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Sample records for palaeoproterozoic ice houses

  1. The use of ice to enrich the environment of pigs housed indoors.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Jose M; Rizzo, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Pigs used in research are often housed in barren environments. The effects of ice as a simple enrichment tool for newly weaned pigs were investigated. Four replicates of 120 pigs were separated into 3 groups. One group was given free access to blocks of ice (ice group), another group had access to Classic Kong toys (Kong group), and a 3rd group did not receive any enrichment (control group). The behavior of each group was observed every 5 min from 08:00 hr to 12:00 hr during 4 consecutive days. Pigs were motivated to explore the ice blocks (4.85%±1.34) over the Classic Kong toys (2.03%±0.59). No differences in other behaviors were found between treatments. Ice is an effective and easy-to-replace enrichment device. Blocks of ice can be used as enrichment devices for pigs housed in research facilities.

  2. Multiple Palaeoproterozoic carbon burial episodes and excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. P.; Prave, A. R.; Condon, D. J.; Lepland, A.; Fallick, A. E.; Romashkin, A. E.; Medvedev, P. V.; Rychanchik, D. V.

    2015-08-01

    Organic-rich rocks (averaging 2-5% total organic carbon) and positive carbonate-carbon isotope excursions (δ13C > + 5 ‰ and locally much higher, i.e. the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event) are hallmark features of Palaeoproterozoic successions and are assumed to archive a global event of unique environmental conditions following the c. 2.3 Ga Great Oxidation Event. Here we combine new and published geochronology that shows that the main Palaeoproterozoic carbon burial episodes (CBEs) preserved in Russia, Gabon and Australia were temporally discrete depositional events between c. 2.10 and 1.85 Ga. In northwest Russia we can also show that timing of the termination of the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event may have differed by up to 50 Ma between localities, and that Ni mineralisation occurred at c. 1920 Ma. Further, CBEs have traits in common with Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs); both are exceptionally organic-rich relative to encasing strata, associated with contemporaneous igneous activity and marked by organic carbon isotope profiles that exhibit a stepped decrease followed by a stabilisation period and recovery. Although CBE strata are thicker and of greater duration than OAEs (100 s of metres versus metres, ∼106 years versus ∼105 years), their shared characteristics hint at a commonality of cause(s) and feedbacks. This suggests that CBEs represent processes that can be either basin-specific or global in nature and a combination of circumstances that are not unique to the Palaeoproterozoic. Our findings urge circumspection and re-consideration of models that assume CBEs are a Deep Time singularity.

  3. Applying Bim to Built Heritage with Complex Shapes: the Ice House of Filarete's Ospedale Maggiore in Milan, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreni, D.; Karimi, G.; Barazzetti, L.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the development of a BIM model for a stratified historic structure characterized by a complex geometry: Filarete's Ospedale Maggiore ice house, one of the few remaining historic ice houses in Milan (Fig. 1). Filarete, a well-known Renaissance architect and theorist, planned the hospital in the 15th century, but the ice house was built two centuries later with a double-storey irregular octagonal brick structure, half under and half above ground, that enclosed another circular structure called the ice room. The purpose of the double-walled structure was to store ice in the middle and store and preserve perishable food and medicine at the outer side of the ice room. During World War II, major portions of the hospital and the above-ground section of the ice house was bombed and heavily damaged. Later, in 1962, the hospital was restored and rehabilitated into a university, with the plan to conceal the ice house's remaining structure in the courtyard, which ultimately was excavated and incorporated into a new library for the university. A team of engineers, architects, and students from Politecnico di Milano and Carleton University conducted two heritage recording surveys in 2015 and 2016 to fully document the existing condition of the ice house, resulting in an inclusive laser scanner and photogrammetric point cloud dataset. The point cloud data was consolidated and imported into two leading parametric modelling software, Autodesk Revitand Graphisoft ArchiCAD©, with the goal to develop two BIMs in parallel in order to study and compare the software BIM workflow, parametric capabilities, attributes to capture the complex geometry with high accuracy, and the duration for parametric modelling. The comparison study of the two software revealed their workflow limitations, leading to integration of the BIM generative process with other pure modelling software such as Rhinoceros©. The integrative BIM process led to the production of a comprehensive BIM

  4. Ice-house-like orbital forcing of a mid-Devonian Ecosystem (Orcadian Basin, Scotland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteside, J. H.; Grogan, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    The middle Devonian witnessed the terrestrialization of plants and the radiation of fishes, two events upon which the climatic conditions have profound implications. However, recent oxygen isotopic data have challenged traditional assumptions of ice-free greenhouse conditions through the early and middle Devonian. Glaciation during icehouse times imparts distinctive frequency spectra on low-latitude climate records due to the high-latitude glacial control on global climates. Here we analyze gamma ray data from >350m of the Caithness Flagstone Group of the Orcadian Basin in North Scotland that cover ˜1.8 million years of the Middle Devonian (Givetian/Eifelian boundary) at 15 - 30° N. The repetitive facies assemblages have been interpreted to represent transitions between perennial lacustrine environments, and ephemeral playa or sub-aerial floodplain conditions. Fourier techniques, wavelet analysis, and a novel “pure sine model” technique reveal the full spectrum of sub-precessional to long eccentricity Milankovitch cycles. The presence of spectral power in the obliquity band (~40 kyr), unexpected at low latitudes during hothouse climate regimes, indicates a high-latitude influence on low-latitude climate, potentially amplified by ice sheets, or an as of yet unexplained insolation forcing mechanism. These data strongly support the idea of an ice-house climate during the middle Devonian.

  5. A Comparison of "Ice-House" (Modern) and "Hot-House" (Maastrichtian) Drainage Systems: the Implications of Large-Scale Changes in the Surface Hydrological Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwick, P. J.; Crossley, R.; Valdes, P. J.

    2002-12-01

    A GIS analysis of modern and Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) drainage systems has been made in order to investigate the potential differences between the surface hydrology of "ice-house" and "hot-house" worlds and how this might be reflected in the geological record. Because of the importance of CO2 concentrations for generating "hot-house" climates this study also has implications for potential future changes in the climate system. For the modern system we have utilized global maps of observed river systems, the Hydro1K digital dataset, observations of freshwater and sediment fluxes from recording stations, and modern day climate models and observations. For the Maastrichtian we have compiled a detailed global paleogeographic map and geological database (based on earlier work by the Paleogeographic Atlas Project, University of Chicago) that has been used to generate a paleo-DEM using the suite of hydrological tools in ArcGIS, complete with reconstructed river systems and drainage basins. This forms the primary boundary condition for a coupled ocean-atmosphere experiment using the HadCM3 model, with atmospheric CO2 set at 4 x pre-industrial levels. The results indicate a Maastrichtian world dominated by high sea surface temperatures (as high as 30-35 C in the tropics), and a consequently greatly enhanced hydrological cycle when compared with the Present. Globally, modeled Maastrichtian precipitation and evaporation are 1.5x that for the Present, with a 2.5x increase in total runoff. These changes are not evenly distributed, either spatially or seasonally, and therefore a detailed consideration of the paleogeography and paleo-drainage is essential, as these changes have a major influence on the distribution of vegetation and freshwater and sediment fluxes. For example, the Maastrichtian Tethyan monsoon, though less intense than noted for other modeled Mesozoic intervals, nonetheless dominates the seasonal distribution of precipitation and runoff over Saharan and

  6. Unlocking the ice house: Oligocene-Miocene oxygen isotopes, eustasy, and margin erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.G. Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY ); Wright, J.D.; Fairbanks, R.G. )

    1991-04-10

    Benthic foraminiferal {delta}{sup 18}O records place limits on the history of glaciation, suggesting the presence of ice sheets at least intermittently since the earliest Oligocene. The best indicator of ice growth is a coeval increase in global benthic and western equatorial planktonic {delta}{sup 18}O records. Although planktonic isotope records from the western equatorial regions are limited, subtropical planktonic foraminifera may also record such ice volume changes. It is difficult to apply these established principles to the Cenozoic {delta}{sup 18}O record because of the lack of adequate data and problems in stratigraphic correlations that obscure isotope events. The authors improved Oligocene to Miocene correlations of {delta}{sup 18}O records and erected eight oxygen isotope zones (Oi1-Oi2, Mi1-Mi6). Benthic foraminiferal {delta}{sup 18}O increases which can be linked with {delta}{sup 18}O increases in subtropical planktonic foraminifera and with intervals of glacial sedimentation on or near Antarctica. These new correlations of middle Miocene benthic and western equatorial planktonic {delta}{sup 18}O records show remarkable agreement in timing and amplitude. They interpret benthic-planktonic covariance to reflect substantial ice volume increases near the bases of Zones Mi2 (circa 16.1 Ma), Mi3 (circa 13.6 Ma), and possibly Mi5 (circa 11.3 Ma). Possible glacioeustatic lowerings are associated with the {delta}{sup 18}O increases which culminated with the bases of Zone Mi4 (circa 12.6 Ma) and Mi6 (circa 9.6 Ma), although low-latitude planktonic {delta}{sup 18}O records are required to test this. These inferred glacioeustatic lowerings can be linked to seismic and rock disconformities.

  7. The Palaeoproterozoic crustal evolution: evidences from granulite-gneiss belts, collisional and accretionary orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mints, M. V.; Konilov, A. N.

    2003-04-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic juvenile assemblages were emplaced within two types of mobile belts: (1) high-grade or "granulite-gneiss" belts; (2) low- and medium-grade volcano-sedimentary and volcano-plutonic belts. Type (1) belts resulted from plume-induced heating, magmatism, emergence of riftogenic basins and volcano-tectonic depressions, their filling with rift-type sediments and juvenile but strongly contaminated lavas and ash-flow deposits, high-grade recrystallization of the lower- and mid-crustal assemblages including the filling of the basins and depressions that followed in intraplate and back-arc settings, and final thrusting and exhumation caused by collision-related tectonism. Type (2) belts represent sutures containing MORB- and arc-related assemblages, together with initial rift-related assemblages formed during evolution of the short-lived, mainly Red Sea-type oceans (intracontinental collisional orogens) and systems of oceanic, island-arc and back-arc terranes amalgamated along continent margins (peripheral accretionary orogens). Palaeoproterozoic history can be subdivided into five periods: (1) 2.51-2.44 Ga superplume activity and displacement of Fennoscandia; (2) 2.44-2.0 (2.11) Ga quiescent within-plate development complicated by local plume- and plate tectonics-related processes; (3) a 2.0-1.95 Ga superplume event; (4) 1.95-1.75 (1.71) Ga combined plume- and plate tectonics-related evolution, resulting in the partial disruption of the continental crust, and formation of accretionary orogens along some margins of the supercontinent and rebirth of the supercontinent entity, and (5) < 1,75 Ga post- and anorogenic magmatism and metamorphism. Magmatic and thermal activity during the early Palaeoproterozoic was almost exclusively concentrated within Laurentia (comprising North American and Fennoscandian cratons). In contrast, late Palaeoproterozoic assemblages are distributed within all continents. The simultaneous appearance of within-plate plume

  8. Geochronology of the Palaeoproterozoic Kautokeino Greenstone Belt, Finnmark, Norway, in its Fennoscandian context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingen, Bernard; Solli, Arne; Viola, Giulio; Sverre Sandstad, Jan; Torgersen, Espen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Skår, Øyvind; Nasuti, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    The northeastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield consists of Archaean cratonic blocks alternating with Palaeoproterozoic greenstone belts ranging in age from c. 2500 to 1950 Ma. Traditionally, the greenstones are interpeted as evidence for rifting of the Archaean continent(s) although it remains unclear whether modern-style oceanic lithosphere developed, followed by a Wilson-cycle-type closure during the Svecokarelian orogeny. Existing geological, isotopic and geochronological data show that the exposed basins hosting the greenstones have distinct lithostratigraphies and geological evolutions and are pericontinental rather than oceanic. A diversity of Palaeoproterozoic mafic mantle derived magmatic rocks show a secular increase of Nd value with time, from EpsilonNd =-2 at 2500 Ma (Shalskiy dikes, Onega, Russia) to EpsilonNd =+4.4 at 2090 Ma (Jouttiaapa basalts, Peräpohja, Finland), suggesting that the regional asthenospheric mantle was less depleted than the model MORB-producing depleted mantle before 2090 Ma. In this work, we report new zircon U-Pb geochronological data in 19 samples from Finnmarkvidda, Norway, to constrain the evolution of the Palaeoproterozoic high-strain Kautokeino Greenstone Belt and its relations with the neighbouring felsic Jergul and Ráiseatnu gneiss complexes. The Jergul complex is an Archaean, low heat flow, TTG cratonic bloc of Karelian affinity formed between 2975 ±10 and 2776 ±6 Ma. The Masi formation, at the base of the Kautokeino Greenstone Belt, is a typical Jatulian quartzite unconformably overlying the Archean basement. An albite-magnetite-rich mafic sill, similar to the Haaskalehto intrusion in Finland, provides a minimum age of 2220 ±7 Ma for the deposition of the quartzite. The Likčá and Čáskejas formations represent the main basaltic volcanism. Direct evidence of an oceanic setting or oceanic suture is lacking. A probably synvolcanic gabbro sill gives an age of 2137 ±5 Ma. Published Sm-Nd whole-rock data on

  9. Iron isotopes constrain biogeochemical redox cycling of iron and manganese in a Palaeoproterozoic stratified basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsikos, Harilaos; Matthews, Alan; Erel, Yigal; Moore, John M.

    2010-09-01

    The Hotazel Formation in the uppermost stratigraphic portion of the Neoarchaean-Palaeoproterozoic Transvaal Supergroup of southern Africa is an unusual sedimentary sequence of banded iron-formation (BIF) intercalated with three manganese-rich layers. As such, it is a succession that holds great potential to offer a unique view of one of the most dramatic transitions in early Earth history — the switch to a full oxidative cycle in shallow oceans at ca. 2.3 Ga. We present iron isotope results from BIF and Mn-rich samples collected across the entire Hotazel sequence, with a view to constraining processes of biogeochemical redox cycling for both metals close to the transition from a reducing to an oxidizing ocean-atmosphere system. The recorded de-coupling of Fe- and Mn reduction during anaerobic organic carbon cycling in the Hotazel strata, suggests that manganese became an important electron acceptor in stratified marine environments of the Palaeoproterozoic during periods of increased primary manganese precipitation relative to iron. Very low δ 57Fe values registered across the entire Hotazel sequence and especially in manganese-rich samples (-2.4 to -3.5‰) signify deposition of iron and manganese in a terminal, stratified aqueous reservoir that was depleted in the heavy iron isotopes. These isotopic signatures, in conjunction with the unusual endowment of the Hotazel sequence in manganese, are interpreted to have evolved by Rayleigh distillation processes during protracted deposition of Mn-poor BIFs as preserved in the lower stratigraphic portion of the Transvaal Supergroup (Kuruman and Griquatown BIFs). The unique end-member geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the Hotazel rocks may therefore constitute a potential link between the widespread deposition of BIF during the Neoarchaean and Palaeoproterozoic, and the postulated rise in atmospheric oxygen levels around 2.3 Ga ago.

  10. Palaeomagnetism of the early Palaeoproterozoic, volcanic Hekpoort Formation (Transvaal Supergroup) of the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbert, F.; Sonnette, L.; de Kock, M. O.; Robion, P.; Horng, C. S.; Cousture, A.; Wabo, H.

    2017-05-01

    The Kaapvaal craton (South Africa) was the host of several major magmatic events during the Palaeoproterozoic, including the volcanic Hekpoort and Ongeluk Formations. Their possible comagmatic origin is the subject of a long debate. We performed a palaeomagnetic study of the Hekpoort Formation to be compared with the available palaeopole of the Ongeluk Formation, but also to contribute to the apparent polar wander path of the Kaapvaal craton. Characterization of magnetic mineralogy by three-axis thermal demagnetization of isothermal remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility versus temperature points out magnetite as the main remanence carrier in most samples.

  11. Record of modern-style plate tectonics in the Palaeoproterozoic Trans-Hudson orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, O. M.; St-Onge, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    The Trans-Hudson orogen of North America is a circa 1,800 million year old, middle Palaeoproterozoic continental collisional belt. The orogen may represent an ancient analogue to the Himalayan orogen, which began forming 50 million years ago and remains active today. Both mountain belts exhibit similar length scales of deformation and timescales of magmatism and metamorphism. A notable divergence in this correlation has been the absence of high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic rocks in the Trans-Hudson compared with the Himalaya. It has been debated whether this absence reflects a secular tectonic change, with the requisite cool thermal gradients precluded by warmer ambient mantle temperatures during the Palaeoproterozoic, or a lack of preservation. Here we identify eclogite rocks within the Trans-Hudson orogen. These rocks, which typically form at high pressures and cool temperatures during subduction, fill the gap in the comparative geologic record between the Trans-Hudson and Himalayan orogens. Through the application of phase equilibria modelling and in situ U-Pb monazite dating we show that the pressure-temperature conditions and relative timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism are comparable in both orogenies. The results imply that modern-day plate tectonic processes featuring deep continental subduction occurred at least 1,830 million years ago. This study highlights that the global metamorphic rock record (particularly in older terrains) is skewed by overprinting and erosion.

  12. Palaeoproterozoic Indian shield in the global continental assembly: Evidence from the palaeomagnetism of mafic dyke swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, T.; Krishnendu, N. R.; Balasubramonian, G.

    2013-11-01

    Palaeomagnetic study of Palaeoproterozoic mafic dykes in the basement along the margins of the Cuddapah basin, the largest Precambrian sedimentary basin in south India, is presented in detail for a general discussion of Palaeoproterozoic igneous activity in India. The results are compared with all earlier published data on mafic dykes in India and are integrated with recently-published high-precision U-Pb baddeleyite ages to provide a comprehensive account of Palaeoproterozoic igneous activity in India. The analysis consolidates palaeomagnetic poles for six age divisions between 2.45 and 1.85 Ga with robust statistical criteria. Our best estimates of overall mean poles from 241 dykes are situated at (1) λ = 17.7°N; Φ = 106.0°E (A95 = 9.0°; 7N = 24) at c. 2.45 Ga, (2) λ = 7.1°N; Φ = 57.2°E (A95 = 4.5°; N = 69) at c. 2.37 Ga, (3) λ = 41.6°S; Φ = 5.5°E (A95 = 5.1°; N = 34) at c. 2.22 Ga, (4) λ = 4.7°N; Φ = 343.0°E (A95 = 4.4°; N = 31) at 2.18 Ga, (5) λ = 49.2°N; Φ = 332.9°E (A95 = 4.8°; N = 24) at 1.99-1.89 Ga and (6) λ = 73.7°N; Φ = 282.6°E (A95 = 2.9°; N = 39) at 1.86 Ga. The data permit us to construct an apparent polar wander path for the Indian shield for an ~ 600 Ma interval of the Palaeoproterozoic eon (2.45-1.85 Ga). Testing and evaluation of continental reconstructions for this interval, which are mostly based on geological correlations, reveal many inconsistencies. Between 2.45 and 2.37 Ga, the Indian shield was situated at higher latitudes similar to the Yilgarn craton of Australia. It was subsequently located near the equator at 2.22, 2.18, 1.99 and 1.86 Ga. Thus, an India-Australia connection is supported during these times, but a proposed Australia-Kaapvaal link in "Zimvaalbara" and a Dharwar (India)-Slave connection in "Sclavia" or a Superior-Zimbabwe-India connection in "Superia" are inconsistent with Indian data. In addition, the close palaeomagnetic comparison between the Palaeoproterozoic dykes of Dharwar

  13. Age constraints from northwest Russia on the global accumulation of carbon during the Palaeoproterozoic Shunga event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. P.; Condon, D. J.; Prave, A. R.; Lepland, A.; Melezhik, V. A.

    2012-04-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Shunga event records significant organic-carbon accumulation in sediments correlated between the type-locality in northwest Russia's Onega Basin, the Francevillian series of Gabon, and Indian Palaeoproterozoic sections. The estimated burial of >25 x 10E +10 tonnes of C in the Shunga event is significant and hypotheses have suggested this accumulation as one causal mechanism to the large positive Lomagundi-Jatuli positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of marine carbonates. Conversely, is has been suggested that the Shunga event post-dates the termination (at c. 2060 Ma) of the Lomagundi-Jatuli CIE and the two are not overlapping in time. Discrimination between these competing theories requires precise and accurate chronologies for the stratigraphic successions hosting the proxy records. We present new age constraints from a combination of primary volcanic rocks and sedimentary units recording the Shunga event, from the well preserved Palaeoproterozoic sections in the Pechenga Greenstone Belt (Kola craton) and Onega Paleo Basin (Karelia craton) northwest Russia, to further elucidate the unresolved question of timing between the Shunga event and the Lomagundi-Jatuli CIE. Carbon accumulations of the Shunga event are recorded in the Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation of the Pechenga Greenstone Belt. Felsic lava flows and pyroclastic rocks, and mafic pyroclastic rocks, in the Pilgujärvi Volcanic Formation overlying the Pilgujärvi sediments yield zircons with concordant U-Pb ages between c. 1970 and 1903 Ma. In the Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation detrital zircons yield a minimum age of c. 1922 Ma, equivalent to a minimum c. 1915 Ma age of detrital zircons in the underlying Kolosjoki Sedimentary Formation. Thrust over the main units of the Pechenga Greenstone Belt is a tectonic melange known as the South Pechenga Zone where zircons from an intermediate volcanic rock yield the first age from this zone at c. 1930 Ma. Samples from the Onega Basin are

  14. The Rwenzori Mountains, a Palaeoproterozoic crustal shear belt crossing the Albertine rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, D.; Link, K.; Sachau, T.; Passchier, C. W.; Aanyu, K.; Spikings, A.; Harbinson, R.

    2016-09-01

    This contribution discusses the development of the Palaeoproterozoic Buganda-Toro belt in the Rwenzori Mountains and its influence on the western part of the East African Rift System in Uganda. The Buganda-Toro belt is composed of several thick-skinned nappes consisting of Archaean Gneisses and Palaeoproterozoic cover units that are thrusted northwards. The high Rwenzori Mountains are located in the frontal unit of this belt with retrograde greenschist facies gneisses towards the north, which are unconformably overlain by metasediments and amphibolites. Towards the south, the metasediments are overthrust by the next migmatitic gneiss unit that belongs to a crustal-scale nappe. The southwards dipping metasedimentary and volcanic sequence in the high Rwenzori Mountains shows an inverse metamorphic grade with greenschist facies conditions in the north and amphibolite facies conditions in the south. Early D1 deformation structures are overgrown by cordierite, which in turn grows into D2 deformation, representing the major northwards directed thrusting event. We argue that the inverse metamorphic gradient develops because higher grade rocks are exhumed in the footwall of a crustal-scale nappe, whereas the exhumation decreases towards the north away from the nappe leading to a decrease in metamorphic grade. The D2 deformation event is followed by a D3 E-W compression, a D4 with the development of steep shear zones with a NNE-SSW and SSE-NNW trend including the large Nyamwamba shear followed by a local D5 retrograde event and D6 brittle reverse faulting. The Palaeoproterozoic Buganda-Toro belt is relatively stiff and crosses the NNE-SSW running rift system exactly at the node where the highest peaks of the Rwenzori Mountains are situated and where the Lake George rift terminates towards the north. Orientation of brittle and ductile fabrics show some similarities indicating that the cross-cutting Buganda-Toro belt influenced rift propagation and brittle fault development

  15. Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic events in the Orekhov-Pavlograd compressional zone, Ukrainian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    The Orekhov-Pavlograd zone (OPZ) is located between the Mesoarchaean-Neoarchaean Middle Dnieper Province and the Mesoarchaean-Palaeoproterozoic Azov Province in the eastern Ukrainian Shield. The OPZ consists of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic high-grade metamorphic rocks. According U-Pb isotope analyses Archaean methaigneous rocks have age of 3.5-3.3 Ga, and latest AR events dated form both individual grains and metamorphic rims in the tonalite and the granitic vein occurred at about 2.88 Ga ego. Paleoproterozoic zircons from a hornblende granulite have a concordia age of 2.08 Ga [1]. P-T conditions of the 3.5-3.3 Ga processes calculated from the Ti content in zircon are of 730-760°C. Metamorphic event dated as 2.88 Ga is more preserved and detected in some amphibolites after mafic dykes. According to different methods of hornblende-plagioclase geothermometry along with Al- and Ti-geobarometry of hornblende, the amphibolites have formed at temperature of 735-749 °C and pressure of 5.2 to 7.8 kbar. P-T conditions of Paleoproterozoic metamorphic processes have been calculated for a Paleoproterozoic high-Al paragneiss and mafic rocks. On the base of the computer software THERIAK-DOMINO [2], near-isothermal decompression from ca. 8.5 to 6.0 kbar at 650 °C and then to 5.8 kbar at 740 °C has been determined for small irregular garnet grains (grs 4-7% and XMg 0.36-0.37) associated with the same biotite and plagioclase. P-T conditions obtained by means of the P-T pseudosection calculation are identical within errors to those defined by the Grt + Bt + Pl + Ozt geothermometer by [3] and the geobarometer by [4], T = 675 °C and P = 5.6 kbar. Temperature and pressure calculated for assemblage Grt-Pl-Opx-Amph-Ilm-Ru (mafic rock) by using the TWEEQU method shows: 1) high values of pressure and temperature (ca. 7 kbar and 800 °C) are linked with the first metamorphic event with Opx-Cpx assemblage, 2) moderate values (ca. 5 kbar and ca. 600 °C) are referred to the second

  16. Trace-element characteristics of different pyrite types in Mesoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic placer deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koglin, Nikola; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Lawrie Minter, W. E.; Brätz, Helene

    2010-03-01

    A comparative in situ LA-ICP MS trace-element study on pyrite from three different, variably auriferous, Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic palaeoplacer deposits in the Ouro Fino Syncline (Quadrilátero Ferrífero; Brazil), the Elliot Lake area north of Lake Huron (SE Canada) and several deposits within the Witwatersrand Basin (South Africa) revealed systematic differences between morphologically different pyrite types and between the various palaeoplacer deposits. Especially the Ni and Au concentrations as well as Co/Ni and Mo/Ni ratios were found to be systematically different in detrital compact, detrital porous and post-sedimentary/hydrothermal pyrite grains from different source areas. High Co/Ni ratios and low Au concentrations are typical of post-sedimentary pyrite, which is hydrothermal in origin. In contrast, relatively low Co/Ni ratios and high Au contents characterise detrital porous banded and concentric pyrite grains (Au > 1 ppm), which are syn-sedimentary in origin. In the Elliot Lake area and the Witwatersrand Basin, detrital compact rounded pyrite is characterised by high Co/Ni ratios, which is in agreement with derivation from a hydrothermal source. Low Au concentrations in this pyrite type support the contention of the gold and the pyrite in these deposits coming from different source rocks. In contrast, derivation from an originally diagenetic pyrite is suggested for the detrital compact pyrite in the Ouro Fino Syncline because of low to intermediate Co/Ni ratios. High Au contents may indicate a genetic relationship between pyrite and gold there. Systematic differences exist between the three areas with respect to Au, Ni, Co, Mo and Cu distributions in detrital pyrite, which reflects differences in the provenance. A predominantly mafic/ultramafic source is indicated for the Ouro Fino, a felsic source for the Elliot Lake, and a mixed felsic-mafic provenance for the Witwatersrand pyrite populations. Independently of pyrite type, the higher Au endowment

  17. Palaeoproterozoic U Pb SHRIMP zircon age from basement rocks in Bangladesh: A possible remnant of the Columbia supercontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Ismail; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Rajesh, Hariharan M.; Chen, Bin; Arakawa, Yoji

    2007-12-01

    We present new U-Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronological data for basement rocks in Bangladesh, and discuss the relationship with the formation of the Columbia supercontinent. Euhedral zircons from a diorite sample yield a concordia age of 1730 ± 11 Ma, which is interpreted as the crystallization age. The Palaeoproterozoic age of the examined basement rock and the common occurrences of similar ˜1.7-Ga geologic units in the Central Indian Tectonic Zone and Meghalaya-Shillong Plateau in Indian Shield suggest their apparent continuation. This, together with the occurrence of similar ˜1.7-Ga geologic units in the Albany-Fraser belt in Australia and East Antarctica, are used to suggest that the basement rocks in Bangladesh formed towards the final stages of the assembly of the Columbia supercontinent.

  18. Palaeoproterozoic high-pressure granulite overprint of the Archaean continental crust: evidence for homogeneous crustal thickening (Man Rise, Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitra, Pavel; Kouamelan, Alain N.; Ballèvre, Michel; Peucat, Jean-Jacques

    2010-05-01

    The character of mountain building processes in the Palaeoproterozoic times is subject to much debate. The local observation of Barrovian-type assemblages and high-pressure granulite relics in the Man Rise (Côte d'Ivoire), led some authors to argue that Eburnean (Palaeoproterozoic) reworking of the Archaean basement was achieved by modern-style thrust-dominated tectonics (e.g., Feybesse & Milési, 1994). However, it has been suggested that crustal thickening and subsequent exhumation of high-pressure crustal rocks can be achieved by virtue of homogeneous, fold-dominated deformation of hot crustal domains even in Phanerozoic orogenic belts (e.g., Schulmann et al., 2002; 2008). We describe a mafic granulite of the Kouibli area (Archaean part of the Man Rise, western Ivory Coast) that displays a primary assemblage (M1) containing garnet, diopsidic clinopyroxene, red-brown pargasitic amphibole, plagioclase (andesine), rutile, ilmenite and quartz. This assemblage is associated with a subvertical regional foliation. Symplectites that develop at the expense of the M1 assemblage contain orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase (bytownite), green pargasitic amphibole, ilmenite and magnetite (M2). Multiequilibrium thermobarometric calculations and P-T pseudosections calculated with THERMOCALC suggest granulite-facies conditions of ca. 13 kbar, 850°C and <7 kbar, 700-800°C for M1 and M2, respectively. In agreement with the qualitative information obtained from reaction textures and chemical zoning of minerals, this suggests an evolution dominated by decompression accompanied by moderate cooling. A Sm-Nd garnet - whole-rock age of 2.03 Ga determined on this sample indicates that this evolution occurred during the Palaeoproterozoic. We argue that from the geodynamic point of view the observed features are best explained by homogeneous thickening of the margin of the Archaean craton, re-heated and softened due to the accretion of hot, juvenile Palaeoproterozoic crust, as

  19. Genesis of Palaeoproterozoic iron skarns in the Misi region, northern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiranen, Tero; Mänttäri, Irmeli; Poutiainen, Matti; Oliver, Nicholas H. S.; Miller, Jodie A.

    2005-03-01

    Sodic alteration is widespread in Palaeoproterozoic greenstone and schist belts of the northern Fennoscandian shield. In the Misi region that forms the easternmost part of the Peräpohja schist belt, several small magnetite deposits show intimate spatial relationships with intensely albitised gabbros, raising the possibility that regional sodic alteration released iron, which was subsequently accumulated into deposits. Two of these magnetite deposits, Raajärvi and Puro display a typical paragenesis as follows (from oldest to youngest): (1) diopside, (2) actinolite/tremolite-magnetite ± chlorite, biotite, and (3) serpentine ± hematite, chlorite. Mass balance calculations suggest that significant amounts of Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, V, and Ba were lost, and Na and Si gained during the albitisation of the gabbro, at near-constant Al, Ga, Ti, and Zr. Significant amounts of Si, Ca, Fe, and Na were enriched in the formation of skarn related to magnetite deposits. Fe and V leached from country rocks deposited during the skarn-alteration and formed the vanadium rich iron deposits while Cu passed through the system without significant precipitation due to low sulphur fugasity. Variations in Na, Ca, Mg, K, and Ba contents reflect the composition of the infiltrating fluid during alteration. Conventional heating-freezing measurements and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analyses of the fluid inclusions related to actinolite/tremolite-magnetite stage alteration indicate that the fluids that caused the alteration and the Fe-mineralisation were complex, oxidised, highly saline H2O ± CO2 fluids that contained high amounts of Na, Ca, K, Fe, and Ba as well as elevated concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb. The oxygen isotope thermometry suggest that temperature during the Fe-mineralisation stage was between 390 and 490°C. Calculated δ18Ofluid values of 6.1-9.8‰ SMOW and δ13C values of calcites in the ores and skarns were between -7.7 and 10.9‰ PDB and most likely reflect

  20. Garnet granulite xenoliths from the Northern Baltic shield- The underplated lower crust of a palaeoproterozoic large igneous province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kempton, P.D.; Downes, H.; Neymark, L.A.; Wartho, J.A.; Zartman, R.E.; Sharkov, E.V.

    2001-01-01

    Garnet granulite facies xenoliths hosted in Devonian lamprophyres from the Kola Peninsula are interpreted to represent the high-grade metamorphic equivalents of continental flood tholeiites, emplaced into the Baltic Shield Archaean lower crust in early Proterozoic time. Geochronological data and similarities in major and trace element geochemistry suggest that the xenoliths formed during the same plume-related magmatic event that created a widespread Palaeoproterozoic large igneous province (LIP) at 2.4-2.5 Ga. They are, thus, the first samples of the lower crust of a Palaeo-proterozoic LIP to be studied in petrological detail. The suite includes mafic granulites (gar + cpx + rutile ?? plag ?? opx ?? phlog ?? amph), felsic granulites (plag + gar + cpx + rutile ?? qtz ?? Kspar ?? phlog ?? amph) and pyroxenites (?? phlog ?? amph), but mafic garnet granulites predominate. Although some samples are restites, there is no evidence for a predominance of magmatic cumulates, as is common for Phanerozoic lower-crustal xenolith suites. Metasediments are also absent. Phlogopite and/or amphibole occur in xenoliths of all types and are interpreted to be metasomatic in origin. The K-rich metasomatic event occurred at ?????0 Ga, and led to substantial enrichment in Rb, K, LREE/HREE, Th/U, Th/Pb and, to a lesser extent, Nb and Ti. The fluids responsible for this metasomatism were probably derived from a second plume that arrived beneath the region at this time. Evidence for partial melting of mafic crust exists in the presence of migmatitic granulites. The timing of migmatization overlaps that of metasomatism, and it is suggested that migmatization was facilitated by the metasomatism. The metamorphism, metasomatism and migmatization recorded in the Kola granulite xenoliths may be representative of the processes responsible for converting Archaean LIP-generated proto-continents into continental crust.

  1. A re-evaluation of the volcanism of the Palaeoproterozoic Pretoria Group (Kaapvaal craton) and a hypothesis on basin development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reczko, B. F. F.; Oberholzer, J. D.; Res, M.; Eriksson, P. G.; Schreiber, U. M.

    1995-11-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic (approximately 2.3-2.1 Ga) Pretoria Group, Transvaal Supergroup, contains three main volcanic units, i.e the basal Bushy Bend Lava Member, the medial Hekpoort Formation and the Machadodorp Volcanic Member. Field relationships and geochemistry of the latter two volcanic successions have similarities with continental flood basalts (CFB), such as comparable trace element patterns and a distinct niobium anomaly. The genesis of the Pretoria Group volcanic rocks is inferred to be related to processes in a replenished, fractionated, tapped, assimilated (RFTA) magma chamber, involving an asthenospheric source, replenishing and tapping of the magma chamber and contamination of the primary partial melts by crustal material accompanied by fractional crystallization. The proposed basin development of the Pretoria Group, thought to have been related to asymmetric stretching of crust and lithosphere, may have been complicated further by decoupling of the extension in the sedimentary cover from the basement below, due to the presence of over-pressured basal shales. The tectonic setting of the Pretoria Group is inferred to lie in the rift-to-intracratonic-sag-type continuum.

  2. Provenance of zircon xenocrysts in the Neoproterozoic Brauna Kimberlite Field, São Francisco Craton, Brazil: Evidence for a thick Palaeoproterozoic lithosphere beneath the Serrinha block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donatti-Filho, José Paulo; Oliveira, Elson P.; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2013-08-01

    The 642 Ma-old Brauna Kimberlite Field is located on the northeastern sector of the São Francisco Craton (Serrinha block) and is one of the rare Neoproterozoic kimberlitic events in South America. Zircon xenocrysts from the volumetric most important kimberlite pipes Brauna 03, Brauna 07 and Brauna 04 were used as a tool to identify different components of the lithosphere beneath the northeast region of the São Francisco craton. A composite kimberlite sample of eight representative and different drill holes and three samples of the host rocks (Nordestina granodiorite) were sampled for SHRIMP geochronology. The results were compared with precise U-Pb age data for the regional rocks, i.e. the Archaean basement and the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt. Samples from the Nordestina granodiorite gave three different ages: 2155 Ma in the western part of the batholith, 2139 Ma in its central part, and 2132 Ma in its eastern part. Zircon 207Pb/206Pb ages of the Brauna kimberlite zircon grains spread over the timespan 2107-2223 Ma and indicate four age groups at 2105 ± 3 Ma, 2138 ± 7 Ma, 2166 ± 5 Ma, and 2198 ± 4 Ma. Source rocks for the three former age groups can be found in the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, including zircon xenocrysts from the Nordestina granodiorite, whereas the latter age group has not yet been reported in the Serrinha block. The new zircon ages show that only rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt and of a hidden 2.17-2.20 Ga crust were sampled by the kimberlite magma during its ascent through the lithosphere. It is proposed that there is none or a few Archaean crust beneath the kimberlite emplacement area, hence implying a thick Palaeoproterozoic lithosphere for this portion of the São Francisco craton.

  3. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.

    2015-04-01

    , including potassic (biotite+sericite+ quartz), propylitic (clinozoisite+chlorite+saussuritized plagioclase), phyllic (sericite+quartz+ pyrite+hydromuscovite/illite) and argillic (kaolinite+chlorite+dolomite) alteration. The clays were identified with XRD. All the rocks show penetrative deformational textures and fabrics. Our textural studies show that phyllic zone pyrite crystals have quartz-rich pressure shadows, and they predate all phases of deformation. Similarly, in the potassic zone, fracture-controlled biotite stringers in particular orientations are deformed, and partly replaced by chlorite, again showing their pre-deformational, pre-metamorphic origin. Copper sulfide-bearing quartz veinlets are deformed. Many of the alteration assemblages containing biotite or sericite have been deformed into crenulated schists, showing that they were formed early in the deformation history. Coupled with the dating of a Samba metavolcanic rock at 1964±12 Ma (Rainaud et al., 2005, JAES, 42, 1-31), we regard the Samba deposit as a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry-type Cu deposit, which has undergone deformation, and retrograde metamorphism of its alteration assemblages, during the Neoproterozoic Lufilian Orogeny, followed by post-tectonic cooling, which occurred throughout the Copperbelt at about 480±20 Ma. Samba, together with the Mkushi deposits, is part of a long-lived (>100 Ma) Palaeoproterozoic porphyry-Cu province in the Zambian Copperbelt basement, and ore genetic theories for the Copperbelt mineralization must now seriously take this into account.

  4. Geochemistry of the Palaeoproterozoic volcanic and associated potassic granitic rocks of the Ngualla area of the Ubendian Belt, SW Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulibonywa, Tulibako; Manya, Shukrani; Torssander, Peter; Maboko, Makenya A. H.

    2017-05-01

    The Ngualla area of the Lupa terrane in the Ubendian Belt of SW Tanzania is underlain by well-preserved greenschist facies calc-alkaline volcanic rocks which have been intruded by low-Sr, peraluminous K-rich granites. The Ngualla volcanic rocks are subdivided into four groups: the basaltic andesites-trachyandesites, Group I porphyritic dacites-trachytes, Group II porphyritic dacites-trachytes, and rhyolites. The basaltic andesites-trachyandesites were emplaced at ∼1943 Ma and their most primitive members are characterized by MgO contents of up to 7.43 wt % at a SiO2 content of 54.0 wt %, Ni contents of up to 170 ppm and Mg# of up to 62. They show fractionated REE patterns (La/YbCN = 11.5-36.5), sub-chondritic Zr/Hf (37.8-43.9) and Nb/Ta (7.14-20.0) ratios, εNd (1943 Ma) values of -3.33 to -6.24 and TDM ages of 2521-2883 Ma. These geochemical features are consistent with derivation of the basaltic andesites-trachyandesites by at least 0.1% partial melting of garnet peridotite mantle, followed by 50-80% fractional crystallization involving the removal of 61% clinopyroxene, 20% hornblende, 4% plagioclase and 15% orthopyroxene. The magmas were contaminated by Neoarchaean crustal materials incorporated in the Ubendian Belt during their ascent to the surface. The evolution of these magmas led to the formation of Group I porphyritic dacites-trachytes and rhyolites in a Palaeoproterozoic continental arc setting. The Group II porphyritic dacites-trachytes (1871 ± 5 Ma) were coevally emplaced with the low-Sr, peraluminous K-granites (1878 ± 15 Ma) forming a felsic plutonic-volcanic suite. Despite some differences, these rocks share geochemical features including negative Eu anomalies (mean Eu/Eu* = 0.19 for the dacites and 0.5 for the granites) and εNd (1871 Ma) values of -5.72 for the dacites and εNd (1878 Ma) values of -6.00 to -11.2 for the granites. These geochemical features are consistent with the generation of the ∼1.87 Ga Ngualla felsic plutonic

  5. Characterization of bacteria isolated from palaeoproterozoic metasediments for sequestration of carbon dioxide and formation of calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shaili; Bharti, Randhir K; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial community of palaeoproterozoic metasediments was enriched in the chemostat in the presence of different concentrations of NaHCO3. Six bacterial isolates were isolated from the chemostat on nutrient agar plates on the basis of distinct morphology. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) proved the presence of six operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 50 and 100 mM NaHCO3. The OTU was reduced to three and one at enrichment concentration of 150 and 200 mM NaHCO3 respectively. These six isolates were tested for sequestration of carbon dioxide by (14)C metabolic labeling of NaH(14)CO3. Among the six isolates, one of the bacterium showed better potency to fix radiolabeled NaH(14)CO3. The isolate (ISTD04) was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequence analysis and was found to be same as the DGGE OTU sequence at 200-mM NaHCO3 concentration. The bacterium was tested for product formation in form of calcite crystals in presence of 5 % CO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of product formed by the bacterium revealed defined faceted rhombohedral structure which resembled calcite and vaterite phases of the crystal. Formation of calcium carbonate crystals was further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as carbonate group showing strong vibration at 1,456 cm(-1). Major calcite phase diffraction peaks were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed the presence of CaO (72 %) and carbon (18 %). Bacterium use bicarbonate as carbon source for their growth as well as by-product formation in form of calcite shows carbon circulation and storage.

  6. Ice, Ice, Baby!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  7. House calls.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Brian K; Tatum, Paul E

    2011-04-15

    House calls provide a unique perspective on patients' environment and health problems. The demand for house calls is expected to increase considerably in future decades as the U.S. population ages. Although study results have been inconsistent, house calls involving multidisciplinary teams may reduce hospital readmissions and long-term care facility stays. Common indications for house calls are management of acute or chronic illnesses, and palliative care. Medicare beneficiaries must meet specific criteria to be eligible for home health services. The INHOMESSS mnemonic provides a checklist for components of a comprehensive house call. In addition to performing a clinical assessment, house calls may involve observing the patient performing daily activities, reconciling medication discrepancies, and evaluating home safety. House calls can be integrated into practice with careful planning, including clustering house calls by geographic location and coordinating visits with other health care professionals and agencies.

  8. Historic Houses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Reviews some of the efforts of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) to preserve, conserve, and interpret historic houses to the public. Examines the history and some of the specific preservation problems concerning the Beauport Cottage, the Sayward-Wheeler House, and the Gropius House. (MJP)

  9. Historic Houses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Reviews some of the efforts of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) to preserve, conserve, and interpret historic houses to the public. Examines the history and some of the specific preservation problems concerning the Beauport Cottage, the Sayward-Wheeler House, and the Gropius House. (MJP)

  10. Substandard Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milkove, Daniel L., Comp.

    1986-01-01

    Defines substandard housing and summarizes newly derived data from the 1980 Census showing that 7.5% of all rural occupied housing in the Nation was substandard. Points out regional and rural-urban differences. Notes effects on rural housing of poverty rates, percentage of nonwhite households, average household size, growth in county population,…

  11. Why housing?

    PubMed

    Aidala, Angela A; Sumartojo, Esther

    2007-11-01

    Housing/lack of housing and HIV are powerfully linked. Housing occupies an important place in the causal chains linking poverty and inequality, and HIV risk and outcomes of infection. The articles in this Special Supplement of AIDS and Behavior confirm the impact of homelessness, and poor or unstable housing, on HIV/AIDS, and challenge scientists to test and policy makers to implement the promise of housing as an innovative response to the epidemic. In order to influence the development of policies on housing to benefit at-risk or HIV-infected persons, however, proponents must justify why this association exists, and how housing can help end the epidemic as well as improve the care and health of persons living with HIV/AIDS. We introduce this supplement with a discussion of the "why" question.

  12. Tectono-thermal evolution of the Palaeoproterozoic Granites-Tanami Orogen, North Australian Craton: Implications from hornblende and biotite 40Ar/39Ar geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ben; Bagas, Leon; Jourdan, Fred

    2014-10-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Granites-Tanami Orogen (GTO) hosts a number of gold deposits located in the southern margin of the North Australian Craton. The major stratigraphic succession is the Palaeoproterozoic Tanami Group which is subdivided into the Dead Bullock Formation and conformably overlying Killi Killi Formation. New geochemical data for the ca. 1864 Coora and Groundrush dolerite sills in the Dead Bullock Formation suggests that they have the same characteristics with the enriched back-arc basin basaltic rocks from the former Stubbins Formation, such as tholeiitic affinity, high TiO2 contents (0.94 to 1.24 wt.%) and low Mg# (41-45), slightly enriched LILE (Rb, Th, U, and K), weakly depleted HFSE (Nb, Ta), and relatively flat REE patterns. Their magma was generated by high degree decompressional melting (5-15%) of the asthenosphere source with an input of 3-4% subduction-related material. The petrological and geochemical similarities of igneous rocks provide new evidence for the assignment of the ca. 1864 Ma former Stubbins Formation and the Mount Charles Formations in the Dead Bullock Formation of the Tanami Group. These conclusions confirmed that the extensive Palaeoproterozoic Tanami Group was deposited in a back-arc basin environment. Hornblende and biotite 40Ar/39Ar geochronological study identified three major tectono-thermal events in the GTO since the deposition of the Dead Bullock Formation. The ca. 1840 Ma 40Ar/39Ar cooling age of metamorphic hornblende from the Coora and Groundrush dolerite sills in the Dead Bullock Formation provided precise age constraint for the first Palaeoproterozoic tectono-thermal event during the evolution of the Granites-Tanami back-arc basin. This age is highly consistent with the ca. 1850-1840 Ma subduction and peak metamorphism events in the North Australian Craton (NAC) associated with the Halls Creek Orogeny in the Halls Creek Orogen, and the Tennant Orogeny in the Tennant Creek Inlier. The 40Ar/39Ar age of 1753 ± 8 Ma

  13. Palaeoproterozoic Volcanic Massive Sulphides (VMS) in the Lithuanian crystalline basement: evidences for a back-arc tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Siliauskas, Laurynas

    2014-05-01

    In the southwestern part of the East European Craton (EEC), several events of Palaeoproterozoic volcanic arc magmatic activity were recognized in the concealed crystalline basement. In Lithuania, the TTG suites of 1.89 Ga and 1.86-1.84 Ga were later metamorphosed in amphibolite and granulite facies conditions. Remnants of a volcano-sedimentary sequence metamorphosed in green schist and amphibolite facies conditions were discovered in central and southern Lithuania. In southern Lithuania, the upper part of the Lazdijai 13 (Lz13) drilling (at c. 493 m depth) consists of exhalitic quartz chlorite cherts mixed with andesitic rocks. The rocks are impregnated with magnetite in some places replacing calcite. Most of the magnetite grains are overgrown by a dendritic kovelite, which may have formed while magnetite was still in aqueous surrounding. Other accessory minerals are xenotime, zircon, apatite, Sr-Ba sulphates etc. The cherts are underlain by a metaandesite which volcanic structures were obscured by hydrothermal alteration, i.e. the idiomorphic magnetite crystals and porphyritic plagioclase grains were replaced by clay minerals and quartz or muscovite in many places. Thin metamorphosed mudstone layers turned into garnet, biotite (+/-staurolite) and chlorite schists. The rocks were affected by silicification, chloritization, argilitization and carbonatization. Taking into account the rock composition, micro and macro scale alteration zones and absence of breccia, the whole package resembles an outer part of the VMS stockwork. The lower boundary at 526 m is sharp, marked by a quartz vein, below which lies quartz, biotite (+/- chlorite) bearing schist with minor tremolite (former sandstone). It was intensely affected by silicification, and was enriched in Na, K and Ca. Accessory minerals are monazite, xenotime, apatite and detrital zircon. The schist exhibits fine mineral foliation, and is fine-grained. A 4 m thick granitic vein cuts the rock at 654 m depth, below

  14. 1. Contextual view looking west, showing packing house and Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Contextual view looking west, showing packing house and Union Ice building, which is located to the north of Packing House (right hand side in photo) - College Heights Lemon Packing House, 519-532 West First Street, Claremont, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Ice Bridge Antarctic Sea Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-21

    Sea ice is seen out the window of NASA's DC-8 research aircraft as it flies 2,000 feet above the Bellingshausen Sea in West Antarctica on Wednesday, Oct., 21, 2009. This was the fourth science flight of NASA’s Operation Ice Bridge airborne Earth science mission to study Antarctic ice sheets, sea ice, and ice shelves. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jane Peterson)

  16. Rental Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC. Consumer Housing Information Service for Seniors.

    This is one of a series of booklets prepared as a resource for trained Housing Information Volunteers to provide impartial information to older people who have questions of concern about how to find safe, comfortable, affordable housing; how to cut household expenses or use their homes to earn extra income; home maintenance and home improvement;…

  17. Clay Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  18. Clay Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  19. House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-28

    Cristina Chaplain, director, Acquisition and Sourcing Management, U.S. Government Accountability Office testifies during a hearing before the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology regarding access to and sustainability of the International Space Station, Wednesday, March 28, 2012 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-28

    Retired astronaut Lt. Gen. Thomas Stafford, right, and Cristina Chaplain, director, Acquisition and Sourcing Management, U.S. Government Accountability Office listen during a hearing before the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology regarding access to and sustainability of the International Space Station, Wednesday, March 28, 2012 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-28

    Retired astronaut Lt. Gen. Thomas Stafford testifies during a hearing before the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology regarding access to and sustainability of the International Space Station, Wednesday, March 28, 2012 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-28

    William Gerstenmaier, Associate Administrator, Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters, testifies during a hearing before the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology regarding access to and sustainability of the International Space Station, Wednesday, March 28, 2012 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-28

    U.S. Congressman Steven Palazzo (R-MS) asks a question during a hearing before the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology regarding access to and sustainability of the International Space Station, Wednesday, March 28, 2012 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-28

    U.S. Congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX) listens to testimony during a hearing before the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology regarding access to and sustainability of the International Space Station, Wednesday, March 28, 2012 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Housing Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Reilly

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, summarizes the implications of a study done at the Joint Center for Urban Studies of the number and characteristics of families that will buy a house, and what kind of housing problems they have, for the relative status of blacks or whites or other…

  6. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-data-transmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-datatransmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At thime

  7. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  8. Tech House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The members of the Swain family- Dr. Charles "Bill" Swain, wife Elaine, daughter Carol, 17, son "Chuck", 12, and dog Susie have an interesting assignment. They are active participants in an important NASA research program involving the application of space-age technology to home construction. b' Transplanted Floridians, the Swains now reside in NASA's Tech House, loatedat Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Their job is to use and help evaluate the variety of advanced technology systems in Tech House. A contemporary three-bedroom home, Tech House incorporates NASA technology, the latest commercial building techniques and other innovations, all designed to reduce energy and water consumption and to provide new levels of comfort, convenience, security and fire safety. Tech House equipment performed well in initial tests, but a house is not a home until it has people. That's where the Swains come in. NASA wants to see how the various systems work under actual living conditions, to confirm the effectiveness of the innovations or to determine necessary modifications for improvement. The Swains are occupying the house for a year, during which NASA engineers are computer monitoring the equipment and assembling a record of day-to-day performance. . Tech House is a laboratory rather than a mass production prototype, but its many benefits may influence home design and construction. In a period of sharply rising utility costs, widespread adoption of Tech House features could provide large-scale savings to homeowners and potentially enormous national benefit in resources conservation. Most innovations are aerospace spinoffs: Some of the equipment is now commercially available; other systems are expected to be in production within a few years. Around 1980, a Tech House-type of home could be built for $45-50,000 (1 976 dollars). It is estimated that the homeowner would save well over $20,000 (again 1976 dollars) in utility costs over the average mortgage span of 20 years.

  9. Ice Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Ice Stars - August 4th, 2002 Description: Like distant galaxies amid clouds of interstellar dust, chunks of sea ice drift through graceful swirls of grease ice in the frigid waters of Foxe Basin near Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. Sea ice often begins as grease ice, a soupy slick of tiny ice crystals on the ocean's surface. As the temperature drops, grease ice thickens and coalesces into slabs of more solid ice. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  10. Over Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    All about NASA's IceBridge P-3B plane and its IceBridge retrofit. Upgraded with 21st century "special modifications", the aircraft is less a cold war relic and more like the Space Agency's Millenni...

  11. House Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Bette

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the "house" concept architectural design at Albert Lea High School (Minnesota) and how the design addresses the community's 21st Century educational goals. Photos and a floor plan are included. (GR)

  12. House Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Bette

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the "house" concept architectural design at Albert Lea High School (Minnesota) and how the design addresses the community's 21st Century educational goals. Photos and a floor plan are included. (GR)

  13. House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-07

    Rep. Eddie Bernice Johnson, D-TX, asks a question of NASA Administrator Charles Bolden during a House Science, Space and Technology Committee hearing on Wednesday, March 7, 2012 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Nd-Sr evidence of Palaeoproterozoic Cu-Ni-Co-PGE-magmatism in Fennoscandia and mantle-crust interaction on stages of layered intrusions formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Pavel; Bayanova, Tamara; Steshenko, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    Palaeoproterozoic Fennoscandian layered intrusions belong to the pyroxenite-gabbronorite-anorthosite formation and spread on a vast area within the Baltic Shield. Based on isotope U-Pb, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and Re-Os data the duration of this formation can be to 100-130 Ma (2.53-2.40 Ga) [Serov et. al., 2008; Bayanova et. al., 2009]. We have studied rocks of layered PGE-bearing Fedorovo-Pansky, Monchetundra, Burakovsky, Olanga group intrusions and Penikat intrusion. According to recent and new complex Nd-Sr-REE data magma source of the vast majority of these intrusions was a mantle reservoir with unusual characteristics: negative values of ɛNd (from 0 to -4) and ISr = 0.702-0.706, flat spectra of REE (value of (La/Yb)N 1.0-5.8) with positive Eu-anomalies [Bayanova et. al., 2009; Bayanova et. al., 2014]. However, the distribution of REE for ore-bearing gabbronorite intrusions Penikat (Sm-Nd age is 2426 ± 38 Ma [Ekimova et. al., 2011]) has a negative Eu-anomalies. This may be due to the formation of plagioclase and its removal from the magma chamber. One of the aims of isotope geochemical investigations is to establish the contribution of mantle components in the formation of layered intrusions rocks and the degrees of contamination of the magma source by crustal material. To calculate the proportion of mantle component model binary mixture was used [Jahn et. al., 2000]. As the mantle components we used data for CHUR: ɛNd = 0, [Nd] = 1.324 [Palm, O'Neil, 2003] and for crustal components were used host-rocks Nd-data. The proportion of mantle component for the studied intrusions was 77-99%. Also, data were obtained for the Monchetundra dike complex and amphibolized gabbro, for which the proportion of mantle material was 20-40%. For these rocks a significant crustal contamination is most likely. This process resulted in low values of ɛNd, a direct relationship between ɛNd and Nd concentration, and significant differences between the U-Pb and Sm-Nd model ages. A

  15. Isotope-geochemical Nd-Sr evidence of Palaeoproterozoic plume magmatism in Fennoscandia and mantle-crust interaction on stages of layered intrusions formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Pavel; Bayanova, Tamara; Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy; Steshenko, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    Palaeoproterozoic Fennoscandian layered intrusions belong to the pyroxenite-gabbronorite-anorthosite formation and spread on a vast area within the Baltic Shield. Based on isotope U-Pb, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and Re-Os data the duration of this formation can be to 100-130 Ma (2.53-2.40 Ga) [Serov et. al., 2008; Bayanova et. al., 2009]. We have studied rocks of layered PGE-bearing Fedorovo-Pansky, Monchetundra, Burakovsky, Olanga group intrusions and Penikat intrusion. According to recent and new complex Nd-Sr-REE data magma source of the vast majority of these intrusions was a mantle reservoir with unusual characteristics: negative values of ɛNd (from 0 to -4) and ISr = 0.702-0.706, flat spectra of REE (value of (La/Yb)N ~ 1.0-5.8) with positive Eu-anomalies [Bayanova et. al., 2009; Bayanova et. al., 2014]. However, the distribution of REE for ore-bearing gabbronorite intrusions Penikat (Sm-Nd age is 2426 ± 38 Ma [Ekimova et. al., 2011]) has a negative Eu-anomalies. This may be due to the formation of plagioclase and its removal from the magma chamber. One of the aims of isotope geochemical investigations is to establish the contribution of mantle components in the formation of layered intrusions rocks and the degrees of contamination of the magma source by crustal material. To calculate the proportion of mantle component model binary mixture was used [Jahn et. al., 2000]. As the mantle components we used data for CHUR: ɛNd = 0, [Nd] = 1.324 [Palm, O'Neil, 2003] and for crustal components were used host-rocks Nd-data. The proportion of mantle component for the studied intrusions was 77-99%. Also, data were obtained for the Monchetundra dike complex and amphibolized gabbro, for which the proportion of mantle material was 20-40%. For these rocks a significant crustal contamination is most likely. This process resulted in low values of ɛNd, a direct relationship between ɛNd and Nd concentration, and significant differences between the U-Pb and Sm-Nd model ages. A

  16. Isotope-geochemical Nd-Sr evidence of Palaeoproterozoic plume magmatism in Fennoscandia and mantle-crust interaction on stages of layered intrusions formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, P.; Ekimova, N.; Bayanova, T.

    2012-04-01

    Palaeoproterozoic Fennoscandian layered intrusions belong to the pyroxenite-gabbronorite-anorthosite formation and spread on a vast area within the Baltic Shield. Based on isotope Sm-Nd and U-Pb data the duration of this formation can be to 130 Ma (2.53-2.40 Ga) [Serov et. al., 2008]. We have studied rocks of layered PGE-bearing Fedorovo-Pansky, Monchetundra, Burakovsky, Olanga group intrusions and Penikat intrusion. According to recent and new complex Nd-Sr-REE data magma source of the vast majority of these intrusions was a mantle reservoir with unusual characteristics: negative values of ɛNd (from 0 to -4) and ISr = 0.702-0.706, flat spectra of REE (value of (La/Yb)N ~ 1.0-5.8) with positive Eu-anomalies. However, the distribution of REE for ore-bearing gabbronorite intrusions Penikat (Sm-Nd age is 2426 ± 38 Ma [Ekimova et. al., 2011]) has a negative Eu-anomalies. This may be due to the formation of plagioclase and its removal from the magma chamber. One of the aims of isotope geochemical investigations is to establish the contribution of mantle components in the formation of layered intrusions rocks and the degrees of contamination of the magma source by crustal material. To calculate the proportion of mantle component model binary mixture was used [Jahn et. al., 2000]. As the mantle components we used data for CHUR: ɛNd = 0, [Nd] = 1.324 [Palm, O'Neil, 2003]. The proportion of mantle component for the studied intrusions was 77-99%. Also, data were obtained for the Monchetundra dike complex and amphibolized gabbro, for which the proportion of mantle material was 20-40%. For these rocks a significant crustal contamination is most likely. This process resulted in low values of ɛNd, a direct relationship between ɛNd and Nd concentration, and significant differences between the U-Pb and Sm-Nd model ages. A characteristic feature is that in most cases, the proportion of mantle component decreases from the central parts of intrusions to their boundary zones

  17. Ice Bridge Antarctic Sea Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-21

    An iceberg is seen out the window of NASA's DC-8 research aircraft as it flies 2,000 feet above the Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica on Wednesday, Oct., 21, 2009. This was the fourth science flight of NASA’s Operation Ice Bridge airborne Earth science mission to study Antarctic ice sheets, sea ice, and ice shelves. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jane Peterson)

  18. Geochronology and nature of the Palaeoproterozoic basement in the Central African Copperbelt (Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo), with regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainaud, C.; Master, S.; Armstrong, R. A.; Robb, L. J.

    2005-07-01

    U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age data, together with geochemical analyses, from the basement to the Katanga Supergroup in the Central African Copperbelt reveal the existence of a widespread Palaeoproterozoic magmatic arc terrane. The Lufubu schists represent a long-lived calc-alkaline volcanic arc sequence and, where dated in both Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), yield ages of 1980 ± 7, 1968 ± 9, 1964 ± 12 and 1874 ± 8 Ma. The oldest dated unit from the region, the Mkushi granitic gneiss from south-east of the Zambian Copperbelt, has an age of 2049 ± 6 Ma. The copper-mineralized Mtuga aplites, which crosscut the foliation in the Mkushi gneisses, have mainly xenocrystic, zoned zircons with cores dated at ca. 2.07-2.00 Ga. Overgrowths on these cores are dated at 1059 ± 26 Ma, which is interpreted as the intrusive age of the aplites. An augen gneiss from the Mulungushi Bridge locality yielded an emplacement age of 1976 ± 5 Ma. The Mufulira Pink Granite has an age of 1994 ± 7 Ma, while the Chambishi granite has been dated at 1983 ± 5 Ma, an age within error of Lufubu schist metavolcanics from elsewhere in the Chambishi basin. The gneisses, granitoids and acid-intermediate calc-alkaline metavolcanics are considered to represent stages in the evolution of one or more magmatic arcs that formed episodically over a 200 million year period between 2050 and 1850 Ma. We suggest naming this assemblage of rocks the "Lufubu Metamorphic Complex". The rocks of the Lufubu Metamorphic Complex are interpreted to be part of a regionally extensive Palaeoproterozoic magmatic arc terrane stretching from northern Namibia to northern Zambia and the DRC. This terrane is termed the Kamanjab-Bangweulu arc and is inferred to have collided with the Archaean Tanzanian craton during the ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga Ubendian orogeny, to produce a new composite minicontinental entity that we term the "Kambantan" terrane. The Kambantan terrane was accreted onto the southern margin of the Congo

  19. Uncertainty Quantification for Airfoil Icing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGennaro, Anthony Matteo

    Ensuring the safety of airplane flight in icing conditions is an important and active arena of research in the aerospace community. Notwithstanding the research, development, and legislation aimed at certifying airplanes for safe operation, an analysis of the effects of icing uncertainties on certification quantities of interest is generally lacking. The central objective of this thesis is to examine and analyze problems in airfoil ice accretion from the standpoint of uncertainty quantification. We focus on three distinct areas: user-informed, data-driven, and computational uncertainty quantification. In the user-informed approach to uncertainty quantification, we discuss important canonical icing classifications and show how these categories can be modeled using a few shape parameters. We then investigate the statistical effects of these parameters. In the data-driven approach, we build statistical models of airfoil ice shapes from databases of actual ice shapes, and quantify the effects of these parameters. Finally, in the computational approach, we investigate the effects of uncertainty in the physics of the ice accretion process, by perturbing the input to an in-house numerical ice accretion code that we develop in this thesis.

  20. Palaeoproterozoic (1.83 Ga) zircons in a Bajocian (169 Ma) granite within a Middle Jurassic ophiolite (Rubiku, central Albania): a challenge for geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryza, Ryszard; Beqiraj, Arjan

    2014-04-01

    Two distinct zircon populations, 1,827 ± 17 and 169 ± 2 Ma in age, have been found in the Rubiku granite dyke in the Middle Jurassic Mirdita ophiolite in central Albania. The old inherited zircons represent a homogeneous population formed during a discrete Palaeoproterozoic, likely magmatic, zircon crystallization event. These older zircons were likely incorporated, in large part, into the granite magma that crystallized broadly at the time of the ophiolite emplacement (around 169 Ma). The limited data available do not allow for the construction of an unequivocal petrogenetic model, though several palaeotectonic scenarios are discussed as possible settings for the granite formation. The models refer to recent findings of old inherited zircons in rocks at recent mid-ocean ridge settings, but also consider likely contributions of crustal materials to primary basic ophiolitic magmas within supra-subduction settings and subsequent accretion/collision circumstances. The presence of old zircons in much younger rocks within ophiolite successions runs counter to geodynamic models of interaction between the oceanic lithosphere and continental crust, but constraining their genesis would require further systematic studies on these old inherited zircons, both in mafic (if present) and in felsic rocks of the ophiolites.

  1. Sea ice terminology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A group of definitions of terms related to sea ice is presented, as well as a graphic representation of late winter ice zonation of the Beaufort Sea Coast. Terms included in the definition list are belt, bergy bit, bight, brash ice, calving, close pack ice, compacting, compact pack ice, concentration, consolidated pack ice, crack, diffuse ice edge, fast ice, fast-ice boundary, fast-ice edge, first-year ice, flaw, flaw lead, floe, flooded ice, fractured, fractured zone, fracturing, glacier, grey ice, grey-white ice, growler, hummock, iceberg, iceberg tongue, ice blink, ice boundary, ice cake, ice edge, ice foot, ice free, ice island, ice shelf, large fracture, lead, medium fracture, multiyear ice, nilas, old ice, open pack ice, open water, pack ice, polar ice, polynya, puddle, rafted ice, rafting, ram, ridge, rotten ice, second-year ice, shearing, shore lead, shore polynya, small fracture, strip, tabular berg, thaw holes, very close pack ice, very open pack ice, water sky, young coastal ice, and young ice.

  2. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  3. Housing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1985-01-01

    Building specifications for birdhouses (nesting boxes) are given for 11 species (chickadee, titmouse, nuthatch, Carolina wren, house wren, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, flicker, bluebird, screech owl, and wood duck) including length, width, depth, entrance diameter, and height above the ground. Pointers for construction, materials, and…

  4. Housing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1985-01-01

    Building specifications for birdhouses (nesting boxes) are given for 11 species (chickadee, titmouse, nuthatch, Carolina wren, house wren, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, flicker, bluebird, screech owl, and wood duck) including length, width, depth, entrance diameter, and height above the ground. Pointers for construction, materials, and…

  5. House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-07

    Chairman of the U.S. House Science, Space and Technology Committee Rep. Ralph Hall, R-TX, asks a question of NASA Administrator Charles Bolden during a hearing on Wednesday, March 7, 2012 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Ice Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, Mary Jane

    2017-05-01

    Ice is a fundamental solid with important environmental, biological, geological, and extraterrestrial impact. The stable form of ice at atmospheric pressure is hexagonal ice, Ih. Despite its prevalence, Ih remains an enigmatic solid, in part due to challenges in preparing samples for fundamental studies. Surfaces of ice present even greater challenges. Recently developed methods for preparation of large single-crystal samples make it possible to reproducibly prepare any chosen face to address numerous fundamental questions. This review describes preparation methods along with results that firmly establish the connection between the macroscopic structure (observed in snowflakes, microcrystallites, or etch pits) and the molecular-level configuration (detected with X-ray or electron scattering techniques). Selected results of probing interactions at the ice surface, including growth from the melt, surface vibrations, and characterization of the quasi-liquid layer, are discussed.

  7. Smart Houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  8. Operation IceBridge: Sea Ice Interlude

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Sea ice comes in an array of shapes and sizes and has its own ephemeral beauty. Operation IceBridge studies sea ice at both poles, and also runs across interesting formations en route to other targ...

  9. Ice Waves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Ice Waves - May 21st, 2001 Description: Along the southeastern coast of Greenland, an intricate network of fjords funnels glacial ice to the Atlantic Ocean. During the summer melting season, newly calved icebergs join slabs of sea ice and older, weathered bergs in an offshore slurry that the southward-flowing East Greenland Current sometimes swirls into stunning shapes. Exposed rock of mountain peaks, tinted red in this image, hints at a hidden landscape. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  10. Fair Housing and Latinos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubillos, Herminia L.

    Latinos need the protection of the proposed Fair Housing Amendments of 1987 and the active support of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to overcome housing discrimination. Latinos are both disproportionately poor and inadequately housed, but low income alone cannot fully explain the poor housing conditions under which many…

  11. Faculty Housing Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    1982-01-01

    Some of the creative financing programs currently used to provide faculty housing assistance in California and elsewhere in the United States are described. Generally, the programs fall into one of four categories: rental housing, owner housing, mortgage assistance, and housing stipends. Institutions with a comprehensive housing program often have…

  12. United States housing, 2013

    Treesearch

    Delton Alderman

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the 2013 U.S. housing market, including updated information and data, and is part of an ongoing series of quarterly and annual housing reports that provide historical information on housing permits, starts, houses under construction, and completions. In addition, short briefs present information regarding house sales,...

  13. Breakup of Pack Ice, Antarctic Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Breakup of Pack Ice along the periphery of the Antarctic Ice Shelf (53.5S, 3.0E) produced this mosaic of ice floes off the Antarctic Ice Shelf. Strong offshore winds, probably associated with strong katabatic downdrafts from the interior of the continent, are seen peeling off the edges of the ice shelf into long filamets of sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits and growlers to flow northward into the South Atlantic Ocean. 53.5S, 3.0E

  14. Late Palaeoproterozoic mafic dyking in the Ukrainian Shield of Volgo-Sarmatia caused by rotation during the assembly of supercontinent Columbia (Nuna)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanova, Svetlana V.; Gintov, Oleg B.; Kurlovich, Dzmitry M.; Lubnina, Nataliya V.; Nilsson, Mimmi K. M.; Orlyuk, Mykhailo I.; Pashkevich, Inna K.; Shumlyanskyy, Leonid V.; Starostenko, Vitaly I.

    2013-08-01

    The Ukrainian Shield comprises the exposed crust of the large Palaeoproterozoic protocraton Volgo-Sarmatia, which together with the Fennoscandian crustal segment constitutes the East European Craton ("Baltica"). Geological and geophysical data indicate that 1.80 to 1.75 Ga mafic dykes related to anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) plutons are widespread within the Ukrainian Shield. We examined their ages, distribution patterns, orientations and compositions in three different crustal blocks (Volyn, Ingul and Azov), and found close spatial relationships with major strike-slip fault systems developed during two phases of extension. The early, 1.80-1.77 Ga, generation of mafic dykes mostly follows NW (330 ± 20°) and more rarely N-S- or E-W-trending faults corresponding to major NE-SW extension (the Submoshorino phase). These dykes contain olivine dolerites, picrites, camptonites, lamprophyres, kimberlites and other rocks belonging to tholeiitic and subalkaline jotunitic series. The compositions of these dykes differ between the host blocks, but all feature upper mantle geochemical signatures such as high contents of Ni and Cr, and positive values of εNd(1800) up to + 2.8. High degrees of REE fractionation indicate deep levels of mantle melting, which is particularly characteristic of the Ingul block as marked by the most extensive and dense mafic dyke swarms. The later, 1.76-1.75 Ga, dyke swarms occur close to the most voluminous AMCG suites of similar age and were emplaced during the second (Korsun) phase of faulting when all the older strike-slip fault zones were reactivated and partly transformed to tensional faults by E-W extension. These dyke swarms mainly trend 030 ± 20°. They are jotunitic and their isotopic signatures indicate a greater participation of crustal sources in the parent melts. The overall transtensional tectonic setting of the mafic dyking associated with the AMCG magmatism in Volgo-Sarmatia was created by convergent tectonics

  15. Geochronology of the Baltica crust in the Western Gneiss Region, Norway: Palaeoproterozoic augen gneisses, Sveconorwegian zircon neocrystallization and Caledonian zircon deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Røhr, Torkil S.; Bingen, Bernard; Robinson, Peter; Reddy, Steven M.

    2013-04-01

    The Western Gneiss Region, Western Norway, is dominated by Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic felsic crust of Baltica ancestry (Baltican Basement), partly subducted to high- and ultrahigh-pressure (HP-UHP) conditions during the Caledonian (Scandian) orogeny between 415 and 395 Ma. The dominant felsic gneisses, in contrast with mafic rocks, carry little evidence for the HP-UHP history, but were affected by amphibolite-facies reworking during exhumation. LA-ICPMS and SIMS zircon U-Pb data were collected in augen orthogneiss samples to constrain the magmatic and metamorphic geochronology in this crust. Five samples from the eclogite-bearing HP-UHP basement near Molde yield intrusion ages ranging from 1644 +/-6 to 1594 +/-10 Ma. Two samples of the structurally underlying eclogite-free basement yield ages of 1685 ±18 and 1644 +/-13 Ma, and a sample from the infolded Middle Allochthon Risberget Nappe yields an equivalent age of 1676 +/-18 Ma. Two samples of the eclogite-bearing basement contain low Th/U neocrystallized zircon with an age of 950 +/-26 Ma. This zircon provides the northernmost direct evidence for at least amphibolite-facies Sveconorwegian metamorphism in unquestionable Baltican crust, close to the known "Sveconorwegian boundary" in the Western Gneiss Region. The Western Gneiss Region characterized by 1686-1594 Ma magmatism, the Eastern Segment of the Sveconorwegian Orogen characterized by 1795-1640 Ma magmatism, and the Idefjorden terrane hosting the type Gothian active margin magmatism dated between 1659 and 1520 Ma, probably represent three distinct Proterozoic growth zones of Baltica into which Sveconorwegian reworking propagated. Samples of the eclogite-bearing basement lack Scandian neocrystallization of zircon, but show partial recrystallization of zircon. Paired CL and EBSD images indicate that zircon crystals underwent crystal-plastic deformation during the Scandian subduction-exhumation cycle. They illustrate a relationship between crystal

  16. Palaeoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Alto Tererê Group, southernmost Amazonian Craton, based on field mapping, zircon dating and rock geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda Filho, J. V.; Fuck, R. A.; Ruiz, A. S.; Dantas, E. L.; Scandolara, J. E.; Rodrigues, J. B.; Nascimento, N. D. C.

    2016-01-01

    New geochemical and geochronological U-Pb and Sm-Nd data from amphibolites of the Alto Tererê Group, which are of Palaeoproterozoic age, are presented. The amphibolites are exposed in the central-eastern portion of the Rio Apa Block, southern Amazonian Craton, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and are composed of hornblende, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, cummingtonite and epidote. The amphibolites are subdivided into three lithofacies: (i) thinly banded amphibolites (metabasalts), (ii) coarse- and medium-grained amphibolites with relic subophitic texture (metagabbros), and (iii) amphibolites with relic cumulate texture (metapyroxenites). Chemical data also suggest the subdivision of the amphibolites into three different types. These rocks yield a U-Pb zircon age of 1768 ± 6 Ma and are therefore older than rocks of part of the Rio Apa Complex. Their Sm-Nd model ages range between 2.89 and 1.88 Ga, and their ɛNd (T) values range between -3.40 and + 3.74. Chemical analyses of these rocks indicate SiO2 concentrations between 45.23 and 50.65 wt.%, MgO concentrations between 4.34 and 8.01 wt.%, TiO2 concentrations between 0.91 and 1.74 wt.%, weakly fractionated rare-earth element (REE) patterns with mild depletion in heavy REEs, enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and high-field-strength element (HFSEs), negative Nb, Ta and Co anomalies, positive Ba and Pb anomalies, low Ce concentrations, high Rb/Y ratios and low Th/La and Hf/Sm ratios. These features reflect metasomatism of the mantle wedge produced by sediments from the subducted plate. Various degrees of melting mark the evolution of the parent basic magmas, although subordinate crustal contamination may also have occurred. The geochemical signature of the amphibolites corresponds to that of tholeiitic basalts generated in an extensional back-arc-basin environment. The deposition in the basin apparently ceased during the first episode of compression and deformation at approximately 1.68 Ga, and the main

  17. United States housing, 2012

    Treesearch

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  18. Housing, Design, and Furnishings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a six-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on housing, design, and furnishings. The units cover: (1) the societal aspects of housing (including the relationship between housing and the economy, population trends, and culture-related housing characteristics); (2) family housing…

  19. Timing the structural events in the Palaeoproterozoic Bolé-Nangodi belt terrane and adjacent Maluwe basin, West African craton, in central-west Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kock, G. S.; Théveniaut, H.; Botha, P. M. W.; Gyapong, W.

    2012-04-01

    The Maluwe basin, north-adjacent to the Sunyani basin, is the northernmost of the northeast-trending Eburnean volcaniclastic depositories in Ghana. These basins are separated from one another by remnants of Eoeburnean crust, all formed during the evolution of an arc-backarc basins complex in a Palaeoproterozoic intraoceanic environment. The Bolé-Nangodi belt terrane to the northwest, of mostly Eoeburnean crust is fault bounded with the Maluwe basin along the northeast-trending Bolé-Navrongo fault zone. The stratigraphic sequence, which was the key to unravelling the structural evolution of the study area, was established by means of field observations aided by precision SHRIMP geochronology. The quartzitic, pelitic, quartzofeldspathic and granitic gneisses of the Eoeburnean crust (>2150 Ma) experienced complex metamorphic mineral growth and migmatitization, mostly under static crustal conditions and were subjected to several deformation episodes. The foliated mafic and metasedimentary enclaves within the Ifanteyire granite establish deformation to have taken place prior to ˜2195 Ma, while the tectonically emplaced Kuri amphibolites within the 2187-Ma gneissic Gondo granite indicate a stage of rifting followed by collision. Deformation of granite dykes in the Gondo granites at ˜2150 Ma concluded the development of the Eoeburnean orogenic cycle (DEE). The Sawla Suite, contemporaneous with the deposition of the Maluwe Group, intruded the tectonic exhumed Bolé-Nangodi terrane during extension between ˜2137 and 2125 Ma. The rifting separated the Abulembire fragment from the Bolé-Nangodi terrane. During subsequent northwestward subduction of young back-arc basin oceanic crust the volcaniclastic strata of the Maluwe Group and Sawla granitoids were deformed (DE1) under chlorite/sericite greenschist-grade conditions. The NE-trending folds had subhorizontal axes and subvertical axial planes. Simultaneous to the DE1 orogenesis the molasses of the Banda Group was

  20. U-Pb geochronology on detrital zircons from FAR-DEEP cores, Fennoscandian Shield - age constraints for events of the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic transition and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, C.; Martin, A.; Bahlburg, H.; Lepland, A.; Melezhik, V.; Prave, A. R.; Condon, D. J.; Berndt, J.; Kooijman, E.; Far-Deep Scientists

    2010-12-01

    The Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic transition is marked by several environmental events that were important for the evolution of the Earth system and occurred coeval with plate tectonic reorganisations including the break-up of the supercontinent Kenorland. We applied U-Pb-geochronology on detrital zircons by LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS to improve age constraints of these events, recorded in the 2.5-2.0 Ga rock successions of the Fennoscandian Shield and including the Huronian glaciation and the Lomagundi-Jatuli positive excursion of δ13C in sedimentary carbonates. The detrital zircons provided ages ranging from 3.5 to 1.9 Ga with dominant age populations in the range of 2.9-2.5 Ga for most samples. Youngest zircon ages from the Seidorechka Sedimentary and Polisarka formations in the Imandra-Varzuga Greenstone Belt and the Neverskrukk Formation in the Pechenga Greenstone Belt constrain, for the first time, the deposition of glacial diamictites on the Fennoscandian Shield to between 2.43 and 2.2 Ga. Similar ages have been reported for glacial deposits in Canada and South Africa, consistent with a global glaciation at that time. The youngest detrital zircon ages derived from the Kuetsjärvi Sedimentary Fm, containing isotopically heavy carbonates, and from the overlying Kolasjoki Sedimentary Fm in the Pechenga Greenstone Belt indicate that deposition of carbonates corresponding to the Lomagundi-Jatuli δ13C excursion took place between 2.3 Ga and 2.06 Ga, in agreement with previous ages from these formations. Detrital zircon populations of c. 2.06 Ga and c. 1.92 Ga characterise the lower and upper parts of the Kolasjoki Sedimentary Fm, respectively. These units are separated by an unconformity of unknown duration, but the age distributions may indicate a significant hiatus because these are considerably younger than the 2.0-1.97 Ga ages reported from the overlying Pilgujärvi Sedimentary and Volcanic fms. Alternatively, the younger cluster of ages may record deformation

  1. NACA Researcher Measures Ice on a Turbojet Engine Inlet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1948-11-21

    The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory conducted an extensive icing research program in the late 1940s that included studies in the Icing Research Tunnel and using specially modified aircraft. One facet of this program was the investigation of the effects of icing on turbojets. Although jet engines allowed aircraft to pass through inclement weather at high rates of speed, ice accumulation was still a concern. The NACA’s B-24M Liberator was initially reconfigured with a General Electric I-16 engine installed in the aircraft’s waist compartment with an air scoop and spray nozzles to produce the artificial icing conditions. The centrifugal engine appeared nearly impervious to the effects of icing. Axial-flow jet engines, however, were much more susceptible to icing damage. The inlet guide vanes were particularly vulnerable, but the cowling’s leading edge, the main bearing supports, and accessory housing could also ice up. If pieces of ice reached the engine’s internal components, the compressor blades could be damaged. To study this phenomenon, a Westinghouse 24C turbojet, seen in this photograph, was installed under the B-24M’s right wing. In January 1948 flight tests of the 24C in icing conditions began. Despite ice buildup into the second stage of the compressor, the engine was able to operate at takeoff speeds. Researchers found the ice on the inlet vanes resulted in half of the engine’s decreased performance.

  2. Palaeoproterozoic continental arc magmatism, and Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the Aravalli-Delhi orogenic belt, NW India: New constraints from in situ zircon U-Pb-Hf isotope systematics, monazite dating and whole-rock geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Parampreet; Zeh, Armin; Chaudhri, Naveen

    2017-04-01

    Presently, the extent, origin and petrogenesis of late Palaeoproterozoic (ca. 1.85 Ga) magmatism in the north-central Aravalli-Delhi orogenic belt, NW India and subsequent metamorphic overprints are poorly constrained. Results of new in situ zircon U-Pb-Hf isotope analyses in combination with whole-rock elemental and isotopic data provide the first hard evidence that granitoid magmatism occurred in a continental magmatic arc setting between 1.86 and 1.81 Ga. The Hf-Nd model ages of 3.0-2.6 Ga and inherited zircon grains of 3.3-2.5 Ga indicate abundant reworking of Archaean crust. Flat HREE patterns with negative Eu anomalies furthermore reveal that the granitoids were generated from garnet-free and plagioclase-rich sources at shallow depths. Significant isotope variation among granitoid samples (εHft = -3.7 to -9.0; εNdt = -4.8 to -7.9) indicate that the reworked Archaean crust was not completely homogenised during the Palaeoproterozoic. This is best reflected by zircon Hf-isotope variation of ca. 9.5 epsilon units within the oldest granitoid sample. Zircon grains from this sample define three discrete Hf-isotope groups at εHf1.86Ga = -8.9, -4.8 and -1.6. These are interpreted to result from mixing of zircon-saturated magmas derived from three distinct sources within the crust prior to solidification. A monazite U-Pb isochron age of 868 ± 4 Ma from one of the granitoid samples furthermore indicates that the Aravalli fold belt was affected by an important post-magmatic overprint, perhaps related to the widespread metasomatic, granulite metamorphic and/or magmatic events during the same time span.

  3. Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic gneisses reworked during a Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) high-grade event in the Mozambique belt of East Africa: Structural relationships and zircon ages from the Kidatu area, central Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, M.; Kröner, A.; Poller, U.; Sommer, H.; Muhongo, S.; Wingate, M. T. D.

    2006-06-01

    This study presents new zircon ages and Sm-Nd whole-rock isotopic compositions for high-grade gneisses from the Udzungwa Mountain area in the central part of the Mozambique belt, Tanzania. The study area comprises a succession of layered granulite-facies para- and orthogneisses, mostly retrograded to amphibolite-facies. The original intrusive contacts became obscured or severely modified during non-coaxial ductile deformation, and extensive shearing occurred during retrogression. Structures reflecting the early deformational history were mostly obscured when the rocks were transported into the lower crust as documented by severe flattening. Only the fragmented gneisses in the eastern part of the area testify to a brittle regime. Structures in narrow low strain zones that predate the currently observed layering are preserved in rootless isoclinal folds and boudins. Magmatic and detrital zircons from tonalitic to felsic orthogneisses and a metapelite sample were dated using the U-Pb and Pb-Pb evaporation methods and SHRIMP II. Cathodoluminiscence images reveal ubiquitous xenocrystic cores, rimmed by clear, unzoned overgrowth due to high-grade metamorphism. Discordant U-Pb data therefore reflect core-rim relationships, and it was not always possible to obtain precise crystallisation ages. The analyses reveal Neoarchaean, Palaeoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic protolith ages. Nd isotopic systematics yielded strongly negative ɛNd( t) -values and Neoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic model ages, even for gneisses emplaced in the Neoproterozoic. The trace element distribution suggests upper crustal derivation of the gneisses. Therefore, our study provides evidence that recycling of older crust played a major role during the evolution of the Kidatu area. Neoarchaean rocks are interpreted to represent fragments of the Tanzania craton. Our results, together with those of earlier workers, lead to the conclusion that the central part of the Mozambique belt mainly consists of ancient

  4. Preliminary Results From a Heavily Instrumented Engine Ice Crystal Icing Test in a Ground Based Altitude Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Oliver, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results from the heavily instrumented ALF502R-5 engine test conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory are discussed. The effects of ice crystal icing on a full scale engine is examined and documented. This same model engine, serial number LF01, was used during the inaugural icing test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory facility. The uncommanded reduction of thrust (rollback) events experienced by this engine in flight were simulated in the facility. Limited instrumentation was used to detect icing on the LF01 engine. Metal temperatures on the exit guide vanes and outer shroud and the load measurement were the only indicators of ice formation. The current study features a similar engine, serial number LF11, which is instrumented to characterize the cloud entering the engine, detect/characterize ice accretion, and visualize the ice accretion in the region of interest. Data were acquired at key LF01 test points and additional points that explored: icing threshold regions, low altitude, high altitude, spinner heat effects, and the influence of varying the facility and engine parameters. For each condition of interest, data were obtained from some selected variations of ice particle median volumetric diameter, total water content, fan speed, and ambient temperature. For several cases the NASA in-house engine icing risk assessment code was used to find conditions that would lead to a rollback event. This study further helped NASA develop necessary icing diagnostic instrumentation, expand the capabilities of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory, and generate a dataset that will be used to develop and validate in-house icing prediction and risk mitigation computational tools. The ice accretion on the outer shroud region was acquired by internal video cameras. The heavily instrumented engine showed good repeatability of icing responses when compared to the key LF01 test points and during day-to-day operation. Other noticeable

  5. Preliminary Results From a Heavily Instrumented Engine Ice Crystal Icing Test in a Ground Based Altitude Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Oliver, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results from the heavily instrumented ALF502R-5 engine test conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory are discussed. The effects of ice crystal icing on a full scale engine is examined and documented. This same model engine, serial number LF01, was used during the inaugural icing test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory facility. The uncommanded reduction of thrust (rollback) events experienced by this engine in flight were simulated in the facility. Limited instrumentation was used to detect icing on the LF01 engine. Metal temperatures on the exit guide vanes and outer shroud and the load measurement were the only indicators of ice formation. The current study features a similar engine, serial number LF11, which is instrumented to characterize the cloud entering the engine, detect/ characterize ice accretion, and visualize the ice accretion in the region of interest. Data were acquired at key LF01 test points and additional points that explored: icing threshold regions, low altitude, high altitude, spinner heat effects, and the influence of varying the facility and engine parameters. For each condition of interest, data were obtained from some selected variations of ice particle median volumetric diameter, total water content, fan speed, and ambient temperature. For several cases the NASA in-house engine icing risk assessment code was used to find conditions that would lead to a rollback event. This study further helped NASA develop necessary icing diagnostic instrumentation, expand the capabilities of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory, and generate a dataset that will be used to develop and validate in-house icing prediction and risk mitigation computational tools. The ice accretion on the outer shroud region was acquired by internal video cameras. The heavily instrumented engine showed good repeatability of icing responses when compared to the key LF01 test points and during day-to-day operation. Other noticeable

  6. 111. Photocopied August 1978. FOREBAY AND POWER HOUSE FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Photocopied August 1978. FOREBAY AND POWER HOUSE FROM WEST FOREBAY EMBANKMENT, 1920 OR LATER, NOTICE THAT A GOOD PORTION OF THE GRATING OF THE ICE AND TRASH RACK HAS BEEN REMOVED FOR THE WINTER. ICE TENDED TO FORM ON THE RACK, CLOGGING IT UP AND INHIBITING THE FLOW, THE UNION CARBIDE PLANT IS VISIBLE ON THE FAR RIGHT. (881) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  7. 1. General view, outbuildings. The seed house composed of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, outbuildings. The seed house composed of the greenhouse, a storeroom (shed), a classroom (over a former ice pit), and a kitchen (over a cellar)-stands on the right. The barn roof is visible at center and the gift shop (former stable) stands on the left (Note the carved stone posts framing the gateway). - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crank, Ice) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Listen Methamphetamine—meth for short—is a white, bitter powder. ... names for meth are: Crank Ice Crystal Glass Chalk PDF File: EasyToRead_MethFacts_012017.pdf In This ...

  9. Definition of squatter housing.

    PubMed

    Gedik, A

    1993-01-01

    One of the most critical urban problems of developing countries is squatter housing. Squatter housing was defined as housing illegally established and roughly constructed. The initial structure was small in size, made of low-quality materials, and built with nominal labor costs on squatter land with a nominal rent. The basic housing unit may be expanded over time. Squatter housing arises out of a variety of circumstances, including an inadequate supply of old depleted formal housing near the central business district. Squatter housing is attractive to migrants and others in low-income and insecure employment. Improvements in squatter housing locations are possible when spatial location problems are not a concern. Policies concerning squatter housing have changed over time. Most government policies accept the inevitability of squatter housing and seek to improve and upgrade housing and public service conditions. The literature on squatter housing spans a variety of forms of housing. The variety of forms was due to the variety of levels of development within countries, changes over time, and changes toward a more permanent population in the labor force rather then temporary migrants. The forms of housing were identified as legal-formal residential housing which excluded slums, residential slums, squatter housing, and other residential housing. Set theory was used to clarify, with explicitness and a minimum of redundancies, 14 different sets. The 14 sets revolved around socioeconomic levels, housing and environmental conditions, construction process, land ownership, zoning regulations, subdivision regulations, and building construction regulations. Legal-formal housing meant legal land ownership and conformity to legal zoning, subdivision, and building construction regulations. Usually housing was of higher quality and construction was according to a time schedule. Slum housing also conformed to legal status and a regular time span for construction, but the

  10. Disappearing Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images were acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 21st and 25th days of the mission, or Sols 20 and 24 (June 15 and 18, 2008).

    These images show sublimation of ice in the trench informally called 'Dodo-Goldilocks' over the course of four days.

    In the lower left corner, lumps disappear, similar to the process of evaporation.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Disappearing Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images were acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 21st and 25th days of the mission, or Sols 20 and 24 (June 15 and 18, 2008).

    These images show sublimation of ice in the trench informally called 'Dodo-Goldilocks' over the course of four days.

    In the lower left corner, lumps disappear, similar to the process of evaporation.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  13. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  14. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  15. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  16. Adaptation of Arctic and Antarctic ice metazoa to their habitat.

    PubMed

    Gradinger, R R

    2001-01-01

    Sea ice is a unique habitat in polar seas. A diverse assemblage of plants and animals lives in its interior parts and at the ice-water interface. Their distribution is to a large extent controlled by abiotic parameters such as light, salinity and space, as well as food availability. In both the Arctic and Antarctic, the highest metazoan concentrations occur mostly in the bottom centimetres of the sea ice. Dominant metazoans are nematodes, turbellarians, rotifers and crustaceans. The ice-water interface itself houses in addition to endemic amphipods migrants from both the ice and the pelagic realm. To survive with the environmental conditions of the sea ice habitat, the ice biota is adapted, specifically to seasonal salinity variations from below 5 to above 60 PSU. Sea ice metazoans feed mainly on the algae growing within the sea ice. The loss of habitat during ice melt periods can lead to substantial sedimentation of ice fauna to the sea floor, where it might act as food source for the benthos.

  17. 78 FR 62762 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness... 24, 2013, ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... as follows. In Rule 402(b), the term ``the Clearing House'' was removed and replaced with ``ICE Clear...

  18. Sea-ice software: ICEMAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong

    1988-01-01

    An oceanographer's work bench which provides tools for ice data display, ice type classification, global and local ice motion analysis, and data enhancing is presented. The user interface; ice texture analysis; and ice motion analysis are described.

  19. Ice Front at Venable Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-13

    This photo, taken onboard the Chilean Navy P3 aircraft, shows the ice front of Venable Ice Shelf, West Antarctica, in October 2008. It is an example of a small-size ice shelf that is a large melt water producer.

  20. Ice Crystal Icing Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.

    2017-01-01

    Ice crystals found at high altitude near convective clouds are known to cause jet engine power-loss events. These events occur due to ice crystals entering a propulsion systems core flowpath and accreting ice resulting in events such as uncommanded loss of thrust (rollback), engine stall, surge, and damage due to ice shedding. As part of a community with a growing need to understand the underlying physics of ice crystal icing, NASA has been performing experimental efforts aimed at providing datasets that can be used to generate models to predict the ice accretion inside current and future engine designs. Fundamental icing physics studies on particle impacts, accretion on a single airfoil, and ice accretions observed during a rollback event inside a full-scale engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory are summarized. Low fidelity code development using the results from the engine tests which identify key parameters for ice accretion risk and the development of high fidelity codes are described. These activities have been conducted internal to NASA and through collaboration efforts with industry, academia, and other government agencies. The details of the research activities and progress made to date in addressing ice crystal icing research challenges are discussed.

  1. How to Teach Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysocki, Joseph L.

    1977-01-01

    A list of topics and related field experiences accompany this description of an introductory undergraduate course on housing and society. Topics and community experiences are also outlined for a graduate course in advanced housing and interior design. (TA)

  2. Student-Initiated Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild, Robert M.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes a report that describes housing where student groups lease, purchase, or even develop their own living quarters. Considers the birth of the movement, federal student housing programs, and a view to future programs. (Author/DN)

  3. Scrambled Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This complex area on the side of Europa which faces away from Jupiter shows several types of features which are formed by disruptions of Europa's icy crust. North is to the top of the image, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft, and the Sun illuminates the surface from the left. The prominent wide, dark bands are up to 20 kilometers (12 miles) wide and over 50 kilometers (30 miles) long. They are believed to have formed when Europa's icy crust fractured, separated and filled in with darker, 'dirtier' ice or slush from below. A relatively rare type of feature on Europa is the 15-kilometer-diameter (9.3-mile) impact crater in the lower left corner. The small number of impact craters on Europa's surface is an indication of its relatively young age. A region of chaotic terrain south of this impact crater contains crustal plates which have broken apart and rafted into new positions. Some of these 'ice rafts' are nearly 1 kilometer (about half a mile) across. Other regions of chaotic terrain are visible and indicate heating and disruption of Europa's icy crust from below. The youngest features in this scene are the long, narrow cracks in the ice which cut across all other features. One of these cracks is about 30 kilometers (18 miles) to the right of the impact crater and extends for hundreds of miles from the top to the bottom of the image.

    The image, centered near 23 degrees south latitude and 179 degrees longitude, covers an area about 240 by 215 kilometers (150 by 130 miles) across. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 460 meters (500 yards) across. The image was taken as Galileo flew by Europa on March 29, 1998. The image was taken by the onboard solid state imaging system camera from an altitude of 23,000 kilometers (14,000 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech

  4. Scrambled Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This complex area on the side of Europa which faces away from Jupiter shows several types of features which are formed by disruptions of Europa's icy crust. North is to the top of the image, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft, and the Sun illuminates the surface from the left. The prominent wide, dark bands are up to 20 kilometers (12 miles) wide and over 50 kilometers (30 miles) long. They are believed to have formed when Europa's icy crust fractured, separated and filled in with darker, 'dirtier' ice or slush from below. A relatively rare type of feature on Europa is the 15-kilometer-diameter (9.3-mile) impact crater in the lower left corner. The small number of impact craters on Europa's surface is an indication of its relatively young age. A region of chaotic terrain south of this impact crater contains crustal plates which have broken apart and rafted into new positions. Some of these 'ice rafts' are nearly 1 kilometer (about half a mile) across. Other regions of chaotic terrain are visible and indicate heating and disruption of Europa's icy crust from below. The youngest features in this scene are the long, narrow cracks in the ice which cut across all other features. One of these cracks is about 30 kilometers (18 miles) to the right of the impact crater and extends for hundreds of miles from the top to the bottom of the image.

    The image, centered near 23 degrees south latitude and 179 degrees longitude, covers an area about 240 by 215 kilometers (150 by 130 miles) across. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 460 meters (500 yards) across. The image was taken as Galileo flew by Europa on March 29, 1998. The image was taken by the onboard solid state imaging system camera from an altitude of 23,000 kilometers (14,000 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech

  5. Insulator for laser housing

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, David B.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member.

  6. Insulator for laser housing

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, D.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member. 3 figs.

  7. Housing: Topic Paper F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This paper, one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, addresses the issue of housing. Major federal responsibilities are to develop additional housing opportunities for persons with disabilities and to assure that currently available housing is equally open to individuals with…

  8. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  9. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    President Barack Obama spoke at the White House Science Fair Tuesday, May 27, 2014 at the White House. NASA Administrator Charles Bolden attended and was recognized by the President at the fourth White House Science Fair, which included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  10. The Hispanic Housing Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbeare, Cushing N.; Canales, Judith A.

    This report examines the housing characteristics and needs of Hispanic households in the United States, drawing on information from the 1980 Census and the 1983 Annual Housing Survey. Among the conclusions are the following: (1) housing quality is a major problem for more than one in six Hispanic families; (2) among Hispanic subgroups, Puerto…

  11. Ice sheet margins and ice shelves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the size of ice sheet margins in polar regions is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a rapid response to warming on the order of tens to hundreds of years. It is found that the early response of the polar regions to climate warming would be an increase in the area of summer melt on the ice sheets and ice shelves. For sufficiently large warming (5-10C) the delayed effects would include the breakup of the ice shelves by an increase in ice drainage rates, particularly from the ice sheets. On the basis of published data for periodic changes in the thickness and melting rates of the marine ice sheets and fjord glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, it is shown that the rate of retreat (or advance) of an ice sheet is primarily determined by: bedrock topography; the basal conditions of the grounded ice sheet; and the ice shelf condition downstream of the grounding line. A program of satellite and ground measurements to monitor the state of ice sheet equilibrium is recommended.

  12. Brash Ice Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    34 cannonball " brash ice should not be confused is slush ice or mush ice. Slush is defined as accumulation of snow in water, but either of these terms...that " cannonball ice" consists of perfect spheres, but rather that the pieces are relatively spherical, their three dimensions being comparable

  13. Modern Airfoil Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Sheldon, David W.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents results from the first icing tests performed in the Modem Airfoils program. Two airfoils have been subjected to icing tests in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Both airfoils were two dimensional airfoils; one was representative of a commercial transport airfoil while the other was representative of a business jet airfoil. The icing test conditions were selected from the FAR Appendix C envelopes. Effects on aerodynamic performance are presented including the effects of varying amounts of glaze ice as well as the effects of approximately the same amounts of glaze, mixed, and rime ice. Actual ice shapes obtained in these tests are also presented for these cases. In addition, comparisons are shown between ice shapes from the tests and ice shapes predicted by the computer code, LEWICE for similar conditions. Significant results from the tests are that relatively small amounts of ice can have nearly as much effect on airfoil lift coefficient as much greater amounts of ice and that glaze ice usually has a more detrimental effect than either rime or mixed ice. LEWICE predictions of ice shapes, in general, compared reasonably well with ice shapes obtained in the IRT, although differences in details of the ice shapes were observed.

  14. Icing: Accretion, Detection, Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, John J.

    1994-01-01

    The global aircraft industry and its regulatory agencies are currently involved in three major icing efforts: ground icing; advanced technologies for in-flight icing; and tailplane icing. These three major icing topics correspondingly support the three major segments of any aircraft flight profile: takeoff; cruise and hold; and approach and land. This lecture addressess these three topics in the same sequence as they appear in flight, starting with ground deicing, followed by advanced technologies for in-flight ice protection, and ending with tailplane icing.

  15. Wilkins Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-20

    The Wilkins Ice Shelf, as seen by NASA Terra spacecraft, on the western side of the Antarctic Peninsula, experienced multiple disintegration events in 2008. By the beginning of 2009, a narrow ice bridge was all that remained to connect the ice shelf to ice fragments fringing nearby Charcot Island. That bridge gave way in early April 2009. Days after the ice bridge rupture, on April 12, 2009, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the southern base of the ice bridge, where it connected with the remnant ice shelf. Although the ice bridge has played a role in stabilizing the ice fragments in the region, its rupture doesn't guarantee the ice will immediately move away. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11991

  16. Frazil Ice Dynamics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    necessary nd Identify by block number) Crystal growth Ice prevention Crystallization Mathematical analysis Frazil ice Ice *O Ice formation 120. ABSTRACT... growth - and nucleation of new crystals are the major parameters in these equations. Expressions tor the growth rate ot frazil ice N. V, crystals are...described. The growth rate along the major axis is controlled by heat transfer. The heat transfer coefficient * O is a function of crystal size, the fluid

  17. Ice Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Heavy water ice clouds almost completely obscure the surface in Vastitas Borealis.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 69.5, Longitude 283.6 East (76.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  18. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  19. The New ICE Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Randy; Willis, Mike

    2005-07-01

    Recent advances in the application of pulsed power to the study of dynamic material response have been made on the Sandia Z accelerator. Smoothly increasing multi-megabar pressure loads have been achieved allowing quasi-isentropes for these materials to be inferred. A significant amount of material research does not, however, require such intense pressure loading. In response to this, Sandia National Laboratories is constructing a facility that will house a compact Isentropic Compression Experiment (ICE) pulsed power driver capable of producing currents of ˜ 4 Ma, and subsequent pressure loads on 4 samples up to ˜1 Mbar to provide a more cost effective, easily accessed machine for dynamic material studies. Additionally, a single stage air gun will be available to support the pulser as well as for standard, low velocity EOS experiments. Instrumentation will include conventional VISAR with ultra low VPF capability, spatially resolved VISAR, flash X-rays, and sample temperature control. Discussion of facility capabilities and preliminary data will be presented. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-ACO4-94AL85000.

  20. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  1. Stochastic ice stream dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution. PMID:27457960

  2. Stochastic ice stream dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-09

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  3. Stochastic ice stream dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  4. Iced-airfoil aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, M. B.; Broeren, A. P.; Blumenthal, L. A.

    2005-07-01

    Past research on airfoil aerodynamics in icing are reviewed. This review emphasizes the time period after the 1978 NASA Lewis workshop that initiated the modern icing research program at NASA and the current period after the 1994 ATR accident where aerodynamics research has been more aircraft safety focused. Research pre-1978 is also briefly reviewed. Following this review, our current knowledge of iced airfoil aerodynamics is presented from a flowfield-physics perspective. This article identifies four classes of ice accretions: roughness, horn ice, streamwise ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. For each class, the key flowfield features such as flowfield separation and reattachment are discussed and how these contribute to the known aerodynamic effects of these ice shapes. Finally Reynolds number and Mach number effects on iced-airfoil aerodynamics are summarized.

  5. Sea ice ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Kevin R

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  6. Top Sounder Ice Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  7. Ice Friction in the Sport of Bobsleigh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Louis

    The primary objective of this work is to examine the effect of the bobsleigh runner profile on ice / runner friction. The work is centered on a computational model (F.A.S.T. 3.2b) which calculates the coefficient of friction between a steel blade and ice. The first step was to analyze runners used in the sport of bobsleigh. This analysis was performed using a handheld rocker gauge, a device used in speed skating. The size of the device was optimized for hockey, short and long track speed skating, and bobsleigh. A number of runners were measured using the gauge and it was found that the portion of the runner contacting the ice generally has a rocker value of (20--50) m. Next, the hardness of athletic ice surfaces was analyzed. The ice hardness was determined by dropping steel balls varying in mass from (8--540) g onto the ice surface, from a height of (0.3--1.2) m, and measuring the diameter of the indentation craters. The ice hardness was found to be P¯(T) = ((--0.6 +/- 0.4) T + 14.7 +/- 2.1) MPa and the elastic recovery of the ice surface was found to be negligible. The F.A.S.T. model was adapted from a speed skate model to calculate the coefficient of friction between a bobsleigh runner and a flat ice surface. The model predicts that maximum velocities are obtained for temperatures between --10 and --20°C, in agreement with observations on the Calgary bobsleigh track. The model for flat ice suggests that the flattest runners produce the lowest coefficient of friction and that the rocker affects friction more than the cross-sectional radius. The coefficient of friction between runners and ice and the drag performance of 2-men bobsleighs were determined from radar speed measurements taken at the Calgary Olympic Oval and at Canada Olympic Park: at the Ice House and on the bobsleigh track during a World Cup competition. The mean coefficient of friction was found to be mu = (5.3 +/- 2.0) x 10--3 and the mean drag performance was CdA = (0.18 +/- 0.02) m2.

  8. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... forms to describe their intent for marketing to ensure that they meet the Fair Housing guidelines...

  9. Breakup of Pack Ice, Antarctic Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-09-18

    STS048-152-007 (12-18 Sept 1991) --- The periphery of the Antarctic ice shelf and the Antarctic Peninsula were photographed by the STS 48 crew members. Strong offshore winds, probably associated with katabatic winds from the interior of the continent, are peeling off the edges of the ice shelf into ribbons of sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits and growlers into the cold waters of the circum-Antarctic southern ocean.

  10. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  11. Improved poultry house

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of energy and poultry production was explored in three areas: methane production from litter, broiler house insulation, and broiler house HVAC systems. The findings show that while a methane plant would not be popular with individual American poultry producers; the pay back in fuel and fertilizer, if the plant was located in close proximinity to the processing plant, would be favorable. Broiler house insulation has been dramatically improved since the outset of this study. Presently, all new installations in the survey area are the Environmental houses which are fully insulated. HVAC systems have had to keep pace with the introduction of better insulation. The new Environmental houses HVAC systems are fully automated and operating on a positive atmosphere principal. Ammonia and other problems have been kept in check while reducing air changes per house from a high of 7 per hour to as little as 3 per hour.

  12. NASA Tech House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Technology Utilization House, called Tech House, was designed and constructed at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, to demonstrate new technology that is available or will be available in the next several years and how the application of aerospace technology could help advance the homebuilding industry. Solar energy use, energy and water conservation, safety, security, and cost were major considerations in adapting the aerospace technology to the construction of Tech House.

  13. House Resolutions of Inquiry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-12

    14 Two years later, the House made another change to its rules governing resolutions of inquiry, requiring not merely a day’s delay but also...of Government “does not necessarily belong to the province of legislation. It does not profess to be asked for that object.”42 Second, if the House ...recognized that the power of impeachment gives the House “the right to investigate the conduct of all public officers under the Government . This is

  14. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Bobak Ferdowsi, a system's engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory who became widely known for his mohawk hairstyle during the broadcast of the Curiosity landing on Mars, is seen here discussing a project with a participant in the White House Science Fair. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  15. 4. View of houses from Port Ludlow, houses no. 69 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of houses from Port Ludlow, houses no. 69 and 70, facing southwest. House no. 69 in foreground, house no. 70 in background. - Houses Moved from Port Ludlow, Various Addresses (moved from Port Ludlow, WA), Port Gamble, Kitsap County, WA

  16. Dibble Ice Shelf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-13

    This photo, aken onboard a National Science Foundation/NASA chartered Twin Otter aircraft, shows the ice front of Dibble Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, a significant melt water producer from the Wilkes Land region, East Antarctica.

  17. Greenland Ice Flow

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Greenland looks like a big pile of snow seen from space using a regular camera. But satellite radar interferometry helps us detect the motion of ice beneath the snow. Ice starts flowing from the fl...

  18. Looking for Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-23

    This image was targeted for NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft to look at a candidate new crater on a lobate apron. Such aprons are often ice-rich, but the crater shows no bright material that would indicate ice.

  19. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, David F.; Suciu, Dan F.; Harris, Taryl L.; Ingram, Jani C.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  20. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  1. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  2. More Than a House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1996-01-01

    For 14 years, Mountain Outreach, a program at Cumberland College (Williamsburg, Kentucky), has enabled college students to participate in community service projects. Recently, 35 students traveled to New Mexico to build a house for a Navajo elder who was unable to obtain adequate housing. Participants discuss their learning experiences and their…

  3. Unmanned Aircraft House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-15

    Dr. Karlin Toner, Director, Joint Planning and Development Office, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), talks during a House Subcommittee on Oversight hearing titled "Operating Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System: Assessing Research and Development Efforts to Ensure Safety" on Friday, Feb. 15, 2013 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Unmanned Aircraft House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-15

    Dr. Edgar Waggoner, Director, Integrated Systems research Program Office, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), takes notes during a House Subcommittee on Oversight hearing titled "Operating Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System: Assessing Research and Development Efforts to Ensure Safety" on Friday, Feb. 15, 2013 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Unmanned Aircraft House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-15

    Dr. Edgar Waggoner, Director, Integrated Systems research Program Office, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), talks during a House Subcommittee on Oversight hearing titled "Operating Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System: Assessing Research and Development Efforts to Ensure Safety" on Friday, Feb. 15, 2013 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Unmanned Aircraft House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-15

    Chairman of the House Subcommittee on Oversight, U.S. Rep. Paul Broun, R-Ga, talks during a hearing titled "Operating Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System: Assessing Research and Development Efforts to Ensure Safety" on Friday, Feb. 15, 2013 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Unmanned Aircraft House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-15

    Ranking member of the House Subcommittee on Oversight, U.S. Rep. Dan Maffei, D-N.Y., talks during a hearing titled "Operating Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System: Assessing Research and Development Efforts to Ensure Safety" on Friday, Feb. 15, 2013 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Housing Assistance Efficiency Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Peters, Scott H. [D-CA-52

    2013-07-23

    Senate - 12/03/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Special Report: College Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Responses of chief housing officers of 118 4-year colleges and universities to a survey focusing on costs, security, policies, and preferences provide a picture of college housing. More than 67% of respondents say that their colleges are planning to build more residential space. (SLD)

  10. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  11. Supportive Housing and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Jade; Cunningham, David; Anderson, Solanna; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Urban centres in the US, Britain and Canada have responded to identified visible ‘social problems’ such addiction, mental health and homelessness by providing some supportive housing for the urban poor and marginalized. While some critics have questioned what supportive housing specifically entails in terms of the built environment, what remains under explored, though a growing area of concern, is the relationship between surveillance and supportive housing for urban residents identified as having addiction and mental health problems — a gap addressed in this paper. Drawing upon qualitative ethnographic observational data we examine some of the measures of control and coercion that are encroaching into social housing primarily established for poor and marginalized people with addiction and mental health problems in the urban centre of Vancouver, Canada. We witnessed three modes of regulation and control, that vary widely, among the residencies observed: physical surveillance technologies; site-specific modes of coercion; police presence and staff surveillance, which all together impact the everyday lives of residents living in low-income and supportive housing. We argue that supportive housing has the potential to provide its intended commitment— safe and secure affordable housing. However, owing to an (over)emphasis on ‘security’, the supportive housing we observed were also sites of social control. PMID:27453148

  12. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    U.S. President Barack Obama speaks as he hosts the third-ever White House Science Fair in the East Room at the White House in Washington, April 22, 2013. The science fair celebrated student winners of a broad range of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) competitions from across the country. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    U.S. President Obama recognizes NASA Administrator Charles Bolden during his remarks at the 3rd Annual White House Science Fair in the East Room of the White House on Monday, April 22, 2013. The science fair celebrated student winners of a broad range of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) competitions from across the country. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Unmanned Aircraft House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-15

    Dr. Gerald Dillingham, Director, Civil Aviation Issues, Government Accounting Office (GAO), talks during a House Subcommittee on Oversight hearing titled "Operating Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System: Assessing Research and Development Efforts to Ensure Safety" on Friday, Feb. 15, 2013 at the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  16. Multiple pump housing

    DOEpatents

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott, Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  17. Housing Survey. Campus Housing: Finding the Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Depending on where you look for statistics, the number of students enrolling in colleges or universities is increasing, decreasing or remaining the about the same. Regardless of those trends, campus housing is a marketing tool for institutions looking to draw students to and keep them on campus. Schools need to offer sufficient beds and…

  18. Housing Survey. Campus Housing: Finding the Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Depending on where you look for statistics, the number of students enrolling in colleges or universities is increasing, decreasing or remaining the about the same. Regardless of those trends, campus housing is a marketing tool for institutions looking to draw students to and keep them on campus. Schools need to offer sufficient beds and…

  19. Scale Model Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canacci, Victor A.

    1997-01-01

    /sec (Mach 0.45). The air turbine and instrumentation are housed inside a fiberglass nacelle. Total and static pressure measurements can be taken around the loop, and velocity and flow angularity measurements can be taken with hot-wire and five-hole probes at specific locations. The Scale Model Icing Research Tunnel (SMIRT) is undergoing checkout tests to determine how its airflow characteristics compare with the IRT. Near-term uses for this scale-model tunnel include determining the aerodynamic effects of replacing the 52-yearold W-shaped heat exchanger with a flat-faced heat exchanger. SMIRT is an integral part of the improvements planned for the IRT because testing the proposed IRT improvements in a scale-model tunnel will lower costs and improve productivity.

  20. Ice Formation on Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritz, L

    1939-01-01

    This report makes use of the results obtained in the Gottingen ice tunnel in which the atmospheric conditions are simulated and the process of ice formation photographed. The effect of ice formation is threefold: 1) added weight to the airplane; 2) a change in the lift and drag forces; 3) a change in the stability characteristics.

  1. Aircraft icing: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives of the Workshop were as follows: (1) to assess the current understanding of fixed wing and rotorcraft operational icing environments and problems (2) to evaluate facilities requirements for R&D and certification purposes (3) to examine means of improving icing forecasts (4) to identify shortcomings in aeronautical icing knowledge which can be alleviated by new research and instrumentation development.

  2. Ice Cream Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Ice cream headaches By Mayo Clinic Staff Ice cream headaches are brief, stabbing headaches that can happen when you eat, drink or inhale something cold. Digging into an ice cream cone is a common trigger, but eating or ...

  3. The Antarctic Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radok, Uwe

    1985-01-01

    The International Antarctic Glaciological Project has collected information on the East Antarctic ice sheet since 1969. Analysis of ice cores revealed climatic history, and radar soundings helped map bedrock of the continent. Computer models of the ice sheet and its changes over time will aid in predicting the future. (DH)

  4. Ice Versus Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Olson, Eric A.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    During a snow bank exploration, students noticed "ice caves," or pockets, in some of the larger snow banks, usually below darker layers. Most of these caves had many icicles hanging inside. Students offered reasonable explanations of ice cave formation--squirrels, kids, snow blowers--and a few students came close to the true ice cave-formation…

  5. Ice Versus Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Olson, Eric A.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    During a snow bank exploration, students noticed "ice caves," or pockets, in some of the larger snow banks, usually below darker layers. Most of these caves had many icicles hanging inside. Students offered reasonable explanations of ice cave formation--squirrels, kids, snow blowers--and a few students came close to the true ice cave-formation…

  6. Experiments in Ice Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

  7. The Antarctic Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radok, Uwe

    1985-01-01

    The International Antarctic Glaciological Project has collected information on the East Antarctic ice sheet since 1969. Analysis of ice cores revealed climatic history, and radar soundings helped map bedrock of the continent. Computer models of the ice sheet and its changes over time will aid in predicting the future. (DH)

  8. Technology for Ice Rinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Ron Urban's International Ice Shows set up portable ice rinks for touring troupes performing on temporary rinks at amusement parks, sports arenas, dinner theaters, shopping malls and civic centers. Key to enhanced rink portability, fast freezing and maintaining ice consistency is a mat of flexible tubing called ICEMAT, an offshoot of a solar heating system developed by Calmac, Mfg. under contract with Marshall.

  9. Experiments in Ice Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

  10. Boltless Seal for Electronic Housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawe, R. H.; Evans, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    Spring clips seal housings for electronic circuitry, preventing electromagnetic interference from entering or leaving housings. Clips also keep dust out of housing. Since no bolts are used, housing can be opened quickly; unlike bolts, clips can be used on thin-walled housing. Seal was developed for an X-band array amplifier.

  11. 3. View of housing for married workers, houses no. 56 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of housing for married workers, houses no. 56 and 57, facing southwest from intersection of Pope Street and Teekalet Avenue. - Houses for Married Workers, Along Kitsap Avenue & Pope Street, Port Gamble, Kitsap County, WA

  12. 1. HOUSE, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HOUSE, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE ARE IN THE BACKGROUND - Kiel Farmstead, House, East side State Route 4, one half mile south of U.S. Route 64, Mascoutah, St. Clair County, IL

  13. Distinct bacterial assemblages reside at different depths in Arctic multiyear sea ice.

    PubMed

    Hatam, Ido; Charchuk, Rhianna; Lange, Benjamin; Beckers, Justin; Haas, Christian; Lanoil, Brian

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial communities in Arctic sea ice play an important role in the regulation of nutrient and energy dynamics in the Arctic Ocean. Sea ice has vertical gradients in temperature, brine salinity and volume, and light and UV levels. Multiyear ice (MYI) has at least two distinct ice layers: old fresh ice with limited permeability, and new saline ice, and may also include a surface melt pond layer. Here, we determine whether bacterial communities (1) differ with ice depth due to strong physical and chemical gradients, (2) are relatively homogenous within a layer, but differ between layers, or (3) do not vary with ice depth. Cores of MYI off northern Ellesmere Island, NU, Canada, were subsectioned in 30-cm intervals, and the bacterial assemblage structure was characterized using 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing. Assemblages clustered into three distinct groups: top (0-30 cm); middle (30-150 cm); and bottom (150-236 cm). These layers correspond to the occurrence of refrozen melt pond ice, at least 2-year-old ice, and newly grown first-year ice at the bottom of the ice sheet, respectively. Thus, MYI houses multiple distinct bacterial assemblages, and in situ conditions appear to play a less important role in structuring microbial assemblages than the age or conditions of the ice at the time of formation.

  14. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  15. Ice Observation Handbook, 1984

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    which is navigable by surface vessels. Flaw polynya : A polynya between drift ice and fast ice. Floating ice: Any form of ice found floating in water...10 to 6/10 with many leads and polynyas , and the floes are generally not in contact with one another. Open water: A large area of freely navigable...the surface; its appearance may rapidly cover wide areas of water. 9l 2-9 7-7 Polynya : Any non-linear shaped opening enclosed in ice. Polynyas may

  16. Seasat and floating ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    Data collected by SEASAT would be useful in developing predictive physical models for the drift and deformation of sea ice, for estimating the heat budget of the polar seas, for the optimum routing of shipping through pack ice areas, for the design of both offshore structures and shipping capable of surviving in heavy pack ice, and for the tracking of large icebergs and ice islands. The instrument package for SEASAT-A is particularly useful for studying sea ice in that the Coherent Imaging Radar (CIR), the Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Compressed Pulse Radar Altimeter (CPRA) are not limited by the presence of clouds.

  17. Housing And Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R.F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Miller, Gregory V.; Peterson, David W.; Smith, Terrance T.

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  18. Arctic ice management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desch, Steven J.; Smith, Nathan; Groppi, Christopher; Vargas, Perry; Jackson, Rebecca; Kalyaan, Anusha; Nguyen, Peter; Probst, Luke; Rubin, Mark E.; Singleton, Heather; Spacek, Alexander; Truitt, Amanda; Zaw, Pye Pye; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2017-01-01

    As the Earth's climate has changed, Arctic sea ice extent has decreased drastically. It is likely that the late-summer Arctic will be ice-free as soon as the 2030s. This loss of sea ice represents one of the most severe positive feedbacks in the climate system, as sunlight that would otherwise be reflected by sea ice is absorbed by open ocean. It is unlikely that CO2 levels and mean temperatures can be decreased in time to prevent this loss, so restoring sea ice artificially is an imperative. Here we investigate a means for enhancing Arctic sea ice production by using wind power during the Arctic winter to pump water to the surface, where it will freeze more rapidly. We show that where appropriate devices are employed, it is possible to increase ice thickness above natural levels, by about 1 m over the course of the winter. We examine the effects this has in the Arctic climate, concluding that deployment over 10% of the Arctic, especially where ice survival is marginal, could more than reverse current trends of ice loss in the Arctic, using existing industrial capacity. We propose that winter ice thickening by wind-powered pumps be considered and assessed as part of a multipronged strategy for restoring sea ice and arresting the strongest feedbacks in the climate system.

  19. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kauffeld, M.; WANG, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

  20. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Crystal Brockington and Aaron Barron, both 18 years old, designed a more efficient and cost effective solar cell that harnesses energy without cadmium, which has been shown to be harmful to the environment. They were selected to participate in the White House Science Fair after they were awarded the High School Grand Prize at the Siemens We Can Change the World Challenge. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House on May 27, 2014 and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  1. Advanced houses guide

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Section 1 of this report describes the R-2000 and Advanced Houses programs, and reviews the technical requirements of Advanced Houses with regard to purchased energy, environmental features, and indoor comfort/health. Subsequent sections describe design considerations, construction issues, existing installations, and alternate approaches used in the following components of Advanced Houses: Foundation systems, wall systems, windows and exterior doors, interior finishes and indoor air quality, environmental materials, mechanical systems, home automation, lights and appliances, renewable energy and heat recovery systems, and environmental management.

  2. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Bobak Ferdowsi, a system's engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, speaks with a member of "invenTeam" at the White House Science Fair. Olivia Van Amsterdam, 16, Katelyn Sweeney, 17, and their team of student engineers from Natick, MA, invented a 120 lb remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that can help search-and-rescue dive teams search for bodies in dangerous, icy waters. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. Universal design in housing.

    PubMed

    Mace, R L

    1998-01-01

    Universal design in housing is a growing and beneficial concept. It is subtle in its differences from barrier-free, accessible, and industry standard housing. Accessibility standards and codes have not mandated universal design and do not apply to most housing. Universal design exceeds their minimum specifications for accessible design and results in homes that are usable by and marketable to almost everyone. Universal homes avoid use of special assistive technology devices and, instead, incorporate consumer products and design features that are easily usable and commonly available.

  4. Of Ice and Microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Jody

    2006-12-01

    Inuit hunters of the North have long recognized ice as the natural state of water from which life flows on Earth. Although unaware of the microscopic world, they chart changes in properties of ice and water that derive from a succession of microbial inhabitants. Scientific hunters of the West have largely overlooked all but the warmest of ices as dynamic scenes of microbial life, considering the frozen realm to archive life forms instead. Deeply frozen glacial ice on Earth does appear to preserve microbes effectively, but isn't the ocean beneath the geologically dynamic ice of Europa believed too salty? Aren't the subsurface ices of Mars expected to be rich in all manner of mineralogical impurities? Wherever salt and other mineral impurities are sufficiently abundant in Earth ice, the ice contains interior liquid water that can range from nano-layer films on grain surfaces (glacial ice) to a porous network of brine (Arctic winter sea ice down to 20°C). Other recent studies of saline ices have indicated a world of interacting life forms, with viruses infecting bacteria in brines at -12°C (the lowest temperature tested), the domains of Bacteria and Archaea undergoing succession in winter ices (down to -28°C), and evidence that cellular maintenance may go forward incrementally even below the eutectic of seawater (-55°C). Microbes are also known to alter the physical properties of their icy homes by producing exopolymers that further depress the freezing point, either directly or by entraining more salt into the ice. Even the most inhospitable of ices to human hunters may contain interior oases for microbes, in control to some degree of their own space. In considering the habitability of icy worlds beyond Earth, we'd do well to learn more about the evolutionary prowess of microbes in adapting to conditions beyond our warm-blooded imaginations.

  5. Arctic landfast sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konig, Christof S.

    Landfast ice is sea ice which forms and remains fixed along a coast, where it is attached either to the shore, or held between shoals or grounded icebergs. Landfast ice fundamentally modifies the momentum exchange between atmosphere and ocean, as compared to pack ice. It thus affects the heat and freshwater exchange between air and ocean and impacts on the location of ocean upwelling and downwelling zones. Further, the landfast ice edge is essential for numerous Arctic mammals and Inupiat who depend on them for their subsistence. The current generation of sea ice models is not capable of reproducing certain aspects of landfast ice formation, maintenance, and disintegration even when the spatial resolution would be sufficient to resolve such features. In my work I develop a new ice model that permits the existence of landfast sea ice even in the presence of offshore winds, as is observed in mature. Based on viscous-plastic as well as elastic-viscous-plastic ice dynamics I add tensile strength to the ice rheology and re-derive the equations as well as numerical methods to solve them. Through numerical experiments on simplified domains, the effects of those changes are demonstrated. It is found that the modifications enable landfast ice modeling, as desired. The elastic-viscous-plastic rheology leads to initial velocity fluctuations within the landfast ice that weaken the ice sheet and break it up much faster than theoretically predicted. Solving the viscous-plastic rheology using an implicit numerical method avoids those waves and comes much closer to theoretical predictions. Improvements in landfast ice modeling can only verified in comparison to observed data. I have extracted landfast sea ice data of several decades from several sources to create a landfast sea ice climatology that can be used for that purpose. Statistical analysis of the data shows several factors that significantly influence landfast ice distribution: distance from the coastline, ocean depth, as

  6. Zircon ages, geochemistry and Nd isotopic systematics for the Palaeoproterozoic 2.3-1.8 Ga Kuilyu Complex, East Kyrgyzstan - The oldest continental basement fragment in the Tianshan orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, A.; Alexeiev, D. V.; Kovach, V. P.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Mikolaichuk, A. V.; Xie, H.; Sobel, E. R.

    2017-03-01

    Precambrian microcontinents represent key tectonic units in the accretionary collages of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and their geological history is reasonably well established since the Mesoproterozoic but remains weakly constrained for older epochs due to a scarcity of exposed Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean rocks. Early Precambrian rocks were previously reported from several metamorphic complexes in the Kyrgyz Tianshan orogenic belt, mainly based on multigrain conventional zircon dating, but the present study only confirmed such rocks at one site, namely in the Kuilyu Complex of eastern Kyrgyzstan. New single grain SHRIMP II zircon ages, geochemical data, and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions for granitoid gneisses of the Kuilyu Complex elucidate the age, origin and tectonic settings of this oldest continental fragment in the Tianshan. The Kuilyu Complex is part of the basement in the Ishim - Middle Tianshan microcontinent. It consist of a strongly deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal assemblage of paragneisses and schists which are tectonically interlayered with amphibolites, migmatites and granitoid gneisses. Our zircon dating indicates that the Kuilyu Complex contains two suites of Palaeoproterozoic granitoid gneisses with magmatic protolith ages of ca. 2.32-2.33 Ga and 1.85 Ga. Granitoid magmatism at 1.85 Ga was almost immediately followed by amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ca 1.83 Ga, evidenced by growth of metamorphic zircon rims. The older, ca 2.3 Ga granitoid gneisses chemically correspond to calc-alkaline, metaluminous, I-type magnesian quartz diorite and granodiorite. The protolith of the younger, ca. 1.85 Ga granite-gneiss is an alkalic-calcic, metaluminous to peraluminous, ferroan medium-grained porphyric granite with chemical features resembling A-type granites. The 2.3 Ga and 1.85 Ga granitoid gneisses have slightly to distinctly negative initial εNd values of -1.2 and -6.6, and similar depleted mantle Nd model ages of 2

  7. Generation of Palaeoproterozoic tonalites and associated high-K granites in southwestern Tanzania by partial melting of underplated mafic crust in an intracontinental setting: Constraints from geochemical and isotopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manya, Shukrani; Maboko, Makenya A. H.

    2016-09-01

    The southwestern part of the 2.0-1.8 Ga Palaeoproterozoic Usagaran Belt in the Njombe area of SW Tanzania is intruded by two types of synchronous granitic rocks with different chemical and petrological characteristics. The first type consists of hornblende-rich tonalites that have major element compositions similar to those of Archaean TTG but differ significantly in their trace element composition. The tonalites are spatially and closely associated with felsic, high-K, I-type granites, some of which are gneissic and/or aplitic. U-Pb zircon geochronology shows that the emplacement of tonalites at 1887 ± 11 Ma was largely contemporaneous with emplacement of high-K granitic gneisses at 1877 ± 15 Ma and aplitic granites at 1857 ± 19 Ma. The data also reveal the presence of Archaean crust of 2648 ± 25 Ma in the zircon cores of some samples in the otherwise Palaeoproterozoic terrane. The tonalites are characterized by MgO contents of 1.60-4.11 wt.% at a SiO2 range of 58.1-67.9 wt.%, the Mg# of 34-55, lower Sr contents (220-462 ppm) and less fractionated REE patterns (La/YbCN = 3.55-12.9) compared to Archaean TTG (Sr > 500 ppm, La/YbCN > 20). These features, coupled with the εNd (1887 Ma) values of + 0.37 to - 0.66 as well as the associated mafic enclaves are suggestive of derivation of the tonalites by low pressure (below the garnet stability) partial melting of a mantle-derived mafic underplate that was subsequently contaminated with small amounts of pre-existing igneous crustal rocks. The evolved nature of the high-K granites (MgO = 0.20-1.30 wt.%, SiO2 = 65.5-73.9 wt.%, Mg# = 25-42, εNd = - 3.20 to - 4.75) coupled with old TDM ages which are 200-1000 Ma older than their emplacement age requires a higher degree of assimilation of older crustal material by the magma derived from partial melting of the underplated mafic crust which was subsequently followed by crystal fractionation involving plagioclase, pyroxene and amphibole. The close spatial and temporal

  8. Centaur boost pump turbine icing investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine if ice formation in the Centaur vehicle liquid oxygen boost pump turbine could prevent rotation of the pump and whether or not this phenomenon could have been the failure mechanism for the Titan/Centaur vehicle TC-1. The investigation consisted of a series of tests done in the LeRC Space Power Chamber Facility to evaluate evaporative cooling behavior patterns in a turbine as a function of the quantity of water trapped in the turbine and as a function of the vehicle ascent pressure profile. It was found that evaporative freezing of water in the turbine housing, due to rapid depressurization within the turbine during vehicle ascent, could result in the formation of ice that would block the turbine and prevent rotation of the boost pump. But for such icing conditions to exist it would be necessary to have significant quantities of water in the turbine and/or its components, and the turbine housing temperature would have to be colder than 40 F at vehicle liftoff.

  9. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  10. Cinemicrographic specimen housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Housing used to observe gravitation effects on specimens embedded in support media, such as agar, supports microbial specimens vertically for time-lapsed cinemicrographic studies. Procedure cannot be performed with conventional microscopes which see specimens in horizontal plane only.

  11. Cinemicrographic specimen housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Housing used to observe gravitation effects on specimens embedded in support media, such as agar, supports microbial specimens vertically for time-lapsed cinemicrographic studies. Procedure cannot be performed with conventional microscopes which see specimens in horizontal plane only.

  12. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  13. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  14. Rotating housing turbine

    DOEpatents

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    2016-10-11

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  15. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    Planetary Society Executive Director and “Bill Nye the Science Guy” host Bill Nye, right, photographs himself with NASA Mars Curiosity Landing mission controller, Bobak "Mohawk Guy" Ferdowsi, during the White House Science Fair held at the White House, April 22, 2013. The science fair celebrated student winners of a broad range of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) competitions from across the country. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    Joey Hudy demonstrates his Intel Galileo-based 10x10x10 LED Cube during the first ever White House Maker Faire which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Preparing and Analyzing Iced Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Cotton, Barbara J.; Choo, Yung K.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Pennline, James A.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Schilling, Herbert W.; Slater, John W.; hide

    2004-01-01

    SmaggIce version 1.2 is a computer program for preparing and analyzing iced airfoils. It includes interactive tools for (1) measuring ice-shape characteristics, (2) controlled smoothing of ice shapes, (3) curve discretization, (4) generation of artificial ice shapes, and (5) detection and correction of input errors. Measurements of ice shapes are essential for establishing relationships between characteristics of ice and effects of ice on airfoil performance. The shape-smoothing tool helps prepare ice shapes for use with already available grid-generation and computational-fluid-dynamics software for studying the aerodynamic effects of smoothed ice on airfoils. The artificial ice-shape generation tool supports parametric studies since ice-shape parameters can easily be controlled with the artificial ice. In such studies, artificial shapes generated by this program can supplement simulated ice obtained from icing research tunnels and real ice obtained from flight test under icing weather condition. SmaggIce also automatically detects geometry errors such as tangles or duplicate points in the boundary which may be introduced by digitization and provides tools to correct these. By use of interactive tools included in SmaggIce version 1.2, one can easily characterize ice shapes and prepare iced airfoils for grid generation and flow simulations.

  18. Ice flow of the Antarctica Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; Rignot, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    Ice velocity is fundamental characteristic of the dynamics of ice sheets and is essential to know for calculating the mass budget of ice sheet and for controlling ice sheet numerical models with realistic boundary conditions. Until recently, data were mostly available on a discrete basis over small areas with variable precision. Here, we report on our results of processing ice velocity from the interferometric synthetic-aperture radar data acquired by ALOS PALSAR in 2006 to 2010 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), by ENVISAT ASAR in 2007 to 2009, by RADARSAT-2 in 2009 and 2011, by RADARSAT-1 in 1997 and 2000 and by ERS-1 & -2 in 1996 in the framework of the International Polar Year 2007-2009. The result is the most comprehensive and precise high-resolution digital map of ice motion ever produced on the Antarctic continent. While important surprises are found along the coastline, it is in the interior that this map is revealing the most interesting features. The data reveal widespread, patterned, enhanced flow with tributary glaciers reaching hundreds to thousands of kilometers inland, over the entire continent. We show that the ice motion along these flow features has a strong basal slip component. This has far reaching implications for the modeling of ice sheet flow and evolution. In addition, our multi-year coverage of the coastal sectors reveal the beginning of an acceleration on Thwaites glacier and a wave of accelerated flow propagating inland rapidly on Pine Island Glacier between 2006 and 2010. This work was conducted at the Department of Earth System Science, University of California Irvine under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's MEaSUREs program.

  19. Housing and child health.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Michael; Baten, Ahmareen; Rosenthal, David G; Hoshino, Risa; Tohn, Ellen; Jacobs, David E

    2013-09-01

    The connection between housing and health is well established. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the child's home, such as cleanliness, moisture, pests, noise, accessibility, injury risks, and other forms of housing environmental quality, all have the potential to influence multiple aspects of the health and development of children. Basic sanitation, reduced household crowding, other improvements in housing and expanded, and improved housing regulations have led to advances in children's health. For example, lead poisoning prevention policies have profoundly reduced childhood lead exposure in the United States. This and many other successes highlight the health benefits for families, particularly children, by targeting interventions that reduce or eliminate harmful exposures in the home. Additionally, parental mental health problems, food insecurity, domestic violence, and the presence of guns in children's homes all are largely experienced by children in their homes, which are not as yet considered part of the Healthy Homes agenda. There is a large movement and now a regulatory structure being put in place for healthy housing, which is becoming closely wedded with environmental health, public health, and the practice of pediatrics. The importance of homes in children's lives, history of healthy homes, asthma, and exposures to lead, carbon monoxide, secondhand/thirdhand smoke, radon, allergy triggers is discussed, as well as how changes in ambient temperature, increased humidity, poor ventilation, water quality, infectious diseases, housing structure, guns, electronic media, family structure, and domestic violence all affect children's health.

  20. 7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view north northeast, west and south sides of keeper's house and tower, southwest and southeast sides of fog signal house - West Quoddy Head Light Station, At eastern tip of West Quaddy Head, Lubec, Washington County, ME

  1. 91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS 101 AND 72; BUILDING 101 IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH HOUSED SCRAP METAL CLEANING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES; BUILDING 72 AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED MELTING FURNACES AND CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINERY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  2. 3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, southeast side and northeast front of bell house, southeast sides of tower and keeper's house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  3. 1. General view, twoandahalf story house at left. (The house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, two-and-a-half story house at left. (The house next door is George McCraig House, HABS No. PA-1593). Photocopied from December 1957 photograph on file at Philadelphia Historical Commission - Henry Elwell House, 812 South Front Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 12. Fuel house and fog signal house, view northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Fuel house and fog signal house, view northeast, southwest side of fuel house, west and south sides of fog signal house - Cape Elizabeth Light Station, Near Two Lights State Park at end of Two Lights Road, off State Highway 77, Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland County, ME

  5. 2. Keeper's house, light tower and oil house, view north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Keeper's house, light tower and oil house, view north, south and east sides of keeper's house, south side of tower and oil house - Owl's Head Light Station, Off State Highway 73 just east of Rockland on Owl's Head Bay, Owls Head, Knox County, ME

  6. Housing in Los Angeles: Affordable Housing for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Blue Ribbon Committee for Affordable Housing, CA.

    A 1988 mayoral committee assessed the seriousness of Los Angeles (California) housing problems and found that the city's housing efforts were sufficient in the 1960s, when the Federal Government took primary responsibility for housing and the average wage was adequate to support the cost of the average house or apartment. However, the following…

  7. Housing in Los Angeles: Affordable Housing for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Blue Ribbon Committee for Affordable Housing, CA.

    A 1988 mayoral committee assessed the seriousness of Los Angeles (California) housing problems and found that the city's housing efforts were sufficient in the 1960s, when the Federal Government took primary responsibility for housing and the average wage was adequate to support the cost of the average house or apartment. However, the following…

  8. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a...ice age, and iv) onset dates of melt and freezeup. 4. Assess the magnitude of the contribution from ice- albedo feedback to the observed decrease of...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover 5a

  9. Understanding Housing Delays and Relocations Within the Housing First Model.

    PubMed

    Zerger, Suzanne; Pridham, Katherine Francombe; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Hwang, Stephen W; O'Campo, Patricia; Kohli, Jaipreet; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This study explores factors contributing to delays and relocations during the implementation of the Housing First model in Toronto, Ontario. While interruptions in housing tenure are expected en route to recovery and housing stability, consumer and service provider views on finding and keeping housing remain largely unknown. In-person interviews and focus groups were conducted with 48 study participants, including 23 case managers or housing workers and 25 consumers. The following three factors contributed to housing delays and transfers: (1) the effectiveness of communication and collaboration among consumers and service providers, (2) consumer-driven preferences and ambivalence, and (3) provider prioritization of consumer choice over immediate housing access. Two strategies--targeted communications and consumer engagement in housing searches--supported the housing process. Several factors affect the timing and stability of housing. Communication between and among providers and consumers, and a shared understanding of consumer choice, can further support choice and recovery.

  10. Consider an Ice Stream.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.

    2002-12-01

    Forty years ago, John Nye was one of the leaders who introduced the rigors of classical physics to glaciology. His elegant treatments frequently took advantage of the then recent discovery that ice could be approximated as a plastic material. With this viewpoint, Nye was able to explain the shape of ice sheets and glaciers, to predict the expected pattern of stress and velocity within a glacier, and to derive the advance and retreat of a glacier from the record of accumulation and ablation. These advances have given generations of glaciologists tools to interpret the excellent observational record of glacier behavior and variation. In the 1980s, glaciologist, weaned on these works of Nye and of other similarly adept colleagues, carried their lessons to West Antarctica to study ice streams, the vast conveyor belts of ice that discharged nearly as much Antarctic ice as the much larger East Antarctic ice sheet. Ice streams were a glaciological conundrum. Despite the gently sloping surface, these broad features roared along, moving fastest when the gravitational impetus was least. After two decades of research, ice streams still have not given up all their secrets, yet much is now known. Internal deformation is negligible. Basal friction is frequently nil leaving the shattered margins as the primary means to avoid rapid wastage of the ice sheet. Within the margins, the resistive force results from a delicate balance of heat and evolving ice fabrics. Nevertheless, the bed beneath an ice stream cannot be ignored. It is ultimately the state of the underlying marine sediment that determines whether the ice stream can slide at all. There too, the heat balance is critical with an influx of water required to keep the bed wet enough to let the streams glide along. Ice stream research has been the portal through which glaciologists have seen and identified the complexities of West Antarctic ice sheet dynamics. Remarkably, nearly all time scales seem important. Ice stream

  11. Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroeve, J. C.; Fetterer, F.; Knowles, K.; Meier, W.; Serreze, M.; Arbetter, T.

    2004-12-01

    Of all the recent observed changes in the Arctic environment, the reduction of sea ice cover stands out most prominantly. Several independent analysis have established a trend in Arctic ice extent of -3% per decade from the late 1970s to the late 1990s, with a more pronounced trend in summer. The overall downward trend in ice cover is characterized by strong interannual variability, with a low September ice extent in one year typically followed by recovery the next September. Having two extreme minimum years, such as what was observed in 2002 and 2003 is unusual. 2004 marks the third year in a row of substantially below normal sea ice cover in the Arctic. Early summer 2004 appeared unusual in terms of ice extent, with May a record low for the satellite period (1979-present) and June also exhibiting below normal ice extent. August 2004 extent is below that of 2003 and large reductions in ice cover are observed once again off the coasts of Siberia and Alaska and the Greenland Sea. Neither the 2002 or 2003 anomaly appeared to be strongly linked to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) during the preceding winter. Similarly, the AO was negative during winter 2003/2004. In the previous AO framework of Rigor et al (2002), a positive winter AO implied preconditioning of the ice cover to extensive summer decay. In this hypothesis, the AO does not explain all aspects of the recent decline in Arctic ice cover, such as the extreme minima of 2002, 2003 and 2004. New analysis by Rigor and Wallace (2004) suggest that the very positive AO state from 1989-1995 can explain the recent sea ice minima in terms of changes in the Arctic surface wind field associated with the previous high AO state. However, it is also reasonable to expect that a general decrease in ice thickness accompanying warming would manifest itself as greater sensitivity of the ice pack to wind forcings and albedo feedbacks. The decrease in multiyear ice and attendant changes in ice thickness

  12. Sea Ice and Oceanographic Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oceanus, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea are covered with ice three-fourths of the year. These waters (during winter) are discussed by considering: consolidation of coastal ice; under-ice water; brine circulation; biological energy; life under the ice (including kelp and larger animals); food chains; and ice break-up. (JN)

  13. Sea Ice and Oceanographic Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oceanus, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea are covered with ice three-fourths of the year. These waters (during winter) are discussed by considering: consolidation of coastal ice; under-ice water; brine circulation; biological energy; life under the ice (including kelp and larger animals); food chains; and ice break-up. (JN)

  14. Ice-Nucleating Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Hitoshi

    Since the discovery of ice-nucleating bacteria in 1974 by Maki et al., a large number of studies on the biological characteristics, ice-nucleating substance, ice nucleation gene and frost damage etc. of the bacteria have been carried out. Ice-nucleating bacteria can cause the freezing of water at relatively warm temperature (-2.3°C). Tween 20 was good substrates for ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens KUIN-1. Major fatty acids of Isolate (Pseudomonas fluorescens) W-11 grown at 30°C were palmitic, cis-9-hexadecenoic and cis-11-octadecenoic which amounted to 90% of the total fatty acids. Sequence analysis shows that an ice nucleation gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens is related to the gene of Pseudomonas syringae.

  15. Prospecting for Martian Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, S. A.; Allen, C. C.; Bell, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    During high Martian obliquity, ice is stable to lower latitudes than predicted by models of present conditions and observed by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (approx. 60 deg N). An ice-rich layer deposited at mid-latitudes could persist to the present day; ablation of the top 1 m of ice leaving a thin insulating cover could account for lack of its detection by GRS. The presence of an ice-layer in the mid-latitudes is suggested by a network of polygons, interpreted as ice-wedge cracks. This study focuses on an exceptional concentration of polygons in Western Utopia (section of Casius quadrangle, roughly 40 deg - 50 deg N, 255 deg - 300 deg W). We attempt to determine the thickness and age of this ice layer through crater-polygons relations.

  16. Subsurface Ice Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Michael; Carsey, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The subsurface ice probe (SIPR) is a proposed apparatus that would bore into ice to depths as great as hundreds of meters by melting the ice and pumping the samples of meltwater to the surface. Originally intended for use in exploration of subsurface ice on Mars and other remote planets, the SIPR could also be used on Earth as an alternative to coring, drilling, and melting apparatuses heretofore used to sample Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets. The SIPR would include an assembly of instrumentation and electronic control equipment at the surface, connected via a tether to a compact assembly of boring, sampling, and sensor equipment in the borehole (see figure). Placing as much equipment as possible at the surface would help to attain primary objectives of minimizing power consumption, sampling with high depth resolution, and unobstructed imaging of the borehole wall. To the degree to which these requirements would be satisfied, the SIPR would offer advantages over the aforementioned ice-probing systems.

  17. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  18. GUARD HOUSE AND SOUTH FIRE HOUSE, VICINITY MAP. (Shows the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD HOUSE AND SOUTH FIRE HOUSE, VICINITY MAP. (Shows the Guard House and Barracks, and South Fire House in relation to nearby roads, railroad tracks, and the piers). Navy Yard, Mare Island, California. P.W. Drawing No. C-1899, approved 1941; file no. 930-C-1. Scale one inch to forty feet. 72 cn x 97 cm. Ink on vellum - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Triangular ice crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Benjamin; Salzmann, Christoph; Heymsfield, Andrew; Neely, Ryan

    2014-05-01

    We are all familiar with the hexagonal form of snow crystals and it is well established that this shape is derived from the arrangement of water molecules in the crystal lattice. However, crystals with a triangular form are often found in the Earth's atmosphere and the reason for this non-hexagonal shape has remained elusive. Recent laboratory work has shed light on why ice crystals should take on this triangular or three-fold scalene habit. Studies of the crystal structure of ice have shown that ice which initially crystallises can be made of up of hexagonal layers which are interlaced with cubic layers to produce a 'stacking disordered ice'. The degree of stacking disorder can vary from crystals which are dominantly hexagonal with a few cubic stacking faults, through to ice where the cubic and hexagonal sequences are fully randomised. The introduction of stacking disorder to ice crystals reduces the symmetry of the crystal from 6-fold (hexagonal) to 3-fold (triangular); this offers an explanation for the long standing problem of why some atmospheric ice crystals have a triangular habit. We discuss the implications of triangular crystals for halos, radiative properties, and also discuss the implications for our understanding of the nucleation and early stages of ice crystal growth for ice crystals in the atmosphere.

  20. Ice barrier construction

    SciTech Connect

    Finucane, R. G.; Jahns, H. O.

    1985-06-18

    A method is provided for constructing spray ice barriers to protect offshore structures in a frigid body of water from mobile ice, waves and currents. Water is withdrawn from the body of water and is sprayed through ambient air which is below the freezing temperature of the water so that a substantial amount of the water freezes as it passes through the air. The sprayed water is directed to build up a mass of ice having a size and shape adapted to protect the offshore structure. Spray ice barriers can also be constructed for the containment of pollutant spills.

  1. Ice age paleotopography.

    PubMed

    Peltier, W R

    1994-07-08

    A gravitationally self-consistent theory of postglacial relative sea level change is used to infer the variation of surface ice and water cover since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results show that LGM ice volume was approximately 35 percent lower than suggested by the CLIMAP reconstruction and the maximum heights of the main Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice complexes are inferred to have been commensurately lower with respect to sea level. Use of these Ice Age boundary conditions in atmospheric general circulation models will yield climates that differ significantly from those previously inferred on the basis of the CLIMAP data set.

  2. Ice age paleotopography

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, W.R. )

    1994-07-08

    A gravitationally self-consistent theory of postglacial relative sea level change is used to infer the variation of surface ice and water cover since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results show that LGM ice volume was approximately 35 percent lower than suggested by the CLIMAP reconstruction and the maximum heights of the main Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice complexes are inferred to have been commensurately lower with respect to sea level. Use of these Ice Age boundary conditions in atmospheric general circulation models will yield climates that differ significantly from those previously inferred on the basis of the CLIMAP data set.

  3. An ice lithography instrument.

    PubMed

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J A

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  4. An ice lithography instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-15

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  5. Electrical Properties of Ice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Back in 1957 Decroly et al. (1957) carried out an experiment that was for a long time considered to be decisive in proving the proton nature of ice...be discussed in detail in the Charge Exchange at Ice/Metal Interfaces section). That is why Decroly et al. used layers of fro- zen IIF between ice...conductivity can be made only with respect to ice surfaces from the experiments of Decroly et al. Unfortunately, even this inference couldn’t be drawn from

  6. Sunlight off the ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Sunlight reflecting off of ice in the Bellingshausen Sea on Oct. 19, 2012. Credit: NASA / George Hale NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  7. Wave-ice Interaction and the Marginal Ice Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    concentrations at the time. Any ice present appeared to be fragments of deformed ice (ridges), as most of the level ice had melted . Figure 1: Final...the buoys had approached the edge of the melting pack ice , from late August, when the vast floes had already fragmented due to dynamics and...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave- ice interaction and the Marginal Ice Zone Prof

  8. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-05-23

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  9. Domotics Project Housing Block

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated. PMID:27223285

  10. Ice-on-ice impact experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Manabu; Iijima, Yu-Ichi; Arakawa, Masahiko; Okimura, Yasuyuki; Fujimura, Akio; Maeno, Norikazu; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    1995-02-01

    Impact experiments, cratering and fragmentation, on water ice were performed in order to test the scaling laws previously constructed on rocks and sands for studying the collision process in the planetary history. The installation of a vertical gas gun in a cold room at -18°C (255 K) made it possible to use a projectile of water ice and to get the detailed mass distribution of ice fragments. Experimental results indicated the necessity for large modification of those scaling laws. Material dependence was investigated by using projectiles of ice, aluminum, and polycarbonate. Differences were observed in the morphology and efficiencies of cratering and in the energies required to initiate the fragmentation. Moreover, an abrupt increase of cratering efficiency, suggesting a change of excavation mechanism, was found at a critical diameter of spalled crater. The mass (size) distribution of small ice fragments obeyed a power law with an exponent significantly larger than that in rocks. The exponent was the same as that in Saturn's ring particles estimated from the data by the microwave occultation, which indicates a collisional disruption ring origin.

  11. Small Airframe Manufacturer's Icing Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppins, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the icing effects, risk mitigation practices, and icing certifications for various Cessna small aircraft models. NASA's role in the development of simulation tools for icing certifications is also discussed.

  12. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  13. Bacterial ice crystal controlling proteins.

    PubMed

    Lorv, Janet S H; Rose, David R; Glick, Bernard R

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions.

  14. Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011

    NASA Image and Video Library

    AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

  15. [Tail Plane Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second

  16. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    Girl Scout troop 2612 members from Tulsa, OK take photos of one another with Google Glass at the White House Science Fair Tuesday, May 27, 2014. Avery Dodson, 6; Natalie Hurley, 8; Miriam Schaffer, 8; Claire Winton, 8; and Lucy Claire Sharp, 8 participated in the Junior FIRST Lego League's Disaster Blaster Challenge, which invites elementary-school-aged students from across the country to explore how simple machines, engineering, and math can help solve problems posed by natural disasters. The girls invented the "Flood Proof Bridge" and built a model mechanizing the bridge using motors and developing a computer program to automatically retract the bridge when flood conditions are detected. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  17. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden poses with an all-girl engineering team that participated in the White House Science Fair. "Team Rocket Power" was one of 100 teams that qualified for last year’s Team America Rocketry Challenge (TARC). Nia'mani Robinson, 15, Jasmyn Logan, 15, and Rebecca Chapin-Ridgely, 17, gave up their weekends and free time after school to build and test their bright purple rocket, which is designed to launch to an altitude of about 750 ft, and then return a “payload” (an egg) to the ground safely. The fourth White House Science Fair was held at the White House on May 27, 2014 and included 100 students from more than 30 different states who competed in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions. (Photo Credit: NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. Design and Operation of Automated Ice-Tethered Profilers for Real-Time Seawater Observations in the Polar Oceans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    batteries \\-" - - within a w ater tight alum inum housing eh"-- c as_ - _ capped by an ultra high molecular rodome -- - - ice - weight (UHMW...ice thickness. The ideal platform for an ITP deployment is a multi- year ice floe (which can be identified by the lighter shade of blue color in melt ...34 diameter hole augered through the icefloe (Figure 12). At a convenient point , the ITP is mounted on the wire (two bracket connections) and eased down the

  19. Commercial aviation icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koegeboehn, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    A short range and long range icing research program was proposed. A survey was made to various industry and goverment agencies to obtain their views of needs for commercial aviation ice protection. Through these responsed, other additional data, and Douglas Aircraft icing expertise; an assessment of the state-of-the-art of aircraft icing data and ice protection systems was made. The information was then used to formulate the icing research programs.

  20. White House Science Fair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    Director of Strategic Communications and Senior Science and Technology Policy Analyst, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, Rick Weiss, left, “Big Bang Theory” co-creator Bill Prady, center, and NASA Mars Curiosity Landing mission controller, Bobak "Mohawk Guy" Ferdowsi talk during the White House Science Fair held at the White House, April 22, 2013. The science fair celebrated student winners of a broad range of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) competitions from across the country. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Designing the temperate house

    SciTech Connect

    Olgyay, V.

    1989-01-01

    The climate is the architects's true adversary; as the climate varies, so should the shelter. The two most important developments which have emerged nationally in today's house building are the continuous concept of space and the greater exploitation of industrialized products, specifically large sheets of glass. Both make houses more vulnerable than ever to climate - to heat, wind, humidity, hurricanes, earthquakes, rainfall, and snowfall, and most of all to the sun. The designer's problem is build a shelter which will adjust to the seasonal, daily, and hourly variation in the intensity of the sun's radiation. The article examines various approaches to this problem. 16 figs.

  2. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    The Maker Faire trailer is seen outside the rose garden during the first ever White House Maker Faire, which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The President announced new steps the Administration and its partners are taking to support the ability of more Americans, young and old, to have to access to these tools and techniques and brings their ideas to life. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    President Barack Obama delivers his remarks at the first ever White House Maker Faire, which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The President announced new steps the Administration and its partners are taking to support the ability of more Americans, young and old, to have to access to these tools and techniques and brings their ideas to life. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Overview of LIMEX'87 ice observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, Frank D.; Holt, Benjamin; Argus, Susan A. Digby; Collins, Michael J.; Livingstone, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Ice observations, results, and conclusions are summarized for the March 1987 Labrador Ice Margin Experiment (LIMEX'87), an international oceanographic study conducted in the pack ice of the Grand Banks area off the coast of Newfoundland. Included are the ice extent, floe size and thickness, ice kinematics and rheology, ice microwave properties, oceanic properties under the ice, and penetration of swell into the ice.

  5. Artic ice and drilling structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sodhl, D.S.

    1985-04-01

    The sea ice in the southern Beaufort Sea is examined and subdivided into three zones: the fast ice zone, the seasonal pack-ice zone, an the polar pack ice zone. Each zone requires its own type of system. Existing floating drilling systems include ice-strengthened drill ships, conical drilling systems, and floating ice platforms in deep-water land-fast ice. The development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic presents great challenges to engineers, since the structures are required to operate safely under various conditions. Significant progress has yet to be made in understanding the behavior of ice.

  6. Spectroscopic signature for ferroelectric ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Marek J.; Gług, Maciej; Boczar, Marek; Boda, Łukasz

    2014-09-01

    Various forms of ice exist within our galaxy. Particularly intriguing type of ice - ‘ferroelectric ice' was discovered experimentally and is stable in temperatures below 72 K. This form of ice can generate enormous electric fields and can play an important role in planetary formation. In this letter we present Car-Parrinello simulation of infrared spectra of ferroelectric ice and compare them with spectra of hexagonal ice. Librational region of the spectra can be treated as spectroscopic signature of ice XI and can be of help to identify ferroelectric ice in the Universe.

  7. Larsen B Ice Shelf

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... ice shelf and the rough crevasses of glaciers appear orange. In contrast to the spectral composite, which provides information on ... surfaces appear brighter on their illuminated faces, the orange color in the multi-angle composite suggests a macroscopically rough ice ...

  8. Turning into Ice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietsch, Renée B.; Hanlon, Regina; Bohland, Cynthia; Schmale, David G., III

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary unit in which students explore biological "ice nucleation"--by particles that cause water to freeze at temperatures above -38°C--through the lens of the microbial ice nucleator "Pseudomonas syringae." Such This activity, which aligns with the "Next Generation Science…

  9. Making an Ice Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  10. Ice Core Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  11. Ross Ice Shelf

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... to hatch their young this year due to a combination of huge icebergs grounded near Ross Island and an unprecedented amount of sea ice in the Ross Sea. The grounded icebergs and sea ice have increased the distance between the penguins' feeding ...

  12. Academic Airframe Icing Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Mike; Rothmayer, Alric; Thompson, David

    2009-01-01

    2-D ice accretion and aerodynamics reasonably well understood for engineering applications To significantly improve our current capabilities we need to understand 3-D: a) Important ice accretion physics and modeling not well understood in 3-D; and b) Aerodynamics unsteady and 3-D especially near stall. Larger systems issues important and require multidisciplinary team approach

  13. Snow and Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    This experimental edition provides a number of activities useful for investigating snow and ice with elementary school children. Commencing with games with ice cubes, the activities lead through studies of snowflakes, snowdrifts, effects of wind and obstacles on the shape and formation of drifts, to a study of animals living under snow. The…

  14. Fire beneath the ice

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1993-02-13

    A volcano discovered six years ago by researchers Blankenship and Bell under Antarctica poses questions about a potential climatic catastrophe. The researchers claim that the volcano is still active, erupting occasionally and growing. A circular depression on the surface of the ice sheet has ice flowing into it and is used to provide a portrait of the heat source. The volcano is on a critical transition zone within West Antarctica with fast flowing ice streams directly downhill. Work by Blankenship shows that a soft layer of water-logged sediments called till provide the lubricating layer on the underside of the ice streams. Volcanos may provide the source of this till. The ice streams buffer the thick interior ice from the ocean and no one know what will happen if the ice streams continue to shorten. These researchers believe their results indicate that the stability of West Antarctica ultimately depends less on the current climate than on the location of heat and sediments under the ice and the legacy of past climatic changes.

  15. Ice Core Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  16. Rheology of glacier ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, K. C.; Alley, R. B.; Thomas, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new method for calculating the stress field in bounded ice shelves is used to compare strain rate and deviatoric stress on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The analysis shows that strain rate (per second) increases as the third power of deviatoric stress (in newtons/sq meter), with a constant of proportionality equal to 2.3 x 10 to the -25th.

  17. Rheology of glacier ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, K. C.; Alley, R. B.; Thomas, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new method for calculating the stress field in bounded ice shelves is used to compare strain rate and deviatoric stress on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The analysis shows that strain rate (per second) increases as the third power of deviatoric stress (in newtons/sq meter), with a constant of proportionality equal to 2.3 x 10 to the -25th.

  18. Making an Ice Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  19. Ice forming experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vali, G.

    1982-01-01

    A low gravity experiment to assess the effect of the presence of supercooled cloud droplets on the diffusional growth rate of ice crystals is described. The theoretical work and the feasibility studies are summarized. The nucleation of ice crystals in supercooled clouds is also discussed.

  20. Turning into Ice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietsch, Renée B.; Hanlon, Regina; Bohland, Cynthia; Schmale, David G., III

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary unit in which students explore biological "ice nucleation"--by particles that cause water to freeze at temperatures above -38°C--through the lens of the microbial ice nucleator "Pseudomonas syringae." Such This activity, which aligns with the "Next Generation Science…

  1. Health, housing, and public policy.

    PubMed

    Wehrwein, Chuck; Pollack, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    With federal funding of affordable housing declining, health care and housing organizations must work together to advocate sound policy and reasonable funding in this realm. Federal agencies like the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture traditionally have been the primary source of low income housing funds. But key housing programs like HUD's Section 8 have lost a significant amount of funding. Through advocacy efforts, health care and housing organizations can urge legislators to retain or restore these vital programs. They also can support the preservation of affordable housing units in order to counterbalance the trend of these homes being "lost to the market." Also, health care and housing agencies can partner to enhance housing services. Vulnerable populations-such as the elderly, individuals at risk for homelessness, those with disabilities, and the mentally ill-can benefit greatly from the supportive services that health care organizations can offer.

  2. Rotating ice blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorbolo, Stephane; Adami, Nicolas; Grasp Team

    2014-11-01

    The motion of ice discs released at the surface of a thermalized bath was investigated. As observed in some rare events in the Nature, the discs start spinning spontaneously. The motor of this motion is the cooling of the water close to the ice disc. As the density of water is maximum at 4°C, a downwards flow is generated from the surface of the ice block to the bottom. This flow generates the rotation of the disc. The speed of rotation depends on the mass of the ice disc and on the temperature of the bath. A model has been constructed to study the influence of the temperature of the bath. Finally, ice discs were put on a metallic plate. Again, a spontaneous rotation was observed. FNRS is thanked for financial support.

  3. Polarimetric road ice detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Krista

    This thesis investigated the science behind polarimetric road ice detection systems. Laboratory Mueller matrix measurements of a simulated road under differing surface conditions were collected searching for a discriminatory polarization property. These Mueller matrices were decomposed into depolarization, diattenuation, and retardance. Individual sample surface polarization properties were then calculated from these three unique matrices and compared. Specular and off-specular reflection responses of each sample were collected. Four polarization properties stood out for having high separation between dry and iced measurements: Depolarization Index, Linear Diattenuation, Linear Polarizance, and Linear Retardance. Through our investigation polarimetric ice detection is possible. Continued research of the polarization properties of road ice can result in the development of a road ice detection system. Proposed deployment methods of such a system have been outlined following the analysis of the data collected in this experiment.

  4. Quantum Ice : Experimental Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, Nic; Benton, Owen; Sikora, Olga; Penc, Karlo; McClarty, Paul; Pollmann, Frank; Moessner, Roderich; Fulde, Peter

    2012-02-01

    ``Quantum Spin Ice'' materials have attracted considerable attention as three-dimensional examples of quantum spin liquids. Recently, we have used zero-temperature Quantum Monte Carlo simulation to explore one possible scenario for these materials, confirming the possibility of a ``quantum ice'' state driven by quantum tunnelling between an extensive number of different spin-ice configurations [1]. Here we address the simple question : what would such a quantum ice look like in experiment ? We focus in particular on the fate of ``pinch point'' singularities seen in neutron scattering experiments on spin ice materials, showing how these are suppressed and ultimately eliminated as the system is cooled to its ground state [1,2]. [4pt] [1] N. Shannon et al., arXiv:1105.4196[0pt] [2] O. Benton et al., in preparation.

  5. Energy efficient house research project

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.A.; Nelson, G.D.; Hutchinson, M.

    1986-09-01

    The basis for this project was a set of energy efficient houses built in 1980 by the Energy Efficient Housing Demonstration Program of the Minnesota Housing Finance Agency. Under this programs, 144 detached and attached housing units were constructed throughout the State of Minnesota by 23 different builders. The research project utilized a simple data collection method involving homeowners in the field and utility data reports to establish a performance data base for the houses in the study. Data have been provided for addition to the BECA-A (new residential) data base on file at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, establishing a comprehensive data base for further analyses. The 112 houses for which there were good quality energy data performed very well, but analysis of these data showed few significant correlations between energy performance and design features. Detailed field investigation of 25 houses revealed many commonly practiced housing design and construction methods that degrade the energy performance of solar and other features of potentially energy efficient houses. Indoor air quality was investigated in 12 energy efficient houses and in an equal number of control houses. Air quality in the energy efficient houses was found to be as good as in houses of conventional construction. Radon mitigation using subfloor ventilation was investigated and found to be successful in reducing the concentration of this indoor air contaminate. Attempts to seal out radon in two control houses were not successful.

  6. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  7. Woodworking & housing: impacts & actions

    Treesearch

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2015-01-01

    The woodworking industry relies heavily on the construction-based markets, particularly those companies involved in cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. Market conditions, trends and investments all have an impact. It's against this backdrop, that the sixth annual housing market study was conducted in early 2015. A joint effort by Virginia Tech, the U.S...

  8. The Children's House

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  9. Understanding Fair Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    Few rights are as basic as acquiring a home of one's choice. The home and neighborhood are the environment in which families live and rear their children. For minorities, the home usually means housing vacated by whites, who, because of their race as well as ability to pay, are able to acquire a more desirable dwelling elsewhere. Congress, in…

  10. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  11. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  12. Haunted by Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  13. Interactive Mold House Tour

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Get a quick glimpse of some of the most important ways to protect your home from mold by this interactive tour of the Mold House. Room-by-room, you'll learn about common mold issues and how to address them.

  14. Help with housing costs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2017-06-21

    Nurses working in the London area have benefited from a London 'weighting' for as long as many can remember. It can be the difference between being able to live and work in the capital and being forced to move elsewhere by the high cost of housing.

  15. ESMD House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-23

    Douglas R. Cooke, NASA's Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), appears before the U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics to discuss proposed changes to NASA's exploration program on Wednesday, March 24, 2010, on Capitol Hill in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. ESMD House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-23

    A. Thomas Young, right, retired Executive Vice President, Lockheed Martin, speaks before the U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics to discuss proposed changes to NASA's exploration program on Wednesday, March 24, 2010, on Capitol Hill in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Student Housing Cost Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Univ. Residential Building System.

    Target costs for the University Residential Building System (URBS) Project of the University of California are presented. Findings depict the effectiveness of building design and material applications and should be useful in guiding future student housing design work, whether the design utilizes the URBS system or not. Ten recently constructed…

  18. Doll's House Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    2009-01-01

    School physics rarely stands still for long. Environmental physics is now an option in some post-16 courses in England. The physics of environments, and in particular the built environment, offers a recognizable context in which to see the applications of physics at work. This article considers how a model doll's house might be used to help…

  19. Poultry housing and husbandry.

    PubMed

    Elson, H A

    2010-08-01

    1. In order to conduct this anniversary review, 10 excellent papers were carefully selected from the 148 available papers published on housing and husbandry in British Poultry Science (BPS) over the past 50 years. 2. The 10 selected papers on this subject covered mainly the housing and husbandry of laying hens, but two of them dealt with various aspects of broiler production. 3. Aspects of housing considered included a wide range of intensive and extensive systems of broiler and egg production. Specific topics included the effects of husbandry system on bird welfare, including skeletal damage in laying hens and contact dermatitis in broiler chickens, as well as the design and management of nest boxes, perches, feeders and drinkers, conventional laying cages (CCs), furnished laying cages (FCs) and non-cage systems (NCs). 4. A variety of the findings in these and related papers have enlightened our understanding of many aspects of poultry housing and husbandry; most of them have found application in the poultry industry and thus improved its efficiency.

  20. The Chinese House Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the use of simulations to teach international relations (IR) highlights the Chinese House Game, a computer-based decision-making game based on Inter Nation Simulation (INS). Topics discussed include the increasing role of artificial intelligence in IR simulations, multi-disciplinary approaches, and the direction of IR as a…

  1. Housing Problems of Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  2. Project School House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etobicoke Board of Education, Ontario.

    The Borough of Etobicoke (Ontario) has been seriously affected by declining enrollment. A long-term plan forecasts the necessity of closing many schools by 1987. This report presents findings of a 1978-79 study concerning the feasibility of converting unneeded school buildings to senior citizen housing. It includes drawings and descriptions of…

  3. House Hearing Independent Audit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-03

    Elizabeth Robinson, NASA Chief Finiancial Officer, testifies during a Joint Hearing before the House Committee on Science and Technology, Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, Thursday, Dec. 3, 2009, on Capitol Hill in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. House Hearing Independent Audit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-03

    Elizabeth Robinson, NASA Chief Financial Officer, far right, testifies during a Joint Hearing before the House Committee on Science and Technology, Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, Thursday, Dec. 3, 2009, on Capitol Hill in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. House Hearing Independent Audit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-03

    Paul Martin, Inspector General for NASA, testifies during a Joint Hearing before the House Committee on Science and Technology, Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, Thursday, Dec. 3, 2009, on Capitol Hill in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. House Hearing Independent Audit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-03

    Thomas Howard, NASA Deputy Inspector General, testifies during a Joint Hearing before the House Committee on Science and Technology, Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, Thursday, Dec. 3, 2009, on Capitol Hill in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Independent Audit House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-03

    Elizabeth Robinson, NASA Chief Financial Officer, testifies during a Joint Hearing before the House Committee on Science and Technology, Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, Thursday, Dec. 3, 2009, on Capitol Hill in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. House Hearing Independent Audit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-03

    Daniel Murrin, Partner, Assurance and Advisory Business Services, Ernst & Young LLP, testifies during a Joint Hearing before the House Committee on Science and Technology, Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, Thursday, Dec. 3, 2009, on Capitol Hill in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. House Hearing Independent Audit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-03

    Daniel Murrin, Partner, Assurance and Advisory Business Service, Ernst & Young LLP, testifies during a Joint Hearing before the House Committee on Science and Technology, Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, Thursday, Dec. 3, 2009, on Capitol Hill in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Keeping House in Memphis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1994-01-01

    About two years into her first urban superintendency, Gerry House knows she cannot solve every problem on-on-one but has created a responsive system to handle parents' complaints. The Memphis school superintendent hopes to boost minority achievement, ensure that all children learn at high levels, bolster community confidence in the schooling…

  11. Haunted by Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  12. Doll's House Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    2009-01-01

    School physics rarely stands still for long. Environmental physics is now an option in some post-16 courses in England. The physics of environments, and in particular the built environment, offers a recognizable context in which to see the applications of physics at work. This article considers how a model doll's house might be used to help…

  13. Tensile properties of impact ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, M. L.; Scavuzzo, R. J.; Kellackey, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    A special test apparatus was developed to measure the tensile strength of impact ices perpendicular to the direction of growth. The apparatus consists of a split tube carefully machined to minimize the effect of the joint on impact ice strength. The tube is supported in the wind tunnel by two carefully aligned bearings. During accretion the tube is turned slowly in the icing cloud to form a uniform coating of ice on the split tube specimen. The two halves of the split tube are secured firmly by a longitudinal bolt to prevent relative motion between the two halves during ice accretion and handling. Tensile test strength results for a variety of icing conditions were obtained. Both glaze and rime ice conditions were investigated. In general, the tensile strength of impact ice was significantly less than refrigerator ice. Based on the limited data taken, the median strength of rime ice was less than glaze ice. However, the mean values were similar.

  14. Proton ordering in cubic ice and hexagonal ice; a potential new ice phase--XIc.

    PubMed

    Raza, Zamaan; Alfè, Dario; Salzmann, Christoph G; Klimeš, Jiří; Michaelides, Angelos; Slater, Ben

    2011-11-28

    Ordinary water ice forms under ambient conditions and has two polytypes, hexagonal ice (Ih) and cubic ice (Ic). From a careful comparison of proton ordering arrangements in Ih and Ic using periodic density functional theory (DFT) and diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) approaches, we find that the most stable arrangement of water molecules in cubic ice is isoenergetic with that of the proton ordered form of hexagonal ice (known as ice XI). We denote this potential new polytype of ice XI as XIc and discuss a possible route for preparing ice XIc.

  15. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Special Housing..., sanitary facilities in accordance with § 982.401(b), and food preparation and refuse disposal facilities...

  16. 2. Oil house, fog signal house and light tower, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil house, fog signal house and light tower, view southwest, east and north sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  17. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATING HOUSE SHOWING THE 'HOUSE GENERATOR' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GENERATING HOUSE SHOWING THE 'HOUSE GENERATOR' AND GOVERNOR ASSEMBLY. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  18. 35. South entrance house portal, caretaker's house cupola, cast iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. South entrance house portal, caretaker's house cupola, cast iron balustrade, cast iron fence (Graff Memorial), wrought iron fence - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 1. Keeper's house, light tower and boat house, view southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house, light tower and boat house, view southwest, northeast and northwest sides - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  20. 1. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view northeast, northwest and southwest sides - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  1. SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE AND HOUSE, VIEW TO WEST/ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE AND HOUSE, VIEW TO WEST/ SOUTHWEST - Kiel Farmstead, Summer Kitchen & Smokehouse, East side State Route 4, one half mile south of U.S. Route 64, Mascoutah, St. Clair County, IL

  2. 2. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view east, west and south sides - Bass Harbor Head Light Station, At southwest tip of Mount Desert Island off State Route 102, Bass Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  3. 10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool shed, and east tool shed to each other and immediate surroundings, looking west - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  4. 5. Relationship of chicken house, privy, claim house, and residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Relationship of chicken house, privy, claim house, and residence to each other and immediate surroundings, looking northeast - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  5. 1. Relationship of chicken house, claim house, residence, east tool ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Relationship of chicken house, claim house, residence, east tool shed, garage, and barn to overall farmstead site, looking north - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  6. 5. Shed, keeper's house, boathouse, light tower and oil house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Shed, keeper's house, boathouse, light tower and oil house, view southeast, northwest and southwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  7. Stacking disorder in ice I.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Tamsin L; Murray, Benjamin J; Salzmann, Christoph G; Molinero, Valeria; Pickering, Steven J; Whale, Thomas F

    2015-01-07

    Traditionally, ice I was considered to exist in two well-defined crystalline forms at ambient pressure: stable hexagonal ice (ice Ih) and metastable cubic ice (ice Ic). However, it is becoming increasingly evident that what has been called cubic ice in the past does not have a structure consistent with the cubic crystal system. Instead, it is a stacking-disordered material containing cubic sequences interlaced with hexagonal sequences, which is termed stacking-disordered ice (ice Isd). In this article, we summarise previous work on ice with stacking disorder including ice that was called cubic ice in the past. We also present new experimental data which shows that ice which crystallises after heterogeneous nucleation in water droplets containing solid inclusions also contains stacking disorder even at freezing temperatures of around -15 °C. This supports the results from molecular simulations, that the structure of ice that crystallises initially from supercooled water is always stacking-disordered and that this metastable ice can transform to the stable hexagonal phase subject to the kinetics of recrystallization. We also show that stacking disorder in ice which forms from water droplets is quantitatively distinct from ice made via other routes. The emerging picture of ice I is that of a very complex material which frequently contains stacking disorder and this stacking disorder can vary in complexity depending on the route of formation and thermal history.

  8. THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a water tank on the second floor that gravity fed water to the Kineth house and farm buildings. The one-story addition to the west of the tower provided workshop space. The hog shed is seen on the left of the image and the concrete foundation of the upright silo is in the foreground on the right. - Kineth Farm, Tower House, 19162 State Route 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  9. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF CARRIAGE HOUSE SHOWING RELATIONSHIP TO MILK HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF CARRIAGE HOUSE SHOWING RELATIONSHIP TO MILK HOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. (The carriage house was built by William B. Engle at the end of the 19th century, with carriage storage on the ground floor and a workshop above. Later, his son, Ralph Engle, used the ground floor as a car garage.) - Engle Farm, Carriage House, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  10. 24 CFR 248.147 - Housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing standards. 248.147 Section 248.147 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  11. 12 CFR 1281.15 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Housing plans. 1281.15 Section 1281.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.15 Housing plans. (a) Housing plan requirement. If the Director...

  12. 24 CFR 248.147 - Housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing standards. 248.147 Section 248.147 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  13. 12 CFR 1281.15 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Housing plans. 1281.15 Section 1281.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.15 Housing plans. (a) Housing plan requirement. If the Director...

  14. 24 CFR 248.147 - Housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing standards. 248.147 Section 248.147 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  15. 24 CFR 248.147 - Housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing standards. 248.147 Section 248.147 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  16. 24 CFR 248.147 - Housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing standards. 248.147 Section 248.147 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  17. 12 CFR 1281.15 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Housing plans. 1281.15 Section 1281.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.15 Housing plans. (a) Housing plan requirement. If the Director...

  18. 12 CFR 1281.15 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Housing plans. 1281.15 Section 1281.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.15 Housing plans. (a) Housing plan requirement. If the Director...

  19. Icing Cloud Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ide, Robert F.; Oldenburg, John R.

    2001-01-01

    The icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center underwent a major rehabilitation in 1999, necessitating recalibration of the icing clouds. This report describes the methods used in the recalibration, including the procedure used to establish a uniform icing cloud and the use of a standard icing blade technique for measurement of liquid water content. The instruments and methods used to perform the droplet size calibration are also described. The liquid water content/droplet size operating envelopes of the icing tunnel are shown for a range of airspeeds and compared to the FAA icing certification criteria. The capabilities of the IRT to produce large droplet icing clouds is also detailed.

  20. 12 CFR 1807.401 - Affordable housing-rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... housing. To qualify as Affordable Housing, a rental Multi-family housing project financed with a CMF award... after Project Completion and at initial occupancy. The affordability requirements apply without regard... the project or property. (e) Subsequent rents during the affordability period. Any increase in...

  1. Pair housing induced feeding suppression: individual housing not novelty.

    PubMed

    Lopak, V; Eikelboom, R

    Male rats that are moved from individual to pair housing suppress their feeding for a few days [O'Connor R, Eikelboom R. The effects of changes in housing on feeding and wheel running. Physiol Behav 2000;68:361-371]. The present study explored whether the suppression was a result of the period of individual housing or the novelty of the other animal. Two groups of 16 rats were pair-housed and one group of rats was individually housed for 21 days. The individually housed rats were then pair-housed (IP group) and rats in one of the pair-housed groups were re-housed with novel partners (NP group), while rats in the other pair-housed group remained with the same partner (SP group). Feeding was suppressed only for rats in the IP group, suggesting that the novelty of the partner did not suppress feeding, but rather, the change from individual to pair housing did. Water consumption was also measured, but was unaffected by the re-housing manipulation.

  2. 12 CFR 1807.401 - Affordable housing-rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable housing-rental housing. 1807.401 Section 1807.401 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.401 Affordable housing—rental...

  3. 12 CFR 1807.401 - Affordable housing-rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable housing-rental housing. 1807.401 Section 1807.401 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.401 Affordable housing—rental...

  4. 12 CFR 1807.401 - Affordable housing-rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable housing-rental housing. 1807.401 Section 1807.401 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.401 Affordable housing—rental...

  5. Ice sheets and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Eric W

    2013-07-05

    Snow and ice play their most important role in the nitrogen cycle as a barrier to land-atmosphere and ocean-atmosphere exchanges that would otherwise occur. The inventory of nitrogen compounds in the polar ice sheets is approximately 260 Tg N, dominated by nitrate in the much larger Antarctic ice sheet. Ice cores help to inform us about the natural variability of the nitrogen cycle at global and regional scale, and about the extent of disturbance in recent decades. Nitrous oxide concentrations have risen about 20 per cent in the last 200 years and are now almost certainly higher than at any time in the last 800 000 years. Nitrate concentrations recorded in Greenland ice rose by a factor of 2-3, particularly between the 1950s and 1980s, reflecting a major change in NOx emissions reaching the background atmosphere. Increases in ice cores drilled at lower latitudes can be used to validate or constrain regional emission inventories. Background ammonium concentrations in Greenland ice show no significant recent trend, although the record is very noisy, being dominated by spikes of input from biomass burning events. Neither nitrate nor ammonium shows significant recent trends in Antarctica, although their natural variations are of biogeochemical and atmospheric chemical interest. Finally, it has been found that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack leads to significant re-emissions of NOx that can strongly impact the regional atmosphere in snow-covered areas.

  6. Micromechanics of ice friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammonds, P. R.; Bailey, E.; Lishman, B.; Scourfield, S.

    2015-12-01

    Frictional mechanics are controlled by the ice micro-structure - surface asperities and flaws - but also the ice fabric and permeability network structure of the contacting blocks. Ice properties are dependent upon the temperature of the bulk ice, on the normal stress and on the sliding velocity and acceleration. This means the shear stress required for sliding is likewise dependent on sliding velocity, acceleration, and temperature. We aim to describe the micro-physics of the contacting surface. We review micro-mechanical models of friction: the elastic and ductile deformation of asperities under normal loads and their shear failure by ductile flow, brittle fracture, or melting and hydrodynamic lubrication. Combinations of these give a total of six rheological models of friction. We present experimental results in ice mechanics and physics from laboratory experiments to understand the mechanical models. We then examine the scaling relations of the slip of ice, to examine how the micro-mechanics of ice friction can be captured simple reduced-parameter models, describing the mechanical state and slip rate of the floes. We aim to capture key elements that they may be incorporated into mid and ocean-basin scale modelling.

  7. Ice sheets and nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    Snow and ice play their most important role in the nitrogen cycle as a barrier to land–atmosphere and ocean–atmosphere exchanges that would otherwise occur. The inventory of nitrogen compounds in the polar ice sheets is approximately 260 Tg N, dominated by nitrate in the much larger Antarctic ice sheet. Ice cores help to inform us about the natural variability of the nitrogen cycle at global and regional scale, and about the extent of disturbance in recent decades. Nitrous oxide concentrations have risen about 20 per cent in the last 200 years and are now almost certainly higher than at any time in the last 800 000 years. Nitrate concentrations recorded in Greenland ice rose by a factor of 2–3, particularly between the 1950s and 1980s, reflecting a major change in NOx emissions reaching the background atmosphere. Increases in ice cores drilled at lower latitudes can be used to validate or constrain regional emission inventories. Background ammonium concentrations in Greenland ice show no significant recent trend, although the record is very noisy, being dominated by spikes of input from biomass burning events. Neither nitrate nor ammonium shows significant recent trends in Antarctica, although their natural variations are of biogeochemical and atmospheric chemical interest. Finally, it has been found that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack leads to significant re-emissions of NOx that can strongly impact the regional atmosphere in snow-covered areas. PMID:23713125

  8. Skylab floating ice experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J. (Principal Investigator); Ramseier, R. O.; Weaver, R. J.; Weeks, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Coupling of the aircraft data with the ground truth observations proved to be highly successful with interesting results being obtained with IR and SLAR passive microwave techniques, and standard photography. Of particular interest were the results of the PMIS system which operated at 10.69 GHz with both vertical and horizontal polarizations. This was the first time that dual polarized images were obtained from floating ice. In both sea and lake ice, it was possible to distinguish a wide variety of thin ice types because of their large differences in brightness temperatures. It was found that the higher brightness temperature was invariably obtained in the vertically polarized mode, and as the age of the ice increases the brightness temperature increases in both polarizations. Associated with this change in age, the difference in temperature was observed as the different polarizations decreased. It appears that the horizontally polarized data is the most sensitive to variations in ice type for both fresh water and sea ice. The study also showed the great amount of information on ice surface roughness and deformation patterns that can be obtained from X-band SLAR observations.

  9. Pyroelectricity of water ice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanfu; Bell, Richard C; Iedema, Martin J; Schenter, Gregory K; Wu, Kai; Cowin, James P

    2008-05-22

    Water ice usually is thought to have zero pyroelectricity by symmetry. However, biasing it with ions breaks the symmetry because of the induced partial dipole alignment. This unmasks a large pyroelectricity. Ions were soft-landed upon 1 mum films of water ice at temperatures greater than 160 K. When cooled below 140-150 K, the dipole alignment locks in. Work function measurements of these films then show high and reversible pyroelectric activity from 30 to 150 K. For an initial approximately 10 V induced by the deposited ions at 160 K, the observed bias below 150 K varies approximately as 10 Vx(T/150 K)2. This implies that water has pyroelectric coefficients as large as that of many commercial pyroelectrics, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The pyroelectricity of water ice, not previously reported, is in reasonable agreement with that predicted using harmonic analysis of a model system of SPC ice. The pyroelectricity is observed in crystalline and compact amorphous ice, deuterated or not. This implies that for water ice between 0 and 150 K (such as astrophysical ices), temperature changes can induce strong electric fields (approximately 10 MV/m) that can influence their chemistry, ion trajectories, or binding.

  10. Water Ice on Pluto

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-16

    The Ralph instrument on NASA's New Horizons spacecraft detected water ice on Pluto's surface, picking up on the ice's near-infrared spectral characteristics. (See featured image from Oct. 8, 2015.) The middle panel shows a region west of Pluto's "heart" feature -- which the mission team calls Tombaugh Regio -- about 280 miles (450 kilometers) across. It combines visible imagery from Ralph's Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) with infrared spectroscopy from the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA). Areas with the strongest water ice spectral signature are highlighted in blue. Major outcrops of water ice occur in regions informally called Viking Terra, along Virgil Fossa west of Elliot crater, and in Baré Montes. Numerous smaller outcrops are associated with impact craters and valleys between mountains. In the lower left panel, LEISA spectra are shown for two regions indicated by cyan and magenta boxes. The white curve is a water ice model spectrum, showing similar features to the cyan spectrum. The magenta spectrum is dominated by methane ice absorptions. The lower right panel shows an MVIC enhanced color view of the region in the white box, with MVIC's blue, red and near-infrared filters displayed in blue, green and red channels, respectively. The regions showing the strongest water ice signature are associated with terrains that are actually a lighter shade of red. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20030

  11. High Speed Ice Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.

  12. Cyclic steps on ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokawa, M.; Izumi, N.; Naito, K.; Parker, G.; Yamada, T.; Greve, R.

    2016-05-01

    Boundary waves often form at the interface between ice and fluid flowing adjacent to it, such as ripples under river ice covers, and steps on the bed of supraglacial meltwater channels. They may also be formed by wind, such as the megadunes on the Antarctic ice sheet. Spiral troughs on the polar ice caps of Mars have been interpreted to be cyclic steps formed by katabatic wind blowing over ice. Cyclic steps are relatives of upstream-migrating antidunes. Cyclic step formation on ice is not only a mechanical but also a thermodynamic process. There have been very few studies on the formation of either cyclic steps or upstream-migrating antidunes on ice. In this study, we performed flume experiments to reproduce cyclic steps on ice by flowing water, and found that trains of steps form when the Froude number is larger than unity. The features of those steps allow them to be identified as ice-bed analogs of cyclic steps in alluvial and bedrock rivers. We performed a linear stability analysis and obtained a physical explanation of the formation of upstream-migrating antidunes, i.e., precursors of cyclic steps. We compared the results of experiments with the predictions of the analysis and found the observed steps fall in the range where the analysis predicts interfacial instability. We also found that short antidune-like undulations formed as a precursor to the appearance of well-defined steps. This fact suggests that such antidune-like undulations correspond to the instability predicted by the analysis and are precursors of cyclic steps.

  13. The seeding of ice algal blooms in Arctic pack ice: The multiyear ice seed repository hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Lasse M.; Laney, Samuel R.; Duarte, Pedro; Kauko, Hanna M.; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Mundy, Christopher J.; Rösel, Anja; Meyer, Amelie; Itkin, Polona; Cohen, Lana; Peeken, Ilka; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Róźańska-Pluta, Magdalena; Wiktor, Józef; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Granskog, Mats A.; Hop, Haakon; Assmy, Philipp

    2017-07-01

    During the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015) from January to June 2015 the pack ice in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard was studied during four drifts between 83° and 80°N. This pack ice consisted of a mix of second year, first year, and young ice. The physical properties and ice algal community composition was investigated in the three different ice types during the winter-spring-summer transition. Our results indicate that algae remaining in sea ice that survived the summer melt season are subsequently trapped in the upper layers of the ice column during winter and may function as an algal seed repository. Once the connectivity in the entire ice column is established, as a result of temperature-driven increase in ice porosity during spring, algae in the upper parts of the ice are able to migrate toward the bottom and initiate the ice algal spring bloom. Furthermore, this algal repository might seed the bloom in younger ice formed in adjacent leads. This mechanism was studied in detail for the dominant ice diatom Nitzschia frigida. The proposed seeding mechanism may be compromised due to the disappearance of older ice in the anticipated regime shift toward a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean.

  14. Lens window simplifies TDL housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Rowland, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Lens window seal in tunable-diode-laser housing replaces plan parallel window. Lens seals housing and acts as optical-output coupler, thus eliminating need for additional reimaging or collimating optics.

  15. An ice shelf breakup

    SciTech Connect

    Fahnestock, M.

    1996-02-09

    Glaciers and ice sheets are controlled by the climate and must change if the conditions that led to their current configurations are changing. These ice masses exist at the interface between the atmosphere, which provides sustaining snowfall and thermal regulation, and the land, which provides a stable base and in many cases the elevation required to reach suitably cold conditions. Ice sheets and glaciers are distributed around the globe and can serve as potential indicators of past climate variability and current climatic trends. 9 refs.

  16. Ice caps on venus?

    PubMed

    Libby, W F

    1968-03-08

    The data on Venus obtained by Mariner V and Venera 4 are interpreted as evidence of giant polar ice caps holding the water that must have come out of the volcanoes with the observed carbon dioxide, on the assumption that Earth and Venus are of similar composition and volcanic history. The measurements by Venera 4 of the equatorial surface temperature indicate that the microwave readings were high, so that the polar ice caps may be allowed to exist in the face of the 10-centimeter readings of polar temperature. Life seems to be distinctly possible at the edges of the ice sheets.

  17. Ice Jam Data Collection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    Sweden, p. 301- LITERATURE CITED 317. Pomerleau, R.T. (1992a) Field ice measurements Beltaos , S . (1978) Field investigations of river ice for...9, LuleA, Sweden, p. 355-371. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference of the Beltaos , S ., R. Gerard, S . Petryk and T.D. Association of State...AD- A280 067 Ice Jam Data Collection Kathleen D. White and Jon E. ZufelT March 1994 DTIC S EECTEa @8199M411 aF FI 1,0 Tis EWE’~t a, pm. DTIC QUALFPy

  18. Climate Data Records (CDRs) for Ice Motion and Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschudi, M. A.; Fowler, C.; Maslanik, J. A.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    Climate Data Records (CDRs) for remotely-sensed Arctic sea ice motion and sea ice age are under development by our group at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The ice motion product, archived at NSIDC, has a considerable history of use, while sea ice age is a relatively new product. Our technique to estimate sea ice motion utilizes images from SSM/I, as well as SMMR and the series of AVHRR sensors to estimate the daily motion of ice parcels. This method is augmented by incorporating ice motion observations from the network of drifting buoys deployed as part of the International Arctic Buoy Program. Our technique to calculate ice age relies on following the actual age of the ice for each ice parcel, categorizing the parcel as first-year ice, second-year, ice, etc. based on how many summer melt seasons the ice parcel survives. Both of these research-grade products have been interpolated onto 25x25 km grid points spanning the entire Arctic Ocean using the Equal-Area Scalable Earth (EASE) grid. Datasets generated from this program have shown that the Arctic ice cover has experienced a significant (> 70%) decline in multiyear ice over the last 20 years, leaving a younger ice cover in 2011. By comparing ice age derived by the Lagrangian tracking method to ice thickness estimated by Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data, it is observed that ice age is linearly related to ice thickness, up to an age of 10 years. Therefore, the shift in dominance of multiyear ice to first-year ice relates to a significant thinning of the ice. This thinning is estimated to correspond to a 40% reduction in ice volume in the last 20 years. An ancillary dataset (APP-X) produced by the University of Wisconsin, Madison has been combined with the ice motion product to monitor the properties of the sea ice parcels tracked by the ice motion product. This dataset includes ice surface and 2-meter air temperature, albedo, downwelling shortwave

  19. Advances in ice mechanics - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.S.; Hallam, S.D.; Maatanen, M.; Sinha, N.K.; Sodhi, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the interaction of icebergs with offshore platforms. Topics considered at the symposium included advances in ice mechanics in the United Kingdom, ice mechanics in Finland, recent advances in ice mechanics in Canada, advances in sea ice mechanics in the USA, foundations, monitoring, hazards, risk assessment, and deformation.

  20. Creep of ice: Further studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, H. C.; Durham, W. B.; Kirby, S. H.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed studies have been done of ice creep as related to the icy satellites, Ganymede and Callisto. Included were: (1) the flow of high-pressure water ices II, III, and V, and (2) frictional sliding of ice I sub h. Work was also begun on the study of the effects of impurities on the flow of ice. Test results are summarized.

  1. Arctic Sea ice model sensitivities.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana Stefanova

    2010-12-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice state to internal model parameters. A new sea ice model that holds some promise for improving sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea ice code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness,and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

  2. Ice interaction with offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cammaert, A.B.; Muggeridge, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.

  3. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Libal, Andras J

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  4. College and University Apartment Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey-Powell, Deborah, Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to update housing professionals on the current issues and future trends facing college and university apartment operations in the 21st century. Its chapters are: (1) "The History of Apartment Housing" (Rena Buchan); (2) "Research in Apartment Housing" (Donald Whalen); (3) "Community Services and…

  5. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  6. College and University Apartment Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey-Powell, Deborah, Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to update housing professionals on the current issues and future trends facing college and university apartment operations in the 21st century. Its chapters are: (1) "The History of Apartment Housing" (Rena Buchan); (2) "Research in Apartment Housing" (Donald Whalen); (3) "Community Services and…

  7. Literacy Mediation in Neighbourhood Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between staff in Neighbourhood Houses, and the socially and educationally disadvantaged community members who visit Neighbourhood Houses, have been viewed through many lenses, including community development, social support, caring and compassion. This paper looks at Neighbourhood Houses as sites of pedagogical practice. More…

  8. Passive retrofits for Navy housing

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbert, R.; Miles, C.; Jones, R.; Peck, C.; Anderson, J.; Jacobson, V.; Dale, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A project to assess and initiate passive solar energy retrofits to US Navy family housing is described. The current data base for Navy housing (ECOP), and its enhancement for passive solar purposes options proposed for Navy housing are explained. The analysis goals and methods to evaluate the retrofits are discussed. An educational package to explain the retrofits is described.

  9. Supportive housing in Brooklyn.

    PubMed

    Burke, Natasha

    2005-01-01

    Since 1977, Saint Vincent Catholic Medical Centers of New York City has been creating and maintaining supportive housing offerings for at-risk populations, such as individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with substance abuse challenges, and the mentally ill. By providing a continuum of medical and social services, the organization aims to help residents stabilize and rebuild their lives. Saint Vincent sees empowerment as a key step toward helping individuals maintain their health, re-enter the community, seek employment, and pursue other goals. Some of the supportive services Saint Vincent offers in its housing communities are care coordination, counseling, peer support networks, self-help groups, leisure activities, help with finances, and referrals to community agencies offering other resources. Recognizing the importance of job training and assistance, the system also offers a unique program in which mentally ill individuals are able to work in a recycling center or office cleaning business, both of which are owned by Saint Vincent.

  10. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    Lindsay Lawlor, of San Diego, Calif., left, demonstrates his creation, a 17-foot-tall, robotic giraffe that "walks" on wheels and is powered by a 12-horsepower hybrid fuel-engine motor, during the first ever White House Maker Faire, which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The President announced new steps the Administration and its partners are taking to support the ability of more Americans, young and old, to have to access to these tools and techniques and brings their ideas to life. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    The Made In Space company displays some of the tools that can be made by their 3D printer during the first ever White House Maker Faire which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The Made In Space 3D printer was just approved by NASA to be tested onboard the International Space Station (ISS), and NASA announced a challenge for students to design items that would be printed by this first 3D printer to fly in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    Sara Ann Wylie of Public Lab shows the do to yourself Balloon Mapping Kit, during the first ever White House Maker Faire, which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The Balloon Mapping Kit enables you to take your own aerial photos from 1000 ft or higher. The President announced new steps the Administration and its partners are taking to support the ability of more Americans, young and old, to have to access to these tools and techniques and brings their ideas to life. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. White House Maker Faire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-18

    A prototype model of the Made In Space 3D printer is on display during the first ever White House Maker Faire which brings together students, entrepreneurs, and everyday citizens who are using new tools and techniques to launch new businesses, learn vital skills in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), and fuel the renaissance in American manufacturing, at the White House, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 in Washington. The Made In Space 3D printer was just approved by NASA to be tested onboard the International Space Station (ISS), and NASA announced a challenge for students to design items that would be printed by this first 3D printer to fly in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Doll's house physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Bob

    2009-03-01

    School physics rarely stands still for long. Environmental physics is now an option in some post-16 courses in England. The physics of environments, and in particular the built environment, offers a recognizable context in which to see the applications of physics at work. This article considers how a model doll's house might be used to help learners understand energy transfer, thermal equilibrium, energy management, and responsible citizenship.

  15. ESMD House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-23

    Douglas R. Cooke, left, NASA's Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and A. Thomas Young, retired Executive Vice President, Lockheed Martin appear before the U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics to discuss proposed changes to NASA's exploration program on Wednesday, March 24, 2010, on Capitol Hill in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Housing characteristics 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  17. ESMD House Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-23

    U.S. Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, D-AZ, left, shows a childs' drawing while U.S. Congressman Pete Olson, R-TX, looks on at the U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics to discuss proposed changes to NASA's exploration program on Wednesday, March 24, 2010, on Capitol Hill in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  19. House bat management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenhall, Arthur M.

    1982-01-01

    The soundest long-term solution for the management of bats that enter buildings and cause a nuisance problem or present a public health hazard is by batproofing the structure. Chemical toxicants do not solve house bat problems and may create worse ones. This manual describes batproofing techniques that will provide effective and acceptable alternatives for dealing with house bat problems and hazards. Recent declines in bat populations and greater appreciation of the ecological importance of bats have identified the need for sound management strategies that will encourage bat conservation while protecting human health and solving nuisance problems. One of the best deterrents against house bats is to improve the energy efficiency of the structure since bats may enter holes through which heat is lost. Heat conservation methods used for batproofing will also be eligible for Federal residential energy tax credits. The manual should be useful to homeowners, public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, conservationists, and others interested or concerned about bat interactions with humans.

  20. Waves on Ice

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... a wavy pattern on the ice surface. One of MISR's cloud classification products, the Angular Signature Cloud Mask (ASCM), correctly ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  1. Veil of Ice

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-12

    The Cassini spacecraft stares toward Saturn through its gauzy veil of rings. The great ice-particle screen acts like a filter here, attenuating the glare from the planet and making its high altitude haze easy to see

  2. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  3. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  4. Ice age terminations.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Broecker, Wallace S; Denton, George H; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xianfeng

    2009-10-09

    230Th-dated oxygen isotope records of stalagmites from Sanbao Cave, China, characterize Asian Monsoon (AM) precipitation through the ends of the third- and fourthmost recent ice ages. As a result, AM records for the past four glacial terminations can now be precisely correlated with those from ice cores and marine sediments, establishing the timing and sequence of major events. In all four cases, observations are consistent with a classic Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity trigger for an initial retreat of northern ice sheets. Meltwater and icebergs entering the North Atlantic alter oceanic and atmospheric circulation and associated fluxes of heat and carbon, causing increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperatures that drive the termination in the Southern Hemisphere. Increasing CO2 and summer insolation drive recession of northern ice sheets, with probable positive feedbacks between sea level and CO2.

  5. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  6. Antarctic stratospheric ice crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, J.; Toon, O. B.; Pueschel, R. F.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Verma, S.

    1989-01-01

    Ice crystals were replicated over the Palmer Peninsula at approximately 72 deg S on six occasions during the 1987 Airboirne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The sampling altitude was between 12.5 and 18.5 km (45-65 thousand ft pressure altitude) with the temperature between 190 and 201 K. The atmosphere was subsaturated with respect to ice in all cases. The collected crystals were predominantly solid and hollow columns. The largest crystals were sampled at lower altitudes where the potential temperature was below 400 K. While the crystals were larger than anticipated, their low concentration results in a total surface area that is less than one tenth of the total aerosol surface area. The large ice crystals may play an important role in the observed stratospheric dehydration processes through sedimentation. Evidence of scavenging of submicron particles further suggests that the ice crystals may be effective in the removal of stratospheric chemicals.

  7. Photoplastic effect on ice

    SciTech Connect

    Khusnatdinov, N.N.; Petrenko, V.F.

    1995-09-01

    The study of photoplastic effect (PPE) on ice is essential for both fundamental and applied reasons. It is important for an understanding of dislocation motion as well as the flow of glaciers in cold regions that occurs under intensive solar radiation. It was found that the illumination of ice with UV light ({lambda}<300 nm) leads to its irreversible hardening. A prolonged irradiation with a total light exposure of about 8{center_dot}10{sup {minus}5} J/cm{sup 2} at {lambda} = 260 nm can change the creep rate up to 60 percent. Even more pronounced PPE was found in HCl-doped ice with the concentration, n = 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}. It is suggested that PPE is caused by the excitation of ``autoionization`` reaction which was found responsible for the photoconductivity of ice.

  8. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  9. ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE)

    EPA Science Inventory



    Ion Composition Elucidation (ICE) utilizes selected ion recording with a double focusing mass spectrometer to simultaneously determine exact masses and relative isotopic abundances from mass peak profiles. These can be determined more accurately and at higher sensitivity ...

  10. Ice reconnaissance by satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Strome, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the significant milestones in the use of satellites for snow and ice monitoring. The feasibility of such monitoring was demonstrated by the Tiros 2 satellite in 1961. Nimbus 1 showed that breaks in the sea ice can be easily monitored during continuous nighttime conditions; Nimbus 3 showed the practicality of delineating regions of active melting of ice and snow in temperate areas. Landsat data have been found to be particularly useful for monitoring and studying glaciers and their attendant surface features. Ice concentration can be determined with reasonable accuracy from a sequence of electronically scanned microwave radiomenter images made aboard Nimbus 5. In the future we can expect improved sensors and spacecraft systems with longer operating lives.

  11. Sea Ice Minimum 2016

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows the evolution of the Arctic sea ice cover from its wintertime maximum extent, which was reached on Mar. 24, 2016, and was the lowest on record for the second year in a row, to ...

  12. Web life: Ice Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-11-01

    Computer and video gamers of a certain vintage will have fond memories of Lemmings, a game in which players must shepherd pixelated, suicidal rodents around a series of obstacles to reach safety. At first glance, Ice Flows is strikingly similar.

  13. 2011 Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video shows Arctic sea ice from March 7, 2011, to Sept. 9, 2011, ending with a comparison of the 30-year average minimum extent, shown in yellow, and the Northwest Passage, in red. (no audio) ...

  14. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  15. Altimeter Sea Ice Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Science Fax- 164513 Chalmers University of TechnologyI S-41296 Goteborg, Sweden 5 Altimeter Sea Ice Workshop Presentation Summary Hawkins: Present U.S...into the ground. A large tent slides over the top of the pond for solar shading and inclement weather protection. A mobile gantry, which spans the width...tracks can covering the pond to protect the growing ice from weather when necessary. A walkway mounted on the tracks serves as a mobile base on which the

  16. Mental health and housing.

    PubMed

    Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P

    1976-01-01

    With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and

  17. Water Ice on Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Schmitt, Bernard; Roush, Ted L.; Owen, Tobias C.; Quirico, Eric; Geballe, Thomas R.; de Bergh, Catherine; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Douté, Sylvain; Meier, Roland

    2000-09-01

    We discuss the spectroscopic detection of H 2O ice on Triton, evidenced by the broad absorption bands in the near infrared at 1.55 and 2.04 μm. The detection of water ice on Triton reconfirms earlier preliminary studies (D. P. Cruikshank et al. 1984, Icarus58, 293-305). Although crystalline H 2O ice has a distinctive spectral band at 1.65 μm, and our new models slightly favor the presence of this phase, we cannot unambiguously determine whether Triton's water ice is crystalline or amorphous. Both phases might be present, and special conditions in the surface microstructure may affect the spectroscopic signature of water ice in such a way that crystalline ice is present and its 1.65 μm spectral band is masked. Our spectra (1.87-2.5 μm) taken at an interval of nearly 3.5 years do not show any significant changes that might relate to reports of changes in Triton's spectral reflectance (B. Buratti et al. 1999, Nature397, 219), or in Triton's surface pressure (J. L. Elliot et al. 1998, Nature393, 765-767).

  18. Modelling sea ice dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murawski, Jens; Kleine, Eckhard

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice remains one of the frontiers of ocean modelling and is of vital importance for the correct forecasts of the northern oceans. At large scale, it is commonly considered a continuous medium whose dynamics is modelled in terms of continuum mechanics. Its specifics are a matter of constitutive behaviour which may be characterised as rigid-plastic. The new developed sea ice dynamic module bases on general principles and follows a systematic approach to the problem. Both drift field and stress field are modelled by a variational property. Rigidity is treated by Lagrangian relaxation. Thus one is led to a sensible numerical method. Modelling fast ice remains to be a challenge. It is understood that ridging and the formation of grounded ice keels plays a role in the process. The ice dynamic model includes a parameterisation of the stress associated with grounded ice keels. Shear against the grounded bottom contact might lead to plastic deformation and the loss of integrity. The numerical scheme involves a potentially large system of linear equations which is solved by pre-conditioned iteration. The entire algorithm consists of several components which result from decomposing the problem. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in practice.

  19. Farmworker Housing Quality and Health.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Jacobs, Ilene J; Ruiz, Virginia

    2015-11-01

    On 11 November 2014, Farmworker Housing Quality and Health: A Transdisciplinary Conference was convened to draw together experts from the variety of disciplines who contribute to research and practice focused on farmworker housing and health in order to delineate current knowledge and propose next steps. The conference addressed three specific aims: (1) to consolidate current knowledge on characteristics and quality of housing provided for farmworkers; (2) to delineate pertinent directions and areas for farmworker housing health and safety research and policy; and (3) to facilitate the development of working groups to support the implementation of research, education, and engineering projects to improve farmworker housing. This article provides an overview of the conference.

  20. Ice sheets. Volume loss from Antarctic ice shelves is accelerating.

    PubMed

    Paolo, Fernando S; Fricker, Helen A; Padman, Laurie

    2015-04-17

    The floating ice shelves surrounding the Antarctic Ice Sheet restrain the grounded ice-sheet flow. Thinning of an ice shelf reduces this effect, leading to an increase in ice discharge to the ocean. Using 18 years of continuous satellite radar altimeter observations, we have computed decadal-scale changes in ice-shelf thickness around the Antarctic continent. Overall, average ice-shelf volume change accelerated from negligible loss at 25 ± 64 cubic kilometers per year for 1994-2003 to rapid loss of 310 ± 74 cubic kilometers per year for 2003-2012. West Antarctic losses increased by ~70% in the past decade, and earlier volume gain by East Antarctic ice shelves ceased. In the Amundsen and Bellingshausen regions, some ice shelves have lost up to 18% of their thickness in less than two decades.

  1. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    PubMed

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  2. Interaction of ice binding proteins with ice, water and ions.

    PubMed

    Oude Vrielink, Anneloes S; Aloi, Antonio; Olijve, Luuk L C; Voets, Ilja K

    2016-03-19

    Ice binding proteins (IBPs) are produced by various cold-adapted organisms to protect their body tissues against freeze damage. First discovered in Antarctic fish living in shallow waters, IBPs were later found in insects, microorganisms, and plants. Despite great structural diversity, all IBPs adhere to growing ice crystals, which is essential for their extensive repertoire of biological functions. Some IBPs maintain liquid inclusions within ice or inhibit recrystallization of ice, while other types suppress freezing by blocking further ice growth. In contrast, ice nucleating proteins stimulate ice nucleation just below 0 °C. Despite huge commercial interest and major scientific breakthroughs, the precise working mechanism of IBPs has not yet been unraveled. In this review, the authors outline the state-of-the-art in experimental and theoretical IBP research and discuss future scientific challenges. The interaction of IBPs with ice, water and ions is examined, focusing in particular on ice growth inhibition mechanisms.

  3. Ice Flow in the North East Greenland Ice Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joughin, Ian; Kwok, Ron; Fahnestock, M.; MacAyeal, Doug

    1999-01-01

    Early observations with ERS-1 SAR image data revealed a large ice stream in North East Greenland (Fahnestock 1993). The ice stream has a number of the characteristics of the more closely studied ice streams in Antarctica, including its large size and gross geometry. The onset of rapid flow close to the ice divide and the evolution of its flow pattern, however, make this ice stream unique. These features can be seen in the balance velocities for the ice stream (Joughin 1997) and its outlets. The ice stream is identifiable for more than 700 km, making it much longer than any other flow feature in Greenland. Our research goals are to gain a greater understanding of the ice flow in the northeast Greenland ice stream and its outlet glaciers in order to assess their impact on the past, present, and future mass balance of the ice sheet. We will accomplish these goals using a combination of remotely sensed data and ice sheet models. We are using satellite radar interferometry data to produce a complete maps of velocity and topography over the entire ice stream. We are in the process of developing methods to use these data in conjunction with existing ice sheet models similar to those that have been used to improve understanding of the mechanics of flow in Antarctic ice streams.

  4. Ice Flow in the North East Greenland Ice Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joughin, Ian; Kwok, Ron; Fahnestock, M.; MacAyeal, Doug

    1999-01-01

    Early observations with ERS-1 SAR image data revealed a large ice stream in North East Greenland (Fahnestock 1993). The ice stream has a number of the characteristics of the more closely studied ice streams in Antarctica, including its large size and gross geometry. The onset of rapid flow close to the ice divide and the evolution of its flow pattern, however, make this ice stream unique. These features can be seen in the balance velocities for the ice stream (Joughin 1997) and its outlets. The ice stream is identifiable for more than 700 km, making it much longer than any other flow feature in Greenland. Our research goals are to gain a greater understanding of the ice flow in the northeast Greenland ice stream and its outlet glaciers in order to assess their impact on the past, present, and future mass balance of the ice sheet. We will accomplish these goals using a combination of remotely sensed data and ice sheet models. We are using satellite radar interferometry data to produce a complete maps of velocity and topography over the entire ice stream. We are in the process of developing methods to use these data in conjunction with existing ice sheet models similar to those that have been used to improve understanding of the mechanics of flow in Antarctic ice streams.

  5. Is Housing a Health Insult?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Emma; Beer, Andrew; Lester, Laurence; Pevalin, David; Whitehead, Christine; Bentley, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    In seeking to understand the relationship between housing and health, research attention is often focussed on separate components of people’s whole housing ‘bundles’. We propose in this paper that such conceptual and methodological abstraction of elements of the housing and health relationship limits our ability to understand the scale of the accumulated effect of housing on health and thereby contributes to the under-recognition of adequate housing as a social policy tool and powerful health intervention. In this paper, we propose and describe an index to capture the means by which housing bundles influence health. We conceptualise the index as reflecting accumulated housing “insults to health”—an Index of Housing Insults (IHI). We apply the index to a sample of 1000 low-income households in Australia. The analysis shows a graded association between housing insults and health on all outcome measures. Further, after controlling for possible confounders, the IHI is shown to provide additional predictive power to the explanation of levels of mental health, general health and clinical depression beyond more traditional proxy measures. Overall, this paper reinforces the need to look not just at separate housing components but to embrace a broader understanding of the relationship between housing and health. PMID:28587139

  6. Is Housing a Health Insult?

    PubMed

    Baker, Emma; Beer, Andrew; Lester, Laurence; Pevalin, David; Whitehead, Christine; Bentley, Rebecca

    2017-05-26

    In seeking to understand the relationship between housing and health, research attention is often focussed on separate components of people's whole housing 'bundles'. We propose in this paper that such conceptual and methodological abstraction of elements of the housing and health relationship limits our ability to understand the scale of the accumulated effect of housing on health and thereby contributes to the under-recognition of adequate housing as a social policy tool and powerful health intervention. In this paper, we propose and describe an index to capture the means by which housing bundles influence health. We conceptualise the index as reflecting accumulated housing 'insults to health'-an Index of Housing Insults (IHI). We apply the index to a sample of 1000 low-income households in Australia. The analysis shows a graded association between housing insults and health on all outcome measures. Further, after controlling for possible confounders, the IHI is shown to provide additional predictive power to the explanation of levels of mental health, general health and clinical depression beyond more traditional proxy measures. Overall, this paper reinforces the need to look not just at separate housing components but to embrace a broader understanding of the relationship between housing and health.

  7. Enhanced Sea Ice Concentration and Ice Temperature Algorithms for AMSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Manning, Will; Gersten, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Accurate quantification of sea ice concentration and ice temperature from satellite passive microwave data is important because they provide the only long term, spatially detailed and consistent data set needed to study the climatology of the polar regions. Sea ice concentration data are used to derive large-scale daily ice extents that are utilized in trend analysis of the global sea ice cover. They are also used to quantify the amount of open water and thin ice in polynya and divergence regions which together with ice temperatures are in turn needed to estimate vertical heat and salinity fluxes in these regions. Sea ice concentrations have been derived from the NASA Team and Bootstrap algorithms while a separate technique for deriving ice temperature has been reported. An integrated technique that will utilizes most of the channels of AMSR (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer) has been developed. The technique uses data from the 6 GHz and 37 GHz channels at vertical polarization obtain an initial estimate of sea ice concentration and ice temperature. The derived ice temperature is then utilized to estimate the emissivities for the corresponding observations at all the other channels. A procedure for calculating the ice concentration similar to the Bootstrap technique is then used but with variables being emissivities instead of brightness temperatures to minimizes errors associated with spatial changes in ice temperatures within the ice pack. Comparative studies of ice concentration results with those from other algorithms, including the original Bootstrap algorithm and those from high resolution satellite visible and infrared data will be presented. Also, results from a simulation study that demonstrates the effectiveness of the technique in correcting for spatial variations in ice temperatures will be shown. The ice temperature results are likewise compared with satellite infrared and buoy data with the latter adjusted to account for the effects of the snow

  8. Sea Ice Friction: The Effect of Ice Rubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scourfield, S.; Sammonds, P. R.; Lishman, B.; Riska, K.; Marchenko, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Ice deformation processes in the Arctic often generate ice rubble, and situations arise where ice fragments of varying size separate sea ice floes. While the shear forces between sea ice floes in direct contact with each other are controlled by ice-ice friction, what is not known is how the slip of the floes is affected by the presence of rubble between the sliding surfaces. We present the result of field experiments undertaken on fjord ice in Svea, Svalbard, which investigated the velocity and hold time dependence of sea ice friction involving ice gouge. Average air temperature for the duration of time in which experiments were run was -12.4°C, and the thickness of the level fjord ice was 70 cm. A double-direct-shear experiment was done on floating sea ice in the field, with the addition of rubble ice between the sliding surfaces. This was achieved by moving a floating ice block through a channel of open water whilst subjected to normal loading, which was transferred through regions of ice rubble on both sides of the mobile block. The ice rubble regions were 30 cm deep and 50 cm wide. The displacement of the block and the force needed to move the block were measured. The rate dependence of friction was investigated for speeds of 10-3 to 10-2 ms-1. To investigate the state dependence of friction, slide-hold-slide (SHS) tests were conducted for hold times ranging from 1 second to 18 hours. When comparing the results from these experiments with a model for ice friction presented by Schulson and Fortt (2013), similar behaviour is seen at low hold times, where the peak coefficient of friction has a linear relationship with the logarithm of hold time. This is not the case for long hold times, however, and we attribute this to thermal consolidation of the ice rubble region.

  9. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    and iv) onset dates of melt and freeze up. 4. Assess the magnitude of the contribution from ice -albedo feedback to the observed decrease of sea ice ...in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. 5. Relate solar heat input to the ice and ocean to surface, bottom, lateral, and internal melting of the ice ...concentration and melt and freeze up onset dates by i) examining the impact of the shift from multiyear to seasonal ice ; ii) determining heat absorbed in

  10. Wave-Ice and Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction During the Chukchi Sea Ice Edge Advance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Ocean Heat: In the new Arctic summer ice regime, with extended open water periods in areas previously covered with sea ice, ocean heat, received...during these summer ice-free periods, may be either confined to the surface mixed layer or enter deeper ocean waters . Our goal is to determine the...remains in the ocean and has residual effects on ice growth during winter and spring. Sea State Regime: Large expanses of ice-free water in the

  11. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  12. Arctic Summer Ice Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to estimate the flux of heat and freshwater resulting from sea ice melt in the polar seas. The approach taken is to examine the decay of sea ice in the summer months primarily through the use of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The improved understanding of the dynamics of the melt process can be usefully combined with ice thermodynamic and upper ocean models to form more complete models of ice melt. Models indicate that more heat is absorbed in the upper ocean when the ice cover is composed of smaller rather than larger floes and when there is more open water. Over the course of the summer, floes disintegrate by physical forcing and heating, melting into smaller and smaller sizes. By measuring the change in distribution of floes together with open water over a summer period, we can make estimates of the amount of heating by region and time. In a climatic sense, these studies are intended to improve the understanding of the Arctic heat budget which can then be eventually incorporated into improved global climate models. This work has two focus areas. The first is examining the detailed effect of storms on floe size and open water. A strong Arctic low pressure storm has been shown to loosen up the pack ice, increase the open water concentration well into the pack ice, and change the distribution of floes toward fewer and smaller floes. This suggests episodic melting and the increased importance of horizontal (lateral) melt during storms. The second focus area is related to an extensive ship-based experiment that recently took place in the Arctic called Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA). An icebreaker was placed purposely into the older pack ice north of Alaska in September 1997. The ship served as the base for experimenters who deployed extensive instrumentation to measure the atmosphere, ocean, and ice during a one-year period. My experiment will be to derive similar measurements (floe size, open

  13. Arctic Summer Ice Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to estimate the flux of heat and freshwater resulting from sea ice melt in the polar seas. The approach taken is to examine the decay of sea ice in the summer months primarily through the use of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The improved understanding of the dynamics of the melt process can be usefully combined with ice thermodynamic and upper ocean models to form more complete models of ice melt. Models indicate that more heat is absorbed in the upper ocean when the ice cover is composed of smaller rather than larger floes and when there is more open water. Over the course of the summer, floes disintegrate by physical forcing and heating, melting into smaller and smaller sizes. By measuring the change in distribution of floes together with open water over a summer period, we can make estimates of the amount of heating by region and time. In a climatic sense, these studies are intended to improve the understanding of the Arctic heat budget which can then be eventually incorporated into improved global climate models. This work has two focus areas. The first is examining the detailed effect of storms on floe size and open water. A strong Arctic low pressure storm has been shown to loosen up the pack ice, increase the open water concentration well into the pack ice, and change the distribution of floes toward fewer and smaller floes. This suggests episodic melting and the increased importance of horizontal (lateral) melt during storms. The second focus area is related to an extensive ship-based experiment that recently took place in the Arctic called Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA). An icebreaker was placed purposely into the older pack ice north of Alaska in September 1997. The ship served as the base for experimenters who deployed extensive instrumentation to measure the atmosphere, ocean, and ice during a one-year period. My experiment will be to derive similar measurements (floe size, open

  14. Moving into green healthy housing.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David E; Ahonen, Emily; Dixon, Sherry L; Dorevitch, Samuel; Breysse, Jill; Smith, Janet; Evens, Anne; Dobrez, Doborah; Isaacson, Marjie; Murphy, Colin; Conroy, Lorraine; Levavi, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Green building systems have proliferated but health outcomes and associated costs and benefits remain poorly understood. To compare health before and after families moved into new green healthy housing with a control group in traditionally repaired housing. Mixed methods study in 3 Chicago housing developments. Public housing and low-income subsidized households (n = 325 apartments with 803 individuals). Self-reported health status, visual assessment of housing condition, indoor air sampling, and Medicaid expenditure and diagnostic data. Medicaid expenditures and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were modeled using a generalized linear model with γ distribution and log-link. Housing conditions and self-reported physical and mental health improved significantly in the green healthy housing study group compared with both the control group and the dilapidated public housing from which the residents moved, as did hay fever, headaches, sinusitis, angina, and respiratory allergy. Asthma severity measured by self-reported lost school/work days, disturbed sleep, and symptoms improved significantly, as did sadness, nervousness, restlessness, and child behavior. Medicaid data in this exploratory study were inconclusive and inconsistent with self-reported health outcomes and visual assessment data on housing quality but hold promise for future investigation. Possible sources of bias in the Medicaid data include older age in the study group, changes in Medicaid eligibility over time, controlling for Medicaid costs in an urban area, and the increased stress associated with moving, even if the move is into better housing. The mixed method approach employed here describes the complex relationships among self-reported health, housing conditions, environmental measures, and clinical data. Housing conditions and self-reported physical and mental health improved in green healthy housing. Health care cost savings in Medicaid due to improved housing could

  15. Ice crystal and ice nucleus measurements in cap clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vali, G.; Rogers, D. C.; Deshler, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Ice nucleation in cap clouds over a mountain in Wyoming was examined with airborne instrumentation. Crosswind and wind parallel passes were made through the clouds, with data being taken on the ice crystal concentrations and sizes. A total of 141 penetrations of 26 separate days in temperatures ranging from -7 to -24 C were performed. Subsequent measurements were also made 100 km away from the mountain. The ice crystal concentrations measured showed good correlation with the ice nucleus content in winter time, midcontinental air masses in Wyoming. Further studies are recommended to determine if the variations in the ice nucleus population are the cause of the variability if ice crystal content.

  16. Slow wave dynamics stalls tropical tropopause ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spichtinger, Peter; Krämer, Martina; Borrmann, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    Water vapour is the most important natural green house gas. However, in the stratosphere an increase in water vapour would possibly result in a cooling. The major entrance of trace substances into the stratosphere is the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), localized between the main level of convective outflow, 150 hPa, and 70 hPa. The TTL water vapour budget, and thus the exchange with the stratosphere, depends crucially on the occurrence and properties of ice clouds in this cold region (T < 200 K). It is believed that homogeneous freezing of liquid solution particles, which predominate the particle population, is the preferred pathway of ice formation. High water vapour supersaturation with respect to ice is required to initiate homogeneous ice nucleation. The number of emerging ice crystals depends on temperature and the ambient relative humidity over ice (RHi). Strong increase in RHi due to rising vertical velocity will produce large amounts of ice crystals. In the TTL, very slow large-scale updraughts prevail (≤ 0.01 m/s), which would lead to low ice crystal concentrations (≤ 0.1cm-3). However, tropical deep convection initiates intrinsic gravity waves and consequently, we would expect much higher vertical velocities and therefore higher ice crystal number concentrations. Since the many ice crystals rapidly grow by water vapour diffusion it is also expected that the initially high ice supersaturation quickly reduces to saturation after ice formation. Contrarily, during the last years high and persistent ice supersaturations were observed in the cold TTL in several airborne field campaigns inside and outside of ice clouds (Peter et al., 2006), creating a discussion called the 'supersaturation puzzle'. A step forward in that discussion was made recently: Krämer et al. (2009) observed ice crystal concentrations much lower than expected (most often < 0.1cm-3), but consistent with the measured high supersaturations. These observations turned the 'supersaturation

  17. Satellite remote sensing over ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides unique opportunities for observing ice-covered terrain. Passive-microwave data give information on snow extent on land, sea-ice extent and type, and zones of summer melting on the polar ice sheets, with the potential for estimating snow-accumulation rates on these ice sheets. All weather, high-resolution imagery of sea ice is obtained using synthetic aperture radars, and ice-movement vectors can be deduced by comparing sequential images of the same region. Radar-altimetry data provide highly detailed information on ice-sheet topography, with the potential for deducing thickening/thinning rates from repeat surveys. The coastline of Antarctica can be mapped accurately using altimetry data, and the size and spatial distribution of icebergs can be monitored. Altimetry data also distinguish open ocean from pack ice and they give an indication of sea-ice characteristics.

  18. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  19. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  20. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  1. 24 CFR 1007.20 - Eligible housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eligible housing. 1007.20 Section 1007.20 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  2. 24 CFR 983.52 - Housing type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing type. 983.52 Section 983.52 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  3. 24 CFR 983.52 - Housing type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing type. 983.52 Section 983.52 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  4. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  5. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  6. 24 CFR 983.52 - Housing type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing type. 983.52 Section 983.52 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  7. 24 CFR 81.22 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing plans. 81.22 Section 81.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE... LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.22 Housing plans. (a) If the...

  8. 12 CFR 1282.21 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Housing plans. 1282.21 Section 1282.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.21 Housing plans. (a) General. If the Director determines that an...

  9. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  10. 24 CFR 81.22 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing plans. 81.22 Section 81.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE... LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.22 Housing plans. (a) If the...

  11. 12 CFR 1282.21 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Housing plans. 1282.21 Section 1282.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.21 Housing plans. (a) General. If the Director determines that an...

  12. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  13. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  14. 24 CFR 81.22 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing plans. 81.22 Section 81.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE... LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.22 Housing plans. (a) If the...

  15. 24 CFR 1007.20 - Eligible housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligible housing. 1007.20 Section 1007.20 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  16. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  17. 12 CFR 1282.21 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Housing plans. 1282.21 Section 1282.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.21 Housing plans. (a) General. If the Director determines that an...

  18. 12 CFR 1282.21 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Housing plans. 1282.21 Section 1282.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.21 Housing plans. (a) General. If the Director determines that an...

  19. 24 CFR 81.22 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing plans. 81.22 Section 81.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE... LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.22 Housing plans. (a) If the...

  20. 24 CFR 81.22 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing plans. 81.22 Section 81.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE... LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.22 Housing plans. (a) If the...

  1. 24 CFR 983.52 - Housing type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing type. 983.52 Section 983.52 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  2. 24 CFR 983.52 - Housing type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing type. 983.52 Section 983.52 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  3. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  4. 24 CFR 954.103 - Housing strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing strategy. 954.103 Section 954.103 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  5. 24 CFR 1007.20 - Eligible housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible housing. 1007.20 Section 1007.20 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  6. 24 CFR 1007.20 - Eligible housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible housing. 1007.20 Section 1007.20 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  7. Nucleation of Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinero, Valeria

    2009-03-01

    The freezing of water into ice is a ubiquitous transformation in nature, yet the microscopic mechanism of homogeneous nucleation of ice has not yet been elucidated. One of the reasons is that nucleation happens in time scales that are too fast for an experimental characterization and two slow for a systematic study with atomistic simulations. In this work we use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations with the monatomic model of water mW[1] to shed light into the mechanism of homogeneous nucleation of ice and its relationship to the thermodynamics of supercooled water. Cooling of bulk water produces either crystalline ice or low- density amorphous ice (LDA) depending on the quenching rate. We find that ice crystallization occurs faster at temperatures close to the liquid-liquid transition, defined as the point of maximum inflection of the density with respect to the temperature. At the liquid-liquid transition, the time scale of nucleation becomes comparable to the time scale of relaxation within the liquid phase, determining --effectively- the end of the metastable liquid state. Our results imply that no ultraviscous liquid water can exist at temperatures just above the much disputed glass transition of water. We discuss how the scenario is changed when water is in confinement, and the relationship of the mechanism of ice nucleation to that of other liquids that present the same phase behavior, silicon [2] and germanium [3]. [4pt] [1] Molinero, V. & Moore, E. B. Water modeled as an intermediate element between carbon and silicon. Journal of Physical Chemistry B (2008). Online at http://pubs.acs.org/cgi- bin/abstract.cgi/jpcbfk/asap/abs/jp805227c.html [0pt] [2] Molinero, V., Sastry, S. & Angell, C. A. Tuning of tetrahedrality in a silicon potential yields a series of monatomic (metal-like) glass formers of very high fragility. Physical Review Letters 97, 075701 (2006).

  8. Ice stream activity scaled to ice sheet volume during Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, C R; Margold, M; Clark, C D; Tarasov, L

    2016-02-18

    The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but--at the ice-sheet scale--their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  9. Comparisons of cubed ice, crushed ice, and wetted ice on intramuscular and surface temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Joseph H; Hill, Holly M; Miller, Michael G; Cheatham, Christopher C; Michael, Timothy J; Baker, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different types of cold application, including cold whirlpools, ice packs, and chemical packs. However, few have investigated the effectiveness of different types of ice used in ice packs, even though ice is one of the most common forms of cold application. To evaluate and compare the cooling effectiveness of ice packs made with cubed, crushed, and wetted ice on intramuscular and skin surface temperatures. Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. Human performance research laboratory. Twelve healthy participants (6 men, 6 women) with no history of musculoskeletal disease and no known preexisting inflammatory conditions or recent orthopaedic injuries to the lower extremities. Ice packs made with cubed, crushed, or wetted ice were applied to a standardized area on the posterior aspect of the right gastrocnemius for 20 minutes. Each participant was given separate ice pack treatments, with at least 4 days between treatment sessions. Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus one-half skinfold measurement) temperatures of the right gastrocnemius were measured every 30 seconds during a 20-minute baseline period, a 20-minute treatment period, and a 120-minute recovery period. Differences were observed among all treatments. Compared with the crushed-ice treatment, the cubed-ice and wetted-ice treatments produced lower surface and intramuscular temperatures. Wetted ice produced the greatest overall temperature change during treatment and recovery, and crushed ice produced the smallest change. As administered in our protocol, wetted ice was superior to cubed or crushed ice at reducing surface temperatures, whereas both cubed ice and wetted ice were superior to crushed ice at reducing intramuscular temperatures.

  10. Comparisons of Cubed Ice, Crushed Ice, and Wetted Ice on Intramuscular and Surface Temperature Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dykstra, Joseph H; Hill, Holly M; Miller, Michael G; Cheatham, Christopher C; Michael, Timothy J; Baker, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Context: Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different types of cold application, including cold whirlpools, ice packs, and chemical packs. However, few have investigated the effectiveness of different types of ice used in ice packs, even though ice is one of the most common forms of cold application. Objective: To evaluate and compare the cooling effectiveness of ice packs made with cubed, crushed, and wetted ice on intramuscular and skin surface temperatures. Design: Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. Setting: Human performance research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve healthy participants (6 men, 6 women) with no history of musculoskeletal disease and no known preexisting inflammatory conditions or recent orthopaedic injuries to the lower extremities. Intervention(s): Ice packs made with cubed, crushed, or wetted ice were applied to a standardized area on the posterior aspect of the right gastrocnemius for 20 minutes. Each participant was given separate ice pack treatments, with at least 4 days between treatment sessions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus one-half skinfold measurement) temperatures of the right gastrocnemius were measured every 30 seconds during a 20-minute baseline period, a 20-minute treatment period, and a 120-minute recovery period. Results: Differences were observed among all treatments. Compared with the crushed-ice treatment, the cubed-ice and wetted-ice treatments produced lower surface and intramuscular temperatures. Wetted ice produced the greatest overall temperature change during treatment and recovery, and crushed ice produced the smallest change. Conclusions: As administered in our protocol, wetted ice was superior to cubed or crushed ice at reducing surface temperatures, whereas both cubed ice and wetted ice were superior to crushed ice at reducing intramuscular temperatures. PMID:19295957

  11. Ice stream activity scaled to ice sheet volume during Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, C. R.; Margold, M.; Clark, C. D.; Tarasov, L.

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but—at the ice-sheet scale—their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  12. Quantification of Ice Accretions for Icing Scaling Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Anderson, David N.

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of ice accretion characteristics is an integral part of aircraft icing research. It is often necessary to compare an ice accretion obtained from a flight test or numerical simulation to one produced in an icing wind tunnel or for validation of an icing scaling method. Traditionally, this has been accomplished by overlaying two-dimensional tracings of ice accretion shapes. This paper addresses the basic question of how to compare ice accretions using more quantitative methods. For simplicity, geometric characteristics of the ice accretions are used for the comparison. One method evaluated is a direct comparison of the percent differences of the geometric measurements. The second method inputs these measurements into a fuzzy inference system to obtain a single measure of the goodness of the comparison. The procedures are demonstrated by comparing ice shapes obtained in the Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center during recent icing scaling tests. The results demonstrate that this type of analysis is useful in quantifying the similarity of ice accretion shapes and that the procedures should be further developed by expanding the analysis to additional icing data sets.

  13. Cleaning up the House

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, C.

    2007-12-15

    Under the new 'Green the Capital' initiative, measures are making the House of Representatives a more energy efficient workplace. The Capital power plant, which burns mostly coal and natural gas to heat seven boilers, must operate in a carbon-neutral fashion by the end of 2008, by increasing energy efficiency and fuel switching. Roughly 103,000 MW hours of electricity will be bought each year from solar and wind-powered sources. Other measures being implemented are use of fluorescent light bulbs and recycled paper, and a boost in recycling of materials. 4 photos.

  14. House approves Competitiveness Bill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    After nearly 3 weeks of debate, the House approved the National Competitiveness Act of 1993 (HR820) on May 19. Subtitle B of the bill lays out specific roles for the National Science Foundation in supporting expansion of the agency's activities to include manufacturing technology development, worker training partnerships, and total quality management programs.Many geoscientists believe that this mandate runs contradictory to NSF's established mission of supporting basic research (Eos, April 13, 1993) and are concerned that basic research funds might be diverted to support manufacturing within the agency.

  15. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support,

  16. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  17. Light driven microflow in ice

    SciTech Connect

    Weinert, Franz M.; Wuehr, Max; Braun, Dieter

    2009-03-16

    We optically pump water through micrometer thin ice sheets. The ice is locally moved with speeds exceeding 5 cm/s by repetitive melting and freezing, which occurs around a moving infrared laser spot. The minimal channel width is 10 {mu}m. The diffusion limitation of ice allows for fast spatial biomolecule control without predefined channels, valves, or external pumps. Dye molecules are pumped across an ice-ice interface, showing the possibility of microfluidic applications. Pumping in ice is three orders of magnitude faster than the previously shown for thermoviscous pumping in water.

  18. Sulphur bacteria mediated formation of Palaeoproterozoic phosphorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosu, Lauri; Lepland, Aivo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2014-05-01

    Modern phosphorite formation is typically associated with high productivity in upwelling areas where apatite (Ca-phosphate) precipitation is mediated by sulphur oxidising bacteria [1]. They inhabit the oxic/anoxic interface within the upper few centimetres of sediment column, accumulating phosphate in their cells under oxic conditions and releasing it rapidly when conditions become anoxic. Sulphur bacteria are known to live in close association with a consortium of anaerobic methane oxidising archaea and syntrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria. Paleoproterozoic, c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation in Karelia, Russia contains several P-rich intervals in the upper part of 1500 m thick succession of organic-rich sedimentary rocks interlayered with mafic tuffs and lavas. Apatite in these P-rich intervals forms impure laminae, lenses and round-oval nodules which diameters typically range from 300 to 1000 μm. Individual apatite particles in P-rich laminae and nodules commonly occur as cylinders that are 1-8 μm long and have diameters of 0.5-4 μm. Cross-sections of best preserved cylindrical apatite particles reveal a thin outer rim whereas the internal parts consist of small anhedral elongated crystallites, intergrown with carbonaceous material. During recrystallization the outer rim thickens towards interior and cylinders may attain hexagonal crystal habit, but their size and shape remains largely unchanged [2]. The sizes of Zaonega nodules are similar to giant sulphide-oxidising bacteria known from modern and ancient settings [3, 4]. Individual apatite cylinders and aggregates have shapes and sizes similar to the methanotrophic archaea that inhabit microbial mats in modern seep/vent areas where they operate in close associations with sulphur-oxidising microbial communities [5]. Seep/vent influence during the Zaonega phosphogenesis is indicated by variable, though positive Eu anomaly, expected in magmatically active sedimentary environment experiencing several lava flows. Moreover, P-rich intervals in the Zaonega Formation are found in organic-rich sediments exhibiting strongly negative δ13Corg values (-37 to -34 per mil) which is interpreted to reflect the methanotrophic biomass. We conclude that modern-style phosphogenesis, mediated by sulphide-oxidising bacteria living in consortium with methanotrophs, was established at least 2 Ga ago. [1] Schulz and Schulz (2005) Science 307, 416-418 [2] Lepland, Joosu, Kirsimäe, Prave, Romashkin, Črne, Martin, Fallick, Somelar, Üpraus, Mänd, Roberts, van Zuilen, Wirth, Schreiber (2014) Nature geoscience 7, 20-24 [3] Bailey, Joye, Kalanetra, Flood, and Corsetti (2007) Nature 445, 198-201 [4] Schulz, Brinkhoff, Ferdelman, Marine, Teske and Jorgensen (1999) Science 284, 493-495 [5] Knittel, Losekann, Boetius, Kort and Amann (2005) Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71, 467-479.

  19. Protein Stability in Ice

    PubMed Central

    Strambini, Giovanni B.; Gonnelli, Margherita

    2007-01-01

    This study presents an experimental approach, based on the change of Trp fluorescence between native and denatured states of proteins, which permits to monitor unfolding equilibria and the thermodynamic stability (ΔG°) of these macromolecules in frozen aqueous solutions. The results obtained by guanidinium chloride denaturation of the azurin mutant C112S from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in the temperature range from −8 to −16°C, demonstrate that the stability of the native fold may be significantly perturbed in ice depending mainly on the size of the liquid water pool (VL) in equilibrium with the solid phase. The data establish a threshold, around VL = 1.5%, below which in ice ΔG° decreases progressively relative to liquid state, up to 3 kcal/mole for VL = 0.285%. The sharp dependence of ΔG° on VL is consistent with a mechanism based on adsorption of the protein to the ice surface. The reduction in ΔG° is accompanied by a corresponding decrease in m-value indicating that protein-ice interactions increase the solvent accessible surface area of the native fold or reduce that of the denatured state, or both. The method opens the possibility for examining in a more quantitative fashion the influence of various experimental conditions on the ice perturbation and in particular to test the effectiveness of numerous additives used in formulations to preserve labile pharmaco proteins. PMID:17189314

  20. Mysteries at Ice Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fain, Samuel C., Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Michael Faraday noted that ``two pieces of thawing ice, if put together, adhere and become one...the effect will take place in air, or in water, or in vacuo." Why? He proposed that ``a particle of water, which could retain the liquid state whilst touching ice only on one side, could not retain the liquid state if it were touched by ice on both sides."footnote M. Faraday, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 10, 440 (1860) The existence of special properties at interfaces of ice is generally agreed and has important environmental consequences.(J. G. Dash, H. Fu, and J. S. Wettlaufer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 58), 115 (1995) Why do different experiments infer different properties for this layer? Impurities and electric fields at the interfaces may be responsible for some of the variations in experimental results.footnote V. F. Petrenko, U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report 94-22 (1994) Some background on the physical properties of ice will be discussed, including recent force microscopy measurements done at the University of Washington.footnote C.R. Slaughterbeck, E.W. Kukes, B. Pittenger, D.J. Cook, P.C. Williams, V.L. Eden, S.C. Fain, Jr., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (in press) Supported by NSF Grant DMR-91-19701.

  1. Data archaeology at ICES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooley, Harry D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the function of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), both past and present, in particular in the context of its interest in compiling oceanographic data sets. Details are provided of the procedures it adopted to ensure adequate internationally collaborative marine investigations during the first part of the century, such as how it provided a forum for action by its member states, how it coordinated and published the results of scientific programs, and how it provided a foundation, through scientists employed in the ICES Office, for the establishment of the original oceanographic marine databases and associated products, and the scientific interpretation of the results. The growth and expansion of this area of ICES activity is then traced, taking into account the changing conditions for oceanographic data management resulting from the establishment of the National Data Centres, as well as the World Data Centres for Oceanography, which were created to meet the needs of the International Geophysical Year (IGY). Finally, there is a discussion of the way in which the very existence of ICES has proved to be a valuable source of old data, some of which have not yet been digitized, but which can be readily retrieved because they have been very carefully documented throughout the years. Lessons from this activity are noted, and suggestions are made on how the past experiences of ICES can be utilized to ensure the availability of marine data to present and future generations of scientists.

  2. Timing and depositional environments of a Middle Pleistocene glaciation of northeast England: New evidence from Warren House Gill, County Durham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, B. J.; Roberts, D. H.; Bridgland, D. R.; Ó Cofaigh, C.; Riding, J. B.; Demarchi, B.; Penkman, K. E. H.; Pawley, S. M.

    2012-06-01

    At various times during the Quaternary, north-eastern England was a zone of confluence between dynamic ice lobes sourced from the Pennines, northern Scotland, the Cheviots, and Scandinavia. The region thus has some of the most complex exposures of Middle to Late Pleistocene sediments in Britain, with both interglacial and glacial sediments deposited in terrestrial and marine settings. We investigated sedimentary sequences exposed on the coastline of County Durham at Warren House Gill, and present a new model of British and Fennoscandian Ice Sheet interaction in the North Sea Basin during the Middle Pleistocene. The stratigraphy at Warren House Gill consists of a lower diamicton and upper estuarine sediments, both part of the Warren House Formation. They are separated from the overlying Weichselian Blackhall and Horden tills by a substantial unconformity. The lower diamicton of the Warren House Formation is re-interpreted here as an MIS 8 to 12 glaciomarine deposit containing ice-rafted lithics from north-eastern Scotland and the northeast North Sea, and is renamed the 'Ash Gill Member'. It is dated by lithological comparison to the Easington Raised Beach, Middle Pleistocene Amino Acid Racemisation values, and indirectly by optically stimulated luminescence. The overlying shallow subaqueous sediments were deposited in an estuarine environment by suspension settling and bottom current activity. They are named the 'Whitesides Member', and form the uppermost member of the Warren House Formation. During glaciation, ice-rafted material was deposited in a marine embayment. There is no evidence of a grounded, onshore Scandinavian ice sheet in County Durham during MIS 6, which has long been held as the accepted stratigraphy. This has major implications for the currently accepted British Quaternary Stratigraphy. Combined with recent work on the Middle Pleistocene North Sea Drift from Norfolk, which is now suggested to have been deposited by a Scottish ice sheet, the presence

  3. Inception of ice accretion by ice crystal impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, Jens; Kintea, Daniel; Baumert, Arne; Bansmer, Stephan; Roisman, Ilia V.; Tropea, Cameron

    2016-09-01

    In this experimental and theoretical study the ice accretion phenomena on a heated cylinder in Braunschweig Icing Wind Tunnel are investigated. The ice crystal size, velocity, the liquid-to-total mass ratio are accurately controlled. The evolution of the cylinder temperature, the time required for the inception of the ice accretion, and the ice accretion rate are measured for various operating conditions. The surface temperature of the solid target is determined by balancing the heating power in the wall and the cooling effect of the stream of ice particles. We have discovered that the inception of the ice crystal accretion is determined by the instant when the surface temperature of the heated target reduces to the freezing temperature. This result will help to model the phenomena of ice crystal accretion.

  4. On the ice nucleation spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barahona, D.

    2012-04-01

    This work presents a novel formulation of the ice nucleation spectrum, i.e. the function relating the ice crystal concentration to cloud formation conditions and aerosol properties. The new formulation is physically-based and explicitly accounts for the dependency of the ice crystal concentration on temperature, supersaturation, cooling rate, and particle size, surface area and composition. This is achieved by introducing the concepts of ice nucleation coefficient (the number of ice germs present in a particle) and nucleation probability dispersion function (the distribution of ice nucleation coefficients within the aerosol population). The new formulation is used to generate ice nucleation parameterizations for the homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and the heterogeneous deposition ice nucleation on dust and soot ice nuclei. For homogeneous freezing, it was found that by increasing the dispersion in the droplet volume distribution the fraction of supercooled droplets in the population increases. For heterogeneous ice nucleation the new formulation consistently describes singular and stochastic behavior within a single framework. Using a fundamentally stochastic approach, both cooling rate independence and constancy of the ice nucleation fraction over time, features typically associated with singular behavior, were reproduced. Analysis of the temporal dependency of the ice nucleation spectrum suggested that experimental methods that measure the ice nucleation fraction over few seconds would tend to underestimate the ice nuclei concentration. It is shown that inferring the aerosol heterogeneous ice nucleation properties from measurements of the onset supersaturation and temperature may carry significant error as the variability in ice nucleation properties within the aerosol population is not accounted for. This work provides a simple and rigorous ice nucleation framework where theoretical predictions, laboratory measurements and field campaign data can be

  5. On the Ice Nucleation Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a novel formulation of the ice nucleation spectrum, i.e. the function relating the ice crystal concentration to cloud formation conditions and aerosol properties. The new formulation is physically-based and explicitly accounts for the dependency of the ice crystal concentration on temperature, supersaturation, cooling rate, and particle size, surface area and composition. This is achieved by introducing the concepts of ice nucleation coefficient (the number of ice germs present in a particle) and nucleation probability dispersion function (the distribution of ice nucleation coefficients within the aerosol population). The new formulation is used to generate ice nucleation parameterizations for the homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and the heterogeneous deposition ice nucleation on dust and soot ice nuclei. For homogeneous freezing, it was found that by increasing the dispersion in the droplet volume distribution the fraction of supercooled droplets in the population increases. For heterogeneous ice nucleation the new formulation consistently describes singular and stochastic behavior within a single framework. Using a fundamentally stochastic approach, both cooling rate independence and constancy of the ice nucleation fraction over time, features typically associated with singular behavior, were reproduced. Analysis of the temporal dependency of the ice nucleation spectrum suggested that experimental methods that measure the ice nucleation fraction over few seconds would tend to underestimate the ice nuclei concentration. It is shown that inferring the aerosol heterogeneous ice nucleation properties from measurements of the onset supersaturation and temperature may carry significant error as the variability in ice nucleation properties within the aerosol population is not accounted for. This work provides a simple and rigorous ice nucleation framework where theoretical predictions, laboratory measurements and field campaign data can be

  6. Seafloor Control on Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

    2011-01-01

    The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

  7. Microbial abundance in surface ice on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Stibal, Marek; Gözdereliler, Erkin; Cameron, Karen A.; Box, Jason E.; Stevens, Ian T.; Gokul, Jarishma K.; Schostag, Morten; Zarsky, Jakub D.; Edwards, Arwyn; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring microbial abundance in glacier ice and identifying its controls is essential for a better understanding and quantification of biogeochemical processes in glacial ecosystems. However, cell enumeration of glacier ice samples is challenging due to typically low cell numbers and the presence of interfering mineral particles. We quantified for the first time the abundance of microbial cells in surface ice from geographically distinct sites on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), using three enumeration methods: epifluorescence microscopy (EFM), flow cytometry (FCM), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In addition, we reviewed published data on microbial abundance in glacier ice and tested the three methods on artificial ice samples of realistic cell (102–107 cells ml−1) and mineral particle (0.1–100 mg ml−1) concentrations, simulating a range of glacial ice types, from clean subsurface ice to surface ice to sediment-laden basal ice. We then used multivariate statistical analysis to identify factors responsible for the variation in microbial abundance on the ice sheet. EFM gave the most accurate and reproducible results of the tested methodologies, and was therefore selected as the most suitable technique for cell enumeration of ice containing dust. Cell numbers in surface ice samples, determined by EFM, ranged from ~ 2 × 103 to ~ 2 × 106 cells ml−1 while dust concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 2 mg ml−1. The lowest abundances were found in ice sampled from the accumulation area of the ice sheet and in samples affected by fresh snow; these samples may be considered as a reference point of the cell abundance of precipitants that are deposited on the ice sheet surface. Dust content was the most significant variable to explain the variation in the abundance data, which suggests a direct association between deposited dust particles and cells and/or by their provision of limited nutrients to microbial communities on the GrIS. PMID:25852678

  8. Anatomy of a Smart house

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, L.

    1988-07-01

    The author describes the Gas Laboratory House in Bowie, MD. It is being built as a SMART HOUSE. This means it will contain a whole-house control system made up of communication chips, computer programs and microprocessor-based controllers. A single cable carries signals from the chips to many different types of appliances. Flexible gas piping forms a ''circulatory system'' that makes the house completely compatible with natural gas appliances. The SMART HOUSE is fully programmable so that appliances can be told when to turn on and off. It can also have a zoned space-conditioning system, allowing sections of the house to be heated or cooled independently. The authors explains how the system works and the project's development schedule.

  9. Ice crystal terminal velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, A.

    1972-01-01

    Terminal velocities of different ice crystal forms were calculated using the most recent ice crystal drag coefficients, aspect ratios, and densities. The equations derived were primarily for use in calculating precipitation rates by sampling particles with an aircraft in cirrus clouds, and determining particle size in cirrus clouds by Doppler radar. However, the equations are sufficiently general for determining particle terminal velocity at any altitude, and most any crystal type. Two sets of equations were derived. The general equations provide a good estimate of terminal velocities at any altitude. The specific equations are a set of equations for ice crystal terminal velocities at 1000 mb. The calculations are in good agreement with terminal velocity measurements. The results from the present study were also compared to prior calculations by others and seem to give more reasonable results, particularly at higher altitudes.

  10. Ice crystal terminal velocities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, A.

    1972-01-01

    Terminal velocities of different ice crystal forms were calculated, using the most recent ice crystal drag coefficients, aspect ratios, and densities. The equations derived were primarily for use in calculating precipitation rates by sampling particles with an aircraft in cirrus clouds, and determining particle size in cirrus clouds by Doppler radar. However, the equations are sufficiently general for determining particle terminal velocity at any altitude, and almost any crystal type. Two sets of equations were derived. The 'general' equations provide a good estimate of terminal velocities at any altitude. The 'specific' equations are a set of equations for ice crystal terminal velocities at 1000 mb. The calculations are in good agreement with terminal velocity measurements. The results from the present study were also compared to prior calculations by others and seem to give more reasonable results, particularly at higher altitudes.

  11. The Great Ice Age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Louis L.

    1992-01-01

    The Great Ice Age, a recent chapter in the Earth's history, was a period of recurring widespread glaciations. During the Pleistocene Epoch of the geologic time scale, which began about a million or more years ago, mountain glaciers formed on all continents, the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland were more extensive and thicker than today, and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across northern North America and Eurasia. So extensive were these glaciers that almost a third of the present land surface of the Earth was intermittently covered by ice. Even today remnants of the great glaciers cover almost a tenth of the land, indicating that conditions somewhat similar to those which produced the Great Ice Age are still operating in polar and subpolar climates.

  12. Microwave ice accretion meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magenheim, Bertram (Inventor); Rocks, James K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system for indicating ice thickness and rate of ice thickness growth on surfaces is disclosed. The region to be monitored for ice accretion is provided with a resonant surface waveguide which is mounted flush, below the surface being monitored. A controlled oscillator provides microwave energy via a feed point at a controllable frequency. A detector is coupled to the surface waveguide and is responsive to electrical energy. A measuring device indicates the frequency deviation of the controlled oscillator from a quiescent frequency. A control means is provided to control the frequency of oscillation of the controlled oscillator. In a first, open-loop embodiment, the control means is a shaft operated by an operator. In a second, closed-loop embodiment, the control means is a processor which effects automatic control.

  13. Cutting ice: nanowire regelation.

    PubMed

    Hynninen, Teemu; Heinonen, Vili; Dias, Cristiano L; Karttunen, Mikko; Foster, Adam S; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2010-08-20

    Even below its normal melting temperature, ice melts when subjected to high pressure and refreezes once the pressure is lifted. A classic demonstration of this regelation phenomenon is the passing of a thin wire through a block of ice when sufficient force is exerted. Here we present a molecular-dynamics study of a nanowire cutting through ice to unravel the molecular level mechanisms responsible for regelation. In particular, we show that the transition from a stationary to a moving wire due to increased driving force changes from symmetric and continuous to asymmetric and discontinuous as a hydrophilic wire is replaced by a hydrophobic one. This is explained at the molecular level in terms of the wetting properties of the wire.

  14. North Polar Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    25 December 2004 For 25 December, the MOC team thought that a visit to a north polar site would be timely. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows, at about 1.5 meters per pixel (5 feet per pixel) resolution, a view of the north polar ice cap of Mars. That the material includes water ice has been known since the mid-1970s, when Viking orbiter observations confirmed that the cap gives off water vapor in the summertime, as the ice is subliming away. The surface shown here, observed by MOC during northern summer in November 2004, is pitted and somewhat grooved. Dark material on pit floors might be trapped, windblown dust. The picture covers an area about 1 km (0.62 mi) across, and is located near 86.8oN, 293.1oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  15. Rheology of planetary ices

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    1996-04-24

    The brittle and ductile rheology of ices of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, in combination with rock particles and each other, have a primary influence of the evolution and ongoing tectonics of icy moons of the outer solar system. Laboratory experiments help constrain the rheology of solar system ices. Standard experimental techniques can be used because the physical conditions under which most solar system ices exist are within reach of conventional rock mechanics testing machines, adapted to the low subsolidus temperatures of the materials in question. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of a decade-long experimental deformation program and to provide some background in deformation physics in order to lend some appreciation to the application of these measurements to the planetary setting.

  16. Waterway Ice Thickness Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ship on the opposite page is a U. S. Steel Corporation tanker cruising through the ice-covered waters of the Great Lakes in the dead of winter. The ship's crew is able to navigate safely by plotting courses through open water or thin ice, a technique made possible by a multi-agency technology demonstration program in which NASA is a leading participant. Traditionally, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System is closed to shipping for more than three months of winter season because of ice blockage, particularly fluctuations in the thickness and location of ice cover due to storms, wind, currents and variable temperatures. Shippers have long sought a system of navigation that would allow year-round operation on the Lakes and produce enormous economic and fuel conservation benefits. Interrupted operations require that industrial firms stockpile materials to carry them through the impassable months, which is costly. Alternatively, they must haul cargos by more expensive overland transportation. Studies estimate the economic benefits of year-round Great Lakes shipping in the hundreds of millions of dollars annually and fuel consumption savings in the tens of millions of gallons. Under Project Icewarn, NASA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration collaborated in development and demonstration of a system that permits safe year-round operations. It employs airborne radars, satellite communications relay and facsimile transmission to provide shippers and ships' masters up-to-date ice charts. Lewis Research Center contributed an accurate methods of measuring ice thickness by means of a special "short-pulse" type of radar. In a three-year demonstration program, Coast Guard aircraft equipped with Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) flew over the Great Lakes three or four times a week. The SLAR, which can penetrate clouds, provided large area readings of the type and distribution of ice cover. The information was supplemented by short

  17. The mass balance of the ice plain of Ice Stream B and Crary Ice Rise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The region in the mouth of Ice Stream B (the ice plain) and that in the vicinity of Crary Ice Rise are experiencing large and rapid changes. Based on velocity, ice thickness, and accumulation rate data, the patterns of net mass balance in these regions were calculated. Net mass balance, or the rate of ice thickness change, was calculated as the residual of all mass fluxes into and out of subregions (or boxes). Net mass balance provides a measure of the state of health of the ice sheet and clues to the current dynamics.

  18. Large Ice Discharge From the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to measure the ice discharge of the Greenland Ice Sheet close to the grounding line and/or calving front, and compare the results with mass accumulation and ablation in the interior to estimate the ice sheet mass balance.

  19. Ice Accretions and Icing Effects for Modern Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Icing tests were conducted to document ice shapes formed on three different two-dimensional airfoils and to study the effects of the accreted ice on aerodynamic performance. The models tested were representative of airfoil designs in current use for each of the commercial transport, business jet, and general aviation categories of aircraft. The models were subjected to a range of icing conditions in an icing wind tunnel. The conditions were selected primarily from the Federal Aviation Administration's Federal Aviation Regulations 25 Appendix C atmospheric icing conditions. A few large droplet icing conditions were included. To verify the aerodynamic performance measurements, molds were made of selected ice shapes formed in the icing tunnel. Castings of the ice were made from the molds and placed on a model in a dry, low-turbulence wind tunnel where precision aerodynamic performance measurements were made. Documentation of all the ice shapes and the aerodynamic performance measurements made during the icing tunnel tests is included in this report. Results from the dry, low-turbulence wind tunnel tests are also presented.

  20. In-House EVM Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Government Accounting • Management Information System • Workshop Recommendations EVM In- House Workshop Findings • EVM implementation within DoD...Management Command Mr. William “Bill” Gibson Mr. Dominic A. “Chip” Thomas IN- HOUSE ( GOVERNMENT ) EVMS WORKSHOP VALIDATION & SURVEILLANCE D:\\PPT...2Defense Contract Management Command IN- HOUSE ( GOVERNMENT ) EVMS WORKSHOP VALIDATION • WHY VALIDATE/CERTIFY • WHO PAYS THE COST • FACILITY

  1. Privatization of Military Family Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Rev. 2-89) (EG) Proscribed by ANSI S IU . 239,1 PRIVATIZATION OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING MAJOR PATRICK W. MOUDY* * Major Patrick W. Moudy, United...amendments for Development of Private Sector Housing, Corpus Christi, Texas.29 Landmark Residential, LLC (Landmark) was the successful offeror for the...office, the JAG office, the Civil Engineering office, the Comptroller office, the environmental experts, and the housing office, as well as the command

  2. Hugoniot of water ice

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, E.S.

    1984-01-19

    Hugoniot data for water ice are available for pressures ranging from about 150 MPa to about 50 GPa from initial states near 260 K. Limited data on porous ice (snow) at the same initial temperatures are available from 3.5 to 38 GPa and initial densities of 600 and 350 Mg/m/sup 3/. Above about 5 GPa, the data are fairly well-fit by a linear relation between shock and particle velocity: D(km/s) = 1.79 + 1.42u. However, a quadratic form fits the data better: D(km/s) = 1.32 + 1.68u - 0.035u/sup 2/. At lower stresses the velocity is a very complicated function of particle velocity due to elastic propagation, yielding and several possible phase changes. The Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of ice at these temperatures is about 180 +- 20 MPa with the elastic waves travelling at about 3900 m/s. The mean stress at the HEL is 115 +- 14 MPa. Comparison with strength measurements at lower strain rate indicates that failure at the HEL probably involves fracture and is almost independent of both temperature and strain rate. Ice V has been reported at about 600 MPa, and ice VI at 1.9 GPa and possibly at 3.7 GPa. Transition to ice III probably commences at the HEL at 200 MPa. Relations between volume, enthalpy and internal energy indicate that states below about 1 GPa maintain their shear strength even after undergoing complete transition to a high pressure phase. Time-resolved stress measurements indicate that equilibrium is achieved in about three microseconds for a 695 MPa shock. Melting is definitely complete below 10 GPa.

  3. Dry Ice Etches Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Every year seasonal carbon dioxide ice, known to us as 'dry ice,' covers the poles of Mars. In the south polar region this ice is translucent, allowing sunlight to pass through and warm the surface below. The ice then sublimes (evaporates) from the bottom of the ice layer, and carves channels in the surface.

    The channels take on many forms. In the subimage shown here (figure 1) the gas from the dry ice has etched wide shallow channels. This region is relatively flat, which may be the reason these channels have a different morphology than the 'spiders' seen in more hummocky terrain.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003364_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.4 degrees latitude, 104.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 251.5 km (157.2 miles). At this distance the image scale is 25.2 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:57 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 75 degrees, thus the sun was about 15 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 219.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  4. Dry Ice Etches Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Every year seasonal carbon dioxide ice, known to us as 'dry ice,' covers the poles of Mars. In the south polar region this ice is translucent, allowing sunlight to pass through and warm the surface below. The ice then sublimes (evaporates) from the bottom of the ice layer, and carves channels in the surface.

    The channels take on many forms. In the subimage shown here (figure 1) the gas from the dry ice has etched wide shallow channels. This region is relatively flat, which may be the reason these channels have a different morphology than the 'spiders' seen in more hummocky terrain.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003364_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.4 degrees latitude, 104.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 251.5 km (157.2 miles). At this distance the image scale is 25.2 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:57 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 75 degrees, thus the sun was about 15 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 219.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  5. Structure Of Ice Crystallized From Supercooled Water: Stacking Disordered Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, T. L.; Murray, B. J.; Brukhno, A.; Anwar, J.; Salzmann, C.

    2012-12-01

    At atmospheric pressures ice is thought to exist in two well defined crystalline forms: stable hexagonal ice and metastable cubic ice. A metastable form of ice is thought to form in the atmosphere [1] Using X-ray diffraction data and Monte Carlo simulations; we show that ice that crystallizes both homogeneously and heterogeneously from supercooled water adopts neither of these two phases. The resulting ice is disordered in one dimension and consequently does not possess either cubic or hexagonal symmetry. It is instead composed of randomly stacked layers of cubic and hexagonal sequences. We refer to this ice as stacking-disordered ice I (ice Isd ) [2]. While similar stacking disorder has been reported before, such observations have been restricted to either samples re-crystallised from high-pressure ice phases [3] or ice formation in mesopores [4]. Review of the literature reveals that almost all ice previously identified as cubic ice in diffraction studies, which have used an array of methodologies to generate the ice, were most likely stacking-disordered ice I with varying degrees of stacking disorder. Our results suggest that the initial phase of ice formed when water freezes is the metastable stacking-disordered ice I which forms independent of the method of nucleation. Stacking-disordered ice may be the kinetic product, i.e. the material which forms fastest. Accordingly, we suggest that stacking-disordered ice is always the phase to crystallise when water freezes. In many situations it will relax to the stable hexagonal phase with time. Stacking-disordered ice may persist in the colder parts of the atmosphere and form irregular or rough crystals similar to many smaller quasi spherical ice crystals observed in the earth's atmosphere. [1] B. J. Murray et al., Nature, 2005, 434, 202-205 [2] T. L. Malkin et al., PNAS, 2012, 109 (4): 1041 - 1045 [3] T. C. Hansen et al., J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 2008, 20, 285105. [4] K. Morishige et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113

  6. Doped colloidal artificial spin ice

    DOE PAGES

    Libál, A.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2015-10-07

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Conversely, magnetic artificial spin ices, unlike colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations, allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is raised. In contrast, the kagome ice ground state can absorb the doping charge without generating non-ground-state excitations, while at elevated temperatures the hopping of individual colloidsmore » is suppressed near the doping sites. Our results indicate that in the square ice, doping adds degeneracy to the ordered ground state and creates local weak spots, while in the kagome ice, which has a highly degenerate ground state, doping locally decreases the degeneracy and creates local hard regions.« less

  7. Palaeoclimate science: Pulsating ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieli, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    During the last ice age, huge numbers of icebergs were episodically discharged from an ice sheet that covered North America. Numerical modelling suggests that these events resulted from a conceptually simple feedback cycle. See Letter p.332

  8. Mapping Ice with Airborne Lasers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Determining whether polar ice quantities are growing or shrinking requires accurate and detailed measurements, year over year. To help make those measurements, IceBridge mission aircraft fire 3,000...

  9. Aircraft icing research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Shaw, R. J.; Olsen, W. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research activity is described for: ice protection systems, icing instrumentation, experimental methods, analytical modeling for the above, and in flight research. The renewed interest in aircraft icing has come about because of the new need for All-Weather Helicopters and General Aviation aircraft. Because of increased fuel costs, tomorrow's Commercial Transport aircraft will also require new types of ice protection systems and better estimates of the aeropenalties caused by ice on unprotected surfaces. The physics of aircraft icing is very similar to the icing that occurs on ground structures and structures at sea; all involve droplets that freeze on the surfaces because of the cold air. Therefore all icing research groups will benefit greatly by sharing their research information.

  10. Is CO2 ice permanent?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1992-01-01

    Carbon dioxide ice has been inferred to exist at the south pole in summertime, but Earth based measurements in 1969 of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere suggest that all CO2 ice sublined from the southern polar cap and exposed underlying water ice. This implies that the observed summertime CO2 ice is of recent origin. It appears possible to construct an energy balance model that maintains seasonal CO2 ice at the south pole year round and still reasonably simulates the polar cap regression and atmospheric pressure data. This implies that the CO2 ice observed in the summertime south polar cap could be seasonal in origin, and that minor changes in climate could cause CO2 ice to completely vanish, as would appear to have happened in 1969. However, further research remains before it is certain whether the CO2 ice observed in the summertime south polar cap is seasonal or is part of a permanent reservoir.

  11. 2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    After an unusually cold summer in the northernmost latitudes, Arctic sea ice appears to have reached its annual minimum summer extent for 2013 on Sept. 13, the NASA-supported National Snow and Ice ...

  12. Housing Policies and Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Novoa, Ana M; Camprubí, Lluís; Peralta, Andrés; Vásquez-Vera, Hugo; Bosch, Jordi; Amat, Jordi; Díaz, Fernando; Palència, Laia; Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Malmusi, Davide; Borrell, Carme

    2017-04-01

    A large body of literature shows the link between inadequate housing conditions and poor physical and mental health. The aim of this paper is to summarize the research on the impact of local housing policies on health inequalities, focusing on the issues of access to housing and fuel poverty as studied in the SOPHIE project. Our case studies in Spain showed that people facing housing insecurity, experienced intense levels of mental distress. We found that access to secure and adequate housing can improve the health of these populations, therefore, public policies that address housing instability and their consequences are urgently needed. Housing conditions related to fuel poverty are associated with poorer health and are unevenly distributed across Europe. We found possible positive effects of façade insulation interventions on cold-related mortality in women living in social housing; but not in men. Policies on housing energy efficiency can reduce the health consequences of fuel poverty, but need to be free to users, target the most vulnerable groups and be adaptable to their needs.

  13. Shrinking house of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Strokes, B.

    1982-02-01

    The US housing industry is responding to resource constraints with a people-centered rather than automobile-oriented approach. A worldwide housing shortage and depressed economy are reducing lot and building size and emphasizing shared space. Affordable, relocatable structure could meet many housing needs of the poor and elderly. Existing buildings are increasingly divided into multiple units, and cluster grouping is reducing transportation needs. Third world countries will see more illegal occupation of the land as populations increase and outpace land reform. Housing goals in a crowded planet can emphasize minimum private space and maximum neighborhood and public space to meet much of the need. (DCK)

  14. Farmworker Housing: A Photo Essay.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Summers, Phillip

    2015-11-01

    Migrant and seasonal farmworkers often reside in poor housing conditions which expose them to numerous hazards. These housing conditions are an issue of environmental health and justice. The photographs in this essay illustrate the living conditions confronted by farmworkers, offering a visual context for the reviews published in this issue of New Solutions. Farmworker housing conditions are often shocking to those who have not visited farmworker communities. Continued research is needed to document these conditions, how they affect the health of farmworkers, and provide leverage in the struggle to improve farmworker housing conditions.

  15. Antarctica - Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf to the right and its border with the sea. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken about 6:20 p.m. PST on December 8, 1990. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica.

  16. North Polar Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image illustrates very well the detailed, pitted nature of the north polar residual ice cap. As water ice sublimes away a little bit each summer, dark-floored pits have formed, trapping dust and other debris.

    Location near: 85.1oN, 284.6oW 200 m scale bar = 219 yards Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  17. Hot ice computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that supersaturated solution of sodium acetate, commonly called ‘hot ice’, is a massively-parallel unconventional computer. In the hot ice computer data are represented by a spatial configuration of crystallization induction sites and physical obstacles immersed in the experimental container. Computation is implemented by propagation and interaction of growing crystals initiated at the data-sites. We discuss experimental prototypes of hot ice processors which compute planar Voronoi diagram, shortest collision-free paths and implement AND and OR logical gates.

  18. Antarctica - Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf to the right and its border with the sea. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken about 6:20 p.m. PST on December 8, 1990. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica.

  19. Water Ice on Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    This orthographic projection view from NASA MESSENGER spacecraft provides a look at Mercury north polar region. The yellow regions in many of the craters mark locations that show evidence for water ice, as detected by Earth-based radar observations from Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. MESSENGER has collected compelling new evidence that the deposits are indeed water ice, including imaging within the permanently shaded interiors of some of the craters, such as Prokofiev and Fuller. Instrument: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Arecibo Radar Image: In yellow (Harmon et al., 2011, Icarus 211, 37-50) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19411

  20. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.

    PubMed

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2006-01-01

    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  1. Arctic Sea Ice Model Sensitivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, K. J.; Bochev, P.; Paskaleva, B.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice state to internal model parameters. A new sea ice model that holds some promise for improving sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea ice code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness,and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U. S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000.

  2. MODIS Snow and Ice Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorthoy K.; Hoser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Daily, global snow cover maps, and sea ice cover and sea ice surface temperature (IST) maps are derived from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), are available at no cost through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Included on this CD-ROM are samples of the MODIS snow and ice products. In addition, an animation, done by the Scientific Visualization studio at Goddard Space Flight Center, is also included.

  3. Ice sails of the Karakoram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Christoph; Evatt, Geoffrey W.; Mallinson, Amy; Abrahams, I. David; Heil, Matthias; Nicholson Nicholson, Lindsey; Fowler, Andrew; Lambrecht, Astrid

    2017-04-01

    Ice sails are clean ice features that protrude from the surface of debris covered glaciers, and can grow to more than 25 m in elevation. Observations of these features date back to the first exploration of the glaciers and mountains in the Karakoram (in 1864), where they seem to occur preferentially. Even though melt rates beneath supraglacial debris and of clean ice should be rather different, ice sails can exist in equilibrium for decades. However, no detailed scientific analysis of ice sails has been carried out until now. The apparent restriction of ice sail existence to high elevation, dry atmosphere and long and flat debris covered glaciers, suggests that they require low debris thickness and a high evaporative heat flux for survival. We postulate that ice sails can develop from one of two mechanisms, both of which require clean ice to be surrounded by debris covered ice, where the debris layer is shallow enough for the ice beneath it to melt faster than the clean ice, i.e. typical debris thicknesses of less than 5-10 cm. Our image analysis confirms that ice sails can persist for decades. Debris layer thickening eventually causes a reversal in the relative melt rates and the ice sails submerge back into the glacier. During their stable phase, the slope of the ice sail faces constantly adjusts to the available melt energy, so that a steady state with the surrounding ice melt can be reached. This can be demonstrated by application of an energy balance model and use of the well-known Östrem-curve for sub-debris ice melt.

  4. Aircraft Icing Handbook. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    will be made in this section to develop the equations and analysis techniques needed io evaluate ice formation effects on aircraft stability. It is an ... effects and highlights the importance of utilizing thermodynamic ice accretion analyses to evaluate and understand icing test results . In summary...or FAR 29 and an evaluation of the expected consequences of resulting accumulations of ice, and/or the effectiveness of systems for providing

  5. 1. Oil house, keeper's house, Southern Light Tower and Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oil house, keeper's house, Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view northwest, south and east sides - Kennebec River Light Station, South side of Doubling Point Road, off State Highway 127, 1.8 miles south of U.S. Route 1, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  6. PHOTO OF THE BOAT HOUSE, GATE HOUSE, UPSTREAM SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTO OF THE BOAT HOUSE, GATE HOUSE, UPSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAYS LOOKING EAST; WATER INTAKE AND LOG BOOMS ARE SEEN ON RESERVOIR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  7. Housing in America 1985/86. Current Housing Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Housing Report, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A wide variety of data, collected in 1985 and 1986, is presented in this first biennial report that deals with U.S. housing and the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of its occupants. The U.S. Census American Housing Survey of 1985 is the primary database for the report, which provides an excellent resource for teacher background…

  8. Subsidized Housing, Public Housing, and Adolescent Violence and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Tamara G. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the separate relationships of public housing residence and subsidized housing residence to adolescent health risk behavior. Data include 2,530 adolescents aged 14 to 19 who were children of the National the Longitudinal Study of Youth. The author used stratified propensity methods to compare the behaviors of each…

  9. Subsidized Housing, Public Housing, and Adolescent Violence and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Tamara G. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the separate relationships of public housing residence and subsidized housing residence to adolescent health risk behavior. Data include 2,530 adolescents aged 14 to 19 who were children of the National the Longitudinal Study of Youth. The author used stratified propensity methods to compare the behaviors of each…

  10. Ice crystal ingestion by turbofans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios Pabon, Manuel A.

    This Thesis will present the problem of inflight icing in general and inflight icing caused by the ingestion of high altitude ice crystals produced by high energy mesoscale convective complexes in particular, and propose a new device to prevent it based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Inflight icing is known to be the cause of 583 air accidents and more than 800 deaths in more than a decade. The new ice crystal ingestion problem has caused more than 100 flights to lose engine power since the 1990's, and the NTSB identified it as one of the causes of the Air France flight 447 accident in 1-Jun2008. The mechanics of inflight icing not caused by ice crystals are well established. Aircraft surfaces exposed to supercooled liquid water droplets will accrete ice in direct proportion of the droplet catch and the freezing heat transfer process. The multiphase flow droplet catch is predicted by the simple sum of forces on each spherical droplet and a droplet trajectory calculation based on Lagrangian or Eulerian analysis. The most widely used freezing heat transfer model for inflight icing caused by supercooled droplets was established by Messinger. Several computer programs implement these analytical models to predict inflight icing, with LEWICE being based on Lagrangian analysis and FENSAP being based on Eulerian analysis as the best representatives among them. This Thesis presents the multiphase fluid mechanics particular to ice crystals, and explains how it differs from the established droplet multiphase flow, and the obstacles in implementing the former in computational analysis. A new modification of the Messinger thermal model is proposed to account for ice accretion produced by ice crystal impingement. Because there exist no computational and experimental ways to fully replicate ice crystal inflight icing, and because existing ice protections systems consume vast amounts of energy, a new ice protection device based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma is

  11. The Physics of Ice Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassis, J. N.

    2008-01-01

    The great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are vast deposits of frozen freshwater that contain enough to raise sea level by approximately 70 m if they were to completely melt. Because of the potentially catastrophic impact that ice sheets can have, it is important that we understand how ice sheets have responded to past climate changes and…

  12. The Physics of Ice Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassis, J. N.

    2008-01-01

    The great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are vast deposits of frozen freshwater that contain enough to raise sea level by approximately 70 m if they were to completely melt. Because of the potentially catastrophic impact that ice sheets can have, it is important that we understand how ice sheets have responded to past climate changes and…

  13. Glaciology: Vulnerable Antarctic ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The decay of floating ice shelves around Antarctica speeds up ice flow from the continent and contributes to increased sea-level rise. Now, meltwater attributed to warm winds has been discovered on an East Antarctic ice shelf, suggesting greater vulnerability than previously thought.

  14. Computing the Deficiency of Housing Markets with Duplicate Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cechlárová, Katarína; Schlotter, Ildikó

    The model of a housing market, introduced by Shapley and Scarf in 1974 [14], captures a fundamental situation in an economy where each agent owns exactly one unit of some indivisible good: a house. We focus on an extension of this model where duplicate houses may exist. As opposed to the classical setting, the existence of an economical equilibrium is no longer ensured in this case. Here, we study the deficiency of housing markets with duplicate houses, a notion measuring how close a market can get to an economic equilibrium. We investigate the complexity of computing the deficiency of a market, both in the classical sense and also in the context of parameterized complexity.

  15. Development of a Measure of Housing and Housing Services.

    PubMed

    Clark, Colleen; Young, M Scott; Teague, Gregory; Rynearson-Moody, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Housing Program Measure (HPM) was designed to document critical elements of a range of housing program types and associated services. Qualitative methods, including literature review and open-ended interviews, were used to determine pertinent HPM domains and to develop the pool of items. The measure was pre-tested, and reliability and validity analyses were applied to revise and strengthen the measure. The resulting measure furthers homelessness research by providing a tool that can be used to define housing and housing services interventions across diverse projects and disciplines, to facilitate program management by matching housing resources to the needs of homeless individuals, and to support model development by measuring progress to goals.

  16. Conditions for bubble elongation in cold ice-sheet ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, R.B.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Highly elongated bubbles are sometimes observed in ice-sheet ice. Elongation is favored by rapid ice deformation, and opposed by diffusive processes. We use simple models to show that vapor transport dominates diffusion except possibly very close to the melting point, and that latent-heat effects are insignificant. Elongation is favored by larger bubbles at pore close-off, but is nearly independent of bubble compression below close-off. The simple presence of highly elongated bubbles indicates only that a critical ice-strain rate has been exceeded for significant time, and provides no information on possible disruption of stratigraphic continuity by ice deformation.

  17. Ice Rheology Beyond Planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, W. B.; Kirby, S. H.; Stern, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Barclay Kamb is well known for his seminal work on the motions and internal flow of glaciers, but he was also a pioneer in research on the crystal structures, chemical bonding, and rheologies of the high-pressure phases of ice. In the flow and fracture of terrestrial materials, no rock is more studied than ice. Water ice also has an important presence on other solar system bodies, in particular the moons of the outer solar system, where its flow may extend to deep interiors. Most of these low-density (< 2 Mg/m3) moons have volume fractions of ice well above 0.5, and the largest moons, for example Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan, have sufficient internal pressures to stabilize the high-pressure phases II, III, V, VI, VII, and, possibly in early satellite history, ice VIII. The rheology of ice I has important influence on the surface morphologies of the moons, and the rheologies of all these phases (including ice I) can affect the thermal evolution of the moons by governing the rates of advection of internal radiogenic heat. Polycrystalline ice I under terrestrial conditions is far warmer than ice I in most planetary settings. The phenomenon of "premelting" in ice at T > 255 K leads to high grain-boundary mobility and much higher activation energy in warm ice than in cold ice under the same stress, so the flow of terrestrial ice may not be a good analog for that in the outer solar system. Phenomena from the rheological law itself to the development of lattice preferred orientation may be affected. Of the high-pressure phases through ice VI (all whose rheologies have been explored to date), ices III and VI are the weakest, an effect that, as Kamb has pointed out, parallels and draws explanation from the high rate of dielectric relaxation in those phases. Ice III is exceptionally weak and is stable over a very small part of the (P, T) phase diagram that is situated very close to possible planetary temperature profiles. This could lead to either self-regulation or

  18. A coupled ice-ocean model of ice breakup and banding in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedstad, O. M.; Roed, L. P.

    1985-01-01

    A coupled ice-ocean numerical model for the marginal ice zone is considered. The model consists of a nonlinear sea ice model and a two-layer (reduced gravity) ocean model. The dependence of the upwelling response on wind stress direction is discussed. The results confirm earlier analytical work. It is shown that there exist directions for which there is no upwelling, while other directions give maximum upwelling in terms of the volume of uplifted water. The ice and ocean is coupled directly through the stress at the ice-ocean interface. An interesting consequence of the coupling is found in cases when the ice edge is almost stationary. In these cases the ice tends to break up a few tenths of kilometers inside of the ice edge.

  19. Ice Roughness in Short Duration SLD Icing Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Stephen T.; Reed, Dana; Vargas, Mario; Kreeger, Richard E.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Ice accretion codes depend on models of roughness parameters to account for the enhanced heat transfer during the ice accretion process. While mitigating supercooled large droplet (SLD or Appendix O) icing is a significant concern for manufacturers seeking future vehicle certification due to the pending regulation, historical ice roughness studies have been performed using Appendix C icing clouds which exhibit mean volumetric diameters (MVD) much smaller than SLD clouds. Further, the historical studies of roughness focused on extracting parametric representations of ice roughness using multiple images of roughness elements. In this study, the ice roughness developed on a 21-in. NACA 0012 at 0deg angle of attack exposed to short duration SLD icing events was measured in the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The MVD's used in the study ranged from 100 micrometer to 200 micrometers, in a 67 m/s flow, with liquid water contents of either 0.6 gm/cubic meters or 0.75 gm/cubic meters. The ice surfaces were measured using a Romer Absolute Arm laser scanning system. The roughness associated with each surface point cloud was measured using the two-dimensional self-organizing map approach developed by McClain and Kreeger (2013) resulting in statistical descriptions of the ice roughness.

  20. When are antifreeze proteins in solution essential for ice growth inhibition?

    PubMed

    Drori, Ran; Davies, Peter L; Braslavsky, Ido

    2015-06-02

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a widespread class of proteins that bind to ice and facilitate the survival of organisms under freezing conditions. AFPs have enormous potential in applications that require control over ice growth. However, the nature of the binding interaction between AFPs and ice remains the subject of debate. Using a microfluidics system developed in-house we previously showed that hyperactive AFP from the Tenebrio molitor beetle, TmAFP, remains bound to an ice crystal surface after exchanging the solution surrounding the ice crystal to an AFP-free solution. Furthermore, these surface-adsorbed TmAFP molecules sufficed to prevent ice growth. These experiments provided compelling evidence for the irreversible binding of hyperactive AFPs to ice. Here, we tested a moderately active type III AFP (AFPIII) from a fish in a similar microfluidics system. We found, in solution exchange experiments that the AFPIIIs were also irreversibly bound to the ice crystals. However, some crystals displayed "burst" growth during the solution exchange. AFPIII, like other moderately active fish AFPs, is unable to bind to the basal plane of an ice crystal. We showed that although moderate AFPs bound to ice irreversibly, moderate AFPs in solution were needed to inhibit ice growth from the bipyramidal crystal tips. Instead of binding to the basal plane, these AFPs minimized the basal face size by stabilizing other crystal planes that converge to form the crystal tips. Furthermore, when access of solution to the basal plane was physically blocked by the microfluidics device walls, we observed enhancement of the antifreeze activity. These findings provide direct evidence that the weak point of ice growth inhibition by fish AFPs is the basal plane, whereas insect AFPs, which can bind to the basal plane, are able to inhibit its growth and thereby increase antifreeze activity.