in the PM of skeletal muscle from PAK1(-/-) knockout mice. IPA3-treatment also abolished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into skeletal myotubes. Mechanistically, live-cell imaging of myoblasts expressing the F-actin biosensor LifeAct-GFP treated with IPA3 showed blunting of the normal insulin-induced cortical actin remodeling. This blunting was underpinned by a loss of normal insulin-stimulated cofilin dephosphorylation in IPA3-treated myoblasts. These findings expand upon the existing model of actin remodeling in glucose uptake, by placing insulin-stimulated PAK1 signaling as a required upstream step to facilitate actin remodeling and subsequent cofilin dephosphorylation. Active, dephosphorylated cofilin then provides the G-actin substrate for continued F-actin remodeling to facilitate GLUT4 vesicle translocation for glucose uptake into the skeletal muscle cell.

  16. Molecular evolution, characterization, and expression analysis of SnRK2 gene family in Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhinan; Tang, Jun; Duan, Weike; Wang, Zhen; Song, Xiaoming; Hou, Xilin

    2015-01-01

    The sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family members are plant-specific serine/threonine kinases that are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent plant development. Further understanding of the evolutionary history and expression characteristics of these genes will help to elucidate the mechanisms of the stress tolerance in Pak-choi, an important green leafy vegetable in China. Thus, we investigated the evolutionary patterns, footprints and conservation of SnRK2 genes in selected plants and later cloned and analyzed SnRK2 genes in Pak-choi. We found that this gene family was preferentially retained in Brassicas after the Brassica-Arabidopsis thaliana split. Next, we cloned and sequenced 13 SnRK2 from both cDNA and DNA libraries of stress-induced Pak-choi, which were under conditions of ABA, salinity, cold, heat, and osmotic treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2s have eight exons and could be divided into three groups. The subcellular localization predictions suggested that the putative BcSnRK2 proteins were enriched in the nucleus. The results of an analysis of the expression patterns of the BcSnRK2 genes showed that BcSnRK2 group III genes were robustly induced by ABA treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2 genes were activated by low temperature, and the BcSnRK2.6 genes responded to both ABA and low temperature. In fact, most of the BcSnRK2 genes showed positive or negative regulation under ABA and low temperature treatments, suggesting that they may be global regulators that function at the intersection of multiple signaling pathways to play important roles in Pak-choi stress responses. PMID:26557127

  17. Hispidin and related herbal compounds from Alpinia zerumbet inhibit both PAK1-dependent melanogenesis in melanocytes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Be Tu, Pham Thi; Chompoo, Jamnian; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2015-06-01

    Recently several compounds from Okinawa plants including Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia) were shown to inhibit directly the oncogenic/ageing kinase PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1). Furthermore, it was recently revealed that both PAK1 and PAK4 (p21-activated kinase 4) are equally essential for the melanogenesis in melanoma cells. Thus, in this study, we tested if several alpinia compounds inhibit the melanogenesis in melanoma (B16F10) cells, as well as the PAK1-dependent up-regulation of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in cultured adipocytes (3T3-L1) without any cytotoxicity. The effect of alpinia compounds on the melanogenesis was measured by both the melanin content and intracellular tyrosinase activity in melanoma cells treated with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a melanogenesis stimulating hormone. We found that (1E,3E,5E)-6-methoxyhexa-1,3,5-trien-1-yl)-2,5-dihydrofuran (MTD), 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK), labdadiene, hispidin and dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) at 50 μg/mL reduced the melanin content by 63-79%. The MTD, DK and hispidin, at 50 μg/mL, inhibited tyrosinase activity by 70-83% in melanoma cells. Among these compounds, labdadiene, MTD, (E)-2,2,3,3-Tetramethyl8-methylene-7-(oct-6-en-1-yl)octahydro-1H-quinolizine (TMOQ) and hispidin strongly inhibited the ROS production. Hispidin, labdadiene and MTD at 20 μg/mL inhibited NO production by over 70%. These findings altogether suggest that some of these alpinia compounds could be potentially useful for the prevention or treatment of hyperpigmentation and obesity.

  18. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  19. Phytoavailability of cadmium (Cd) to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) grown in Chinese soils: a model to evaluate the impact of soil Cd pollution on potential dietary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Stoffella, Peter J; Saghir, Aamir; Azam, Muhammad; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd) through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg-1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg-1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production. PMID:25386790

  20. Phytoavailability of cadmium (Cd) to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) grown in Chinese soils: a model to evaluate the impact of soil Cd pollution on potential dietary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Stoffella, Peter J; Saghir, Aamir; Azam, Muhammad; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd) through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg-1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg-1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production.

  1. [BcMF4 gene, encoding a leucine-rich repeat protein, plays a role in male fertility in Chinese cabbage-pak-choi].

    PubMed

    Liu, Le-Cheng; Xiang, Xun; Cao, Jia-Shu

    2006-11-01

    The BcMF4 (Brassica campestris Male Fertility 4) gene was previously isolated from the fertile B line of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. communis, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. communis). In the present paper, based on the cDNA sequence of BcMF4, primers were designed and used to amplify two fragments from the cDNA of flower buds of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi. Two produced fragments were introduced separately into binary vector pBI121 in antisense and sense orientations. The generated RNA interference (RNAi) vector was then mobilized into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. The A. tumefaciens harboring the BcMF4 fragments was transformed to flowering Chinese cabbage (B. campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis) via tissue culture. Approximately 45.8% of the pollen grains from 72.2% of RNAi plants exhibited abnormal in their shapes, and only 23.7% of the pollen grains from these plants germinated normally. Northern blotting demonstrated that the phenotypic change of pollen grains resulted from the inhibition of expression of the BcMF4 due to the insertion of the transgene. This indicates that functional interrupting of BcMF4 by RNAi resulted in partial pollen abortion in flowering Chinese cabbage, suggesting that the product of BcMF4 gene plays an important role during pollen development of Chinese cabbage such as Chinese cabbage-pak-choi and flowering Chinese cabbage.

  2. Myosin II regulation during C. elegans embryonic elongation: LET-502/ROCK, MRCK-1 and PAK-1, three kinases with different roles.

    PubMed

    Gally, Christelle; Wissler, Frédéric; Zahreddine, Hala; Quintin, Sophie; Landmann, Frédéric; Labouesse, Michel

    2009-09-01

    Myosin II plays a central role in epithelial morphogenesis; however, its role has mainly been examined in processes involving a single cell type. Here we analyze the structure, spatial requirement and regulation of myosin II during C. elegans embryonic elongation, a process that involves distinct epidermal cells and muscles. We developed novel GFP probes to visualize the dynamics of actomyosin remodeling, and found that the assembly of myosin II filaments, but not actin microfilaments, depends on the myosin regulatory light chain (MLC-4) and essential light chain (MLC-5, which we identified herein). To determine how myosin II regulates embryonic elongation, we rescued mlc-4 mutants with various constructs and found that MLC-4 is essential in a subset of epidermal cells. We show that phosphorylation of two evolutionary conserved MLC-4 serine and threonine residues is important for myosin II activity and organization. Finally, in an RNAi screen for potential myosin regulatory light chain kinases, we found that the ROCK, PAK and MRCK homologs act redundantly. The combined loss of ROCK and PAK, or ROCK and MRCK, completely prevented embryonic elongation, but a constitutively active form of MLC-4 could only rescue a lack of MRCK. This result, together with systematic genetic epistasis tests with a myosin phosphatase mutation, suggests that ROCK and MRCK regulate MLC-4 and the myosin phosphatase. Moreover, we suggest that ROCK and PAK regulate at least one other target essential for elongation, in addition to MLC-4. PMID:19675126

  3. Phytoavailability of Cadmium (Cd) to Pak Choi (Brassica chinensis L.) Grown in Chinese Soils: A Model to Evaluate the Impact of Soil Cd Pollution on Potential Dietary Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Stoffella, Peter J.; Saghir, Aamir; Azam, Muhammad; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd) through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg−1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg−1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production. PMID:25386790

  4. Glutamine nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen supplied as a nitrogen source is not converted into nitrate nitrogen of plant tissues of hydroponically grown pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, H-J; Wu, L-H; Tao, Q-N; Miller, D D; Welch, R M

    2009-03-01

    Many vegetables, especially leafy vegetables, accumulate NO(-) (3)-N in their edible portions. High nitrate levels in vegetables constitute a health hazard, such as cancers and blue baby syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine if (1) ammonium nitrogen (NH(+) (4)-N) and glutamine-nitrogen (Gln-N) absorbed by plant roots is converted into nitrate-nitrogen of pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.) tissues, and (2) if nitrate-nitrogen (NO(-) (3)-N) accumulation and concentration of pak-choi tissues linearly increase with increasing NO(-) (3)-N supply when grown in nutrient solution. In experiment 1, 4 different nitrogen treatments (no nitrogen, NH(+) (4)-N, Gln-N, and NO(-) (3)-N) with equal total N concentrations in treatments with added N were applied under sterile nutrient medium culture conditions. In experiment 2, 5 concentrations of N (from 0 to 48 mM), supplied as NO(-) (3)-N in the nutrient solution, were tested. The results showed that Gln-N and NH(+) (4)-N added to the nutrient media were not converted into nitrate-nitrogen of plant tissues. Also, NO(-) (3)-N accumulation in the pak-choi tissues was the highest when plants were supplied 24 mM NO(-) (3)-N in the media. The NO(-) (3)-N concentration in plant tissues was quadratically correlated to the NO(-) (3)-N concentration supplied in the nutrient solution.

  5. Separation properties of aluminium-plastic laminates in post-consumer Tetra Pak with mixed organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S F; Zhang, L L; Luo, K; Sun, Z X; Mei, X X

    2014-04-01

    The separation properties of the aluminium-plastic laminates in postconsumer Tetra Pak structure were studied in this present work. The organic solvent blend of benzene-ethyl alcohol-water was used as the separation reagent. Then triangle coordinate figure analysis was taken to optimize the volume proportion of various components in the separating agent and separation process. And the separation temperature of aluminium-plastic laminates was determined by the separation time, efficiency, and total mass loss of products. The results show that cost-efficient separations perform best with low usage of solvents at certain temperatures, for certain times, and within a certain range of volume proportions of the three components in the solvent agent. It is also found that similar solubility parameters of solvents and polyethylene adhesives (range 26.06-34.85) are a key factor for the separation of the aluminium-plastic laminates. Such multisolvent processes based on the combined-system concept will be vital to applications in the recycling industry.

  6. Symmetriebrechung und Emergenz in der Kosmologie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, K.

    Seit der Antike wird der Aufbau des Universums mit einfachen und regulären (symmetrischen) Grundstrukturen verbunden. Diese Annahme liegt selbst noch den Standardmodellen der relativistischen Kosmologie zugrunde. Demgegenüber läßt sich die Emergenz neuer Strukturen von den Elementarteilchen über Moleküle bis zu den komplexen Systemen des Lebens als Symmetriebrechung verstehen. Symmetriebrechung und strukturelle Komplexität bestimmen die kosmische Evolution. Damit zeichnet sich ein fachübergreifendes Forschungsprogramm von Physik, Chemie und Biologie ab, in dem die Evolution des Universums untersucht werden kann.

  7. Satellitenbewegung, band III: Natiirliche und gesteuerte bewegung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochim, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Im dritten Band der Satellitenbewegung werden in fortlaufender Nummerierung einige für Untersuchungen der Bewegung der künstlichen Satelliten wichtige Grundlagen der Astrodynamik mit ausführlichen mathematischen Formelsystemen behandelt. Dazu zählen die unterschiedlichen Aspekte der Bewegung der natürlichen Himmelskörper, die Steuerung und Kontrolle von künstlichen Objekten, und insbesondere die für eine Satellitenbahnanalyse wichtigen physikalischen Beeinflussungen einer Satellitenbewegung. Mathematisch entscheidend ist die Wahl geeigneter Bahnparameter, die ein bestimmtes Bewegungsproblem widerspruchsfrei und singularitätenfrei zu behandeln gestatten. Für die Behandlung routinemäßiger Aufgabenstellungen der Satellitenbewegung, in erster Linie einer präzisen Bahnbestimmung und Bahnverbesserung, kann auf eine Fülle von lehrbuchartigen Monographien verwiesen werden, so dass diese Problematik in der vorliegenden Arbeit nur angedeutet werden soll.

  8. Simulation und virtuelle Realität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Estorff, Otto; Markiewicz, Marian; Özkan, Ali; Zaleski, Olgierd; Blumrich, Reinhard; Genuit, Klaus; Fiebig, André

    Mit Hilfe akustischer Berechnungen ist es möglich, aufwendige Messungen an Fahrzeugprototypen deutlich zu reduzieren. Dieses Kapitel gibt einen kurzen Überblick über die wichtigsten derzeit verfügbaren Methoden. Dabei wird zunächst auf Elementverfahren, wie die Finite-Elemente-Methode (FEM) und die Boundary-Elemente-Methode (BEM), näher eingegangen. Während diese vor allem im tieffrequenten Bereich eingesetzt werden, kommen bei höheren Frequenzen vermehrt Verfahren zum Einsatz, die auf Energieformulierungen beruhen. Exemplarisch wird hier die Funktionsweise und der Einsatz der Statistischen-Energie-Analyse (SEA) erläutert. Anhand von repräsentativen Beispielen werden die Einsatzmöglichkeiten und Grenzen der verschiedenen Verfahren aufgezeigt, wobei vor allem auch auf Vergleiche zwischen Rechnung und Messung eingegangen wird.

  9. Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen (Babelsberg).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)

  10. Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, F.

    This book is a German translation, by V. Delavre, from the English original "The origin of the Universe and the origin of religion", published in 1993. Contents: E. Sens: Die unterbrochene Musikstunde. Einleitung zur deutschen Ausgabe. C. Ryskamp: Einführung. R. N. Anshen: Vorwort. F. Hoyle: Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion - Die Folgen der Respektabilität; Eiszeiten und Kometen; Die allgemeine Situation in den Nacheiszeiten; Kometen und der Ursprung der Religionen; Der Übergang zu Mittelalter und Neuzeit. Diskussionsbeiträge: Ruth Nanda Anshen, Freeman Dyson, Paul Oscar Kristeller, John Archibald Wheeler, James Schwartz, Roger Shinn, Milton Gatch, Philip Solomon, Norman Newell. F. Hoyle: Schlußwort. A. Tollmann: Nachwort zur deutschen Ausgabe.

  11. The role of remote and regional boundary forcing in the evolution of 2010 summer monsoon heavy rainfall over northwest Indo-Pak region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, Pattancheri; Mujumdar, Milind; P, Sabin T.; Pascal, Terray; Krishnan, Raghavan

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of sub-tropical south Asian heavy rainfall during 2010 summer and its relationship with tropical boundary forcing, is diagnosed in this study. Interestingly, the summer time Indo-Pacific SST during 2010 evolved as a combination of three dominant modes of variability. In addition to the strongest La Niña event on long-term record, warming over tropical Indian Ocean and a negative phase of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phenomenon were also prominent during 2010 boreal summer. A high resolution AGCM is used in this study to distinguish the role of remote and regional tropical SST boundary forcing on the heavy rainfall over northwest Indo-Pak region. The remote boundary forcing over Pacific seems to induce a westward shift of the large-scale monsoon circulation and significantly weakens the convection over Bay of Bengal, but is not sufficient for a realistic simulation of the flood event during 2010. The intensification of northward moisture transport from Arabian Sea into the subtropical Indo-Pak region leading to positive rainfall anomalies as observed in 2010 could be attributed to regional boundary forcing over Indian Ocean. The warmer SST anomalies over southeast Indian Ocean significantly strengthen the cyclonic convergence (divergence) over the region (Bay of Bengal and central and western Indian Ocean). Furthermore, divergence over equatorial Indian Ocean together with positive SST anomalies over north Arabian Sea enhances regional convection and promotes northward moisture transport, which is important for explaining the rainfall anomalies over northwest Indo-Pak region during 2010.

  12. Overexpressed Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (DSCAM) Deregulates P21-Activated Kinase (PAK) Activity in an In Vitro Neuronal Model of Down Syndrome: Consequences on Cell Process Formation and Extension.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Núñez, Ramón; Barraza, Natalia; Gonzalez-Jamett, Arlek; Cárdenas, Ana Maria; Barnier, Jean-Vianney; Caviedes, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    In humans, Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the presence of an extra copy of autosome 21. The most striking finding in DS patients is intellectual disability and the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neuropathology in adulthood. Gene overdose is most likely to underlie both developmental impairments, as well as altered neuronal function in DS. Lately, the disruption of cellular signaling and regulatory pathways has been implicated in DS pathophysiology, and many of such pathways may represent common targets for diverse DS-related genes, which could in turn represent attractive therapeutical targets. In this regard, one DS-related gene Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (DSCAM), has important functions in neuronal proliferation, maturation, and synaptogenesis. p21-associated kinases (PAKs) appear as a most interesting possibility for study, as DSCAM is known to regulate the PAKs pathway. Hence, in DS, overexpressed DSCAM could deregulate PAKs activity and affect signaling pathways that regulate synaptic plasticity such as dendritic spine dynamics and axon guidance and growth. In the present work, we used an immortalized cell line derived from the cerebral cortex of an animal model of DS such as the trisomy 16 (Ts16) fetal mouse (named CTb), and a similar cell line established from a normal littermate (named CNh), to study the effect of DSCAM in the PAKs pathway. The present study shows that DSCAM is overexpressed in CTb cells by approximately twofold, compared to CNh cells. Congruently, PAK1, as well as its downstream effectors LIMK and cofilin, stay phosphorylated for longer periods after DSCAM activation in the CTb cells, leading to an altered actin dynamics, expressed as an increased basal F/G ratio and reduced neurite growth, in the trisomic condition. The present work presents the correlation between DSCAM gene overexpression and a dysregulation of the PAK pathway, resulting in altered morphological parameters of neuronal plasticity in the trisomic cell

  13. Tycho Brahe - Instrumentenbauer und Meister der Beobachtungstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Vor der Erfindung des Fernrohrs war der dänische Astronom Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) der bedeutendste beobachtende Astronom. Von seinem Observatorium Uraniborg auf der - damals dänischen - Insel Hven ist heute noch der Grundriß erkennbar, von Stjerneborg sind die Fundamente erhalten, die Kuppeln in den 1950er Jahren ergänzt. In der Astronomie-Ausstellung im Deutschen Museum gibt es ein Modell der Sternwarte Uraniborg und der zugehörigen Instrumente (Maßstab 1:10); das größere Modell wurde dem Technischen Museum in Malmö geschenkt. Die Instrumente, die er in den Observatorien Uraniborg und Stjerneborg benutzte, sind nicht erhalten. Aber es gibt gute Beschreibungen der Instrumente (Halbkreis, Quadranten, Sextanten, Armillarsphären, Triquetrum, Himmelsglobus) in seinem Buch Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandsbek 1598). Eine Nachbildung des großen hölzernen Quadranten kann man im Runden Turm in Kopenhagen sehen. Zwei Sextanten, hergestellt für Tycho um 1600 von Jost Bürgi und Erasmus Habermel, gibt es noch im Nationalmuseum für Technik in Prag. Ähnlichkeiten von Tychos Instrumenten mit Groß-Instrumenten aus dem islamischen Kulturkreis sind auffällig. Tycho Brahes Meßgeräte markieren einen großen Fortschritt in der Entwicklung astronomischer Instrumente und Meßtechniken und bilden die Grundlage für den weiteren Fortschritt der Positionsastronomie und der damit verbundenen Tabellenwerke. Die Nachwirkungen sind bis ins 17. und 18. Jahrhundert nachweisbar.

  14. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    PubMed

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation.

  15. Induced production of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate by jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in sprouts and leaves of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Melanie; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Zrenner, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future.

  16. Liposome-mediated delivery of the p21 activated kinase-1 (PAK-1) inhibitor IPA-3 limits prostate tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Al-Azayzih, Ahmad; Missaoui, Wided N; Cummings, Brian S; Somanath, Payaningal R

    2016-07-01

    P21 activated kinases-1 (PAK-1) is implicated in various diseases. It is inhibited by the small molecule 'inhibitor targeting PAK1 activation-3' (IPA-3), which is highly specific but metabolically unstable. To address this limitation we encapsulated IPA-3 in sterically stabilized liposomes (SSL). SSL-IPA-3 averaged 139nm in diameter, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.05, and a zeta potential of -28.1, neither of which changed over 14days; however, the PDI increased to 0.139. Analysis of liposomal IPA-3 levels demonstrated good stability, with 70% of IPA-3 remaining after 7days. SSL-IPA-3 inhibited prostate cancer cell growth in vitro with comparable efficacy to free IPA-3. Excitingly, only a 2day/week dose of SSL-IPA-3 was needed to inhibit the growth of prostate xenografts in vivo, while a similar dose of free IPA-3 was ineffective. These data demonstrate the development and clinical utility of a novel liposomal formulation for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  17. Induced Production of 1-Methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl Glucosinolate by Jasmonic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate in Sprouts and Leaves of Pak Choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Melanie; Hanschen, Franziska S.; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Zrenner, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future. PMID:23873294

  18. BET Bromodomain Suppression Inhibits VEGF-induced Angiogenesis and Vascular Permeability by Blocking VEGFR2-mediated Activation of PAK1 and eNOS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingcheng; Qiu, Qian; Xiao, Youjun; Zeng, Shan; Zhan, Mingying; Shi, Maohua; Zou, Yaoyao; Ye, Yujin; Liang, Liuqin; Yang, Xiuyan; Xu, Hanshi

    2016-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a critical modulator of angiogenesis. Increasing evidence indicate the important role of bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) of chromatin adaptors in regulating tumor growth and inflammatory response. However, whether BET proteins have a role in angiogenesis and endothelial permeability is unclear. In this study, we observed that treatment with JQ1, a specific BET inhibitor, suppressed in vitro tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo angiogenesis in a Matrigel plug and oxygen-induced retinopathy neovascularization. JQ1 attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER in HUVECs and prevented Evans blue dye leakage in the VEGF-induced Miles assay in athymic Balb/c nude mice. BET inhibition with JQ1 or shRNA for Brd2 or Brd4 suppressed VEGF-induced migration, proliferation, and stress fiber formation of HUVECs. Furthermore, BET inhibition suppressed phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and PAK1, as well as eNOS activation in VEGF-stimulated HUVECs. Inhibition with VEGFR2 and PAK1 also reduced migration and proliferation, and attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER. Thus, our observations suggest the important role of BET bromodomain in regulating VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Strategies that target the BET bromodomain may provide a new therapeutic approach for angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:27044328

  19. BET Bromodomain Suppression Inhibits VEGF-induced Angiogenesis and Vascular Permeability by Blocking VEGFR2-mediated Activation of PAK1 and eNOS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mingcheng; Qiu, Qian; Xiao, Youjun; Zeng, Shan; Zhan, Mingying; Shi, Maohua; Zou, Yaoyao; Ye, Yujin; Liang, Liuqin; Yang, Xiuyan; Xu, Hanshi

    2016-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a critical modulator of angiogenesis. Increasing evidence indicate the important role of bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) of chromatin adaptors in regulating tumor growth and inflammatory response. However, whether BET proteins have a role in angiogenesis and endothelial permeability is unclear. In this study, we observed that treatment with JQ1, a specific BET inhibitor, suppressed in vitro tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo angiogenesis in a Matrigel plug and oxygen-induced retinopathy neovascularization. JQ1 attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER in HUVECs and prevented Evans blue dye leakage in the VEGF-induced Miles assay in athymic Balb/c nude mice. BET inhibition with JQ1 or shRNA for Brd2 or Brd4 suppressed VEGF-induced migration, proliferation, and stress fiber formation of HUVECs. Furthermore, BET inhibition suppressed phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and PAK1, as well as eNOS activation in VEGF-stimulated HUVECs. Inhibition with VEGFR2 and PAK1 also reduced migration and proliferation, and attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER. Thus, our observations suggest the important role of BET bromodomain in regulating VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Strategies that target the BET bromodomain may provide a new therapeutic approach for angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:27044328

  20. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    PubMed

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation. PMID:24519224

  1. Application of Elephant TB STAT-PAK assay and MAPIA (multi-antigen print immunoassay) for detection of tuberculosis and monitoring of treatment in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    PubMed

    Duncan, Ann E; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Rena; Miller, Michelle; Ball, Ray

    2009-12-01

    Many wildlife species including rhinos are susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. bovis. Antemortem diagnostic testing in large exotic hoof stock species has been limited by challenges associated with test administration, sample collection, and interpretation. Hence, a simple, rapid, blood-based test is needed. Two confirmed M. tuberculosis-infected black rhinoceros and one exposed suspect were evaluated for antibody responses using a lateral-flow rapid test (ElephantTB STAT-PAK) and multi-antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). All three animals were seropositive by both tests. MAPIA detected antibodies to ESAT-6, CFP10, and MPB83 antigens. When the rhinos were treated with antitubercular therapeutics, their antibody responses gradually declined. One rhinoceros died approximately 9 mo after initiation of treatment and showed an increase in antibody titer shortly before death. The other two rhinoceros, which were treated for 1 and 2 yr, respectively, had no clinical signs or positive culture for M. tuberculosis at the time of necropsy performed 2 or 6 yr later for unrelated reasons. The antibody levels in these rhinos continued to be significantly decreased. The findings suggest that the ElephantTB STAT-PAK and MAPIA may be useful tools to detect M. tuberculosis infection and monitor treatment in black rhinoceros. PMID:20063826

  2. Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland. Entwicklungs-, Umsetzungs- und Fortschreibungsprozess der Bund-Länder-Strategie für Städte und Regionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issaoui, Mariam; Sinz, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Die Ministerkonferenz für Raumordnung stellte im Mai 2010 fest, dass sich die „Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland“ (2006) bewährt haben und bei der Gestaltung der räumlichen Entwicklung umgesetzt werden. Um die Leitbilder den sich verändernden wirtschaftlichen, sozialen und naturräumlichen Rahmenbedingungen anzupassen und die Erkenntnisse aus dem bisherigen Diskussions- und Umsetzungsprozess in Politik und Praxis einzubeziehen, sind sie zu ergänzen und weiterzuentwickeln. Im Mittelpunkt der Fortschreibung werden die Themen „Partnerschaften und Strategien für Stadtregionen und ländliche Räume“, „Mobilität und Logistik“ sowie „Klimaschutz und Energieversorgung“ stehen.

  3. Die neue Kosmologie. Von Dunkelmaterie, GUTs und Superhaufen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, J.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, of the American original "Bubbles, voids, and bumps in time: the new cosmology", published 1989 (see 49.003.045). Contents: 1. Die Entdeckung des Weltalls: Eine Einleitung (A. P. Lightman). 2. Die Vermessung des Weltalls: Rotverschiebungen und Standardkerzen (R. P. Kirshner). 3. Die Kartierung des Weltalls: Scheiben und Blasen (M. J. Geller). 4. Die Bestimmung der Masse im Weltall: Dunkelmaterie und fehlende Masse (V. C. Rubin). 5. Der Beginn des Weltalls: Urknall und kosmische Inflation (A. H. Guth). 6. Die Ausweitung des Weltalls: Das Weltraumteleskop und Perspektiven für die nächsten 20 Jahre (J. E. Gunn).

  4. Zwischen Web 2.0, virtuellen Welten und Game-based Learning - Einsatzszenarien und Prototypen im Hochschulumfeld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, Hans

    Web 2.0, virtuelle Welten und Game-based Learning werden als Allheilmittel moderner Wissensvermittlung an Hochschulen genannt. Dieser Artikel beschreibt nach einer Einführung in die Thematik Einsatzszenarien und Prototypen im Hochschulumfeld anhand ausgewählter Web 2.0-Dienste, der virtuellen Welt Second Life, eines an der TUM entwickelten Frameworks für Gamebased Learning Applikationen und eines Lernspiels. Diese werden anhand von konkreten Lehr- und Lernszenarien vorgestellt und anhand der bisherigen Erfahrungen in diesem Bereich kritisch beleuchtet.

  5. Wilhelm Julius Foerster und die "Vereinigung von Freunden der Astronomie und kosmischen Physik" (1891 bis 1914).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, K.-H.

    Am 19. Mai 1891 wurde ins Leben gerufen die "Vereinigung von Freunden der Astronomie und der kosmischen Physik (nachfolg.: V.A.P.) - eine der beiden institutionellen Vorläufer der sich 1953 konstituierenden "Vereinigung der Sternfreunde".

  6. Gravitation und Kosmologie. Eine Einführung in die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexl, R. U.; Urbantke, H. K.

    Contents: 1. Physikalische Grundlagen. 2. Riemannsche Geometrie. 3. Gravitationstheorie. 4. Experimentelle Tests. 5. Kosmologie. 6. Gravitationswellen. 7. Neue differentialgeometrische Methoden. 8. Sternbau und Gravitationskollaps. 9. Felder im Riemannschen Raum. 10. Gravitation und Feldtheorie. 11. Gravitation und Eichtheorie.

  7. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of six p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters in cosmetics using Sep-Pak florisil cartridges for sample pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y; Yamamoto, M; Owada, K; Sato, S; Masui, T; Nakazawa, H; Fujita, M

    1987-12-11

    A rapid and simple method is described for the simultaneous determination of methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, n-propyl, isobutyl and n-butyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The method involves a single extraction of parabens with diethyl ether and clean-up on a Sep-Pak Florisil cartridge. Fat-soluble excipients in the diethyl ether extracts are removed through the cartridges with hexane-chloroform (75:25). Parabens are then eluted from the cartridges with hexane-ethyl acetate (70:30) and determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase column with water-methanol (50:50) as the mobile phase using sec.-butylpraben as an internal standard. The method was applied to samples with complicated matrices such as cream, milk lotion, lotion and cleansing foam, and the recoveries were 99.0-102.3% with coefficients of variation of 0.3-1.2%.

  8. Characterization and Comparative Genomic Analyses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PaoP5: New Members Assigned to PAK_P1-like Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mengyu; Le, Shuai; Jin, Xiaolin; Li, Gang; Tan, Yinling; Li, Ming; Zhao, Xia; Shen, Wei; Yang, Yuhui; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Hongbin; Li, Shu; Rao, Xiancai; Hu, Fuquan; Lu, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    As a potential alternative to antibiotics, phages can be used to treat multi-drug resistant bacteria. As such, the biological characteristics of phages should be investigated to utilize them as effective antimicrobial agents. In this study, phage PaoP5, a lytic virus that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, was isolated and genomically characterized. PaoP5 comprises an icosahedral head with an apex diameter of 69 nm and a contractile tail with a length of 120 nm. The PaoP5 genome is a linear dsDNA molecule containing 93,464 base pairs (bp) with 49.51% G + C content of 11 tRNA genes and a 1,200 bp terminal redundancy. A total of 176 protein-coding genes were predicted in the PaoP5 genome. Nine PaoP5 structural proteins were identified. Three hypothetical proteins were determined as structural. Comparative genomic analyses revealed that seven new Pseudomonas phages, namely, PaoP5, K8, C11, vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab02, vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab08, vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab10, and vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab15, were similar to PAK_P1-like viruses. Phylogenetic and pan-genome analyses suggested that the new phages should be assigned to PAK_P1-like viruses, which possess approximately 100 core genes and 150 accessory genes. This work presents a detailed and comparative analysis of PaoP5 to enhance our understanding of phage biology. PMID:27659070

  9. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  10. Bemerkungen zur Relativitätstheorie und zu den Quanten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Peter G.

    Die theoretischen und experimentellen Grundlagen von Gravitations- und Quantenphysik, die Beziehung beider Theorien und die Bedeutung wesentlicher Begriffe, wie Observable, werden diskutiert.Translated AbstractRemarks on Relativity and on Quantum TheoryThe theoretical and experimental foundations of gravitation and quantum physics are discussed as well as the relation of these two theories and the role of basic notions like observables.

  11. Vom Urknall zum Zerfall. Die Welt zwischen Anfang und Ende.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsch, H.

    Contents: Der Tanz mit dem Ozean. Galaktische Landkarte. Das Maß der Dinge. Der würfelnde Gott der Quantenphysik. Geheimnisvolle Felder. Materie und Antimaterie. Quarks - Urstoff unserer Welt. Zerfallende Protonen und die Einheit der Physik. Der Zauberofen. Das überschaubare Universum. Das explodierende Universum. Nachhall der Schöpfung. Der achtfache Weg der kosmischen Entwicklung. Das Ende der Welt. Einheit in der Vielfalt. Das geistige Universum. Gott und das absurde Universum.

  12. Das menschliche Gehör und Grundlagen der Psychoakustik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Sottek, Roland

    Das menschliche Gehör ist ein äußerst komplexes Empfangs- und Signalverarbeitungssystem. Es ist als Schallanalysator in Leistungsfähigkeit und Vielseitigkeit von technisch-analytischen Verfahren nach wie vor unerreicht. Die Signalverarbeitung läuft auf Grundlage komplexer Prozesse ab, die in ihrer Gesamtheit bislang nicht vollständig erfasst sind. Verschiedene Modelle zur gehörgerechten Zeit- und Frequenzanalyse ahmen jene komplexen Prozesse und Verarbeitungsmechanismen nach, die im menschlichen Gehör vollzogen werden.

  13. Ökologische Grundlagen und limitierende Faktoren der Renaturierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Gert; Eichberg, Carsten

    In den dicht besiedelten und agrarisch besonders intensiv genutzten Regionen Mittel- und Westeuropas ist seit Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges ein fortschreitender Verlust an naturnahen ökosystemen mit hoher biologischer Vielfalt zu verzeichnen. Spätestens seit den 1970er-Jahren ist daher die Neuschaffung und Wiederherstellung gefährdeter Lebensräume und Biozönosen zunehmend in den Mittelpunkt von Naturschutzmaßnahmen gerückt (Bakker 1989, Muller et al. 1998, Bakker und Berendse 1999). Aufgrund fehlender wissenschaftlicher Grundlagen und praktischer Erfahrungen wurden Renaturierungsmaßnahmen anfangs fast durchweg nach dem trial and error-Prinzip durchgeführt. Im Vordergrund standen dabei zunächst die Wiederherstellung adäquater abiotischer Standortbedingungen sowie die Reorganisation traditioneller Nutzungsmanagements. Bei Ersterem ging es neben der Wiedervernässung entwässerter Feuchtgebiete (Pfadenhauer und Grootjans 1999) vor allem darum, Eutrophierungseffekte zu beseitigen und die Produktivität des Standortes auf das Niveau der Zielgemeinschaft zurückzuführen (Gough und Marrs 1990, Oomes et al. 1996, Snow et al. 1997, Tallowin et al. 1998).

  14. Supraleitung und Interkontinentalraketen „On-line computing“ zwischen Militär, Industrie und Wissenschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knolle, Johannes; Joas, Christian

    Der zweite Weltkrieg und der Kalte Krieg veränderten nicht nur das Verhältnis zwischen Militär, Industrie und Wissenschaft, sondern auch die wissenschaftliche Praxis von Physikern und anderen Wissenschaftlern. In den 1950er Jahren stellte die Entwicklung von Interkontinentalraketen die Auftragnehmer des Militärs in der Industrie vor komplexe Fragestellungen, zu deren Lösung sie auf die Expertise von Wissenschaftlern angewiesen waren. Industrieunternehmen gründeten eigene Forschungseinheiten zur Lösung technischer und wissenschaftlicher Probleme.

  15. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  16. Haptische Modellierung und Deformation einer Kugelzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippritt, Darius; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

    Haptische Simulationsmodelle dienen in der Medizin in erster Linie dem Training operativer Eingriffe. Sie basieren zumeist auf physikalischen Gewebemodellen, welche eine sehr genaue Simulation der biomechanischen Eigenschaften des betreffenden Gewebes erlauben, aber gleichzeitig sehr rechenintensiv und damit zeitaufwändig in der Ausführung sind. Die menschliche Wahrnehmung kann allerdings auch eine ungenaue haptische Modellierung psychooptisch ausgleichen. Daher kann es sinnvoll sein, haptische Simulationen auch mit nicht vollständig physikalisch definierten Deformationsmodellen durchzuführen. Am Beispiel der haptischer Simulation einer in-vitro Fertilisation wird gezeigt, dass durch die Anwendung eines geometrischen Deformationsmodells eine künstliche Befruchtung unter realistischen experimentellen Bedingungen in Echtzeit haptisch simuliert und damit trainiert werden kann.

  17. Biochips und ihr Einsatz in der Lebensmittelanalytik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Ingrid; Zeltz, Patric

    Mit der Verbreitung des Begriffes "Biochip“ in den biotechnologischen Medien wurde Ende der 1990er-Jahre zunächst der Eindruck erweckt, dass die Computerelektronik in die molekularbiologischen Anwendungen eingestiegen ist [18]. In nur wenigen Jahren hat sich die Biochiptechnologie zu einem Verfahren entwickelt, das aus der molekularbiologischen Grundlagenforschung nicht mehr wegzudenken ist und über eine Vielzahl von Einsatzbereichen verfügt. Die Biochiptechnologie ermöglicht die Miniaturisierung von DNA-, RNA- bzw. Proteinanalytik in hochparallelen Formaten. Dieser hohe Parallelisierungsgrad ist einer der wesentlichen Vorteile dieser Technik gegenüber klassischen molekularbiologischen Methoden. Sie wird heutzutage vor allem in der Genomforschung eingesetzt, für Genexpressionsstudien, zum Screening von single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in der pharmakogenetischen Forschung sowie in der Erforschung von Erbkrankheiten und in der Krebsforschung [1, 7, 19]. Neben vielen weiteren Bereichen finden Biochips auch spezielle Anwendungen in der Lebensmittelanalytik.

  18. Elektronische Citizen Cards in Deutschland und Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Bernd

    Meine sehr geehrten Damen und Herren, der Bedarf an elektronischen Identitäten entsteht durch die wachsende Mobilität der Gesellschaft bei einem gleichzeitig steigenden Bedarf an Onlinepräsenz. Diese elektronischen Identitäten machen natürlich auch vor den staatlichen Ausweisen nicht halt, wie zum Beispiel dem Reisepass, aber auch dem Personalausweis und weiteren Ausweisdokumenten. Wobei es bei den staatlich herausgegebenen oder kontrollierten Ausweisen immer um zwei verschiedene Dinge geht: Einmal um die hoheitliche Funktion, wie zum Beispiel beim Reisepass. Hier geht es zum Beispiel darum, in einem Europa mit gefallenen Grenzen und bei freiem Reiseverkehr für alle Personen, die in diesem Raum wohnen, insbesondere auch im Schengener Raum, die Möglichkeit zu schaffen, auch künftig noch Personenkontrollen durchzuführen. Auch der Reiseverkehr über die europäischen Grenzen hinaus ist insofern ein Problem, da die Identitätenprüfung an den Grenzkontrollen immer schwieriger wird. Deswegen braucht man an dieser Stelle Möglichkeiten, um eine Personenüberprüfung durchzuführen, um feststellen zu können, dass diese Person auch zum Dokument gehört.

  19. Therapeutisches Management kutaner und genitaler Warzen.

    PubMed

    Ockenfels, Hans Michael

    2016-09-01

    Mindestens 10 % der Bevölkerung erkranken während ihres Lebens an einer Infektion mit humanen Papillomaviren (HPV), welche sich klinisch anhand der Ausbildung kutaner oder genitaler Warzen manifestiert. Obwohl Warzen ubiquitär sind, existieren keine definierten Behandlungen. Warzen zeigen, insbesondere in den ersten sechs Monaten, eine erhöhte Selbstheilungsrate. Dieser Umstand erschwert die Interpretation von Studien, da häufig Patienten mit Neuinfektionen zusammen mit Patienten mit Altinfektionen behandelt werden. Lokalisationen, Größe und Dicke der Warzen sind ebenfalls in den meisten Fällen nicht berücksichtigt. Ziel dieses Übersichtsartikels ist eine Analyse des vorliegenden Studienmaterials, unter der für den klinischen Alltag so wichtigen Berücksichtigung von Subtypen und Lokalisationen. Insbesondere die Abgrenzung zwischen frischen und chronisch-therapieresistenten Verrucae vulgares spiegelt sich in einem Therapiealgorithmus wider. Bei genitalen Warzen wird der Therapiealgorithmus deutlicher durch das Ausmaß der infizierten Fläche als durch das Alter der Warzen bestimmt. Bei immunkompetenten Personen muss es mit den hier aufgezeigten therapeutischen Methoden immer das Ziel sein, eine komplette Abheilung zu erzielen. PMID:27607029

  20. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  1. Dorfentwicklung und Dorferneuerung . Die neuen Bundesländer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Oliver; Richter, Horst P.

    1997-03-01

    Das 1975 in Kraft getretene Bundesraumordnungsprogramm forderte, in allen Landesteilen angemessene und gleichwertige Lebensbedingungen herzustellen. Mit der Novellierung des Flurbereinigungsgesetzes 1976 bzw. dem Zukunftsinvestitionsprogramm 1977 bis 1980 startete die Dorfentwicklung/Dorferneuerung nicht zuletzt als Initiative zur Konjunkturbelebung im ländlichen Raum. Seit 1984 ist sie Bestandteil der von Bund und Ländern getragenen Gemeinschaftsaufgabe "Verbesserung der Agrarstruktur und des Küstenschutzes" (GAK) und liegt im Zuständigkeitsbereich der Landwirtschaftsministerien. Die Dorferneuerungsprogramme der Länder werden aus Mitteln der GAK, der EU und des Landes finanziert. Neben Ortssanierungen nach dem Städtebauförderungsgesetz bzw. Baugesetzbuch stellen sie das wichtigste Instrument zur Förderung von ländlichen Orten und Gemeinden dar. Nach der Vereinigung wurde das Dorferneuerungsrecht auf die neuen Bundesländer übertragen, indem man sich zunächst an den Regelungen der jeweiligen Partnerländer im Westen orientierte. Doch hatten sich die Dörfer in Ost- und Westdeutschland nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg völlig unterschiedlich entwickelt, so dass sich im Osten ein erweiterter Handlungsbedarf zeigte. Für Fachleute aus Politik, Verwaltung, Wissenschaft und freien Planungsberufen, nicht zuletzt für angewandt arbeitende Geographen, stellten sich neue Herausforderungen.

  2. High mutagenic activity of juice from pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) sprouts due to its content of 1-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate, and its enhancement by elicitation with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Melanie; Schreiner, Monika; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2014-05-01

    Cruciferous vegetables have the reputation to protect against cancer, an effect attributed to glucosinolates (GLS) and their breakdown products. However, some GLS are mutagenic, an activity associated with cancer initiation rather than chemoprevention. We show that juices from steamed pak choi sprouts are strongly mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 upon addition of fresh myrosinase. Growth of the plants in the presence of methyl jasmonate, a hormone eliciting defence factors, led to 20-fold enhanced mutagenic activity. The level of 1-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl (1-MIM)-GLS was similarly increased, whereas those of other GLS were only elevated 0.8- to 3.2-fold. 1-MIM-GLS is a potent mutagen, whose activity is further enhanced by human sulphotransferase 1A1 (hSULT1A1), an activation not observed with other GLS. The mutagenicity of the pak choi juices was increased 20-fold in bacteria expressing hSULT1A1. A tiny level of juice from elicitated sprouts, 0.04% in the mutagenicity assay, was sufficient to double the number of revertants above the spontaneous level. We conclude that pak choi juice is mutagenic, an activity that can be strongly affected by the growth conditions. It is owed essentially to a single component, 1-MIM-GLS. We recommend using cultivars, growth conditions and/or food preparations that keep the level of this GLS congener low.

  3. Der neue Kosmos. Einführung in die Astronomie und Astrophysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsöld, Albrecht; Baschek, Bodo

    Der neue Kosmos bietet in überschaubarem Umfang eine zusammenhängende Einführung in das Gesamtgebiet der Astronomie und Astrophysik. Aus den Bereichen: Klassische Astronomie und Planetensystem, Instrumente und Beobachtungsverfahren, Sonne und Sterne, Milchstraße und Galaxien, Kosmologie, Entstehung des Planetensystems, Entwicklung der Erde und des Lebens werden die Beobachtungsmethoden und die Ergebnisse astronomischer Forschung sowie deren theoretische Grundlagen und wechselseitigen Zusammenhänge vermittelt. Die aktualisierte 7. Auflage berücksichtigt den raschen Fortschritt astronomischer Forschung der letzten drei Jahre von unserem Planetensystem und den Entdeckungen zahlreicher Planeten bei anderen Sternen, über die fernsten Galaxien und Quasare bis zur Entwicklung der modernen Kosmologie.

  4. Renaturierung von subalpinen und alpinen Ökosystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautzer, B.; Klug, Brigitte

    Die große Vielfalt an alpinen und subalpinen Ökosystemen auf waldfreien Standorten stellt besonders hohe Anforderungen an Planung und Durchführung von Renaturierungsmaßnahmen. Zunehmende Meereshöhe, starke Hangneigungen und extreme klimatische Verhältnisse im Gebirge bedingen zudem seit jeher natürliche Erosionsprozesse. Die zahllosen menschlichen Aktivitäten der letzten Jahrzehnte, gepaart mit unzureichenden Begrünungsmaßnahmen, erhöhen dieses Risiko noch um ein Vielfaches: Geländekorrekturen im Zuge von Skipistenbauten, Almrevitalisierungen, Forst- und Almwegebauten, Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der touristischen Infrastruktur oder Wildbach- und Lawinenverbauungen. Nur durch Verwendung von hochwertigem, dem Standort angepasstem Pflanzen-oder Saatgutmaterial in Kombination mit der passenden Begrünungstechnik kann dieser Bedrohung dauerhaft entgegengewirkt werden. Dabei sind folgende limitierende Faktoren besonders zu beachten.

  5. Strahlen-und kinetische Waffen: Neue Waffentechniken und Rüstungskontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuneck, Götz

    Laserstrahlen, Mikrowellen oder elektromagnetische Beschleuniger lassen sich nicht nur für zivile, sondern für militärische Zwecke einsetzen. Die Aufgabe einer vorbeugenden Rüstungskontrolle wäre es, diese wie andere künftige Waffentechnologien auf ihren destabilisierenden Charakter hin zu untersuchen und ihre Stationierung zu beschränken oder zu verhindern.

  6. Impact of fermentation on phenolic compounds in leaves of pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) and Chinese leaf mustard (Brassica juncea coss).

    PubMed

    Harbaum, Britta; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Zhu, Zhujun; Schwarz, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Four different cultivars of Chinese Brassica vegetables (two pak choi cultivars and two Chinese leaf mustard cultivars) were fermented according to a traditional Chinese method called pickling. The plant material was investigated before and after the fermentation procedure to determine the qualitative and quantitative changes in its polyphenols. A detailed description of the identified phenolic compounds of leaf mustard by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) is presented here for the first time, including hydroxycinnamic acid mono- and diglycosides (gentiobioses) and flavonoid tetraglycosides. Flavonoid derivatives with a lower molecular mass (di- and triglycosides) and aglycones of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were detected in fermented cabbages compared to the main compounds detected in nonfermented cabbages (tri- and tetraglycosides of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of malic acid, glycoside, and quinic acid). During the fermentation process, contents of flavonoid derivatives and some hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were found to decrease. Some marginal losses of polyphenols were observed even in the kneading step of the plant material prior to the fermentation procedure. The antioxidative potential of fermented cabbages was much higher compared to that of nonfermented cabbages in the TEAC assay, but not observable in the DPPH assay. The increase of the antioxidative potential detected in the TEAC assay was attributed to the qualitative changes of polyphenols as well as other reductones potentially present. PMID:18078315

  7. Entwicklungsperspektiven von Social Software und dem Web 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Alexander

    Der Artikel beschäftigt sich zunächst mit dem derzeitigen und zukünftigen Einsatz von Social Software in Unternehmen. Nach dem großen Erfolg von Social Software im Web beginnen viele Unternehmen eigene Social Software-Initiativen zu entwickeln. Der Artikel zeigt die derzeit wahrgenommenen Einsatzmöglichkeiten von Social Software im Unternehmen auf, erörtert Erfolgsfaktoren für die Einführung und präsentiert mögliche Wege für die Zukunft. Nach der Diskussion des Spezialfalles Social Software in Unternehmen werden anschließend die globalen Trends und Zukunftsperspektiven des Web 2.0 in ihren technischen, wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Dimensionen dargestellt. Wie aus den besprochenen Haupttrends hervorgeht, wird die Masse an digital im Web verfügbaren Informationen stetig weiterwachsen. So stellt sich die Frage, wie es in Zukunft möglich sein wird, die Qualität der Informationssuche und der Wissensgenerierung zu verbessern. Mit dem Einsatz von semantischen Technologien im Web wird hier eine revolutionäre Möglichkeit geboten, Informationen zu filtern und intelligente, gewissermaßen verstehende" Anwendungen zu entwerfen. Auf dem Weg zu einem intelligenten Web werden sich das Semantic Web und Social Software annähern: Anwendungen wie Semantic Wikis, Semantic Weblogs, lightweight Semantic Web-Sprachen wie Microformats oder auch kommerzielle Angebote wie Freebase von Metaweb werden die ersten Vorzeichen einer dritten Generation des Webs sein.

  8. Darwinische Kulturtheorie - Evolutionistische und "evolutionistische`` Theorien sozialen Wandels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antweiler, Christoph

    Evolutionistische Argumentationen außerhalb der Biologie sind weit verbreitet. Wenn sie vertreten werden, heißt das mitnichten, dass sie notwendigerweise von darwinischen Argumenten geprägt sind. Wenn man Evolution und Kultur aus explizit darwinischer Perspektive zusammen bringt, bedeutet das noch lange nicht unbedingt Soziobiologie. Und es bedeutet sicherlich nicht Sozialdarwinismus. Dieser Beitrag soll einen Überblick der so genannten evolutionären Ansätze bzw. evolutionistischen Ansätze zu menschlichen Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen geben. Es soll gezeigt werden, was in den Ansätzen analytisch zu trennen ist und was synthetisch zusammen gehört. Mein Beitrag ist nicht wissenschaftsgeschichtlich angelegt, sondern systematisch ausgerichtet und hat zwei Schwerpunkte (Antweiler 2008; Antweiler 2009b). Zum einen geht es um kausale Zusammenhänge von organischer Evolution und gesellschaftlichem Wandel. Auf der anderen Seite werden Analogien zwischen biotischer und kultureller Evolution erläutert, die als spezifische Ähnlichkeiten dieser beiden als grundsätzlich verschieden gesehenen Prozesse aufgefasst werden. Dadurch wird die Frage aufgeworfen, ob die Evolution von Organismen einerseits und die Transformation von Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen andererseits, spezielle Fälle eines allgemeinen Modells von Evolution darstellen.

  9. Das CARNOTsche Paradigma und seine erkenntnistheoretischen Implikationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpf, Hans-Georg

    Der vorliegende historisch-kritische Essay führt die Eigentümlichkeiten der klassischen phänomenologischen Thermodynamik auf das von CARNOT geschaffene Paradigma zurück und greift einige damit zusammenhängende Fragen auf.Translated AbstractCARNOT's Paradigm and its Epistemological ImplicationsThe present historic-critical essay traces the pecularities of classical phenomenological thermodynamics back to the paradigm, created by CARNOT, and takes up some questions to which this paradigm gives rise.

  10. [Leben im Eismeer - Tauchuntersuchungen zur Biologie arktischer Meerespflanzen und Meerestiere

    PubMed

    Lippert; Karsten; Wiencke

    2000-01-01

    Die Maske wird nochmals auf Dichtigkeit überprüft, der Knoten der Sicherungsleine mit zwei halben Schlägen fixiert, dann rutscht die Taucherin von der Eiskante in das kalte Wasser. Eine halbe Stunde vergeht, bevor ihr Kopf wieder aus dem Eisloch auftaucht und sie ein großes Sammelnetz nach oben reicht, gefüllt mit verschiedenen Arten von Makroalgen. Obwohl noch große Flächen des Kongsfjordes im arktischen Spitzbergen zugefroren sind und das Festland von einer dicken Schneedecke bedeckt ist, hat unter Wasser in den Algenwäldern bereits der Sommer und damit die Saison der Meeresbiologen begonnen.

  11. Diagnose und Therapie einer Depression im höheren Lebensalter – Einflüsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen

    PubMed Central

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Bönte, Markus; Siegrist, Johannes; Marceau, Lisa; Link, Carol; McKinlay, John

    2013-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Studienergebnissee aus dem englischsprachigen Raum zeigen, dass diagnostische und therapeutische Entscheidungen von Hausärzten bei der Versorgung von depressiven Patienten systematischen Einflüssen unterliegen, und dass sowohl Merkmale des Arztes als auch des Patienten unabhängig vom Krankheitsbild Einfluss auf diese Entscheidungen haben. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden Ergebnisse einer deutschen Studie präsentiert, in der die Einflüsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen auf diagnostische und therapeutische ärztliche Entscheidungen bei einer Depression untersucht wurden. Unter Anwendung eines faktoriellen Experimentaldesigns spielten professionelle Schauspieler in Videofilmen die Rolle von Patienten, die Symptome für eine depressive Erkrankung äußern. In den Videofilmen, die alle auf einem identischen Skript basieren, wurden systematisch die Patientenmerkmale Alter (55 vs. 75 Jahre), Geschlecht und sozialer Status (Hausmeister vs. Lehrer) variiert. Die randomisierte Ärztestichprobe wurde nach dem Arztgeschlecht und professioneller Erfahrung (< 5 vs. > 15 Jahre) geschichtet. Der Videofilm wurde insgesamt 128 niedergelassenen Ärzten für Allgemeinmedizin und hausärztlich tätigen Internisten in ihrer Praxis vorgespielt. Danach wurden die Ärzte zu unterschiedlichen Aspekten von Diagnose und Therapie befragt. Es wurde erhoben, ob der Arzt dem Patienten über das gezeigte Gespräch hinausgehende Fragen stellen würde, welche Diagnosen er für wahrscheinlich hält, wie sicher er sich mit seiner Diagnose ist, welche diagnostischen Tests er anordnen würde, ob er den Patienten überweisen würde oder ob er Medikamente verordnen oder ihm Empfehlungen zur Änderung seines Lebensstils geben würde. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass sowohl die Diagnose als auch die Therapie einer Depression durch niedergelassene Hausärzte in Deutschland nur geringfügig durch die untersuchten Merkmale der Patienten und der behandelnden Ärzte beeinflusst wird

  12. Update of the tectonic model for the Pannonian basin: a contribution to the seismic hazard reassessment of the Paks NPP (Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Ferenc; Tóth, Tamás; Wórum, Géza; Koroknai, Balázs; Kádi, Zoltán; Kovács, Gábor; Balázs, Attila; Visnovitz, Ferenc

    2015-04-01

    The planned construction of two new units at the site of the Paks NPP requires a comprehensive site investigation including complete reassessment of the seismic hazard according to the Hungarian as well as international standards. Following the regulations of the Specific Safety Guide no. 9 (IAEA 2010), the approved Hungarian Geological Investigation Program (HGIP) includes integrated geological-geophysical studies at different scales. The regional study aims at to elaborate a new synthesis of all published data for the whole Pannonian basin. This task is nearly completed and the main outcomes have already been published (Horváth et al. 2015). The near regional study is in progress and addresses the construction of a new tectonic model for the circular area with 50 km radius around the NPP using a wealth of unpublished oil company seismic and borehole data. The site vicinity study has also been started with a core activity of 300 km² 3D seismic data acquisition, processing and interpretation assisted by a series of additional geophysical surveys, new drillings and geological mapping. This lecture will present a few important results of the near regional study, which sheds new light on the intricate tectonic evolution of the Mid-Hungarian Fault Zone (MHFZ), which is a strongly deformed belt between the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia megatectonic units. The nuclear power plant is located at the margin of the Tisza unit near to the southern edge of the MHFZ. Reassessment of seismic hazard at the site of the NPP requires better understanding of the Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of this region in the central part of the Pannonian basin. Early to Middle Miocene was a period of rifting with formation of 1 to 3 km deep half-grabens filled with terrestrial to marine deposits and large amount of rift-related volcanic material. Graben fill became strongly deformed as a consequence of juxtaposition of the two megatectonic units leading to strong compression and development of

  13. Documentation and Control of Flow Separation on a Low Pressure Turbine Linear Cascade of Pak-B Blades Using Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corke, Thomas c.; Thomas, FLint, O.; Huang, Junhui

    2007-01-01

    This work involved the documentation and control of flow separation that occurs over low pressure turbine (LPT) blades at low Reynolds numbers. A specially constructed linear cascade was utilized to study the flow field over a generic LPT cascade consisting of Pratt & Whitney "Pak-B" shaped blades. Flow visualization, surface pressure measurements, LDV measurements, and hot-wire anemometry were conducted to examine the flow fields with and without separation control. Experimental conditions were chosen to give a range of chord Reynolds numbers (based on axial chord and inlet velocity) from 10,000 to 100,000, and a range of freestream turbulence intensities from u'/U(infinity) = 0.08 to 2.85 percent. The blade pressure distributions were measured and used to identify the region of separation that depends on Reynolds number and the turbulence intensity. Separation control was performed using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators. Both steady and unsteady actuation were implemented and found to work well. The comparison between the steady and unsteady actuators showed that the unsteady actuators worked better than the steady ones. For the steady actuators, it was found that the separated region is significantly reduced. For the unsteady actuators, where the signal was pulsed, the separation was eliminated. The total pressure losses (a low Reynolds number) was reduced by approximately a factor of two. It was also found that lowest plasma duty cycle (10 percent in this work) was as effective as the highest plasma duty cycle (50 percent in this work). The mechanisms of the steady and unsteady plasma actuators were studied. It was suggested by the experimental results that the mechanism for the steady actuators is turbulence tripping, while the mechanism for the unsteady actuators is to generate a train of spanwise structures that promote mixing.

  14. The role of Pak-interacting exchange factor-β phosphorylation at serines 340 and 583 by PKCγ in dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Shirafuji, Toshihiko; Ueyama, Takehiko; Yoshino, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Adachi, Naoko; Ago, Yukio; Koda, Ken; Nashida, Tetsuaki; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Matsuda, Toshio; Toda, Tatsushi; Sakai, Norio; Saito, Naoaki

    2014-07-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in the control of neurotransmitter release. The AS/AGU rat, which has a nonsense mutation in PKCγ, shows symptoms of parkinsonian syndrome, including dopamine release impairments in the striatum. Here, we found that the AS/AGU rat is PKCγ-knock-out (KO) and that PKCγ-KO mice showed parkinsonian syndrome. However, the PKCγ substrates responsible for the regulated exocytosis of dopamine in vivo have not yet been elucidated. To identify the PKCγ substrates involved in dopamine release, we used PKCγ-KO mice and a phosphoproteome analysis. We found 10 candidate phosphoproteins that had decreased phosphorylation levels in the striatum of PKCγ-KO mice. We focused on Pak-interacting exchange factor-β (βPIX), a Cdc42/Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, and found that PKCγ directly phosphorylates βPIX at Ser583 and indirectly at Ser340 in cells. Furthermore, we found that PKC phosphorylated βPIX in vivo. Classical PKC inhibitors and βPIX knock-down (KD) significantly suppressed Ca(2+)-evoked dopamine release in PC12 cells. Wild-type βPIX, and not the βPIX mutants Ser340 Ala or Ser583 Ala, fully rescued the decreased dopamine release by βPIX KD. Double KD of Cdc42 and Rac1 decreased dopamine release from PC12 cells. These findings indicate that the phosphorylation of βPIX at Ser340 and Ser583 has pivotal roles in Ca(2+)-evoked dopamine release in the striatum. Therefore, we propose that PKCγ positively modulates dopamine release through β2PIX phosphorylation. The PKCγ-βPIX-Cdc42/Rac1 phosphorylation axis may provide a new therapeutic target for the treatment of parkinsonian syndrome.

  15. The Women of "Kabale und Liebe": A Teaching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Naomi I.

    1976-01-01

    The three female characters in Schiller's "Kabale und Liebe" are analyzed. The article questions the value of using this play in a college curriculum because of the oppressive and unenlightened roles of the female characters. (TL)

  16. Konstruieren von Pkw-Karosserien: Grundlagen, Elemente und Baugruppen, Vorschriftenübersicht, Beispiele mit CATIA V4 und V5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabner, Jörg; Nothhaft, Richard

    Die Faszination, die vom Auto ausgeht, ist und bleibt ungebrochen. Entsprechend interessant ist es, sich vor dem Hintergrund konventioneller Konstruktionstechniken über die virtuelle Produktentwicklung von Pkw-Karosserien an modernen CAD-Arbeitsplätzen informieren zu können. Die Autoren führen in die Grundlagen ein und zeigen anhand von Beispielen und zahlreichen Abbildungen, wie mit dem System CATIA der Rohbau sowie die Ausstattung innen und au=C3=9Fen konstruiert werden. Darüber hinaus wird das so genannte "Package" an Beispielen beschrieben, also das Management und die Harmonisierung der Anforderungen an die Bauräume (z.

  17. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  18. Physik gestern und heute Von der Metallstange zum Hochenergielaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Im Mai 1752 wurde in Marly bei Paris auf Anregung des amerikanischen Forschers und Politikers Benjamin Franklin erstmals die elektrische Natur des Blitzes nachgewiesen. Damals beschrieb Franklin auch eine technische Vorrichtung, die als Schutz von Gebäuden vor Blitzschlägen dienen sollte: den Blitzableiter. Diese aus heutiger Sicht scheinbar triviale Vorrichtung wurde aber keineswegs unmittelbar akzeptiert. Und bis heute ist die Forschung zum Schutz von Einrichtungen vor Blitzschlägen nicht abgeschlossen.

  19. Isolation and expression of glucosinolate synthesis genes CYP83A1 and CYP83B1 in Pak Choi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis var. communis (N. Tsen & S.H. Lee) Hanelt).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Biao; Wang, Zhizhou; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Zhujun; Wang, Huasen

    2012-01-01

    CYP83A1 and CYP83B1 are two key synthesis genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway. CYP83A1 mainly metabolizes the aliphatic oximes to form aliphatic glucosinolate and CYP83B1 mostly catalyzes aromatic oximes to synthesis corresponding substrates for aromatic and indolic glucosinolates. In this study, two CYP83A1 genes named BcCYP83A1-1 (JQ289997), BcCYP83A1-2 (JQ289996) respectively and one CYP83B1 (BcCYP83B1, HM347235) gene were cloned from the leaves of pak choi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis var. communis (N. Tsen & S.H. Lee) Hanelt) "Hangzhou You Dong Er" cultivar. Their ORFs were 1506, 1509 and 1500 bp in length, encoding 501, 502 and 499 amino acids, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences of CYP83A1-1, CYP83A1-2 and CYP83B1 shared high sequence identity of 87.65, 86.48 and 95.59% to the corresponding ones in Arabidopsis, and 98.80, 98.61 and 98.80% to the corresponding ones in Brassica pekinensis (Chinese cabbage), respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that both CYP83A1 and CYP83B1 expressed in roots, leaves and petioles of pak choi, while the transcript abundances of CYP83A1 were higher in leaves than in petioles and roots, whereas CYP83B1 showed higher abundances in roots. The expression levels of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes were consistent with the glucosinolate profile accumulation in shoots of seven cultivars and three organs. The isolation and characterization of the glucosinolate synthesis genes in pak choi would promote the way for further development of agronomic traits via genetic engineering.

  20. Structural and Kinetic Effects of PAK3 phosphorylation mimic of cTnI(S151E) on the cTnC-cTnI Interaction in the Cardiac Thin Filament

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Yexin; Mamidi, Ranganath; Jayasundar, Jayant James; Chandra, Murali; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2010-01-01

    Residue Ser151 of cTnI is known to be phosphorylated by p21-activated kinase 3 (PAK3). It has been found that PAK3-mediated phosphorylation of cTnI induces an increase in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity, but the detailed mechanism is unknown. We investigated how the structural and kinetic effects mediated by pseudo-phosphorylation of cTnI (S151E) modulates Ca2+-induced activation of cardiac thin filaments. Using steady-state, time-resolved Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and stopped-flow kinetic measurements, we monitored Ca2+-induced changes in cTnI-cTnC interactions. Measurements were done using reconstituted thin filaments, which contained the pseudo-phosphorylated cTnI(S151E). We hypothesized that the thin filament regulation is modulated by altered cTnC-cTnI interactions due to charge modification caused by the phosphorylation of Ser151 in cTnI. Our results showed that the pseudo-phosphorylation of cTnI (S151E) sensitizes structural changes to Ca2+ by shortening the intersite distances between cTnC and cTnI. Furthermore, kinetic rates of Ca2+ dissociation-induced structural change in the regulatory region of cTnI were significantly reduced by cTnI (S151E). The aforementioned effects of pseudo-phosphorylation of cTnI were similar to the effects of strong crossbridges on structural changes in cTnI. Our results provide novel information on how cardiac thin filament regulation is modulated by PAK3 phosphorylation of cTnI. PMID:20540949

  1. Sticktechnologie für medizinische Textilien und Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamuk, Erdal; Mayer, Jörg; Wintermantel, Erich

    Textile Strukturen werden in grossem Ausmass als medizinische Implantate eingesetzt, um Weich- und Hartgewebe zu unterstützen oder zu ersetzen. Im Tissue Engineering gewinnen sie an Bedeutung als scaffolds, um biologische Gewebe in vitro zu züchten für anschliessende Implantation oder extrakorporale Anwendungen. Textilien sind gewöhnlich anisotrope zweidimensionale Strukturen mit hoher Steifigkeit in der Ebene und geringer Biegesteifigkeit. Durch eine Vielzahl textiler Prozesse und durch entsprechende Wahl des Fasermaterials ist es möglich, Oberfläche, Porosität und mechanische Anisotropie in hohem Masse zu variieren. Wegen ihrer einzigartigen strukturellen und mechanischen Eigenschaften können faserbasierte Materialien in weitem Masse biologischem Gewebe nachgeahmt werden [1]. Gesticke erweitern das Feld von technischen und besonders medizinischen Textilien, denn sie vereinen sehr hohe strukturelle Variabilität mit der Möglichkeit, mechanische Eigenschaften in einem grossen Bereich einzustellen, um so die mechanischen Anforderungen des Empfängergewebes zu erfüllen (Abb. 42.1).

  2. Zahlen und Rechenvorgänge auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsniveaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödler, Klaus

    "Das Verständnis geht langsam vor sich!" Diesen wichtigen Satz hörte ich bei einem Vortrag von Martin Lowsky. Auf die hier behandelte Fragestellung übertragen heißt das: Was eine Zahl ist und wie ich sie im Rechenvorgang einsetzen und interpretieren kann, das erschließt sich erst allmählich. Die Zahl des Rechenanfängers ist nicht dieselbe wie die des kompetenten Rechners und es ist nicht die Zahl des Lehrers oder der Lehrerin. Die Zahlen sind nur auf der Oberfläche der Worte und Zeichen gleich. Im Innern, im Verständnis, sind sie völlig verschieden! Ich glaube, dass die Missachtung dieser Divergenz dazu führt, dass manche Kinder in für den Lehrer und Lehrerin nicht nachvollziehbaren Routinen stecken bleiben, einfachste Informationen nicht wirklich integrieren. Die auf beiden Seiten wachsende Verunsicherung durch die nicht erkannte und daher nicht kommunizierbare Diskrepanz im inneren Zahlkonzept stört den allmählichen Aufbau strukturierter Zahlvorstellungen.

  3. S1-Leitlinie zur UV-Phototherapie und Photochemotherapie.

    PubMed

    Herzinger, Thomas; Berneburg, Mark; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Gollnick, Harald; Hölzle, Erhard; Hönigsmann, Herbert; Lehmann, Percy; Peters, Thorsten; Röcken, Martin; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Schwarz, Thomas; Simon, Jan; Tanew, Adrian; Weichenthal, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Die heilsame Wirkung des Sonnenlichts war teilweise schon im Altertum bekannt und fand in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts wieder zunehmend Beachtung. Den Beginn der modernen Phototherapien markiert die Entwicklung einer Apparatur zur ultravioletten Bestrahlung der Hauttuberkulose durch Finnsen zu Beginn des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Zur Therapie von Hauterkrankungen finden beinahe ausschließlich die spektralen Bereiche unterhalb des sichtbaren Lichtes (ultraviolett) Anwendung. Seit den 1970er Jahren stehen zunehmend leistungsfähige künstliche Strahlenquellen bereit für die Therapie mit UVB, UVA und die Kombination von UVA mit Photosensibilisatoren (Photochemotherapie). Hohe strukturelle und prozedurale Qualitätsstandards sind unabdingbare Voraussetzung für die Durchführung einer gleichermaßen wirkungsvollen wie auch sicheren Phototherapie. Die Leitlinie formuliert den aktuellen Konsens führender Experten auf dem Gebiet der Phototherapie in Bezug auf die Indikationen für die jeweiligen Therapieverfahren, deren Gegenanzeigen und Nebenwirkungen und insbesondere für die Wahl der korrekten Dosis zu Beginn und im Verlauf einer Therapie sowie das Management von Nebenwirkungen. PMID:27509439

  4. Neuronal filopodium formation induced by the membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) is facilitated by coronin-1a, Rac1, and p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1).

    PubMed

    Alvarez Juliá, Anabel; Frasch, Alberto C; Fuchsova, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Stress-responsive neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) functions in neurite extension, filopodium and spine formation and synaptogenesis. The mechanisms of Gpm6a action in these processes are incompletely understood. Previously, we identified the actin regulator coronin-1a (Coro1a) as a putative Gpm6a interacting partner. Here, we used co-immunoprecipitation assays with the anti-Coro1a antibody to show that Coro1a associates with Gpm6a in rat hippocampal neurons. By immunofluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that in hippocampal neurons Coro1a localizes in F-actin-enriched regions and some of Coro1a spots co-localize with Gpm6a labeling. Notably, the over-expression of a dominant-negative form of Coro1a as well as its down-regulation by siRNA interfered with Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Coro1a is known to regulate the plasma membrane translocation and activation of small GTPase Rac1. We show that Coro1a co-immunoprecipitates with Rac1 together with Gpm6a. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 resulted in a significant decrease in filopodium formation by Gpm6a. The same was observed upon the co-expression of Gpm6a with the inactive GDP-bound form of Rac1. In this case, the elevated membrane recruitment of GDP-bound Rac1 was detected as well. Moreover, the kinase activity of the p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), a main downstream effector of Rac1 that acts downstream of Coro1a, was required for Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Taken together, our results provide evidence that a signaling pathway including Coro1a, Rac1, and Pak1 facilitates Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Formation of filopodia by membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) requires actin regulator coronin-1a (Coro1a), known to regulate plasma membrane localization and activation of Rac1 and its downstream effector Pak1. Coro1a associates with Gpm6a. Blockage of Coro1a, Rac1, or Pak1 interferes with Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Moreover, Gpm6a facilitates Rac1 membrane recruitment

  5. Neuronal filopodium formation induced by the membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) is facilitated by coronin-1a, Rac1, and p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1).

    PubMed

    Alvarez Juliá, Anabel; Frasch, Alberto C; Fuchsova, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Stress-responsive neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) functions in neurite extension, filopodium and spine formation and synaptogenesis. The mechanisms of Gpm6a action in these processes are incompletely understood. Previously, we identified the actin regulator coronin-1a (Coro1a) as a putative Gpm6a interacting partner. Here, we used co-immunoprecipitation assays with the anti-Coro1a antibody to show that Coro1a associates with Gpm6a in rat hippocampal neurons. By immunofluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that in hippocampal neurons Coro1a localizes in F-actin-enriched regions and some of Coro1a spots co-localize with Gpm6a labeling. Notably, the over-expression of a dominant-negative form of Coro1a as well as its down-regulation by siRNA interfered with Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Coro1a is known to regulate the plasma membrane translocation and activation of small GTPase Rac1. We show that Coro1a co-immunoprecipitates with Rac1 together with Gpm6a. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 resulted in a significant decrease in filopodium formation by Gpm6a. The same was observed upon the co-expression of Gpm6a with the inactive GDP-bound form of Rac1. In this case, the elevated membrane recruitment of GDP-bound Rac1 was detected as well. Moreover, the kinase activity of the p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), a main downstream effector of Rac1 that acts downstream of Coro1a, was required for Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Taken together, our results provide evidence that a signaling pathway including Coro1a, Rac1, and Pak1 facilitates Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Formation of filopodia by membrane glycoprotein M6a (Gpm6a) requires actin regulator coronin-1a (Coro1a), known to regulate plasma membrane localization and activation of Rac1 and its downstream effector Pak1. Coro1a associates with Gpm6a. Blockage of Coro1a, Rac1, or Pak1 interferes with Gpm6a-induced filopodium formation. Moreover, Gpm6a facilitates Rac1 membrane recruitment

  6. VDI-Richtlinien - mit Technischen Regeln Wirtschaftlichkeit erhöhen und Standards setzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelartz, Johannes

    Der Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e.V. (VDI) ist ein gemeinnütziger, wirtschaftlich und politisch unabhängiger, technisch-wissenschaftlicher Verein von Ingenieuren und Naturwissenschaftlern. Mit über 137 000 persönlich zugeordneten Mitgliedern ist er eine der größten Ingenieur-Vereinigungen Europas und gilt in Deutschland als führender Sprecher der Technik und der Ingenieure. 1856 gegründet, hat er viele für die Technik wesentliche Entwicklungen in Gang gesetzt, so im Bereich der technischen Überwachung, der technischen Regelsetzung und Normung, der Arbeitsstudien, im gewerblichen Rechtsschutz und im Patentwesen. Seit seiner Gründung sieht es der VDI als seine Aufgabe, "das Zusammenwirken aller geistiger Kräfte der Technik im Bewusstsein ethischer Verantwortung zu fördern“ und die Lebensmöglichkeiten aller Menschen durch Entwicklung und sinnvoller Anwendung technischer Mittel zu verbessern.

  7. Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe. Band VI/1. Documenta Copernicana: Briefe (Texte und Übersetzungen).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, A.

    Im Auftrage der Kommission für die Copernicus-Gesamtausgabe, herausgegeben von H. M. Nobis und M. Folkerts. Band VI/1 wurde bearbeitet von A. Kühne unter Mitarbeit von F. Boockmann und S. Kirschner und Verwendung der Vorarbeiten von H. M. Nobis.

  8. Enantioselective determination of the chiral pesticide isofenphos-methyl in vegetables, fruits, and soil and its enantioselective degradation in pak choi using HPLC with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Beibei; Zhang, Qing; Tian, Mingming; Zhang, Zhaoxian; Wang, Minghua

    2016-09-01

    An enantioselective method for the simultaneous determination of the chiral pesticide isofenphos-methyl in vegetables, fruits, and soil has been established using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The complete enantioseparation was conducted by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with a cellulose-tris-(4-methylbenzoate) chiral stationary phase (CSP) (Lux Cellulose-3). The effects of different mobile phase compositions, temperatures, and flow rates on enantioseparation were also investigated. The experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra indicate that the first peak is (S)-(+)-isofenphos-methyl and the second peak is (R)-(-)-isofenphos-methyl. Alumina-A and Florisil solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns were used to clean up for vegetable, fruit, and soil samples. The mean recoveries of the two enantiomers ranged from 83.2 to 110.9 % with intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 3.2 to 10.8 % and inter-day RSDs from 3.6 to 10 %. Good linearity (≥0.9992) was obtained for the two enantiomers in all matrix-matched calibration curves in the range of 0.25 to 20 mg L(-1). The limit of detection for two enantiomers in six matrices was in the range of 0.008 to 0.011 mg kg(-1), and the limit of quantification was estimated to range from 0.027 to 0.037 mg kg(-1). The results indicated that this method was a convenient and dependable approach for the simultaneous determination of isofenphos-methyl enantiomers in food and environmental samples. The stereoselective degradation of isofenphos-methyl in pak choi has shown that the (R)-(-)-isofenphos-methyl isomer (half-life t 1/2 = 2.2 days) degraded faster than the (S)-(+)-isomer (t 1/2 = 1.9 days). Graphical Abstract The enantioselective determination and enantioselective degradation of the chiral pesticide isofenphos-methyl.

  9. Enantioselective determination of the chiral pesticide isofenphos-methyl in vegetables, fruits, and soil and its enantioselective degradation in pak choi using HPLC with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Beibei; Zhang, Qing; Tian, Mingming; Zhang, Zhaoxian; Wang, Minghua

    2016-09-01

    An enantioselective method for the simultaneous determination of the chiral pesticide isofenphos-methyl in vegetables, fruits, and soil has been established using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The complete enantioseparation was conducted by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with a cellulose-tris-(4-methylbenzoate) chiral stationary phase (CSP) (Lux Cellulose-3). The effects of different mobile phase compositions, temperatures, and flow rates on enantioseparation were also investigated. The experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra indicate that the first peak is (S)-(+)-isofenphos-methyl and the second peak is (R)-(-)-isofenphos-methyl. Alumina-A and Florisil solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns were used to clean up for vegetable, fruit, and soil samples. The mean recoveries of the two enantiomers ranged from 83.2 to 110.9 % with intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 3.2 to 10.8 % and inter-day RSDs from 3.6 to 10 %. Good linearity (≥0.9992) was obtained for the two enantiomers in all matrix-matched calibration curves in the range of 0.25 to 20 mg L(-1). The limit of detection for two enantiomers in six matrices was in the range of 0.008 to 0.011 mg kg(-1), and the limit of quantification was estimated to range from 0.027 to 0.037 mg kg(-1). The results indicated that this method was a convenient and dependable approach for the simultaneous determination of isofenphos-methyl enantiomers in food and environmental samples. The stereoselective degradation of isofenphos-methyl in pak choi has shown that the (R)-(-)-isofenphos-methyl isomer (half-life t 1/2 = 2.2 days) degraded faster than the (S)-(+)-isomer (t 1/2 = 1.9 days). Graphical Abstract The enantioselective determination and enantioselective degradation of the chiral pesticide isofenphos-methyl. PMID:27449646

  10. [Isolation and characterization of BcMF3, a gene expressed only in maintainer line in Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino var. communis Tsen et lee)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Qin; Yu, Xiao-Lin; Cao, Jia-Shua

    2004-11-01

    Expression profiling was performed using cDNA-AFLP technology on floral buds of a genic male sterile line (A line) and a maintainer line (B line) in Chinese cabbage pak-choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino var. communis Tsen et Lee cv. Aijiaohuang). A differentially expressed cDNA fragment, BA18-T16, was obtained via selective amplification with A18/T16 primer pair. BA18-T16 was specifically associated with the maintainer line, and was expressed only in floral buds revealed by half-quantitative RT-PCR. The 3' end and 5' end sequences of BA18-T16 were obtained by 3' and 5' RACE amplification and the full cDNA,designated as BcMF3, is 2082 bp long containing a 1755 bp open reading frame. BcMF3 shares high homology with Bp19, a pectin methylesterase from Brassica rapa L. with 99% identity at nucleotide level and 85% identity at amino acid level. Suggesting that BcMF3 most likely encodes a pectin methylesterase in Chinese cabbage pak-choi.

  11. Ökophysik: Plaudereien über das Leben auf dem Land, im Wasser und in der Luft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, W.

    Prof. em. Dr. rer. nat. Werner Nachtigall, geb. 1934, war als Zoophysiologe und Biophysiker Leiter des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität des Saarlandes in Saarbrücken. In Forschung und Ausbildung hat er sich insbesondere mit Aspekten der Technischen Biologie und Bionik befasst und mit seinen Forschergruppen viele Basisdaten insbesondere zur Ökologie, Physiologie und Physik des Fliegens und Schwimmens aber auch zur Stabilität beispielsweise der Gräser erarbeitet. Lebewesen überraschen immer wieder durch ihre "Biodiversität", ihre hochspezifischen Ausgestaltungen und Anpassungen.

  12. Biotic Communities. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Amoe-Thorson Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoe, Ruth; Thorson, Michael

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit provides a number of activities to introduce students to ways of studying biotic communities, help them become good observers, and provide them with opportunities to use their skills. The materials include suggested activities, and…

  13. Your Nose Knows. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Meaney Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Marie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for kindergarten pupils, but could be used effectively with primary pupils. The six lessons use the sense of smell to investigate various aspects of the earth, seasons, animals, and commercial use of fragrances. Each lesson…

  14. Exponential Explosions! Today.... Tomorrow.... ? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Jensen Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for junior high school mathematics classes and emphasizes applications of exponents to problems of population growth and pollution. The nine lessons are designed for about eleven school days. Each lesson includes the concept…

  15. And Then - Recycling. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Lewis Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Dave

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. There are seven concepts in this unit on recycling which is designed for grade five and six students. Each concept has one lesson that is comprised of several activities. Several suggested extra activities have been added to further the students'…

  16. From Rocks to Pots. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Grim Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grim, Dale

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for use by art classes at the secondary school level; it illustrates the availability of natural clay and provides the student with experiences such as digging the clay, locating desirable clays, preparing it for production,…

  17. Natural or Organic Foods? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Schmidt Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for secondary students in home economics classes. The content of the units focuses on natural and organic foods, characteristics of the foods, and uses of the foods. The seven lessons in this unit are designed to last over a…

  18. Archaeology/Ecology. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Muccilli Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muccilli, Kathie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit was written for seventh-grade students in anthropology. The six lessons and suggested activities will take from 15 to 30 days to complete. Each lesson includes the concept of the lesson, materials needed, notes to the teacher,…

  19. Energy Futures... [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Parr Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Donald

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit on energy is designed for junior high school science students. The 11 concepts of the unit have been developed into 11 lessons that should take from two to three weeks to complete. Each lesson includes the concept of the lesson,…

  20. Informationsqualität - Definitionen, Dimensionen und Begriffe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohweder, Jan Philipp; Kasten, Gerhard; Malzahn, Dirk; Piro, Andrea; Schmid, Joachim

    Die Verbesserung und Sicherstellung der Informationsqualität wird in immer mehr Unternehmen als eigenständige Managementaufgabe von großer Wichtigkeit begriffen. IQ-Management ist ein elementarer Baustein in Systemintegrationsprojekten. Aber auch in bestehenden Prozessen mit heterogenen Datenquellen und Informationsnutzern ist eine hohe Informationsqualität die Grundvoraussetzung für funktionierende betriebliche Abläufe. Voraussetzung für ein effektives IQ-Management ist die Bewertung der Informationsqualität [Lee et al. 2006, S. 13 und S. 27]. In vielen Unternehmen ist Informationsqualität nur ein gefühlter Wert. Die meisten Anwender bringen ein gewisses Misstrauen den Daten gegenüber zum Ausdruck, dies jedoch ohne genaue Angabe der Fehlerart und -häufigkeit. Nicht selten werden kostspielige Projekte angestoßen, um die Informationsqualität zu verbessern, ohne sich vor einer IQ-Maßnahme durch eine Analyse ein genaues Bild über die tatsächlichen Probleme zu verschaffen. Nur auf der Basis einer umfassenden Bewertung der Informationsqualität können die notwendigen Ressourcenentscheidungen herbeigeführt, Ziele gesetzt und der Erfolg des IQ-Management beurteilt werden.

  1. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  2. Messen, Kalibrieren, Eichen in der Radiologie: Prinzipien und Praxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Siegfried R.

    Nach einleitender Erläuterung der unterschiedlichen Meßbedingungen in der Strahlentherapie und im Strahlenschutz werden die metrologischen Probleme am Beispiel der Größenkategorie Äquivalentdosis diskutiert. Als spezielle Größen werden effektive Äquivalentdosis und Umgebungs-Äquivalentdosis eingeführt. Es wird gezeigt, wie richtiges Messen durch ein konsistentes System von Bauartanforderungen an Meßgeräte, durch Kalibrieren und durch Eichen gewährleistet werden kann. Die Bedeutung von Meßunsicherheiten und Fehlergrenzen wird erläutert und ihre Auswirkung auf die Interpretation von Meßergebnissen behandelt.Translated AbstractMeasurements, Calibration, Verification in Radiology: Principles and PracticeThe different measuring conditions in radiotherapy and in radiation protection are discussed in the introduction. Then, the metrological problems are discussed exemplarily with the dose equivalent as a category of quantity. Effective dose equivalent and ambient dose equivalent are introduced as special quantities. It is demonstrated, how correct measurements can be secured by a consistent system of instrument pattern requirements, by calibration and verification. The importance of uncertainties of measurements and of error limits is illustrated and their influence on the interpretation of the results of measurements is treated.

  3. IQM-Reifegradmodell für die Bewertung und Verbesserung des Information Lifecycle Management Prozesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baškarada, Saša; Gebauer, Marcus; Koronios, Andy; Gao, Jing

    Heutige Organisationen produzieren und speichern mehr Informationen als je zuvor. Der resultierende Informationsüberfluss, zusammen mit einem Mangel an Qualitätssicherung für das Information Lifecycle Management, führt zu einem unsicheren Status der Informationsqualität in vielen Organisationen. Weiterhin hat sich herausgestellt, dass das Bewerten, Verbessern und Steuern der Informationsqualität ein offenkundig schwieriges Unterfangen ist. Dieses Kapitel stellt ein Modell zur Bewertung und Verbesserung der Information Quality Management Capability Maturity (IQM-Reifegrad) vor. Es wird ein Satz von Kriterien vorgestellt, der aus Literaturrecherche und Fallstudien abgeleitet wurde. Die Reifegradindikatoren werden validiert und in einem mehrstufigen Reifegradmodell durch eine Delphi-Studie gruppiert. Das abgeleitete IQM-Reifegradmodell hilft Organisationen ihre bestehenden Praktiken im IQM zu bewerten und potentielle Lücken und Verbesserungsstrategien zu ermitteln.

  4. Endoskopie, minimal invasive chirurgische und navigierte Verfahren in der Urologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Joachim; von Walter, Matthias; Jakse, Gerhard

    Betrachtet man die letzten 100 Jahre der Urologie in Deutschland seit Gründung ihrer Fachgesellschaft 1906 in Stuttgart, so sind sicherlich die letzten 25 Jahre von umfassenden Entwicklungen mit z. T. vollständigen Umwälzungen bisheriger Therapien und Methoden auf urologischen Fachgebiet gekennzeichnet. In erster Linie handelte es sich dabei um minimal invasive endoskopische Techniken wie perkutane Nierenchirurgie, Ureterorenoskopie, videoendoskopisch unterstütze transurethrale Elektroresektionen der Prostata und von Blasentumore sowie die Laparoskopie. Sie führten zu besseren operativen Ergebnissen und einer deutlichen Senkung der Morbidität der entsprechenden Behandlung urologischer Krankheitsbilder, mit der Konsequenz, dass einige bisher als Standard gültige offene Operationsverfahren abgelöst wurden.

  5. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    2006-01-01

    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  6. Reflexionseigenschaften von Windenergieanlagen im Funkfeld von Funknavigations- und Radarsystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandmann, S.; Divanbeigi, S.; Garbe, H.

    2015-11-01

    Die hier behandelte Untersuchung befasst sich mit den Störungen des elektrischen Feldes einer Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Radio Range Navigationsanlage (DVOR) in der Gegenwart von Windenergieanlagen (WEA). Hierfür wird die Feldstärke auf 25 konzentrischen Kreisbahnen, sog. Orbit Flights verschiedener Höhen und mit verschiedenen Radien rund um die DVOR-Anlage numerisch simuliert. Insbesondere werden die Einflüsse diverser Parameter der WEA wie deren Anzahl, Position, Rotorwinkel, Turmhöhe und Rotordurchmesser auf die Feldverteilung herausgestellt, sowie die Anwendbarkeit der Simulationsmethode Physical Optics (PO) durch Vergleich der Simulationsergebnisse mit denen der Multi Level Fast Multipol Method (MLFMM) untersucht.

  7. River sinuosity changes as indicators of the possible neotectonic activity - a case study on the Danube River between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit

    2010-05-01

    The meandering, pre-regulation river planforms of the Danube River, between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia) was digitized from the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire (Timár et al., 2006). These maps were surveyed before or simultaneously with the river control works, so it is possible to follow the natural riverbeds, the natural changing of the meandering structure. The sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). The channel sinuosity of this river is analyzed in order to draw conclusions on the neotectonic activity of the western part of the Great Hungarian Plain. Several points of sinuosity change were identified. To prove that these are of neotectonic origin, a neotectonic map and seismic sections crossing the study area, were also analyzed. Significant sinuosity changes (low to high or high to low), spatially correlated to linear features identified in seismic survey sections or in tectonic maps (Horváth et al., 2006), indicate their neotectonic activity (Ouchi, 1985; Timár, 2003; Zámolyi et al., 2010). Upstream of the Hungarian-Serbian border, the Duna (Danube) has anabranching planform, the Baracskai-Duna is the main anabranch. There is a fault on the neotectonic map, crossing both rivers, and cause the decreasing of the sinuosity. The vertical activity of the structural line, which is more or less parallel to the international border, is verified by the sinuosity change. The direction of the change (from high to low sinuosity values) correlates with the normal fault character, shown on the map. Another significant sinuosity change occurs downstream of the Drava River confluence. The explanation of this change can be of two kinds. First, there is a known tectonic feature along the Drava River, with dextral faulting. The sinuosity increase could indicate a small active vertical component of this structural line

  8. A novel cold-inducible gene from Pak-choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis), BcWRKY46, enhances the cold, salt and dehydration stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Hou, Xilin; Tang, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Shuming; Jiang, Fangling; Li, Ying

    2012-04-01

    WRKY TFs belong to one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants and form integral parts of signaling webs that modulate many plant processes. BcWRKY46, a cDNA clone encoding a polypeptide of 284 amino acids and exhibited the structural features of group III of WRKY protein family, was isolated from the cold-treated leaves of Pak-choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) using the cDNA-AFLP technique. Expression of this gene was induced quickly and strongly in response to various environmental stresses, including low temperatures, ABA, salt and dehydration. Constitutive expression of BcWRKY46 in tobacco under the control of the CaMV35S promoter reduced the susceptibility of transgenic tobacco to freezing, ABA, salt and dehydration stresses. Our studies suggest that BcWRKY46 plays an important role in responding to ABA and abiotic stress.

  9. A Drosophila homolog of the Rac- and Cdc42-activated serine/threonine kinase PAK is a potential focal adhesion and focal complex protein that colocalizes with dynamic actin structures.

    PubMed Central

    Harden, N; Lee, J; Loh, H Y; Ong, Y M; Tan, I; Leung, T; Manser, E; Lim, L

    1996-01-01

    Changes in cell morphology are essential in the development of a multicellular organism. The regulation of the cytoskeleton by the Rho subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins is an important determinant of cell shape. The Rho subfamily has been shown to participate in a variety of morphogenetic processes during Drosophila melanogaster development. We describe here a Drosophila homolog, DPAK, of the serine/threonine kinase PAK, a protein which is a target of the Rho subfamily proteins Rac and Cdc42. Rac, Cdc42, and PAK have previously been implicated in signaling by c-Jun amino-terminal kinases. DPAK bound to activated (GTP-bound) Drosophila Rac (DRacA) and Drosophila Cdc42. Similarities in the distributions of DPAK, integrin, and phosphotyrosine suggested an association of DPAK with focal adhesions and Cdc42- and Rac-induced focal adhesion-like focal complexes. DPAK was elevated in the leading edge of epidermal cells, whose morphological changes drive dorsal closure of the embryo. We have previously shown that the accumulation of cytoskeletal elements initiating cell shape changes in these cells could be inhibited by expression of a dominant-negative DRacA transgene. We show that leading-edge epidermal cells flanking segment borders, which express particularly large amounts of DPAK, undergo transient losses of cytoskeletal structures during dorsal closure. We propose that DPAK may be regulating the cytoskeleton through its association with focal adhesions and focal complexes and may be participating with DRacA in a c-Jun amino-terminal kinase signaling pathway recently demonstrated to be required for dorsal closure. PMID:8628256

  10. Prolactin-Stimulated Activation of ERK1/2 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases is Controlled by PI3-Kinase/Rac/PAK Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aksamitiene, Edita; Achanta, Sirisha; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Hoek, Jan B.; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence that deregulation of prolactin (PRL) signaling contributes to pathogenesis and chemoresistance of breast cancer. Therefore, understanding cross-talk between distinct signal transduction pathways triggered by activation of the prolactin receptor (PRL-R), is essential for elucidating the pathogenesis of metastatic breast cancer. In this study, we applied a sequential inhibitory analysis of various signaling intermediates to examine the hierarchy of protein interactions within the PRL signaling network and to evaluate the relative contributions of multiple signaling branches downstream of PRL-R to the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 in T47D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Quantitative measurements of the phosphorylation/activation patterns of proteins showed that PRL simultaneously activated Src family kinases (SFKs) and the JAK/STAT, phosphoinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. The specific blockade or siRNA-mediated suppression of SFK/FAK, JAK2/STAT5, PI3-kinase/PDK1/Akt, Rac/PAK or Ras regulatory circuits revealed that (1) the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway is required for activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade upon PRL stimulation; (2) PI3-kinase-mediated activation of the c-Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade occurs independent of signaling dowstream of STATs, Akt and PKC, but requires JAK2, SFKs and FAK activities; (3) activated PRL-R mainly utilizes the PI3-kinase-dependent Rac/PAK pathway rather than the canonical Shc/Grb2/SOS/Ras route to initiate and sustain ERK1/2 signaling. By interconnecting diverse signaling pathways PLR may enhance proliferation, survival, migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. PMID:21726627

  11. Elektronenröhrenforschung nach 1945 Telefunkenforscher in Ost und West und das Scheitern des Konzepts der „Gnom-Röhren“ in Erfurt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörfel, Günter; Tobies, Renate

    Elektronenröhren standen wegen ihrer Rüstungsrelevanz nach Kriegsende unter dem Vorbehalt der Besatzungsmächte. Unter dem Druck eigener materieller Defizite erlaubte und initiierte die sowjetische Besatzungsmacht Entwicklungen dazu eher als die westlichen Alliierten. Daraus resultierten bemerkenswerte Innovationen und Vorsprünge im Gebiet von Miniaturröhren.

  12. Rückwärtsintegration - Zu den Verhältnissen Gymnasium, Hochschule und Arbeitswelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Gerhard; Heppner, Winfried; Focht, Eva

    In seiner 2007 erschienen Sammlung von Vorträgen und Essays beschäftigt sich Wolfgang Frühwald, mit der Frage "Wieviel Wissen brauchen wir?“ [1] Die Kernproblematik moderner Wissenschaft und Forschung sieht der Autor, emeritierter Ordinarius für Neuere Deutsche Literaturwissenschaft und von 1992 bis 1997 Präsident der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft, einerseits in der zunehmenden Spezialisierung der Wissenschaftsbereiche, andererseits in der Gefahr der Abkoppelung der Naturwissenschaften von den Geisteswissenschaften. Wiederholt plädiert er dafür, über der rasanten Entwicklung beispielsweise in der Biologie und Physik, die historische, gesellschaftliche und besonders die ethische Dimension der Forschung nicht zu übersehen und fordert eine übergeordnete Theorie der Wissenschaft, die nur im Dialog zwischen den einzelnen Fachgebieten zu entwickeln sei.

  13. Entwicklung und methodische Verbesserung der Arbeitssicherheit in der Instandhaltung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinski, Marek

    Die Hüttenwerke Krupp Mannesmann gehören zu den führenden Stahlherstellern in Europa. Die Instandhaltung ist einerseits den Anlagen vor Ort zugeordnet, andererseits gibt es für werksweite bzw. spezielle Themen eine zentrale Instandhaltung. Die im Folgenden beschriebenen Methoden wurden für das gesamte Unternehmen entwickelt, jedoch je nach Organisationseinheit unterschiedlich adaptiert und unterschiedlich intensiv verfolgt. Die zentrale Instandhaltung hat insbesondere in den letzten 12 Jahren der Arbeitssicherheit einen hohen Stellenwert beigemessen, und hervorragende Ergebnisse erzielt. So ist die Unfallhäufigkeit in der zentralen Instandhaltung von ca. 30 anzeigepflichtigen Unfällen pro eine Million verfahrener Stunden vor ca. 15 Jahren auf Null in 2007 gesunken! In 2008 konnte dieses hervorragende Ergebnis gehalten werden. Zwei Jahre unfallfrei! Wer hätte das vor 15 Jahren gedacht? Der Schwerpunkt des Beitrags liegt auf der Erläuterung der Ansatzpunkte mit denen dieses Ergebnis erreicht wurde und der Darstellung der Methoden incl. der Anpassung an die veränderten Ansatzpunkte in den betroffenen Bereichen. Die beschriebenen Methoden sind in der zentralen Instandhaltung so angewendet worden.

  14. Physik gestern und heute: Fragwürdiges beim Millikan-Versuch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Robert A. Millikan erhielt 1923 als erster amerikanischer Physiker den Nobelpreis für Physik. Geehrt wurde er für seine Präzisionsmessungen zum Photoeffekt und zur experimentellen Bestimmung der elektrischen Elementarladung. Millikans Experimente zur Elementarladung sind auch heute noch ein Standardthema im schulischen Physikunterricht, gleichzeitig werfen sie aber eine Reihe von wissenschaftstheoretischen und ethisch relevanten Fragen auf.

  15. Quantenphysik und Gravitation Äquivalenzprinzip gilt auch für Quantenobjekte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fray, Sebastian; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Weitz, Martin

    2005-03-01

    Gravitationstheorie und die Quantentheorie zu einer gemeinsamen Theorie vereinheitlichen, das ist eines der ungelösten Probleme der modernen Physik. Garchinger und Tübinger Wissenschaftler haben nun das Äquivalenzprinzip, einen Eckstein der Gravitationstheorie, mit der Methode der Atominterferometrie, die sich der quantenmechanischen Natur von Atomen bedient, überprüft.

  16. Blick in das kalte Weltall. Protosterne, Staubscheiben und schwarze Löcher.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezger, P. G.

    Contents: 1. Radioastronomie: Ein neues Fenster ins Weltall öffnet sich. Die Entwicklung der Radioastronomie. Vom Anfang der Welt: Der Urknall. Die Milchstraße und ihr infrarotes Bild. Sterne und interstellare Materie. Die Suche nach den Protosternen. Der Zentralbereich der Milchstraße. Im Zentrum der Milchstraße: Ein schwarzes Loch mit einer Akkretionsscheibe? 2. Der Wissenschaftsbetrieb.

  17. [COPD und Klangtherapie: Pilotstudie zur Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung mit Körpertambura bei COPD-Patienten].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Bernhard; Schmidt, Stefan; Hartwig, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Erkrankungen der Atemorgane treten mit steigendem Alter öfter auf, nehmen weltweit zu und sind häufige Ursachen für Morbidität und Mortalität. In dieser Pilotstudie wurde der Frage nachgegangen, ob eine einmalige 10-minütige Behandlung mit einer Körpertambura eine signifikante und effektive Verbesserung der Lungenfunktion von Patienten mit chronisch-obstruktiver Lungenerkrankung (COPD; GOLD-Stadium A oder B) erbringen kann. Patienten und Methoden: 54 Probanden konnten je zur Hälfte in eine Behandlungsgruppe (Körpertambura) und eine aktive Kontrollgruppe (Atemtherapie) randomisiert werden. Eine Bestimmung der Lungenfunktionsmessparameter «Einsekundenkapazität» (FEV1) und «inspiratorische Vitalkapazität» (IVC) zu den Zeitpunkten T1 (Baseline), T2 (direkt nach Behandlung) und als Follow-up etwa 3 Wochen nach T1 (T3). Ergebnisse: Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte sich der Kontrollgruppe in beiden Werten signifikant überlegen. Die Zeit-×-Gruppe-Interaktion (Varianzanalyse) ergab p = 0,001 (FEV1) bzw. p = 0,04 (IVC). Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte bei beiden Werten eine Verbesserung von klinischer Relevanz. Schlussfolgerung: Diese Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Klangbehandlung mittels einer Körpertambura - neben den schulmedizinischen, leitliniengerechten Therapien - eine zusätzliche, nebenwirkungsarme, aber durchaus klinisch wirksame Option für die Behandlung von COPD-Patienten darstellen kann, um deren Lebensqualität zu stabilisieren und zu verbessern. PMID:27606616

  18. Hemopoietic cell kinase (Hck) and p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) are involved in the down-regulation of CD1a lipid antigen presentation by HIV-1 Nef in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Eiji; Shimizu, Masumi; Owaki, Atsuko; Paoletti, Samantha; Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro; Takahashi, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in in vivo pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Therefore, DCs may provide a promising strategy to control and eventually overcome the fatal infection. Especially, immature DCs express all CD1s, the non-MHC lipid antigen -presenting molecules, and HIV-1 Nef down-regulates CD1 expression besides MHC. Moreover, CD1d-restricted CD4(+) NKT cells are infected by HIV-1, reducing the number of these cells in HIV-1-infected individuals. To understand the exact role of DCs and CD1-mediated immune response during HIV-1 infection, Nef down-regulation of CD1a-restricted lipid/glycolipid Ag presentation in iDCs was analyzed. We demonstrated the involvement of the association of Nef with hemopoietic cell kinase (Hck) and p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), and that Hck, which is expressed strongly in iDCs, augmented this mutual interaction. Hck might be another therapeutic target to preserve the function of HIV-1 infected DCs, which are potential reservoirs of HIV-1 even after antiretroviral therapy.

  19. Kernschmelze Der nachhaltige Einfluss von Nuklearwaffen auf Politik und Wirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Bernd

    "Was sollen wir von einer Kultur halten, der die Ethik stets als wesentliches Element des menschlichen Lebens galt, die aber - außer in fachlicher oder spieltheoretischer Terminologie - nicht in der Lage war, über die Möglichkeit zu sprechen, nahezu alle Menschen zu töten?" Der Fragesteller gehört zu den berühmtesten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts und zu den nach wie vor Umstrittensten. über ihn wurde in den 1960er Jahren ein international viel beachtetes Theaterstück geschrieben, vor wenigen Jahren gar eine Oper.

  20. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  1. Zu einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie des Lernens und Lehrens der biologischen Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Anita

    Der Zweck dieser Studie (zwecks Überblick siehe dazu Abb. 9.1) war zu untersuchen, wie die Schüler der Sekundarstufe II ein Verständnis von der Theorie der biologischen Evolution entwickeln. Vom Ausgangspunkt "Vorurteile der Schüler“ ausgehend wurden Unterrichtssequenzen entwickelt und drei verschiedene Lernexperimente in einem zyklischen Prozess durchgeführt. Das Wissen der Schüler wurde vor, während und nach den Unterrichtssequenzen mit Hilfe von schriftlichen Tests, Interviews und Diskussionsrunden in kleinen Gruppen abgefragt. Etwa 80 % der Schüler hatten vor dem Unterricht alternative Vorstellungen von Evolution, und in dem Nachfolgetest erreichten circa 75 % ein wissenschaftliches Niveau. Die Argumentation der Schüler in den verschiedenen Tests wurde sorgfältig unter Rücksichtnahme auf Vorurteile, der konzeptionellen Struktur der Theorie der Evolution und den Zielen des Unterrichts analysiert. Daraus konnten Einsichten in solche Anforderungen an Lehren und Lernen gewonnen werden, die Herausforderungen an Schüler und Lehrer darstellen, wenn sie anfangen, evolutionäre Biologie zu lernen oder zu lehren. Ein wichtiges Ergebnis war, dass das Verständnis existierender Variation in einer Population der Schlüssel zum Verständnis von natürlicher Selektion ist. Die Ergebnisse sind in einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie zusammengefasst, welche aus drei verschiedenen Aspekten besteht: 1) den inhaltsspezifischen Aspekten, die einzigartig für jedes wissenschaftliche Feld sind; 2) den Aspekten, die die Natur der Wissenschaft betreffen; und 3) den allgemeinen Aspekten. Diese Theorie kann in neuen Experimenten getestet und weiter entwickelt werden.

  2. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  3. Der Kalte Krieg in der Peripherie Griechische Physiker und Atomenergie nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, George N.

    Die vorliegende Arbeit analysiert Ansichten griechischer Physiker zur Atomenergie und deren mögliche Anwendung nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, insbesondere während des Kalten Kriegs. Einerseits werden Ansichten von Physik- Professoren griechischer Universitäten präsentiert - beispielsweise von Dimitrios Hondros, der Student von Arnold Sommerfeld und Mitarbeiter von Peter Debye in München war, und andererseits wird die Politik der griechischen Regierung für die Etablierung eines Forschungsinstitutes diskutiert, das der Entwicklung der Atomenergie dienen sollte; ebenfalls wird eine öffentliche Meinungsumfrage zu diesen Thema, die in den Tageszeitungen der damaligen Zeit präsentiert wurde, diskutiert.

  4. Chaos für die Schule!: Nichtlinearität und Strukturbildung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmeier, Volkhard; Schlichting, Hans Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Modellsysteme können Schülern die Grundlagen der nichtlinearen Physik anschaulich vermitteln. Sie schlagen so einen Bogen von der Schulphysik zur aktuellen Forschung. Ein solches Modellsystem ist das chaotische Wasserrad, das Lehrer auf einfache Weise für den Schulunterricht nachbauen können. Im Wesentlichen steuert der Zufluss des Wassers das Verhalten des Wasserrads. Wächst er, so durchläuft das Rad von der geordneten, gleichförmigen Drehung bis zum Chaos verschiedene Phasen von Bewegungsfiguren. Das Experiment kann grundlegende Modelle und Begriffe der Chaostheorie demonstrieren: lokale und globale Bifurkationen und verschiedene Übergänge ins Chaos.

  5. Das Prinzip Bewegung - Herz und Gehirn als Metaphern des menschlichen Lebens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Laura

    In diesem Jahr, in dem wir Charles Darwins gedenken, möchte ich etwas riskieren und eine Frage erörtern, die für die Literatur ebenso wie für die Biologie zentral ist: Was ist das Leben? Die Antwort auf diese Frage finden wir nicht in der Bibliothek und nicht im Labor, zumindest nicht an diesen erkenntnisproduzierenden Stellen allein. Als Literaturwissenschaftlerin und ehemalige Naturwissenschaftlerin glaube ich, dass wir das Leben nur verstehen werden, wenn wir seinen Wirkungen überall nachforschen, inklusive in der Literatur.

  6. Von Donuts und Zucker: Mit Neutronen biologische Makromoleküle erforschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Roland P.

    2003-05-01

    Für die Erforschung von Biomolekülen bieten Neutronen einzigartige Eigenschaften. Vor allem ihre unterschiedliche Wechselwirkung mit dem natürlichen Wasserstoff und seinem schweren Isotop Deuterium ermöglicht tiefe Einblicke in Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik von Proteinen, Nukleinsäuren und Biomembranen. Bei vielen Fragestellungen zur Strukturaufklärung gibt es kaum oder keine Alternative zum Neutron. Das Institut Laue-Langevin trägt Bahnbrechendes zum Erfolg der Neutronen-Methoden in der Biologie bei.

  7. Suchmaschinen und Informationsqualität: Status quo, Problemfelder, Entwicklungstendenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, Christian; Gräfe, Gernot

    Das Thema Informationsqualität wird in den vorangegangenen Beiträgen umfangreich betrachtet. Die dabei geführte Diskussion zielt vordergründig auf organisatorische Dimensionen der Datenqualität, die strukturierte Datenanalyse oder Datenmanagementprozesse im Unternehmen ab. Dabei liegt ein Großteil der zur Unterstützung von Entscheidungsprozessen herangezogenen Informationen in Datenbanksystemen bzw. in einem Data Warehouse vor. Auf Basis verschiedener Analysetools (z. B. Online-Analytical-Processing) lassen sich diese Informationen dann systematisch auswerten. Allerdings können Entscheidungen nicht allein aufgrund der unternehmensintern vorliegenden Informationen getroffen werden. Vielmehr gilt es auch die aus der Unternehmensumwelt relevanten Informationen zu verarbeiten, die zum Teil über das Internet zugänglich sind. Im Gegensatz zu unternehmensinternen Datenbanksystemen handelt es sich beim Internet um ein schwach strukturiertes und offenes Netzwerk, weshalb die im Unternehmenskontext eingesetzten Analysetools kaum weiterhelfen, um Informationen mit hoher Qualität herauszufiltern. In dieser Situation spielen Suchmaschinen eine wichtige Rolle, um Informationen zu identifizieren und anhand verschiedener Kriterien in Form einer Suchergebnisseite zu sortieren.

  8. Organization of the und R chromosome region in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Kermicle, J.

    1989-07-01

    Maize is highly polymorphic in pattern of anthocyanin pigmentation. That portion of the total variation which is attributable to one gene is revealed when alleles from various sources are incorporated into a standard line by backcrossing before comparison under uniform environments. The variation associated with such collections of {und R} alleles is discontinuous, suggesting the presence of discrete units of function. Alleles comprising more than one such element constitute an allelic complex or gene family. An objective of the early years of investigation under this grant was to work out the arrangement of genic elements in such allelic complexes. Elements in a complex are identified by independent mutation and separability by recombination, the latter serving also to order them in the chromosome. Alleles having from one to three elements each were represented among five accessions of the colored-seed, colored-plant class ({und R-r}). Nine different genic elements were identified. This line of inquiry has been de-emphasized in recent years in deference to investigating the organization of individual genic elements. We have focused on a set of readily distinguished elements that were identified or produced in the analysis of allelic complexes. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Elektrische Phänomene des Körpers und ihre Detektion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolz, Armin; Kikillus, Nicole; Moor, Claudius

    Im menschlichen Körper verfügen sowohl Nerven- als auch Muskelzellen über die Eigenschaft, intra- und extrazelluläre Ionenkonzentrationen zu verschieben und damit die Potenzialverteilung in ihrer Umgebung zu beeinflussen. Über unterschiedliche Synchronisationsverfahren sind makroskopische Zellverbände zusätzlich in der Lage, koordiniert ihre Felder zu verändern und somit auch signifikante, an der Körperoberfläche messbare elektrische Signale zu erzeugen. Das vorliegende Kapitel beschreibt zunächst die elektrophysiologischen Grundlagen elektrischer Signale des menschlichen Körpers, die Synchronisationsmechanismen und die daraus entstehenden Felder, insbesondere das Elektrokardiogramm (EKG), das Elektroenzephalogramm (EEG) sowie das Elektromyogramm (EMG). Im Anschluss daran werden die wesentlichen Grundlagen der Messtechnik zur Erfassung bioelektrischer Phänomene erläutert. Einige Beispielapplikationen runden diesen Beitrag ab.

  10. Modulare LDAP-Server-, -Protokoll und - Funktionserweiterungen am Beispiel von OpenLDAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluta, Daniel

    In diesem Artikel wird ein Standardisierungsvorschlag für eine LDAP-Protokollerweiterung und deren Referenzimplementierung in Form einer modularen Erweiterung für die LDAP-Software-Suite des OpenLDAPProjektes vorgestellt. Nach einer Einführung in und einem Überblick über die wichtigsten OpenLDAP-Komponenten stellen wir unseren Lösungsansatz vor und gehen auf seine technischen Details ein. Ziel dieses Overlays ist die Implementierung einer neuen Funktionalität, die vom LDAP-Protokoll bisher nicht vorgesehen ist: Der Umfang der Suchergebnismenge soll serverseitig, dezentral und in der Granularität ganzer Objekte in Abhängigkeit von der aktuellen Serverzeit (konfigurierbar) eingeschränkt werden.

  11. Kosteneffiziente Honbearbeitung durch intelligente und flexible Verknüpfung von autarken Honzentren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Günther

    Die Planungsabteilungen in der Automobilindustrie werden vor immer größere Herausforderungen gestsellt. Der zur Verfügung stehende Zeitraum zu einer seriensicheren Umsetzung der entwicklungs- und produktionstechnischen Forderungen wird von Projekt zu Projekt kürzer. Aufgrund des hohen Wettbewerbsdrucks und daraus resultierenden erforderlichen Kostenoptimierungen, die schnelleren Timeto-market-und Innovationszyklen und die vermeintlich zur Kundenbindung erforderlichen, kaum mehr überschaubaren Diversifizierungen in den Modellpaletten lassen den Planungshorizont immer kürzer werden. Die zu beschaffenden Fertigungsanlagen sollen aber in den nächsten 8-12 Jahren all die Varianten produzieren können, die heute nur teilweise oder noch gar nicht bekannt sind.

  12. Jahre Entwicklung der Instandhaltung - von der ausfallorientierten Instandhaltung zum gemeinsamen TPM und RCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iske, Friedhelm

    Zur Einleitung meines Beitrages möchte ich von einem Gespräch mit einem Mitarbeiter berichten, das ich als junger Vorgesetzter einer Instandhaltungsgruppe 1988 führte. Der engagierte Mitarbeiter feierte damals sein vierzigjähriges Dienstjubiläum und war stolz auf das von ihm Geleistete sowie auf den besonderen Einsatz seiner Altersgruppe, die nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg das Werk wieder aufgebaut hatte. Auf meine Frage, was denn damals die erste Aufgabe in der Firma war, bekam ich kurz und knapp und mit einer Selbstverständlichkeit die selbstbewusste Antwort: "Unser Pferd füttern und mit dem Pferd die innerbetrieblichen Transporte erledigen“. Als junger, technisch orientierter Vorgesetzter war ich über diese Antwort sehr überrascht. Gedanklich weit entfernt war die Vorstellung, dass in der Vergangenheit Transporte mit einem Pferd erledigt wurden.

  13. Schönheit und andere Provokationen - Eine neue evolutionsbiologische Theorie der Kunst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Thomas

    Die Evolution hat viele spektakuläre Phänomene hervorgebracht - von der Eleganz des Vogelflugs über die gigantischen Körper der Dinosaurier und die farbenprächtige Vielfalt der Korallenriffe bis hin zu ihrem jüngsten Geniestreich - der menschlichen Kunst. Die schönen Künste - Malerei, Bildhauerei und Architektur, Theater, Tanz, Oper und Filmkunst, Musik und Literatur - Produkte der Evolution? Diese Vorstellung mutet vielen Menschen fremd an, aber wie könnte es anders sein? Denn wenn Charles Darwin recht hat, dann sind nicht nur die körperlichen Merkmale der Menschen als Antworten auf die Erfordernisse des Lebens entstanden, sondern auch ihre geistigen Fähigkeiten und Verhaltensweisen. Im Jahr 1859 hatte er auf den letzten Seiten seines berühmten Buches über die Entstehung der Arten eine kühne Prophezeiung gemacht: Durch die Evolutionstheorie werde es "zu einer bemerkenswerten Revolution in der Naturwissenschaft kommen […]. Die Psychologie wird auf die neue Grundlage gestellt, dass jede geistige Kraft und Fähigkeit notwendigerweise durch graduelle Übergänge erworben wird“ (Darwin 1859, S. 484, 488; Junker 2008).

  14. Evolution und Kreationismus im Schulunterricht aus Sicht Großbritanniens. Ist Evolution eine Sache der Akzeptanz oder des Glaubens?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James D.

    Ist Kreationismus eine Weltanschauung oder eine falsche Vorstellung? Ausgehend vom Standpunkt der Naturwissenschaft ist der Unterschied wichtig. Falsche Vorstellungen können herausgefordert und durch gründliche wissenschaftliche Lehre korrigiert werden. Weltanschauungen sind Teil eines etablierten Glaubenssystems, und diese Überzeugungen sind von Natur aus schwer zu verändern (Cohen 1992).

  15. Zivilisationsdynamik: Treiber Technik, Folgen und Konsequenzen. Civilisation dynamics: driving force technology, results and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jischa, Michael F.

    2010-11-01

    Die Menschheitsgeschichte ist untrennbar mit der Nutzung von Materie, Energie und Information verbunden. Im Laufe der Geschichte sind Produktivität, Bevölkerung und Ressourcenverbrauch ständig angestiegen, seit dem vergangenen Jahrhundert mit zunehmender Beschleunigung. In den früh industrialisierten Ländern entwickelte sich vor wenigen Jahrzehnten eine Bewusstseinswende, die Segnungen der Technik wurden zunehmend kritisch beurteilt. Das führte zur Formulierung des Leitbildes Nachhaltigkeit und unterschiedlichen Ansätzen, dieses zu operationalisieren, aus Sicht der Ingenieure mit dem Konzept Technikbewertung. Nach den Natur- und den Ingenieurwissenschaften haben die Gesellschaftswissenschaften diese Themen aufgegriffen, was zu einer teilweisen Annäherung der Zwei Kulturen geführt hat. Weiter sind Überlegungen entstanden, Lehr- und Forschungsinhalte zu überdenken, um auf die Weltprobleme (in der Sprache des Club of Rome) angemessen reagieren zu können. In jüngerer Zeit wurden Energieszenarien vorgestellt, deren Kernaussage unmissverständlich lautet: Die Zukunft gehört den erneuerbaren Energien.

  16. Molekulare Methoden zum Nachweis, zur Quantifizierung und zum Monitoring der Mykotoxinbildung lebensmittelrelevanter Pilze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisen, Rolf

    Schimmelpilze kommen ubiquitär vor und spielen besonders bei pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln und Rohprodukten eine besondere Rolle als Verderbsorganismen. Es wird geschätzt, dass 20-25 % der jährlichen Produktion an pflanzlichen Produkten durch Schimmelpilze verdorben werden (Smith et al., 1994). Viele der lebensmittelrelevanten Schimmelpilze sind zudem in der Lage, Mykotoxine, toxische Sekundärmetabolite, zu bilden, was das Ausmaß des Problems deutlich macht. Die wichtigsten mykotoxinbildenden Spezies gehören zu den Fusarien (Trichothecene, Fumonisine, Zearalenon), Aspergillen (Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, Cyclopiazonsäure) und Penicillien (Patulin, Ochratoxin). Für viele Mykotoxine, wie die Aflatoxine, Ochratoxin, Fumonisine und Trichothecene sind Grenzwerte erlassen worden, die die Verkehrsfähigkeit betroffener Produkte regeln. Die Einhaltung der Grenzwerte kann sehr genau durch offizielle chemisch-analytische Methoden, wie HPLC, GC-MS etc. kontrolliert werden. Diese analytischen Methoden sind aber für die Anwendung eines HACCP-Ansatzes zur Kontrolle der Mykotoxinbildung nur bedingt geeignet, da sie Endpunktkontrollen darstellen und nur das über eine längere Zeit gebildete Mykotoxin bestimmen. Sie sagen daher nichts über die biologischen Bedingungen zur Zeit der Bildung durch den Pilz aus.

  17. [Beweggründe von Krebspatienten für und gegen die Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie].

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Kathrin M; Holmberg, Christine; Weis, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Misteltherapie ist im deutschsprachigen Raum ein häufig angewandtes komplementärmedizinisches Verfahren (KM) in der Onkologie. Diese Studie hatte das Ziel, die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu untersuchen und Themenfeldern zuzuordnen. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden qualitative leitfadengestützte Interviews mit Krebspatienten geführt. Der Interviewleitfaden fragte nach der Inanspruchnahme von KM, der Motivation zur Inanspruchnahme, Informationsverhalten und -bedürfnissen zu KM sowie nach der Krebserkrankung. Um die Beweggründe für die Inanspruchnahme oder Nichtinanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu verstehen, wurden die Interviews inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden Interviews mit 88 Krebspatienten geführt, davon nutzen 18 (20,5%) die Misteltherapie. Die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie ließen sich den 2 Themenfeldern «Wahrgenommene Indikation» und «Abwägungen bei der Entscheidungsfindung» zuordnen. Diskussion und Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der Misteltherapie wird sowohl ein Einfluss auf das Tumorwachstum als auch eine supportive Wirkung assoziiert. Anwender sehen die Misteltherapie als sicheres Verfahren; Nichtnutzer befürchten eher Neben- oder Wechselwirkungen. Die Empfehlung von Fachpersonal spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der Inanspruchnahme. Zum Teil waren die Nichtnutzer interessiert an der Anwendung der Misteltherapie, befanden sich jedoch noch im Klärungsprozess.

  18. Renaturierung von Feuchtgrünland, Auengrünland und mesophilem Grünland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Gert; Hölzel, Norbert

    Grünland stellt in Mitteleuropa fast ausschließlich eine Kulturformation dar, die in der Naturlandschaft abgesehen von extremen Trocken- und Nassstandorten sowie klimatisch ungünstigen Gebieten oberhalb der alpinen Waldgrenze nur kleinflächig vertreten war.Die natürlichen Standorte der heutigen Grünlandarten waren in Mitteleuropa bis in das Atlantikum hinein Wälder oder natürlicherweise waldfreie ökosysteme, wie z.B. Röhricht- und Ufervegetation sowie Biberwiesen in Flussauen, Niedermoore, Randlaggs von Regenmooren, Waldlichtungen oder Lawinenbahnen (Ellenberg 1952, 1996). Die Naturlandschaft der heutigen Grünlandstandorte war durch die natürliche Dynamik der vorherrschenden Waldökosysteme mit ihren Entwicklungsstadien und natürlichen Störungsereignissen (Stürme, überschwemmungen etc.) geprägt. Der Flächenanteil des Grünlandes vergrößerte sich erst durch Beweidung und Heumahd durch den Menschen und seine Haustiere.

  19. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft in der Weimarer Republik und während der Nazidiktatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Jürgen

    Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.

  20. [Beweggründe von Krebspatienten für und gegen die Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie].

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Kathrin M; Holmberg, Christine; Weis, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Misteltherapie ist im deutschsprachigen Raum ein häufig angewandtes komplementärmedizinisches Verfahren (KM) in der Onkologie. Diese Studie hatte das Ziel, die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu untersuchen und Themenfeldern zuzuordnen. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden qualitative leitfadengestützte Interviews mit Krebspatienten geführt. Der Interviewleitfaden fragte nach der Inanspruchnahme von KM, der Motivation zur Inanspruchnahme, Informationsverhalten und -bedürfnissen zu KM sowie nach der Krebserkrankung. Um die Beweggründe für die Inanspruchnahme oder Nichtinanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu verstehen, wurden die Interviews inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden Interviews mit 88 Krebspatienten geführt, davon nutzen 18 (20,5%) die Misteltherapie. Die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie ließen sich den 2 Themenfeldern «Wahrgenommene Indikation» und «Abwägungen bei der Entscheidungsfindung» zuordnen. Diskussion und Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der Misteltherapie wird sowohl ein Einfluss auf das Tumorwachstum als auch eine supportive Wirkung assoziiert. Anwender sehen die Misteltherapie als sicheres Verfahren; Nichtnutzer befürchten eher Neben- oder Wechselwirkungen. Die Empfehlung von Fachpersonal spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der Inanspruchnahme. Zum Teil waren die Nichtnutzer interessiert an der Anwendung der Misteltherapie, befanden sich jedoch noch im Klärungsprozess. PMID:27606463

  1. Zip Pak for Second Reader Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Norval C., Comp.

    The student's workbook was developed to give additional aid in reading and vocabulary building to migrant children between the ages of 8 and 12 years old, working at a second grade reading level. Six lessons are given in this student's workbook. Each lesson consists of: words to learn, a story to read, questions to answer, a picture to draw, a…

  2. Technische Systeme für den Herzersatz und die Herzunterstützung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöb, Reto; Loree, Howard M.

    Herzkrankheiten verursachen allein in den Vereinigten Staaten jährlich mehr als 700’000 Todesfälle. Ungefähr 3 Millionen Patienten in den U.S.A. leiden gemäss der American Heart Association (AHA) und dem National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) an kongestivem Herzversagen (Congestive Heart Failure, CHF), welches eine chronische, sehr entkräftende und degenerative Krankheit ist: Das Herz ist dabei unfähig, hinreichend Blut zu den Organen des Körpers zu pumpen. Über 400’000 Fälle von CHF werden jedes Jahr diagnostiziert. Ähnliche Zahlen werden für Europa und Japan zusammen geschätzt. Basierend auf Daten vom AHA und NHLBI beträgt die fünfjährige Überlebensrate für CHF-Patienten lediglich etwa 50% [1]. 70’000-120’000 dieser Patienten könnten von einer Herzverpflanzung profitieren. 1999 wurden in den USA aber nur 2185 Herztransplantationen durchgeführt während die Warteliste über 4000 Patienten beträgt [2]. Ein akuter Mangel an Spenderherzen und die enormen Kosten (250’000-400’000 USD pro Patient) sind die begrenzenden Faktoren für Herztransplantationen [3]. Dies bedeutet, dass eine riesige Anzahl von Patienten durch ein zuverlässiges und verschleissfreies, nichtthrombotisches, total implantierbares, künstliches Herz gerettet werden könnten. Bis heute jedoch kein derartiges Implantat kommerziell verfügbar.

  3. Antike Gläser und versteinertes Elfenbein: Röntgenanalyse in der Kunst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, Ina; Radtke, Martin; Brouder, Christian

    2003-03-01

    Physikalische Methoden der Archäometrie liefern den Kunsthistorikern und Archäologen wichtige Informationen. Materialspezifische Größen geben Aufschluss über Alter, Authentizität, Herkunft und Herstellungstechniken sowie Alterserscheinungen von Gegenständen. Insbesondere die Röntgenanalyse hat in jüngster Zeit wertvolle Beiträge hierzu geliefert. Dabei spannt sich ein weiter Bogen von den Mysterien ägyptischer Augenschminke über die Herstellungstechnik römischer Gläser bis zur Authentizitätsuntersuchung mittelalterlicher Silberstiftzeichnungen.

  4. Biologie statt Philosophie? Evolutionäre Kulturerklärungen und ihre Grenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illies, Christian

    Vor über siebzig Jahren fand man in einer Höhle nahe Hohlenstein-Stadel, im heutigen Baden-Württemberg, eine Frau, die keiner bekannten Spezies und nicht einmal eindeutig den Hominiden zugeordnet werden konnte. Wegen ihres Aussehens wurde sie schon bald als "Löwenfrau“ bekannt (unterdessen wird sie als "Löwenmensch“ bezeichnet, da die in solchen Fragen Klarheit schaffenden Geschlechtsteile bei der Figur fehlen und in Zeiten von gender mainstreaming derartige Festlegungen gerne vermieden werden), denn sie hatte eine menschlich-aufrechte, unbehaarte Gestalt mit weiblichen Rundungen, aber zugleich eine Mähne, sowie Augen, Ohren und Schnauze eines Löwen. Eine sehr weitläufige Verwandte des Minotaurus, so schien es, und doch wesentlich älter als alle Bewohner des Olymps, denn vermutlich wurde die knapp 30 cm große Skulptur bereits in der Altsteinzeit vor etwa 32.000 Jahren aus Mammut-Elfenbein geschnitzt. Wir wissen nicht, ob sie kultischen Zwecken diente oder ein Kind mit ihr spielte, ob sie als Glücksbringer für die Jagd oder als Schamanin mit Löwenmaske verehrt und gefürchtet wurde. Aber die Löwenfrau legt nahe, dass der Mensch schon im Morgendämmern seiner Kultur über die eigene Nähe, aber auch Distanz zum Tier nachgedacht haben muss. Die Frage nach der menschlichen Selbstverortung begegnet uns in dieser Figur, und sie bestimmt viele Zeugnisse menschlichen Nachdenkens, welche uns die Altertumswissenschaften vorlegen. Mit dem Begriff "animal rationale“, wie er unter Bezug auf Aristoteles geprägt wurde, findet sie schließlich ihre klassische, für das Abendland lange Zeit maßgebliche Antwort: Der Mensch als Tier, dessen spezifisches Merkmal die Vernunftbegabtheit ist, die ihn zugleich von allen anderen Tieren abgrenzt und über sie stellt. Aber wo genau verläuft die Grenze? Und wie kann der Mensch beides zugleich sein? Die aristotelische Definition beantwortet diese Fragen nach der Doppelnatur nicht, sondern erhebt das offene R

  5. Dynamische Satzgenerierung und Sprachausgabe für einen mobilen Serviceroboter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlitz, Christopher; Amann, Bernd; Hägele, Martin

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Entwicklung einer Sprachausgabe für ein mobiles Robotersystem. Dazu wurde zum einen ein auf die Anwendung zugeschittenes Text-To-Speech Verfahren und zum anderen eine Grammatik, die eine dynamische Satzgenerierung ermöglicht, implementiert. Die Verfahren arbeiten unabhängig voneinander und können daher auch gegen andere Komponenten ausgetauscht werden. Die Programme wurden als Client-Server Applikationen programmiert, um möglichst flexibel die Sprachausgabe einsetzen zu können.

  6. Read the Book or Watch the Movie? "Der Richter und sein Henker" at the Intermediate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Elizabeth C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the debate over the text or media that best enable second-year learners of German to increase their active vocabulary. Suggests the novel "Der Richter und sein Henker" can be enriched by the film adaptation. Classroom tested activities incorporate care fully-sequenced visuals and culminate in analysis of both the book and the film. Sample…

  7. Matthias Falter und die frühe Halbleitertechnik in der DDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Frank

    Nach einer ganzen Reihe von Vorarbeiten weltweit1 konnten im Dezember 1947 die amerikanischen Physiker Walter H. Brattain, John Bardeen und William Shockley in den Bell Laboratories den Transistoreffekt demonstrieren. Damit legten sie den Grundstein für die Mikroelektronik als Basistechnologie des Informationszeitalters.

  8. Einheit von Forschung und Lehre: Implications for State Funding of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolich, Nicoline; Coate, Kelly; Mignot-Gerard, Stephanie; Knill, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The Humboldtian educational ideal is based on the idea of the unity of teaching and research in universities ("Einheit von Forschung und Lehre"). The role of the state, according to Humboldt, was to fund universities in such a way that their autonomy was maintained. Much has changed in the funding mechanisms of higher education systems since the…

  9. Automatische Lokalisation und hämodynamische Charakterisierung von Gefäßstrukturen bei arteriovenösen Malformationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Fiehler, Jens; Illies, Till; Handels, Heinz

    Im Beitrag werden Verfahren zur automatischen Detektion des Kerns der Arteriovenösen Malformation (AVM) sowie der zuleitenden (Feeder), ableitenden (Drainagevenen) und en passge" Blutgef äße präsentiert. Als Eingabe hierfür dienen hochaufgelöste 3D- sowie zeitlich-räumliche 4D-MRT-Bildsequenzen. Durch eine kombinierte Analyse der Intensität, der Geschwindigkeit und des relativen Einflusszeitpunktes des Blutes werden Gefäßstrukturen automatisch charakterisiert. Die vorgestellte Methode zur Detektion des Kerns wurde anhand von manuellen Segmentierungen validiert und ergab eine mittlere Volumen- übereinstimmung von ca. 88%. Drainagevenen und Feeder konnten mit einer Genauigkeit von 95% detektiert werden.

  10. „Überholen ohne einzuholen“ Die Entwicklung von Technologien für übermorgen in Kernenergie und Mikroelektronik der DDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkleit, Gerhard

    Dem nuklearen Patt zwischen Ostblock und westlichem Staatenbündnis ist es nach weitgehend übereinstimmender Auffassung von Politik und Wissenschaft zu danken, dass der "Kalte Krieg" in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts nicht zum weltumfassenden Flächenbrand eskalierte. An der raschen Herstellung dieses Patts waren zwei Dresdner Physiker maßgeblich beteiligt, deren einer im Manhattan-Projekt in den USA gearbeitet hatte und später in England der Spionage für die Sowjetunion und des Verrats des Know-how der Atombombe überführt wurde.

  11. Einfluss von Lignin und Ferulasäure auf die Fermentation von Maiszellwänden (Influence of lignin and ferulic acid on the fermentation of maize cell walls)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ballaststoffe unterliegen im Dickdarm einer teilweisen oder vollständigen mikrobiellen Fermentation. Das Ausmaß der Fermentation beeinflusst eine Vielzahl physikochemischer und daraus resultierender physiologischer Eigenschaften der Ballaststoffe (z.B. Wasserbindungs- und Bulkvermögen, Transitzeit, ...

  12. Eco-Kids: Experiment with Air on Spaceship Earth. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Bell Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loretta

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit, designed for intermediate grades in the elementary schools, is concerned with the study of air, air pollution, effects of air pollution, and ways of improving the quality of the air. Six lessons are included in the unit; most of the…

  13. The Sky Is Falling: A Study Of Particulates... . [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Thompson Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis W.

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. Designed for secondary school science classes, the unit is concerned with particulate matter of air pollution. Five lessons are included. The lessons include construction of equipment and collecting data. (RH)

  14. Exploration with Garbage. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Lund and Wolff Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Cherie; Wolff, Chanelle

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is concerned with the topic of garbage. The eleven lessons explore what garbage is, problems of littering, ways to reduce garbage, and ways to use garbage. The materials were designed to be used with kindergarten pupils, but could be…

  15. Food: The Challenge to Manage. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Roush Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Judy

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for students at the senior high level who have a basic knowledge of nutrition, some experience in menu planning, and who are ready to put this knowledge of nutrition to work in selecting foods to attain maximum nutrition with…

  16. Eco-Kids Fly Off to the Forests. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Bell Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loretta

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit was designed for use with fourth-grade students; it focuses on three forest biomes. Each of the biomes has characteristics of its own. The unit includes eight lessons, as well as additional activities. The unit, which incorporates…

  17. Die Struktur von schlankem Materialfluss mit Lean Production Kanban und Innovationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Wolf-Michael

    In der Literatur wird Materialfluss überwiegend in Spezialdisziplinen betrachtet, etwa der Steuerungslogik, der Logistiktechnik oder dem Supply Chain Management. Ein charakterisierendes Merkmal des Materialflusses ist jedoch, dass er sich aus vielfältigen Einzelbausteinen zusammensetzt, die alle harmonisch abgestimmt sein müssen. Die maximal erreichbare Effizienz wird nicht durch Höchstleistungen in dem einen oder anderen Spezialthema bestimmt, sondern durch das schwächste Glied im gesamten komplexen Netzwerk. Den Schnittstellen zwischen den betroffenen Fachbereichen in einem Unternehmen kommt hier eine ganz besondere Bedeutung zu: Erst ein harmonischer Einklang ermöglicht hohe Effektivität. Dies setzt umfassendes Verständnis für interdisziplinäre Notwendigkeiten, ein hohes Maß an Abstimmung mit den operativen Prozessen und letztlich einen einvernehmlichen Umgang und den Respekt vor den Problemstellungen des Anderen voraus.

  18. Vorausschauend Planen, Gezielt Handeln — Über Die Regelung Und Steuerung Technischer Prozesse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüne, Lars; Sager, Sebastian; Allgöwer, Frank; Bock, Hans Georg; Diehl, Moritz

    Seit Beginn der industriellen Revolution nimmt die Steuerungs- und Regelungstechnik eine Schlüsselstellung in vielen technischen Bereichen ein. James Watts Fliehkraftregler für Dampfmaschinen ist eines der frühen Beispiele eines extrem erfolgreichen Reglerkonzepts, von dem Ende der 1860er Jahre geschätzte 75000 Exemplare allein in England im Einsatz waren [2, S. 24]. Etwa um diese Zeit begannen Ingenieure, motiviert durch die immer höhere Komplexität der zu regelnden Maschinen, sich systematisch mit theoretischen Grundlagen der Regelung zu beschäftigen. Dies führte unausweichlich zu der Einsicht, dass das dynamische Verhalten der geregelten Systeme nur mit Hilfe der Mathematikverstanden und weiterentwickelt werden konnte, oder wie Werner von Siemens, ein weiterer technischer Pionier in diesem Bereich es formulierte: "Ohne Mathematik tappt man doch immer im Dunkeln.“

  19. Eine Beziehung seit 650 Jahren: Universität Wien und Kloster Melk - Katalog zur Sonderausstellung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckmüller, Ernst; Niederkorn-Bruck, Meta; Beck, Paul G.; Deibl, Jakob; Deibl, Johannes; Denk, Ulrike; Ellegast, Burkard; Floßmann, Gerhard; Glaßner, Gottfried; Kalteis, Bernadette; Kowarik, Wilfried; Rotheneder, Martin

    2015-04-01

    University of Vienna was founded in 1365 and celebrates its 650 anniversary in 2015. Due to the university's anniversary, the Benedictine abbey of Melk, Austria presents an exhibition, depicting six and half centuries of university history and collaboration between the university as well as the abbey in all disciplines present at medieval universities. The publication describes the historic frame work as well as case-by-case descriptions of displayed manuscripts, prints and artifacts. Die Universität Wien wurde 1365 gegründet und feiert 2015 ihr 650jähriges Bestehen. Aus Anlass dieses Jubiläums präsentiert das Benediktiner Stift Melk eine Ausstellung, in der sechseinhalb Jahrhunderte Universistaetsgeschichte aufgearbeitet werden, sowie die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Universität und Abtei auf allen Themenbereichen, die an mittelalterlichen Universitäten angeboten wurden. Die Publikation bietet eine historische Zusammenfassung sowie eine Detailbeschreibung der ausgestellten Handschriften, Drucke sowie Gegenstände.

  20. Campus Single Sign-On und hochschulübergreifendes Identity Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Wolfgang

    Das im Rahmen von IntegraTUM für die TUM geschaffene Identity & Access Management System setzt das Paradigma unified login um, d. h. ein Benutzer kann alle für ihn relevanten Dienste innerhalb der Hochschule mit derselben Loginname-/Passwortkombination nutzen. Dieser Artikel zeigt, wie auf Basis der Software Shibboleth und der deutschlandweiten Hochschulföderation DFN-AAI als weitere Mehrwerte das campusweite web single sign-on und die nahtlose Nutzung zahlreicher externer Web-Anwendungen erreicht werden. Als Beispiel für die Abläufe bei der Erschließung neuer Dienste für die hochschulübergreifende Nutzung wird die Anbindung von Learning Management Systemen auf Basis des DFN-AAI E-Learning-Profils diskutiert. Den umfassenden Vorteilen werden schließlich die aktuellen technischen Grenzen bei der Umsetzung des hochschulübergreifenden Identity Management gegenübergestellt.

  1. Physik gestern und heute Die Messung elektrostatischer Kräfte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Im Jahre 1785 veröffentlichte der französische Militäringenieur Charles Augustin Coulomb das Kraft-Abstand-Gesetz für elektrische Ladungen. Bereits zuvor hatte Henry Cavendish auf andere Art und Weise diese Beziehung nachgewiesen, aber nicht publiziert. Entsprechende Experimente wurden auch noch in jüngerer Zeit ausgeführt, da sie eine obere Abschätzung für die Ruhemasse des Photons erlauben.

  2. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  3. Tanzendes Tier oder exzentrische Positionalität - Philosophische Anthropologie zwischen Darwinismus und Kulturalismus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Joachim

    Zunächst kurz vorweg zu den Formeln im Titel: "exzentrische Positionalität“ ist der Kategorienvorschlag der Philosophischen Anthropologie (genauer: von Helmuth Plessner) für den Menschen, für seine "Sonderstellung“ unter den Lebewesen - ich werde diesen Begriff erläutern. So viel kann man sagen: Der Terminus ist nicht schwieriger als "Transzendentalität“ oder das "Apriori“ oder "Autopoiesis“, also Begriffe, mit deren Orientierungswert in der intellektuellen Öffentlichkeit bereits gespielt wird, bietet aber möglicherweise mehr Erschließungskraft als die Kunstbegriffe z. B. von Kant, Maturana oder Luhmann. Und "tanzendes Tier“ ist ein glücklicher Anschauungsbegriff, eine Art Übersetzung für "exzentrische Positionalität“ - also ein "verrücktes“ Lebewesen, eine Verrückung im evolutionären Leben, die dieses Lebewesen von Natur aus zu einer bestimmten Art von Lebensführung, nämlich Kultur nötigt. Die Absicht des Beitrages ist es, die Philosophische Anthropologie als eine spezifische Theorietechnik zu präsentieren, um einen adäquaten Begriff des Menschen zu erreichen, und zwar eine Theoriestrategie angesichts des cartesianischen Dualismus - also des Dualismus zwischen Naturalismus und Kulturalismus.

  4. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion

  5. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion

  6. IntegraTUM Teilprojekt E-Mail: Aufbau eines mandantenfähigen Groupware-Services und seine Integration in Identity Management und E-Mail Infrastruktur der Technischen Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehn, Max

    Die E-Mail-Infrastruktur an der Technischen Universität München (TUM) ist historisch bedingt sehr heterogen und komplex. Viele Einrichtungen müssen wertvolle Arbeitskraft auf die Administration eigener Mailserver verwenden. Auf der anderen Seite wird bei einigen Einrichtungen der Ruf nach Groupware-Funktionalitäten wie z.B. gemeinsame Kalender immer lauter. Das Teilprojekt E-Mail stellt einen zentralen Mail- und Groupware-Service bereit, der den Einrichtungen ermöglichen soll, den Betrieb eigener Server und zugehöriger Systeme (etwa lokaler Benutzerverwaltungen) für diesen Zweck aufzugeben und diese Dienste an das Teilprojekt E-Mail zu migrieren, ohne ihre Verwaltungshoheit oder ihre Maildomains aufgeben zu müssen. Dieser Service versteht sich als eine Ergänzung zur bestehenden Grundversorgung der TUM mit den Maildiensten des myTUM-Mailers, ist mandantenfähig aufgebaut und kann daher künftig neben der TUM auch weiteren Organisationen im Münchner Wissenschaftsnetz zur Verfügung gestellt werden.

  7. Roles of UndA and MtrC of Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1 in iron reduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The completion of genome sequencing in a number of Shewanella species, which are most renowned for their metal reduction capacity, offers a basis for comparative studies. Previous work in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has indicated that some genes within a cluster (mtrBAC-omcA-mtrFED) were involved in iron reduction. To explore new features of iron reduction pathways, we experimentally analyzed Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1 since its gene cluster is considerably different from that of MR-1 in that the gene cluster encodes only four ORFs. Results Among the gene cluster, two genes (mtrC and undA) were shown to encode c-type cytochromes. The ΔmtrC deletion mutant revealed significant deficiencies in reducing metals of Fe2O3, α-FeO(OH), β-FeO(OH), ferric citrate, Mn(IV) and Co(III), but not organic compounds. In contrast, no deficiency of metal reduction was observed in the ΔundA deletion mutant. Nonetheless, undA deletion resulted in progressively slower iron reduction in the absence of mtrC and fitness loss under the iron-using condition, which was indicative of a functional role of UndA in iron reduction. Conclusions These results provide physiological and biochemical evidences that UndA and MtrC of Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1 are involved in iron reduction. PMID:24274142

  8. Herausforderungen und Best Practices bei der Speicherung von multi-valued Attributen in LDAP-basierten Verzeichnisdiensten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Wolfgang; Pluta, Daniel

    LDAP-basierte Verzeichnisdienste unterscheiden sich von relationalen Datenbankmanagementsystemen unter anderem stark bezüglich der Datenmodellierung. Dieser Artikel vertieft eingangs die Herausforderungen bei der LDAP-spezifischen Abbildung von Relationen zwischen mehreren multivalued Attributen. Die Diskussion erfolgt vor dem Hintergrund, dass einerseits Verzeichnisdienste generell nur bedingt zur Speicherung von Relationen geeignet sind und dass andererseits multi-valued Attribute ein mächtiges LDAP-Instrument sind, zu dem es in relationalen Datenbanksystemen keine direkte Entsprechung gibt. Anschließend werden Lösungskonzepte vorgestellt und mögliche Weiterentwicklungen des IntegraTUM-LDAP-Schemas zu deren Umsetzung skizziert, eine exemplarische Implementierung präsentiert und die Ergebnisse der bisherigen Entwicklung des IntegraTUM-Schemas gegenübergestellt.

  9. Gesellschaft, Lebensgemeinschaft, Ökosystem - Über die Kongruenz von politischen und ökologischen Theorien der Entwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Annette

    Im Jahr 1859 veröffentlichte Charles Darwin "On the Origin of Species“. Seine Evolutionstheorie ist das wohl spektakulärste Beispiel einer naturwissenschaftlichen Theorie großer gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Ihre verschiedenen Facetten wurden in der Öffentlichkeit kontrovers diskutiert, unter anderem auch ihre Anwendung zur Erklärung von Zuständen und Prozessen menschlicher Gesellschaften. Zum Teil wurde die Seiensweise der Natur - scheinbar unabhängig von gesellschaftlichen Interessen - für die Erklärung und Legitimation gesellschaftlicher Zustände oder die Legitimation von politischen Ideologien herangezogen (Sozialdarwinismus). Denn Gesellschaft funktioniere ja so, wie Darwin die Natur erklärt habe: es herrsche z. B. Konkurrenzkampf, Auslese und Arbeitsteilung, Erfolg hätten diejenigen, die sich an die Bedingungen am Besten anpassten.

  10. Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn als Biomarker in 1-Hydroxymethylpyren-exponierten Ratten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lan

    2002-01-01

    1-Methylpyren (MP) ist hepatokanzerogen in neugeborenen männlichen Mäusen. Durch Hydroxylierung an der benzylischen Stelle und anschließende Sulfonierung wird MP zu DNA-reaktivem 1-Sulfooxymethylpyren (SMP) aktiviert. In der Ratte führt die Exposition des benzylischen Alkohols, 1-Hydroxymethylpyren (HMP), zur DNA-Adduktbildung in verschiedenen Geweben. Eventuelle Konsequenz der Toxifizierung ist die Ausscheidung entsprechender Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn, welche aufgrund ihrer Herkunft als Biomarker eignen könnten. In dieser Arbeit wird die Ausscheidung der Mercaptursäure und des N2-Desoxyguanosinadduktes in HMP-exponierten Ratten untersucht. Nach der Applikation von HMP bzw. MP wurden weniger als 1 % der Dosis als MPMA über Urin und Faeces ausgeschieden (0 - 48 h). Die Ausscheidung erfolgt hauptsächlich in den ersten 24 h nach der Applikation. MPdG konnte weder in Urin noch in Faeces der HMP-behandelten Tieren identifiziert werden. Nach direkter SMP-Applikation wurde MPdG nur in sehr geringe Menge (weniger als 0,9 ppm in 12 h) im Urin gefunden. Aufgrund der geringen Menge eignet sich MPdG nicht als Biomarker. MPMA dagegen, lässt sich analytisch gut erfassen. Es sollte daher untersucht werden, ob MPMA die Toxifizierung des HMP wiederspiegelt. Die Voraussetzung dafür ist die Kenntnisse über das Metabolismusmuster von HMP. Es wurde daher umfassende Untersuchungen zum Metabolismus des HMP durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass mehr als 80 % der Metaboiten in ihrer oxidierten Form (PCS, deren Glucuronsäure-Konjugate sowie phenolische Sulfatester der PCS) ausgeschieden wurden. Demnach spielt die Oxidation des HMP zu PCS eine sehr wichtige Rolle bei der Detoxifizierung und Ausscheidung von HMP. Ferne konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Enzyme Alkohol- und Aldehyd-Dehydrogenase an der Oxidation von HMP beteiligt waren. Die Inhibitoren Disulfiram und Ethanol der o. g. Enzyme wurde daher zur Modulation der Detoxifizierung in vivo eingesetzt

  11. The crystal structure of the extracellular 11-heme cytochrome UndA reveals a conserved 10-heme motif and defined binding site for soluble iron chelates.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marcus J; Hall, Andrea; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, James K; Zachara, John M; Butt, Julea N; Richardson, David J; Clarke, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Members of the genus Shewanella translocate deca- or undeca-heme cytochromes to the external cell surface thus enabling respiration using extracellular minerals and polynuclear Fe(III) chelates. The high resolution structure of the first undeca-heme outer membrane cytochrome, UndA, reveals a crossed heme chain with four potential electron ingress/egress sites arranged within four domains. Sequence and structural alignment of UndA and the deca-heme MtrF reveals the extra heme of UndA is inserted between MtrF hemes 6 and 7. The remaining UndA hemes can be superposed over the heme chain of the decaheme MtrF, suggesting that a ten heme core is conserved between outer membrane cytochromes. The UndA structure has also been crystallographically resolved in complex with substrates, an Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetate dimer or an Fe(III)-citrate trimer. The structural resolution of these UndA-Fe(III)-chelate complexes provides a rationale for previous kinetic measurements on UndA and other outer membrane cytochromes.

  12. The Crystal Structure of the Extracellular 11-heme Cytochrome UndA Reveals a Conserved 10-heme Motif and Defined Binding Site for Soluble Iron Chelates.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Marcus; Hall, Andrea; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2012-07-03

    Members of the genus Shewanella translocate deca- or undeca-heme cytochromes to the external cell surface thus enabling respiration using extracellular minerals and polynuclear Fe(III) chelates. The high resolution structure of the first undeca-heme outer membrane cytochrome, UndA, reveals a crossed heme chain with four potential electron ingress/egress sites arranged within four domains. Sequence and structural alignment of UndA and the deca-heme MtrF reveals the extra heme of UndA is inserted between MtrF hemes 6 and 7. The remaining UndA hemes can be superposed over the heme chain of the decaheme MtrF, suggesting that a ten heme core is conserved between outer membrane cytochromes. The UndA structure is the first outer membrane cytochrome to be crystallographically resolved in complex with substrates, an Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetate dimer or an Fe(III)-citrate trimer. The structural resolution of these UndA-Fe(III)-chelate complexes provides a rationale for previous kinetic measurements on UndA and other outer membrane cytochromes.

  13. Strömungs- und Tracer-Transportmodellierung am Natural Attenuation-Standort Zeitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gödeke, Stefan; Weiß, Holger; Geistlinger, Helmut; Fischer, Anko; Richnow, Hans Herrmann; Schirmer, Mario

    Kurzfassung Numerische Modelle spielen bei der Bewertung von Natural-Attenuation-Prozessen an Feldstandorten eine bedeutende Rolle. Daher ist es wichtig diese mit Felddaten zu überprüfen und gegebenenfalls erneut zu kalibrieren. Die Modellierung des Transports eines konservativen Tracers auf der Grundlage von Felddaten ergab eine zuverlässigere Abschätzung der Kf-Werte des numerischen Strömungsmodells für den Standort, als es mit anderen Methoden (z. B. Analyse der Siebwerte) möglich war. Die Kf-Werte berechnet aus Siebanalysen führten zu einer deutlichen Unterschätzung der Tracerausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit. Zwischen beobachteten und berechneten Durchbruchskurven wurde eine gute Übereinstimmung erzielt, sodass das Modell für die Planung weiterer Feldexperimente und als Grundlage für eine reaktive Transportmodellierung genutzt werden kann. Die hydraulischen Leitfähigkeiten im Untersuchungsgebiet ändern sich in vertikaler und horizontaler Richtung im Bereich weniger Dezimeter z. T. stark, was von dem numerischen Modell nur begrenzt wiedergegeben werden kann. Für die Modellierung der Tracerausbreitung ist die Kenntnis der Kf-Wert-Verteilung im Bereich des Infiltrationsbrunnens besonders wichtig, weil sie die Struktur der Tracerfahne im Abstrom wesentlich beeinflusst. Die Wahl des numerischen Verfahrens für die Lösung der Transportgleichung hatte bei der Kalibrierung des Strömungsmodells einen großen Einfluss. Während mit dem in MT3DMS vorhandenen TVD (〝Total Variation Diminishing``)-Algorithmus eine akzeptable Lösung gefunden wurde, zeigten sich bei der Verwendung des MOC (〝Method of Characteristics``)-Verfahrens signifikante Fehler in der Massenbilanz. Reliable numerical models are of primary importance for the evaluation of Natural-Attenuation processes at field sites. Modelling the flow and transport of a conservative tracer, a more realistic distribution of the hydraulic conductivity values for the numerical model was achieved and a good

  14. The Coral of Death. Kunst- und Wunderkammern between Temporality and Allegory.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to show the existence of a substantial discontinuity between the Kunst- und Wunderkammern phenomenon and the practice of both eclectic and specialised collecting in the 18th century. A more detailed examination of the cases of fossils and corals, particularly the way they wove in and out of the differing rationales of collecting in the 17th and 18th centuries, brings to light how elusive their relationship was with the history of the notion of temporality. Subsequently, Lamarck and Darwin were to provide a conclusion to the temporality debate when they completed the historisation of nature.

  15. Peter Andreas Hansen und die astronomische Gemeinschaft - eine erste Auswertung des Hansen-Nachlasses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, O.; Strumpf, M.

    The literary assets of Peter Andreas Hansen are deposited in the Staatsarchiv Hamburg, the Forschungs- und Landesbibliothek Gotha and the Thüringer Staatsarchiv Gotha. They were never systematically investigated. The authors present here some results of a first evaluation. It was possible to reconstruct the historical events with regard to the maintenance of the Astronomische Nachrichten and the Altona observatory in 1854. Hansen was a successful teacher for many young astronomers. His way of stimulating the evolution of astronomy followed Zach's tradition.

  16. Identification and Characterization of UndA-HRCR-6, an Outer Membrane Endecaheme c-Type Cytochrome of Shewanella sp. Strain HRCR-6

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Belchik, Sara M.; Wang, Zheming; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Marshall, Matthew J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-08-01

    The outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes (c-Cyt) MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1(MR-1) play critical roles in extracellular reduction of iron [Fe(III)] oxides and uranium [ U(VI)]. To identify and characterize the outer membrane c-Cyts found in the metal-reducing Shewanella strains isolated from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River (HRCR), 7 HRCR isolates were tested for the presence of mtrC, omcA and undA1 (a gene encoding a putative 11-heme c-Cyt) homologues in their genomes. All 7 tested strains possessed an mtrC homologue, while 3 strains had an omcA homologue and the remaining 4 strains contained an undA1 homologue. The coding region of an undA1 homologue from HRCR isolate 6 was cloned and sequenced. Because it was 93% identical to the UndA of S. baltica OS223, the protein product encoded by this sequenced gene was named as UndA-HRCR6. In MR-1, UndA-HRCR6 (i) restored an MR-1 mutant’s ability to reduce solid phase ferrihydrite at 40% of that for MR-1 wild type, (ii) increased extracellular formation of UO2 associated with the outer membrane and extracellular polymeric substances in a U(VI) reduction assay and (iii) was secreted to the extracellular environment by bacterial type II secretion system. UndA-HRCR6 was purified from the membrane fraction following its overexpression in MR-1 cells. Purified UndA-HRCR6 possessed 11 heme-Fe and reduced ferric complexes. Collectively, these results show that UndA-HRCR6 is an outer membrane endecaheme c-Cyt and can serve an extracellular metal reductase with functions similar to that of MR-1 MtrC and OmcA.

  17. "Der Richter und sein Henker": A Model for the Teaching of Literature and Methodology for Teacher Educators and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Kunczinam, Christele

    1993-01-01

    Describes an inservice teacher education project in which participant's created a newspaper that focused exclusively on Durenmatt's novel "Der Richter und Sein Henker." The project's aim was to involve participants in the work of literature while learning teaching techniques. (Contains six references.) (VWL)

  18. Methodik der Erfassung und Bewertung von Biodiversitätsschäden aus ökologischer Sicht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegleb, Gerhard; Krawczynski, René; Wagner, Hans-Georg

    Mit der Verabschiedung des Umweltschadensgesetzes (USchadG) hat der Schutz der Biodiversität in Deutschland ein neues Stadium erreicht. Zum ersten Male wird selbst die Vermeidung und Restitution der nichtintendierten Schädigung der Biodiversität in Gestalt bestimmter Arten und Lebensräume in ein umfassendes Naturschutzkonzept einbezogen. Das USchadG geht damit über die bisherigen Ansätze zum Schutz der belebten Natur hinaus, da es gleichzeitig neben der Erhaltung eines als günstig erkannten Ist-Zustandes der Biodiversität der Vermeidung vorhersehbarer Schäden sowie auch der Restitution nach einem eingetretenen Schaden verpflichtet ist. Naturschutzsystematisch gehört es wegen der Betonung der Vermeidung und Sanierung zum Bereich des reaktiven Naturschutzes (Gefahrenabwehr und Gefahrenbeseitigung), dem auch die Eingriffsregelung des Bundesnaturschutzgesetzes (BNatSchG), die Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfung nach Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfungsgesetz (UVPG) sowie die FFH-Verträglichkeitsprüfung nach Fauna-Flora-Habitat-Richtlinie (FFH-RL) zuzurechnen sind. Stärker noch als in den genannten Regelungen tritt im USchadG das Verursacherprinzip gegenüber der allgemeinen Umweltvorsorge in den Vordergrund.

  19. 76 FR 27240 - Airworthiness Directives; BURKHART GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... was published in the Federal Register on February 18, 2011 (76 FR 9513). That NPRM proposed to correct... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and ] (3) Will not have a significant... GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  20. Das Universum der Sterne. Himmelsbeobachtungen und Streifzüge durch die moderne Astronomie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, of the English original published in 1990 (see 52.003.046). Contents: 1. Der Halleysche Komet. 2. Alpha Centauri - Der sonnennächste Stern. 3. Sirius und sein Begleiter, ein Weißer Zwerg. 4. Polaris - Der Polarstern. 5. Wega - Ein Planetensystem im Entstehen? 6. Mira - Der erste bekannte veränderliche Stern. 7. Der Ring-Nebel - "Todeskampf" eines sonnenähnlichen Sterns. 8. Der Orion-Nebel - Die Geburt neuer Sterne. 9. Delta Cephei - Die Meßlatte des Weltalls. 10. Algol - Der Teufelsstern. 11. Nova Aquilae - Der neue Stern von 1918. 12. Der Krebs-Nebel - Die Supernova des Jahres 1054. 13. Die Hyaden und Plejaden - Sternhaufen. 14. Die Milchstraße - Unsere Galaxis. 15. Die Magellanschen Wolken - Unsere Nachbarn im Weltall. 16. Der Andromeda-Nebel - Zwilling unserer Galaxis. 17. Messier 87 - Eine Radiogalaxie. 18. 3C 273 - Rätselhafter Quasar. 19. Messier 82 - Eine "Starburst"-Galaxie. 20. Der Virgo-Haufen - Ein reicher Galaxienhaufen. 21. Das Universum.

  1. Sinn und Möglichkeiten der Theoretischen Physik. Zum 300. Jahrestag von Newtons Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompe, R.; Thiessen, P. A.; Treder, H.-J.

    Die Newtonschen Prinzipien und die aus ihnen gewonnene Erkenntnis der Existenz von Elementarkonstanten nach Planck, Einstein und Bohr erweisen sich zunehmend als tragfähiges Fundament nicht nur der Physik und ihrer Anwendung in der Technik, sondern überhaupt aller exakten Wissenschaften in breitestem Sinne des Wortes.Die physikalisch inhaltliche Klärung der Begriffe erfolgt seit Newton in engem Verbund mit der Entwicklung mathematischer Methoden. Diese Kombination erweist sich weiterhin als produktiv und sichert den Fortschritt der Physik und der exakten Wissenschaften.Wohl alle Probleme, die im Bereich der Technik Bedeutung haben können, lassen sich bei entsprechendem Aufwand bereits mit dem vorhandenen Fundus an Erkenntnissen und Methoden erfolgreich angehen.Der in der Wirklichkeit verankerte Zusammenhang von Gesetz und Zufall erweist sich als eine Manifestation der Dialektik in der Natur. Es gibt keinen absoluten Zufall. Sie kommt in allen Zweigen der Physik, nicht nur in der Thermodynamik und Quantenphysik, zutage, und muß bereits auf dem Niveau der Newtonschen Prinzipien und der Elementarkonstanten behandelt werden.Die theoretische Physik, so wie sie von Newton initiiert worden ist, wurde so angelegt, daß sie alle Seiten der Wirklichkeit, so weit sie in die Kompetenz der Physik fallen, umfaßt. Es besteht darum kein Gegensatz zwischen der klassischen Physik und der Quantenphysik. Es handelt sich lediglich um eine Differenzierung nach den unterschiedlichen physikalischen Inhalten und den angemessenen mathematischen Methoden, die natürlich von der Wahl der Probleme abhängen.Die theoretische Physik stellt eine allgemein zugängliche Zusammenfassung des gesicherten Wissens der Physik dar, das zugleich das Fundament der exakten Wissenschaften ist.Die theoretische Physik ist damit das Mittel der Verständigung innerhalb der Kooperation, die notwendig ist zur Lösung der großen komplexen Aufgaben der Wissenschaft und Technik.

  2. Das Lektin aus der Erbse Pisum sativum : Bindungsstudien, Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht und Rückfaltung aus Fragmenten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küster, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Das Lektin aus Pisum sativum, der Gartenerbse, ist Teil der Familie der Leguminosenlektine. Diese Proteine haben untereinander eine hohe Sequenzhomologie, und die Struktur ihrer Monomere, ein all-ß-Motiv, ist hoch konserviert. Dagegen gibt es innerhalb der Familie eine große Vielfalt an unterschiedlichen Quartärstrukturen, die Gegenstand kristallographischer und theoretischer Arbeiten waren. Das Erbsenlektin ist ein dimeres Leguminosenlektin mit einer Besonderheit in seiner Struktur: Nach der Faltung in der Zelle wird aus einem Loop eine kurze Aminosäuresequenz herausgeschnitten, so dass sich in jeder Untereinheit zwei unabhängige Polypeptidketten befinden. Beide Ketten sind aber stark miteinander verschränkt und bilden eine gemeinsame strukturelle Domäne. Wie alle Lektine bindet Erbsenlektin komplexe Oligosaccharide, doch sind seine physiologische Rolle und der natürliche Ligand unbekannt. In dieser Arbeit wurden Versuche zur Entwicklung eines Funktionstests für Erbsenlektin durchgeführt und seine Faltung, Stabilität und Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht charakterisiert. Um die spezifische Rolle der Prozessierung für Stabilität und Faltung zu untersuchen, wurde ein unprozessiertes Konstrukt in E. coli exprimiert und mit der prozessierten Form verglichen. Beide Proteine zeigen die gleiche kinetische Stabilität gegenüber chemischer Denaturierung. Sie denaturieren extrem langsam, weil nur die isolierten Untereinheiten entfalten können und das Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht bei mittleren Konzentrationen an Denaturierungsmittel auf der Seite der Dimere liegt. Durch die extrem langsame Entfaltung zeigen beide Proteine eine apparente Hysterese im Gleichgewichtsübergang, und es ist nicht möglich, die thermodynamische Stabilität zu bestimmen. Die Stabilität und die Geschwindigkeit der Assoziation und Dissoziation in die prozessierten bzw. nichtprozessierten Untereinheiten sind für beide Proteine gleich. Darüber hinaus konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch unter

  3. Die Amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren nach § 64 LFGB, § 35 Vorläufiges Tabakgesetz und § 28b Gentechnikgesetz - ein Instrument der amtlichen Lebensmittelüberwachung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renger, Silke; Stachel, Carolin

    Immer wieder werden Skandale in Zusammenhang mit Lebensmitteln bekannt. Schlagworte wie BSE, Gammelfleisch, Acrylamid, Cumarin oder auch Melamin, Dioxin sind den Verbrauchern geläufig und erschüttern das Vertrauen in ein gesundes und ernährungsphysiologisch wertvolles Lebensmittel. Das Bewusstsein des Verbrauchers hinsichtlich der Ernährung und der Auswahl beim Kauf der Lebensmittel hat sich in den vergangenen Jahren deutlich verändert. Bei der Auswahl seiner Lebensmittel liegt sein Augenmerk verstärkt auf gesunden, qualitativ hochwertigen und vor allem sicheren Lebensmitteln. Dies wurde insbesondere bei dem verhaltenen Kauf von Fleisch und Fleischerzeugnissen während der BSE-Krise oder auch dem kürzlich aufgetretenen Gammelfleischskandal deutlich.

  4. OPTIMIZING THE PAKS METHOD FOR MEASURING AIRBORNE ACROLEIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne acrolein is produced from the combustion of fuel and tobacco and is of concern due to its potential for respiratory tract irritation and other adverse health effects. DNPH active-sampling is a method widely used for sampling airborne aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls); ...

  5. Characterisation of the Rac/PAK pathway in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Kłopocka, W; Moraczewska, J; Redowicz, M J

    2005-04-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the unique locomotion of the highly motile Amoeba proteus still remain poorly understood. Recently, we have shown that blocking the endogenous amoebal Rac-like protein(s) leads to distinct and irreversible changes in the appearance of these large migrating cells as well as to a significant inhibition of their locomotion. To elucidate the mechanism of the Rac pathway in Amoeba proteus, we tested the effects of blocking the endogenous myosin I heavy chain kinase (MIHCK), one of the Rac effectors in Acanthamoeba castellanii and Dictyostelium discoideum, with anti-MIHCK antibodies in migrating amoebae, as well as the effect of inhibiting Rac and MIHCK on the actin polymerisation process. Antibodies against A. castellanii MIHCK detected an A. proteus protein with a molecular mass (ca. 95 kDa) similar to the A. castellanii kinase. The cellular distribution of MIHCK in A. proteus was very similar to those of Rac-like protein in amoebae and MIHCK in A. castellanii. Amoebae microinjected with anti-MIHCK antibodies moved slower and protruded fewer wide pseudopodia (5-6) than the control cells (9-10), resembling to some extent the phenotype of cells microinjected with anti-Rac antibodies. The in vitro studies indicate that the A. proteus Rac-like protein, but not the MIHCK isoform, is engaged in the regulation of the nucleation step of the actin polymerisation process. These observations suggest that MIHCK may be one of the effectors for Rac in these extremely large cells.

  6. Pak-India collaborations in health: insights and way forward.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Chishtie, Farrukh; Chishtie, Jawad; Malik, Mariam; Ehsan, Haamna; Qazi, Yasmeen; Amjad, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Commonalities abound varied health challenges confronting Pakistan and India. Some of these warrant joint collaborative solutions. This study presents existing health collaborations by mapping out active connections between the countries, through a literature review and clinical and public health professionals' interviews. It reveals that a diversity of practices exist beyond the usual notions of 'collaboration' usually depicted in the literature. Outcomes from such initiatives included enhanced learning and exchanges of information and research across various communities and contexts. In various adoptions of the term, contextualisation within and between countries and amongst particular communities is cited as important. Travel and mobility restriction emerged as one key issue that hampers and discourages collaborations. Key lessons conveyed by the participants included an enabling environment, missing on both sides of the border. Opportunities and recommendations are presented to address the obstacles that discourage cross-border dialogue and to enhance collaborations between the two countries. PMID:26189874

  7. Characterisation of the Rac/PAK pathway in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Kłopocka, W; Moraczewska, J; Redowicz, M J

    2005-04-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the unique locomotion of the highly motile Amoeba proteus still remain poorly understood. Recently, we have shown that blocking the endogenous amoebal Rac-like protein(s) leads to distinct and irreversible changes in the appearance of these large migrating cells as well as to a significant inhibition of their locomotion. To elucidate the mechanism of the Rac pathway in Amoeba proteus, we tested the effects of blocking the endogenous myosin I heavy chain kinase (MIHCK), one of the Rac effectors in Acanthamoeba castellanii and Dictyostelium discoideum, with anti-MIHCK antibodies in migrating amoebae, as well as the effect of inhibiting Rac and MIHCK on the actin polymerisation process. Antibodies against A. castellanii MIHCK detected an A. proteus protein with a molecular mass (ca. 95 kDa) similar to the A. castellanii kinase. The cellular distribution of MIHCK in A. proteus was very similar to those of Rac-like protein in amoebae and MIHCK in A. castellanii. Amoebae microinjected with anti-MIHCK antibodies moved slower and protruded fewer wide pseudopodia (5-6) than the control cells (9-10), resembling to some extent the phenotype of cells microinjected with anti-Rac antibodies. The in vitro studies indicate that the A. proteus Rac-like protein, but not the MIHCK isoform, is engaged in the regulation of the nucleation step of the actin polymerisation process. These observations suggest that MIHCK may be one of the effectors for Rac in these extremely large cells. PMID:15948264

  8. Die Europäische Union, die Europäische Gemeinschaft und ihre Rechtsordnung, die Europäische Lebensmittelkontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallhoff, Gudrun; Rimkus, Gerhard G.

    Die Europäische Union (EU) ist ein Zusammenschluss von siebenundzwanzig unabhängigen Staaten, um deren wirtschaftliche, politische und soziale Zusammenarbeit zu verstärken. Seit 1. Mai 2007 hat sie die folgenden Mitglieder: Österreich, Belgien, Bulgarien, Dänemark, Finnland, Frankreich, Deutschland, Griechenland, Irland, Italien, Luxemburg, die Niederlande, Portugal, Spanien, Schweden, das Vereinigte Königreich von Großbritannien und Nordirland, Zypern, die Tschechische Republik, Estland, Ungarn, Lettland, Litauen, Malta, Polen, Rumänien, die Slowakei und Slowenien [1]. (Hinweis: Die Republik Zypern hat juristisch Souveränität über die ganze Insel, da die Türkische Republik Nordzypern international nicht anerkannt wird.)

  9. Ever Stop to Think Man's Survival Is Dependent on His Use of Food Resources? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Nelson Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Judy

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for senior high school students who have a basic knowledge of nutrition and some experience in menu planning. The five lessons provide experiences in selecting, preparing, and storing foods to attain maximum nutrition with a…

  10. Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen - Learning about soil diversity and soil functions with cartoon characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Anett

    2015-04-01

    "Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen" is a German-language learning material that fosters discovery of soil diversity and soil functions in kids, teens and adults who enjoy interactive learning activities. The learning material consists of (i) a large poster (dimensions 200 x 120 cm) showing an imaginative illustrated landscape that could be situated in Austria, Switzerland or southern Germany and (ii) a set of 15 magnetic cards that show different soil cartoon characters, e.g. Bruno Braunerde (Cambisol), Stauni Pseudogley (Stagnic Luvisol) or Heidi Podsol (Podzol) on the front and a fun profession and address (linked to the respective soil functions) on the back side. The task is to place the soil cartoon characters to their 'home' in the landscape. This learning material was developed as a contribution to the International Year of Soils 2015 and is supported by the German, Austrian and Swiss Soil Sciences Societies and the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment. The soil cartoon characters are an adaptation of the original concept by the James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland (www.hutton.ac.uk/learning/dirt-doctor).

  11. Arzt und Hobby-Astronom in stürmischen Zeiten Der Büchernachlass des Doktor Johannes Häringshauser, Viertelsmedicus in Mistelbach (1630-1641) in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Giles; Glaßner, Gottfried

    2009-06-01

    Auf der Suche nach astronomischer Literatur stieß Giles Davison in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek auf den Namen "Doctor Johannes Häringshauser“ als Besitzer seltener und interessanter astronomischer Werke u.a. von Johannes Regiomontan, Georg von Peuerbach, Michael Mästlin, Johannes Kepler und Daniel Sennert. Weitere in den Jahren 2007-2009 durchgeführte Nachforschungen ergaben, dass es sich um den von 1630-1641 in Mistelbach, Niederösterreich, als Landschaftsarzt tätigen Vater des Melker Konventualen und Bibliothekars Sigismund Häringshauser (1631-1698) handelt. Er wurde 1603 als Sohn des aus Magdeburg stammenden Apothekers Johannes Häringshauser geboren und starb 1642 in Mistelbach. Johannes Häringshauser Sen. bekleidete von 1613-1640 eine Reihe wichtiger Ämter in der Wiener Stadtregierung und starb 1647. Der Studienaufenthalt von Dr. Johannes Häringshauser Jun. in Padua (1624-1626) dürfte das Interesse für Astronomie geweckt haben, das sich in seiner in die Bestände der Melker Stiftsbibliothek eingegangenen Privatbibliothek widerspiegelt. Der Großteil der 10 dem Fachbereich der Astronomie und Astrologie zuzuweisenden Titel wurde von ihm in den Jahren 1636 und 1637 erworben.

  12. Online irrigation service for fruit und vegetable crops at farmers site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, W.

    2009-09-01

    Online irrigation service for fruit und vegetable crops at farmers site by W. Janssen, German Weather Service, 63067 Offenbach Agrowetter irrigation advice is a product which calculates the present soil moisture as well as the soil moisture to be expected over the next 5 days for over 30 different crops. It's based on a water balance model and provides targeted recommendations for irrigation. Irrigation inputs according to the soil in order to avoid infiltration and, as a consequence thereof, the undesired movement of nitrate and plant protectants into the groundwater. This interactive 'online system' takes into account the user's individual circumstances such as crop and soil characteristics and the precipitation and irrigation amounts at the user's site. Each user may calculate up to 16 different enquiries simultaneously (different crops or different emergence dates). The user can calculate the individual soil moistures for his fields with a maximum effort of 5 minutes per week only. The sources of water are precipitation and irrigation whereas water losses occur due to evapotranspiration and infiltration of water into the ground. The evapotranspiration is calculated by multiplying a reference evapotranspiration (maximum evapotranspiration over grass) with the so-called crop coefficients (kc values) that have been developed by the Geisenheim Research Centre, Vegetable Crops Branch. Kc values depending on the crop and the individual plant development stage. The reference evapotranspiration is calculated from a base weather station user has chosen (out of around 500 weather stations) using Penman method based on daily values. After chosen a crop and soil type the user must manually enter the precipitation data measured at the site, the irrigation water inputs and the dates for a few phenological stages. Economical aspects can be considered by changing the values of soil moisture from which recommendations for irrigation start from optimal to necessary plant supply

  13. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  14. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  15. Friedrich Möglich - sein Beitrag zum Aufbau der Physik in der DDR. Friedrich Möglich - langjähriger Mitherausgeber und Chefredakteur der Annalen der Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompe, Robert

    Friedrich Möglich, ein Schüler von Max von Laue und Erwin Schrödinger, übernahm 1947 die Chefredaktion der Annalen der Physik.Translated AbstractFriedrich Möglich - His Contributions to the Formation of Physics in GDRFriedrich Möglich a student of Max von Laue and Erwin Schrödinger took over as editor in chief of Annalen der Physik in 1947.

  16. Versuche zur Gewinnung von katalytischen Antikörpern zur Hydrolyse von Arylcarbamaten und Arylharnstoffen. (English Title: Attempts to produce catalytic antibodies for hydrolysis of arylcarbamates and arylureas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Deljana

    2002-05-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit gelang es, katalytische Antikörper zur Hydrolyse von Benzylphenylcarbamaten sowie zahlreiche monoklonale Antikörper gegen Haptene herzustellen. Es wurden verschiedene Hapten-Protein-Konjugate unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Kopplungsmethoden hergestellt und charakterisiert. Zur Generierung der hydrolytisch aktiven Antikörper wurden Inzuchtmäuse mit KLH-Konjugaten von 4 Übergangszustandsanaloga (ÜZA) immunisiert. Mit Hilfe der Hybridomtechnik wurden verschiedene monoklonale Antikörper gegen diese ÜZA gewonnen. Dabei wurden sowohl verschiedene Immunisierungsschemata als auch verschiedene Inzuchtmausstämme und Fusionstechniken verwendet. Insgesamt wurden 32 monoklonale Antikörper gegen die verwendeten ÜZA selektiert. Diese Antikörper wurden in groen Mengen hergestellt und gereinigt. Zum Nachweis der Antikörper-vermittelten Katalyse wurden verschiedene Methoden entwickelt und eingesetzt, darunter immunologische Nachweismethoden mit Anti-Substrat- und Anti-Produkt-Antikörpern und eine photometrische Methode mit Dimethylaminozimtaldehyd. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität gelang mit Hilfe eines Enzymsensors, basierend auf immobilisierter Tyrosinase. Die Antikörper N1-BC1-D11, N1-FA7-C4, N1-FA7-D12 und R3-LG2-F9 hydrolysierten die Benzylphenylcarbamate POCc18, POCc19 und Substanz 27. Der Nachweis der hydrolytischen Aktivität dieser Antikörper gelang auch mit Hilfe der HPLC. Der katalytische Antikörper N1-BC1-D11 wurde kinetisch und thermodynamisch untersucht. Es wurde eine Michaelis-Menten-Kinetik mit Km von 210 µM, vmax von 3 mM/min und kcat von 222 min-1 beobachtet. Diese Werte korrelieren mit den Werten der wenigen bekannten Diphenylcarbamat-spaltenden Abzyme. Die Beschleunigungsrate des Antikörpers N1-BC1-D11 betrug 10. Das ÜZA Hei3 hemmte die hydrolytische Aktivität. Dies beweist, dass die Hydrolyse in der Antigenbindungsstelle stattfindet. Weiter wurde zwischen der Antikörperkonzentration und der

  17. The wish for annihilation in 'love-death' as collapse of the need for recognition, in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde.

    PubMed

    Bergstein, Moshe

    2013-08-01

    Wagner's Tristan und Isolde holds a central position in Western music and culture. It is shown to demonstrate consequences of interruption of developmental processes involving the need for recognition of subjectivity, resulting in the collapse of this need into the wish for annihilation of self and other through 'love-death' [Liebestod]. A close reading of the musical language of the opera reveals how this interruption is demonstrated, and the consequent location of identity outside of language, particularly suitable for expression in music. Isolde's dynamics are presented as distinct from that of Tristan, and in contrast to other interpretations of Tristan and Isolde's love as an attack on the Oedipal order, or as a regressive wish for pre-Oedipal union. Isolde's Act I narrative locates the origin of her desire in the protagonists' mutual gaze at a traumatic moment. In this moment powerful and contrasting emotions converge, evoking thwarted developmental needs, and arousing the fantasy of redemption in love-death. By removing the magical elements, Wagner enables a deeper understanding of the characters' positions in relation to each other, each with his or her own needs for recognition and traumatic experiences. These positions invite mutual identifications resulting in rising tension between affirmation of identity and annihilation, with actual death as the only possible psychic solution. The dynamics described in the opera demonstrate the function of music and opera in conveying meaning which is not verbally expressible. PMID:23924333

  18. Herstellung eines federelastischen Spangutes geringer Dichte als Matrix für Schüttdämmstoffe, für plattenförmige Dämmstoffe und leichte Spanplatten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tröger, Johannes; Groß, Lucia

    Klimaschutz und die ständig steigenden Energiekosten erfordern eine kontinuierliche Verbesserung der Dämmstoffe. Eine Alternative zur relativ kostenaufwändigen Wärmedämmung durch Platten bzw. Matten auf Basis von mineralischen Stoffen, ist der Einsatz von schütt-bzw. einblasbaren Dämmstoffpartikeln. Späne aus Holz und andere Dämmstoffe aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen waren schon vor dem ersten Weltkrieg die gebräuchlichsten Dämmstoffe überhaupt. Seit etwa fünfzehn Jahren werden u.a. für den Holzhausbau im zunehmenden Maße auch Fräs-, Säge und Hobelspäne für Wärmedämmzwecke eingesetzt [1], [2], [3]. Hervorzuheben ist der ökologische Aspekt dieser Dämmstoffe durch die Bindung von CO2 und den sinkenden Heizenergiebedarf. Die bisherige Philosophie bei der Gewinnung von Dämmstoffspänen beruhte darauf, anfallendes Spangut stofflich weiter zu nutzen. Die Recyclingspäne sollten dabei sowohl die Setzungssicherheit als auch eine möglichst gute Wärmedämmung gewährleisten.

  19. Satellitengeodäsie und Langbasis-Interferometrie auf der Fundamentalstation Wettzell. Kolloquiumsvorträge anläßlich des 60sten Geburtstages von Prof. Manfred Schneider.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilk, K.-H.

    Contents: Die krumme Geodäte (H. Ruder, M. Ruder). Zur Geschichte der Fundamentalstation Wettzell (H. Seeger et al.). Newtons Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (M. Schramm). Von Newton zu Einstein (M. H. Soffel). Geodäsie und Physik (S. Heitz). Erdbebenvorhersage mit SEISMOLAP (J. Zschau).

  20. Entwicklung von umwelt- und naturschutzgerechten Verfahren der landwirtschaftlichen Landnutzung für das Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    1999-11-01

    Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit werden exemplarisch Chancen und Grenzen der Integration von Umwelt- und Naturschutz in Verfahren der ackerbaulichen Landnutzung aufgezeigt. Die Umsetzung von Zielen des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes in Verfahren der Landnutzung ist mit verschiedenen Schwierigkeiten verbunden. Diese liegen zum einen in der Konkretisierung der Ziele, um diese umsetzen zu können, zum anderen in vielfach unzulänglichem Wissen über den Zusammenhang zwischen unterschiedlichen Formen der Landnutzung und insbesondere den biotischen Naturschutzzielen. Zunächst wird die Problematik der Zielfestlegung und Konkretisierung erörtert. Das Umweltqualitätszielkonzept von Fürst et al. (1992) stellt einen Versuch dar, Ziele des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes zu konkretisieren. Dieses Konzept haben Heidt et al. (1997) auf einen Landschaftsausschnitt von ca. 6000 ha im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin im Nordosten Brandenburgs angewendet. Eine Auswahl der von Heidt et al. (1997) formulierten Umweltqualitätsziele bildet die Basis dieser Arbeit. Für die ausgewählten Umweltqualitätsziele wurden wesentliche Einflussfaktoren der Landnutzung identifiziert und ein Bewertungssystem entwickelt, mit dem die Auswirkungen von landwirtschaftlichen Anbauverfahren auf diese Umweltqualitätsziele abgebildet werden können. Die praktizierte Landnutzung von 20 Betrieben im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde von 1994 bis 1997 hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf die Umweltqualitätsziele analysiert. Die Analyse ergab ein sehr differenziertes Bild, das zum Teil Unterschiede in der Auswirkung auf die Umweltqualitätsziele für den Anbau einzelner Kulturen oder für bestimmte Betriebstypen zeigte. Es zeigte sich aber auch, dass es bei der Gestaltung des Anbaus einzelner Kulturarten große Unterschiede gab, die für Umweltqualitätsziele Bedeutung haben. Neben der Analyse der Landnutzung im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde ein System entwickelt, mit dem die modellhafte

  1. The dating of the ornithological section of Middendorff's Reise in den äussersten Norden und Osten Sibiriens, with comments on the nomenclature of Pallas's Bunting Emberiza pallasi Cabanis (Aves: Emberizidae).

    PubMed

    Mlíkovský, Jiří

    2014-05-14

    Middendorff's work on the Säugethiere, Vögel und Amphibien, published as part 2 of volume 2 of his Reise in den äussersten Norden und Osten Sibiriens, was variably dated from 1851, 1852 or 1853. I document that the work was published shortly before 15 December 1852 and I recommend using this date for the purposes of zoological nomenclature.Due to this, Emberiza polaris Middendorff, 1852 has precedence over Cynchramus pallasi Cabanis, 1853. This bunting species thus should be called Emberiza polaris and its four subspecies should be called Emberiza polaris polaris Middendorff, 1852, E. polaris minor Middendorff, 1852, E. polaris pallasi (Cabanis, 1853) and E. polaris lydiae Portenko, 1929. 

  2. Oxygen und Hydrogen Isotope Patterns of Surface Waters on the Tibetan Plateau: Implications on Sources and Transport Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weynell, M.; Wiechert, U.; Riedel, F.; Taft, L.; Zhang, H.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is significantly affecting the atmospheric circulation pattern of the northern hemisphere by influencing several major wind systems. Here we present oxygen und hydrogen isotopes for water samples from 30 lakes and their tributaries on the Tibetan Plateau, 5 snow samples from the central Chang Tang plateau and samples from the Brahmaputra and Indus rivers, which were collected during fieldtrips in 2008 and 2009. The aim of this study is to detect sources, transport paths, and processes that control the composition of surface waters on the Tibetan plateau. The working area can be divided into 5 geographic regions with distinct moisture sources and pathways: the eastern Brahmaputra region is characterized by an average composition of precipitation of δ18O ≈ -18 ‰, the Chang Tang plateau of δ18O ≈ -21 ‰ and a north-eastern region around lake Donggi Cona of δ18O ≈ -12 ‰ relative to V-SMOW. The precipitation in the northwest region average at δ18O ≈ -14 ‰, whereas the western Brahmaputra region is characterized by an isotopic δ18O range from -18 to -23 ‰. The isotopic compositions of the surface waters in the southeast of the plateau are consistent with transport of humidity by the eastern branch of the South West Asian monsoon. The 18O-depleted precipitation of the Chang Tang region and eastern part of the western Brahmaputra region can be explained by further uplift and rainout of South West Asian monsoonal air masses. The isotopically heavier surface waters in the Donggi Cona region and the northwest region exclude any significant contribution by the South West Asian monsoon. The major proportion of surface waters in the northeast is probably derived from air masses of the East Asian monsoon. The surface waters in the northwest most likely came with the westerlies. On the Chang Tang plateau some recycling of local waters and/or an influence of air masses from the north or west are indicated by snow samples with high deuterium

  3. Bereits nach Ablauf der Halbwertszeit droht der vollständige Zerfall Die britische Atomic Scientists’ Association, die Ideologie der „objektiven” Wissenschaft und die H-Bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laucht, Christoph

    Präsident Harry Trumans Verlautbarung vom 31.1.1950, seine Regierung wolle die Entwicklung der Wasserstoffbombe vorantreiben, fand große Beachtung in den britischen Medien. Die illustrierte Zeitschrift Picture Post widmete der HBombe einen Artikel, der unter anderem kurze Stellungnahmen der britischen Atomwissenschaftler Eric Burhop, Kathleen Lonsdale, Harrie Massey, Rudolf Peierls und Maurice Pryce enthielt, die alle Mitglieder der Atomic Scientists' Association (ASA) waren.

  4. Peter Andreas Hansen and the astronomical community - a first investigation of the Hansen papers. (German Title: Peter Andreas Hansen und die astronomische Gemeinschaft - eine erste Auswertung des Hansen-Nachlasses. )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Oliver; Strumpf, Manfred

    The literary assets of Peter Andreas Hansen are deposited in the Staatsarchiv Hamburg, the Forschungs- und Landesbibliothek Gotha and the Thüringer Staatsarchiv Gotha. They were never systematically investigated. We present here some results of a first evaluation. It was possible to reconstruct the historical events with regard to the maintenance of the Astronomische Nachrichten and the Altona observatory in 1854. Hansen was a successful teacher for many young astronomers. His way of stimulating the evolution of astronomy followed Zach's tradition.

  5. Die nuklearen Anlagen von Hanford (1943-1987) Eine Fallstudie über die Schnittstellen von Physik, Biologie und die US-amerikanische Gesellschaft zur Zeit des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macuglia, Daniele

    Die Geschichte des Kalten Krieges eröffnet viele Möglichkeiten, sich näher mit den Schnittstellen von Physik und Biologie während des 20. Jahrhunderts zu befassen. Nicht nur das Unglück in Tschernobyl aus dem Jahr 1986, auch das Beispiel der nuklearen Anlagen in Hanford in den Vereinigten Staaten zeigt die biologischen Folgen von nuklearer Physik.

  6. Zur Elektronenstruktur hochsymmetrischer Verbindungen der f-Elemente 28. Experimentelle Erfassung und Simulation des Kristallfeld-Aufspaltungsmusters von Tris(bis(trimethylsilyl)amido)neodym(III) [Nd(Btmsa)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amberger, Von H.-D.; Jank, S.; Reddmann Und, H.; Edelstein, N. M.

    Die sigma- und pi-Absorptionsspektren eines orientierten Nd(Btmsa)3-Einkristalls wurden bei Raumtemperatur sowie bei tiefen Temperaturen vermessen. Auf der Basis der beobachteten Spektren wurde das zugrundeliegende partielle Kristallfeld (KF)-Aufspaltungsmuster abgeleitet und durch Anpassung der offenen Operators simuliert. Bei 84 Zuordnungen wurde eine RMS-Abweichung von 35.2cm erzielt. Auf der Grundlage der erhaltenen Wellenfunktionen des KF-Grundzustandes konnte das bei 5K aufgenommene ESR-Spektrum von gelostem Nd(Btmsa)3 erklart werden. Unter Verwendung der berechneten Wellenfunktionen und Eigenwerte sowie eines Orbitalreduktions 2faktors k = 0.975konnte die hangigkeit von eff einer gepulverten Nd(Btmsa)3-Probe reproduziert werden. The sigma and pi absorption spectra of an oriented single crystal of Nd(btmsa)3 were measured at room and low temperatures. From the spectra obtained a truncated crystal field (CF) splitting pattern is derived, and simulated by fitting the fr-e1 e parameters of an empirical Hamiltonian. For 84 assignments an RMS deviation of 35.2cm tions of the CF ground state obtained from these calculations the 5K EPR spectrum of dissolved Nd(btmsa)3 could be explained. Making use of the calculated wav 2efunctions and eigenvalues the experimentally determined temperature dependence of eff of powdered Nd(btmsa)3 could be reproduced by adopting an orbital reduction factor k = 0.975. Parameter eines empirischen H-a 1miltonexperimentell bestimmte Temperaturabis achieved. On the basis of the wavefuncplexe

  7. Kernfusion und das Energieproblem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Arnulf

    1982-05-01

    The present understanding of the physics and technology problems of confining a hot plasma ring by magnetic fields and of heating it to such temperatures that thermonuclear fusions between deuterium and tritium nuclei provide the energy required to maintain this temperature seems to allow to predict the possibility of a self-sustaining thermonuclear reactor. Imbedding this chance into world energy scenarios for the next fifty years, it is shown that fusion reactors of a type of which each may supply about ten slow fission reactors with fissionable material may play a critical rôle by drastically reducing the number of required fast fission breeder reactors.

  8. Frauen, Bildung und Entwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestvogel, Renate

    1987-12-01

    The author presents first steps towards a development-based concept of women's education in the industrialized countries. Some elements of this concept are: (1) planning and action in a global context, (2) the local or regional bias given to education, (3) promotion of an intercultural perspective, (4) reducing the power of structures that encourage oppression. The author's observations are based on the following propositions: the `development process' in the industrialized countries has had terrible effects all over the world and it is necessary that women also consider their roles in what the author considers to be a process of destruction. This is because women are part of the overall system and contribute to its perpetuation in the measure of their own socialization. Connections are established between the destruction of the environment and the individual, as also between the victims and assailants of racism and sexism with a view to clarifying unidentified parts of the female consciousness. Beyond this, the role of European women in the context of colonialism and the present contact between European women and their counterparts from other cultures are examined with particular attention being paid to the exercise of power and force in the family and society.

  9. Verkehrsdynamik und -simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiber, Martin; Kesting, Arne

    In diesem Lehrbuch geht es um die Beschreibung der Dynamik des Straßenverkehrs mit Hilfe mathematischer Modelle. Der mathematische Zugang ist im Bereich der quantitativen Naturwissenschaften außerordentlich erfolgreich. Bereits Isaac Newton bemerkte, dass das Buch der Natur in der Sprache der Mathematik geschrieben sei. In der jüngeren Zeit wurde eine mathematische Herangehensweise verstärkt auch zur Beschreibung menschlichen Handelns genutzt. Dies erscheint auf den ersten Blick paradox, da der Mensch als Individuum mit seinen Entscheidungen sicherlich nicht schematisch durch mathematische Formeln beschreibbar ist.

  10. Ausbildung und wissenschaftsstandort deutschland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markl, Hubert

    1992-09-01

    In the ongoing discussions about the qualities of Germany regarding economic activities and especially industrial production in a unifying Europe and with respect to worldwide economic competition, it is important to carefully consider the conditions for innovative and competitive scientific research. Germany as a site for science is dependent not only on the resources of public research institutes, on available research funds and on industrial R&D investment, but just as decisively on the existing framework of conditions for scientific-technological progress. Thus, the whole educational system is of utmost importance since it must form and develop the coming generations of researchers. Their knowledge and their attitudes, as acquired in this educational process, determine not only their future scientific productivity, but also the public acceptance of high-tech production in Germany.

  11. Korallen, Fischer und Touristen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunzmann, Andreas

    1999-12-01

    As a result of natural and anthropogenic disturbances, coral reefs are endangered across the world. This presentation addresses the effects of fishing and tourism on coral reefs. Although reefs are important in a global context for fisheries and tourism, more than 60% of all reefs are endangered through human activities. The use of explosives and poison for fishing is banned since 1972. Nevertheless, up to 50% of small-scale fishermen use bombs and poison, at least temporarily. Both methods cause long-term destruction of corals and reef structure leaving behind only coral rubble or rather mile-long “coral cemeteries” whose assertion of skeletal dead corals are a sad reminder of the beautiful reefs before the destruction. The trade with ornamental fish for aquarium and live reef fish for consumption in Hongkong is worth more than 1 billion US annually. Uncontrolled tourism also destroys reefs in many ways—rapid coastal development with corals as building material, sedimentation, eutrophication and last not least many divers disturb coral reefs. This is also true for the blooming trade with souvenirs from the sea, where, as is the case for ornamental fish trade, the Philippines are the main export nation. In addition, natural disturbance factors such as climatically induced temperature variations or storms frequently act as the final straw for already stressed reefs. Fortunately, the number of marine parks and marine protected areas is increasing worldwide and several large international projects for reef protection and rehabilitation have begun. It remains to be seen whether decision-makers will discover that reefs which are managed in an encompassing and sustainable manner can provide economically viable returms. It must be realised that in order to achieve this, developing countries in the tropics must be substantially supported with true partnership projects.

  12. Geschlechtsbestimmung und Geschlechtsdifferenzierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Ulrich

    1981-04-01

    Sex determination in mammals proceeds like a cascade from the level of the sex chromosomes to the gonads, to the genital ducts, and finally to the expression of the male or female phenotype. At the level of the genital ducts male sex organs are induced by testosterone. Its action depends on an intact cytoplasmic androgen receptor protein. The testicular feminization mutation ( Tfm) leads to loss of hormone binding capacity. Individuals with testes but female external phenotype develop. In the mouse the interaction of androgen insensitive Tfm cells with normal cells can be studied in mosaic individuals composed of both cell types, and in organ culture by recombination of Tfm and normal tissues. The experiments show that under the action of testosterone the normal cells express male differentiated cellular functions, whereas the Tfm cells differentiate in female direction. In respect to proliferation and expression of male or female organ structures, however, both cell types communicate via local factors. Thus, instead of irregular malformations intersex organs develop.

  13. Pattern of fall injuries in Pakistan: the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to analyse the frequency and patterns of fall-related injuries presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) across Pakistan. Methods Pakistan National Emergency Departments surveillance system collected data from November 2010 to March 2011 on a 24/7 basis using a standardized tool in seven major EDs (five public and two private hospitals) in six major cities of Pakistan. For all patients presenting with fall-related injuries, we analysed data by intent with focus on unintentional falls. Simple frequencies were run for basic patient demographics, mechanism of falls, outcomes of fall injuries, mode of arrival to ED, investigations, and procedures with outcomes. Results There were 3335 fall-related injuries. In cases where intent was available, two-thirds (n = 1186, 65.3%) of fall injuries were unintentional. Among unintentional fall patients presenting to EDs, the majority (76.9%) were males and between 15-44 years of age (69%). The majority of the unintentional falls (n = 671, 56.6%) were due to slipping, followed by fall from height (n = 338, 28.5%). About two-thirds (n = 675, 66.6%) of fall injuries involved extremities, followed by head/neck (n = 257, 25.4%) and face (n = 99, 9.8%). Most of the patients were discharged from the hospital (n = 1059, 89.3%). There were 17 (1.3%) deaths among unintentional fall cases. Conclusion Falls are an important cause of injury-related visits to EDs in Pakistan. Most of the fall injury patients were men and in a productive age group. Fall injuries pose a burden on the healthcare system, especially emergency services, and future studies should therefore focus on safety measures at home and in workplaces to reduce this burden. PMID:26691821

  14. UTILIZING THE PAKS METHOD FOR MEASURING ACROLEIN AND OTHER ALDEHYDES IN DEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrolein is a hazardous air pollutant of high priority due to its high irritation potency and other potential adverse health effects. However, a reliable method is currently unavailable for measuring airborne acrolein at typical environmental levels. In the Detroit Exposure and A...

  15. PAKS: Parents-and-Kids Science. 24 Activities for Kids and Adults To Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Danny L.

    This activity book designed for grades 1-3 provides teachers with ready-to-use materials designed to get parents and children excited about science, help establish a home-school connection, and provide interesting learning activities for children to share with adults. This program gets parents involved in developing their children's science…

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Early-type galaxies in Ursa Major cluster (Pak+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, M.; Rey, S.-C.; Lisker, T.; Lee, Y.; Kim, S.; Sung, E.-C.; Jerjen, H.; Chung, J.

    2015-04-01

    Our sample in the Ursa Major cluster is predominantly based on the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7; Abazajian et al., 2009ApJS..182..543A). In order to investigate the ultraviolet properties of our sample galaxies in the Ursa Major cluster, we used far-ultraviolet (FUV, 1350-1750Å) and near-ultraviolet (NUV, 1750-2750Å) images from the GALEX GR6. (1 data file).

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, AAF INTERNATIONAL DRI-PAK 40-45%

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, KOCH FILTER CORPORATION, DUO-PAK 650

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than...

  19. Satellite based classification (haze, fog) and affected area estimation over Indo - Pak Sub-Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghauri, Badar; Zafar, Sumaira

    2016-07-01

    Northern Pakistan and bordering Indian Punjab experience intense smog and fog during fall and winters. Environmentalists have been raising their voices over the situation and demanded control over regional emissions to save the livelihood of millions of dwellers whose trade, commerce and agriculture is at stake because of long smog/ fog spells.. This paper estimates the area affected by haze, smog and fog during 2006- 2010. MODIS (geo-referenced MODIS subsets India1, 2 &3) of the area in Pakistan and India from 2006 to 2010 for the period October to February) were analyzed using state of the art software ENVI 4.2 and ArcGIS 10.2. This process resulted in area belonging to each class that is; haze, smog and fog. On the basis of density, haze and fog cover was determined. Variations in fog cover, its density and identification of location of fog initiation process were also determined using near real time (30 minutes) METEOSAT-7 IODC data where actually fog formation started and then extended to the area of favorable conditions. Haze has been noticed to intensify due to massive burning of agricultural waste (rice husk) in India and Pakistan towards the end of October each year. MODIS thermal anomalies/fire data (MYD 14) were also used to verify this activity on the ground, which results in hazy conditions at regional level during fall months. Haze-affected area during 2006 to 2010 in Pakistan ranged from 155,000 Km2 to 354,000 Km2 and in India it ranged from 333,000 Km2 to 846,000 Km2. Similarly winter fog cover during this period in Pakistan varied from 136,000 Km2 to 381,000 Km2 and in India it was estimated at 327,000 Km2 to 566,000 Km2. This phenomenon was more prominent in India than in Pakistan where and fog cover was at least twice than that was observed in Pakistan. It has been noted that area covered by fog, smog and haze doubled during the study period in the region. Atmospheric dimming during autumn/ fall also reduces the mixing height leading to greater pollutants accumulation. So far no mitigation steps have been taken to combat this regional issue. Reduction in local emissions is highly recommended to save at least the lives of vulnerable (children, elderly, patients etc).

  20. STS-93 Columbia, Fit Check and Pre Pak in the O&C for Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-93 mission was to deploy the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Facility, which had been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The mission was launched at 12:31 on July 23, 1999 onboard the space shuttle Columbia. The mission was led by Commander Eileen Collins. The crew was Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michel Tognini from the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). This videotape shows the astronauts getting into spacesuits, and inspecting the equipment.

  1. [Carl Gustav Jung's Theatrum Mundi. Can the description of modern alchemy in Jung's Psychologie und Alchemie be really regarded as a historical reconstruction?].

    PubMed

    Płonka-Syroka, B

    2000-01-01

    In his work, Psychologie und Alchemie, published in 1944, Jung wanted to present a reconstruction of alchemy. In order to do this he used a method of psychology, which he modified and enriched with inspirations drawn from neo-romantically-oriented German medical historiographies of the nineteen thirties. Using historical materials, he intended to demonstrate the empirical character of his Depth Psychology, a widespread concept, ingrained in our supra-personal social unconscious. The present article questions the nature of Jung's reconstruction of alchemy as historical reconstruction. The author presents the methodological bases referred to by Jung derived from his concept of medical practice and compares them with a manner of thinking typical of contemporary historical analysis. The article also presents Jung's inspirations from the medical historiography of his time, as well as the dissimilarity of his concept with the model of historical narrative construction in force in the historiography of the thirties and forties. At the same time, it presents the elements of the "romantic inheritance" in Jung's thought, drawn from the tradition of German non-materialistic medicine of the first half of the nineteenth century. PMID:11876207

  2. THE PROFITS AND PERILS OF PUBLICITY: ALLGEMEINE LITERATUR- ZEITUNG, THE THURN UND TAXIS POST, AND THE PERIODICAL TRADE AT THE END OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

    PubMed

    Broman, Thomas

    2015-09-20

    Recent historiography on the growth of periodical publishing has emphasized newspapers and journals as constituents of an emergent communications system in early modern Europe. This system comprised the newspapers, journals and other publications that contributed its content, and also the postal systems that were the principal method of distributing that content. This article describes how the growth of this system in central Europe was supported in large measure by financial incentives that it offered to both constituents. First, in contrast with postal systems in France and the UK, the Thurn und Taxis Reichspost inserted itself as a middleman in the sale of periodicals, which gave the Reichspost an incentive to promote the trade. Second, the financial conditions for periodical publication made their costs depend more heavily on costs that were scalable to circulation than is true today, which resulted in the viability of publications with a lower circulation. The same cost structure also made it possible for certain prominent periodicals of the era to earn considerable profits for their publishers, as illustrated in this article by Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, which was published in Jena from 1785.

  3. THE PROFITS AND PERILS OF PUBLICITY: ALLGEMEINE LITERATUR- ZEITUNG, THE THURN UND TAXIS POST, AND THE PERIODICAL TRADE AT THE END OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

    PubMed

    Broman, Thomas

    2015-09-20

    Recent historiography on the growth of periodical publishing has emphasized newspapers and journals as constituents of an emergent communications system in early modern Europe. This system comprised the newspapers, journals and other publications that contributed its content, and also the postal systems that were the principal method of distributing that content. This article describes how the growth of this system in central Europe was supported in large measure by financial incentives that it offered to both constituents. First, in contrast with postal systems in France and the UK, the Thurn und Taxis Reichspost inserted itself as a middleman in the sale of periodicals, which gave the Reichspost an incentive to promote the trade. Second, the financial conditions for periodical publication made their costs depend more heavily on costs that were scalable to circulation than is true today, which resulted in the viability of publications with a lower circulation. The same cost structure also made it possible for certain prominent periodicals of the era to earn considerable profits for their publishers, as illustrated in this article by Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, which was published in Jena from 1785. PMID:26495577

  4. Evaluation of double-moment representation of ice hydrometeors in bulk microphysical parameterization: comparison between WRF numerical simulations and UND-Citation data during MC3E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zhaoxia; Lin, Chao

    2015-12-01

    The influence of double-moment representation of warm-rain and ice hydrometeors on the numerical simulations of a mesoscale convective system (MCS) over the US Southern Great Plains has been evaluated. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to simulate the MCS with three different microphysical schemes, including the WRF single-moment 6-class (WSM6), WRF double-moment 6-class (WDM6), and Morrison double-moment (MORR) schemes. It is found that the double-moment schemes outperform the single-moment schemes in terms of the simulated structure, life cycle, cloud coverage, precipitation, and microphysical properties of the MCS. However, compared with UND-Citation observations, collected during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), the WRF simulated ice hydrometeors with all three schemes do not agree well with the observations. Overall results from this study suggest that uncertainty in microphysical schemes could still be a productive area of future research from perspective of both model improvements and observations.

  5. [Carl Gustav Jung's Theatrum Mundi. Can the description of modern alchemy in Jung's Psychologie und Alchemie be really regarded as a historical reconstruction?].

    PubMed

    Płonka-Syroka, B

    2000-01-01

    In his work, Psychologie und Alchemie, published in 1944, Jung wanted to present a reconstruction of alchemy. In order to do this he used a method of psychology, which he modified and enriched with inspirations drawn from neo-romantically-oriented German medical historiographies of the nineteen thirties. Using historical materials, he intended to demonstrate the empirical character of his Depth Psychology, a widespread concept, ingrained in our supra-personal social unconscious. The present article questions the nature of Jung's reconstruction of alchemy as historical reconstruction. The author presents the methodological bases referred to by Jung derived from his concept of medical practice and compares them with a manner of thinking typical of contemporary historical analysis. The article also presents Jung's inspirations from the medical historiography of his time, as well as the dissimilarity of his concept with the model of historical narrative construction in force in the historiography of the thirties and forties. At the same time, it presents the elements of the "romantic inheritance" in Jung's thought, drawn from the tradition of German non-materialistic medicine of the first half of the nineteenth century.

  6. The profits and perils of publicity: Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, the Thurn und Taxis Post, and the periodical trade at the end of the eighteenth century

    PubMed Central

    Broman, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Recent historiography on the growth of periodical publishing has emphasized newspapers and journals as constituents of an emergent communications system in early modern Europe. This system comprised the newspapers, journals and other publications that contributed its content, and also the postal systems that were the principal method of distributing that content. This article describes how the growth of this system in central Europe was supported in large measure by financial incentives that it offered to both constituents. First, in contrast with postal systems in France and the UK, the Thurn und Taxis Reichspost inserted itself as a middleman in the sale of periodicals, which gave the Reichspost an incentive to promote the trade. Second, the financial conditions for periodical publication made their costs depend more heavily on costs that were scalable to circulation than is true today, which resulted in the viability of publications with a lower circulation. The same cost structure also made it possible for certain prominent periodicals of the era to earn considerable profits for their publishers, as illustrated in this article by Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, which was published in Jena from 1785. PMID:26495577

  7. Crystallization, biomimetics and semiconducting polymers in confined systems. (German Title: Kristallisation, Biomimetik und halbleitende Polymere in räumlich begrenzten Systemen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, Rivelino V. D.

    2003-05-01

    the same particle leads to a higher efficiency due to the better contact between the polymers. Such an effect is of great interest for the fabrication of opto-electronic devices such as light emitting diodes with nanometer size emitting points and solar cells comprising of blends of electron donating and electron accepting polymers. populärwissenschaftlicher Abstract: Kristallisation, Biomimetik und halbleitende Polymere in räumlich begrenzten Systemen: Äl und Wasser mischen sich nicht, man kann aber aus beiden Flüssigkeiten Emulsionen herstellen, bei denen Tröpfchen der einen Flüssigkeit in der anderen Flüssigkeit vorliegen. Das heit, es können entweder Ältröpfchen in Wasser oder Wassertröpfchen in Äl erzeugt werden. Aus täglichen Erfahrungen, z.B. beim Kochen wei man jedoch, dass sich eine Emulsion durch Schütteln oder Rühren herstellen lässt, diese jedoch nicht besonders stabil ist. Mit Hilfe von hohen Scherenergien kann man nun sehr kleine, in ihrer Gröe sehr einheitliche und auerdem sehr stabile Tröpfchen von 1/10000 mm erhalten. Eine solche Emulsion wird Miniemulsion genannt. In der Dissertation wurden nun z.B. Miniemulsionen untersucht, die aus kleinen Wassertröpfchen in einem Äl bestehen. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass das Wasser in diesen Tröpfchen, also in den räumlich begrenzten Systemen, nicht bei 0 °C, sondern bei -22 °C kristallisierte. Wie lässt sich das erklären? Wenn man einen Eimer Wasser hat, dann bildet sich normalerweise bei 0 °C Eis, da nämlich in dem Wasser einige (manchmal ganz wenige) Keime (z.B. Schutzteilchen, ein Fussel etc.) vorhanden sind, an denen sich die ersten Kristalle bilden. Wenn sich dann einmal ein Kristall gebildet hat, kann das Wasser im gesamten Eimer schnell zu Eis werden. Ultrareines Wasser würde bei -22 °C kristallisieren. Wenn man jetzt die Menge Wasser aus dem Eimer in kleine Tröpfchen bringt, dann hat man eine sehr, sehr groe Zahl, nämlich 1017 Tröpfchen, in einem Liter Emulsion vorliegen

  8. Gemeinsame Aspekte und Probleme in Physik und Geologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watznauer, A.

    Die griechische Naturphilosophie, vor allem Aristoteles, verstand unter Physik die Naturwissenschaft in toto. Die Aufspaltung dieser universellen Naturphilosophie in Fachdisziplinen betrifft sowohl den Gegenstand als auch, daraus abgeleitet, die Methodik der Darstellung. Die Physik, deren Gegenstand seit Galilei die reinen Fälle sind, ist ahistorisch. Die Geologie, die komplexe Systeme untersucht, ist dagegen eine historische Wissenschaft.Translated AbstractCommon Aspects and Problems in Physics and GeologyThe greek philosophers and above all Aristotle thougt in the physics about nature in toto. The splitting of this philosophy of nature into different sciences concerns both their topics and their methods. Since Galilei physics is concerned with pure cases, being an ahistorical science. On the contrary geology examines complex systems, being of historical character.

  9. Entwicklung und Struktur der Proplastiden

    PubMed Central

    Mühlethaler, Kurt; Frey-Wyssling, Albert

    1959-01-01

    In this study the proplastid development in embryonic cells is described for the apical meristem of Elodea canadensis, embryo sacs from Lilies, and Begonia leaf buds. The formation of these cell organelles originates with submicroscopical particles which consist of a homogeneous stroma with a surrounding double membrane. When these proplastids reach an average size of 1 µ, the inner layer of the membrane begins to invaginate into the stroma. This process is comparable to tubuli formation in mitochondria. Under growth conditions with sufficient exposure to light, the development of the grana and stroma lamellae proceeds without interruption. If the plants are kept in the dark, small vesicles are formed which accumulate in the prolamellar body of the proplastids. After illumination these elementary vesicles merge to form membranes which evolve into grana and stroma lamellae. The structural similarity of the early proplastid stages with the mitochondria seems to indicate that there exists some phylogenetic relationship between the two cell organelles. PMID:14424894

  10. Archaebakterien und Phylogenie der Organismen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandler, Otto

    1981-04-01

    The determination of the sequence similarity of the ribosomal 16 S RNA of many bacteria and a few higher organisms has shown that the methanogenic, halophilic, and acido-thermophilic organisms are phylogenetically separated from the kingdoms of the Eubacteria and Eukaryotes thus representing a third kingdom called “Archaebacteria”. Many biochemical and molecular biological features support this conclusion.

  11. Hexenmeister und Bauernastronomen in Sachsen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfricht, J.

    This book presents short biographies of peasant astronomers living during the 17th and 18th centuries in the German state of Saxony: Nikolaus Schmidt (1606 - 1671), Christoph Arnold (1650 - 1695), Christian Gärtner (1705 - 1782), Johannes Ludewig (1715 - 1760), Johann Georg Palitzsch (1723 - 1788), and Peter Anich (1723 - 1766).

  12. Führungs- und Teamverhalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebermann, Hans-Joachim; Scheiderer, Joachim

    Mc. Broom war ein tyrannischer Chef, der seine Mitarbeiter mit seiner Launenhaftigkeit einschüchterte. Das wäre vielleicht nicht aufgefallen, hätte Mc. Broom in einem Büro oder in einer Fabrik gearbeitet. Aber Mc. Broom war Flugkapitän. <¼> Seine Copiloten fürchteten sich so sehr vor seinem Zorn, dass sie nichts sagten. Nicht einmal als die Katastrophe absehbar war. Beim Absturz der Maschine kamen zehn Menschen zu Tode (Goleman 2001).

  13. Quantenexperimente zwischen Photon und Fulleren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilinger, Anton

    2000-09-01

    Die Quantenphysik hat zu Beginn des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts unser Weltbild revolutioniert. Jetzt scheint sie sich zur Grundlage einer völlig neuen Informationstechnolgie mit unabsehbaren Folgen zu entwickeln.

  14. Changes in the distributions of juvenile horseshoe crabs (Arthropoda: Chelicerata) (2002-2014) related to environmental perturbations at Pak Nai and Ha Pak Nai, Deep Bay, Hong Kong SAR, China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christine Nga-Wing; Morton, Brian

    2016-07-15

    A survey of juvenile Asian horseshoe crabs in 2002 on the mudflats along Hong Kong's north-western shoreline abutting Deep Bay identified two species, Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, and assessed their population characteristics. Since the 2002 survey, there have been significant habitat changes to this natal site for the two species. By employing the same, but expanded, sampling protocol, a further survey was, therefore, conducted twelve years later in 2014. A general population decline was recorded for T. tridentatus whereas for C. rotundicauda there was an increase and its distribution had become more widespread. The distribution patterns of the two species were also shown to have changed. The potential factors that might be responsible for recorded changes in the species' population characteristics between 2002 and 2014 are related to anthropogenic perturbations, including environmental habitat alterations notably the building of a bridge linking Hong Kong to Shenzhen in China.

  15. Changes in the distributions of juvenile horseshoe crabs (Arthropoda: Chelicerata) (2002-2014) related to environmental perturbations at Pak Nai and Ha Pak Nai, Deep Bay, Hong Kong SAR, China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christine Nga-Wing; Morton, Brian

    2016-07-15

    A survey of juvenile Asian horseshoe crabs in 2002 on the mudflats along Hong Kong's north-western shoreline abutting Deep Bay identified two species, Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, and assessed their population characteristics. Since the 2002 survey, there have been significant habitat changes to this natal site for the two species. By employing the same, but expanded, sampling protocol, a further survey was, therefore, conducted twelve years later in 2014. A general population decline was recorded for T. tridentatus whereas for C. rotundicauda there was an increase and its distribution had become more widespread. The distribution patterns of the two species were also shown to have changed. The potential factors that might be responsible for recorded changes in the species' population characteristics between 2002 and 2014 are related to anthropogenic perturbations, including environmental habitat alterations notably the building of a bridge linking Hong Kong to Shenzhen in China. PMID:27158048

  16. High performance thin layer chromatographic screening for aflatoxins in poultry feed by using silica Sep-Paks

    SciTech Connect

    Kozloski, R.P.

    1986-06-01

    The need for a convenient, sensitive and highly selective method to test for aflatoxins in poultry feed samples led to the development of a method based on the CB procedure. The CB procedure requires large volumes of solvents, the preparation of silica gel of a specified moisture content and the use of large TLC plates, which have long development times. The desirability of running fortified control samples to monitor aflatoxin recovery and to serve as reference standards doubles the already high volume of solvents required. To overcome these difficulties, a number of changes in the CB method were explored. Sample size reduction was used in an attempt to decrease the volume of solvents required. The practicality of using commercially available silica Sep-Paps was investigated. The use of high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) plates with preadsorbent zones was tested to decrease spotting and development time. The capability of readily detecting aflatoxins B/sub 1/, G/sub 1/, B/sub 2/ and G/sub 2/ at 10, 10, 5 and 5 ppb (10/sup 9/), respectively, was set as the goal.

  17. A School Improvement-Accountability Process Kit. PAK No. 1.2--Organizing the Committee and Getting to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Leonard P.; And Others

    The group that is properly set-up and operating can save hours of group time. Once the group members know and trust one another it is necessary to identify the specific group tasks that need to be accomplished and to establish ground rules such as kind of meeting, meeting arrangements, expectations of members, and requirements for membership in…

  18. GalPak3D: A Bayesian Parametric Tool for Extracting Morphokinematics of Galaxies from 3D Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouché, N.; Carfantan, H.; Schroetter, I.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Contini, T.

    2015-09-01

    We present a method to constrain galaxy parameters directly from three-dimensional data cubes. The algorithm compares directly the data with a parametric model mapped in x,y,λ coordinates. It uses the spectral line-spread function and the spatial point-spread function (PSF) to generate a three-dimensional kernel whose characteristics are instrument specific or user generated. The algorithm returns the intrinsic modeled properties along with both an “intrinsic” model data cube and the modeled galaxy convolved with the 3D kernel. The algorithm uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach with a nontraditional proposal distribution in order to efficiently probe the parameter space. We demonstrate the robustness of the algorithm using 1728 mock galaxies and galaxies generated from hydrodynamical simulations in various seeing conditions from 0.″6 to 1.″2. We find that the algorithm can recover the morphological parameters (inclination, position angle) to within 10% and the kinematic parameters (maximum rotation velocity) to within 20%, irrespectively of the PSF in seeing (up to 1.″2) provided that the maximum signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is greater than ∼3 pixel‑1 and that the ratio of galaxy half-light radius to seeing radius is greater than about 1.5. One can use such an algorithm to constrain simultaneously the kinematics and morphological parameters of (nonmerging) galaxies observed in nonoptimal seeing conditions. The algorithm can also be used on adaptive optics data or on high-quality, high-S/N data to look for nonaxisymmetric structures in the residuals.

  19. False reactivity in GTI Pak Plus ELISA kits due to the presence of anti-mouse antibody in patients' samples.

    PubMed

    Leach, M F; Aubuchon, J P

    2003-01-01

    The development of commercially available ELISA kits (GTI, Inc., Waukesha, WI) that use antigens adhered to microtiter plate wells by the use of mouse monoclonal antibodies made it possible for hospital transfusion service laboratories to test for platelet- and/or HLA-specific antibodies without reliance on reference laboratories. However, human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAs) may cause false reactions in ELISAs. We designed a study to determine the impact of HAMAs on these ELISAs. Samples from 210 patients were evaluated from January 1995 to April 2002; 79 (38%) were found to be positive for HLA- and/or platelet-specific antibodies. Thirty (38%) of these positive samples,as well as ten negative samples that served as controls, underwent HAMA neutralization/inhibition procedures before being retested by ELISA. One (10%) of the control samples was reactive after treatment. When the samples that were positive in routine testing were treated to neutralize/inhibit HAMAs, reactivity was unchanged in 20 (67%); reactivity was eliminated in eight (27%) of the samples tested. All of the specimens that showed a reduction or elimination of their reactivity after neutralization/inhibition had an initial optical density (OD) ratio < 3.0 whereas those that remained unchanged in reactivity had an OD ratio > 7.0 (p < 0.05). Reactivity present only in the treated samples was observed in three (10%) of the positive samples tested;one was additionally reactive with HLA antigen only and two with glycoprotein Ia/IIa. The presence of HAMAs should be considered when antibodies against more than one platelet-specific glycoprotein are detected and if the optical density ratio is < 3.0.

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of acephate in pak choi, Brassica chinensis, with Ce-doped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangying; Wang, Lifeng; Zhou, Xiaomao; Liu, Kailin; Bai, Lianyang; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of acephate was investigated using Ce-doped TiO2 (TiO2/Ce) hydrosol. In contrast to previous research conducted under artificial light in the laboratory, this study investigated the decomposition of acephate in a field trial. The results show that acephate can be efficiently degraded by the TiO2/Ce system under natural field conditions; the degradation efficiency was affected by the dosage of the photocatalyst and acephate. The optimum dosage of TiO2/Ce was 2400 g a.i.ha(-1), and the photodegradation efficiency of acephate reached 93.5% after 20 h at an acephate dosage of 675 g a.i.ha(-1). Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) analysis detected and identified four degradation products-methamidophos, phosphorothioic acid O,O,S-trimethyl ester, S-methyl methanethiosulfonate and phosphorous acid-that were formed during the TiO2/Ce photodegradation of acephate. Based on the structural identification of the degradation products, a probable photodegradation pathway was proposed, and the first decomposition step may be the cleavage of the C‒N bond of acephate. Subsequently, the P‒S and P‒O bonds may be oxidized gradually or simultaneously to complete the mineralization.

  1. Cooperative measures to support the Indo-Pak Agreement Reducing Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons.

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Sitakanta; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2014-04-01

    In 2012, India and Pakistan reaffirmed the Agreement on Reducing the Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons. Despite a history of mutual animosity and persistent conflict between the two countries, this agreement derives strength from a few successful nuclear confidence building measures that have stood the test of time. It also rests on the hope that the region would be spared a nuclear holocaust from an accidental nuclear weapon detonation that might be misconstrued as a deliberate use of a weapon by the other side. This study brings together two emerging strategic analysts from South Asia to explore measures to support the Agreement and further develop cooperation around this critical issue. This study briefly dwells upon the strategic landscape of nuclear South Asia with the respective nuclear force management structures, doctrines, and postures of India and Pakistan. It outlines the measures in place for the physical protection and safety of nuclear warheads, nuclear materials, and command and control mechanisms in the two countries, and it goes on to identify the prominent, emerging challenges posed by the introduction of new weapon technologies and modernization of the respective strategic forces. This is followed by an analysis of the agreement itself leading up to a proposed framework for cooperative measures that might enhance the spirit and implementation of the agreement.

  2. Bomb blast injuries: an exploration of patient characteristics and outcome using Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Bomb blast injuries result in premature deaths and burdening of healthcare systems. The objective of this study was to explore the characteristics and outcome of patients presenting to the emergency departments in Pakistan with bomb blast injuries. Methods Active surveillance was conducted in seven major emergency departments of Pakistan from November 2010-March 2011. All the sites are tertiary care urban centers. All the patients who presented to the hospital's emergency department (ED) following a bomb blast injury as per self-report or the ambulance personnel were included in the study. Frequency of demographics, injury pattern, and outcomes were calculated. Results A total of 103 patients with bomb blast injuries presented to the selected emergency departments. The median age of patients was 30 years. Around three-fourth of the patients were males (n = 74, 74.7%). Most of the bomb blast patients were seen in Peshawar (n = 41, 39.8%) and Karachi city (n = 31, 30.1%) and the most common mode of arrival was non-ambulance transport (n = 71, 76.3%). Upper limb injuries (n = 12, 40%) were common in the under 18 age group and lower limb injuries (n = 31, 39.2%) in the 18 years and above group. There were a total of 8 (7.7%) deaths reported out of these 103 patients. Conclusion Bomb blast injuries in Pakistan generally affect young males. Non-ambulance transport is the most common way to access emergency departments (ED). Overall ED mortality is high and capturing data during a disaster in an emergency department is challenging. PMID:26692453

  3. Shaping the System – The DRG Evaluation Project of the German Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, DGGG)

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, W.; Renner, S. P.; Siam, K.; Babapirali, J.; Roeder, N.; Dausch, E.; Hildebrandt, T.; Hillemanns, P.; Nehmzow, M.; Zygmunt, M.; Piroth, D.; Schem, C.; Schwenzer, T.; Friese, K.; Wallwiener, D.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The German DRG system is annually adapted to the changing services provided. For the further development, the self-governing body and its DRG Institute (InEK) depend on participation of the users. Methods: For one of the DRG evaluation projects initiated by DGGG, cost and performance data for the year 2011 from 16 hospitals were available. After plausibility checks and corrections, analyses for service and cost homogeneity were performed. In cases of inadequate DRG-representation attributes were sought that would make an appropriate reimbursement possible. Conspicuities and potential solutions were checked for clinical plausibility. Results: 44 concrete modification proposals for further development of the G-DRG system were formulated and submitted in due time to the InEK. In addition, 3 modification proposals were addressed to the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (Deutsches Institut für Medizinische Dokumentation und Information, DIMDI) for further development of the diagnosis classification ICD-10-GM. For all modification proposals care was taken to minimise misdirected incentives and to reduce the potential for disputes with the cost bearers and their auditors services in settlements. Discussion: The publication of the G-DRG system 2014 shows which modification proposals have been realised. Essentially, an appropriate redistribution of the resources among the gynaecological and obstetrics departments is to be expected. The financial pressure that is caused by the generally inadequate financing of hospitals will not be reduced by a further development of the G-DRG system. PMID:24771931

  4. Group II p21-activated kinases as therapeutic targets in gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yang-Guang; Ning, Ke; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are central players in various oncogenic signaling pathways. The six PAK family members are classified into group I (PAK1-3) and group II (PAK4-6). Focus is currently shifting from group I PAKs to group II PAKs. Group II PAKs play important roles in many fundamental cellular processes, some of which have particular significance in the development and progression of cancer. Because of their important functions, group II PAKs have become popular potential drug target candidates. However, few group II PAKs inhibitors have been reported, and most do not exhibit satisfactory kinase selectivity and “drug-like” properties. Isoform- and kinase-selective PAK inhibitors remain to be developed. This review describes the biological activities of group II PAKs, the importance of group II PAKs in the development and progression of gastrointestinal cancer, and small-molecule inhibitors of group II PAKs for the treatment of cancer. PMID:26811660

  5. Signaling, Regulation, and Specificity of the Type II p21-activated Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Byung Hak; Morse, Elizabeth M.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2015-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of six serine/threonine kinases that act as key effectors of RHO family GTPases in mammalian cells. PAKs are subdivided into two groups: type I PAKs (PAK1, PAK2, and PAK3) and type II PAKs (PAK4, PAK5, and PAK6). Although these groups are involved in common signaling pathways, recent work indicates that the two groups have distinct modes of regulation and have both unique and common substrates. Here, we review recent insights into the molecular level details that govern regulation of type II PAK signaling. We also consider mechanisms by which signal transduction is regulated at the level of substrate specificity. Finally, we discuss the implications of these studies for clinical targeting of these kinases. PMID:25855792

  6. Vergleichende Ultrastrukturuntersuchungen der Eu- und Paraspermien von 13 Protodrilus-Arten (Polychaeta, Annelida) und ihre taxonomische und phylogenetische Bedeutung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Nordheim, Henning

    1989-06-01

    The morphology of the slender, filiform spermatozoa of 13 Protodrilus species of 22 different populations is investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. All species have two types of spermatoza: fertile euspermatozoa, and paraspermatozoa, which are probably infertile and may comprise up to 20% of the total number of mature gametes. This is the first record of sperm dimorphism in polychaetes. The general construction pattern of the euspermatozoa is very complex. It shows a longish tapering acrosomal vesicle with an internal acrosomal rod, a rod-like conical nucleus, and a midpiece with numerous very complex supporting elements and two thin mitochondrial derivatives. Further, it has a ‘peribasal body’ surrounding the basal body of the axoneme, an anulus region with an ‘anchoring apparatus’ and an anulus cuff. Posteriorly, the tail region proper contains in some species 2 to 9 supporting rods. In several species the euspermatozoon shows very distinct and species-specific alternations of this ‘general pattern’ relating to e.g. size of sperm elements, structure of acrosome and nucleus, presence or absence of axial rod, and number, shape and size of supporting elements in midpiece and tail. In a number of species some sections of the euspermatozoon overlap with each other more or less strongly. The paraspermatozoon has a comparatively simple construction pattern and possesses no supporting structures in midpiece and tail region. The midpiece is very short and, in some species, entirely surrounded by its two thin and elongate mitochondrial derivatives. An axial rod is often missing or reduced; different sperm sections never overlap each other. In contrast to the euspermatozoa, the paraspermatozoa of the different species have a very similar ultrastructure. Their possible function in spermatophore transfer and histolytical opening of the female epidermis is discussed. A comparison of the different forms of euspermatozoa in Protodrilus elucidates possible plesiomorphous and apomorphous sperm traits. Very likely, the hypothetical plesiomorphous type of spermatozoa in Protodrilus has a very similar morphology to that of the paraspermatozoa, which for this reason are considered to be a sort of persisting representatives of the ancient Protodrilus sperm type. In Protodrilus, the different traits of the euspermatozoa represent excellent taxonomic characters for distinguishing species (e.g. ‘sibling species’). They can also be used well for phylogenetics within the genus, whereas the relations of Protodrilus to other polychaete groups cannot be clarified solely on the basis of sperm characters, since in all groups the sperm structure is primarily an adaptation to a specific mode of reproduction. Generally, the value of sperm characters in phylogenetic considerations at higher taxonomic levels seems to be very limited due to the surprisingly wide range of different sperm structures within a single genus as is demonstrated in the present paper.

  7. Glossematik und Linguistik (Glossematics and Linguistics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoger, Alfons

    1974-01-01

    Provides a short summary on the background, current development and future perspectives of the glossematic theory of language and linguistics, as developed by Hjelmslev and those associated with him (Loosely called "the Danish school"). (Text is in German.) (DS)

  8. Verhalten und Neurobiologie von stimmbegabten Insekten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Franz

    1992-09-01

    Crickets, tettigoniids (bush crickets or long-horned grasshoppers) and acridids (short-horned grasshoppers) are well-suited animals to study acoustically mediated behavior and to search for the underlying sensory, nervous, and effector mechanisms. Several behavioral tactics are described which improve reproductive success, serve to avoid predators such as bats, or have been developed for defence against parasitic insects. Phonotactic orientation of female crickets toward the calling male was chosen, since for this behavior the underlying sensory and nervous mechanisms have been intensively studied. Song recognition was found to be based on one critical parameter of the song, the syllable period, and the females show a bandpass behavior for which a correlate exists in local brain neurons. Sound orientation is based on a pressure gradient mechanism in each ear, and it needs a binaural intensity comparison within the central nervous system. With intracellular recordings from auditory interneurons during phonotactic orientation and their manipulation, a cellular correlate could be found which obeys the rule “ turn to the side most strongly stimulated”.

  9. Laser assisted Drug Delivery: Grundlagen und Praxis.

    PubMed

    Braun, Stephan Alexander; Schrumpf, Holger; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Homey, Bernhard; Gerber, Peter Arne

    2016-05-01

    Die topische Applikation von Wirkstoffen ist eine zentrale Therapieoption der Dermatologie. Allerdings mindert die effektive Barrierefunktion der Haut die Bioverfügbarkeit der meisten Externa. Fraktionierte ablative Laser stellen ein innovatives Verfahren dar, um die epidermale Barriere standardisiert, kontaktfrei zu überwinden. Die Bioverfügbarkeit im Anschluss applizierter Externa wird im Sinne einer laser assisted drug delivery (LADD) signifikant gesteigert. Das Prinzip der LADD wird bereits in einigen Bereichen der Dermatologie erfolgreich eingesetzt. Die vorliegende Übersichtsarbeit soll einen Überblick über die aktuellen aber auch perspektivischen Einsatzmöglichkeiten der LADD bieten. PMID:27119467

  10. Research into Distance Education = Fernlehre und Fernlehrforschung.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmberg, Borje, Ed.; Ortner, Gerhard E., Ed.

    The papers (from a symposium held at the Fern Universitat) included in this collection focus on distance education in theory and practice. Contributions are written in English or in German, with summaries available for each in the language not used for the paper concerned. Contributions are: (1) "Distance Education as Communication: The Impact of…

  11. Dental-Implantate und ihre Werkstoffe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newesely, Heinrich

    1983-07-01

    Some new trends in materials for dental implants, which also effect in the operative techniques and implant design, are described. Advantages and shortcomings of the different material types are exemplified and correlated with their bioinert resp. bioactive functions. The practical interest in metallic implants focussed in titanium resp. oxide ceramics in the ceramic field, whereas the special goal of implant research follows from the improvement of the bioactive principle with loaded calcium phosphate implants.

  12. Strahlungsfelder und Strahlungsqualitäten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Hanno

    Das Kapitel beginnt mit einer Darstellung der wichtigsten Größen zur Beschreibung von Strahlungsfeldern. Diese Größen können sowohl auf die Teilchenzahl als auch auf die Teilchenenergie bezogen sein. Im zweiten Teil werden ausführlich die Verfahren zur Charakterisierung der Strahlungsqualitäten der verschiedenen in der Radiologie verwendeten Strahlungsarten dargestellt.

  13. Internationale Schulreformtendenzen und das Problem der Lehrerausbildung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupisiewicz, Czeslaw

    1982-09-01

    The main theme of this article is that the socio-economic and educational changes which have occurred in industrialized countries in the past 20 to 25 years necessitate a thorough reform of the present system of teacher education. The first group of such changes includes the information explosion, greater occupational mobility, the growing significance and increasing role of the sciences, the development of the mass media, higher educational aspirations, technical development, the acceleration of the psycho-physical development of children and youth, and the injurious effects of the uncontrolled development of the constantly changing civilisation (deterioration of the human environment, diseases caused by the effects of civilisation, etc.). In the face of these changes, teachers must not remain indifferent and teacher education systems have to take them into account. Within the second group of changes influencing the content and methods of teacher education, the most important is the generalisation of education at the pre-school, primary and secondary school levels and also at the university level. As a result, education in many types of school and at ever higher levels has lost the elitist character it still had, not so long ago, and has become a mass activity. This has considerably affected teachers' work and, necessarily, also the work of the teacher education systems. In present-day schools it is necessary to emphasize not only the transmission of knowledge of the `know that' type, as was done in the past, but also problem-solving, independent individual and group work, etc., which will enable children and young people to acquire `know-how' and `know-why'. This must also be reflected in teacher education. In order to adapt the teacher education systems to the requirements of the changing society, a reform of the goals, contents and methods of the system will have to be prepared and implemented as a prerequisite and starting point for a global reform of the entire education system.

  14. Linguistik und Didaktik (Linguistics and Didactics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollay, Karl

    1974-01-01

    Briefly summarizes the papers presented at the 10th annual convention of the German Language Institute in Mannheim. The relationship between linguistic research and its applicability in the area of language instruction is discussed. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  15. Helgoland und die Erforschung der marinen Benthosalgen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, D.; Lüning, K.

    1988-09-01

    Early phycological research on the island of Helgoland was performed by amateur phycologists from the adjacent coastal regions of Germany (Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein). These pioneers were followed by professionals, and by collectors from the mainland universities, particularly from Berlin. This second phase group includes the naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, the zoologists Johannes Müller, Ernst Haeckel and Anton Dohrn, and the botanists Alexander Braun, Nathanael Pringsheim, and Ferdinand Cohn. The leading marine phycologist in Germany, towards the end of the 19th century, was Johannes Reinke, who finally worked at the University of Kiel. Paul Kuckuck's doctoral thesis had been supervised by Reinke who recommended him for the post of the first curator of botany at the Biological Station of Helgoland, which was founded in 1892. Kuckuck worked on the island from 1892 to 1914. After World War I, and after Kuckuck's untimely death, Wilhelm Nienburg became the second curator of botany on Helgoland, from 1921 to 1923. The next permanent phycologist on the island, from 1925 to 1936, was Ernst Schreiber. He was followed in 1936 by Peter Kornmann, who retired in 1972 but still continues as a research worker, together with Paul-Heinz Sahling, who started to work as a technical assistant under the guidance of Ernst Schreiber in 1927.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: "...eine ausnehmende Zierde und Vortheil"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Luehning, F.

    This book comprises the habilitation thesis submitted by F. Lühning to the Faculty of Mathematics of Hamburg University in 2004. Due to financial support from various organizations, it was issued in a very attractive form as a special publication of the Society for the history of the city of Kiel. The nice layout, the graphical sketches of buildings, instruments, and astronomical connexions, often designed by the author, and the scientifically precise text, written with a sense of humor, make a pleasant reading, in spite of sometimes quite extensive descriptions of architectural details or 'operating instructions' for meridan circles etc. I have rarely read such an appealing text on astronomical history. The single chapters deal with the beginnings of astronomy in Kiel (1770-1820), Schrader's giant telescope from the late 18th century, Altona Observatory (1823-1850), the first years of the Astronomische Nachrichten, the last years of Altona Observatory (1850-1872), Bothkamp Observatory (1870-1914), the genesis of Kiel Observatory (1874-1880), the era of Krueger (1880-1896), the Kiel Chronometer Observatory (1893-1913), the era of Harzer (1897-1925), the era of Rosenberg (1927-1934), the decline of Kiel Observatory (1935-1950), and the Astronomische Nachrichten under Kobold (1907-1938). The book is concluded with a glossary of technical terms, biographical sketches of known and unknown dramatis personae, as well as a list of references. The author outlines lively sketches of people that were astronomically active in Altona, Kiel and its surroundings over a time interval of 200 years. To achieve this task, he has studied many files from the Secret State Archive Preussischer Kulturbesitz (Berlin), the Schleswig-Holsteinisches State Archive (Schleswig) and the Hamburg State Archive, from which he quotes extensively. He also has evaluated private documents and has interviewed surviving witnesses of the 1930s and 1940s. He has located remote sources: for example, the son of the founder of the Astronomische Nachrichten, Richard Schumacher, served for some years as an assistant at the Chilean National Observatory, and had married Marie Bulling, a girl of German descent. From her "meagre diary entries" of that time (published in Valparaiso in 2004), the author suspects a "convenience marriage''. Nevertheless, unreliable sources can provide a false picture: the interviewed custodian notes that the wife of the last official observatory director, Hans Oswald Rosenberg, was "Verena Borchardt, a Jewess from St. Petersburg'' (p. 583). This is more than incorrect. The family lived for some years in Moscow (not St. Petersburg), because her father was a representative of various companies, especially his grand-father's Königsberger Thee-Compagnie. In 1880, his daughter Helene was born there - who later married the Kiel astronomer Wirtz. In 1882, the Borchardt family moved to Berlin, where the father became a banker, and where Verena was born. The family was "of reformed confession, of Jewish origin'' (Borchardt, Heymel, Schörder: Marbacher Katalog Nr. 29, 1978): she was "a Jewess'' in Nazi terminology only. On page 583 too, Wirtz' capricious political views are quoted: "The day when the French troops entered Strasbourg was the happiest one in my life'', for which Theiss' paper of 1999 is quoted, and it is stated "source not given''. Now, Theiss uses a study of Duerbeck and Seitter (1990), where the precise reference in the Kiel Acta is given. Another overlooked (although not very informative) source is the voluminous edition of the collected letters (München 1994-2002) of Rudolf Borchardt, the poetical brother of "Vera'' Rosenberg and "Lene'' Wirtz. Another series of peculiar statements refer to the Astronomische Nachrichten (p. 666): Neither did they publish, after 1945, "sometimes only Russian articles'', nor after 1983 "only articles in English'': some "German'' astrometric articles appeared after that year, which will presumably stand the test of time better than the

  17. Synonymie und Interlinguistik (Synonymy and Interlinguistics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Rita Brdar; Brdar, Mario

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between traditional synonym theory and two perspectives of interlinguistics: contrastive lexical analysis and languages in contact research. The goal and methods of each are described briefly, and a new synonym conceptualization is proposed that better fits synchronic dynamics than the traditional theory. Examples from…

  18. BOOK REVIEW: "...eine ausnehmende Zierde und Vortheil"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Luehning, F.

    This book comprises the habilitation thesis submitted by F. Lühning to the Faculty of Mathematics of Hamburg University in 2004. Due to financial support from various organizations, it was issued in a very attractive form as a special publication of the Society for the history of the city of Kiel. The nice layout, the graphical sketches of buildings, instruments, and astronomical connexions, often designed by the author, and the scientifically precise text, written with a sense of humor, make a pleasant reading, in spite of sometimes quite extensive descriptions of architectural details or 'operating instructions' for meridan circles etc. I have rarely read such an appealing text on astronomical history. The single chapters deal with the beginnings of astronomy in Kiel (1770-1820), Schrader's giant telescope from the late 18th century, Altona Observatory (1823-1850), the first years of the Astronomische Nachrichten, the last years of Altona Observatory (1850-1872), Bothkamp Observatory (1870-1914), the genesis of Kiel Observatory (1874-1880), the era of Krueger (1880-1896), the Kiel Chronometer Observatory (1893-1913), the era of Harzer (1897-1925), the era of Rosenberg (1927-1934), the decline of Kiel Observatory (1935-1950), and the Astronomische Nachrichten under Kobold (1907-1938). The book is concluded with a glossary of technical terms, biographical sketches of known and unknown dramatis personae, as well as a list of references. The author outlines lively sketches of people that were astronomically active in Altona, Kiel and its surroundings over a time interval of 200 years. To achieve this task, he has studied many files from the Secret State Archive Preussischer Kulturbesitz (Berlin), the Schleswig-Holsteinisches State Archive (Schleswig) and the Hamburg State Archive, from which he quotes extensively. He also has evaluated private documents and has interviewed surviving witnesses of the 1930s and 1940s. He has located remote sources: for example, the son of the founder of the Astronomische Nachrichten, Richard Schumacher, served for some years as an assistant at the Chilean National Observatory, and had married Marie Bulling, a girl of German descent. From her "meagre diary entries" of that time (published in Valparaiso in 2004), the author suspects a "convenience marriage''. Nevertheless, unreliable sources can provide a false picture: the interviewed custodian notes that the wife of the last official observatory director, Hans Oswald Rosenberg, was "Verena Borchardt, a Jewess from St. Petersburg'' (p. 583). This is more than incorrect. The family lived for some years in Moscow (not St. Petersburg), because her father was a representative of various companies, especially his grand-father's Königsberger Thee-Compagnie. In 1880, his daughter Helene was born there - who later married the Kiel astronomer Wirtz. In 1882, the Borchardt family moved to Berlin, where the father became a banker, and where Verena was born. The family was "of reformed confession, of Jewish origin'' (Borchardt, Heymel, Schörder: Marbacher Katalog Nr. 29, 1978): she was "a Jewess'' in Nazi terminology only. On page 583 too, Wirtz' capricious political views are quoted: "The day when the French troops entered Strasbourg was the happiest one in my life'', for which Theiss' paper of 1999 is quoted, and it is stated "source not given''. Now, Theiss uses a study of Duerbeck and Seitter (1990), where the precise reference in the Kiel Acta is given. Another overlooked (although not very informative) source is the voluminous edition of the collected letters (München 1994-2002) of Rudolf Borchardt, the poetical brother of "Vera'' Rosenberg and "Lene'' Wirtz. Another series of peculiar statements refer to the Astronomische Nachrichten (p. 666): Neither did they publish, after 1945, "sometimes only Russian articles'', nor after 1983 "only articles in English'': some "German'' astrometric articles appeared after that year, which will presumably stand the test of time better than the plethoria of "English'' articles, dealing mainly with cosmology. Totally fabricated is the author's statement that the journal is now published by "the Astronomical Computing Centre [sic] in Heidelberg''. In spite of these slightly critical notes on some irrelevant details, I can wholeheartedly recommend this book: it is an indispensable source of information for anyone who is interested in the history of astronomy in German-speaking lands in the 19th and the first half of the 20th century.

  19. Astronomische Konzepte und Jenseitsvorstellungen in den Pyramidentexten.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, R.

    The Egyptian pyramid texts were first written down around 2300 B.C. They are based on the religious belief in a stellar hereafter and contain the astronomical knowledge of their authors. For example, the ecliptical belt was understood as a canal, on which moon and planets cruise; of the latter Mercury, Venus and Mars were identified. On the basis of their visibility in the course of a year the fixed stars were divided into two groups; a southern group with a period of invisibility and a northern group with continual visibility. The ecliptical "canal" was correctly identified as a division line between the two groups of fixed stars. The aim of this book is to bring these texts foreward to a better understanding of their astronomical background.

  20. Die Cnidogenese der Octocorallia (Anthozoa, Cnidaria): II. Reifung, Wanderung und Zerfall von Cnidoblast und Nesselkapsel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, H.; Moraw, B.

    1982-03-01

    Migration of cnidoblasts has never been observed in Anthozoa. In contrast to hydrozoans, anthozoans are repeatedly reported to develop nematocysts locally without migration in the entoderm as well as in the ectoderm. The majority of the nematocysts studied in different Octocorallia species (Alcyonaria: Alcyonarium digitatum, Parerythropodium coralloides; Gorgonaria: Pseudopterogorgia aerosa; Pennatularia: Veretillum cynomorium) originate from the ectoderm of the scapus, where, however, no mature nematocysts occur. Cnidoblasts containing immature nematocysts accumulate in the distal scapus, from where they migrate singly like amoebae into the pinnulae of the tentacles. The nematocysts mature during migration, during which the capsular matrix becomes completely electron-translucent. Only in the oral disc, where few nematocysts occur, do they mature locally without migration. In the Octocorallia, nematocyst development and maturation takes places only in the ectoderm. Development of nematocysts has never been observed in the entoderm, nor in the pharynx; this demonstrates its entodermal origin. The entoderm contains only degenerated or phagocytized nematocysts. Contrary to hydrozoans, the mature anthozoan cnidocyte is rounded and has no processes to the mesogloea. Instead of a cnidocil it has a ciliary cone consisting of a normal flagellum, stereocilia and macrovilli. The cnidocyte is characterised by abundant electron-translucent cytoplasm and nematocyst-anchoring structures made up of cross-striated, collagen-like fibrillae and a fibrous basal ring. The position of the cross-striated fibrillae is distally similar to that of the supportive rods in hydrozoan cnidoblasts. The present study clearly demonstrates that structure and, possibly, function of an octocorallian cnidocyte is much simpler than that of a hydrozoan cnidocyte. On the other hand, cnidoblast migration, occurring in Hydrozoa as well in Octocorallia, turned out to be a much older phylogenetic character than was formerly believed.

  1. Kilogramm und Mol: SI-Basiseinheiten für Masse und Stoffmenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter; Gläser, Michael

    2001-11-01

    Das Kilogramm ist eine SI-Basiseinheit, die bislang nicht hinreichend genau auf Naturkonstanten zurückgeführt werden kann. Gegenwärtig gibt es verschiedene Vorschläge, dieses Problem zu lösen. Ein Vorschlag ist die Neudefinition des Kilogramm auf Basis atomarer Massen. An der Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt (PTB) wird dazu an zwei verschiedenen Verfahren geforscht. Beim ersten Verfahren werden Goldionen zu einer Referenzmasse akkumuliert, beim zweiten die Avogadro-Konstante an einem Silizium-Einkristall bestimmt. Beide Verfahren könnten eine genau bestimmbare Zahl von Atomen liefern, mit der das Kilogramm neu definiert werden könnte. Dies könnte eine Zahl von 197 Au, von 28 Si oder auch von 12 C-Atomen sein, auf der bereits die SI-Einheit der Stoffmenge des Mol basiert.

  2. Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta). Cuticula und Cilien, Schleimzellen und Schleimextrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, K.

    1982-03-01

    Two components, a basal cuticle and an epicuticle, make up the cuticle of A. mucosa. The basal cuticle consists of collagen fibrils, which are arranged in about 20 layers. The orientation of the fibrils changes rectangularly from one layer to the next. Fine filaments interweave the basal cuticle. The epicuticle, which is covered by a layer of electron dense material, is composed of irregularly arranged thin filaments. Branched microvilli of the epidermal cells penetrate the cuticle. Bacteria are found in the basal cuticle. Dorsally each segment has a band of densely packed smooth cilia. Laterally and partly ventrally aggregates of cilia are observed. These cilia exhibit apically artificial swellings. At least six different mucous cells are observed in the epidermis, morphologically distinguishable by the structure of the secretion products. Mucus is secreted via exocytosis through cuticular pores. During this process the mucus might expand. The secreted mucus consists of filamentous subunits.

  3. Fortpflanzung und entwicklung von Anemonia sulcata (Anthozoa, Actiniaria) II. Frühentwicklung, Blastula und Gastrula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, W.

    1985-09-01

    Early developmental stages of the Anemonia germ are characterized by asynchronously dividing nuclei and an extreme delay of blastomere differentiation. The nuclei migrate to the periphery, whereas nutritive substances remain in the interior. Following this stage, the appearance of cell boundaries results in the formation of the blastoderm and the simultaneous division of the yolk into many fragments. Most of them are exclusively filled with reserve material; only very few contain zooxanthellae or nuclei. On the embryo's surface, conically shaped bundles of long microvilli are obvious. They appear to be less regularly arranged than the spines of oocytes before insemination. Pigment granules that have originated from fusing Golgi vesicles are crowded peripherally in the blastoderm cells. In the nucleoplasm single annulate lamellae that seem to be cut off from the nuclear envelope can frequently be found. There is no further cellular differentiation until gastrulation is completed. Though yolk-containing cellular fragments occupy nearly the whole blastocoel, entoderm formation occurs by invagination. Ultrastructural observations provide evidence of the existence of interstices between entoderm cells that allow all nutritive substances to pass gradually into the gastric cavity. In the region of the blastoporus there are cellular processes enveloping reserve material. Presumably, these observations indicate a so-called “filtration of nutritive yolk” (Korschelt & Heider, 1909) that might represent an additional mode for the transfer of yolk-containing cellular fragments from blastocoel into gastrocoel.

  4. Fortpflanzung und Sexualität von Cereus pedunculatus und Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Actiniaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, W.

    1981-12-01

    Sexuality and reproductive behaviour of Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant) and several forms (subspecies) of Actinia equina (L.) from populations collected along the French Atlantic Sea coast and in different habitats along the European Mediterranean coast were studied. At the stage of 96 septae C. pedunculatus and A. e. atlantica II exhibited mature oocytes which developed parthenogenetically into larvae. The latter appeared simultaneously in the gastrocoele. Adolescent A. e. atlantica II developed very few mature oocytes and larvae. Following a sterile period, oocytes and young individuals of different age groups were present almost throughout the whole year in adult anemones. A. e. mediterranea I was dioecious and oviparous in any habitat observed. Samples of the larviparous A. e. mediterranea II (collected near Banyuls, France) exhibited male gonads exclusively and contained larvae. Spontaneous longitudinal fission was occasionally observed in adult A. e. mediterranea I and adolescent A. e. atlantica II.

  5. Der Haupthistokompatibilitätskomplex und die Unterscheidung zwischen Selbst und Fremd durch das Immunsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Jan; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Nagy, Zoltan A.

    1983-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is a cluster of closely linked genes which are involved in the distinction between self and non-self. The genes fall into two classes, I and II, which are evolutionarily related but specialized to performing somewhat different functions. The Mhc genes code for proteins which are seen together with foreign substances by the thymus-derived lymphocytes. These lymphocytes thus recognize simultaneously self (Mhc molecules) and non-self (foreign antigen). Some of the Mhc genes are highly polymorphic and this polymorphism probably represents a compensation for the fact that certain combinations of Mhc molecules and antigen fail to be recognized by the T lymphocyte.

  6. Diskrepanzen und Kongruenzen: Das Dilemma des afrikanischen Kindes zwischen Familie und Schule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Annemarie

    1986-03-01

    This article expounds the theory that the failure of school is due to the incompatibility of the educational goals of school and traditional upbringing in Africa. The thesis is put forward by adherents of the psychoanalytical model of child development and seeks to emphasize the discrepancies between the childhood where children are not frustrated and where their needs are cared for and the school education which represses the drives and its socialization of children. Finding a number of anthropological studies are discussed and reinterpretations of the ethno-psychoanalytical materials attempted. Neither the evaluation of childhood in Africa nor the theory that with school come wholly new expectations of behaviour (e.g., a performance requirement) can no longer be maintained. In conclusion, other explanations for the difficulties encountered by school in Africa are offered.

  7. Small molecules that allosterically inhibit p21-activated kinase activity by binding to the regulatory p21-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk-Joong; Choi, Chang-Ki; Lee, Chan-Soo; Park, Mee-Hee; Tian, Xizhe; Kim, Nam Doo; Lee, Kee-In; Choi, Joong-Kwon; Ahn, Jin Hee; Shin, Eun-Young; Shin, Injae; Kim, Eung-Gook

    2016-01-01

    p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are key regulators of actin dynamics, cell proliferation and cell survival. Deregulation of PAK activity contributes to the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. Using an ELISA-based screening protocol, we identified naphtho(hydro)quinone-based small molecules that allosterically inhibit PAK activity. These molecules interfere with the interactions between the p21-binding domain (PBD) of PAK1 and Rho GTPases by binding to the PBD. Importantly, they inhibit the activity of full-length PAKs and are selective for PAK1 and PAK3 in vitro and in living cells. These compounds may potentially be useful for determining the details of the PAK signaling pathway and may also be used as lead molecules in the development of more selective and potent PAK inhibitors. PMID:27126178

  8. Small molecules that allosterically inhibit p21-activated kinase activity by binding to the regulatory p21-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-Joong; Choi, Chang-Ki; Lee, Chan-Soo; Park, Mee-Hee; Tian, Xizhe; Kim, Nam Doo; Lee, Kee-In; Choi, Joong-Kwon; Ahn, Jin Hee; Shin, Eun-Young; Shin, Injae; Kim, Eung-Gook

    2016-01-01

    p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are key regulators of actin dynamics, cell proliferation and cell survival. Deregulation of PAK activity contributes to the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. Using an ELISA-based screening protocol, we identified naphtho(hydro)quinone-based small molecules that allosterically inhibit PAK activity. These molecules interfere with the interactions between the p21-binding domain (PBD) of PAK1 and Rho GTPases by binding to the PBD. Importantly, they inhibit the activity of full-length PAKs and are selective for PAK1 and PAK3 in vitro and in living cells. These compounds may potentially be useful for determining the details of the PAK signaling pathway and may also be used as lead molecules in the development of more selective and potent PAK inhibitors. PMID:27126178

  9. p21-activated kinase 2 regulates HSPC cytoskeleton, migration, and homing via CDC42 activation and interaction with β-Pix.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pavankumar N G; Radu, Maria; Xu, Ke; Wood, Jenna; Harris, Chad E; Chernoff, Jonathan; Williams, David A

    2016-04-21

    Cytoskeletal remodeling of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is essential for homing to the bone marrow (BM). The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac)/cell division control protein 42 homolog (CDC42) effector p21-activated kinase (Pak2) has been implicated in HSPC homing and engraftment. However, the molecular pathways mediating Pak2 functions in HSPCs are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that both Pak2 kinase activity and its interaction with the PAK-interacting exchange factor-β (β-Pix) are required to reconstitute defective ITALIC! Pak2 (ITALIC! Δ/Δ)HSPC homing to the BM. Pak2 serine/threonine kinase activity is required for stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF1α) chemokine-induced HSPC directional migration, whereas Pak2 interaction with β-Pix is required to regulate the velocity of HSPC migration and precise F-actin assembly. Lack of SDF1α-induced filopodia and associated abnormal cell protrusions seen in ITALIC! Pak2 (ITALIC! Δ/Δ)HSPCs were rescued by wild-type (WT) Pak2 but not by a Pak2-kinase dead mutant (KD). Expression of a β-Pix interaction-defective mutant of Pak2 rescued filopodia formation but led to abnormal F-actin bundles. Although CDC42 has previously been considered an upstream regulator of Pak2, we found a paradoxical decrease in baseline activation of CDC42 in ITALIC! Pak2 (ITALIC! Δ/Δ)HSPCs, which was rescued by expression of Pak2-WT but not by Pak2-KD; defective homing of ITALIC! Pak2-deleted HSPCs was rescued by constitutive active CDC42. These data demonstrate that both Pak2 kinase activity and its interaction with β-Pix are essential for HSPC filopodia formation, cytoskeletal integrity, and homing via activation of CDC42. Taken together, we provide mechanistic insights into the role of Pak2 in HSPC migration and homing.

  10. p21-activated kinase 1 determines stem-like phenotype and sunitinib resistance via NF-κB/IL-6 activation in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Liu, H; Xu, L; An, H; Liu, W; Liu, Y; Lin, Z; Xu, J

    2015-02-12

    The p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), a serine/threonine kinase that orchestrates cytoskeletal remodeling and cell motility, has been shown to function as downstream node for various oncogenic signaling pathways to promote cell proliferation, regulate apoptosis and accelerate mitotic abnormalities, resulting in tumor formation and invasiveness. Although alterations in PAK1 expression and activity have been detected in various human malignancies, its potential biological and clinical significance in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains obscure. In this study, we found increased PAK1 and phosphorylated PAK1 levels in tumor tissues according to TNM stage progression. Elevated phosphorylated PAK1 levels associated with progressive features and indicated unfavorable overall survival (OS) as an independent adverse prognosticator for patients with RCC. Moreover, PAK1 kinase activation with constitutive active PAK1 mutant T423E promoted growth, colony formation, migration, invasion and stem-like phenotype of RCC cells, and vice versa, in PAK1 inhibition by PAK1 kinase inactivation with specific PAK1 shRNA, dead kinase PAK1 mutant K299R or allosteric inhibitor IPA3. Stem-like phenotype due to sunitinib administration via increased PAK1 kinase activation could be ameliorated by PAK1 shRNA, PAK1 mutant K299R and IPA3. Furthermore, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/interleukin-6 (IL-6) activation was found to be responsible for PAK1-mediated stem-like phenotype following sunitinib treatment. Both IL-6 neutralizing antibody and IPA3 administration enhanced tumor growth inhibition effect of sunitinib treatment on RCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results unraveled that oncogenic activation of PAK1 defines an important mechanism for maintaining stem-like phenotype and sunitinib resistance through NF-κB/IL-6 activation in RCC, lending PAK1-mediated NF-κB/IL-6 activation considerable appeal as novel pharmacological therapeutic targets against sunitinib resistance.

  11. Urbanisierung und Ökologische Stadtentwicklung. Zur Integration urbaner Biodiversität und Ökosystemleistungen in Deutschland und China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümper-Schlake, Lennart

    2016-06-01

    Urbanisation processes increase land-use conflicts and ecosystem destruction globally. Especially in China, a country with an outstanding urbanization rate, city governments are challenged by environmental and health problems. Urban green spaces - subsequently defined as urban biodiversity and ecosystem services - can minimize numerous environmental risks and at the same time contribute to the citizens' well-being and quality of life. In this highly relevant field of nature conservation, geographical perspectives are required - in science, politics, policy, planning and practice.

  12. Heat sinking for printed circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, S.K.; Richardson, G.; Pinkerton, A.L.

    1984-09-11

    A flat pak or other solid-state device mounted on a printed circuit board directly over a hole extends therethrough so that the bottom of the pak or device extends beyond the bottom of the circuit board. A heat sink disposed beneath the circuit board contacts the bottom of the pak or device and provides direct heat sinking thereto. Pressure may be applied to the top of the pak or device to assure good mechanical and thermal contact with the heat sink.

  13. Der Weg Nach Europa: Bildungsreformen in Mittel- und Osteuropa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steier, Sonja

    2006-12-01

    THE WAY TO EUROPE: EDUCATION REFORM IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE - Since embarking for the European Union in 1989, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been reorganising and restructuring their educational systems. In doing so, they have not only departed from the Soviet-style education model, but also recognised that education constitutes a key issue in competition. Despite some economic problems, the education reforms in these countries have been regarded as part of a major effort at integrating themselves into the European sphere of knowledge. Many of the efforts and measures in education policy envisaged and carried out since the systemic change occurred have led not only to revitalizing national educational heritages, but also to the independent adoption of other European and international trends and topics in educational discourse. Thereby, these states have proved to be considerably more innovative and flexible than the "older" members of the EU. The prospect of being taken up into the EU has probably helped accelerate the entire process. The present study focuses on some key overarching developments in the educational landscape of states in Central and Eastern Europe, even as it is apparent that these are proceeding along different paths at different speeds.

  14. Form und Sinn: Sprachwissenschaftliche Betrachtungen (Form and Meaning: Linguistic Observations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobson, Roman

    This collection of 14 papers and articles by Roman Jakobson contains works written and published between 1931 and 1970 which deal either with global aspects of language or with specific grammatical issues. The collection emphasizes Jakobson's concern for finding the links between form and meaning in language. The text is entirely in German with…

  15. Black Hawk Down: Film Zwischen Reflektion und Konstruktion Gesellschaftlicher Wirklichkeit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pötzsch, Holger

    2009-05-01

    BLACK HAWK DOWN: FILM BETWEEN THE REFLECTION AND CONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL REALITY - In this article, Ridley Scott's film Black Hawk Down (USA 2001) is read in the context of contemporary theories concerning cultural memory (Jan and Aleida Assmann) and media culture (Douglas Kellner). It is argued that film (and representation in general) does not merely reflect a preceding reality; it also actively serves to construct it. It is shown how Scott's film privileges one particular perspective on an actual event and how this point of view is objectified and installed in the memory of Western media culture. What potential implications does an increased blurring of fact and fiction in the representation of war have? What are the consequences for political and pedagogical practice? What role can cultural studies play in these processes?

  16. Grundwasser in Nürnberg: Wichtige Einheiten und deren Nutzbarkeit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, Alfons; van Geldern, Robert; Löhr, Gisela; Subert, Hannah L.; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-09-01

    The use and protection of urban - area aquifers such as the groundwater resources below the city of Nuremberg is becoming increasingly important. Hence, we present a stratigraphic and hydrogeologic overview of the "Nuremberg Syncline". The Nuremberg Syncline regional aquifer system can be divided into seven units. Geochemical and stable isotope investigations have shown that strict hydraulic separations between aquifers and aquitards do not always exist. Connections may be enhanced, for example, via tectonic discontinuities that enable the rise of CO2-rich groundwaters from deeper units. This is confirmed by frequent occurrences of artesian well conditions. Important subsurface structures in the near-surface aquifers include four palaeo-valleys that cut deep into the stratigraphic units of Keuper sandstones (Keuper Group; Middle and Late Triassic). These remarkable palaeo-valleys have been investigated with more than 2400 boreholes. The gravel and sand deposits of these aquifers offer, for instance, ideal possibilities for both heating and cooling of buildings by geothermal heat pumps.

  17. Textphonetik und Aussprachekorrektur (Textual Phonetics and Pronunciation Correction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurow, Joachim

    1977-01-01

    The specific problems involved in teaching pronunciation cannot be solved by the techniques of phonemic analysis alone. What is needed is an extension of these techniques to include the principles of textual phonetics. (CFM)

  18. Grundwasser in Nürnberg: Wichtige Einheiten und deren Nutzbarkeit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, Alfons; van Geldern, Robert; Löhr, Gisela; Subert, Hannah L.; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-07-01

    The use and protection of urban - area aquifers such as the groundwater resources below the city of Nuremberg is becoming increasingly important. Hence, we present a stratigraphic and hydrogeologic overview of the "Nuremberg Syncline". The Nuremberg Syncline regional aquifer system can be divided into seven units. Geochemical and stable isotope investigations have shown that strict hydraulic separations between aquifers and aquitards do not always exist. Connections may be enhanced, for example, via tectonic discontinuities that enable the rise of CO2-rich groundwaters from deeper units. This is confirmed by frequent occurrences of artesian well conditions. Important subsurface structures in the near-surface aquifers include four palaeo-valleys that cut deep into the stratigraphic units of Keuper sandstones (Keuper Group; Middle and Late Triassic). These remarkable palaeo-valleys have been investigated with more than 2400 boreholes. The gravel and sand deposits of these aquifers offer, for instance, ideal possibilities for both heating and cooling of buildings by geothermal heat pumps.

  19. Bestimmung thermischer Eigenschaften der Gesteine des Unteren und Mittleren Buntsandsteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Claudia; Schulze, Marcellus

    2016-03-01

    For accurate planning of vertical borehole heat exchanger systems, knowledge of thermo-physical ground parameters is critical. This study reports laboratory-measured thermal conductivity and diffusivity values of Mesozoic sandstones (Lower and Middle Buntsandstein) from four wells. The measurements were made on drill core using an optical scanning method. The mean thermal conductivities of the sandstones range between 2.6 ± 0.3 W / (m · K) and 3.1 ± 0.4 W / (m · K) for dry conditions and between 3.6 ± 0.3 W / (m · K) and 4.1 ± 0.6 W / (m · K) after saturation with water. The mean thermal diffusivity values range between (1.6 ± 0.2) · 10- 6 m2 / s for dry and (2.0 ± 0.6) · 10- 6 m2 / s for water-saturated sandstones. Thermal properties are closely related to the petrography and lithostratigraphy of the sandstones. Additionally, three temperature correction methods were applied for the purpose of evaluating the comparative accuracy and the correction schemes with respect to local in-situ conditions. The results show that the temperature corrections proposed by Somerton (Thermal properties on temperature-related behavior of rock/fluid systems, Elsevier, New York, S 257, 1992) and Sass et al. (J Geophys Res, 97:5017-5030, 1992) are most suited for the respective sandstone data set.

  20. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der genetischen Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingmüller, Walter

    1981-03-01

    Examples for genetic engineering are the transfer of nuclei between cells of higher animals and the introduction of heterologous DNA into bacteria by means of plasmids. The former approach will help to establish new ways in animal breeding, the latter provides bacterial cells that produce proteins of medical importance. The moral justification of related studies in man is still open, but the possible risks of gene technology can be coped with by adhering to proper safety regulations.

  1. Charakterisierung von Porenraumeigenschaften in unkonsolidierten Sedimenten (Laboruntersuchungen und modifizierte Kapillarmodelle)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Huber, Edith; Schön, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    Quantitative description and characterization of hydraulic processes is of specific interest for a wide range of issues ranging from ground water storage and protection to contaminant transport and resulting environmental hazards or for shallow geothermal projects. Therefore, the aim of this study is to achieve a detailed characterization of sediment pore space and fluid flow based on laboratory tests on disturbed sediment samples and novel modified capillary tube models for different pore geometries. Our model calculations show that the capillary tube models cover four major influences, namely porosity (linear dependence), pore body radius (exponent of about 2), the ratio of pore body to pore throat radius and tortuosity. The most critical influence on permeability can be attributed to the ratio of pore body to pore throat radius while pore shape seems to exert only minor influences on permeability.

  2. Urbane Hydrogeologie - Herausforderungen für Forschung und Praxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Strauch, G.; Reinstorf, F.; Schirmer, K.

    2007-09-01

    Urban areas are a focus of increasing conflict with regard to water use and water protection. Half of the world’s population and about 73 % of Europeans live in cities. Currently, about 82 % of the total population growth of the world occurs in the cities of the developing countries (UN 2004). As a direct and/or indirect consequence of human activity, urban water systems are frequently polluted with organic contaminants. Many of these contaminants are related to human behaviour and activity, such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products (collectively PPCPs) and endocrine-active substances, and are increasingly found in urban water systems. However, the behaviour and the effects of these contaminants in the environment have been widely unknown until now. Consequently, it is important to pay more attention to such substances and to explore new integrated methodologies (including flux calculations as well as chemical and biological investigations) for determining the impact of human activities on urban water systems and on processes within the urban watershed. The overall goal is to assess the risks to humans and the ecosystem, and to support the development of suitable management strategies.

  3. Optimierung und Charakterisierung einer transportablen optischen Gitteruhr mit Ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    This thesis deals with the improvement and the characterization of a transportable optical lattice clock with ytterbium. Building on results of former theses from T. Franzen [1] and C. Abou Jadoudeh [2] numerous improvements were needed to increase the overall stability of the whole apparatus. The improved stability should lead to a more accurate characterization of the system and a better mobility. Finally, the apparatus should be transported to the Instituto Nationale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) in Torino (Italy) in the course of the Space Optical Clocks 2 (SOC2) project.(Abridged)

  4. Study Abroad Programs: Probleme und Loesungsvorschlage (Problems and Suggested Solutions)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schild, Kurt W.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an apparently very successful study program for Americans, conducted by Michigan State University in Mayen, Rheinland-Pfalz. The small (pop. 22,000) non-university city offered many advantages, including relatively low living costs. All students lived with German families. Various contacts are described, including weekend trips. (Text is…

  5. Physik gestern und heute: Visualisierung mit der Schlierenmethode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Der Name des österreichischen Forschers Ernst Mach ist heute noch mit der Schallgeschwindigkeit verbunden. Diese Auszeichnung resultiert aus Machs Untersuchungen, wie sich Projektile mit Überschallgeschwindigkeit durch die Luft bewegen. Gerade in jüngster Zeit hat die Anwendung derartiger Methoden durch technische Modifikationen wieder einen Aufschwung erfahren.

  6. Rede und Gesinnung (Speech and Ways of Thinking)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienzle, Bertram

    1974-01-01

    Analyzes some of the basic ideas in Georg Franklin's book "Versuch einer neuen Lehre von den vornehmsten Gegenstanden der deutschen Sprachlehre; nach den Regeln der Vernunftlehre in sechs Abhandlungen verfasst" (1778) and compares them to those of such modern linguists and philosophers a s Searle, Austin and Wunderlich. Concludes that the…

  7. Blutpräparate und therapeutische Anwendung (Hämotherapie)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, Jürgen; Leimbach, Rainer; Nagl, Detlev; Weinauer, Franz

    Die Geschichte der Blutübertragung lässt sich bis in das Altertum verfolgen - wenn auch hier das Blut nicht in die Blutgefäße eingebracht, sondern als Trank verabreicht wurde. Im alten Rom stürmten die Zuschauer in die Kampfarena, um das Blut verletzter Gladiatoren zu trinken, in dem Gedanken, deren Stärke würde in sie überfließen. So wurden auch Greise mit dem Blut von Jünglingen behandelt. Der Glaube, mit dem Blut würden Eigenschaften des Spenders übertragen, muss wohl auch bei dem Versuch mitgewirkt haben, Verbrecher durch Übertragung von Schafsblut "lammfromm“ zu machen. Zu Beginn der Mensch-zu-Mensch-Übertragung wurde Blut mittels eines Röhrchens von Blutgefäß zu Blutgefäß transfundiert. Diese im Mittelalter neu erprobte Form basierte auf der Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufes durch William Harvey (1578-1657). Es überwog allerdings noch die Blutübertragung vom Tier auf den Menschen, die nicht selten mit dem Tod beider Beteiligter endete. In der aufklärerischen Phase der französischen Revolution wurde diese Art der Blutübertragung deshalb verboten.

  8. Morphologie und Ultrastruktur der Koralle Cornularia cornucopiae (Anthozoa, Octocorallia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benke, H.; Hündgen, M.

    1984-03-01

    Cornularia cornucopiae is a colonial coral whose polyps arise singly from stolons. In contrast with other octocrallia C. cornucopiae lacks calcareous spicules. Therefore, tissue preparation for electron microscopic investigations can be performed. The presence of a calyx such as the theca of hydroids, in which the polyps may be completely retracted, is conspicuous. The calyx consists of three layers. The structure of the basal layer suggests massive collagen. The body wall is connected with the calyx by living desmocytes. The histology of the oral disc and the actinopharynx is identical. The ventral side of the polyps bears the siphonoglyph. Below the pharynx the inner edges of the mesenteries are free and form the mesenterial filaments. The two ventral mesenteries differ from the others; the one is long and exhibits a large and heavily flagellated filament, the other is short and lacks a filament. The muscular system is represented by gastrodermal circular fibres in the body wall and by radial and longitudinal fibres in the septa; a large septal retractor muscle is missing.

  9. Amor und der Abstand zur Sonne. Geschichten aus meinem Kosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf

    2001-10-01

    R. Kippenhahn hat in vielen Büchern die Astronomie populär gemacht. Ihn interessieren dabei immer auch die kuriosen Aspekte seiner Wissenschaft. Von ihnen erzählt er in den kleinen Geschichten dieses Buches.

  10. Expression of p21-activated kinases 1 and 3 is altered in the brain of subjects with depression.

    PubMed

    Fuchsova, Beata; Alvarez Juliá, Anabel; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Frasch, Alberto Carlos; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2016-10-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) of group I are the main effectors for the small Rho GTPases, critically involved in neurodevelopment, plasticity and maturation of the nervous system. Moreover, the neuronal complexity controlled by PAK1/PAK3 signaling determines the postnatal brain size and synaptic properties. Stress induces alterations at the level of structural and functional synaptic plasticity accompanied by reductions in size and activity of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). These abnormalities are likely to contribute to the pathology of depression and, in part, reflect impaired cytoskeleton remodeling pointing to the role of Rho GTPase signaling. Thus, the present study assessed the expression of the group I PAKs and their activators in the brain of depressed subjects. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), mRNA levels and coexpression of the group I PAKs: PAK1, PAK2, and PAK3 as well as of their activators: RAC1, CDC42 and ARHGEF7 were examined in postmortem samples from the PFC (n=25) and the hippocampus (n=23) of subjects with depression and compared to control subjects (PFC n=24; hippocampus n=21). Results demonstrated that mRNA levels of PAK1 and PAK3, are significantly reduced in the brain of depressed subjects, with PAK1 being reduced in the PFC and PAK3 in the hippocampus. No differences were observed for the ubiquitously expressed PAK2. Following analysis of gene coexpression demonstrated disruption of coordinated gene expression in the brain of subjects with depression. Abnormalities in mRNA expression of PAK1 and PAK3 as well as their altered coexpression patterns were detected in the brain of subjects with depression. PMID:27474226

  11. Hydrodynamische und hydrochemische Aspekte der anthropogen und natürlich induzierten Uferfiltration am Beispiel von Berlin/Brandenburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, G.; Pekdeger, A.; Dünnbier, U.; Heberer, T.; Richter, D.; Sültenfuß, J.; Tosaki, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Bank filtration is the natural or anthropogenically induced process of surface water infiltration into an aquifer. It is of particular importance as a method to gain or pre-treat water for drinking water production. The hydrodynamic and hydrochemical processes during bank filtration were investigated at one rural site in the Oderbruch and at two urban sites in Berlin (Germany). Results show that these sites differ substantially with regard to the characteristics of the hyporheic zone (permeable versus clogged), travel times (decades versus months to decades) and shape of the redox zones (horizontal versus vertical redox succession). The hyporheic zone is a key parameter determining the site characteristics. Since the surface water in Berlin contains a proportion of treated sewage, a number of wastewater-bound substances (e. g. pharmaceutical residues) have been detected in the surface water. Most of them were, however, fully or partly removed during bank filtration. The redox conditions are an important key parameter with regard to the elimination (or persistence) of a number of organic trace compounds (e. g. phenazone, sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin), whose elimination depends on the prevailing redox environment.

  12. "Bildungsstandards"--Erwartungen und Bedingungen, Grenzen, und Chancen ("Educational Standards"--Expectations and Conditions, Limits, and Opportunities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Discusses educational standards, core curricula, competence models, school autonomy, school evaluation, and from input-to output-control as important catchwords in the present education and school policy debate. Points out that the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) has triggered a new educational debate in Germany that calls for…

  13. Bestimmung der Wärmeleitfähigkeit im Untergrund durch Labor- und Feldversuche und anhand theoretischer Modelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menberg, Kathrin; Steger, Hagen; Zorn, Roman; Reuß, Manfred; Pröll, Markus; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp

    2013-06-01

    For the planning and design of borehole heat exchangers systems, the knowledge of the thermophysical ground parameters is essential. In this study, several methods for the determination of thermal conductivity were used on a borehole for a ground source heat pump system. Thermal conductivity was measured on core samples using laboratory tests and likewise a Thermal Response Test (TRT) was carried out. In addition, several ground parameters, such as water content and carbonate content, were determined by laboratory tests. With these parameters the thermal conductivity was then calculated using different theoretical models. The best agreement between measured and calculated values for thermal conductivities was obtained using the geometric mean. The mean error of these calculations in this study is about 12 %. Thus, the accuracy of the calculation of thermal conductivity is lower than the accuracy of the laboratory tests or TRTs, but it nevertheless represents a simple and more accurate method than parameter estimations based on published values.

  14. Direkte beobachtung von polyäthylen-feinstrukturen und ihre veränderungen beim verstrecken und tempern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanig, G.

    1980-02-01

    A contrasting method developed a few years ago enables one to show the crystalline and amorphous phases of polyolefins under the electron microscope. This method permits within seconds to catch and fix fine structures directly at higher temperatures. Thus, structure changes of polyethylene fibers could be studied in detail during drawing and annealing. First, photographs of ultrathin microtome slices of cold deformed polyethylene melts (blown films and drawn fibers) are shown which permit the observation of preferred orientation of the crystal lamellae at right angles to the draw section. The change in fine structure on cold drawing of polyethylene fibers (9 and 25 X) confirms only partly the ideas of Peterlin about this process. Microfibrils consisting of blocks of crystals of the destroyed lamellae could not be found in the final stages of drawing. Rather, a strongly uniaxially drawn, irregular polymer network was found which was cross-linked through crystal blocks which served as polyfunctional branch points. Two processes govern the structure change on annealing of the cold drawn fibers: the molecular re-coiling and the recrystallization. The structure changes are different for free and restrained annealed fibers. The former show already after 2 s under shrinking the formation of large lamellae similar to the ones found in the starting fiber before drawing, while in the latter one can detect thinner and smaller lamellae which are better oriented normal to the fiber axis. In the first case, a coupled re-coiling of the chain molecules is suggested and in the second case, an uncoupled re-coiling. In later stages of the annealing of the free annealed fibers the second mechanism superimposes itself on the first. The behavior of the drawn fibers during annealing is compatible with the model of interpenetrating coils by Flory.

  15. Interdisciplinary Educational Collaborations: Chemistry and Computer Science 967 Ronald S. Haines, Daniel T. Woo, Benjamin T. Hudson, Joji C. Mori, Evey S. M. Ngan, and Wing-Yee Pak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goedhart, Martin J.

    2007-06-01

    While chemists are usually aware of the possibilities of interdisciplinary collaboration in chemical research they may be less aware of the possibilities of such collaboration in education. This article documents an ongoing collaboration between a chemist and computer scientist to co-supervise computer science students engaged in developing software for chemical education, highlights the benefits to both the chemistry and computer science students, notes some unexpected outcomes, and provides guidance to those planning such collaborations. The experiences described in this work should motivate chemistry educators to approach their colleagues in other disciplines with proposals for joint research projects. The collaboration described here initially resulted in the development of student-friendly software for operating a spectrophotometer. Recent co-supervised students have begun developing other software for chemical education.

  16. Interferences of atmospheric oxidants in the sampling of aldehydes using sep pak C18 mciro columns coated wtih 2,4-DNPH: The use of cellulose filters coated with KI as a scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, J.B. de; Andrade, V.A.S. de; Pinheiro, H.L.C.

    1995-12-01

    Measurements of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the atmosphere often involve the use of DNPH-coated cartridges. During sampling, ozone and other atmospheric oxidants may react with DNPH and/or the carbonyl-DNPH, thus resulting in a negative bias. In this study, ambient air has been collected using co-located DNPH C{sub 18} cartridges with and without a filter coated with KI to remove ozone and other oxidants. Concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde measured without the KI filter were lower than those measured with a KI filter. Implications for ambient measurements of carbonyls in the presence of atmospheric ozone are discussed.

  17. New system enables fleets to tailor maintenance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-08-15

    The Lubrizol Corporation has developed FluiPak and FluiPak Lite systems to pull engine oils and sample them continuously, helping to maintain mining equipment between oil change intervals. The FluiPak system has a control box, a sensor box and a reserve system. FluiPak Lite is simply a cut-down version of FluiPak. The article explains how the system works to detect in real time oil quality and contaminants and hence optimize drain intervals and also prolong engine component life and reduce waste oil disposal costs. 100 units are currently installed in coal operations. 5 figs., 5 photos.

  18. Signaling-dependent Phosphorylation of Mitotic Centromere-associated Kinesin Regulates Microtubule Depolymerization and Its Centrosomal Localization*

    PubMed Central

    Pakala, Suresh B.; Nair, Vasudha S.; Reddy, Sirigiri DivijendraNatha; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Although p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and microtubule (MT) dynamics regulate numerous fundamental processes including cytoskeleton remodeling, directional motility, and mitotic functions, the significance of PAK1 signaling in regulating the functions of MT-destabilizing protein mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) remains unknown. Here we found that MCAK is a cognate substrate of PAK1 wherein PAK1 phosphorylates MCAK on serines 192 and 111 both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we found that PAK1 phosphorylation of MCAK on serines 192 and 111 preferentially regulates its microtubule depolymerization activity and localization to centrosomes, respectively, in the mammalian cells. PMID:23055517

  19. Tumor Suppressive Function of p21-activated Kinase 6 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weisi; Liu, Yidong; Liu, Haiou; Zhang, Weijuan; Fu, Qiang; Xu, Jiejie; Gu, Jianxin

    2015-11-20

    Our previous studies identified the oncogenic role of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Contrarily, PAK6 was found to predict a favorable prognosis in RCC patients. Nevertheless, the ambiguous tumor suppressive function of PAK6 in hepatocarcinogenesis remains obscure. Herein, decreased PAK6 expression was found to be associated with tumor node metastasis stage progression and unfavorable overall survival in HCC patients. Additionally, overexpression and silence of PAK6 experiments showed that PAK6 inhibited xenografted tumor growth in vivo, and restricted cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion and promoted cell apoptosis and anoikis in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of kinase dead and nuclear localization signal deletion mutants of PAK6 experiments indicated the tumor suppressive function of PAK6 was partially dependent on its kinase activity and nuclear translocation. Furthermore, gain or loss of function in polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) components, including EZH2, SUZ12, and EED, elucidated epigenetic control of H3K27me3-arbitrated PAK6 down-regulation in hepatoma cells. More importantly, negative correlation between PAK6 and EZH2 expression was observed in hepatoma tissues from HCC patients. These data identified the tumor suppressive role and potential underlying mechanism of PAK6 in hepatocarcinogenesis.

  20. p21-Activated protein kinases and their emerging roles in glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yu-ting Alex; Jin, Tianru

    2014-04-01

    p21-Activated protein kinases (PAKs) are centrally involved in a plethora of cellular processes and functions. Their function as effectors of small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 has been extensively studied during the past two decades, particularly in the realms of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and hence tumorigenesis, as well as cytoskeletal remodeling and related cellular events in health and disease. In recent years, a large number of studies have shed light onto the fundamental role of group I PAKs, most notably PAK1, in metabolic homeostasis. In skeletal muscle, PAK1 was shown to mediate the function of insulin on stimulating GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake, while in pancreatic β-cells, PAK1 participates in insulin granule localization and vesicle release. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PAK1 mediates the cross talk between insulin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways and hence regulates gut proglucagon gene expression and the production of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The utilization of chemical inhibitors of PAK and the characterization of Pak1(-/-) mice enabled us to gain mechanistic insights as well as to assess the overall contribution of PAKs in metabolic homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of PAKs, with an emphasis on the emerging roles of PAK1 in glucose homeostasis.

  1. The P21-activated kinase expression pattern is different in non-small cell lung cancer and affects lung cancer cell sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Si; Dong, Qian-Ze; Jiang, Gui-Yang; Han, Yong; Wang, Liang; Wang, En-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Exploring methods for increasing epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) sensitivity has become a major focus in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Major downstream effectors of the Rho family small guanosine triphosphatases, P21-activated kinases (PAKs) activate the main signaling pathways downstream of EGFR and thus promote tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we explored the expression pattern of phosphorylated PAKs in NSCLC and their potential value as drug targets for treating cancer. The expression and prognostic significance of phosphorylated group I and II PAKs were evaluated in 182 patients with NSCLC. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed low group I PAK expression in normal lung tissues and increased expressed in the cytoplasm, particularly in lung squamous cell carcinoma. Abnormal group I PAK expression was associated with lymph node metastases and high tumor-node-metastases (TNM) stage in NSCLC patients and correlated with poor prognosis. We used group I PAK inhibitor (IPA3) to specifically decrease group I PAK activity in human lung cancer cell lines. Decreased group I PAK activity inhibited cell proliferation and combined IPA3 and EGFR-TKI (gefitinib) treatment inhibited cell proliferation in an obvious manner. Together, our results revealed the PAK expression pattern in NSCLC, and a role for group I PAK in cell proliferation, which provides evidence that decreased PAK activity may have a potential application as a molecular targeted therapy in advanced NSCLC.

  2. Active p21-activated kinase 1 rescues MCF10A breast epithelial cells from undergoing anoikis.

    PubMed

    Menard, Raymond E; Jovanovski, Andrew P; Mattingly, Raymond R

    2005-07-01

    The protein kinase, PAK1, is overexpressed in human breast cancer and may contribute to malignancy through induction of proliferation and invasiveness. In this study, we examined the role of PAK1 in the survival of detached MCF10A breast epithelial cells to test whether it may also regulate the early stages of neoplasia. MCF10A cells undergo anoikis, as measured by the cleavage of caspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), after more than 8 hours of detachment. Endogenous Akt, PAK1, and BAD are phosphorylated in attached MCF10A cells, but these phosphorylation events are all lost during the first 8 hours of detachment. Expression of constitutively active PAK1 or Akt suppresses the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP in detached MCF10A cells. Co-overexpression of active PAK1 with dominant-negative Akt, or of active Akt with dominant-negative PAK1, still suppresses anoikis. Thus, Akt and PAK1 enhance survival through pathways that are at least partially independent. PAK1-dependent regulation of anoikis is likely to occur early in the apoptotic cascade as expression of dominant-negative PAK1 increased the cleavage of the upstream caspase 9, while constitutively active PAK1 inhibited caspase 9 activation. These results support a role for activated PAK1 in the suppression of anoikis in MCF10A epithelial cells.

  3. Identification of Novel Gene Targets and Functions of p21-Activated Kinase 1 during DNA Damage by Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Motwani, Mona; Li, Da-Qiang; Horvath, Anelia; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    P21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), a serine/threonine protein kinase, modulates many cellular processes by phosphorylating its downstream substrates. In addition to its role in the cytoplasm, PAK1 also affects gene transcription due to its nuclear localization and association with chromatin. It is now recognized that PAK1 kinase activity and its nuclear translocation are rapidly stimulated by ionizing radiation (IR), and that PAK1 activation is a component of the DNA damage response. Owing to the role of PAK1 in the cell survival, its association with the chromatin, and now, stimulation by ionizing radiation, we hypothesize that PAK1 may be contributing to modulation of genes with roles in cellular processes that might be important in the DNA damage response. The purpose of this study was to identify new PAK1 targets in response to ionizing radiation with putative role in the DNA damage response. We examined the effect of IR on the gene expression patterns in the murine embryonic fibroblasts with or without Pak1 using microarray technology. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified using Gene Spring GX 10.0.2. Pathway, network, functional analyses and gene family classification were carried out using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Ingenuity Pathway, Gene Ontology and PANTHER respectively. Selective targets of PAK1 were validated by RT-qPCR. For the first time, we provide a genome-wide analysis of PAK1 and identify its targets with potential roles in the DNA damage response. Gene Ontology analysis identified genes in the IR-stimulated cells that were involved in cell cycle arrest and cell death. Pathway analysis revealed p53 pathway being most influenced by IR responsive, PAK1 targets. Gene family of transcription factors was over represented and gene networks involved in DNA replication, repair and cellular signaling were identified. In brief, this study identifies novel PAK1 dependent IR responsive genes which reveal new aspects of PAK1

  4. [Nature of cancer explored from the perspective of the functional evolution of proto-oncogenes].

    PubMed

    Watari, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    The products of proto-oncogene play critical roles in the development or maintenance of multicellular societies in animals via strict regulatory systems. When these regulatory systems are disrupted, proto-oncogenes can become oncogenes, and thereby induce cell transformation and carcinogenesis. To understand the molecular basis for development of the regulatory system of proto-oncogenes during evolution, we screened for ancestral proto-oncogenes from the unicellular choanoflagellate Monosiga ovata (M. ovata) by monitoring their transforming ability in mammalian cells; consequently, we isolated a Pak gene ortholog, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase as a 'primitive oncogene'. We also cloned Pak orthologs from fungi and the multicellular sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis, and compared their regulatory features with that of M. ovata Pak (MoPak). MoPak is constitutively active and induces cell transformation in mammalian cells. In contrast, Pak orthologs from multicellular animals are strictly regulated. Analyses of Pak mutants revealed that structural alterations in the auto-inhibitory domain (AID) are responsible for the enhanced kinase activity and the oncogenic activity of MoPak. Furthermore, we show that Rho family GTPases-mediated regulatory system of Pak kinase is conserved throughout the evolution from unicellular to multicellular animals, but the MoPak is more sensitive to the Rho family GTPases-mediated activation than multicellular Pak. These results show that maturation of AID function was required for the development of the strict regulatory system of the Pak proto-oncogene, and support the potential link between the development of the regulatory system of proto-oncogenes and the evolution of multicellularity. Further analysis of oncogenic functions of proto-oncogene orthologs in the unicellular genes would provide some insights into the mechanisms of the destruction of multicellular society in cancer.

  5. Cytotaxonomy of Eurypyga helias (Gruiformes, Eurypygidae): First Karyotypic Description and Phylogenetic Proximity with Rynochetidae.

    PubMed

    Furo, Ivanete de Oliveira; Monte, Amanda Almeida; dos Santos, Michelly da Silva; Tagliarini, Marcella Mergulhão; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C

    2015-01-01

    The sunbittern (Eurypyga helias) is a South American Gruiformes, the only member of Family Eurypigidae. In most phylogenetic proposals, it is placed in a more distant position than other families of the so-called "core Gruiformes". Different studies based on molecular, morphological and biogeographical data suggest that the Eurypigidae is closely related to the kagu (Rhynochetos jubatus), the only species in Rynochetidae, another family not included in the core Gruiformes. Here, the karyotype of the sunbittern is described for the first time, by classical and molecular cytogenetics, using whole chromosome probes derived from Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis. We found a diploid number of 80, with only one pair of biarmed autosomal macrochromosomes, similar to that observed in the kagu. Chromosome painting revealed that most syntenies found in the avian putative ancestral karyotype (PAK) were conserved in the sunbittern. However, PAK1, PAK2, and PAK5 corresponded to two chromosome pairs each. Probes derived from L. albicollis confirm that fissions in PAK1 and PAK2 were centric, whereas in PAK5 the fission is interstitial. In addition, there is fusion of segments homologous to PAK2q and PAK5. From a phylogenetic point of view, comparisons of our results with two other Gruiformes belonging to family Rallidae suggest that the PAK5q fission might be a synapomorphy for Gruiformes. Fissions in PAK1 and PAK2 are found only in Eurypigidae, and might also occur in Rynochetidae, in view of the similar chromosomal morphology between the sunbittern and the kagu. This suggests a close phylogenetic relationship between Eurypigidae and Rynochetidae, whose common ancestor was separated by the Gondwana vicariancy in South America and New Caledonia, respectively.

  6. Cytotaxonomy of Eurypyga helias (Gruiformes, Eurypygidae): First Karyotypic Description and Phylogenetic Proximity with Rynochetidae.

    PubMed

    Furo, Ivanete de Oliveira; Monte, Amanda Almeida; dos Santos, Michelly da Silva; Tagliarini, Marcella Mergulhão; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C

    2015-01-01

    The sunbittern (Eurypyga helias) is a South American Gruiformes, the only member of Family Eurypigidae. In most phylogenetic proposals, it is placed in a more distant position than other families of the so-called "core Gruiformes". Different studies based on molecular, morphological and biogeographical data suggest that the Eurypigidae is closely related to the kagu (Rhynochetos jubatus), the only species in Rynochetidae, another family not included in the core Gruiformes. Here, the karyotype of the sunbittern is described for the first time, by classical and molecular cytogenetics, using whole chromosome probes derived from Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis. We found a diploid number of 80, with only one pair of biarmed autosomal macrochromosomes, similar to that observed in the kagu. Chromosome painting revealed that most syntenies found in the avian putative ancestral karyotype (PAK) were conserved in the sunbittern. However, PAK1, PAK2, and PAK5 corresponded to two chromosome pairs each. Probes derived from L. albicollis confirm that fissions in PAK1 and PAK2 were centric, whereas in PAK5 the fission is interstitial. In addition, there is fusion of segments homologous to PAK2q and PAK5. From a phylogenetic point of view, comparisons of our results with two other Gruiformes belonging to family Rallidae suggest that the PAK5q fission might be a synapomorphy for Gruiformes. Fissions in PAK1 and PAK2 are found only in Eurypigidae, and might also occur in Rynochetidae, in view of the similar chromosomal morphology between the sunbittern and the kagu. This suggests a close phylogenetic relationship between Eurypigidae and Rynochetidae, whose common ancestor was separated by the Gondwana vicariancy in South America and New Caledonia, respectively. PMID:26624624

  7. Cytotaxonomy of Eurypyga helias (Gruiformes, Eurypygidae): First Karyotypic Description and Phylogenetic Proximity with Rynochetidae

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Michelly da Silva; Tagliarini, Marcella Mergulhão; O´Brien, Patricia C. M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H. C.

    2015-01-01

    The sunbittern (Eurypyga helias) is a South American Gruiformes, the only member of Family Eurypigidae. In most phylogenetic proposals, it is placed in a more distant position than other families of the so-called “core Gruiformes”. Different studies based on molecular, morphological and biogeographical data suggest that the Eurypigidae is closely related to the kagu (Rhynochetos jubatus), the only species in Rynochetidae, another family not included in the core Gruiformes. Here, the karyotype of the sunbittern is described for the first time, by classical and molecular cytogenetics, using whole chromosome probes derived from Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis. We found a diploid number of 80, with only one pair of biarmed autosomal macrochromosomes, similar to that observed in the kagu. Chromosome painting revealed that most syntenies found in the avian putative ancestral karyotype (PAK) were conserved in the sunbittern. However, PAK1, PAK2, and PAK5 corresponded to two chromosome pairs each. Probes derived from L. albicollis confirm that fissions in PAK1 and PAK2 were centric, whereas in PAK5 the fission is interstitial. In addition, there is fusion of segments homologous to PAK2q and PAK5. From a phylogenetic point of view, comparisons of our results with two other Gruiformes belonging to family Rallidae suggest that the PAK5q fission might be a synapomorphy for Gruiformes. Fissions in PAK1 and PAK2 are found only in Eurypigidae, and might also occur in Rynochetidae, in view of the similar chromosomal morphology between the sunbittern and the kagu. This suggests a close phylogenetic relationship between Eurypigidae and Rynochetidae, whose common ancestor was separated by the Gondwana vicariancy in South America and New Caledonia, respectively. PMID:26624624

  8. p21-activated kinase 1 participates in vascular remodeling in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hinoki, Akinari; Kimura, Keita; Higuchi, Sadaharu; Eguchi, Kunie; Takaguri, Akira; Ishimaru, Kazuhiro; Frank, Gerald D; Gerthoffer, William T; Sommerville, Laura J; Autieri, Michael V; Eguchi, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy, proliferation, or migration occurs in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and restenosis after angioplasty, leading to pathophysiological vascular remodeling. Angiotensin II and platelet-derived growth factor are well-known participants of vascular remodeling and activate a myriad of downstream protein kinases, including p21-activated protein kinase (PAK1). PAK1, an effector kinase of small GTPases, phosphorylates several substrates to regulate cytoskeletal reorganization. However, the exact role of PAK1 activation in vascular remodeling remains to be elucidated. Here, we have hypothesized that PAK1 is a critical target of intervention for the prevention of vascular remodeling. Adenoviral expression of dominant-negative PAK1 inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell migration. It also inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. PAK1 was activated in neointima of the carotid artery after balloon injury in the rat. Moreover, marked inhibition of the neointima hyperplasia was observed in a dominant-negative PAK1 adenovirus-treated carotid artery after the balloon injury. Taken together, these results suggest that PAK1 is involved in both angiotensin II and platelet-derived growth factor-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell remodeling, and inactivation of PAK1 in vivo could be effective in preventing pathophysiological vascular remodeling.

  9. The Rac GTPase effector p21-activated kinase is essential for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell migration and engraftment.

    PubMed

    Dorrance, Adrienne M; De Vita, Serena; Radu, Maria; Reddy, Pavankumar N G; McGuinness, Meaghan K; Harris, Chad E; Mathieu, Ronald; Lane, Steven W; Kosoff, Rachelle; Milsom, Michael D; Chernoff, Jonathan; Williams, David A

    2013-03-28

    The p21-activated kinases (Paks) are serine/threonine kinases that are major effectors of the Rho guanosine 5'\\x{2011}triphosphatase, Rac, and Cdc42. Rac and Cdc42 are known regulators of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) function, however, a direct role for Paks in HSPCs has yet to be elucidated. Lin(-)Sca1(+)c-kit(+) (LSK) cells from wild-type mice were transduced with retrovirus expressing Pak inhibitory domain (PID), a well-characterized inhibitor of Pak activation. Defects in marrow homing and in vitro cell migration, assembly of the actin cytoskeleton, proliferation, and survival were associated with engraftment failure of PID-LSK. The PID-LSK demonstrated decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whereas constitutive activation of ERK in these cells led to rescue of hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation in vitro and partial rescue of Pak-deficient HSPC homing and engraftment in vivo. Using conditional knock-out mice, we demonstrate that among group A Paks, Pak2(-/-) HSPC show reduced homing to the bone marrow and altered cell shape similar to PID-LSK cells in vitro and are completely defective in HSPC engraftment. These data demonstrate that Pak proteins are key components of multiple engraftment-associated HSPC functions and play a direct role in activation of ERK in HSPCs, and that Pak2 is specifically essential for HSPC engraftment.

  10. Regulation of Akt/PKB activity by P21-activated kinase in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Mao, Kai; Kobayashi, Satoru; Jaffer, Zahara M; Huang, Yuan; Volden, Paul; Chernoff, Jonathan; Liang, Qiangrong

    2008-02-01

    Akt/PKB is a critical regulator of cardiac function and morphology, and its activity is governed by dual phosphorylation at active loop (Thr308) by phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and at carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic motif (Ser473) by a putative PDK2. P21-activated kinase-1 (Pak1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase implicated in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy and contractility and was shown previously to activate Akt through an undefined mechanism. Here we report Pak1 as a potential PDK2 that is essential for Akt activity in cardiomyocytes. Both Pak1 and Akt can be activated by multiple hypertrophic stimuli or growth factors in a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner. Pak1 overexpression induces Akt phosphorylation at both Ser473 and Thr308 in cardiomyocytes. Conversely, silencing or inactivating Pak1 gene diminishes Akt phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Purified Pak1 can directly phosphorylate Akt only at Ser473, suggesting that Pak1 may be a relevant PDK2 responsible for AKT Ser473 phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. In addition, Pak1 protects cardiomyocytes from cell death, which is blocked by Akt inhibition. Our results connect two important regulators of cellular physiological functions and provide a potential mechanism for Pak1 signaling in cardiomyocytes. PMID:18054038

  11. The discovery and the structural basis of an imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-based p21-activated kinase 4 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeung Kuk; Kim, Sunmin; Han, Yu Jin; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kang, Nam Sook; Lee, Hyuk; Park, SangYoun

    2016-06-01

    p21-Activated kinases (PAKs) which belong to the family of ste20 serine/threonine protein kinases regulate cytoskeletal reorganization, cell motility, cell proliferation, and oncogenic transformation which are all related to the cellular functions during cancer induction and metastasis. The fact that PAK mutations are detected in multiple tumor tissues makes PAKs a novel therapeutic drug target. In this study, an imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-based PAK4 inhibitor, KY-04045 (6-Bromo-2-(3-isopropyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), was discovered using a virtual site-directed fragment-based drug design and was validated using an inhibition assay. Although PAK4 affinity to KY-04045 seems much weaker than that of the reported PAK4 inhibitors, the location of KY-04045 is clearly defined in the structure of PAK4 co-crystallized with KY-04045. The crystal structure illustrates that the pyrazole and imidazopyridine rings of KY-04045 are sufficient for mediating PAK4 hinge loop interaction. Hence, we believe that KY-04045 can be exploited as a basic building block in designing novel imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-based PAK4 inhibitors. PMID:27117431

  12. Unraveling a novel Rac1-mediated signaling pathway that regulates cofilin dephosphorylation and secretion in thrombin-stimulated platelets.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Dharmendra; Goyal, Pankaj; Dwivedi, Suman; Siess, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    In platelets stimulated by thrombin to secrete and aggregate, cofilin is rapidly dephosphorylated leading to its activation. Cofilin by severing existing actin filaments and stimulating F-actin polymerization on newly created barbed ends dynamizes the actin cytoskeleton. We previously found that cofilin dephosphorylation is Ca(2+)-dependent and occurs upstream of degranulation in stimulated platelets. We report now in thrombin-stimulated platelets that Rac1 and class II PAKs (PAK4/5/6) were rapidly (within 5 seconds) activated, whereas PAK1/2 (class I PAKs) phosphorylation was slower. The Rac1-specific inhibitor NSC23766 blocked phosphorylation of class II PAKs, but not PAK1/2. Moreover, inhibition of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin inhibited Rac1 activation and class II PAKs phosphorylation. Prevention of Rac1 activation by calcineurin inhibition or NSC23766 also blocked cofilin dephosphorylation and platelet granule secretion indicating that a calcineurin/Rac1/class II PAKs pathway regulates cofilin dephosphorylation leading to secretion. We further found that PI3-kinases were activated downstream of Rac1, but were not involved in regulating cofilin dephosphorylation and secretion in thrombin-stimulated platelets. Our study unravels a Ca(2+)-dependent pathway of secretion in stimulated platelets as a signaling pathway linking Rac1 activation to actin dynamics: calcineurin-->Rac1-->class II PAKs-->cofilin activation. We further demonstrate that this pathway is separate and independent of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway mediating secretion.

  13. Elektromagnetische Strahlung. Informationen aus dem Weltall.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, H.

    Contents: Informationen aus dem Weltall. Neue und zukünftige Geräte. Wichtiges und Interessantes aus der Positionsastronomie. Die Helligkeit der Sterne und anderer astronomischer Objekte. Spektroskopie und Spektralanalyse. Beobachtungen außerhalb des optischen Bereiches.

  14. Transcriptional regulation of fibronectin by p21-activated kinase-1 modulates pancreatic tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Jagadeeshan, S; Krishnamoorthy, Y R; Singhal, M; Subramanian, A; Mavuluri, J; Lakshmi, A; Roshini, A; Baskar, G; Ravi, M; Joseph, L D; Sadasivan, K; Krishnan, A; Nair, A S; Venkatraman, G; Rayala, S K

    2015-01-22

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the eighth largest cause of cancer-related mortality across the world, with a median 5-year survival rate of less than 3.5%. This is partly because the molecules and the molecular mechanisms that contribute to PDAC are not well understood. Our goal is to understand the role of p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) signaling axis in the progression of PDAC. Pak1, a serine/threonine kinase, is a well-known regulator of cytoskeletal remodeling, cell motility, cell proliferation and cell survival. Recent reports suggest that Pak1 by itself can have an oncogenic role in a wide variety of cancers. In this study, we analyzed the expression of Pak1 in human pancreatic cancer tissues and found that Pak1 levels are significantly upregulated in PDAC samples as compared with adjacent normals. Further, to study the functional role of Pak1 in pancreatic cancer model systems, we developed stable overexpression and lentiviral short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown (KD) clones of Pak1 and studied the changes in transforming properties of the cells. We also observed that Pak1 KD clones failed to form tumors in nude mice. By adopting a quantitative PCR array-based approach, we identified fibronectin, a component of the extracellular matrix and a mesenchymal marker, as a transcriptional target of Pak1 signaling. The underlying molecular mechanism of Pak1-mediated transformation includes its nuclear import and recruitment to the fibronectin promoter via interaction with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-p65 complex. To our knowledge, this is the first study illustrating Pak1-NF-κB-p65-mediated fibronectin regulation as a potent tumor-promoting mechanism in KRAS intact model.

  15. Inhalt und Form--Gedanken zur Sprachlehre und Ubersetzungmethodik (Content and Form--Thoughts on Language Instruction and Methods of Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Hans J.

    1965-01-01

    This analysis of several principles of translation considers relationships between content and meaning, distinctive features and linguistic form, and language and speech. The dichotomies of individual and community speech patterns, situationally determined and independent language usage, and denotative and expressive usage are also examined. The…

  16. Soziale Welten von Schulern und Schulerinnen. Uber Populare, Padagogische und Szientifische Ethnographien (Social World of Male and Female Students -- On Popular, Pedagogical and Scientific Ethnographies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnecker, Jurgen

    2000-01-01

    Provides a survey on projects, authors, topics, and methods in recent ethnographic studies carried out in Germany and elsewhere. Describes embedding scientific student ethnography into a field of discourse. Concludes with a prognosis relating to the future perspectives of this segment of educational research. (CMK)

  17. Entwicklungen und Auswirkungen der Schulprofilierung an allgemeinbildenden Schulen in ausgewählten europäischen Ländern und Implementationsperspektiven für Deutschland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonte, Sonja

    2013-07-01

    Developments and consequences of school profiling in general-education schools in selected European countries and perspectives for implementation in Germany - The development of a school programme, e.g. by way of forming a profile in the field of music or sports, is part of everyday school life in many European state and private schools today and even statutory in some countries and states. This paper focuses on the background and the significance of this development in school politics but also on the potential and the challenges which come with the profile formation of schools on an individual as well as systemic basis. Furthermore, the author introduces and discusses examples for the profile formation of schools and classes by looking at concrete projects. After that, recommendations are given for school programme work in individual schools. The focus is especially on German-speaking countries such as Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

  18. Zum Problem der Korrektur und Bewertung des commentaire de texte als Arbeits - und Pruefungsform (On the Problem of Correcting and Grading Text Commentary in Graduation Exams in French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, Walter

    1976-01-01

    Discusses two conflicting concepts of correcting and grading high school graduation examinations in French: "mathematical" grading of complex exercises versus objective grading of reduced segments. Recommends higher valuation on goal-orientation as against extreme objectivity. Students' performance must be evaluated individually. Various concrete…

  19. Video im Anfaengerunterricht. Modell: Vorgabe und Einuebung von Dialogsituationen und Sprechintentionen (Video in Teaching Beginners. Model: Example and Practice in Dialog Situations and Topics for Oral Practice)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Hans L.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the production, at the Goethe Institute in Osaka, of video programs for teaching beginners in German. Learning goals, actualization, sample topics and variation scenes are presented; the teaching process (in ten points) is discussed, theoretically and on the basis of experience. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  20. Arthur Beer and his relations to Einstein and to the Warburg library (German Title: Arthur Beer und seine Beziehungen zu Einstein und zur Warburg-Bibliothek)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.; Beer, Peter

    We give an account of the scientific life of Arthur Beer (1900-1980). Born in Reichenberg, Bohemia, he studied in Leipzig, Vienna and Berlin. After obtaining his Ph.D., he worked with the Seewarte (maritime observatory) and with the Warburg Library, both in Hamburg. Because of his relations with Finlay Freundlich, Einstein and Fritz Saxl, he succeeded in emigrating to England in 1934, where he obtained a temporary position at Cambridge Observatory, and carried out astrophysical research under F.J.M. Stratton. After shorter stays at the observatories of Mill Hill and Kew, both in the vicinity of London, he obtained, after World War II, the position of Senior Assistant Observer in Cambridge. Besides his studies in astrophysics and the history of astronomy, he is best known as the founding editor of the series "Vistas in Astronomy".

  1. Infrared emission features: probing the interstellar PAH population and circumstellar environment of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, Christiaan

    2009-12-01

    AKs zijn alom vertegenwoordigd en bieden een uitstekend middel om de veelheid aan objecten verspreid over het heelal te bestuderen. Met name in gebieden waar zich sterren en planeten vormen, helpen ze bij het ontwarren van de grootschalige structuur. PAKs staat voor polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen en ze vormen een familie van grote kippengaasvormige moleculen opgebouwd uit koolstof en waterstof. Op aarde worden ze onderander aangetroffen in de verbrandingsproducten van fossiele brandstoffen. PAKs vormen het overgangsgebied van stofdeeltjes ter grote van een micron naar moleculair "gas". PAKs zijn uniek op twee manieren. Allereerst, PAKs fluoresceren na de absorptie van een enkel ultraviolet foton, waardoor ze te zien zijn in zeer koude gebieden, ver weg van de aanstralende bron. In de tweede plaats, gegeven de complexiteit van deze moleculen, kunnen ze een belangrijke rol hebben gespeeld in het ontstaan van leven. Met behulp van topklasse ruimte- en grond gestationeerde observatoria, zoals bijvoorbeeld Spitzer en de 10-meter klasse telescopen in Chili, is de PAK-emissie afkomstig van middelzware, zich vormende, sterren onderzocht. Door gebruik van zowel beeldvorming als spectroscopie, zijn morfologische en evolutionaire aspecten van de PAK-emissie vastgesteld. De NASA Ames PAK IR Spectroscopische Database is een verzameling van meer dan 600 berekend en ongeveer 200 experimenteel bepaalde spectra. Deze unieke database gaat eind 2009 publiek. Gebruikmakend van deze database is een systematische zoektocht gedaan naar kandidaten die verantwoordelijk kunnen worden gehouden voor de emissie in twee, tot op heden, niet goed bestudeerde regio's van het PAKs-spectra.

  2. Up-regulation of stem cell markers by P21-activated kinase 1 contributes to 5-fluorouracil resistance of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Nhi; Shulkes, Arthur; Baldwin, Graham; He, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) are tumorigenic and resistant to chemotherapy. In colorectal cancer (CRC), CSCs have been identified by the expression of specific markers, including CD44, Bmi1 and Nanog. Although p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), acting downstream of Ras, stimulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and is known to play an important role in CRC development and progression, the role of PAK1 in the expression of CSC markers has not previously been investigated. The effect of PAK1 over-expression, knockdown or inhibition on the expression or alteration (in the case of CD44) of CSC markers in human CRC cell lines was measured by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The effect of PAK1 modulation on tumorigenesis, and on resistance to treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), was measured by sphere formation in vitro and by growth of xenografted tumors in vivo. The results show that PAK1 activity correlated with the expression of CSC markers and the CD44 isoform profile, and with tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore PAK overexpression partially overcame the inhibition of CRC growth by 5-FU, and PAK inhibition was synergistic with 5-FU treatment. Our findings lay the foundation for a combination therapy in which PAK1 inhibitors targeting CSCs may be combined with conventional 5-FU-based chemotherapy for the treatment of CRC.

  3. 75 FR 76485 - Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...,182,289; and 7,387,274. 75 FR 28651-2 (May 21, 2010). The complainant named as respondents Kruger..., Inc., d/b/a/Open for Business of Chicago, Illinois (``NetPak Chicago''); NetPak Electronik Plastik ve... Limited; Winco Industries Co.; DWL Industries Co.; Ko-Am Corporation Inc. d/b/a Janitor's World; Natury,...

  4. Condensing Algebra for Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Donald R.

    Twenty Algebra-Packets (A-PAKS) were developed by the investigator for technical education students at the community college level. Each packet contained a statement of rationale, learning objectives, performance activities, performance test, and performance test answer key. The A-PAKS condensed the usual sixteen weeks of algebra into a six-week…

  5. p21-Activated Kinase 1 Plays a Critical Role in Cellular Activation by Nef

    PubMed Central

    Fackler, Oliver T.; Lu, Xiaobin; Frost, Jeffrey A.; Geyer, Matthias; Jiang, Bing; Luo, Wen; Abo, Arie; Alberts, Arthur S.; Peterlin, B. Matija

    2000-01-01

    The activation of Nef-associated kinase (NAK) by Nef from human and simian immunodeficiency viruses is critical for efficient viral replication and pathogenesis. This induction occurs via the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav and the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. In this study, we identified NAK as p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). PAK1 bound to Nef in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the induction of cytoskeletal rearrangements such as the formation of trichopodia, the activation of Jun N-terminal kinase, and the increase of viral production were blocked by an inhibitory peptide that targets the kinase activity of PAK1 (PAK1 83-149). These results identify NAK as PAK1 and emphasize the central role its kinase activity plays in cytoskeletal rearrangements and cellular signaling by Nef. PMID:10713183

  6. MicroRNA-328 directly targets p21-activated protein kinase 6 inhibiting prostate cancer proliferation and enhancing docetaxel sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    LIU, CHUNHUI; ZHANG, LEI; HUANG, YEQING; LU, KAI; TAO, TAO; CHEN, SHUQIU; ZHANG, XIAOWEN; GUAN, HAN; CHEN, MING; XU, BIN

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (Pca) has one of the highest mortality rates for malignant cancers worldwide. Previous research has demonstrated that numerous genes are aberrantly expressed during Pca onset and development. p21-activated protein kinase 6 (PAK6) is known to be overexpressed in primary and metastatic Pca, however the mechanism of this aberrant expression remains unknown. In the present study, immunohistochemistry demonstrated that PAK6 is overexpressed in castration-resistant Pca (CRPC). Furthermore, PAK6 overexpression was regulated by microRNA (miR)-328. Luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis indicated that PAK6 was directly targeted by miR-328. Forced expression of miR-328 enhanced docetaxel sensitivity, inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis without affecting the cell cycle. This indicates that miR-328 performs important functions in CRPC progression via PAK6 regulation. This mechanism may be used to enhance the effect of docetaxel. PMID:26459798

  7. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans to glycosphingolipid (Asialo-GM1) receptors is achieved by a conserved receptor-binding domain present on their adhesins.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, L; Lee, K K; Hodges, R S; Paranchych, W; Irvin, R T

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacterium, and Candida albicans, a dimorphic yeast, are evolutionarily distant microorganisms which can utilize filamentous structures termed pili and fimbriae, respectively, to mediate adherence to glycosphingolipids (asialoganglioside-GM1) receptors. The mechanism of adherence to glycosphingolipid receptors was investigated in these studies. By using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against purified pili of P. aeruginosa PAK (PK99H) and monospecific anti-peptide antibodies against the PAK pilin peptides [anti-PAK(128-144) and anti-PAK(134-140)], we demonstrated that these antibodies agglutinated C. albicans whole cells and cross-reacted with C. albicans fimbriae in immunoblots. A control MAb, PKL1, and anti-PAK(75-84) peptide antibodies failed to agglutinate C. albicans whole cells or cross-react with the fimbrial proteins. Conversely, the anti-C. albicans fimbrial MAb Fm16, but not Fm34, agglutinated P. aeruginosa PAK whole cells and Western blots (immunoblots). The interactions between PK99H and Fm16 and their respective homologous antigens were competitively inhibited by heterologous antigens; this demonstrated that the interactions between the antibodies and the heterologous antigens, i.e., PK99H with C. albicans fimbriae and Fm16 with P. aeruginosa pili, were highly specific and suggested that both adhesins share a common antigenic determinant. The immunological cross-reactivity between Fm16 and P. aeruginosa PAK pilin is localized onto the PAK(134-140) region as shown by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The PAK(134-140) region of PAK pilin contains the epitope recognized by PK99H and also constitutes part of the receptor-binding domain of the pilus adhesin. Thus, the results from these studies suggest that common cell surface receptors are recognized by the P. aeruginosa and C. albicans adhesins because of a conserved receptor-binding domain on the adhesins. Images PMID:7525482

  8. [The treatment needs of migrant children according to child and adolescent psychiatrists from medical clinics and in private practice].

    PubMed

    Siefen, Georg; Kirkcaldy, Bruce; Adam, Hubertus; Schepker, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Fragestellung: Wie reagiert das kinder- und jugendpsychiatrische Versorgungssystem in Deutschland auf die steigende Zahl von Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund? Methodik: Mit einem weiterentwickelten Fragebogen für psychiatrische Kliniken wurden leitende Ärzte kinder- und jugendpsychiatrischer Kliniken über die Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft der Leitenden Klinikärzte für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, Psychosomatik und Psychotherapie (BAG) nach Bedingungen und Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten der Versorgung von Migrantenkindern und -jugendlichen befragt. Außerdem erhielt eine «random representative» Stichprobe niedergelassener Kinder- und Jugendpsychiater über den Berufsverband für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, Psychosomatik und Psychotherapie in Deutschland e. V. (BKJPP) einen adaptierten Bogen. Ergebnisse: Mit 100 Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatern in eigener Praxis wurden nur etwa 1/8 der Niedergelassenen aber mit 55 Leitenden Ärzten 1/3 und damit eine repräsentative Stichprobe der Chefärzte kinder- und jugendpsychiatrischer Kliniken und Tageskliniken befragt. Jede dritte Klinik hat migrantenspezifische Angebote. In Klinik und Praxis werden zu selten kompetente Dolmetscher eingesetzt. Behandlungsprobleme bei Migrantenkindern und -jugendlichen ergeben sich aus dem Krankheitsverständnis der Eltern, des Patienten und sprachlichen Verständigungsproblemen. Kulturelle Vielfalt wird als bereichernd wahrgenommen. Migrationshintergrund und Gender der Kinder- und Jugendpsychiater beeinflussen die Migrantenbehandlung. Schlussfolgerungen: Durch konkrete Schritte wie die Finanzierung von Dolmetscherkosten müssen der Prozess der «kulturellen Öffnung» unterstützt und die Versorgung von Migrantenkindern und -jugendlichen weiter verbessert werden.

  9. Friedensdid Aktische Bausteine für Ausbildung, Unterricht und Sozialarbeit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, Johannes

    1983-09-01

    In the context of the peace movement in the Federal Republic of Germany, certain central basic elements of peace activity at higher education institutions, school and/or in social welfare work are considered. Principles and objectives of effective teaching and practice in discerning peace work are focussed upon against a background of disturbing and menacing influences both within and between nations, increasingly threatening existence itself. Endeavours to achieve reform capable of changing society should be marked by the development and realisation of a repugnance of violence, civil disobedience and social sensitivity, and demonstrated in action and by specific measures by the general public. This supersedes by far the traditional set-up of peace education (so called) in educational institutions and areas of social work up to the present time.

  10. Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen - The German-speaking friends of the Scottish soil characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Anett

    2014-05-01

    Cartoon figures of soil profiles with faces, legs, arms and funny names: the Scottish soil characters Rusty (Cambisol), Heather (Podzol), Pete (Histosol) and five others were developed at the James Hutton Institute in Aberdeen for outreach activities. They represent eight soil types that are common in Scotland. Recently they have become movie stars in an animated film, where they speak with a Scottish accent. The Scottish soil characters are a true soil science communication success story and it would be great if they had friends in many places to tell some stories from the underground in the respective native languages. This contribution will introduce the draft for 13 German-speaking soil characters that represent the most common soil types in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Each name is a play on words with respect to German soil classification terms and serves as a mnemonic for typical characteristics of these soils. The 'hair' shows detailed vegetation and the context with common land use. For non-soil scientists the soil characters can be used as story-tellers, e.g. about their life (soil evolution), home (spatial distribution), job (function), fears (threats) and joys (best-practice land use, restoration). Because the International Year of Soil (2015) is an excellent opportunity for new outreach activities, the aim is to publish the German-speaking soil characters as a collaboration of the Austrian, German and Swiss Soil Science Societies. The soil characters could be used in print or online formats, and even - as can be seen in Aberdeen - as human-sized walking soil profiles.

  11. Erweiterte Modelle zur Analyse der Farb- und Helligkeitsprofile von Edge-on-Galaxien.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, S.

    In this work the influence of radial gradients in galactic disks on the vertical luminosity and colour profiles of edge-on galaxies is investigated. The model of a galactic disk used for this purpose consists of a stellar and a dust component. The radially exponential, self-gravitating stellar component consists of isothermal subpopulations with different ages according to the star formation history. The velocity dispersion of the stars increases with age due to a disk heating process. The star formation history and the history of metallicity enrichment are chosen from consistent models for the chemical evolution of galactic disks. With the method of photometric evolutionary synthesis the time development of the luminosities of the stars is computed. Absorption and reddening of the star light caused by the dust are modelled by a radially and vertically exponential dust distribution. The effect of an increasing scale height of the stars with galactocentric radius on the luminosity and colour profiles of edge-on galaxies is investigated to explain new observations of an increasing scale height with galactocentric radius. It is found, that for an increase of the scale height (a factor 3) of the stars is necessary. An increase of the scale height of the stars affects the luminosity profiles but only very little the colour profiles. The effect of a variation of the star formation history and the history of metallicity enrichment on the vertical luminosity and colour profiles is investigated. Radial colour gradients result which are in a qualitative way equivalent to those obtained in observations (eg. NGC 5907).

  12. Konkordanz zu Schillers aesthetischen und philosophischen Schriften (Concordance of Schiller's Aesthetic and Philosophical Writings).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Gerlinde Ulm

    This document provides a computer-based concordance of the vocabulary used in Friedrich von Schiller's "Aesthetic and Philosophical Writings" as they appear in Volumes 20 and 21 of Schiller's "Werke," 1967 edition, edited by Benno von Wiese. The first section includes the entire text, each sentence numbered for research purposes. The second…

  13. Exzellenz und Equity: Neue Bildungstheoretische Perspektiven FÜR ein Altes SPANNUNGSVERHÄLTNIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Margrit; Viehhauser, Martin

    2009-07-01

    EXCELLENCE AND EQUITY: APPLYING NEW PERSPECTIVES IN THE THEORY OF EDUCATION TO A TRADITIONALLY TENSE RELATIONSHIP - The majority of international assessments of school performance, as well as the international standards-based education reform focus on optimising the skills of children who perform poorly in school. This article, however, places the focus on the top␣performers ("excellence") and links this with the theory of equal opportunities ("equity"). The article follows two main lines of argument. The argument relating to the theory of education deems the achievement of equal opportunities and equity likely only if and when all children start from an equal position and are then allowed to develop unequally and appropriately, according to their individual talents. The second argument highlights the tense relationship between excellence and equity with regard to school children's varying home backgrounds, and asks how intellectual potential can best be discovered and encouraged. At the same time, the article demonstrates that the concept of accelerated learning, in differentiating between individuals within homogenous groups of learners, opens up a number of interesting perspectives and can ultimately redress the tense relationship between excellence and equity.

  14. Woman astronomers in Berlin and Potsdam. (German Title: Astronominnen in Berlin und Potsdam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Annette

    This article examines the role of women astronomers in the region of Berlin-Potsdam. Were there any women astronomers? When and where were they employed? What were the training conditions for these women astronomers? And where can one find traces of their work? The article discusses the situation for women astronomers from the 18th century. It also offers an overview about all women who received their doctorates in astronomy, geophysics, and meteorology at the Berlin University (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat zu Berlin) between 1899 and 1945. Finally, the article deals with the emergence of two patterns of women scientists. Both patterns are examples of different strategies used by women scientists to obtain positions in classical fields of male dominance and to illustrate the range of the reception of women scientists in the first half of the 20th century.

  15. Azole. 47. Uber 3-thiomorpholino- und 3-(4-methylpiperazino)-5-nitroindazole.

    PubMed

    Gzella, A; Wrzeciono, U

    2001-10-01

    The structures of 5-nitro-3-thiomorpholino-1H-indazole, C(11)H(12)N(4)O(2)S, (IIa), and 3-(4-methylpiperazino)-5-nitro-1H-indazole-methanol-water (2/1/1), 2C(12)H(15)N(5)O(2).CH(3)OH.H(2)O, (IIIa), are described. In the crystal lattice of (IIa), the molecules are linked into dimers by N-H...N hydrogen bonds. The asymmetric unit of (IIIa) contains two independent molecules of the indazole moiety, one molecule of methanol and one of water. The three components of (IIIa) are linked by hydrogen bonds to form double chains running along the x axis. pi-Stacking involving the indazole moieties occurs in both compounds. PMID:11600780

  16. "Fortschritt Und Verantwortung!" Education as a Rallying Cry in Luxembourg's General Elections of 1974

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardin, Matias

    2016-01-01

    Education became a rallying cry in Luxembourg's general elections of 1974. For the first time in the country's post-war history, the Socialists and Democrats entered the government, with new plans for education. The unbroken rule of almost 30 years by the Christian Democrats was over. New "global" educational concepts were employed to…

  17. SURFACTANT-ENHANCED EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION VERSUCHSEININCHTUNG ZUR GRUNDWASSER-UND ALTLASTENSANIERUNG (VEGAS) FACILITY, STUTTGART, GERMANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) summarized the results of an evaluation of a surfactant-enhanced extraction technology. This evaluation was conducted under a bilateral agreement between the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund ...

  18. Verbesserte Elemente der RR-Lyrae-Sterne SX Trianguli und WW Bootis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maintz, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    CCD observations of SX Tri and WW Boo, variable stars of type RRab, were taken at my private observatory over several years. Because of this long time span a revision of their elements was placed here. I derived the new elements of these stars as: Star Max period +- JD [d] [d] SX Tri 2457296.4745 0.7429652 0.0000003 WW Boo 2453897.4157 0.479263 0.000001

  19. 78 FR 1726 - Airworthiness Directives; Burkhart GROB Luft- und Raumfahrt GmbH Sailplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... in the Federal Register on October 22, 2012 (77 FR 64437). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe... this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (77 FR 64437, October 22, 2012) or on the determination of... determined that these minor changes: Are consistent with the intent that was proposed in the NPRM (77...

  20. 77 FR 64437 - Airworthiness Directives; Burkhart GROB Luft-und Raumfahrt GmbH Sailplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... available in the AD docket shortly after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Rutherford, Aerospace...: (816) 329-4165; fax: (816) 329-4090; email: jim.rutherford@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...