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Sample records for palate adenoma pleomorfico

  1. Pleomorphic adenoma of the palate

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Yogesh; Maria, Anisha; Chhabria, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common salivary gland tumor, accounting for about 40–70% of all major and minor salivary gland tumors. The commonest sites for intraoral PA are palate, buccal mucosa and lips. Palatal PA presents clinically as a painless, slow-growing mass found on posterior lateral aspect. The aim of this article is to present a case of palatal PA, which was treated successfully by surgical excision. PMID:22639506

  2. Pleomorphic adenoma of the palate.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Y

    2005-01-01

    An 82-year-old female with a history of high blood pressure and anorexia. She was referred for a long-evolving, asymptomatic large tumor (3x3 cm) on the right side of the palate (fig 1). The patient was wearing total dentures. Intraoral examination revealed a pediculate tumor of the same color as the adjacent mucosa and presenting a firm consistency. An MRI study (fig 2-3) and biopsy were carried out (fig 4-6).

  3. Ectopic parathyroid adenoma in the soft palate: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chang, Brent A; Sharma, Anil; Anderson, Donald W

    2016-10-18

    Ectopic parathyroid adenomas can occur in numerous anatomic locations. While ectopic parathyroid adenomas can rarely occur in the pharyngeal region, this has not previously been described in the soft palate. We report the first case of ectopic parathyroid adenoma within the soft palate. A 59 year old woman presented with hyperparathyroidism. She remained persistently hyperparathyroid after initial parathyroidectomy. Repeat exploration for a lesion suspicious on PET-CT for an ectopic parathyroid adenoma in the parapharyngeal region was unsuccessful in treating the hyperparathyroidism. An ectopic adenoma in the soft palate was eventually discovered. Removal through a transoral approach was successful in treating the hyperparathyroidism. Ectopic parathyroid adenomas can occur in various anatomical locations that may be missed even with the use of the various imaging modalities. The soft palate should be added to the list of possible ectopic locations high in the neck.

  4. Pleomorphic adenoma of the soft palate: major tumor in a minor gland.

    PubMed

    Hmidi, Mounir; Aatifi, Hicham; Boukhari, Ali; Zalagh, Mohammed; Messary, Abdelhamid

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors are a relatively rare and morphologically diverse group of lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma is a benign tumor of the salivary gland that consists of a combination of epithelial and mesenchymal elements. The tumor most commonly arises from the parotid (60-70%) or submandibular glands. It develops less frequently in a minor salivary gland, presenting as an intraoral mass depend on the soft palate. We describe a case of benign pleomorphic adenoma of soft palate in a 45 year old female with computed tomography and histopathological findings. This patient presented in ENT department with history of gradually increasing mass lesion in the palatal region over a period of few months.

  5. Basal Cell Adenoma of Palate, a Rare Occurrence with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Achla Bharti; Narwal, Anjali; Devi, Anju; Kumar, Sanjay; Yadav, Sumit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma is an uncommon benign epithelial neoplasm of salivary gland which derives its name from the basaloid appearance of tumor cells and accounting for 1-2 % of all salivary gland epithelial tumors. This tumor usually arises in the major salivary glands, with the parotid being the most frequent site of occurrence, followed by the upper lip; while it is very rare in the minor salivary glands. Microscopically, it is composed of isomorphic cells similar to basal cells with nuclear palisading. We report a case of BCA presenting as an asymptomatic swelling over the right side of palate of 55-year-old female patient. A follow-up of 1 year revealed no recurrence. This report emphasizes the rare site of occurrence of this tumor and briefly reviews the literature. PMID:26535412

  6. Oncocytic Pleomorphic Adenoma of Palatal Salivary Gland with Macrophages and Giant Cells Associated with Cholesterol Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Sarode, Gargi S.; Sarode, Sachin C.; Patil, Shankargouda; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common salivary gland tumor characterized by histo-morphological diversity in the form of myxoid, hyalinized, chondroid, osseous, and squamous areas. In this paper, we report a rare case of predominantly oncocytic variant of PA in a 45-year-old male patient on the posterior palatal region. Microscopic examination showed homogenous eosinophilic cellular mass composed of epithelial components arranged in the form of tubular and solid patterns. The polygonal and oval cells showed abundant dark eosinophilic granular cytoplasm. The cell borders were distinct with a central nucleus showing prominent nucleoli. Interestingly at few places, cholesterol clefts were seen surrounded by macrophages and giant cells. The tumor was surgically excised with no evidence of recurrence after 2 years. PMID:28028431

  7. A case of metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma in the maxillary bone appearing twenty years after initial resection of pleomorphic adenoma of the hard palate.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Jun; Harada, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Akihiko; Todoroki, Keita; Nagata, Shuji; Yano, Hirohisa

    2013-09-01

    Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma (MPA) is the inexplicable metastasis of a histologically benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA). Approximately 50 cases have been reported. A 62-year-old woman noticed pain in the upper molar area. Her medical history included an operation for PA in the hard palate that was performed 20 years previously. On imaging, four relatively well-defined lesions were demonstrated in the maxillary bone. She underwent an operation for these lesions. Each lesion revealed the same histological features. Morphological findings displayed typical features of PA. Immunohistochemical staining showed that tumor cells of both primary and metastasizing lesions were positive for pleomorphic adenoma gene (PLAG) 1, which is a sensitive marker for PA. Gene fusions involving PLAG1 were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. However, no gene rearrangements of PLAG1 were found. We report here on a case of MPA in the maxillary bone, which appeared 20 years after resection of the primary tumor and review the relevant literature.

  8. Parathyroid adenoma

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperparathyroidism - parathryoid adenoma; Overactive parathyroid gland - parathyroid adenoma ... Parathyroid adenomas are the most common cause of hyperparathyroidism (overactive parathyroid glands), which leads to an increased ...

  9. Pleomorphic adenoma of the upper lip.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Ulkü; Tan, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common neoplasm of the salivary glands and is most commonly located in the parotis followed by the submandibular glands. Its localization in the minor salivary glands is mostly reported in the palate. Few publications report pleomorphic adenoma cases located in the lip. We present a 35-year-old male patient with a pleomorphic adenoma located in the upper lip.

  10. [Pleomorphic adenoma causing a peritonsillar abscess].

    PubMed

    Glazer, Daniel Victor; Rømeling, Frans

    2014-12-22

    Pleomorphic adenoma located in the soft palate is extremely rare. We report a 42-year-old woman, who presented to the ear nose & throat department with a mucosal swelling of the right soft palate mimicking a peritonsillar abscess. Drainage was attempted several times without significant results. Emergency tonsillectomy was carried out, which showed a tumour intraorally beside the right tonsil. The tumour and the tonsil were radically excised. Histological analysis of the tumour revealed a pleomorphic adenoma. At three-month follow-up the patient was doing well and MRI scan revealed a residual tumour of 6 mm.

  11. Adenoma

    Cancer.gov

    Well circumscribed areas consisting of cuboidal to columnar cells lining alveoli. The size is usually less than 5 mm in diameter. These lesions retain preexisting alveolar structure and tend to be multiple in existing mouse models. Absence of pronounced fibrovascular stroma, as well as more "plump" shape of epithelial cells, may be the reason for different appearance of mouse adenomas, as compared to their human counterparts. Differentiation between a small adenoma and focal hyperplasia can be very difficult. At the same time, no absolute criteria exist for distinguishing a large adenoma from a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Among features indicating benign character are a small size, and absence of vascular invasion. Well delineated demarcation and absence of lepidic growth are considered by some as indicators of a benign character. Bland character of nuclei is a main feature of human adenomas. By this criterion many mouse adenomas could be assigned to adenocarcinomas. However, unlike in humans, mouse tumors rarely metastasize during the time of their observation.

  12. Palatal myoclonus

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing Alternative Names Palatal tremor References Jankovic J. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, eds. ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Mouth Disorders Movement Disorders Multiple Sclerosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  13. [Broncho-pulmonary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Vítor; Pinto, Eugénia; Franca, Teresa; Carvalho, Lina

    2004-01-01

    Adenomas of solitary gland type together with papillomas are the true benign tumours in or around the bronchial tree. Alveolar adenoma and papillary adenoma are more frequently observed in peripheral parenchime although this group of tumours is very rare and often incidentally diagnosed. Presenting usually as solitary nodules in adults after 45 years, are easily recognized because of distinct morphology but alveolar adenomas may be difficult to evaluate in frozen sections. Two cases of pleomorphic adenoma and alveolar adenoma are presented and a review of literature is made.

  14. TSH secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Jha, S; Kumar, S

    2009-07-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) secreting pituitary adenomas are a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism. They typically present with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and rarely can be asymptomatic. TSH secreting tumors account for 1 percent of all pituitary adenoma. They are a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis in which adenomas completely or partially lose feedback regulation of thyroid hormones and lead to sustained stimulation of thyroid gland. The most definitive treatment of thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas is transsphenoidal removal of tumor after restoring euthyroidism. We report a case of pituitary adenoma associated with elevated serum free thyroid hormones and non-suppressed TSH levels.

  15. Cleft palate - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cleft palate ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cleft palate : Cleft Palate Foundation -- www.cleftline.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/14332_1210.asp ...

  16. [Gonadotroph pituitary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Chanson, P

    2000-09-01

    Initially, the distinction between "functional" and "non-functional" adenomas was a purely clinical notion. A "non-secreting" adenoma was not considered to cause acromegaly nor Cushing's syndrome nor amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome. The term "chromophobe adenoma" has been used since the advent Herlant tetrachrome. More recently immunocytochemistry methods have demonstrated that most of the "clinically non functional" adenomas (chromophobe with classical histology) are actually gonadotrophin secreting adenomas or gonadotroph adenomas. Due to progress in immunocytochemistry applied to operated adenomas, it is now known that gonadotroph tumors account for 15 to 20% of all pituitary adenomas. Gonadotroph adenomas are monoclonal but their pathogenesis, unlike somatotroph adenomas causing acromegaly and despite numerous molecular studies, remains unknown. Gonadotroph adenomas are most always discovered in patients presenting a pituitary syndrome (half to three-quarters consult for a visual field disorder). Pituitary imaging almost always demonstrates a macroadenoma: two-thirds of the macroadenomas are enclosed. Anterior pituitary insufficiency is much more frequent than gonad hyperstimulation whether testicular (macro-orchidia) or ovarian (ovarian hyperstimulation similar to that observed in ovulation induction). A careful analysis of hormone assay results shows that baseline concentrations of gonadotrophin or their free sub-units is elevated in 30 to 50% of cases (especially FSH in men, and the free a sub-unit in premenopausal women). Dynamic tests contribute little to diagnosis: the GnRH test is positive in 75 to 100% of cases, the TRH test in 60 to 70% for FSH (or alpha) and when there is already a baseline hypersecretion of FSH (or a) in 20 to 30% of the cases for the LH when the baseline LH concentration is high. The immunocytochemistry of gonadotroph adenomas is slightly different from that of other adenomas: generally, only 5 to 10% of the cells, grouped in

  17. [Pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands: diagnostic pitfalls and mimickers of malignancy].

    PubMed

    Skálová, A; Andrle, P; Hostička, L; Michal, M

    2012-10-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland tumor, characterized by a complex biphasic proliferation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells intermingled with a mezenchymal component with frequent metaplastic changes and protean histomorphology of the cells. This review describes several unusual histological findings in pleomorphic adenoma that may mimic malignancy, and therefore they represent a diagnostic pitfall. Intravascular invasion of tumor cells is generally suspicious of malignancy; however, intravascular tumor deposits may be rarely found within the capsule of clinically benign salivary pleomorphic adenomas. It is important not to render a malignant diagnosis in such neoplasms, in the absence of other evidence of malignancy. Pleomorphic adenomas, particularly of minor glands of palate, may contain large areas of squamous and mucinous metaplasia suspicious of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). In contrast to MEC, metaplastic pleomorphic adenomas do not harbour the distinctive translocations t(11;19) and t(11;15), they are not invasive, in contrast they reveal at least focally myxochondroid stroma. Cribriform structures in pleomorphic adenoma may mimic adenoid cystic carcinoma. Oncocytic metaplasia in cellular rich pleomorphic adenoma/myoepithelioma may be associated with significant nuclear polymorphism and hyperchromasia suspicious of malignancy. The most common pitfall in diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma is so called "atypical PA" that must be distinguished from early malignant transformation to in situ-carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

  18. Cleft lip and palate

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001051.htm Cleft lip and palate To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cleft lip and palate are birth defects that affect the upper lip ...

  19. Endobronchial pleomorphic adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed Rizwan; Arrossi, Andrea Valeria; Mehta, Atul C.; Frye, Laura; Mazzone, Peter; Almeida, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenomas are the most common tumors of the salivary glands. Rarely, they occur as benign lesions in the lungs in both the central airways and the lung parenchyma. Herein, we present a case of a 60-year-old smoker who was incidentally found to have an endobronchial mass while undergoing evaluation for a lung nodule. During bronchoscopy, a smooth globular nodule was identified at the main carina and removed using electrocautery snare. Histopathology examination revealed this to be a pleomorphic adenoma. PMID:28031854

  20. Pregnancy and pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Glezer, Andrea; Jallad, Raquel S; Machado, Marcio C; Fragoso, Maria C; Bronstein, Marcello D

    2016-09-01

    Infertility is frequent in patients harboring pituitary adenomas. The mechanisms involved include hypogonadism secondary to hormonal hypersecretion (prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol), stalk disconnection and pituitary damage. With the improvement of clinical and surgical treatment, pregnancy in women harboring pituitary adenomas turned into a reality. Pituitary hormonal hyper- and hyposecretion influences pregnancy outcomes, as well as pregnancy can interfere on pituitary tumors, especially in prolactinomas. We review literature about specific follow-up and management in pregnant women harboring prolactinomas, acromegaly, or Cushings disease and the impact of clinical and surgical treatment on each condition.

  1. Pleomorphic Adenoma Of Minor Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Naeem; Raza, Syed Shahmeer; Hussain Zaidi, Syed Aizaz; Haq, Ihtisham Ul; Hussain, Amer Kamal; Nadeem, Muhammad Daniyal; Farid, Khayyam

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumour of salivary glands which is Known for its wide pleomorphic architecture. It accounts for 45-75% of all salivary gland neoplasm. It can involve major as well as minor salivary glands. Among minor salivary glands (5-10% of cases) the palate lip, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea are the most common sites. Diagnosis is made with biopsy along with histopathology. Wide excision with biopsy and removal of underlying extension of tumour is the treatment of choice. Sixty years old farmer presented with painless swelling in the upper lip for the last 8 years. History revealed recurrent mass in the midline of upper lip with no other complaints. He was operated 3 times for this complaint in the past. Belonging to poor socioeconomic status no biopsy records were found. On examination 3×4 cm hard and mobile mass was found. Lymph nodes of head and neck and parotid gland revealed no enlargement. Surgery by wide excision was planned. After baseline investigation surgery was done and the mass sent for histopathology. Biopsy reports showed pleomorphic adenoma on unusual site. Dissection of salivary gland tumour is important as they have propensity to metastasize. Wide local excision along with biopsy is the method of choice. Proper surgical techniques are required to avoid recurrence.

  2. Cleft Lip and Palate

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Palate? What Do Doctors Do? en español Labio leporino y paladar hendido When Karly talks to her friends, most of them don't know it took years of hard work for her to develop her speech skills. Karly was born with a condition called cleft lip and palate. As a child, she had several ...

  3. Undescended parathyroid adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Maawy, Ali A; Oh, Deborah K; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Undescended parathyroid adenomas are rare, representing 0.08% of all parathyroid adenomas; however, they make up 7% of the underlying cause of failed cervical exploration in patients with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism. A 43-year-old woman with no significant medical or family history presented with fatigue and was diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism; however, preoperative imaging including sestamibi scan and ultrasound was unable to identify the hyperfunctioning gland. She underwent a neck exploration and hemithyroidectomy and partial parathyroidectomy with failure of resolution of her disease. Subsequent work up including a CT of the neck demonstrated a 1.9 cm mass adjacent to the left submandibular gland. This was removed with postoperative normalisation of the patient's serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. PMID:25737222

  4. [Treatment of pituitary adenoma].

    PubMed

    Chanson, P

    1998-12-12

    RECOMMENDED TREATMENTS: The different therapeutic strategies proposed for pituitary adenomas are relatively well-known thanks to numerous studies evaluating their effect on outcome. Unfortunately, large comparative clinical trials are difficult to construct due to the small number of cases of this rare condition. Therapeutic recommendations are thus generally based on the opinion of recognized experts. MICROADENOMA: Small (< 10 mm) prolactin-secreting adenomas should be treated surgically, generally by transsphenoidal adenomectomy, or medically by dopaminergic agonists: bromocriptin, quinagolide or cabergolin (the two latter drugs are more effective and better tolerated than their parent compound bromocriptin). MACROADENOMA: The expected success rate for surgical treatment of macroadenomas is low and dopaminergic agonists is generally recommended (including cases with visual impairment since the effect can be very rapid). Prolactin levels can be lowered and tumor volume reduced (in > 70% of cases). ACROMEGALY: Surgery is the firs intention treatment for acromegaly. In case of unsuccessful surgery (the criteria for "cure" are much more strict in 1998 than previously), somatostatin analog and/or hypothalamo-hypophyseal radiotherapy are recommended. Slow release formulations of somatostatin analogs can now be given by monthly (octreotide LP) or biweekly (lanreotide LP) injections. CUSHING'S DISEASE: Cure can be achieved in > 80% of cases with surgery, the first intention treatment of choice. If surgery is unsuccessful, radiotherapy can be proposed associated with anticortisol drugs (mitotane), if needed, while waiting for the late effect of radiotherapy. CLINICALLY SILENT ADENOMAS: Non-functional adenomas should be operated. Some propose adjuvant radiotherapy in all cases and others only if residual tissue persists post-operatively.

  5. [Treatment of pituitary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Mezosi, Emese; Nemes, Orsolya

    2009-09-27

    According to epidemiological studies, the prevalence of pituitary adenomas is 16.5% and the majority of them are "incidentalomas". The symptoms of pituitary disorders are often non-specific; disturbances of pituitary function, compression symptoms, hypophysis apoplexy or accidental findings may help the diagnosis. The hormonal evaluation of pituitary adenomas is different from the algorithm used in the disorders of peripheral endocrine organs. The first-line therapy of prolactinomas are the dopamine agonists, and the aims of the treatment are to normalize the prolactin level, restore fertility in child-bearing age, decrease tumor mass, save or improve the residual pituitary function and inhibit the relapse of the disease. The available dopamine agonists in Hungary are bromocriptine and quinagolide. In case of tumors with good therapeutic response, medical therapy can be withdrawn after 3-5 years; hyperprolactinemia will not recur in 2/3 of these patients. Neurosurgery is the primary therapy of GH-, ACTH-, TSH-producing and inactive adenomas. In the last decades, significant improvement has been reached in surgical procedures, resulting in low mortality rates. Acromegalic patients with unresectable tumors have a great benefit from somatostatin analog treatment. The growth hormone receptor antagonist pegvisomant is the newest modality for the treatment of acromegaly. The medical therapy of Cushing's disease is still based on the inhibition of steroid production. A new, promising somatostatin analog, pasireotide is evaluated in clinical trials. The rare TSH-producing tumor can respond to both dopamine agonist and somatostatin analog therapy. The application of conventional radiotherapy has decreased; radiotherapy is mainly used in the treatment of invasive, incurable or malignant tumors. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of radiosurgery and fractionated stereotaxic irradiation in the treatment of pituitary tumors.

  6. Pediatric Palatal Fibroma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tayyeb S; Ajaz, Tarannum; Agarwal, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    Fibroma is one of the most common soft tissue benign tumors of the oral cavity. These masses represent hyperplasias instead of true neoplasm, which develop due to irritation to the mucosal tissue resulting in proliferation of the cells. Although so common in the oral cavity, its occurrence on the palate is rare, mainly due to fewer chances of trauma. Here, we report a case of palatal fibroma in a child diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, and histological features. The case represents an extremely rare occurrence as unusual trauma due to thumb sucking seemed to be the only apparent traumatic factor in the palatal region. How to cite this article Mishra R, Khan TS, Ajaz T, Agarwal M. Pediatric Palatal Fibroma. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017; 10(1):96-98. PMID:28377663

  7. Pleomorphic adenoma of the trachea.

    PubMed

    Sim, Da Woon; Oh, In Jae; Kim, Kyu Sik; Choi, Yoo Duk; Kwon, Yong Soo

    2014-07-01

    Endobronchial pleomorphic adenoma is an extremely rare condition. A 32-year-old woman with exertional dyspnea and cough presented with a carinal mass on chest CT scan. The tumor was successfully removed by rigid bronchoscopy using argon plasma coagulation. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma.

  8. TERT Expression in Pituitary Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Can, Nuray; Çelik, Mehmet; Bülbül, Buket Yilmaz; Süt, Necdet; Özyilmaz, Filiz; Aytürk, Semra; Güldiken, Sibel; Sarikaş, Nurtaç; Puyan, Fulya Öz; Yalta, Tülin Deniz; Kutlu, Ali Kemal

    2017-01-01

    Although pituitary adenomas have benign histomorphological features, some of them may present in an aggressive manner. To predict the behaviour of these tumours, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) activity in pituitary adenomas has been the subject of a few studies with contradictory results. This study aims to investigate whether immunohistochemical expression of TERT differs in neoplastic and nonneoplastic pituitary tissues and aims to investigate whether TERT expression is related to clinicopathological features of pituitary adenomas. The study included 48 patients who had been diagnosed with pituitary adenomas and had clinical follow-ups. Nonneoplastic pituitary tissues were obtained from autopsy specimens (n=20). Immunohistochemistry for TERT antibody was performed. Both the nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of TERT antibody was noted, and total combined TERT staining was evaluated according to nuclear and cytoplasmic stainings. TERT expression did not differ between neoplastic and nonneoplastic pituitary tissues. Neither total (combined nuclear and cytoplasmic) TERT nor nuclear TERT expression revealed any statistically significant relationship with any of the clinicopathological features. Higher cytoplasmic TERT expression was observed in adenomas with recurrence than adenomas without recurrence (p=0.035). This study introduces the notion that immunohistochemical expression of TERT does not differ in neoplastic and nonneoplastic pituitary tissues. Pituitary adenomas with cytoplasmic immunohistochemical expression of TERT have significantly higher rates of recurrence. Further studies, including combined methods of immunohistochemistry and molecular analyses in larger groups, may reveal applicable results for the clinical significance of TERT in pituitary adenomas.

  9. Cleft palate cells can regenerate a palatal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Lamme, E N; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Krapels, I P C; Bian, Z; Marres, H; Spauwen, P H M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Von den Hoff, J W

    2008-08-01

    Cleft palate repair leaves full-thickness mucosal defects on the palate. Healing might be improved by implantation of a mucosal substitute. However, the genetic and phenotypic deviations of cleft palate cells may hamper tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to construct mucosal substitutes from cleft palate cells, and to compare these with substitutes from normal palatal cells, and with native palatal mucosa. Biopsies from the palatal mucosa of eight children with cleft palate and eight age-matched control individuals were taken. Three biopsies of both groups were processed for (immuno)histochemistry; 5 were used to culture mucosal substitutes. Histology showed that the substitutes from cleft-palate and non-cleft-palate cells were comparable, but the number of cell layers was less than in native palatal mucosa. All epithelial layers in native palatal mucosa and mucosal substitutes expressed the cytokeratins 5, 10, and 16, and the proliferation marker Ki67. Heparan sulphate and decorin were present in the basal membrane and the underlying connective tissue, respectively. We conclude that mucosal cells from children with cleft palate can regenerate an oral mucosa in vitro.

  10. Intraosseous pleomorphic adenoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Aver-De-Araujo, L M; Chaves-Tarquinio, S B; Neuzling-Gomes, A P; Etges, A

    2002-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common neoplasm of the salivary glands, affecting mainly the parotid gland. The preferential intraoral site of this tumor is the palate. A case of a 31-year-old woman with an intraosseous pleomorphic adenoma located in the maxilla (left paramedian region), showing an approximate evolution of one year is reported. The present intraosseous case represents a rare location, with the tumor probably originating from glandular epithelial remnants captured during embryogenesis. In a review of the literature of 142 cases of intragnathic localization (24% in the maxilla) are identified. A slight predominance of women was observed (56%), with 55% of the patients being affected during the 5th to 7th decade of life. The tumors were malignant in 94% of the cases, with special predominance of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (65%). Intraosseous pleomorphic adenomas are rare, with the present patient being the 6th case reported in the literature and the second found in the maxilla. Mean age of the 5 previously reported cases was 58.8 years.

  11. Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Gana, Polycarp; Masterson, Liam

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Pleomorphic adenomas are the most common benign tumour of the major salivary glands. In addition, they may also occur in the minor salivary glands of the hard and soft palate. Intranasal pleomorphic adenomas are unusual and may be misdiagnosed because they have greater myoepithelial cellularity and fewer myxoid stromata compared to those elsewhere. Case presentation We present the case of a 61-year-old man who presented with a 2-year history of left nasal obstruction, occasional epistaxis and facial pain. Radiological examination demonstrated well pneumatised paranasal sinuses and a soft tissue mass in the anterior aspect of the left nasal cavity. In this patient, an intranasal approach was used to achieve a wide local resection. Conclusion Pleomorphic adenomas are rare tumours of the nasal cavity and have been shown to be misdiagnosed in over half of cases leading to more aggressive treatment than is necessary. If unilateral nasal obstruction is the main presenting complaint, we suggest consideration of this diagnosis. In view of the potential for tumour recurrence, long-term follow-up and careful examination of the nose with an endoscope are necessary. PMID:19014678

  12. Cleft Lip and Palate Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery. Cleft Lip / Palate and Craniofacial Surgery This type of surgery is ... the carefully orchestrated, multiple-stage correctional program for cleft lip and palate patients. The goal is to help restore the ...

  13. Rigid-fixation palatal appliances.

    PubMed

    Staggers, J

    1996-09-01

    Palatal appliances can offer an alternative to the traditional treatment approach of cleft lip and palate. The goal of these appliances is to position the maxillary segments more ideally and then maintain their position while allowing growth to occur. Use of palatal appliances can minimize the iatrogenic growth restriction usually associated with cleft palate repair. This article presents the findings of clinical treatment at the Medical College of Georgia.

  14. Cleft Palate; A Multidiscipline Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Richard B., Ed.

    Nineteen articles present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of facial clefts. The following subjects are discussed: the history of cleft lip and cleft palate surgery; cogenital defects; classification; the operation of a cleft palate clinic; physical examination of newborns with cleft lip and/or palate; nursing care; anesthesia;…

  15. Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    MedlinePlus

    ... side. There are three primary types of clefts: • Cleft lip/palate refers to the condition when both the palate ... one in 1,000 babies are born with cleft lip/palate. About 50 percent of all clefts More common ...

  16. Cleft Palate; A Multidiscipline Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Richard B., Ed.

    Nineteen articles present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of facial clefts. The following subjects are discussed: the history of cleft lip and cleft palate surgery; cogenital defects; classification; the operation of a cleft palate clinic; physical examination of newborns with cleft lip and/or palate; nursing care; anesthesia;…

  17. Cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Crockett, David J; Goudy, Steven L

    2014-11-01

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most common congenital malformation of the head and neck. Orofacial clefting could significantly affect the quality of life of the child and requires multiple steps of care to obtain an optimal outcome. Each patient should be evaluated for congenital anomalies, developmental delay, neurologic disorders, and psychosocial concerns. A multidisciplinary team is necessary to ensure that every aspect of the child's care is appropriately treated and coordination between providers is achieved. This article discusses the assessment and treatment recommendations for children born with cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SIADH following pituitary adenoma apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Florian Heinrich; Hauser, Till K; Honegger, Juergen

    2010-04-01

    The rare case of a patient with SIADH following pituitary adenoma apoplexy is reported. Since apoplexy did not exert any mass effect on surrounding structures, the patient was treated conservatively and the anterior pituitary gland insufficiency has been substituted adequately. Seven days after the apoplexy the patient again showed low serum-Na(+) levels despite cortisol substitution. Diagnosis of SIADH was made. It is essential to be aware of this rare syndrome in patients with pituitary adenoma apoplexy.

  19. Ephrin regulation of palate development

    PubMed Central

    Benson, M. Douglas; Serrano, Maria J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of palate development are motivated by the all too common incidence of cleft palate, a birth defect that imposes a tremendous health burden and can leave lasting disfigurement. Although, mechanistic studies of palate growth and fusion have focused on growth factors such as Transforming Growth Factor ß-3 (Tgfß3), recent studies have revealed that the ephrin family of membrane bound ligands and their receptors, the Ephs, play central roles in palatal morphogenesis, growth, and fusion. In this mini-review, we will discuss the recent findings by our group and others on the functions of ephrins in palatal development. PMID:23055980

  20. Accommodating Picky Palates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  1. Epileptic palatal myoclonus

    SciTech Connect

    Tatum, W.O.; Sperling, M.R.; Jacobstein, J.G. )

    1991-08-01

    Palatal myoclonus (PM) is usually caused by lesions of the brainstem. The authors report a case of PM of focal cortical origin in a patient with epilepsia partialis continua. The PM sometimes occurred in isolation, and at other times was accompanied by unilateral face, neck, and arm twitching. This was documented by both EEG and SPECT.

  2. Cleft Lip and Palate

    MedlinePlus

    ... all the way to the back of your mouth. What's a Cleft Lip or Cleft Palate? The word cleft means a gap or split between two things. A cleft lip is a split in the upper lip. This can happen on one or ... a split in the roof of the mouth. This leaves a hole between the nose and ...

  3. Accommodating Picky Palates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  4. From traditional serrated adenoma to tubulovillous adenoma and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Kalimuthu, Sangeetha N; Chelliah, Adeline; Chetty, Runjan

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that colorectal cancer develops from a series of precursor epithelial polyps, including tubular adenomas, villous/tubulovillous adenomas (VA/TVA), sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) and traditional serrated adenomas (TSA). Of these, TSAs are least common and account for only 5% of all serrated polyps. TSAs are characterised by the presence of a “pinecone-like” architecture, granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, luminal serrations, ectopic crypt foci (ECF) and elongated, pencillate nuclei. However, the distinct slit-like luminal serrations, reminiscent of small bowel mucosa, appear to be the most unique and reproducible feature to distinguish TSAs from other polyps. There is a contention that TSAs are not inherently dysplastic and that the majority do not show cytological atypia. Two types of dysplasia are associated with TSA. Serrated dysplasia is less well recognised and less commonly encountered than adenomatous dysplasia. In addition, it is now becoming increasingly evident that TSAs can be admixed with HP, SSA and VA/TVA. At a genetic level, polyps may switch phenotype as they accumulate genetic changes, evolving from a serrated pathway to a more conventional one, which could be the basis for a spectrum theory starting out with a TSA with serration and ECF evolving into a TSA with conventional dysplasia and, eventually, to a well-developed conventional adenoma. Nevertheless, there is an exigency for future studies to provide further illumination and bridge the gaps in our present understanding. PMID:28035250

  5. Villous adenoma of the distal appendix.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J V; Thomas, M G; Kelly, S; Sutton, R

    1997-04-01

    Villous adenoma confined to the distal appendix has not been previously reported in conjunction with acute apendicitis. The presence of an adenoma indicates a need for further investigation due to an association with neoplasia elsewhere.

  6. Papillary tubular adenoma with marked tubular vacuolization.

    PubMed

    Hattori, N; Imakado, S; Kikuchi, K; Murakami, T; Furue, M

    1997-12-01

    We report a case of papillary tubular adenoma, arising on the knee joint. The overall histologic structure of the tumor is consistent with that of papillary tubular adenoma with slight interluminal papillary changes, but most of the tumor cells present vacuolization outlined by carcinoembryonic antigen staining, suggesting that this adenoma may have resulted from microlumen formation. This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of a papillary tubular adenoma with marked tubular vacuolization.

  7. Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Rabade, Nikhil R; Goel, Naina A

    2014-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial neoplasm of lacrimal gland. A clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma arising in the background of pleomorphic adenoma is common in the salivary glands but very rare in the lacrimal glands. We report the case of a 27 year old man whose lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma recurred several times over a period of four years and ultimately evolved into a clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

  8. [Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas represent 0.5 to 1% of all pituitary adenomas. They are recognized with increasing frequency due to the measurement of TSH level in patients with hyperthyroidism, the ultra sensitive TSH assays and the improvement in pituitary imaging. Patients present mild or moderate signs of hyperthyroidism. Hormonal evaluation shows increased free thyroid hormone concentration with detectable, normal or increased serum TSH level, raising the differential diagnosis with pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals pituitary adenomas in most patients. Transphenoidal surgery remains the treatment of choice in patients with TSH-secreting pituitary microadenomas, while long-acting somatostatin analogs seem to be an alternative medical treatment to surgery in patients with macroadenomas or invasive pituitary tumors.

  9. Schwannoma of the hard palate

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Pradyumna Kumar; Mandal, Palash Kumar; Ghosh, Saradindu

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign encapsulated perineural tumors. The head and neck region is the most common site. Intraoral origin is seen in only 1% of cases, tongue being the most common site; its location in the palate is rare. We report a case of hard-palate schwannoma with bony erosion which was immunohistochemically confirmed. The tumor was excised completely intraorally. After two months of follow-up, the defect was found to be completely covered with palatal mucosa. PMID:25298716

  10. Lactating Adenoma of the Breast.

    PubMed

    Barco Nebreda, Israel; Vidal, M Carmen; Fraile, Manel; Canales, Lydia; González, Clarisa; Giménez, Nuria; García-Fernández, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Lactating adenoma is an uncommon breast palpable lesion occurring in pregnancy or lactation. Although it is a benign condition, it often requires core biopsy or even surgery to exclude malignancy. As with other solid lesions in pregnancy and lactation, lactating adenoma needs an accurate evaluation in order to ensure its benign nature. Work-up must include both imaging and histologic findings. Ultrasound evaluation remains the first step in assessing the features of the lesion. Some authors consider magnetic resonance imaging as a useful tool in cases of inconclusive evaluation after ultrasound and histologic exam in an attempt to avoid surgery. Most lactating adenomas resolve spontaneously, whereas others persist or even increase in size and must be removed. The authors present a case of a 35-year-old woman at 6 months postpartum with a lactating adenoma in her right breast. After surgical removal, breastfeeding was perfectly continued within the next 24 hours, which highlights the fact that breast surgery is most often compatible with breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Transcranial surgery for pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Youssef, A Samy; Agazzi, Siviero; van Loveren, Harry R

    2005-07-01

    Although the transsphenoidal approach is the preferred approach to the vast majority of pituitary tumors with or without suprasellar extension, the transcranial approach remains a vital part of the neurosurgical armamentarium for 1 to 4% of these tumors. The transcranial approach is effective when resection becomes necessary for a portion of a pituitary macroadenoma that is judged to be inaccessible from the transsphenoidal route because of isolation by a narrow waist at the diaphragma sellae, containment within the cavernous sinus lateral to the carotid artery, projection anteriorly onto the planum sphenoidale, or projection laterally into the middle fossa. The application of a transcranial approach in these circumstances may still be mitigated by response to prolactin inhibition of prolactinomas, the frequent lack of necessity to remove asymptomatic nonsecretory adenomas from the cavernous sinus, and the lack of evidence that sustained chemical cures can be reliably achieved by removal of secretory adenomas (adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone) from the cavernous sinus. Cranial base surgical techniques have refined the surgical approach to pituitary adenomas but have had less effect on actual surgical indications than anticipated. Because application of the transcranial approach to pituitary adenomas is and should be rare in clinical practice, it is useful to standardize the technique to a default mode with which the surgical team is most experienced and, therefore, most comfortable. Our default mode for transcranial pituitary surgery is the frontotemporal-orbitozygomatic approach.

  12. Bmpr1a signaling plays critical roles in palatal shelf growth and palatal bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jin-A; Lan, Yu; Liu, Han; Maltby, Kathleen M.; Mishina, Yuji; Jiang, Rulang

    2011-01-01

    Cleft palate, including submucous cleft palate, is among the most common birth defects in humans. While overt cleft palate results from defects in growth or fusion of the developing palatal shelves, submucous cleft palate is characterized by defects in palatal bones. In this report, we show that the Bmpr1a gene, encoding a type I receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp), is preferentially expressed in the primary palate and anterior secondary palate during palatal outgrowth. Following palatal fusion, Bmpr1a mRNA expression was upregulated in the condensed mesenchyme progenitors of palatal bone. Tissue-specific inactivation of Bmpr1a in the developing palatal mesenchyme in mice caused reduced cell proliferation in the primary and anterior secondary palate, resulting in partial cleft of the anterior palate at birth. Expression of Msx1 and Fgf10 was downregulated in the anterior palate mesenchyme and expression of Shh was downregulated in the anterior palatal epithelium in the Bmpr1a conditional mutant embryos, indicating that Bmp signaling regulates mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during palatal outgrowth. In addition, formation of the palatal processes of the maxilla was blocked while formation of the palatal processes of the palatine was significantly delayed, resulting in submucous cleft of the hard palate in the mutant mice. Our data indicate that Bmp signaling plays critical roles in the regulation of palatal mesenchyme condensation and osteoblast differentiation during palatal bone formation. PMID:21185278

  13. Congenital Palatal Fistula Associated with Submucous Cleft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Eshete, Mekonen; Camison, Liliana; Abate, Fikre; Hailu, Taye; Demissie, Yohannes; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Butali, Azeez; Losken, H. Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although cleft lip and cleft palate are among the most common congenital malformations, the presence of an isolated congenital palatal fistula along with a submucous cleft is very rare. This appears as an oval-shaped, full-thickness fenestration in the palatal midline that does not fully extend anteriorly or posteriorly, accompanied by the findings of a submucous cleft. Because of the uncommon nature of this entity, there is controversy about its etiology, diagnosis, and management. Methods: Two cases of children with congenital palatal fistulae and a submucous cleft palate are presented who were treated in different settings by different surgeons. Cases are discussed along with a thorough review of the available literature. Results: Patient 1 presented at 4 years of age with “a hole in the palate” since birth and abnormal speech. His palatal fistula and submucous cleft were repaired with a modified von Langenbeck technique in Ethiopia. At a 2-year follow-up, the palate remained closed, but hypernasal speech persisted. Patient 2 was a 1-year-old presenting with failure to thrive and nasal regurgitation, who underwent a Furlow palatoplasty in the United States with good immediate results. She was unfortunately lost to follow-up. Conclusions: A congenital fenestration of the palate is rare. Reports reveal suboptimal speech at follow-up, despite various types of repair, especially when combined with a submucous cleft. Available literature suggests that repair should not focus on fistula closure only but instead on providing adequate palate length to provide good velopharyngeal function, as in any cleft palate repair. PMID:27014542

  14. The scintigraphic appearance of subcapsular parathyroid adenomas.

    PubMed

    Kraas, Jonathan; Clark, Paige B; Perrier, Nancy D; Morton, Kathryn A

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 5 to 10% of parathyroid adenomas are located within the thin, fibrous capsule of the thyroid gland. These subcapsular adenomas can complicate minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. The small incision used in this procedure limits the view of the surgical bed. Palpation is less sensitive when the adenoma is covered by the thyroid capsule. If a subcapsular parathyroid adenoma can be identified on preoperative parathyroid scintigraphy, nuclear medicine physicians can recommend exploration of the thyroid capsule early, leading to an easier, more efficient operation. The objective of this observational study was to identify the scintigraphic appearance of subcapsular parathyroid adenomas. A total of 109 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism underwent preoperative dual-phase Tc-99m sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy at our tertiary care center from October 2002 to March 2004. Tc-99m pertechnetate was used as a supplemental technique when deemed necessary for optimal interpretation. Retrospective chart review identified 16 surgically proved subcapsular parathyroid adenomas. Parathyroid scintigraphy was reviewed. Subcapsular parathyroid adenomas tend to conform to the expected shape of the thyroid gland. In this small series, subcapsular parathyroid adenomas followed 1 of 3 patterns on lateral images: (1) focal convex distortion of the posterior wall of the thyroid, (2) polar lentiform configuration, and (3) compression of the posterior thyroid parenchyma. Subcapsular parathyroid adenomas often have a distinct appearance on scintigraphy. Preoperative identification of this type of parathyroid adenoma can direct a subcapsular surgical approach, optimizing the efficiency of the minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.

  15. Sellar gangliocytoma with adrenocorticotropic and prolactin adenoma.

    PubMed

    Kissiedu, Juliana O; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with weight gain, headaches, dizziness, erectile dysfunction and decreased libido. He was found to have elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and prolactin serum levels. The imaging studies revealed a 1.4 cm sella/suprasellar mass which was compressing the optic chiasm. Histologic slides of the lesion showed a pituitary adenoma, marked by a proliferation of biphenotypic appearing cells, associated with a gangliocytoma, and marked by a proliferation of atypical appearing neuronal cells arranged against a glial-appearing background. Pituitary adenoma-gangliocytomas are benign combination tumors that rarely occur in the sellar region. Adenomas in this setting are sometimes functional, and rare patients with mixed adenomas (adenomas secreting more than one hormone) have been reported. To our knowledge, there has been only one other report of a combined ACTH and prolactin-producing adenoma with gangliocytoma, reported in a patient who also had acromegaly. In our patient, the immunohistochemical stains demonstrated that the bulk of the adenoma cells stained with prolactin antibody, and scattered clusters of cells within the adenoma stained positively for ACTH. The adenoma did not stain with antibodies to any of the other anterior pituitary hormones. Postoperatively, the elevated prolactin and ACTH levels returned to normal levels and there was no evidence of residual tumor. Adequate sampling and immunohistochemistry are important in rendering a correct diagnosis and in identifying the hormone status of mixed adenoma-gangliocytomas.

  16. Colon adenoma features and their impact on risk of future advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Calderwood, Audrey H; Lasser, Karen E; Roy, Hemant K

    2016-01-01

    AIM To review the evidence on the association between specific colon adenoma features and the risk of future colonic neoplasia [adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC)]. METHODS We performed a literature search using the National Library of Medicine through PubMed from 1/1/2003 to 5/30/2015. Specific Medical Subject Headings terms (colon, colon polyps, adenomatous polyps, epidemiology, natural history, growth, cancer screening, colonoscopy, CRC) were used in conjunction with subject headings/key words (surveillance, adenoma surveillance, polypectomy surveillance, and serrated adenoma). We defined non-advanced adenomas as 1-2 adenomas each < 10 mm in size and advanced adenomas as any adenoma ≥ 10 mm size or with > 25% villous histology or high-grade dysplasia. A combined endpoint of advanced neoplasia included advanced adenomas and invasive CRC. RESULTS Our search strategy identified 592 candidate articles of which 8 met inclusion criteria and were relevant for assessment of histology (low grade vs high grade dysplasia, villous features) and adenoma size. Six of these studies met the accepted quality indicator threshold for overall adenoma detection rate > 25% among study patients. We found 254 articles of which 7 met inclusion criteria for the evaluation of multiple adenomas. Lastly, our search revealed 222 candidate articles of which 6 met inclusion criteria for evaluation of serrated polyps. Our review found that villous features, high grade dysplasia, larger adenoma size, and having ≥ 3 adenomas at baseline are associated with an increased risk of future colonic neoplasia in some but not all studies. Serrated polyps in the proximal colon are associated with an increased risk of future colonic neoplasia, comparable to having a baseline advanced adenoma. CONCLUSION Data on adenoma features and risk of future adenomas and CRC are compelling yet modest in absolute effect size. Future research should refine this risk stratification. PMID:28035253

  17. Octreotide Uptake in Parathyroid Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Karaçavuş, Seyhan; Kula, Mustafa; Cihan Karaca, Züleyha; Ünlühızarcı, Kürşad; Tutuş, Ahmet; Bayram, Fahri; Çoban, Ganime

    2012-01-01

    The patient with a history of bone pain and muscle weakness, was thought to have oncogenic osteomalacia as a result of biochemical investigations and directed to Nuclear Medicine Department for a whole-body bone scintigraphy and 111In-octreotide scintigraphy. There was no focal pathologic tracer uptake, but generalized marked increase in skeletal uptake on bone scintigraphy. Octreotide scintigraphy showed accumulation of octreotide in the region of the left lobe of the thyroid gland in the neck. Thereafter, parathyroid scintigraphy was performed with technetium-99m labeled metroxy-isobutyl-isonitryl (99mTc-MIB) and MIBI scan demonstrated radiotracer uptake at the same location with octreotide scintigraphy. The patient underwent left inferior parathyroidectomy and histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid adenoma may show octreotide uptake. Octreotide scintigraphy may be promising and indicate a possibility of using somatostatin analogues for the medical treatment of somatostatin receptor positive Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487397

  18. [Medical treatment of pituitary adenoma].

    PubMed

    Chanson, P

    1996-06-15

    Dopamine agonists are able to restore ovulatory cycles in 80-90% of hyperprolactinemic patients and to reduce tumoral volume (often dramatically) in 80% of macroprolactinomas. Their side-effects will be reduced with the use of parenteral forms or new agonists currently in preparation. Somatostatin analogues administered either subcutaneously by three daily injections (octreotide) or intramusculary with a long-acting formulation every 10-15 days (lanreotide) are able to "normalize" GH levels in 70% of acromegalic patients and to shrink tumor in half of the patients. Side effects are generally minor but an increased incidence of gallstones has been reported. These somatostatin analogs are also very effective in the treatment of TSH-secreting adenomas. Medical treatment of other pituitary adenomas is much more disappointing.

  19. Palatalization in Romanian: Experimental and Theoretical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinu, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Within the larger context of the Romance languages, Romanian stands alone in exhibiting a surface contrast between plain and palatalized consonants (that is, consonants with a secondary palatal articulation). While the properties of secondary palatalization are well known for language families in which the set of palatalized consonants is…

  20. Fibrosarcoma complicating irradiated pituitary adenoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, T.; Farrell, M.A.; Kaufmann, J.C.

    1984-09-01

    Eight years after radiation therapy (5000 rads of 60Co) for a pituitary adenoma, a patient developed a sellar fibrosarcoma. The tumor had an aggressive growth pattern: it infiltrated the optic nerve, sphenoidal air sinus, hypothalamus, and both cavernous sinuses, where compression of the left internal carotid artery resulted in a massive hemispheric infarction. Surgery was ineffective in arresting rapid growth of the lesion; death occurring 5 months after onset of symptoms.

  1. Tuberous sclerosis and parathyroid adenoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, L S; Rungby, J

    1991-01-01

    Very little is known about the pathogenesis of tuberous sclerosis. Over the past 10 years, however, increasing numbers of reports on adenomatous diseases in association with tuberous sclerosis have been published. A case of hypercalcaemia and parathyroid adenoma in association with tuberous sclerosis is presented, of which there has been one such report published previously. This association might be another manifestation of this complex disease: it is therefore recommended that plasma calcium concentrations should be measured in such patients. PMID:1752991

  2. Cleft palate in Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Joan M; Rosen, Heather; Desai, Urmen; Mulliken, John B; Meara, John G; Rogers, Gary F

    2009-09-01

    The frequency of associated cleft palate is known to be high in some fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)-mediated craniosynostosis syndromes, such as Apert syndrome. However, there is little information on the frequency of palatal clefts in the FGFR2-mediated disorder, that is, Pfeiffer syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of palatal clefts in patients with Pfeiffer syndrome. The records of patients with Pfeiffer syndrome managed in our craniofacial unit were reviewed. Only patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome were included. Diagnostic criteria were as follows: characteristic mutations in FGFR1 or FGFR2 or, in the absence of genetic testing, clinical findings consistent with Pfeiffer syndrome as determined by a clinical geneticist or our most experienced surgeon (J.B.M.). Only 2 clefts were noted in 25 patients (8%), including 1 with a submucous cleft and 1 with an overt palatal cleft. Many patients (87%) were described as having a high-arched and narrow palate, and 1 had a low, broad palate. Nine patients were noted to have choanal atresia or stenosis. Clefting of the palate does occur in Pfeiffer syndrome but at a low frequency.

  3. Molecular basis of cleft palates in mice

    PubMed Central

    Funato, Noriko; Nakamura, Masataka; Yanagisawa, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Cleft palate, including complete or incomplete cleft palates, soft palate clefts, and submucosal cleft palates, is the most frequent congenital craniofacial anomaly in humans. Multifactorial conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, induce the formation of cleft palates. The process of palatogenesis is temporospatially regulated by transcription factors, growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, and membranous molecules; a single ablation of these molecules can result in a cleft palate in vivo. Studies on knockout mice were reviewed in order to identify genetic errors that lead to cleft palates. In this review, we systematically describe these mutant mice and discuss the molecular mechanisms of palatogenesis. PMID:26322171

  4. Giant Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Rehman, Sajid; Misbah, Junaid

    2015-10-01

    Salivary gland tumours are a relatively rare entity. Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common amongst these, comprising 60 - 70% of all parotid tumours. Pleomorphic adenomas are benign and tend to increase in size slowly. Here we are presenting a case of giant pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid, being the largest in size to be excised in Pakistan in recorded literature measuring 24 x 22 x 12 cm and weighing 1.8 kgs. Superficial parotidectomy was done with an excellent cosmetic outcome.

  5. [Old phenotype and new genotypes. Pituitary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Gérard, C; Jedidi, H; Petrossians, P; Krzesinski, F; Daly, A; Beckers, A

    2015-11-01

    Gigantism and acromegaly, usually caused by a pituitary adenoma linked inappropriate secretion of growth hormone (GH), are generally considered as very rare diseases, even if, according to some authors, their cumulative prevalence is about 1/5000. Starting from the historical case of a giant from Liège we shall describe the different types of GH pituitary adenomas and their pathophysiology. We shall particularly discuss rare forms of inherited GH secreting pituitary adenomas like the FIPA (familial inherited isolated pituitary adenomas) and the X-LAG (X linked acrogigantism), both described for the first time in Liège, in 2000 and 2014, respectively.

  6. Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    MedlinePlus

    ... and advocacy priorities National Network of Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? ... how the body develops or how the body works. Cleft lip and cleft palate are common birth ...

  7. Piecemeal Versus En Bloc Resection of Large Rectal Adenomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-05

    Colorectal Adenoma With Mild Dysplasia; Colorectal Adenoma With Severe Dysplasia; Colorectal Adenomatous Polyp; Colorectal Low Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia; Colorectal High Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia

  8. Space Technology for Palate Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    University of Miami utilized NASA's spacecraft viewing technology to develop the optical profilometer provides more accurate measurements of cleft palate casts than has heretofore been possible, enabling better planning of corrective surgery. Lens like instrument electronically scans a palate cast precisely measuring its irregular contours by detecting minute differences in the intensity of a light beam reflected off the cast. Readings are computer processed and delivered to the surgeon by a teleprinter.

  9. Cleft palate repair and variations

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Karoon

    2009-01-01

    Cleft palate affects almost every function of the face except vision. Today a child born with cleft palate with or without cleft lip should not be considered as unfortunate, because surgical repair of cleft palate has reached a highly satisfactory level. However for an average cleft surgeon palatoplasty remains an enigma. The surgery differs from centre to centre and surgeon to surgeon. However there is general agreement that palatoplasty (soft palate at least) should be performed between 6-12 months of age. Basically there are three groups of palatoplasty techniques. One is for hard palate repair, second for soft palate repair and the third based on the surgical schedule. Hard palate repair techniques are Veau-Wardill-Kilner V-Y, von Langenbeck, two-flap, Aleveolar extension palatoplasty, vomer flap, raw area free palatoplasty etc. The soft palate techniques are intravelar veloplasty, double opposing Z-plasty, radical muscle dissection, primary pharyngeal flap etc. And the protocol based techniques are Schweckendiek's, Malek's, whole in one, modified schedule with palatoplasty before lip repair etc. One should also know the effect of each technique on maxillofacial growth and speech. The ideal technique of palatoplasty is the one which gives perfect speech without affecting the maxillofacial growth and hearing. The techniques are still evolving because we are yet to design an ideal one. It is always good to know all the techniques and variations so that one can choose whichever gives the best result in one's hands. A large number of techniques are available in literature, and also every surgeon incorporates his own modification to make it a variation. However there are some basic techniques, which are described in details which are used in various centres. Some of the important variations are also described. PMID:19884664

  10. Molecular Anatomy of Palate Development.

    PubMed

    Potter, Andrew S; Potter, S Steven

    2015-01-01

    The NIH FACEBASE consortium was established in part to create a central resource for craniofacial researchers. One purpose is to provide a molecular anatomy of craniofacial development. To this end we have used a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA-Seq to define the gene expression programs driving development of the murine palate. We focused on the E14.5 palate, soon after medial fusion of the two palatal shelves. The palate was divided into multiple compartments, including both medial and lateral, as well as oral and nasal, for both the anterior and posterior domains. A total of 25 RNA-Seq datasets were generated. The results provide a comprehensive view of the region specific expression of all transcription factors, growth factors and receptors. Paracrine interactions can be inferred from flanking compartment growth factor/receptor expression patterns. The results are validated primarily through very high concordance with extensive previously published gene expression data for the developing palate. In addition selected immunostain validations were carried out. In conclusion, this report provides an RNA-Seq based atlas of gene expression patterns driving palate development at microanatomic resolution. This FACEBASE resource is designed to promote discovery by the craniofacial research community.

  11. Pituitary Apoplexy due to Pituitary Adenoma Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Pyung; Kim, Sung Bum; Lim, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    Cause of pituitary apoplexy has been known as hemorrhage, hemorrhagic infarction or infarction of pituitary adenoma or adjacent tissues of pituitary gland. However, pituitary apoplexy caused by pure infarction of pituitary adenoma has been rarely reported. Here, we present the two cases pituitary apoplexies caused by pituitary adenoma infarction that were confirmed by transsphenoidal approach (TSA) and pathologic reports. Pathologic report of first case revealed total tumor infarction of a nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma and second case partial tumor infarction of ACTH secreting pituitary macroadenoma. Patients with pituitary apoplexy which was caused by pituitary adenoma infarction unrelated to hemorrhage or hemorrhagic infarction showed good response to TSA treatment. Further study on the predisposing factors of pituitary apoplexy and the mechanism of infarction in pituitary adenoma is necessary. PMID:19096606

  12. Pituitary Apoplexy due to Pituitary Adenoma Infarction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Pyung; Park, Bong Jin; Kim, Sung Bum; Lim, Young Jin

    2008-05-01

    Cause of pituitary apoplexy has been known as hemorrhage, hemorrhagic infarction or infarction of pituitary adenoma or adjacent tissues of pituitary gland. However, pituitary apoplexy caused by pure infarction of pituitary adenoma has been rarely reported. Here, we present the two cases pituitary apoplexies caused by pituitary adenoma infarction that were confirmed by transsphenoidal approach (TSA) and pathologic reports. Pathologic report of first case revealed total tumor infarction of a nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma and second case partial tumor infarction of ACTH secreting pituitary macroadenoma. Patients with pituitary apoplexy which was caused by pituitary adenoma infarction unrelated to hemorrhage or hemorrhagic infarction showed good response to TSA treatment. Further study on the predisposing factors of pituitary apoplexy and the mechanism of infarction in pituitary adenoma is necessary.

  13. Deformation of the palate in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Procter, A.; Lether, D.; Oliver, R.; Cartlidge, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the effect of gestation, postmenstrual age, and orotracheal intubation on palate morphology.
METHODS—A prospective study was made of 76 newborn infants of 25 to 41 weeks' gestation. Palate dimensions were measured on plaster models produced from serial palatal impressions. Palate size relative to that of the mouth was assessed using a ratio of palate depth to palate width (Palatal Index).
RESULTS—Palate depth and width were related to postmenstrual age and gestation. Palatal Index ranged from 0.15 to 0.57, indicating a wide variation in palate shape, but gestation and postmenstrual age had no effect. Prolonged intubation had a small effect, equivalent to an increase in palatal depth of less than 2 mm at 32 weeks' postmenstrual age. The effect was transient.
CONCLUSION—Prolonged orotracheal intubation (>10 days) leads to a small and temporary increase in palatal depth. However, this is unlikely to account for palatal grooving, which is probably caused by an overgrowth of the lateral palatine ridges.

 PMID:9536837

  14. Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lip and palate Cleft lip and palate repair Review Date 5/9/2016 Updated by: David A. ... and reconstructive plastic surgery, Palm Beach Gardens, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by ...

  15. Liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Barthelmes, Ludger

    2005-01-01

    During the last three decades liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis have emerged as new clinical entities in hepato-logical practice due to the widespread use of oral contraceptives and increased imaging of the liver. On review of published series there is evidence that 10% of liver cell adenomas progress to hepatocellular carcinoma, diagnosis is best made by open or laparoscopic excision biopsy, and the preferred treatment modality is resection of the liver cell adenoma to prevent bleeding and malignant transformation. In liver cell adenomatosis, the association with oral contraceptive use is not as high as in solitary liver cell adenomas. The risk of malignant transformation is not increased compared with solitary liver cell adenomas. Treatment consists of close monitoring and imaging, resection of superficially located, large (>4 cm) or growing liver cell adenomas. Liver transplantation is the last resort in case of substantive concern about malignant transformation or for large, painful adenomas in liver cell adenomatosis after treatment attempts by liver resection. PMID:18333188

  16. Nephrogenic adenoma of bladder after ibuprofen abuse.

    PubMed

    Scelzi, Sabino; Giubilei, Gianluca; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Di Loro, Filippo; Mondaini, Nicola; Crisci, Alfonso

    2004-11-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is an infrequent benign lesion of the urinary system that occurs in patients with a history of genitourinary surgery, stone disease, trauma, chronic urinary tract infection, or renal transplantation. We report the first case of nephrogenic adenoma of the bladder in a 53-year-old man with a 5-year history of ibuprofen abuse for chronic arthritis. We stress the importance of investigating the analgesic abuser for nephrogenic adenoma if microhematuria and/or irritative lower urinary tract symptoms are present.

  17. [Classification and pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Galland, Françoise; Chanson, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors that can be classified according to the type of hormone they produce, immunocytochemical characteristics (which generally confirm the clinical classification) or, as proposed by WHO in 2004, specific differentiation markers of the various ligneages. The pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas is largely unknown. Although a clonal origin is very likely, no univocal molecular abnormality (except for gsp mutations, found in 40% of somatotropic adenomas) has yet been found. Studies of cell cycle proteins, growth factors and oncogenes are beginning to shed light on the complex underlying mechanisms.

  18. CLEFT PALATE. FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUTHERFORD, DAVID; WESTLAKE, HAROLD

    DESIGNED TO PROVIDE AN ESSENTIAL CORE OF INFORMATION, THIS BOOK TREATS NORMAL AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT, STRUCTURE, AND FUNCTION OF THE LIPS AND PALATE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO CLEFT LIP AND CLEFT PALATE SPEECH. PROBLEMS OF PERSONAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT, HEARING, AND SPEECH IN CLEFT LIP OR CLEFT PALATE INDIVIDUALS ARE DISCUSSED. NASAL RESONANCE…

  19. CLEFT PALATE. FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUTHERFORD, DAVID; WESTLAKE, HAROLD

    DESIGNED TO PROVIDE AN ESSENTIAL CORE OF INFORMATION, THIS BOOK TREATS NORMAL AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT, STRUCTURE, AND FUNCTION OF THE LIPS AND PALATE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO CLEFT LIP AND CLEFT PALATE SPEECH. PROBLEMS OF PERSONAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT, HEARING, AND SPEECH IN CLEFT LIP OR CLEFT PALATE INDIVIDUALS ARE DISCUSSED. NASAL RESONANCE…

  20. Vegetarianism as a protective factor for colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma in Asians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Geun; Hahn, Suk Jae; Song, Min Keun; Lee, Jun Kyu; Kim, Jae Hak; Lim, Yun Jeong; Koh, Moon-Soo; Lee, Jin Ho; Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2014-05-01

    Although epidemiologic and animal studies suggest a vegetarian diet protects against the development of colorectal cancer, the relationship between vegetarian diet and incidence of colorectal adenoma is not yet conclusive, especially for Asians. The purpose of this study was to examine the protective effect of a vegetarian diet against colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma. This cross-sectional study compared the prevalence of colorectal adenoma among Buddhist priests, who are obligatory vegetarians, with that among age and sex-matched controls. All the subjects underwent health checkups in a health-promotion center in Korea. Colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma were both more prevalent in the general population group than in the Buddhist priest group (25.2 vs. 17.9 %, 6.7 vs. 2.0 %). However, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, high body mass index, and waist circumference were higher in the Buddhist priest group. According to univariate analysis, non-vegetarian diet (general population) significantly increased the prevalence of colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma compared with a vegetarian diet (Buddhist priests) (OR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.08-2.21, P = 0.018; OR 3.60, 95 % CI 1.53-8.48, P = 0.003). In a conditional regression analysis model, non-vegetarian diet was also a significant risk factor for colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma (OR 1.52, 95 % CI 0.75-2.07, P = 0.043; OR 2.94, CI 0.97-7.18, P = 0.036). Vegetarianism may be effective in preventing both colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma in Asians.

  1. Unusual Presentation of Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, S M; Badu, B P; Lavaju, P; Shrestha, B G; Pant, A R; Agarwal, M

    2014-01-01

    The pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland presents as a painless, progressive, slowly growing supero-temporal swelling with variable proptosis. This tumor is usually found in adults and extremely rare in teenage. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland which mimicked pseudotumor of orbit due to its presentation as an orbital inflammatory disease and the age distribution. Neuroimaging also suggested pseudotumor and oral steroid was started. But, there was no improvement on steroids and ultrasound guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was performed which suggested Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. En-bloc excision of the mass through antero-lateral orbitotomy was done with satisfactory final outcome The histopathological evaluation was consistent with pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland.

  2. Novel Genetic Causes of Pituitary Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Caimari, Francisca; Korbonits, Márta

    2016-10-15

    Recently, a number of novel genetic alterations have been identified that predispose individuals to pituitary adenomas. Clinically relevant pituitary adenomas are relatively common, present in 0.1% of the general population. They are mostly benign monoclonal neoplasms that arise from any of the five hormone-secreting cell types of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and cause disease due to hormonal alterations and local space-occupying effects. The pathomechanism of pituitary adenomas includes alterations in cell-cycle regulation and growth factor signaling, which are mostly due to epigenetic changes; somatic and especially germline mutations occur more rarely. A significant proportion of growth hormone- and adrenocorticotrophin-secreting adenomas have activating somatic mutations in the GNAS and USP8 genes, respectively. Rarely, germline mutations predispose to pituitary tumorigenesis, often in a familial setting. Classical tumor predisposition syndromes include multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and type 4 (MEN4) syndromes, Carney complex, and McCune-Albright syndrome. Pituitary tumors have also been described in association with neurofibromatosis type 1, DICER1 syndrome, and SDHx mutations. Pituitary adenomas with no other associated tumors have been described as familial isolated pituitary adenomas. Patients with AIP or GPR101 mutations often present with pituitary gigantism either in a familial or simplex setting. GNAS and GPR101 mutations that arise in early embryonic age can lead to somatic mosaicism involving the pituitary gland and resulting in growth hormone excess. Senescence has been suggested as the key mechanism protecting pituitary adenomas turning malignant in the overwhelming majority of cases. Here we briefly summarize the genetic background of pituitary adenomas, with an emphasis on the recent developments in this field. Clin Cancer Res; 22(20); 5030-42. ©2016 AACR SEE ALL ARTICLES IN THIS CCR FOCUS SECTION, "ENDOCRINE CANCERS

  3. Apoplexy of pituitary adenomas: the perfect storm.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Edward H; Merrill, Marsha J

    2015-06-01

    Pituitary adenomas occasionally undergo infarction, apoplexy, which often destroys much of the tumor. It is well known that apoplexy can be precipitated by several acute factors, including cardiac surgery, other types of surgery, trauma, insulin infusion, and stimulation with administration of hypothalamic releasing factors. The prior focus on mechanisms underlying pituitary apoplexy has been on these acute events. Less attention has been given to the endogenous features of pituitary tumors that make them susceptible to spontaneous infarction, despite that most pituitary apoplexy occurs in the absence of a recognized precipitating event. The authors examine intrinsic features of pituitary adenomas that render them vulnerable to apoplexy-features such as high metabolic demand, paucity of angiogenesis, and sparse vascularity, qualities that have previously not been linked with apoplexy-and argue that it is these features of adenomas that underlie their susceptibility to spontaneous infarction. The sensitivity of freshly cultured pituitary adenomas to hypoglycemia is assessed. Adenomas have high metabolic demand, limited angiogenesis, and reduced vessel density compared with the normal gland. Pituitary adenoma cells do not survive in the presence of reduced or absent concentrations of glucose. The authors propose that the frequent ischemic infarction of pituitary adenomas is the product of intrinsic features of these tumors. These endogenous qualities create a tenuous balance between high metabolic demand and marginal tissue perfusion. Thus, the tumor is vulnerable to spontaneous infarction or to acute ischemia by any event that acutely alters the balance between tumor perfusion and tumor metabolism, events such as acute systemic hypotension, abruptly decreased supply of nutrients, hypoglycemia with insulin administration, or increase in the tumor's metabolic demand due to administration of hypothalamic releasing factors. It may be possible to take advantage of these

  4. [Pleomorphic adenoma with bilateral pulmonary metastasis].

    PubMed

    De Kerangal, X; Poirrier, P; Soulard, R; Dot, J M; Ségneuric, J B; L'Her, P; Jancovici, R; Saint-Blancart, P

    2001-11-01

    We report a new case of pleomorphous adenoma of the submaxillary glands with multiple lung metastases. Histological proof was obtained on the thoracoscopic surgical specimen. Clinically, this benign tumor presents as a malignant tumor. Diagnosis has been a subject of debate; surgical resection is indicated. Diagnosis is achieved by elimination in a patient with one or several nodules occurring in a context of recurrent pleomorphous adenoma.

  5. Pathology of the human pituitary adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Kajiya, Hanako; Takei, Mao; Egashira, Noboru; Tobita, Maya; Takekoshi, Susumu; Teramoto, Akira

    2008-01-01

    This article describes pertinent aspects of histochemical and molecular changes of the human pituitary adenomas. The article outlines individual tumor groups with general, specific and molecular findings. The discussion further extends to the unusual adenomas or carcinomas. The description in this article are pertinent not only for the practicing pathologists who are in the position of making proper diagnosis, but also for the pituitary research scientists who engage in solving basic problems in pituitary neoplasms by histochemistry and molecular biology. PMID:18688636

  6. Comprehensive Mutation Analysis in Colorectal Flat Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Voorham, Quirinus J. M.; Carvalho, Beatriz; Spiertz, Angela J.; Claes, Bart; Mongera, Sandra; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Grabsch, Heike; Kliment, Martin; Rembacken, Bjorn; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Quirke, Philip; Mulder, Chris J. J.; Lambrechts, Diether; van Engeland, Manon; Meijer, Gerrit A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Flat adenomas are a subgroup of colorectal adenomas that have been associated with a distinct biology and a more aggressive clinical behavior compared to their polypoid counterparts. In the present study, we aimed to compare the mutation spectrum of 14 cancer genes, between these two phenotypes. Methods A consecutive series of 106 flat and 93 polypoid adenomas was analyzed retrospectively for frequently occurring mutations in “hot spot” regions of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and NRAS, as well as selected mutations in CTNNB1 (β-catenin), EGFR, FBXW7 (CDC4), PTEN, STK11, MAP2K4, SMAD4, PIK3R1 and PDGFRA using a high-throughput genotyping technique. Additionally, APC was analyzed using direct sequencing. Results APC mutations were more frequent in polypoid adenomas compared to flat adenomas (48.5% versus 30.3%, respectively, p = 0.02). Mutations in KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, FBXW7 and CTNNB1 showed similar frequencies in both phenotypes. Between the different subtypes of flat adenomas (0-IIa, LST-F and LST-G) no differences were observed for any of the investigated genes. Conclusion The lower APC mutation rate in flat adenomas compared to polypoid adenomas suggests that disruption of the Wnt-pathway may occur via different mechanisms in these two phenotypes. Furthermore, in contrast to previous observations our results in this large well-defined sample set indicate that there is no significant association between the different morphological phenotypes and mutations in key genes of the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. PMID:22848674

  7. Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cleft palate. A cleft lip is a separation of the two sides of the lip. The separation often includes the bones of the upper jaw ... 5 Comments Miracle Flights Puts Care in the Air 11/20/15 , No Comments Connections to be ...

  8. Orthodontic palatal implants: clinical technique.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, D; O'Dwyer, J J; Benson, P E; Doyle, P T; Sandler, J

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to familiarize the readers with some of the clinical considerations necessary to ensure successful use of mid-palatal implants. Both surgical and technical aspects will be discussed along with a description of impression techniques used.

  9. Pituitary lymphoma developing within pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Morita, Ken; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kamikubo, Yasuhiko; Mizuno, Naoaki; Miyauchi, Masashi; Yamamoto, Go; Nannya, Yasuhito; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2012-06-01

    Lymphoma occurring in the pituitary gland is an exceedingly infrequent event. Here, we describe a case of pituitary lymphoma complicating recurrent pituitary adenoma. A 56-year-old male with a history of pituitary adenoma was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the left ocular adnexa, which was successfully treated by standard chemotherapy and local radiotherapy. Eight months later, he complained of diplopia and bitemporal hemianopia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging detected a suprasellar tumor. Transsphenoidal biopsy of the mass was performed, and histopathological examination revealed DLBCL admixed with pituitary adenoma. On a review of the literature, we found that pituitary lymphoma developing within adenoma is a recurrent phenomenon. The composite tumor is likely to be characterized by suprasellar involvement and presentation of visual disturbances. Moreover, in the present case, the suprasellar tumor remained visible after autologous peripheral stem cell transplant, likely due to the residual pituitary adenoma. We therefore recommend that refractory pituitary lymphoma should be vigorously biopsied in search of possibly underlying adenoma.

  10. Alcohol intake, smoking, and colorectal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeong Mi; Cho, Chang Ho; Kim, Sung Hi; Lee, Jung Eun

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in Korea. Because colorectal adenoma is a precursor lesion of colorectal cancer, primary prevention of colorectal adenomas may be important for reducing morbidity and mortality from the disease. The aim of this study is to examine the association of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in relation with colorectal adenoma in a cross-sectional study of Korean adults. A total of 366 participants who underwent colonoscopy were included (113 cases and 255 controls) in this study. Information on alcohol intake and cigarette smoking was collected from structured questionnaires. The odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the multivariate logistic regression models. Alcohol intake was associated with a higher prevalence of colorectal adenoma in men; compared to non-drinkers, ORs (95% CIs) were 11.49 (2.55-51.89) for 10-20 g/day of alcohol intake and 14.15 (3.31-60.59) for â 20 g/day of alcohol intake (P for trend = 0.003). There was a weaker association of alcohol intake for women than men; however, there was a suggestive increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer in women. Cigarette smoking was not associated with colorectal adenoma, but we cannot rule out the possibility that this was due to low statistical power. Our study provides evidence to suggest that alcohol intake may contribute to colorectal adenoma in the Korean population. Our study results demonstrate that a larger epidemiologic study is needed.

  11. Genetic Variants Associated with Colorectal Adenoma Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Abulí, Anna; Castells, Antoni; Bujanda, Luis; Lozano, Juan José; Bessa, Xavier; Hernández, Cristina; Álvarez-Urturi, Cristina; Pellisé, Maria; Esteban-Jurado, Clara; Hijona, Elizabeth; Burón, Andrea; Macià, Francesc; Grau, Jaume; Guayta, Rafael; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Andreu, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Common low-penetrance genetic variants have been consistently associated with colorectal cancer risk. To determine if these genetic variants are associated also with adenoma susceptibility and may improve selection of patients with increased risk for advanced adenomas and/or multiplicity (≥ 3 adenomas). We selected 1,326 patients with increased risk for advanced adenomas and/or multiplicity and 1,252 controls with normal colonoscopy from population-based colorectal cancer screening programs. We conducted a case-control association study analyzing 30 colorectal cancer susceptibility variants in order to investigate the contribution of these variants to the development of subsequent advanced neoplasia and/or multiplicity. We found that 14 of the analyzed genetic variants showed a statistically significant association with advanced adenomas and/or multiplicity: the probability of developing these lesions increased with the number of risk alleles reaching a 2.3-fold risk increment in individuals with ≥ 17 risk alleles. Nearly half of the genetic variants associated with colorectal cancer risk are also related to advanced adenoma and/or multiplicity predisposition. Assessing the number of risk alleles in individuals within colorectal cancer screening programs may help to identify better a subgroup with increased risk for advanced neoplasia and/or multiplicity in the general population.

  12. Giant serous microcystic pancreas adenoma.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, Kursat; Bostanci, Hasan; Yildirim, Ali Cihat; Sakrak, Omer; Kerem, Mustafa

    2012-10-10

    Serous cystadenomas are rare tumors comprising 1-2% of exocrine pancreas tumors. They are mostly known as benign conditions but malign transformation as serous cystadenocarcinoma is also reported. It is usually seen in females. Non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal pain or symptoms due to mass affect, are usually seen. A 64-year old female patient was investigated for abdominal pain. Physical and laboratory findings were normal. Abdomen ultrasonography confirmed an 11×9.5 cm solid cystic lesion and abdomen computed tomography scan confirmed a 12×11 cm lobulated cystic solid lesion which had central cystic necrotic areas extending from liver hilus inferiorly. Fine needle biopsy confirmed benign cytology and trucut biopsy of the pancreatic mass reported chronic inflamation. Nevertheless, this mass could have malignant contents and transformation potential. A laparatomy was decided due to patient's symptoms and mass effect. Due to vascular invasion of the tumor, Whipple procedure was performed. The pathology report confirmed serous microcystic adenoma. These rare tumors are usually benign but pre-operative malignity criterias are not identified. There are few differential diagnostic tools for excluding malignity. We suggest surgical resection as best treatment approach for selected cases.

  13. Palate size and shape in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Delice, Mehtap; Gurbuz, Ozlem; Oflezer, Ceyhan; Kurt, Erhan; Mandali, Gamze

    2016-10-30

    The palate is considered typical of the structures in which schizophrenia-related minor physical anomalies may occur. In this study, we aimed to compare the dimensions and form of palate in patients with schizophrenia with nonpsychiatric controls in a blinded manner. Dental stone casts of 127 patients with schizophrenia and 127 controls were prepared from impressions of the maxillary dental arch. Palate dimensions were measured on the stone casts using a digital caliper and palatometer. Palate length did not differ significantly between the groups, but there was a significant difference in palate width and depth, which were significantly higher in the schizophrenia group. As a result of using multivariate analysis for assessing independent risk factors affecting patients with schizophrenia, furrowed palate shape, palate width, and ellipsoid maxillary dental arch shape were found to be significant. This study also revealed that patients with schizophrenia demonstrate certain gender-related predilections in the differences of palate parameters compared to same-sex controls. As the palate develops in conjunction with both the face and brain, our study findings can significantly contribute to the assumption that there might be structural abnormalities of the palate that could represent specific markers of embryological dysmorphogenesis underlying schizophrenia.

  14. Shear wave elastography and parathyroid adenoma: A new tool for diagnosing parathyroid adenomas.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Ghobad; Piper, Kelé; Keller, James M; Mayo, Michelle L; Puett, David; Earp, Karly M; Malchoff, Carl D

    2016-09-01

    This study prospectively determines the shear wave elastography characteristics of parathyroid adenomas using virtual touch imaging quantification, a non-invasive ultrasound based shear wave elastography method. This prospective study examined 57 consecutive patients with biochemically proven primary hyperparathyroidism and solitary parathyroid adenoma identified by ultrasound and confirmed by at least one of the following: surgical resection, positive Technetium-99m Sestamibi Scintigraphy (MIBI) scan, or fine needle aspiration biopsy with positive PTH washout (performed only in MIBI negative patients). Vascularity and shear wave elastography were performed for all patients. Parathyroid adenoma stiffness was measured as shear wave velocity in meters per second. The median (range) pre-surgical value for PTH and calcium were 58pg/mL (19, 427) and 10.8mg/dL (9.5, 12.1), respectively. 37 patients had positive MIBI scan. 20 patients had negative MIBI scan but diagnosis was confirmed with positive PTH washout. 42 patients underwent parathyroidectomy, and an adenoma was confirmed in all. The median (range) shear wave velocity for all parathyroid adenomas enrolled in this study was 2.02m/s (1.53, 2.50). The median (range) shear wave velocity for thyroid tissue was 2.77m/s (1.89, 3.70). The shear wave velocity of the adenomas was independent of adenoma size, serum parathyroid hormone concentration, or plasma parathyroid hormone concentration. Tissue elasticity of parathyroid adenoma is significantly lower than thyroid tissue. B-mode features and distinct vascularity pattern are helpful tools in diagnosing parathyroid adenoma with ultrasound. Shear wave elastography may provide valuable information in diagnosing parathyroid adenoma. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Indolent palatal swelling: Catch 22

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Preeti; Wadhwan, Vijay; Kumar, K. V. Arun; Venkatesh, Arvind; Thapa, Timsy

    2016-01-01

    We present an interesting but intriguing case of an indolent palatal swelling. The lesion was asymptomatic causing little discomfort to the patient and thus was an incidental clinical finding. Provisional diagnosis was a benign, minor salivary gland tumor. Clinical differential diagnoses included benign lymphoepithelial lesion or mucus extravasation phenomenon. Nevertheless, we also considered malignancies such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, lymphoma, and neoplasm of the maxillary sinus. However, the histopathology revealed a rare clinicopathologic entity prompting immediate treatment of the lesion. PMID:28356700

  16. Primary tuberculosis of the palate

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Pablo; Fuente, Eduardo; Gallego, Lorena; Calvo, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a life-threatening infectious disease with a high world incidence. However, TB with oral expression is considered rare. The importance of recognising this entity lies in its early diagnosis and treatment, as it can be easily confused with neoplastic or traumatic ulcers. We present a case of a primary TB located in the hard palate and gingiva in an 88-year-old woman. PMID:24925532

  17. Primary tuberculosis of the palate.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Pablo; Fuente, Eduardo; Gallego, Lorena; Calvo, Nicolás

    2014-06-12

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a life-threatening infectious disease with a high world incidence. However, TB with oral expression is considered rare. The importance of recognising this entity lies in its early diagnosis and treatment, as it can be easily confused with neoplastic or traumatic ulcers. We present a case of a primary TB located in the hard palate and gingiva in an 88-year-old woman.

  18. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma mimicking salivary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid gland demonstrated features of MASC. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an ETV6 break-apart probe. An unusual complex pattern of ETV6 rearrangement with duplication of the telomeric/distal ETV6 probe was identified. This case illustrates that MASC may mimic salivary (cyst)adenomas. To more accurately assess true clinical and morphologic spectrum of MASC, future studies may have to include review of salivary (cyst)adenomas. The differential diagnosis of MASC may have to be expanded to include cases resembling salivary (cyst)adenomas.

  19. Association of craniopharyngioma and pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Guaraldi, Federica; Prencipe, Nunzia; di Giacomo, Valentina; Scanarini, Massimo; Gasco, Valentina; Gardiman, Marina Paola; Berton, Alessandro M; Ghigo, Ezio; Grottoli, Silvia

    2013-08-01

    Intracranial tumors of different histologic types infrequently affect patients with pituitary adenomas and no history of head irradiation. The association with craniopharyngioma is extremely rare. Aims of this paper are: (1) to provide a critical literature review of typical features of pituitary adenoma presenting in association with craniopharyngioma; (2) to describe the first documented (clinically, biochemically, histologically, and radiologically) case of aggressive, suprasellar papillary craniopharyngioma presenting with amenorrhea, progressive reduction of visual field, and severe headache in a 38-year-old woman, a decade after surgical cure for microprolactinoma associated with empty sella, during which she had carried two pregnancies; and (3) to discuss common etiopathogenetic mechanisms, in relation to the management of these lesions. Systematic literature search for English literature focusing on the association of craniopharyngioma and pituitary adenoma was performed using PubMed database. Additional relevant articles from references lists were also included. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological examinations performed in our patient for the two brain lesions at diagnosis and follow up were collected. Literature search retrieved nine articles. Typically, craniopharyngioma were of adamantinomatous type, occurred simultaneously to pituitary adenoma, presented with headache and visual loss, and affected men. No case of clearly documented metachronous lesion affecting a woman after pregnancy had been described before. Although very rare and with uncertain etiopathogenesis, second tumors (i.e., craniopharyngioma) should be considered in patients with a history of pituitary adenoma, presenting with suggestive signs and symptoms, even after a long disease-free period, in order to provide proper and prompt treatment.

  20. [Multicentre study on hepatic adenomas].

    PubMed

    Ramia, José Manuel; Bernardo, Carmen; Valdivieso, Andrés; Dopazo, Cristina; Jover, José María; Albiol, M Teresa; Pardo, Fernando; Fernandez Aguilar, José Luis; Gutierrez Calvo, Alberto; Serrablo, Alejandro; Diez Valladares, Luis; Pereira, Fernando; Sabater, Luis; Muffak, Karim; Figueras, Joan

    2014-02-01

    Hepatic adenomas (HA) are benign tumours which can present serious complications, and as such, in the past all were resected. It has now been shown that those smaller than 3 cm not expressing β-catenin only result in complications in exceptional cases and therefore the therapeutic strategy has been changed. Retrospective study in 14 HPB units. patients with resected and histologically confirmed HA. 1995-2011. 81 patients underwent surgery. Age: 39.5 years (range: 14-75). Sex: female (75%). Consumption of oestrogen in women: 33%. Size: 8.8 cm (range, 1-20 cm). Only 6 HA (7.4%) were smaller than 3 cm. The HA median was 1 (range: 1-12). Nine patients had adenomatosis (>10HA). A total of 51% of patients displayed symptoms, the most frequent (77%) being abdominal pain. Eight patients (10%) began with acute abdomen due to rupture and/or haemorrhage. A total of 67% of the preoperative diagnoses were correct. Surgery was scheduled for 90% of patients. The techniques employed were: major hepatectomy (22%), minor hepatectomy (77%) and one liver transplantation. A total of 20% were performed laparoscopically. The morbidity rate was 28%. There were no cases of mortality. Three patients had malignisation (3.7%). The follow-up period was 43 months (range 1-192). Two recurrences were detected and resected. Patients with resected HA are normally women with large lesions and oestrogen consumption was lower than expected. Its correct preoperative diagnosis is acceptable (70%). The major hepatectomy rate is 25% and the laparoscopy rate is 20%. There was a low morbidity rate and no mortality. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. 3-D shape analysis of palatal surface in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Rusková, Hana; Bejdová, Sárka; Peterka, Miroslav; Krajíček, Václav; Velemínská, Jana

    2014-07-01

    Facial development of patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) is associated with many problems including deformity of the palate. The aim of this study was to evaluate palatal morphology and variability in patients with UCLP compared with Czech norms using methods of geometric morphometrics. The study was based on virtual dental cast analysis of 29 UCLP patients and 29 control individuals at the age of 15 years. The variability of palatal shape in UCLP patients was greater than that in nonclefted palates. Only 24% of clefted palates fell within the variability of controls. The palatal form of UCLP patients (range from 11.8 to 17.2 years) was not correlated with age. Compared with control palates, palates of UCLP patients were narrower, more anteriorly than posteriorly. Apart from the praemaxilla region, they were also shallower, and the difference increased posteriorly. The UCLP palate was characterised by the asymmetry of its vault. The maximum height of the palatal vault was anterior on the clefted side, whereas it was posterior on the nonclefted side. The slope of the UCLP palate was more inclined compared with the control group. The praemaxilla was therefore situated more inferiorly.

  2. Cranial strains and malocclusion VIII: palatal expansion.

    PubMed

    James, Gavin; Strokon, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for palatal expansion are reviewed. Pre-treatment asymmetry of the palate and maxillary arch is shown to be almost universal and is not randomly distributed. The use of a symmetrical expansion appliance does not necessarily result in a symmetrical arch. ALF appliances provide a means of achieving orthopedic, symmetrical expansion of the palate by using very light force. This is demonstrated in seven subjects. It is argued that rapid palatal expansion is an inappropriate, potentially iatrogenic procedure which no longer has a place in the orthodontic armamentarium.

  3. Improving Informed Consent for Cleft Palate Repair

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-07

    Cleft Palate; Jaw Abnormalities; Maxillofacial Abnormalities; Mouth Abnormalities; Congenital Abnormalities; Jaw Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases; Craniofacial Abnormalities; Musculoskeletal Abnormalities; Stomatognathic Diseases; Stomatognathic System Abnormalities

  4. Preoperative volume determination for pituitary adenoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukic, Dženan; Egger, Jan; Bauer, Miriam H. A.; Kuhnt, Daniela; Carl, Barbara; Freisleben, Bernd; Kolb, Andreas; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    The most common sellar lesion is the pituitary adenoma, and sellar tumors are approximately 10-15% of all intracranial neoplasms. Manual slice-by-slice segmentation takes quite some time that can be reduced by using the appropriate algorithms. In this contribution, we present a segmentation method for pituitary adenoma. The method is based on an algorithm that we have applied recently to segmenting glioblastoma multiforme. A modification of this scheme is used for adenoma segmentation that is much harder to perform, due to lack of contrast-enhanced boundaries. In our experimental evaluation, neurosurgeons performed manual slice-by-slice segmentation of ten magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cases. The segmentations were compared to the segmentation results of the proposed method using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). The average DSC for all datasets was 75.92%+/-7.24%. A manual segmentation took about four minutes and our algorithm required about one second.

  5. Sellar Toxoplasmosis and Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Berkmann, Sven; Fischer, Ingeborg; Sonderegger, Beat; Fischli, Stefan; Fandino, Javier

    2015-11-01

    Sellar toxoplasmosis is associated with congenital infections or immunodeficiency. The finding of Toxoplasma bradycysts in a pituitary adenoma is very unusual. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old woman presented with secondary amenorrhea and moderately elevated prolactin levels. A macroprolactinoma was suspected on magnetic resonance imaging, and cabergoline was initiated. Although dopamine levels decreased, the tumor did not show significant shrinkage; after 2 years, transsphenoidal resection was indicated to clarify the diagnosis and to cure hyperprolactinemia. Histology showed an inactive pituitary adenoma and Toxoplasma bradycysts. Seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii, but neither immunodeficiency nor intracerebral spread, was found. During a postoperative follow-up period of 15 months, the patient did not show any recurrence. Sellar toxoplasmosis in conjunction with pituitary adenoma is extremely rare. Nonfunctioning lesions should be suspected in cases of sellar masses and moderate hyperprolactinemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Advanced endoscopic imaging to improve adenoma detection

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Helmut; Nägel, Andreas; Buda, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Advanced endoscopic imaging is revolutionizing our way on how to diagnose and treat colorectal lesions. Within recent years a variety of modern endoscopic imaging techniques was introduced to improve adenoma detection rates. Those include high-definition imaging, dye-less chromoendoscopy techniques and novel, highly flexible endoscopes, some of them equipped with balloons or multiple lenses in order to improve adenoma detection rates. In this review we will focus on the newest developments in the field of colonoscopic imaging to improve adenoma detection rates. Described techniques include high-definition imaging, optical chromoendoscopy techniques, virtual chromoendoscopy techniques, the Third Eye Retroscope and other retroviewing devices, the G-EYE endoscope and the Full Spectrum Endoscopy-system. PMID:25789092

  7. TSH-secreting adenoma improved with cabergoline.

    PubMed

    Mouton, F; Faivre-Defrance, F; Cortet-Rudelli, C; Assaker, R; Soto-Ares, G; Defoort-Dhellemmes, S; Blond, S; Wemeau, J-L; Vantyghem, M-C

    2008-06-01

    TSH-secreting adenomas are rare tumors, representing only 0.5 to 2.5% of pituitary adenomas. Their main clinical characteristics include signs of thyrotoxicosis, diffuse goiter and a compressive syndrome. Biologically, free T4 and T3 serum levels are elevated, contrasting with inadequate serum TSH levels and increased alpha chains. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging shows a pituitary tumor, the main differential diagnosis being resistance to thyroid hormones. Treatment is based on surgery, possibly associated with somatostatin analogs and radiotherapy. Though the long-term evolution of this rare pathology seems to have improved, some clinical situations are still a challenge to treat. We report one such case that was resistant to both stereotactic radiotherapy and somatostatin analogs, but surprisingly improved with cabergoline. We suggest that cabergoline should be considered as an alternative treatment in cases of pituitary adenomas that resist traditional treatments.

  8. Choroid plexus acinar adenoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rembao-Bojórquez, Daniel; Vega, Rosalba; Bermúdez-Maldonado, Luis; Gutiérrez, Ramón; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Tena-Suck, Martha

    2007-06-01

    Mucus-secreting adenomas or acinar adenoma of the choroid plexus are very rare. We report the case of a 79-year-old male with a 3-year history of occipital headaches with vomiting, ataxia and cerebellar signs. He was first seen due to difficulty while walking. He was admitted to the hospital with significant tumor expansion and clinical deterioration. CT and MRI revealed obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a large fourth ventricular cyst mass, which enhanced markedly on contrast administration. Pathological findings were consistent with an acinar choroid plexus adenoma. The tumor was attached to the ependymal lining and was strongly adhered to the walls and floor of the IV ventricle. Post-operative bleeding complicated partial removal of this tumor. The patient died 6 h after surgery.

  9. Risk of Advanced Adenomas in Siblings of Individuals With Advanced Adenomas: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Siew C; Lau, James Y W; Chan, Francis K L; Suen, Bing Yee; Tse, Yee Kit; Hui, Aric J; Leung-Ki, En Ling; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Anthony W H; Wong, Martin C S; Ng, Simon S M; To, Ka Fai; Wu, Justin C Y; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2016-03-01

    The risk of colorectal neoplasms among siblings of patients with advanced adenomas is not clear. We determined the prevalence of advanced adenomas in the siblings of patients with advanced adenomas and compared it with that of siblings of individuals without these lesions. In a blinded, cross-sectional study, colonoscopies were performed (from 2010 through 2014), at 2 hospitals in Hong Kong on 200 asymptomatic siblings of patients with advanced adenomas (exposed; mean age, 58.2 ± 6.3 years; adenomas ≥10 mm, high-grade dysplasia, villous, or tubulovillous) and 400 age- and sex-matched siblings of subjects with normal findings from colonoscopies and no family history of colorectal cancer (unexposed; mean age, 58.1 ± 6 years). We recruited 1 sibling per family. The primary outcome was prevalence of advanced adenomas. Baseline demographics (ie, aspirin use, smoking, body mass index, and metabolic diseases) did not differ significantly between exposed and unexposed individuals. The prevalence of advanced adenoma was 11.5% among the exposed subjects and 2.5% among the unexposed subjects (matched odds ratio [mOR] = 6.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.74-13.36; P < .001). The prevalence of adenomas ≥10 mm was higher among exposed than unexposed siblings (10.5% vs 1.8%; mOR = 8.59; 95% CI: 3.44-21.45; P < .001), as was the prevalence of villous adenomas (5.5% vs 1.3% in unexposed; mOR = 6.28; 95% CI: 2.02-19.53; P = .001) and all colorectal adenomas (39.0% vs 19.0% in unexposed; mOR = 3.29; 95% CI: 2.16-5.03; P < .001). Two cancers were detected in exposed siblings and none in unexposed siblings. In a cross-sectional study of subjects undergoing colonoscopy in Hong Kong, siblings of individuals with at least 1 advanced adenoma had a 6-fold increased odds of advanced adenoma compared with subjects who had a sibling with a screening colonoscopy with no identified neoplasia. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT01593098. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier

  10. Adenoma of anogenital mammary-like glands.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sartaj; Campbell, Ross M; Li, Jin Hong; Wang, Li Juan; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2007-11-01

    Adenomas in the anogenital region are uncommon. There has been debate about the origin, including ectopic breast tissue, cutaneous apocrine gland, and most recently anogenital mammary-like gland. An anogenital mass in a 36-year-old woman was excised, and histopathologic examination and immunostaining were performed. Microscopic tissue sections showed a morphologic pattern similar to that of a mammary fibroadenoma, and immunostaining demonstrated the presence of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. The possibility of adenomas of anogenital mammary-like glands should be considered when evaluating patients with a mass in this area with confirmation by tissue biopsy or aspiration cytology.

  11. Mesenchymal fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling regulates palatal shelf elevation during secondary palate formation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kai; Karuppaiah, Kannan; Ornitz, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Palatal shelf elevation is an essential morphogenetic process during secondary palate closure and failure or delay of palatal shelf elevation is a common cause of cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in humans. Here, we studied the role of mesenchymal fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling during palate development by conditional inactivation of Fgfrs using a mesenchyme-specific Dermo1-Cre driver. We showed that Fgfr1 is expressed throughout the palatal mesenchyme and Fgfr2 is expressed in the medial aspect of the posterior palatal mesenchyme overlapping with Fgfr1. Mesenchyme-specific disruption of Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 affected palatal shelf elevation and resulted in cleft palate. We further showed that both Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 are expressed in mesenchymal tissues of the mandibular process but display distinct expression patterns. Loss of mesenchymal FGFR signaling reduced mandibular ossification and lower jaw growth resulting in abnormal tongue insertion in the oral-nasal cavity. We propose a model to explain how redundant Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 expression in the palatal and mandibular mesenchyme regulates shelf medial wall protrusion and growth of the mandible to coordinate the craniofacial tissue movements that are required for palatal shelf elevation. PMID:26250517

  12. Mesenchymal fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling regulates palatal shelf elevation during secondary palate formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Karuppaiah, Kannan; Ornitz, David M

    2015-11-01

    Palatal shelf elevation is an essential morphogenetic process during secondary palate closure and failure or delay of palatal shelf elevation is a common cause of cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in humans. Here, we studied the role of mesenchymal fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling during palate development by conditional inactivation of Fgfrs using a mesenchyme-specific Dermo1-Cre driver. We showed that Fgfr1 is expressed throughout the palatal mesenchyme and Fgfr2 is expressed in the medial aspect of the posterior palatal mesenchyme overlapping with Fgfr1. Mesenchyme-specific disruption of Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 affected palatal shelf elevation and resulted in cleft palate. We further showed that both Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 are expressed in mesenchymal tissues of the mandibular process but display distinct expression patterns. Loss of mesenchymal FGFR signaling reduced mandibular ossification and lower jaw growth resulting in abnormal tongue insertion in the oral-nasal cavity. We propose a model to explain how redundant Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 expression in the palatal and mandibular mesenchyme regulates shelf medial wall protrusion and growth of the mandible to coordinate the craniofacial tissue movements that are required for palatal shelf elevation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Strategies to Improve Regeneration of the Soft Palate Muscles After Cleft Palate Repair

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal Monroy, Paola L.; Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Wagener, Frank A.D.T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children with a cleft in the soft palate have difficulties with speech, swallowing, and sucking. These patients are unable to separate the nasal from the oral cavity leading to air loss during speech. Although surgical repair ameliorates soft palate function by joining the clefted muscles of the soft palate, optimal function is often not achieved. The regeneration of muscles in the soft palate after surgery is hampered because of (1) their low intrinsic regenerative capacity, (2) the muscle properties related to clefting, and (3) the development of fibrosis. Adjuvant strategies based on tissue engineering may improve the outcome after surgery by approaching these specific issues. Therefore, this review will discuss myogenesis in the noncleft and cleft palate, the characteristics of soft palate muscles, and the process of muscle regeneration. Finally, novel therapeutic strategies based on tissue engineering to improve soft palate function after surgical repair are presented. PMID:22697475

  14. Strategies to improve regeneration of the soft palate muscles after cleft palate repair.

    PubMed

    Carvajal Monroy, Paola L; Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Wagener, Frank A D T G; Von den Hoff, Johannes W

    2012-12-01

    Children with a cleft in the soft palate have difficulties with speech, swallowing, and sucking. These patients are unable to separate the nasal from the oral cavity leading to air loss during speech. Although surgical repair ameliorates soft palate function by joining the clefted muscles of the soft palate, optimal function is often not achieved. The regeneration of muscles in the soft palate after surgery is hampered because of (1) their low intrinsic regenerative capacity, (2) the muscle properties related to clefting, and (3) the development of fibrosis. Adjuvant strategies based on tissue engineering may improve the outcome after surgery by approaching these specific issues. Therefore, this review will discuss myogenesis in the noncleft and cleft palate, the characteristics of soft palate muscles, and the process of muscle regeneration. Finally, novel therapeutic strategies based on tissue engineering to improve soft palate function after surgical repair are presented.

  15. Palatable Meal Anticipation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Cynthia T.; Patton, Danica F.; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Steele, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to “stuff and starve” feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or “Fruit Crunchies” avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific. PMID:20941366

  16. Germline Variants and Advanced Colorectal Adenomas: Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib Trial Genomewide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiping; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G.; Chu, Jen-Hwa; Zauber, Ann G.; Kubo, Michikai; Matsuda, Koichi; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard S.; Sieber, Oliver; Lipton, Lara; Gibbs, Peter; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Young, Joanne; Baird, Paul N.; Ratain, Mark J.; Nakamura, Yusuke; Weiss, Scott T.; Tomlinson, Ian; Bertagnolli, Monica M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with development of advanced colorectal adenomas. Experimental Design Discovery Phase: 1,406 Caucasian patients (139 advanced adenoma cases and 1,267 controls) from the Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib (APC) trial were included in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify variants associated with post-polypectomy disease recurrence. Genome-wide significance was defined as false discovery rate < 0.05, unadjusted p=7.4×10−7. Validation Phase: Results were further evaluated using 4,175 familial colorectal adenoma or CRC cases and 5,036 controls from patients of European ancestry (COloRectal Gene Identification consortium, Scotland, Australia and VQ58). Results Our study identified eight SNPs associated with advanced adenoma risk in the APC trial (rs2837156, rs7278863, rs2837237, rs2837241, rs2837254, rs741864 at 21q22.2, and rs1381392 and rs17651822 at 3p24.1, at p<10–7 level with odds ratio – OR>2). Five variants in strong pairwise linkage disequilbrium (rs7278863, rs2837237, rs741864, rs741864 and rs2837241, r2=0.8–1) are in or near the coding region for the tight junction adhesion protein, IGSF5. An additional variant associated with advanced adenomas, rs1535989 (minor allele frequency 0.11; OR 2.09; 95% confidence interval 1.50–2.91), also predicted CRC development in a validation analysis (p=0.019) using a series of adenoma cases or CRC (CORGI study) and 3 sets of CRC cases and controls (Scotland, VQ58 and Australia, N=9,211). Conclusions Our results suggest that common polymorphisms contribute to the risk of developing advanced adenomas and might also contribute to the risk of developing CRC. The variant at rs1535989 may identify patients whose risk for neoplasia warrants increased colonoscopic surveillance. PMID:24084763

  17. Palatal Mucormycosis in An Infant.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Bansal, Vishal; Kantoor, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    The maxilla rarely undergoes necrosis due to its rich vascularity. Maxillary necrosis can occur due to bacterial infections, viral infections, or fungal infections. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fulminant fungal infection that mainly infects immunocompromised patients. The fungus invades the arteries, leading to thrombosis that subsequently causes necrosis of hard and soft tissues. The occurrence of mucormycosis is not considered rare in the jaws of adults, but involvement of the maxilla in infants is not usually seen. The purpose of this report is to discuss the diagnosis and management of a rare case of mucormycosis in the palate of a two-month-old boy.

  18. Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…

  19. Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…

  20. Cleft palate caused by congenital teratoma.

    PubMed

    Veyssière, Alexis; Streit, Libor; Traoré, Hamady; Bénateau, Hervé

    2017-02-01

    A cleft palate results from incomplete fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the median nasal septum and the median palatine process. This case report describes a rare case of congenital teratoma originating from the nasal septum that may have interfered with the fusion of the palatal shelves during embryonic development, resulting in a cleft palate. An infant girl was born at 40 weeks of gestation weighing 3020 g with a complete cleft palate associated with a large central nasopharyngeal tumour. Computed tomography (CT) of the head showed a well defined mass of mixed density. The tumour was attached to the nasal septum in direct contact with the cleft palate. A biopsy confirmed the teratoma. Tumour resection was performed at 5 months, soft palate reconstruction at 7 months and hard palate closure at 14 months. There was no sign of local recurrence 1 year later. Most teratomas are benign and the prognosis is usually good. However, recurrence is not rare if germ cell carcinomatous foci are present within the teratoma. For these reasons, we advocate the use of a two-stage procedure in which closure of the cleft palate is postponed until histological examination confirms complete excision of the teratoma.

  1. Clinical analysis of infarction in pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Deyong; Wang, Shousen; Huang, Yinxing; Zhao, Lin; Wei, Liangfeng; Ding, Chenyu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study is to summarize the clinical manifestations, imaging findings, treatment and prognosis of pituitary apoplexy caused by ischemic infarction. Methods: From January 2010 to March 2014, 412 patients with pituitary adenoma were admitted in the Department of Neurosurgery at Fuzhou General Hospital, with 9 cases being diagnosed with ischemic infarction stroke. Imaging examinations were performed, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Pituitary adenomas were evaluated according to suprasellar, infrasellar, parasellar, anterior and posterior classification. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining were used for identifying pituitary adenoma. Results: Tumor height was 1.3-3.3 cm, with an average of 2.27 cm. Eight patients had typical clinical stroke symptoms. Preoperatively, high blood growth hormone concentration was presented in 6 cases, full hypopituitarism in 2 cases, dysfunction of corticosteroids and gonads in 4 cases, and single gonadal dysfunction in 2 cases. Ring enhancement was presented in 8 cases on constructed computed tomography or magnetic resonance images, and sellar settlement in 7 cases. Eight patients were conducted with transsphenoidal resection, and secondary transsphenoidal after craniotomy in 1 case. During surgery, poor tumor blood supply was found in 7 cases, cheese-like or tofu-like necrotic tissues in 5 cases, and few dark blood clots in 2 cases. Conclusions: Pituitary ischemic infarction stroke is clinically rare, but can be correctly diagnosed before surgery by imaging examinations. The pathological characteristics of the tumor are necrosis and fibrosis, which are easy for resection. Therefore, pituitary adenoma usually has good prognosis. PMID:26221291

  2. Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Inomoto, Chie; Sato, Haruhiro; Kanai, Genta; Hirukawa, Takashi; Shoji, Sunao; Terachi, Toshiro; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Osamura, Robert Yoshiyuki

    2010-07-20

    Functioning black adrenal adenoma (BAA) rarely causes preclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS). In the present case, a 46-year-old Japanese Peruvian woman presented with left flank pain and hypertension. Abdominal computed tomography showed that she had a 15-mm in diameter, round, left adrenal adenoma. She had no physical features of CS, such as moon face, buffalo hump, truncal obesity, or purple striae. Endocrinological examination showed that the plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level was below the detectable level, despite a serum cortisol level within the normal range. A normal cortisol circadian rhythm was not present. Dexamethasone (1 mg and 8 mg) suppression testing did not decrease serum cortisol levels to the reference levels. These findings were compatible with preclinical CS. The left adrenal adenoma was laparoscopically removed. Examination of the surgical specimen revealed unilateral double adrenal adenomas of the left adrenal gland, one of which was a BAA. The BAA measured 20 × 11 × 10 mm. Microscopically, the BAA showed proliferation of compact cells containing numerous brown-pigmented granules. There were also foci of myelolipomatous degenerative changes in the tumor. The compact cell zones remained in the adrenal cortex adjacent to the BAA showed atrophic change. These findings indicated that BAA appeared to have caused preclinical CS in this patient.

  3. Clinical analysis of infarction in pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Deyong; Wang, Shousen; Huang, Yinxing; Zhao, Lin; Wei, Liangfeng; Ding, Chenyu

    2015-01-01

    This study is to summarize the clinical manifestations, imaging findings, treatment and prognosis of pituitary apoplexy caused by ischemic infarction. From January 2010 to March 2014, 412 patients with pituitary adenoma were admitted in the Department of Neurosurgery at Fuzhou General Hospital, with 9 cases being diagnosed with ischemic infarction stroke. Imaging examinations were performed, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Pituitary adenomas were evaluated according to suprasellar, infrasellar, parasellar, anterior and posterior classification. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining were used for identifying pituitary adenoma. Tumor height was 1.3-3.3 cm, with an average of 2.27 cm. Eight patients had typical clinical stroke symptoms. Preoperatively, high blood growth hormone concentration was presented in 6 cases, full hypopituitarism in 2 cases, dysfunction of corticosteroids and gonads in 4 cases, and single gonadal dysfunction in 2 cases. Ring enhancement was presented in 8 cases on constructed computed tomography or magnetic resonance images, and sellar settlement in 7 cases. Eight patients were conducted with transsphenoidal resection, and secondary transsphenoidal after craniotomy in 1 case. During surgery, poor tumor blood supply was found in 7 cases, cheese-like or tofu-like necrotic tissues in 5 cases, and few dark blood clots in 2 cases. Pituitary ischemic infarction stroke is clinically rare, but can be correctly diagnosed before surgery by imaging examinations. The pathological characteristics of the tumor are necrosis and fibrosis, which are easy for resection. Therefore, pituitary adenoma usually has good prognosis.

  4. Aggressive digital papillary adenoma-adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Evangelos G; Miller, Gavin; Revelos, Kyriakos; Kitsanta, Panagiota; Page, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma and aggressive digital papillary adenoma are rare tumours of the sweat glands. They are most common in the most distal part of the fingers and are locally aggressive with a 50% local recurrence rate; 14% of tumours metastasize. We present two cases.

  5. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We investigated urinary mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). Urinary organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...

  6. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We investigated urinary mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). Urinary organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...

  7. Suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kun; Duan, Zejun; Bian, Yu; Wang, Mengyang; Qi, Xueling

    2014-01-01

    Suprasellar salivary gland-Like pleomorphic adenoma is not a common disease and seldom reported so far. We are reporting a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrent suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma, who underwent an operation of subtotal, subfrontal resection under the wrong pathology diagnosis of benign teratoma in another hospital 4-year-ago. Four years later, he was admitted to our hospital for additional visual loss of the right eye (left, 1.0; right, 0.4) resulting from tumor regrowth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that suprasellar extension and compressed optic chiasm resulted in visual disturbance of the patient. The tumor was totally excised and histological examination evidenced the pathological features of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma. The patient did not receive any further treatment and he is free from tumor recurrence for 30 months after the operation. From this point of view, clinical prognosis of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma was good after total surgical resection.

  8. Etiology and management of recurrent parotid pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Witt, Robert L; Eisele, David W; Morton, Randall P; Nicolai, Piero; Poorten, Vincent Vander; Zbären, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review study was to encompass the relevant literature and current best practice options for this challenging, sometimes incurable problem. The source of the data was Ovid MEDLINE from 1946 to 2014. Review methods consisted of articles with clinical correlates. The most important cause of recurrence is enucleation with rupture and incomplete tumor excision at operation. Incomplete pseudocapsule, extracapsular extension, pseudopods of pleomorphic adenoma tissue, and satellite pleomorphic beyond the pseudocapsule are also likely linked to recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Most recurrent pleomorphic adenoma are multinodular. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging study of choice for recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Nerve integrity monitoring may reduce morbidity for recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Treatment of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma must be individualized. Total parotidectomy, given the multicentricity of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma, is appropriate in many patients, but may be inadequate to control recurrent pleomorphic. There is accumulating evidence from retrospective series that postoperative radiation therapy results in significantly better local control.

  9. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Helene; Jackson, Angela; Munzer, Martine; N'Guyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Schlumberger, Martin; Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  10. Television watching and risk of colorectal adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Y; Keum, N N; Chan, A T; Fuchs, C S; Wu, K; Giovannucci, E L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prolonged TV watching, a major sedentary behaviour, is associated with increased risk of obesity and diabetes and may involve in colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 31 065 men with ⩾1 endoscopy in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1988–2008) to evaluate sitting while watching TV and its joint influence with leisure-time physical activity on risk of colorectal adenoma. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Prolonged sitting while watching TV was significantly associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma (n=4280), and adjusting for physical activity or a potential mediator body mass index did not change the estimates. The ORs (95% CIs) across categories of TV watching (0–6, 7–13, 14–20, and 21+ h per week) were 1.00 (referent), 1.09 (1.01–1.17), 1.16 (1.06–1.27), and 1.10 (0.97–1.25) (OR per 14-h per week increment=1.11; 95% CI: 1.04–1.18; Ptrend=0.001). Compared with the least sedentary (0–6 h per week of TV) and most physically active (highest quintile) men, the most sedentary (14+ h per week) and least active (lowest quintile) men had a significant increased risk of adenoma (OR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.05–1.49), particularly for high-risk adenoma. Conclusions: Prolonged TV viewing is associated with modest increased risk of colorectal adenoma independent of leisure-time physical activity and minimally mediated by obesity. PMID:25590667

  11. Tbx1 is Necessary for Palatal Elongation and Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Goudy, Steven; Law, Amy; Sanchez, Gabriela; Baldwin, H. Scott; Brown, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor TBX1 is a key mediator of developmental abnormalities associated with DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial Syndrome. Studies in mice have demonstrated that decreased dosage of Tbx1 results in defects in pharyngeal arch, cardiovascular, and craniofacial development. The role of Tbx1 in cardiac development has been intensely studied; however, its role in palatal development is poorly understood. By studying the Tbx1-/- mice we found defects during the critical points of palate elongation and elevation. The intrinsic palate defects in the Tbx1-/- mice were determined by measuring changes in palate shelf length, proliferation, apoptosis, expression of relevant growth factors, and in palate fusion assays. Tbx1-/- embryos exhibit cleft palate with failed palate elevation in 100% and abnormal palatal-oral fusions in 50%. In the Tbx1-/- mice the palate shelf length was reduced and tongue height was greater, demonstrating a physical impediment to palate elevation and apposition. In vitro palate fusion assays demonstrate that Tbx1-/- palate shelves are capable of fusion but a roller culture assay showed that the null palatal shelves were unable to elongate. Diminished hyaluronic acid production in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves may explain failed palate shelf elevation. In addition, cell proliferation and apoptosis were perturbed in Tbx1-/- palates. A sharp decrease of Fgf8 expression was detected in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves, suggesting that Fgf8 is dependent on Tbx1 in the palate. Fgf10 is also up-regulated in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves and tongue. These data demonstrate that Tbx1 is a critical transcription factor that guides palatal elongation and elevation and that Fgf8 expression in the palate is Tbx1-dependent. PMID:20214979

  12. The mechanism of TGF-β signaling during palate development

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, J; Parada, C; Chai, Y

    2012-01-01

    Cleft palate, a malformation of the secondary palate development, is one of the most common human congenital birth defects. Palate formation is a complex process resulting in the separation of the oral and nasal cavities that involves multiple events, including palatal growth, elevation, and fusion. Recent findings show that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling plays crucial roles in regulating palate development in both the palatal epithelium and mesenchyme. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of TGF-β signaling during palate development. PMID:21395922

  13. Eosinophilic Granuloma Presenting as Palatal Swelling

    PubMed Central

    Babu, B. Balaji; Nadendla, Lakshmi Kavitha; Madki, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Swellings involving palate can be challenging to diagnose for the clinician as they have wide range of origin which can result from developmental, inflammatory, reactive or a neoplastic process. The clinical presentation of these swellings is similar and difficult to differentiate from each other. So it is important to take proper history from the patient and subject the patient to appropriate laboratory and radiographic investigations and finally biopsy is mandatory for accurate diagnosis. Thus, this article highlights on various common palatal swellings, their clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis helpful for proper diagnosis of swellings associated with palate. PMID:27891486

  14. Characteristics and outcomes of endoscopically resected colorectal cancers that arose from sessile serrated adenomas and traditional serrated adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Choi, Seung Ho; Chun, Jaeyoung; Choi, Ji Min; Jin, Eun Hyo; Hwang, Sung Wook; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The efficacy and safety of endoscopic resection of colorectal cancer derived from sessile serrated adenomas or traditional serrated adenomas are still unknown. The aims of this study were to verify the characteristics and outcomes of endoscopically resected early colorectal cancers developed from serrated polyps. Methods Among patients who received endoscopic resection of early colorectal cancers from 2008 to 2011, cancers with documented pre-existing lesions were included. They were classified as adenoma, sessile serrated adenoma, or traditional serrated adenoma according to the baseline lesions. Clinical characteristics, pathologic diagnosis, and outcomes were reviewed. Results Overall, 208 colorectal cancers detected from 198 patients were included: 198 with adenoma, five with sessile serrated adenoma, and five with traditional serrated adenoma. The sessile serrated adenoma group had a higher prevalence of high-grade dysplasia (40.0% vs. 25.8%, P<0.001) than the adenoma group. During follow-up, local recurrence did not occur after endoscopic resection of early colorectal cancers developed from serrated polyps. In contrast, two cases of metachronous recurrence were detected within a short follow-up period. Conclusions Cautious observation and early endoscopic resection are recommended when colorectal cancer from serrated polyp is suspected. Colorectal cancers from serrated polyp can be treated successfully with endoscopy. PMID:27433150

  15. Pituitary tumours: TSH-secreting adenomas.

    PubMed

    Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Persani, Luca; Mannavola, Deborah; Campi, Irene

    2009-10-01

    Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism and account for less than 2% of all pituitary adenomas. In the last years, the diagnosis has been facilitated by the routine use of ultra-sensitive TSH immunometric assays. Failure to recognise the presence of a TSHoma may result in dramatic consequences, such as improper thyroid ablation that may cause the pituitary tumour volume to further expand. The diagnosis mainly rests on dynamic testing, such as T3 suppression tests and TRH, which are useful in differentiating TSHomas from the syndromes of thyroid hormone resistance. The first therapeutical approach to TSHomas is the pituitary neurosurgery. The medical treatment of TSHomas mainly rests on the administration of somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide and lanreotide, which are effective in reducing TSH secretion in more than 90% of patients with consequent normalisation of FT4 and FT3 levels and restoration of the euthyroid state.

  16. The use of buccal fat pad free graft in closure of soft-tissue defects and dehiscence in the hard palate

    PubMed Central

    Kablan, Fares

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The integrity of the palatal mucosa can be lost due to congenital, pathological, and iatrogenic conditions. Various surgical techniques have been suggested for the closure of palatal defects. The aim of the current study is to present the free buccal fat pad graft as a novel technique to repair the soft-tissue defects at the palate. Patients and Methods: During a 2-year period, the free fat tissue graft harvested from the buccal fat pad (BFP) (FBFG) and used to reconstruct five soft-tissue defects of the palate in five patients (2 women, 3 men; mean age, 34 years; range, 22–58 years). In two patients, the palatal defect size was 2–3 cm and resulted from the resection of pleomorphic adenoma. In two other patients, the defect was due to odontogenic lesion, and in the last patient, the etiology was an iatrogenic dehiscence during maxillary segmentation surgery. Patients were examined every 2 weeks in the first 3 months and thereafter every 3 months. Results: Five patients were treated with FBFG to reconstruct palatal defects and were followed up for 6–24 months. The healing process of the BFP and the recipient sites were uneventful, with minimal morbidity. At 3 months after the surgery, there was complete epithelialization of the graft at the recipient sites. Conclusions: Harvesting of FBFG is a simple procedure with minor complications; manipulation and handling the graft are easy. The use of FBFG in reconstruction of small and medium palatal defects is encouraging with excellent clinical outcomes.

  17. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma, adrenal adenoma and hypokalemia.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, G. E.; Schmidt, N.; Lee-Son, L.

    1977-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman had a 22-year history of hypertension. Investigation showed hypokalemia and kaliuresis without pronounced suppression of plasma renin activity or elevation of urinary aldosterone excretion. There was biochemical evidence of catecholamine metabolite excess but the usual clinical features of pheochromocytoma were absent. Laparotomy revealed a pheochromocytoma and adrenal adenoma in the right adrenal gland. Excision of the tumours was followed by resolution of the hypertension and metabolic abnormalities. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:844017

  18. Histology of palate and soft palate tonsil of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Teófilo, T S; Morais, M R P T; Dias, G F; Diniz, A N; Chaves, H S A; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2014-10-01

    Peccaries are characterized by a prominent skin gland, known as scent gland, which is located in the middle of the rump. These animals are able to survive in a great variety of habitats, from humid tropical forests to semi-arid areas. They are omnivorous animals, and their diet includes fibrous material, vegetables, fruits, small vertebrates and insects. Collared peccary hard palate and soft palate tonsils were studied, macroscopic morphometric data were collected and tissue samples were paraffin-embedded. Sections were stained with HE, Gomori's trichrome and von Kossa; the first two were used to study general organization and the latter to detect calcium deposits. The hard palate showed one incisive papilla followed by several rugae united by a distinct raphe. The hard palate is lined by a keratinised squamous epithelium resting on a dense connective, whereas in the soft palate, the epithelium is parakeratinised and showed lymphocyte infiltration. The palate showed several pacinian corpuscles in the propria-submucosa. Two ovoid-shaped tonsils were found in the soft palate, and several crypts were observed on its surface. The epithelium was highly infiltrated by lymphocytes, and within the crypts, tonsilloliths were frequently observed. The study showed that the general organization of collared peccary palate is similar to other species, but in its oropharynx, only the soft palate tonsil was present and the pacinian corpuscles formed small aggregates. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Pituitary Adenoma Volumetry with 3D Slicer

    PubMed Central

    Nimsky, Christopher; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present pituitary adenoma volumetry using the free and open source medical image computing platform for biomedical research: (3D) Slicer. Volumetric changes in cerebral pathologies like pituitary adenomas are a critical factor in treatment decisions by physicians and in general the volume is acquired manually. Therefore, manual slice-by-slice segmentations in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, which have been obtained at regular intervals, are performed. In contrast to this manual time consuming slice-by-slice segmentation process Slicer is an alternative which can be significantly faster and less user intensive. In this contribution, we compare pure manual segmentations of ten pituitary adenomas with semi-automatic segmentations under Slicer. Thus, physicians drew the boundaries completely manually on a slice-by-slice basis and performed a Slicer-enhanced segmentation using the competitive region-growing based module of Slicer named GrowCut. Results showed that the time and user effort required for GrowCut-based segmentations were on average about thirty percent less than the pure manual segmentations. Furthermore, we calculated the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) between the manual and the Slicer-based segmentations to proof that the two are comparable yielding an average DSC of 81.97±3.39%. PMID:23240062

  20. Are metaplasias in colorectal adenomas truly metaplasias?

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, M.; Fenoglio, C. M.; Robboy, S. J.; King, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Five thousand seven hundred seventy-eight adenomas or adenomas containing carcinoma from 3215 patients were examined by routine histologic methods for the presence of epithelial metaplasias. Three forms of epithelial metaplasia were encountered: squamous cell metaplasia (0.44%), Paneth cell metaplasia (0.20%), and melanocytic metaplasia (0.017%). In several instances multiple forms of metaplasia were encountered in the same polyp. In those cases in which the paraffin blocks were available, a Grimelius stain was performed. Grimelius-positive cells were present in 63% of the adenomas containing a metaplastic cell type. All cases with Paneth cell differentiation were immunoreactive for lysozyme; all lesions containing areas of squamous differentiation were immunoreactive for keratin except 2. The histopathologic features of these cases are discussed, and it is concluded that rather than representing a true metaplastic process, Paneth cell, squamous cell, and melanocyte differentiation represent the full range of cellular differentiation that endodermally derived tissues can exhibit, particularly when they undergo neoplastic alterations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6202148

  1. Seminoma and parathyroid adenoma in a snow leopard (Panthera unica).

    PubMed

    Doster, A R; Armstrong, D L; Bargar, T W

    1989-05-01

    A seminoma and parathyroid adenoma were diagnosed in an aged snow leopard. The ultrastructural appearance of the seminoma was similar to that described in the dog and in man. The lack of significant amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes and free ribosomes in the parathyroid adenoma suggested that it was non-functional. Parathyroid adenoma has not been previously described in a large wild feline.

  2. Phenotypic variation in colorectal adenoma/cancer expression in two families. Hereditary flat adenoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lynch, H T; Smyrk, T C; Lanspa, S J; Lynch, P M; Watson, P; Strayhorn, P C; Bronson, E K; Lynch, J F; Priluck, I A; Appelman, H D

    1990-09-01

    Clinical, pathologic, and genetic studies on two colorectal cancer-prone families have disclosed right-sided colonic flat adenomas and colorectal cancer. Adenomatous polyp counts exceeded those found in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) but were fewer than in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Colon cancer occurred at a later age than in HNPCC or FAP and showed right-sided predominance. The older age of patients with colonic cancer, the right-sided predominance of colon cancer, and the paucity of rectal adenomas make FAP unlikely. Vertical transmission of polyps and colon cancer fit the pattern of autosomal dominant inheritance. A characteristic feature of this phenotype is the predominance of flat adenomas. Molecular genetic studies, with careful description of phenotype, should help clarify classification.

  3. Palatal sinus elevation revisited: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Seemann, Rudolf; Wagner, Florian; Ewers, Rolf; Ulm, Christian

    2013-08-01

    The palatal sinus lift is a good choice for patients with scarred buccal soft tissue and those with poor wound healing such as smokers or diabetics or when visual side effects such as swelling must be concealed. We provide a surgical protocol for palatal sinus lifting without a vertical release incision. The incision is started in a slightly palatal aspect, at the distal end of the dental arch, and describes a curve laterally on the alveolar crest while running in a mesial direction. As a marginal incision, it can continue to the central incisor. Submucosal exposure will lift the gum and the greater palatine artery. After insertion of a tongue depressor, the sinus is opened on the palatal side, opposite the zygomaticoalveolar crest, using a rose bur or a piezotome. After sinus augmentation, the incision is easy to close, and the wound will heal smoothly.

  4. Cleft Lip and Palate (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or more if they are having hearing problems. Dental Problems Children with a cleft lip and palate ... improve speech and breathing, overbites/underbites, and appearance. Dental and Orthodontic Treatment Maintaining healthy teeth and preventing ...

  5. Oncocytic changes in pleomorphic adenoma: Report of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Milanjeet; Bhogal, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign salivary gland tumor, accounting for almost three-fourths of all such tumors. Cells with oncocytic change are a common finding in salivary glands and in salivary gland tumors. When found within pleomorphic adenomas, cells with oncocytic changes may be perceived as evidence of malignancy, and lead to a misdiagnosis of carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma. A case of pleomorphic adenoma arising de novo in the minor salivary glands with oncocytic changes is discussed here. PMID:26392734

  6. Isolated double pituitary adenomas: A silent corticotroph adenoma and a microprolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Eytan, Shira; Kim, Ki-Yoon; Bleich, David; Raghuwanshi, Maya; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2015-10-01

    We report a 27-year-old woman with amenorrhea and galactorrhea with mildly elevated serum prolactin levels. Her MRI demonstrated a cystic macroadenoma in the left aspect of the sella and a small microadenoma in the right aspect of the sella. Endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of the tumors revealed two histologically distinct tumors. The left tumor was consistent with a silent corticotroph macroadenoma and the right tumor was a prolactin producing microadenoma. Isolated double pituitary adenomas that are clearly separated by normal pituitary gland tissue are extremely rare. The incidence is approximately 0.37-2.6%. The coexistence of double adenomas can pose diagnostic and management challenges for the pituitary neuroendocrine team.

  7. New interpretation of the palate of Pterosaurs.

    PubMed

    Osi, Attila; Prondvai, Edina; Frey, Eberhard; Pohl, Burkhardt

    2010-02-01

    On the basis of a new, three-dimensionally preserved specimen of the Early Jurassic pterosaur Dorygnathus banthensis we present a reinterpretation of the pterosaur palate. The hard palate is formed by the extensive palatal plate of the maxilla and not by the palatine as has been generally reconstructed. This palatal plate of the maxilla emarginates the choana rostrally and rostrolaterally as in other archosaurs and lepidosaurs. The longitudinally elongate and dorsoventrally flat palatine in Dorygnathus is an isolated bone caudal to the palatal plate of the maxilla and morphologically and topographically it resembles that of crocodilians and birds, respectively. The palatine separates the choana laterally from the suborbital fenestra demonstrating the homologous nature of the (primary) choana in all archosaurs and lepidosaurs. Our study indicates that in basal pterosaurs the pterygo-ectopterygoid fenestra existed caudal to the suborbital fenestra, which became confluent with the adductor chamber in pterodactyloids thereby increasing the relative size of the adductor chamber and hence the mass of the jaw adductors. The choana in basal pterosaurs was relatively small compared with the interpterygoid vacuity. With increasing rostroventral inclination of the quadrates in more derived pterosaurs, the interpterygoid vacuity was reduced considerably, whereas the choana increased in size. This exceptional Dorygnathus specimen also shows a hitherto unknown pair of fenestrae situated at the palatal contact of the premaxilla-maxilla and might represent the aperture for the vomeronasal organ.

  8. Palatal asymmetry during development: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Moreira, R S; Sgrott, E A; Stuker, H; Alonso, L G; Smith, R L

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hard palate asymmetry during development. The palates of 248 dry skulls were photographed and evaluated digitally. The skulls were divided into seven groups: fetus, newborn, infant, child, adolescent, adult, and aged. Linear measures were obtained from great palatine foramen (GPF) to incisive fossa (INC) and to posterior nasal spine (PNS). Angular measures were obtained from the former landmarks plus the point on sutures intersection between maxillary and palatine bones. Asymmetry was evaluated intra and intergroups. All skulls showed some degree of right-left asymmetry in the hard palate. Regardless of hard palate asymmetry, none of the right-left side differences was statistically significant. For the intergroups assessment, none of the asymmetry index means were statistically different. The posterior part of palate (PNS x GPF) measures was more asymmetric than the anterior part (INC x GPF), showing, respectively, 4.6% and 2.8% of mean asymmetry index. Angular measures showed a more symmetric behavior than the linear ones. Hard palate asymmetry occurs even in the absence of masticatory function, showing that this feature begins early in fetal life and persists through development.

  9. Developmental Epigenetics of the Murine Secondary Palate

    PubMed Central

    Seelan, Ratnam S.; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Pisano, M. Michele; Greene, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Orofacial clefts occur with a frequency of 1 to 2 per 1000 live births. Cleft palate, which accounts for 30% of orofacial clefts, is caused by the failure of the secondary palatal processes—medially directed, oral projections of the paired embryonic maxillary processes—to fuse. Both gene mutations and environmental effects contribute to the complex etiology of this disorder. Although much progress has been made in identifying genes whose mutations are associated with cleft palate, little is known about the mechanisms by which the environment adversely influences gene expression during secondary palate development. An increasing body of evidence, however, implicates epigenetic processes as playing a role in adversely influencing orofacial development. Epigenetics refers to inherited changes in phenotype or gene expression caused by processes other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Such processes include, but are not limited to, DNA methylation, microRNA effects, and histone modifications that alter chromatin conformation. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the possible role epigenetics may play during development of the secondary palate. Specifically, we present the salient features of the embryonic palatal methylome and profile the expression of numerous microRNAs that regulate protein-encoding genes crucial to normal orofacial ontogeny. PMID:23744964

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Chanson, P; Salenave, S

    2004-12-01

    Pituitary tumors cause symptoms by secreting hormones (prolactin, PRL, responsible for amenorrhea-galactorrhea in women and decreased libido in men; growth hormone, GH, responsible for acromegaly; adrenocorticotropic hormone, ACTH, responsible for Cushing's syndrome; thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH, responsible for hyperthyroidism), depressing the secretion of hormones (hypopituitarism), or by mass-related effects (headaches, visual field abnormalities...). All patients with pituitary tumors should be evaluated for gonadal, thyroid and adrenal function as well as PRL and GH secretion. Specific stimulation and suppression tests for pituitary hormones are performed in selected situations for detecting the type of hypersecretion or the response to treatment. Imaging procedures (mainly magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, nowadays) determine the presence, size and extent of the lesion. The classification of pituitary tumors is based on the staining properties of the cell cytoplasm viewed by light microscopy and immunocytochemistry revealing the secretory pattern of the adenoma. Treatment of pituitary adenomas consists of surgery (performed in more than 99% of cases via a transphenoidal route) and radiotherapy, generally fractionated or, in selected cases, using stereotactic techniques such as gamma-knife. The availability of medical treatment (dopamine, DA, agonists, somatostatin analogs, GH-receptor antagonists...) has profoundly modified the indications of radiotherapy, drugs being now generally used as a second-line treatment, after surgery (or even as first-line treatment). Based on the results of the different treatment modalities for each type of pituitary adenoma, recommendations will be proposed. They may be summarized as follows. For treatment of GH-secreting adenomas, trans-sphenoidal surgery is the first-line therapy except when the macroadenoma is giant or if surgery is contra-indicated; postoperative radiation therapy (fractionated, or by gamma-knife) is

  11. Comparison of Biomarker Expression between Proximal and Distal Colorectal Adenomas: The Tennessee-Indiana Adenoma Recurrence Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Timothy; Washington, M. Kay; Ness, Reid M.; Rex, Douglas K.; Smalley, Walter E.; Ulbright, Thomas M.; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Shrubsole, Martha J.

    2017-01-01

    It is unclear if proximal and distal traditional adenomas present with differences in molecular events which contribute to cancer heterogeneity by tumor anatomical subsite. Participants from a colonoscopy-based study (n=380) were divided into subgroups based on the location of their most advanced adenoma: proximal, distal, or “equivalent both sides”. Eight biomarkers in the most advanced adenomas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (Ki-67, COX-2, TGFβRII, EGFR, β-catenin, cyclin D1, c-Myc) or TUNEL (apoptosis). After an adjustment for pathological features, there were no significant differences between proximal and distal adenomas for any biomarker. Conversely, expression levels did vary by other features, such as their size, villous component, and synchronousness. Large adenomas had higher expression levels of Ki-67(P<0.001), TGFβRII (P<0.0001), c-Myc (P<0.001), and cyclin D1 (P<0.001) in comparison to small adenomas, and tubulovillous/villous adenomas also were more likely to have similar higher expression levels in comparison to tubular adenomas. Adenoma location is not a major determinant of the expression of these biomarkers outside of other pathological features. This study suggests similarly important roles of Wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β pathways in carcinogenesis in both the proximal and distal colorectum. PMID:27479195

  12. Comparison of biomarker expression between proximal and distal colorectal adenomas: The Tennessee-Indiana Adenoma Recurrence Study.

    PubMed

    Su, Timothy; Washington, M Kay; Ness, Reid M; Rex, Douglas K; Smalley, Walter E; Ulbright, Thomas M; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Shrubsole, Martha J

    2017-02-01

    It is unclear if proximal and distal traditional adenomas present with differences in molecular events which contribute to cancer heterogeneity by tumor anatomical subsite. Participants from a colonoscopy-based study (n = 380) were divided into subgroups based on the location of their most advanced adenoma: proximal, distal, or "equivalent both sides." Eight biomarkers in the most advanced adenomas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (Ki-67, COX-2, TGFβRII, EGFR, β-catenin, cyclin D1, c-Myc) or TUNEL (apoptosis). After an adjustment for pathological features, there were no significant differences between proximal and distal adenomas for any biomarker. Conversely, expression levels did vary by other features, such as their size, villous component, and synchronousness. Large adenomas had higher expression levels of Ki-67(P < 0.001), TGFβRII (P < 0.0001), c-Myc (P < 0.001), and cyclin D1 (P < 0.001) in comparison to small adenomas, and tubulovillous/villous adenomas also were more likely to have similar higher expression levels in comparison to tubular adenomas. Adenoma location is not a major determinant of the expression of these biomarkers outside of other pathological features. This study suggests similarly important roles of Wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β pathways in carcinogenesis in both the proximal and distal colorectum. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Korean Prevocalic Palatal Glide: A Comparison with the Russian Glide and Palatalization.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yunju; Hwang, Jiwon

    2016-01-01

    Phonetic studies of the Korean prevocalic glides have often suggested that they are shorter in duration than those of languages like English, and lack a prolonged steady state. In addition, the formant frequencies of the Korean labiovelar glide are reported to be greatly influenced by the following vowel. In this study the Korean prevocalic palatal glide is investigated vis-à-vis the two phonologically similar configurations of another language - the glide /j/ and the secondary palatalization of Russian, with regard to the inherent duration of the glide component, F2 trajectory, vowel-to-glide coarticulation and glide-to-vowel coarticulation. It is revealed that the Korean palatal glide is closer to the Russian palatalization in duration and F2 trajectory, indicating a lack of steady state, and to the Russian segmental glide in the vowel-to-glide coarticulation degree. When the glide-to-vowel coarticulation is considered, the Korean palatal glide is distinguished from both Russian categories. The results suggest that both the Korean palatal glide and the Russian palatalization involve significant articulatory overlap, the former with the vowel and the latter with the consonant. Phonological implications of such a difference in coarticulation pattern are discussed, as well as the comparison between the Korean labiovelar and palatal glides.

  14. Alcohol Drinking Increased the Risk of Advanced Colorectal Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yoon Kyung; Seon, Choon Sik; Lim, Hye Jin; Son, Byung Kwan; Ahn, Sang Bong; Jo, Young Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan; Jo, Yun Ju; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Seung Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Age, sex, gene and life style are modulating risks for colon cancer. Although alcohol intake may impact on colorectal adenoma, clear association has not been established yet. We aimed to investigate effects of alcohol consumption on the characteristics of colorectal adenoma. Methods Patients who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy of colorectal adenoma in the department of gastroenterology of Eulji hospital through 2005 to 2012, having both blood tests and ultrasound or abdominal CT examination were enrolled. The alcohol drinking patients were subdivided into normal or abnormal laboratory group, and alcoholic liver diseases group. Results 212 patients with colorectal adenoma were analyzed; advanced adenoma and multiple adenoma were found in 68 (32.0%) and 79 (37.2%) patients. When compared to the nondrinker group (120/212 patients), the alcohol drinker group (92/212 patients) represented significantly high odds ratios (ORs) for advanced adenoma (OR, 2.697; P=0.002), and multiple adenoma (OR, 1.929; P=0.039). Among alcohol drinker (92 patients), the ORs of advanced adenoma were 6.407 (P=0.003) in alcoholic liver diseases group (17 patients), 3.711 (P=0.002) in the alcohol drinker with abnormal lab (24 patients), and 2.184 (P=0.034), in the alcohol drinker with normal lab (51 patients) compared to nondrinker group. Conclusions This study showed that alcohol drinking may influence on the development of advanced colorectal adenoma and multiplicity. Especially in the group with alcoholic liver diseases and with abnormal lab presented significantly higher ORs of advanced adenoma. PMID:25691846

  15. Contemporary issues in the evaluation and management of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Pekic, S; Stojanovic, M; Popovic, V

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas are common benign monoclonal neoplasms accounting for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. Data from postmortem studies and imaging studies suggest that 1 of 5 individuals in the general population may have pituitary adenoma. Some pituitary adenomas (mainly microadenomas which have a diameter of less than 1 cm) are exceedingly common and are incidentally diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for an unrelated reason (headache, vertigo, head trauma). Most microadenomas remain clinically occult and stable in size, without an increase in tumor cells and without local mass effects. However, some pituitary adenomas grow slowly, enlarge by expansion and become demarcated from normal pituitary (macroadenomas have a diameter greater than 1 cm). They may be clinically silent or secrete anterior pituitary hormones in excess such as prolactin, growth hormone (GH), or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing diseases like prolactinoma, acromegaly, Cushing's disease or rarely thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or gonadotropins (LH, FSH). The incidence of the various subtypes of pituitary adenoma varies but the most common is prolactinoma. Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), which do not secrete hormones often cause local mass symptoms and represent one-third of pituitary adenomas. Given the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas and their heterogeneity (different tumor subtypes), it is critical that clinicians have a thorough understanding of the potential abnormalities in pituitary function and prognostic factors for behavior of pituitary adenomas in order to timely implement specific treatment modalities. Regarding pathogenesis of these tumors genetics, epigenetics and signaling pathways are the focus of current research yet our understanding of pituitary tumorigenesis remains incomplete. Although several genes and signaling pathways have been identified as important factors in the development of pituitary tumors, current

  16. Palatogenesis: morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms of secondary palate development

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Jeffrey O.; Jiang, Rulang

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian palatogenesis is a highly regulated morphogenetic process during which the embryonic primary and secondary palatal shelves develop as outgrowths from the medial nasal and maxillary prominences, respectively, remodel and fuse to form the intact roof of the oral cavity. The complexity of control of palatogenesis is reflected by the common occurrence of cleft palate in humans. Although the embryology of the palate has long been studied, the past decade has brought substantial new knowledge of the genetic control of secondary palate development. Here, we review major advances in the understanding of the morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms controlling palatal shelf growth, elevation, adhesion and fusion, and palatal bone formation. PMID:22186724

  17. Palatal changes after lip surgery in different types of cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Kramer, G J; Hoeksma, J B; Prahl-Andersen, B

    1994-09-01

    This study concerns palatal development during 6 months following primary lip closure. The sample consisted of 75 children with different forms of cleft lip and palate and 51 noncleft children. The palate was measured at 3 months of age, just before lip surgery, after surgery at 6 months, and again at 9 months of age. The results showed that lip closure has a strong effect in the anterior alveolar region. This effect was restricted to 3 months after surgery. The changes in complete clefts were more explicit than in incomplete cleft forms. Furthermore, the data showed that arch depth reduction due to lip surgery was compensated for by continued anteroposterior palatal growth. Early orthopedics appeared to prevent major palatal collapse immediately after lip surgery. Finally simultaneous closure of the alveolar cleft at the nasal side resulted in continued reduction of anterior cleft width.

  18. Morphology of the auditory tube and palatal muscles in a case of bilateral cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W H; Nohadani, N; Koch, K H H

    2005-03-01

    There is an increased incidence of otitis media in children with cleft palate, which may be related to the pathology of the auditory tube and palatal muscles. In the present study, the head of a human on term born fetus with bilateral palatal cleft was serially sectioned and the anatomy of the auditory tube and palatal muscles were studied by computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction. The results showed a nearly horizontal course of the auditory tube. The tensor veli palatini muscle had a bony attachment on either side. The levator veli palatini muscle also showed an abnormal course. This abnormal course may result in obstruction of the auditory tube during contraction. These pathological findings may explain the higher frequency of otitis media in children with cleft palate.

  19. Influence of different palate repair protocols on facial growth in unilateral complete cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xue; Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Shi, Bing; Zheng, Qian; Yin, Heng; Li, Chenghao

    2015-01-01

    To address the question of whether one- or two-stage palatal treatment protocol has fewer detrimental effects on craniofacial growth in patients aged 5 years with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate. Forty patients with non-syndromic unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLPs) who had received primary cleft lip repair at age 6-12 months and cleft palate repair at age 18-30 months were selected in this study. Eighteen UCCLP patients who received two-stage palate repair were selected as group 1, and 22 UCCLP patients who received one-stage palate repair were selected as group 2. The control group consisted of 20 patients with unilateral incomplete cleft lip (UICL patients) whose age and gender matched with UCCLP patients. A one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to analyze the nature of data distribution. Bonferroni test and Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used for multiple comparisons. Both case groups showed reduced maxillary sagittal length (ANS-PMP, A-PM, p < 0.05) and retrusion of the maxilla (S-Ptm, p < 0.05), A point and ANS point (Ba-N-A, Ba-N-ANS, p < 0.05). Patients treated with two-stage palate repair had a reduced posterior maxillary vertical height (R-PMP, p < 0.05). Our results indicated that maxillary sagittal length and position could be perturbed by both one- and two-stage palate repair. Vomer flap repair inhibited maxilla vertical growth. Delayed hard palate repair showed less detrimental effects on maxillary growth compared to early hard palate repair in UCCLP patients aged 5 years. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance report cards increase adenoma detection rate.

    PubMed

    Sey, Michael Sai Lai; Liu, Andy; Asfaha, Samuel; Siebring, Victoria; Jairath, Vipul; Yan, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is an important measure of colonoscopy quality, as are polyp, advanced ADR, and adenocarcinoma detection rates. We investigated whether performance report cards improved these outcome measures. Endoscopists were given report cards comparing their detection rates to the institutional mean on an annual basis. Detection rates were evaluated at baseline, 1 year after report cards (Year 1), and 2 years after report cards (Year 2). Endoscopists were unaware of the study and received no other interventions. The primary outcome was ADR and secondary outcomes were polyp detection rate (PDR), advanced ADR, and adenocarcinoma detection rate. Multivariate regression was performed to adjust for temporal trends in patient, endoscopists, and procedural factors.  Seventeen physicians performed 3,118 screening colonoscopies in patients with positive FOBT or family history of colon cancer. The ADR increased from 34.5 % (baseline) to 39.4 % (Year 1) and 41.2 % (Year 2) ( P  = 0.0037). The PDR increased from 45 % (baseline) to 48.8 % (Year 1) and 51.8 % (Year 2) ( P  = 0.011). There was no significant improvement in advanced ADR or adenocarcinoma detection rates. On multivariate analysis, the ADR increased by 22 % in Year 1 ( P  = 0.03) and 30 % in Year 2 ( P  = 0.008). Among physicians with a baseline ADR < 25 %, improvement in ADR was even greater, increasing 2.2 times by the end of the study ( P  = 0.004). Improvements in ADR were not correlated with specialty although gastroenterologists were 52 % more likely to find an adenoma than general surgeons.  Annual performance report cards increased adenoma detection rates, especially among physicians with low ADR < 25 %.

  1. [Hepatocellular nodular hyperplasias, adenomas and carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Altmann, H W

    1995-01-01

    Nodular hyperplasias ("hyperplasiomas") are new formations whose development as a required and regulated response can be traced either to compensatory reactions to the loss of cells (regeneration in a narrow sense) and to decreased cellular performance, or to primary growth impulses. Included in this group are: the "macroregenerative nodules" after extensive cell losses; solitary nodules of uncertain etiology; and the minute foci of "micronodular transformation" whose origin can be traced to a particular disturbance of the hepatic blood supply. The so-called "adenomatous hyperplasias" of the cirrhotic liver that have a tendency towards carcinomatous change are not included in this group and are perhaps better considered as "hyperplasiogenic adenomas". The so-called "focal nodular hyperplasia" too, it must be stressed, should be separated from the simple hyperplasias, for it is more closely related to the adenomas, but represents a new formation of limited growth potential. Morphologically it is conspicuously subdivided by multiple connective tissue bands and scars, but it is above all characterized by metaplastically derived neoductuli, and hence it is appropriately designated as a "combined nodule". Among the true uninodular adenomas there are several variants differing in their morphology,--the so-called "atypical" or "intermediate" forms, that can give rise to carcinomas. The hepatocellular carcinoma, that may arise in a variety of ways, presents multiple cytological and histological variants, but only the so-called "fibrolamellar carcinoma" presents also a clinical peculiarity. "Hepatoblastomas" differ from the common hepatocellular carcinomas by their origin in early childhood from immature early precursor cells and, in the later phases of life, from redifferentiated cells that can even give rise to mesenchymal elements. There is no evidence of the existence of particular pluripotential stem cells.

  2. Laparoscopic liver resection for hepatocellular adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Hilal, Mohammed Abu; Fabio, Francesco Di; Wiltshire, Robert David; Hamdan, Mohammed; Layfield, David M; Pearce, Neil William

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of laparoscopy in the surgical management of hepatocellular adenoma (HA). METHODS: We reviewed a prospectively collected database of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic liver resection for HA. RESULTS: Thirteen patients underwent fifteen pure laparoscopic liver resections for HA (male/female: 3/10; median age 42 years, range 22-72 years). Two patients with liver adenomatosis required two different laparoscopic operations for ruptured adenomas. Indications for surgery were: symptoms in 12 cases, need to rule out malignancy in 2 cases and preoperative diagnosis of large HA in one case. Symptoms were related to bleeding in 10 cases, sepsis due to liver abscess following embolization of HA in one case and mass effect in one case (shoulder tip pain). Five cases with ruptured bleeding adenoma required emergency admission and treatment with selective arterial embolization. Laparoscopic liver resection was then semi-electively performed. Eight patients (62%) required major hepatectomy [right hepatectomy (n = 5), left hepatectomy (n = 3)]. No conversion to open surgery occurred. The median operative time for pure laparoscopic procedures was 270 min (range 135-360 min). The median size of the excised lesions was 85 mm (range 25-180 mm). One patient with adenomatosis developed postoperative bleeding requiring embolization. Mortality was nil. The median hospital stay was 4 d (range 1-18 d) with a median high dependency unit stay of 1 d (range 0-7 d). CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach represents a safe option for the management of HA in a semi-elective setting and when major hepatectomy is required. PMID:21860698

  3. [A case of gigantic pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Namysłowski, G; Misiołek, M; Kubik, P; Misiołek, H; Morawski, K

    1996-01-01

    The case of big size pleomorphic adenoma of the partoid gland was presented. Attention was paid on the necessity of the surgical treatment of pleomorphic adenomas by superficial or total parotidectomies. Possibility of the post operative complications avoidance, even in such big cases was emphasized.

  4. Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas: CT appearance in diffuse invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Virapongse, C.; Bhimani, S.; Sarwar, M.; Greenberg, A.; Jung, K.

    1984-08-01

    The authors describe 2 diffusely invasive prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas which produced marked destruction of the base of the skull thought to be diagnostic of chordoma on computed tomography (CT). Failure to recognize this pattern led to biopsy, which was diagnostic. The authors emphasize the need to recognize this rare growth pattern of diffusely invasive pituitary adenoma on CT.

  5. Lineage-Specific Restraint of Pituitary Gonadotroph Cell Adenoma Growth

    PubMed Central

    Chesnokova, Vera; Zonis, Svetlana; Zhou, Cuiqi; Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Toledano, Yoel; Tong, Yunguang; Kovacs, Kalman; Scheithauer, Bernd; Melmed, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    Although pituitary adenomas are usually benign, unique trophic mechanisms restraining cell proliferation are unclear. As GH-secreting adenomas are associated with p53/p21-dependent senescence, we tested mechanisms constraining non-functioning pituitary adenoma growth. Thirty six gonadotroph-derived non-functioning pituitary adenomas all exhibited DNA damage, but undetectable p21 expression. However, these adenomas all expressed p16, and >90% abundantly expressed cytoplasmic clusterin associated with induction of the Cdk inhibitor p15 in 70% of gonadotroph and in 26% of somatotroph lineage adenomas (p = 0.006). Murine LβT2 and αT3 gonadotroph pituitary cells, and αGSU.PTTG transgenic mice with targeted gonadotroph cell adenomas also abundantly expressed clusterin and exhibited features of oncogene-induced senescence as evidenced by C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ induction. In turn, C/EBPs activated the clusterin promoter ∼5 fold, and elevated clusterin subsequently elicited p15 and p16 expression, acting to arrest murine gonadotroph cell proliferation. In contrast, specific clusterin suppression by RNAis enhanced gonadotroph proliferation. FOXL2, a tissue-specific gonadotroph lineage factor, also induced the clusterin promoter ∼3 fold in αT3 pituitary cells. As nine of 12 pituitary carcinomas were devoid of clusterin expression, this protein may limit proliferation of benign adenomatous pituitary cells. These results point to lineage-specific pathways restricting uncontrolled murine and human pituitary gonadotroph adenoma cell growth. PMID:21464964

  6. Management of hepatocellular adenoma: comparison of resection, embolization and observation

    PubMed Central

    Karkar, Ami M.; Tang, Laura H.; Kashikar, Nilesh D.; Gonen, Mithat; Solomon, Stephen B.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.; D' Angelica, Michael I.; Correa-Gallego, Camilo; Jarnagin, William R.; Fong, Yuman; Getrajdman, George I.; Allen, Peter; Kingham, T Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hepatocellular adenoma (HA) is an uncommon benign hepatic tumour with the potential for malignant change or spontaneous haemorrhage. Resection has been the recommended treatment, but outcomes with other approaches are ill defined. Methods Demographic and outcomes data were retrospectively collected on patients diagnosed with HA at a tertiary hepatobiliary centre from 1992–2011 whom underwent resection, bland embolization or observation. Results In total, 52 patients with 100 adenomas were divided into single HA (n = 27), multiple HA (n = 18), and adenomatosis (n = 7) groups. Eighty-seven per cent were female and 37% had a history of hormone use. Median sizes of resected, embolized and observed adenomas were 3.6 cm, 2.6 cm and 1.2 cm, respectively. Forty-eight adenomas were resected as a result of suspicion of malignancy (39%) or large size (39%); 61% of these were solitary. Thirty-seven were embolized for suspicion of malignancy (56%) or hsemorrhage (20%); 92% of these were multifocal. Two out of three resected adenomas with malignancy were ≥10 cm and recurred locally [4%, confidence interval (CI) 1–14%]. Ninety-two per cent of the embolized adenomas were effectively treated; three persisted (8.1%, CI 2–22%). Most observed lesions did not change over time. Conclusions While solitary adenomas are often resected, multifocal HAs are frequently embolized. Small adenomas can safely be observed. Given low recurrence rates, select HAs can be considered for embolization. PMID:23374365

  7. Comparison of nonampullary duodenal adenomas in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis versus patients with sporadic adenomas.

    PubMed

    Cassani, Lisa S; Lanke, Gandhi; Chen, Hsiang-Chun; Wang, Xuemei; Lynch, Patrick; Lee, Jeffrey H

    2017-04-01

    Nonampullary duodenal adenomas are either sporadic or associated with a hereditary syndrome such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). The aim of this study is to compare characteristics and outcomes of sporadic and FAP-associated duodenal adenomas. We retrospectively collected clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic data in patients diagnosed with duodenal adenomas at our institution and included all available follow-up. Two hundred thirteen subjects were identified; 118 had FAP and 95 had sporadic adenomas. FAP subjects were more likely to have multifocal disease. Initial size was not significantly associated with dysplasia. Fourteen (12%) with FAP and 33 (35%) with sporadic adenomas underwent EMR. Among those subjects who did not undergo EMR or surgery, there was no difference between the FAP and sporadic groups with progression to new dysplasia or cancer. However, the FAP group was significantly more likely to have dysplasia at follow-up (P = .05). There was a significant difference in overall survival between the FAP and sporadic groups (log-rank test, P < .001). In the subgroup of patients aged 40 years old and older who did not undergo intervention, the FAP group had a shorter time to pathology progression compared with the similar sporadic subgroup. Range of time to progression to cancer was 3 to 161 months. FAP subjects were more likely to be younger and have multifocal disease. Progression of pathology was more likely in the older FAP group compared with the sporadic group. Time to progression to cancer was widely variable and, therefore, unpredictable. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Heterogeneity in Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Nanba, Kazutaka; Chen, Andrew X.; Omata, Kei; Vinco, Michelle; Giordano, Thomas J.; Else, Tobias; Hammer, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The use of next-generation sequencing has resulted in the identification of recurrent somatic mutations underlying primary aldosteronism (PA). However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the relationship between tumor aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) expression and somatic mutation status. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate tumor CYP11B2 expression and somatic aldosterone-driver gene mutation heterogeneity. Methods: Fifty-one adrenals from 51 PA patients were studied. Immunohistochemistry for CYP11B2 was performed. Aldosterone-producing adenomas with intratumor CYP11B2 heterogeneity were analyzed for mutation status using targeted next-generation sequencing. DNA was isolated from CYP11B2-positive, CYP11B2-negative, and adjacent normal areas from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. Results: Of 51 adrenals, seven (14 %) showed distinct heterogeneity in CYP11B2 by immunohistochemistry, including six adenomas with intratumor heterogeneity and one multinodular hyperplastic adrenal with both CYP11B2-positive and -negative nodules. Of the six adrenocortical adenomas with CYP11B2 heterogeneity, three had aldosterone-regulating mutations (CACNA1D p.F747C, KCNJ5 p.L168R, ATP1A1 p.L104R) only in CYP11B2-positive regions, and one had two different mutations localized to two histologically distinct CYP11B2-positive regions (ATP2B3 p.L424_V425del, KCNJ5 p.G151R). Lastly, one adrenal with multiple CYP11B2-expressing nodules showed different mutations in each (CACNA1D p.F747V and ATP1A1 p.L104R), and no mutations were identified in CYP11B2-negative nodule or adjacent normal adrenal. Conclusions: Adrenal tumors in patients with PA can demonstrate clear heterogeneity in CYP11B2 expression and somatic mutations in driver genes for aldosterone production. These findings suggest that aldosterone-producing adenoma tumorigenesis can occur within preexisting nodules through the acquisition of somatic mutations that drive aldosterone

  9. Protean Presentations of Parathyroid Adenoma in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Subrata; Beawarwala, Aziz; Gupta, Saikat

    2017-01-01

    Parathyroid adenoma is a rare disease which is known to present with protean manifestations, leading to misdiagnosis in the initial stage of the disease. It is known to pose a diagnostic dilemma to the clinician, in which a high index of suspicion alone often leads to a proper diagnosis and timely management. We encountered two such cases who presented to us with varied presentation, in which nuclear scintigraphy along with intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay played a major role in diagnosis and management. PMID:28082776

  10. Endotracheal ectopic parathyroid adenoma mimicking asthma

    PubMed Central

    Özgül, M. Akif; Seyhan, Ekrem Cengiz; Özgül, Güler; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan; Büyükkale, Songul; Ünver, Nurcan; Çakır, Tansel; Sayar, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Primary benign tumors of the trachea are uncommon. These tumors may cause tracheal occlusion and lead to a misdiagnosis of asthma. Ectopic parathyroid adenoma (EPA) can be seen anywhere between the mandibular angle and the mediastinum. The distal part of the trachea is a rare location for EPA, and EPA obstructing the endotracheal lumen has not been reported in the literature. We herein describe a 52-year-old female with a several-year history of asthma treatment who presented with progressive dyspnea. Computed tomography revealed a mass that was obstructing the tracheal lumen. Total mass excision was performed via endobronchial treatment, and pathologic examination revealed EPA. PMID:26029555

  11. [Image-guided endoscopic transsphenoidal removal of pituitary adenoma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qui-Hang; Liu, Hai-Sheng; Yang, Da-Zhang; Cheng, Jing-Yu

    2005-01-01

    To assess the role of neuronavigation in assisting endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas. Ten endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal reoperations for pituitary adenomas were selected. Clinical records were reviewed retrospectively. Five of 10 patients had gigantic adenoma, 3 microadenoma, 2 large adenoma. The mean setup time was 5 minutes, and the operative time was 50 minutes in image-guided procedures. In all cases, the system worked well without malfunction. Continuous information regarding instrument location and trajectory was provided to the surgeon. Measurements of intraoperative accuracy in the axial, coronal, and.sagittal planes indicated a mean verified system error of 1.5 mm. for pituitary adenomas. After operation, the symptoms relieved in all patients. Neuronavigation can be applied during endonasal transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery and requires a minimal amount of time. It makes reoperation easier, faster, and safer.

  12. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    PubMed

    Ali, R; Noma, U; Jansen, M; Smyth, D

    2010-12-01

    Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke's pouch. We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt's cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  13. Massive transcranial parotid pleomorphic adenoma: recurrence after 30 years.

    PubMed

    Strub, Graham M; Georgolios, Alexandros; Graham, Robert S; Powers, Celeste N; Coelho, Daniel H

    2012-10-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma, also known as benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor affecting the parotid gland and can reach massive size; however, intracranial invasion is rare. Recurrence of pleomorphic adenoma after excision is a well-known phenomenon and can present decades after resection of the primary tumor. Here we present the case of a 53-year-old man who presented to our clinic with ear fullness, otalgia, and hearing loss 30 years after undergoing total parotidectomy and external beam radiotherapy for pleomorphic adenoma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive transcranial tumor invading the mastoid cavity, the dura of the posterior fossa, the fallopian and semicircular canals, the jugular foramen, the lateral infratemporal fossa skull base, the sigmoid and transverse sinuses, and the superior parapharyngeal region. Gross examination and histopathological studies confirmed that the mass was a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Here we discuss the features of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma and review the current literature.

  14. Dental materials for cleft palate repair.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Faiza; Ur Rehman, Ihtesham; Muhammad, Nawshad; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-04-01

    Numerous bone and soft tissue grafting techniques are followed to repair cleft of lip and palate (CLP) defects. In addition to the gold standard surgical interventions involving the use of autogenous grafts, various allogenic and xenogenic graft materials are available for bone regeneration. In an attempt to discover minimally invasive and cost effective treatments for cleft repair, an exceptional growth in synthetic biomedical graft materials have occurred. This study gives an overview of the use of dental materials to repair cleft of lip and palate (CLP). The eligibility criteria for this review were case studies, clinical trials and retrospective studies on the use of various types of dental materials in surgical repair of cleft palate defects. Any data available on the surgical interventions to repair alveolar or palatal cleft, with natural or synthetic graft materials was included in this review. Those datasets with long term clinical follow-up results were referred to as particularly relevant. The results provide encouraging evidence in favor of dental and other related biomedical materials to fill the gaps in clefts of lip and palate. The review presents the various bones and soft tissue replacement strategies currently used, tested or explored for the repair of cleft defects. There was little available data on the use of synthetic materials in cleft repair which was a limitation of this study. In conclusion although clinical trials on the use of synthetic materials are currently underway the uses of autologous implants are the preferred treatment methods to date.

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea: a palatable treatment option?

    PubMed

    Allison, C

    2007-01-01

    (1) The Pillar(R) Palatal Implant System consists of three polyester threads that are permanently implanted in the palate (the roof of the mouth) to reduce airway obstruction in individuals with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring. (2) Three small, non-randomized uncontrolled trials reported a moderate reduction in the number of breathing interruptions during sleep, three to six months following palatal implant insertion. Statistically significant improvements in daytime sleepiness and snoring intensity were also reported. (3) The minimally invasive surgical procedure causes mild, transient discomfort. A potential complication is partial extrusion of the implant, requiring removal and replacement. (4) Currently, there is insufficient published evidence to determine whether palatal implants are an effective treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA due to palatal obstruction. (5) Larger, randomized controlled studies are needed to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of the implants in a more diverse patient population, including those who are obese or those with comorbid medical conditions. Comparisons with existing treatments for OSA are also needed.

  16. Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas: An Underestimated Entity.

    PubMed

    Knappe, Ulrich J; Jaspers, Christian; Buschsieweke, Desirée; Reinbold, Wolf-Dieter; Alomari, Ali; Saeger, Wolfgang; Ehlenz, Klaus; Mann, W Alexander; Kann, Peter Herbert; Feldkamp, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of Cushing disease is based on endocrinological pa-rameters, with no single test being specific. In some patients, dynamic thin-slice sellar magnetic resonance imaging fails to detect a pituitary tumor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of ectopic pituitary adenoma in this situation. In a retrospective chart review, 5 patients (6%) with ectopic adenomas were identified in 83 consecutive patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas by 1 surgeon. In all 5 patients (all female, 32-41 years of age), an exclusively extrasellar ACTH-secreting adenoma was excised. Three adenomas were located in the cavernous sinus, 1 in the sphenoid sinus, and 1 in the ethmoidal cells. Histologically, none of the tumors showed signs of aggressiveness. Three of the 5 adenomas specifically expressed somatostatin receptor 5. In 4 patients with Cushing disease, postoperative remission was obtained, with 1 recurrence after 14 months. In the patient with Nelson syndrome, ACTH decreased from >800 to <80 pg/mL. Three patients underwent previous surgery elsewhere, including 1 hypophysectomy. In this case, the ectopic adenoma (positive for somatostatin receptor 5) in the ethmoidal cells turned out to be positive on gallium 68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography. The incidence of primarily ectopic ACTH-secreting adenomas in this series was 6%. In cases of negative MRI findings, an ectopic ACTH-secreting adenoma should be taken into account. 68 Ga DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography may identify ectopic pituitary adenomas. Hypophysectomy should always be avoided in primary surgery for CD.

  17. Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and Palate

    MedlinePlus

    ... to replace missing teeth. Oral appliances called “speech bulbs” or “palatal lifts” may help close the nose ... assure the best possible result. When a speech bulb or palatal lift is developed, the prosthodontist usually ...

  18. Two-stage palate repair with delayed hard palate closure is related to favorable maxillary growth in unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Fang; Yang, I-Ying; Wang, Ruby; Yun, Claudia; Huang, Chiung-Shing

    2010-05-01

    Two-stage palate repair with delayed hard palate closure is generally advocated because it allows the best possible postoperative maxillary growth. Nevertheless, in the literature, it has been questioned whether maxillary growth is better following use of this protocol. The authors therefore aimed to investigate whether stage of palate repair, one-stage versus two-stage, had a significant effect on facial growth in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Seventy-two patients with nonsyndromic complete unilateral cleft lip and palate operated on by two different protocols for palate repair, one-stage versus two-stage with delayed hard palate closure, and their 223 cephalometric radiographs were available in the retrospective longitudinal study. Clinical notes were reviewed to record treatment histories. Cephalometry was used to determine facial morphology and growth rate. Generalized estimating equations analysis was performed to assess the relationship between (1) facial morphology at age 20 and (2) facial growth rate, and the stage of palate repair. Stage of palate repair had a significant effect on the length and protrusion of the maxilla and the anteroposterior jaw relation at age 20, but not on their growth rates. The data suggest that in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate, two-stage palate repair has a smaller adverse effect than one-stage palate repair on the growth of the maxilla. This stage effect is on the anteroposterior development of the maxilla and is attributable to the development being undisturbed before closure of the hard palate (i.e., hard palate repair timing specific).

  19. Cleft palate only: current concepts

    PubMed Central

    TETTAMANTI, L.; AVANTAGGIATO, A.; NARDONE, M.; SILVESTRE-RANGIL, J.; TAGLIABUE, A.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Cleft palate only (CPO) is one of the most common congenital malformations worldwide. The etiopathogenesis of CPO is not completely understood. Environmental factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of drugs during pregnancy, advanced paternal age, have been demonstrated to be a risk of CPO, but conflicting results have also been published. Insufficient intake of folic acid during the pregnancy has been suggested to increase the risk for CPO. The demonstrated risk for siblings and the higher risk for monozygotic twins suggest a genetic etiopathogenesis for CPO. In some cases of CPO a prevalent mode of inheritance has been reported, but oligogenic models with reduced penetrance, and the risk related to environmental factors have also been proved. One of the first manifestations associated with CPO is difficulty with feeding. Aerophagia is a problem in these infants with CPO and requires more frequent burping and slower feeding. The inability to generate intraoral breath pressure due to nasal air emission in CPO children frequently manifests as articulation difficulties, particularly consonant weakness, and unintelligible speech. Hearing disorders are prevalent among individuals with CPO, as a result of chronic otitis media with effusion due to eustachian tube dysfunction. A multidisciplinary team is essential to manage the many aspects of CPO. In treating CPO, the reconstructive surgeon works in cooperation with otolaryngologists, dentists and orthodontists, speech pathologists, audiologists, geneticists, psychiatrists, maxillofacial surgeons, social workers, and prosthodontists. CPO can be considered a genetically complex disease, but new knowledge and new therapeutic approaches have greatly improved the quality of life of these children. Prenatal diagnosis is an important step in the treatment of this disease. PMID:28757935

  20. Cleft palate only: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, L; Avantaggiato, A; Nardone, M; Silvestre-Rangil, J; Tagliabue, A

    2017-01-01

    Cleft palate only (CPO) is one of the most common congenital malformations worldwide. The etiopathogenesis of CPO is not completely understood. Environmental factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of drugs during pregnancy, advanced paternal age, have been demonstrated to be a risk of CPO, but conflicting results have also been published. Insufficient intake of folic acid during the pregnancy has been suggested to increase the risk for CPO. The demonstrated risk for siblings and the higher risk for monozygotic twins suggest a genetic etiopathogenesis for CPO. In some cases of CPO a prevalent mode of inheritance has been reported, but oligogenic models with reduced penetrance, and the risk related to environmental factors have also been proved. One of the first manifestations associated with CPO is difficulty with feeding. Aerophagia is a problem in these infants with CPO and requires more frequent burping and slower feeding. The inability to generate intraoral breath pressure due to nasal air emission in CPO children frequently manifests as articulation difficulties, particularly consonant weakness, and unintelligible speech. Hearing disorders are prevalent among individuals with CPO, as a result of chronic otitis media with effusion due to eustachian tube dysfunction. A multidisciplinary team is essential to manage the many aspects of CPO. In treating CPO, the reconstructive surgeon works in cooperation with otolaryngologists, dentists and orthodontists, speech pathologists, audiologists, geneticists, psychiatrists, maxillofacial surgeons, social workers, and prosthodontists. CPO can be considered a genetically complex disease, but new knowledge and new therapeutic approaches have greatly improved the quality of life of these children. Prenatal diagnosis is an important step in the treatment of this disease.

  1. Sagittal maxillary growth pattern in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients with unrepaired cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-Qi; Wu, Jun; Chen, Rong-Jing

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the sagittal maxillary growth pattern during the mixed and permanent dentition in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients with unrepaired cleft palate. A total of 30 nonsyndromic UCLP patients with unrepaired cleft palate were included, 15 of whom were in mixed dentition and 15 in permanent dentition.Cephalograms were analyzed and compared in the patients with UCLP who have operatively undergone repair with both the lip and palate as well as normal subjects. The UCLP patients with unrepaired cleft palate in mixed dentition showed decreased anterior-posterior length of the maxilla. The UCLP patients with unrepaired cleft palate in permanent dentition demonstrated an almost normal maxillary growth. The operated-on patients both in mixed and permanent dentitions showed maxillary retrusion as well as decreased maxillary length. There appears that there may be the potential normal maxillary growth in UCLP patients, and early surgical repair of the cleft palate may affect sagittal maxillary growth pattern in patients with cleft.

  2. Use of Postoperative Palatal Obturator After Total Palatal Reconstruction With Radial Forearm Fasciocutaneous Free Flap.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Euicheol C; Jung, Young Ho; Shin, Jin-yong

    2015-07-01

    A 67-year-old-male patient visited our hospital for a mass on the soft palate of approximately 5.0 × 6.0  cm in size. He was diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma and reconstruction after total palate resection was planned. After ablative surgery, a radial forearm free flap procedure was successfully performed to cover the hard and soft palates. However, wound disruption occurred twice during the postoperative period. When a palate defect is reconstructed using a soft tissue free flap, flap drooping by gravitation and the flap itself can generate irregularity in the lower contour of the palate and, in the long-term, insufficiencies of velopharyngeal function, speech, and mastication. To complement such functional and aesthetic problems caused by flap drooping, conventional prosthetics and new operative techniques have been discussed. However, overcoming wound disruption caused by flap drooping in the acute postoperative period has not been discussed. In this case, the temporary use of a palatal obturator during the postoperative period was beneficial after soft tissue reconstruction of the palate.

  3. Spontaneous hepatocellular adenoma with marked cystic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Enzan, H; Araki, K; Kawai, S; Kitagawa, N

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous hepatocellular adenoma with marked cystic degeneration in the non-cirrhotic liver. A 36 year-old Japanese woman with neither history of liver diseases nor use of oral contraceptives and steroids, complained of a 6 kg weight loss over 6 months. Barium meal study revealed an extramural compression along the fornix of the stomach. Abdominal ultrasonography (UC) and computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a mass in the left lateral segment of the liver that measured 11.6x9.5 cm with cystic lesions. Laboratory data on admission showed no significant findings. Celiac angiography revealed a hyper-vascular mass. Surgical exploration revealed a soft mass arising and protruding from the left lateral segment of the liver. Partial resection of the left lateral segment was performed. Histologically, the tumor was surrounded by a thin fibrous pseudocapsule. The neoplastic cells resembling normal hepatocytes around the tumor were large, pale and arranged in thick, irregular cords. Neither mitotic figures nor foci of dysplasia were present. The central portions of the tumor showed marked cystic degeneration. The tumor was histologically diagnosed as hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). HCA with cystic degeneration has been rarely reported.

  4. Strategies to Increase Adenoma Detection Rates.

    PubMed

    Brand, Eelco C; Wallace, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR), i.e., the proportion of average risk patients with at least one adenoma detected during screening colonoscopy, is inversely associated with the development of interval colorectal cancer. Increasing the ADR is therefore an important proxy for increase in quality and efficacy of (screening) colonoscopy. Several potentially modifiable factors, such as, procedural and technological factors, and quality improvement programs, and their effect on the ADR will be reviewed. Procedural factors, such as, bowel preparation, withdrawal time, and position changes of the patient are associated with the ADR. While the relation of others, such as inspection during insertion, use of antispasmodic agents, and second inspection in the proximal colon, with the ADR is not completely clear. Many new colonoscopy technologies have been evaluated over recent years and are still under evaluation, but no unequivocal positive effect on the ADR has been observed in randomized trials that have mostly been performed by experienced endoscopists with high baseline ADRs. Several quality improvement programs have been evaluated and seem to have a positive effect on endoscopists' ADR. Increase in ADR is important for the protective benefit of colonoscopy. There are now extensive methods to measure, benchmark, and improve ADR but increased awareness of these is critical. We have provided an overview of potential factors that can be used to increase personal ADRs in every day practice.

  5. Managing prolactin-secreting adenomas during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Syed Ali; Ur, Ehud; Clarke, David B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine an appropriate approach to managing prolactin-secreting adenomas of varying severity in pregnant women. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE was searched using the key words “hyperprolactinemia,” “prolactinoma,” “pregnancy,” and “management.” Experience from a multidisciplinary tertiary care centre was also reviewed. Recommendations are based on mostly levels II and III evidence. MAIN MESSAGE With appropriate management, most women with hyperprolactinemia can achieve pregnancy. Although most women with prolactin-secreting adenomas during pregnancy need only careful observation, others might require medical treatment or even surgical evacuation. Ideally, such patients should be managed by multidisciplinary teams. In the absence of such teams, most pregnant women with small tumours can be managed safely by their primary physicians. Those with large tumours should be referred to specialists. CONCLUSION Family physicians play an important role in managing women with prolactinomas during pregnancy. Knowledge of current approaches to management is crucial in determining when and how to refer these patients. PMID:17872715

  6. Lipoma of the Palate: An Uncommon Finding

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Vasconcelos, Artur Cunha; Lambert, Nayane Assis; de Souza Castro, Paulo Henrique; Aburad, Arlindo; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipoma is a benign neoplasm originated from adipose cells circumscribed by connective tissue. This neoplasm represents about 1% to 4.4% of all oral benign tumors and it is rarely located in the palate area. Objective: This case reports the occurrence of an oral lipoma in the hard palate of a 57-year-old woman and discusses its etiology and treatment. Case Report: The treatment consisted in the total resection of the lesion and laser therapy. The patient is being followed up for forty three months with no signs of recurrence. Conclusion: Lipoma in hard palate is a rare entity that may be associated with endocrine factors and local inflammation. PMID:28077968

  7. An EPG Study of Palatal Consonants in Two Australian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabain, Marija; Fletcher, Janet; Butcher, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This study presents EPG (electro-palatographic) data on (alveo-)palatal consonants from two Australian languages, Arrernte and Warlpiri. (Alveo-)palatal consonants are phonemic for stop, lateral and nasal manners of articulation in both languages, and are laminal articulations. However, in Arrernte, these lamino-(alveo-)palatals contrast with…

  8. L2 Perception of Spanish Palatal Variants across Different Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christine; Renaud, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    While considerable dialectal variation exists, almost all varieties of Spanish exhibit some sort of alternation in terms of the palatal obstruent segments. Typically, the palatal affricate [??] tends to occur in word onset following a pause and in specific linear phonotactic environments. The palatal fricative [?] tends to occur in syllable onset…

  9. Acoustic Analysis on the Palatalized Vowels of Modern Mongolian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgantamir, Sangidkhorloo

    2015-01-01

    In Modern Mongolian the palatalized vowels [a?, ??, ?? ] before palatalized consonants are considered as phoneme allophones according to the most scholars. Nevertheless theses palatalized vowels have the distinctive features what could be proved by the minimal pairs and nowadays this question is open and not profoundly studied. The purpose of this…

  10. L2 Perception of Spanish Palatal Variants across Different Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christine; Renaud, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    While considerable dialectal variation exists, almost all varieties of Spanish exhibit some sort of alternation in terms of the palatal obstruent segments. Typically, the palatal affricate [??] tends to occur in word onset following a pause and in specific linear phonotactic environments. The palatal fricative [?] tends to occur in syllable onset…

  11. Cleft palate in a male water buffalo calf.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Y; Ranjbar, R; Ghadiri, A R; Afsahr, F Saberi; Nejad, S Goorani; Mahabady, M Khaksary; Afrough, M; Karampoor, R; Tavakoli, A

    2007-12-15

    Congenital palatal defects are common in animals but there is only one report of water buffalo has been recorded in Iran. One died male water buffalo calf was examined after hysterotomy operation. At necropsy findings, brachygnathia, palate cleft and small lungs were diagnosed. It is the second report of water buffalo cleft palate in Iran.

  12. Palatability of twelve species of anuran larvae in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Cory K. Adams; Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner

    2011-01-01

    We tested the palatability of 12 species of anuran larvae that occur in eastern Texas using four common predators. Palatability was determined by offering larvae to predators and recording the behavior of the predator. We also tested for ontogenetic shifts in palatability in twelve species of anuran larvae. Incilius nebulifer, Anaxyrus woodhousii, Lithobates...

  13. [Cleft lip and palate in Campeche Mayas].

    PubMed

    Weiss, K M; Georges, E; Levy, B; Aguirre, A; Portilla, R J; Gaitán, C L; Leyva, E; Rodríguez, T

    1988-07-01

    It has been suggested that among American Indians, as in some genetically-related Asiatic ethnic groups, incidence of cleft lip and/or cleft palate is higher than among people of Caucasian extraction. Such hypothesis, plus growing demand for services observed at a center for the surgery of cleft lip and cleft palate in Campeche state, led the authors to undertake research among the Maya residents of that region. However, neither careful review of case histories nor field research performed in several Indian communities could confirm the hypothesis of a higher incidence among this ethnic community.

  14. Cleft palate: players, pathways, and pursuits

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jeffrey C.; Schutte, Brian C.

    2004-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate is a common human birth defect, and its causes are being dissected through studies of human populations and through the use of animal models. Mouse models in particular have made a substantial contribution to our understanding of the gene pathways involved in palate development and the nature of signaling molecules that act in a tissue-specific manner at critical stages of embryogenesis. Related work has provided further support for investigating the role of common environmental triggers as causal covariates. PMID:15199400

  15. Myoepithelial carcinoma of palate: case report.

    PubMed

    Thayumanavan, Balakrishnan; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata

    2014-01-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma is an uncommon malignant salivary gland neoplasm with a predilection for parotid gland. However, its occurrence in minor salivary glands is considerably less with only 28 cases being reported in the literature. We report a case of myoepithelial carcinoma of palate in a 50-year-old woman. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extensive lesion in the palate. Microscopically, the tumor exhibited a wide spectrum of cytomorphologic features that overlap with other salivary gland tumors. Immunohistochemistry served as an adjunct in the diagnosis of the lesion. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic correlation along with immunohistochemical profile enabled to arrive at a diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma.

  16. Cleft Lip and Palate Repair: Our Experience.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Gian Luca; Freda, Nicola; Giacomina, Alessandro; Montemagni, Marina; Sisti, Andrea

    2017-09-12

    Cleft lip and palate is the most frequent congenital craniofacial deformity. In this article, the authors describe their experience with cleft lip and palate repair. Data regarding patients presenting with primary diagnosis of cleft lip and/or palate, between 2009 and 2015, were reviewed. Details including demographics, type of cleft, presence of known risk factors, surgical details, and follow-up visits were collected. Documented complications were reported. Caregivers' satisfaction was assessed with a survey. The survey used to assess satisfaction with cleft-related features was based on the cleft evaluation profile (CEP). In addition, 4 assessors used visual analog scale (VAS) to assess the aesthetic satisfaction. Seven hundred fifty-two patients with primary diagnosis of cleft lip and/or palate underwent surgical correction at "S. Chiara" Hospital, 432 (57.45%) male and 320 (42.55%) female. The most common cleft types in our study were incomplete cleft palate (152 patients) and left unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (152 patients). Associated syndromes were found in 46 patients (6.12%). Cleft lip was repaired using a modified Tennison-Randall technique when the defect was unilateral, whereas a modified Mulliken technique was used for bilateral cleft lip. Cleft palate was repaired using the Bardach technique or Von Langenbeck technique at 5 to 6 months of age. Cleft lip and palate was repaired in several surgical steps. In total, complications were reported in 81 of 752 patients (14.16%). Average fathers' satisfaction score assessed using CEP was 4.5 (lip), 4.8 (nose), 4.7 (teeth), 4.8 (bite), 4.2 (breathing), 4.6 (profile). Average mothers' satisfaction score assessed using CEP was 4.3 (lip), 4.6 (nose), 4.4 (teeth), 4.5 (bite), 4.1 (breathing), 4.4 (profile). Average level of aesthetic satisfaction, assessed using VAS, was 8.7 (fathers), 8.1 (mothers), 7.9 (lay person), and 8.0 (senior cleft surgeon). The multidisciplinary management of children with

  17. Speech evaluation for patients with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Ann W

    2014-04-01

    Children with cleft palate are at risk for speech problems, particularly those caused by velopharyngeal insufficiency. There may be an additional risk of speech problems caused by malocclusion. This article describes the speech evaluation for children with cleft palate and how the results of the evaluation are used to make treatment decisions. Instrumental procedures that provide objective data regarding the function of the velopharyngeal valve, and the 2 most common methods of velopharyngeal imaging, are also described. Because many readers are not familiar with phonetic symbols for speech phonemes, Standard English letters are used for clarity.

  18. Acquired and isolated asymmetrical palatal palsy.

    PubMed

    Cuvellier, J C; Cuisset, J M; Nuyts, J P; Vallée, L

    1998-12-01

    Benign acquired and isolated asymmetrical palatal palsy is a rare condition in childhood. We report on three cases. Typical features include: sudden onset, abnormality of the palatal components of speech (rhinolalia), nasal escape of fluids from the ipsilateral nostril. It is supposed to be caused by viral infection, but attempts at viral isolation were unsuccessful. Complete spontaneous recovery is usual, taking a few weeks. Our paper seems to be the first report of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in this condition. It did not disclose any abnormalities in the 2 cases in which it was performed.

  19. Palatal obturators in patients after maxillectomy

    PubMed Central

    CARDELLI, P.; BIGELLI, E.; VERTUCCI, V.; BALESTRA, F.; MONTANI, M.; DE CARLI, S.; ARCURI, C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Prosthodontic management of palatal defects is fundamental to improve patient’s life undergoing to a maxillary surgical treatment. A lot of maxillary defects are a direct consequence of surgical treatment of malformations, neoplasms or trauma. The obturators are prosthesis used to close palatal defects after maxillectomy, to restore masticatory function and to improve speech. The primary goals of the obturator prosthesis are to preserve the remaining teeth and tissue and to provide comfort, function, and aesthetics to the patients. Different materials and retention methods are a characteristic of new types of obturators. PMID:25992263

  20. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Dos Santos, Harim Tavares; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; da Silva Lascane, Nelise Alexandre; Altemani, Albina; Sousa, Suzana

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, 3 cases of very rare intraoral carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenomas showing a striking differentiation of the malignant component towards epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma were described. The tumors occurred in 2 men and 1 woman with median age of 56 years. Involved sites included palate and buccal mucosa. Two patients experienced local recurrences, of which one died of disease complications. In all cases, residual pleomorphic adenoma was present. The malignant component in all cases shared morphological aspects with epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Those areas were characterized by eosinophilic duct-forming cells surrounded by layers of clear cells. The studied immunohistochemical markers highlighted a biphasic cell population. Duct-forming cells expressed pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, and focally cytokeratin 14, whereas the clear cell component strongly stained to cytokeratin 14, vimentin, and p63 but weakly stained to pan-cytokeratin and focally to α-smooth muscle actin, an immunophenotype compatible with both epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation. The Ki-67 proliferation index was up to 40% in malignant areas. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component are rare, locally aggressive, and potentially lethal tumors. The peculiar morphological and immunohistochemical aspects described may raise problems in diagnosis and classification of such cases, particularly in incisional biopsies.

  1. Correlations of vascular architecture and angiogenesis with pituitary adenoma histotype.

    PubMed

    Takano, Shingo; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Hara, Takuma; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor in solid tumors. However, its role in angiogenesis in pituitary adenoma is controversial. Angiogenesis in solid tumors including pituitary adenoma is commonly evaluated by microvascular density (MVD). Here, we evaluated MVD and the role of VEGF in vascular architecture in 51 pituitary adenomas (24 nonfunctioning, 13 prolactin-secreting, 10 growth hormone-secreting, 3 adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting, and 1 thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting). Paraffin sections were stained with CD34 and VEGF. MVD and vascular architecture parameters (vessel area, diameter, perimeter, and roundness) were evaluated in CD34-stained sections. Immunohistochemistry showed 27/51 tumors (53%) were VEGF-positive. There were no significant differences in MVD, any vascular parameter, or adenoma volume between VEGF-positive and VEGF-negative tumors. VEGF mRNA expression was significantly higher in VEGF-positive tumors. There were no significant correlations between VEGF mRNA expression and MVD or vascular parameters. However, vessel diameter and perimeter were significantly larger in prolactin-secreting than nonfunctioning and growth hormone-secreting macroadenomas. The difference in vessel diameter was observed among both VEGF-positive and all adenomas (micro- and macroadenoma). Thus, VEGF may have limited roles in the development of vascular architecture and tumor angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas, but the differences in vessel architecture by histotype (i.e., larger vessel diameter and perimeter in prolactin-secreting adenomas) suggest the hormonal regulation of vessel architecture rather than angiogenesis.

  2. Sedentary behavior is associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence in men

    PubMed Central

    Molmenti, Christine L. Sardo; Hibler, Elizabeth A.; Ashbeck, Erin L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Garcia, David O.; Roe, Denise; Harris, Robin B.; Lance, Peter; Cisneroz, Martin; Martinez, Maria Elena; Thompson, Patricia A.; Jacobs, Elizabeth T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The association between physical activity and colorectal adenoma is equivocal. This study was designed to assess the relationship between physical activity and colorectal adenoma recurrence. Methods Pooled analyses from two randomized, controlled trials included 1,730 participants who completed the Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire at baseline, had a colorectal adenoma removed within 6 months of study registration, and had a follow-up colonoscopy during the trial. Logistic regression modeling was employed to estimate the effect of sedentary behavior, light-intensity physical activity, and moderate-vigorous physical activity on colorectal adenoma recurrence. Results No statistically significant trends were found for any activity type and odds of colorectal adenoma recurrence in the pooled population. However, males with the highest levels of sedentary time experienced 47% higher odds of adenoma recurrence. Compared to the lowest quartile of sedentary time, the ORs (95% CIs) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles among men were 1.23 (0.88, 1.74), 1.41 (0.99, 2.01), and 1.47 (1.03, 2.11) respectively (P trend=0.03). No similar association was observed for women. Conclusions This study suggests that sedentary behavior is associated with a higher risk of colorectal adenoma recurrence among men, providing evidence of detrimental effects of a sedentary lifestyle early in the carcinogenesis pathway. PMID:25060482

  3. The Fetal Cleft palate: V. Elucidation of the Mechanism of Palatal Clefting in the Congenital Caprine Model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maternal ingestion of Nicotiana glauca from gestation days 32 through 41 results in a high incidence of cleft palate in Spanish goats. This caprine cleft palate model was used to evaluate the temporal sequence of palatal shelf fusion throughout the period of cleft induction with the poisonous plant...

  4. Maxillary Arch Dimensions and Spectral Characteristics of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate Who Produce Middorsum Palatal Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Cevidanes, Lucia; Shah, Sonam; Haley, Katarina L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine maxillary arch dimensions of children with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP) who produced middorsum palatal stops and (b) to describe some spectral characteristics of middorsum palatal stops. Method: Maxillary arch width, length, and height dimensions and first spectral moments of…

  5. Maxillary Arch Dimensions and Spectral Characteristics of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate Who Produce Middorsum Palatal Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Cevidanes, Lucia; Shah, Sonam; Haley, Katarina L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine maxillary arch dimensions of children with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP) who produced middorsum palatal stops and (b) to describe some spectral characteristics of middorsum palatal stops. Method: Maxillary arch width, length, and height dimensions and first spectral moments of…

  6. Prediabetes is associated with a high-risk colorectal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae Myung; Lee, Joung Il; Joo, Kwang Ro; Shin, Hyun Phil; Jeun, Jung Won; Lim, Jun Uk

    2013-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia. However, association between prediabetes and colorectal adenoma has not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between prediabetes and the presence of colorectal adenomas. Consecutive prediabetic subjects who underwent screening colonoscopy were enrolled at Kyung Hee University Hospital in Gangdong, Seoul, Korea, between June 2006 and May 2012. Non-prediabetic subjects were separately pooled from the database of the Center for Health Promotion between January 2012 and May 2012. Prediabetes was defined according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association. The prevalence of colorectal adenomas and their characteristics were compared between prediabetic and non-prediabetic groups. The prevalence of colorectal adenoma was higher in prediabetic subjects than in non-prediabetic subjects (39.6 vs. 30.6 %, respectively, p = 0.019). Prediabetic subjects had more multiple and high-risk adenomas than the control group in non-matched analysis (p = 0.000, respectively). In age-matched analysis, the prevalence of multiple and high-risk adenomas were significantly higher in a prediabetic group than those in a control group (44.4 vs. 28.4 %, p = 0.034; 51.9 vs. 34.6 %, p = 0.026, respectively). Furthermore, prediabetes (odds ratio = 2.198; 95 % confidence interval = 1.042-4.637; p = 0.039) was found to be an independent risk factor for a high-risk adenoma by multivariate analysis. The prevalence of multiple and high-risk colorectal adenomas is significantly higher in the prediabetic subjects than those in the control group. Furthermore, prediabetes was found to be an independent risk factor for a high-risk colorectal adenoma.

  7. Analysis of Fetal Palate to Assist Pre-natal Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Ravindranath, Yogitha; Ravindranath, Roopa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cleft palate is one of the major facial congenital malformation in newborns. Pre-natal detection of this malformation is limited to detection of clefting of hard palate but isolated soft palate clefting still remains challenge for sonologists. As Indian literature is limited present study was attempted to provide dimensions and position of fetal palate by digitized images. Aim To study dimensions, position and differences in parameters between second and third trimester fetuses. Materials and Methods Median sagittal section of 32 formalin fixed fetuses was selected from the Department of Anatomy, St John’s Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Anatomical landmarks-The Nasion (N), Sellaturcica (S), Anterior Nasal Spine (ANS), Posterior Nasal Spine (PNS), tip of Uvula (U) were marked on sections. Length of hard palate (from ANS to PNS), Length of soft palate (from PNS to U), Hard palate/soft palate angle was defined. The anterior position of soft palate and its posterior position in relation to anterior cranial base were marked as N-S-PNS and N-S-U angle, respectively. The measurements were acquired directly from the digitized images using ImageJ software. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16. Results The mean values of ANS-PNS and PNS-U were 23.59±3.69mm and 14.39±2.70mm, respectively. The mean values of hard palate/soft palate angle, N-S-PNS and N-S-U angle were 144.720±11.11,51.150±9.09 and 93.370±9.58, respectively. Significant difference was noted between trimesters for length of hard and soft palate but not for palatal angles. Conclusion During Pre-natal assessment of cleft palate, it is important for sonologist to keep in mind that the dimensions of palate proportionately increased in last two trimesters while the position remains constant. PMID:27891327

  8. Radiation therapy in the management of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Pashtan, Itai; Oh, Kevin S; Loeffler, Jay S

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy in the form of fractionated treatment or radiosurgery has an important role in the management of pituitary adenomas. Radiation is a reliable way of gaining local control for radiographically progressing pituitary adenomas. For functioning adenomas that are biochemically recurrent or persistent, radiation therapy is less consistent in offering biochemical normalization and often requires a latency period of years or decades. The decision of when to use radiation therapy is a delicate balance between its benefits and late sequelae, especially in the context of benign disease. Recent technological advances in radiation oncology hold the potential to minimize dose to uninvolved normal tissue and therefore reduce the risk of toxicity.

  9. Detection of colorectal adenomas by routine chromoendoscopy with indigocarmine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Jeong Wook; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2003-06-01

    Nonpolypoid adenomas, which can be important precursors of colorectal cancers, are difficult to find during routine colonoscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of routine chromoendoscopy in Korea, where the incidence of colorectal cancer is low compared with western countries. Colonoscopy with chromoendoscopy was performed in 74 consecutive patients (48 men, 26 women; mean age 53.0 yr). After a careful examination of the whole colon, a defined segment of the sigmoid colon and rectum (0-30 cm from the anal verge) was stained with 20 ml of 0.2% indigocarmine solution with a spraying catheter. Nonpolypoid lesions were classified as flat or depressed types. Biopsies were taken from all lesions detected before or after staining with indigocarmine. Indications for colonoscopy included routine check-up (21 patients), diarrhea or loose stool (14 patients), abdominal pain (12 patients), constipation (7 patients), bleeding (6 patients), and others (14 patients). Before staining, 58 lesions were found in 30 patients (43.2%). Histology showed tubular adenoma in 41 lesions, hyperplastic or inflammatory changes in 14 lesions, adenocarcinoma in 2 lesions, and villous adenoma in 1 lesion. After indigocarmine staining for normal-looking distal 30 cm colorectal mucosa, 176 lesions were found in 46 patients (62.2%). Histologically, 158 lesions were hyperplastic or inflammatory in nature, and 17 lesions (from 11 patients) were tubular adenomas. There was one serrated adenoma. Eighteen adenomas seen only after spraying indigocarmine were 2.6 +/- 0.6 mm in diameter, and all of them were classified as flat adenomas. There was no depressed-type adenoma. No adenoma with high grade dysplasia, villous histology, or cancer was found after staining. Presence of macroscopic adenomatous lesions or carcinoma before staining could not predict the existence of adenoma after staining. In a large proportion of patients, flat or depressed adenomas could be found after spraying

  10. Adenomas of the common bile duct in familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mao-Lin; Pan, Jun-Yong; Bai, Yan-Nan; Lai, Zhi-De; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Yao-Dong

    2015-03-14

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner's syndrome is often accompanied by adenomas of the stomach and duodenum. We experienced a case of adenomas of the common bile duct in a 40-year-old woman with FAP presenting with acute cholangitis. Only 8 cases of adenomas or adenocarcinoma of the common bile duct have been reported in the literature in patients with FAP or Gardner's syndrome. Those patients presented with acute cholangitis or pancreatitis. Local excision or Whipple procedure may be the reasonable surgical option.

  11. Cleft lip and palate care in Romania.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vanessa

    2011-11-01

    Vanessa Martin travelled with a surgical team to Romania over a period of 12 years to support nurses and improve practice in the treatment of cleft lip and palate. She recounts her experiences and the changes that took place during that time.

  12. Parental Reactions to Cleft Palate Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanpoelvoorde, Leah

    This literature review examines parental reactions following the birth of a cleft lip/palate child, focusing primarily on the mother's reactions. The research studies cited have explored such influences on maternal reactions as her feelings of lack of control over external forces and her feelings of guilt that the deformity was her fault. Delays…

  13. PALATAL DYSMORPHOGENESIS: QUANTITATIVE RT-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Palatal Dysmorphogenesis : Quantitative RT-PCR

    Gary A. Held and Barbara D. Abbott

    Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is a very sensitive method for detecting mRNA in tissue samples. However, as it is usually performed it is does not yield quantitativ...

  14. PALATAL DYSMORPHOGENESIS: QUANTITATIVE RT-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Palatal Dysmorphogenesis : Quantitative RT-PCR

    Gary A. Held and Barbara D. Abbott

    Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is a very sensitive method for detecting mRNA in tissue samples. However, as it is usually performed it is does not yield quantitativ...

  15. Parental Reactions to Cleft Palate Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanpoelvoorde, Leah; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews parents' emotional reactions following the birth of a cleft lip/palate child. It examines when parents were told of the deformity and discusses the duties of the speech-language pathologist and the psychologist in counseling the parents and the child. (Author/JDD)

  16. Parental Reactions to Cleft Palate Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanpoelvoorde, Leah; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews parents' emotional reactions following the birth of a cleft lip/palate child. It examines when parents were told of the deformity and discusses the duties of the speech-language pathologist and the psychologist in counseling the parents and the child. (Author/JDD)

  17. Palatability of Forage Chicory Cultivars for Goats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) may have anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats, but have been implicated in poor palatability of forage. We used three levels of soil P fertilization to influence SL concentrations in three cu...

  18. [Repair of palatal fistulae in cleft patients].

    PubMed

    Bénateau, H; Traoré, H; Gilliot, B; Taupin, A; Ory, L; Guillou Jamard, M-R; Labbé, D; Compère, J-F

    2011-06-01

    Treatment of oronasal fistulae in cleft patients remains a surgical challenge because of its high failure rate. The authors report the results of an aggressive surgical technique using the total elevation of palatal mucoperiosteum, even for small fistulae. This approach was used on twelve consecutive patients, from five to 33 years of age, presenting with a Pittsburgh classification type IV palatal fistulae. The surgical procedure was total elevation of the hard palate mucoperiosteum starting from the dental sulcus combined with sealed double layer sutures. Clinical and photographical control was made at least 6 months after to detect a possible relapse. The success rate was 100%. No relapsing fistula was observed with follow-up ranging from 6 to 36 months. This technique allows wide exposure and safe closure of the nasal layer. It is simple and leaves no raw bone surface exposed and no additional scar. The authors think it can be used in all type IV fistulae less than 1cm wide. Several other surgical techniques have been described to close palatal fistulae: local turnover flaps, pedicled flaps from adjacent oral tissue, tongue flaps, tissue expansion, and even free flaps. Obturator prostheses have also been used. The technique we report, even if more aggressive, seems to be more reliable with fewer relapse and sequelae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between palate-vomer development and maxillary growth in submucous cleft palate patients.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shuxin; Ma, Lian; Sun, Zhipeng; Qian, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Objective : Experimental and clinical findings suggest that the vomer is involved in facial development and might contribute to the short and retrusive maxilla in cleft patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between vomer development and maxillary growth in unoperated submucous cleft palate (SMCP) patients. Design : Retrospective cohort study. Participants : Thirty unoperated SMCP patients were included. The criteria for clinical diagnosis were: bifid uvula, a translucent zone in the midline of the soft palate, and a touchable "V" notch on the posterior border of the bony palate. There were 19 female and 11 male patients, with an age range from 3 to 25 years. Interventions : All patients were imaged using spiral computed tomography (CT) while in centric occlusion before the surgeries. Main Outcome Measures : Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction models were created, and dentoalveolar relationships were rated by three experienced doctors according to the GOSLON score principles. The patients then were divided into three groups: 1 - normal occlusion, 2 - edge-to-edge bite, and 3 - crossbite. The vomer-palate fusion rate was calculated on 3D CT images and represented the vomer development. Results : The sagittal extent of the palatal cleft and the malformation of vomer in SMCP were greatly varied. The vomer-palate fusion rate in the crossbite group (occlusal score = 3) was significantly lower than that in the normal occlusion group (P = .027). Conclusions : Our findings suggest that correlation exists between vomer development and sagittal maxillary growth in unoperated SMCP patients.

  20. The middle ear in cleft palate children pre and post palatal closure.

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, R S

    1988-01-01

    A multicentre prospective trial was commenced in July 1984 to establish the incidence of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children born with a cleft of the palate. Additionally, the data recorded would allow an assessment of the effect of palatal closure on middle ear function. Prior to palatal closure, 97% of ears in a group of 50 patients had otitis media with effusion (OME). The insertion of a long-term ventilation tube provided a means of aeration of one ear with the non-ventilated ear acting as a control. Eighty percent of control ears had persistent OME during a 24-month follow-up period post palatal repair. It would seem that OME is universally present in children with a cleft palate prior to 4 months of age and this incidence is only marginally diminished by palatal surgery. The liaison between plastic surgical and ENT units should be even closer than before in order to manage these patients satisfactorily. PMID:3065499

  1. The "valley sign" in small and diminutive adenomas: prevalence, interobserver agreement, and validation as an adenoma marker.

    PubMed

    Rex, Douglas K; Ponugoti, Prasanna; Kahi, Charles

    2017-03-01

    Classification schemes for differentiation of conventional colorectal adenomas from serrated lesions rely on patterns of blood vessels and pits. Morphologic features have not been validated as predictors of histology. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of the "valley sign" and validate it as a marker of conventional adenomas. Three experts judged the prevalence of the valley sign in 301 consecutive small adenomas. Medical students were taught to recognize the valley and were tested on their recognition of the valley sign. Consecutive diminutive polyps were video-recorded and used to validate the association of the valley sign with conventional adenomas. The prevalence of the valley sign in 301 consecutive adenomas <10 mm in size, determined by 3 experts, ranged from 35% to 50%. Kappa values for agreement among the 3 experts were 0.557, 0.679, and 0.642. Ten medical students were taught to interpret the valley sign and recognized it with accuracy of 96% or higher in 50 selected photographs of diminutive polyps. Four medical students evaluated video-recordings of 170 consecutive diminutive polyps for the presence of the valley sign. Kappa values for the interpretation of the valley sign ranged from 0.52 to 0.68 among the students. The sensitivity of the valley sign for adenoma ranged from 40.2% to 54.9%, and specificity ranged from 90.2% to 91.7%. The valley sign was strongly associated with adenomas (P < .0001). The valley sign is insensitive but highly specific for conventional adenoma in diminutive polyps. It may enhance classification schemes for differentiation of adenomas from serrated lesions based on vessels and pits. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Speech intelligibility after gingivectomy of excess palatal tissue.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, Aruna; Vinayagavel, Mythreyi; Bandi, Dhathri Priya

    2014-07-01

    To appreciate any enhancement in speech following gingivectomy of enlarged anterior palatal gingiva. Periodontal literature has documented various conditions, pathophysiology, and treatment modalities of gingival enlargement. Relationship between gingival maladies and speech alteration has received scant attention. This case report describes on altered speech pattern enhancement secondary to the gingivectomy procedure. A systemically healthy 24-year- female patient reported with bilateral anterior gingival enlargement who was provisionally diagnosed as "gingival abscess with inflammatory enlargement" in relation to palatal aspect of the right maxillary canine to left maxillary canine. Bilateral gingivectomy procedure was performed by external bevel incision in relation to anterior palatal gingiva and a large wedge of epithelium and connective tissue was removed. Patient and her close acquaintances noticed a great improvement in her pronunciation and enunciation of sounds like "t", "d", "n", "l", "th", following removal of excess gingival palatal tissue and was also appreciated with visual analog scale score. Exploration of linguistic research documented the significance of tongue-palate contact during speech. Any excess gingival tissue in palatal region brings about disruption in speech by altering tongue-palate contact. Periodontal surgery like gingivectomy may improve disrupted phonetics. Excess gingival palatal tissue impedes on tongue-palate contact and interferes speech. Pronunciation of consonants like "t", "d", "n", "l", "th", are altered with anterior enlarged palatal gingiva. Excision of the enlarged palatal tissue results in improvement of speech.

  3. Radiolabelled spiroperidol: Possible pituitary adenoma imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, C.A.; Marshall, J.C.; Lloyd, R.V.; Sherman, P.S.; Wieland, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are the most common type of pituitary tumors. Detection currently depends on physical symptoms, elevated serum prolactin levels and CT scans. An imaging agent which specifically localized in prolactinomas based on some functional characteristic of the tumor would be of considerable clinical value not only for early detection but also for monitoring of therapy. Tritiated spiroperidol (/sup 3/H-Sp) was selected for evaluation based on 1) the presence of D-2 receptors in normal anterior pituitary and adenoma tissue and 2) the high affinity of spiroperidol for D-2 receptors. Recent data have established that implantation of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in Fischer F344 rats induced prolactin-secreting tumors in the pituitary. /sup 3/HSp was evaluated in pituitary tissue of both control and DES-treated rats. /sup 3/HSp concentration in normal female anterior pituitary tissue was found to be about 0.27% kg dose/g from 5 min to 4hrs. This value was about 10 times levels in cortex, cerebellum and striatum. In DES-treated rats the % kg dose/g values remained approximately the same. A 5-fold increase in serum prolactin was associated with a 6-fold increase in both pituitary weight and % dose/organ. The data suggests that although total pituitary weight has increased due to tumor growth (reflected in increased values for % dose/organ), the relative number of receptors per g of tissue has remained constant. This result is in agreement with observations of others on D-2 receptor concentration in prolactinomas.

  4. Coffee intake and the risk of colorectal adenoma: The colorectal adenoma study in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-07-15

    Coffee is a commonly consumed beverage which contains several potential anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive compounds, and has been hypothesized to have protective effects in colorectal neoplasia. However, the limited available data on coffee consumption in relation to colorectal adenoma (CRA), a precursor lesion to most colorectal cancers, remain largely inconsistent. In this study, we evaluated the association of coffee intake with the risk of CRA in a middle-aged Japanese population. Study subjects were selected from examinees who underwent total colonoscopy as part of a cancer screening program and responded to self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. A total of 738 patients with adenoma and 697 controls were included in the study. Coffee intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire, and divided into quartiles based on the distribution among controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of CRA, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. High coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of CRA, with a multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest versus lowest quartile of coffee intake of 0.67 (95% CI = 0.48-0.93; ptrend  = 0.02). The inverse association of coffee intake was limited to proximal (OR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.44-0.95; ptrend  = 0.04) and distal colon adenoma (OR = 0.62; 95%CI = 0.39-0.99; ptrend  = 0.06), and appeared to be more evident with small (OR = 0.68; 95%CI = 0.49-0.96; ptrend  = 0.04) and single adenomas (OR = 0.65; 95%CI = 0.44-0.95; ptrend  = 0.02). Green tea intake was not found to be associated with CRA risk. This study provides support for the protective effect of coffee drinking on colon adenomas, a precursor of colon cancer. © 2014 UICC.

  5. Palate Morphogenesis: Current Understanding and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2011-01-01

    In the past, most scientists conducted their inquiries of nature via inductivism, the patient accumulation of “pieces of information” in the pious hope that the sum of the parts would clarify the whole. Increasingly, modern biology employs the tools of bioinformatics and systems biology in attempts to reveal the “big picture.” Most successful laboratories engaged in the pursuit of the secrets of embryonic development, particularly those whose research focus is craniofacial development, pursue a middle road where research efforts embrace, rather than abandon, what some have called the “pedestrian” qualities of inductivism, while increasingly employing modern data mining technologies. The secondary palate has provided an excellent paradigm that has enabled examination of a wide variety of developmental processes. Examination of cellular signal transduction, as it directs embryogenesis, has proven exceptionally revealing with regard to clarification of the “facts” of palatal ontogeny—at least the facts as we currently understand them. Herein, we review the most basic fundamentals of orofacial embryology and discuss how functioning of TGFβ, BMP, Shh, and Wnt signal transduction pathways contributes to palatal morphogenesis. Our current understanding of palate medial edge epithelial differentiation is also examined. We conclude with a discussion of how the rapidly expanding field of epigenetics, particularly regulation of gene expression by miRNAs and DNA methylation, is critical to control of cell and tissue differentiation, and how examination of these epigenetic processes has already begun to provide a better understanding of, and greater appreciation for, the complexities of palatal morphogenesis. PMID:20544696

  6. [Folic acid supplementation and colorrectal adenoma recurrence: systematic review].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Lancellotti, C; Tur Marí, J A; Uauy Dagach, R

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies show that folate levels may be associated with the development of adenomas and colorectal cancer, suggesting that folic acid supplementation may have a preventive effect. Systematic review of scientific evidence from randomized placebo-controlled clinical studies to identify the effects of folic acid supplementation on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Medline via Pubmed systematic review of randomized clinical trials, double-blind and placebo-controlled and references, specifically to evaluate the effect of acid supplementation on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Seven randomized clinical trials that met the inclusion criteria were selected and evaluated for analysis based on pre established criteria. The selected studies do not support that folic acid supplementation is beneficial in recurrence of colorectal adenomas. We observed in some studies differences in risk by type of folate suggesting to review the criteria and levels of supplementation in some population subgroups with higher risks.

  7. [Efficacy of prostatic adenoma treatment with alfusozine depending on sexuality].

    PubMed

    Kogan, M I; Kireev, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    Blood levels of total PSA and testosterone, size of the prostatic gland, Qmax were measured in 40 patients with prostatic adenoma symptoms treated with alfusozine in a dose 10 mg/day before the treatment, on the treatment week 4, 12 and 24. At the same time the examinees were questioned using IPSS, MSHQ, IIEF questionnaires. The sexuality phenotype was estimated according to the Rostov Questionnaire of Integral Male Sexuality. It was found that sexuality phenotypes (hypo-, normo- and hypersexuality) occur with the same frequency in males with prostatic adenoma symptoms. Hypersexual men with prostatic adenoma have more definite lower urinary tract symptoms, worse erection and ejaculation, more frequent signs of hypogonadism. The highest alfusozine efficacy was observed in normo- and hyposexual men with prostatic adenoma who achieved better results in improvement of Qmax, symptoms of the lower urinary tract, erectile and ejaculation function. The treatment efficacy in the hypersexual men is low.

  8. Gut microbiome development along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha; Jia, Huijue; Stadlmayr, Andreas; Tang, Longqing; Lan, Zhou; Zhang, Dongya; Xia, Huihua; Xu, Xiaoying; Jie, Zhuye; Su, Lili; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Xin; Li, Junhua; Xiao, Liang; Huber-Schönauer, Ursula; Niederseer, David; Xu, Xun; Al-Aama, Jumana Yousuf; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Kristiansen, Karsten; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Tilg, Herbert; Datz, Christian; Wang, Jun

    2015-03-11

    Colorectal cancer, a commonly diagnosed cancer in the elderly, often develops slowly from benign polyps called adenoma. The gut microbiota is believed to be directly involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The identity and functional capacity of the adenoma- or carcinoma-related gut microbe(s), however, have not been surveyed in a comprehensive manner. Here we perform a metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS) on stools from advanced adenoma and carcinoma patients and from healthy subjects, revealing microbial genes, strains and functions enriched in each group. An analysis of potential risk factors indicates that high intake of red meat relative to fruits and vegetables appears to associate with outgrowth of bacteria that might contribute to a more hostile gut environment. These findings suggest that faecal microbiome-based strategies may be useful for early diagnosis and treatment of colorectal adenoma or carcinoma.

  9. Parotid tail pleomorphic adenoma extending to the parapharyngeal space.

    PubMed

    Polat, Kerem; Doğan, Mansur; Yüce, Salim; Uysal, Ismail Önder; Müderris, Suphi

    2013-03-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumors are rare, accounting for 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms. Most of them are benign and originate in the salivary glands, especially the pleomorphic adenoma. We presented a 47-year-old man with parotid tail pleomorphic adenoma extending to the parapharyngeal space. The patient applied to our clinic with the complaints of a painless mass on his neck and in his mouth for 3 months. After fine needle aspiration biopsy, the mass was diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. The patient was hospitalized and operated in our clinic. As we see in literature review, parapharyngeal space tumors are rare, and most of them are pleomorphic adenomas arising from the deep lobe of the parotid gland and extend into the PPS.

  10. Molecular screening of pituitary adenomas for gene mutations and rearrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, V.; Drazin, N.Z.; Gonskey, R.; Melmed, S. )

    1993-07-01

    Although pituitary tumors arise as benign monoclonal neoplasms, genetic alterations have not readily been identified in these adenomas. The authors studied restriction fragment abnormalities involving the GH gene locus, and mutations in the p53 and H-, K-, and N-ras genes in 22 human GH cell adenomas. Twenty two nonsecretory adenomas were also examined for p53 and ras gene mutations. Seven prolactinoma DNA samples were tested for deletions in the multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 (MEN-1) locus, as well as for rearrangements in the hst gene, a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. In DNA from GH-cell adenomas, identical GH restriction patterns were detected in both pituitary and lymphocyte DNA in all patients and in one patient with a mixed GH-TSH cell adenoma. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single stranded conformation polymorphism analysis, no mutations were detected in exons 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the p53 gene in GH cell adenomas nor in 22 nonsecretory adenomas. Codons 12/13 and 61 of H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras genes were also intact on GH cell adenomas and in nonsecretory adenomas. Site-specific probes for chromosome 11q13 including, PYGM, D11S146, and INT2 were used in 7 sporadic PRL-secreting adenomas to detect deletions of the MEN-1 locus on chromosome 11. One patient was identified with a loss of 11p, and the remaining 6 patients did not demonstrate loss of heterozygosity in the pituitary 11q13 locus, compared to lymphocyte DNA. None of these patients demonstrated hst gene rearrangements which also maps to this locus. These results show that p53 and ras gene mutations are not common events in the pathogenesis of acromegaly and nonsecretory tumors. Although hst gene rearrangements and deletions of 11q13 are not associated with sporadic PRl-cell adenoma formation, a single patient was detected with a partial loss of chromosome 11, including the putative MEN-1 site. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. [Aspects of the operative treatment of prostatic adenoma].

    PubMed

    Gogichaev, Z Kh; zolotarev, I I

    1977-02-01

    The authors have gained minimum blood losses when suturing with provisional catgut ligature through the urinary bladder bottom between interureteral fold and internal urethral orifice yet before dessection of adenoma surgical capsule and tumor enucleation. Depending on the functional state of the upper urinary tract, the bladder tonus and adenoma size, the method of postoperative drainage of the urinary bladder is selected: cystostomy, microirrigation, active suction, etc.

  12. Association Between Body Size and Colorectal Adenoma Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Elizabeth T.; Martínez, María Elena; Alberts, David S.; Jiang, Ruiyun; Lance, Peter; Lowe, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity has been associated with increased risk for colorectal adenoma, though its role as a risk factor after polypectomy for successive events is unclear. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the effect of anthropometric measures of obesity on adenoma after polypectomy. Methods Subjects with baseline adenomas (n=2465) and follow-up colonoscopy data were drawn from two randomized trials designed to prevent adenoma recurrence. Results Presence of a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was associated with a non-significant 17% increase in the odds for any adenoma recurrence among all subjects (OR=1.17; 95% CI=0.92–1.48). This result was confined to men (OR= 1.36; 95% CI=1.01–1.83), and not observed for women (OR=0.90; 95% CI= 0.60–1.33). Results for waist circumference did not reach statistical significance, though trends were similar to those for BMI. Analyses of the effects of obesity on more clinically significant lesions demonstrated that high BMI was a slightly stronger risk factor for advanced adenoma recurrences in men (OR=1.62; 95% CI=1.04–2.53) when compared to non-advanced lesions (OR= 1.26; 95% CI= 0.91–1.75). Additionally, we observed an association for obesity and odds of adenoma recurrence among participants reporting a family history of colorectal cancer (OR=2.25; 95% CI= 1.32–3.84), but not for those without (OR=1.00; 95%= CI-0.77–1.31; pint = p=0.008). Conclusions Our results support obesity as a risk factor for subsequent short-interval development of colorectal adenomas, particularly among men and persons with a family history of colorectal cancer. Further, obesity in men appears to be strongly associated with the development of clinically advanced lesions. PMID:17553754

  13. [Villous adenoma of the urinary tract: a clinicopathological study].

    PubMed

    Yin, Wu; Mo, Xiang-lan; Wen, Zong-hua; Zhou, Xiang-zhen; Zhou, Min-yan; Wei, Hai-ming

    2013-07-01

    To explore the clinicopathological features, immunophenotype, differential diagnosis, pathogenesis and prognosis of villous adenoma with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the urinary tract. Clinical and pathologic findings of 3 cases of villous adenoma with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the urinary tract were analyzed by gross examination, microscopic investigation and immunohistochemical staining. The related literatures were reviewed. All of the three cases were middle-aged or elderly patients. Three cases all presented with hematuria and mucusuria. Endoscopic examination identified that case 1 had a polyp with broad attachment in the dome of bladder, case 2 had a solid mass in the ureter, and case 3 had a exophytic fungating tumor in the renal pelvis. Microscopically, case 1 revealed a papillary lesion with finger-like processes lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium with abundant goblet cells. The cells demonstrated moderate degree dysplasia. In case 2 and case 3, both villous adenomas and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma were observed, the adenoma cells arranged in a cribriform pattern, and the tumor cells showed severe atypia, mitotic activity, and transition with invasive poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells in three cases were positive for CK20, CEA,EMA and MUC-1; none of them expressed cdx-2 and PSA; In case 2 and 3, the same immunophenotype of villous adenomas and their associated adenocarcinomas was observed, but the number of the positive cells of p53 and Ki-67 staining were significantly increased in the area of adenocarcinomas than in that of the villous adenomas. Villous adenoma of the urinary tract is rare. It can occur in the urinary bladder, urachus, renal pelvis, ureter and urethra. These lesions may have malignant potential and frequently coexist with other malignant tumors. So, villous adenoma of the urinary tract should be removed completely and sampled thoroughly to avoid

  14. Primary aldosteronism: results of adrenalectomy for nonsingle adenoma.

    PubMed

    Quillo, Amy R; Grant, Clive S; Thompson, Geoffrey B; Farley, David R; Richards, Melanie L; Young, William F

    2011-07-01

    Historically, treatment of confirmed primary aldosteronism has been adrenalectomy for unilateral adenoma; bilateral hypersecretion is treated medically. Increasingly, we use adrenal venous sampling (AVS) to define unilateral hypersecretion. Histology of glands resected based on AVS often reveals multiple nodules or hyperplasia. The aim of this study was to compare patients with multiple nodules or hyperplasia with those with single adenoma with regard to cure, preoperative imaging, AVS ratio, and biochemical evaluation to determine if a nonsingle adenoma (NSA) process could be predicted to impact extent of adrenalectomy. This was a retrospective study reviewing a single-institutional surgical experience at a tertiary academic center from 1993 to 2008, during which 215 patients with primary aldosteronism underwent unilateral adrenalectomy based on imaging of a single adenoma (normal contralateral gland) or AVS ratios. Histology included single adenoma versus NSA; cure was defined as normal immediate postoperative plasma or urine aldosterone level, normal aldosterone:renin ratio, or normotension without antihypertensive medications. Follow-up (mean 13 months, range 0 to 185 months) was available for 167 patients: 132 (79%) single adenoma and 35 (21%) NSA. All 35 patients with NSA and 128 patients (97%) with single adenoma were cured. Imaging studies correctly predicted NSA in 29% and 57% when combined with AVS. Identifying patients with NSA preoperatively was impossible biochemically: mean serum and urinary aldosterone levels and AVS ratios were not different than those of the single adenoma group. Twenty-one percent of patients had NSA, all cured by unilateral adrenalectomy. No preoperative evaluation reliably predicted NSA. Therefore, total unilateral adrenalectomy was safest given the potential for incomplete resection with partial adrenalectomy. Accurate AVS is highly predictive of cure irrespective of the unilateral adrenal histology. Copyright © 2011 American

  15. Pleomorphic adenoma of the frontal sinus masquerading as a mucocele.

    PubMed

    Chew, Yok Kuan; Brito-Mutunayagam, Sushil; Chong, Aun Wee; Prepageran, Narayanan; Chandran, Patricia Ann; Khairuzzana, Baharudin; Lingham, Omkara Rubini

    2015-12-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common type of benign salivary gland tumor. It can also be found in the larynx, ear, neck, and nasal septum. It is rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and it has never been reported in the frontal sinus. We report a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the frontal sinus that masqueraded as a mucocele. We discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this patient, and we review the literature.

  16. Contractile Properties of Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers from Congenital Cleft Palates and Normal Palates of Spanish Goats

    PubMed Central

    Hanes, Michael C.; Weinzweig, Jeffrey; Kuzon, William M.; Panter, Kip E.; Buchman, Steven R.; Faulkner, John A.; Yu, Deborah; Cederna, Paul S.; Larkin, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Analysis of the composition of muscle fibers constituent to a cleft palate could provide significant insight into the cause of velopharyngeal inadequacy. The authors hypothesized that levator veli palatini muscle dysfunction inherent to cleft palates could affect the timing and outcome of cleft palate repair. Methods Single, permeabilized muscle fibers from levator veli palatini muscles of three normal (n = 19 fibers) and three chemically induced congenital cleft palates (n = 21 fibers) of 14-month-old goats were isolated, and contractile properties were evaluated. The maximum isometric force and rate constants of tension redevelopment (ktr) were measured, and the specific force and normalized power were calculated for each fiber. Results The ktr measures indicate that cleft fibers are predominantly fast-fatigable; normal fibers are slow fatigue-resistant: after a 10-minute isometric contraction, fibers from cleft palates had a loss of force 16 percent greater than that from normal palates (p = 0.0001). The cross-sectional areas of the fibers from cleft palates (2750 ± 209 μm2) were greater (p = 0.05) than those from normal palates (2226 ± 143 μm2). Specific forces did not differ between the two groups. Maximum normalized power of fibers from cleft palates (11.05 ± 1.82 W/l) was greater (p = 0.0001) than fibers from normal palates (1.60 ± 0.12 W/l). Conclusions There are clear physiologic differences in single muscle fibers from cleft palates and normal palates: cleft palate fibers are physiologically fast, have greater fatigability, and have greater power production. Detection of functional and/or fiber type differences in muscles of cleft palates may provide preoperative identification of a patient's susceptibility to velopharyngeal inadequacy and permit early surgical intervention to correct this clinical condition. PMID:17440342

  17. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: Diagnostic dilemma and treatment protocol.

    PubMed

    Keerthi, R; Raut, Rohan P; Vaibhav, N; Ghosh, Abhishek

    2014-07-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a carcinoma arising from a primary or recurrent benign pleomorphic adenoma. It often poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. The entity is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Pathological assessment is the gold standard for making the diagnosis. Treatment for CXPA often involves an ablative surgical procedure, which may be followed by radiotherapy. We report a case of a 65-year-old lady with a history of recurrent swelling in the left preauricular region and a history of surgery 10 years back, in the same region. Preoperatively, a diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland metastasizing to the cervical lymph node was made, but postoperatively it was reported as CXPA adenoma of the parotid gland. A radical parotidectomy involving en bloc resection of the facial nerve along with deep and superficial lobes of the parotid was performed followed by radiotherapy. The fact that pleomorphic adenomas are classified as benign tumors should not overshadow the wide range of biological behaviors associated with these tumors. On account of the potential for malignant transformation, surgical treatment must be properly performed. Surgery followed by radiotherapy should be considered as the standard care for a patient with carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

  18. ACTH adenomas transforming their clinical expression: report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Zoli, Matteo; Faustini-Fustini, Marco; Mazzatenta, Diego; Marucci, Gianluca; De Carlo, Eugenio; Bacci, Antonella; Pasquini, Ernesto; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Frank, Giorgio

    2015-02-01

    OBJECT Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) adenomas have been recognized as a more aggressive and invasive subtype of pituitary adenomas. An additional and clinically relevant peculiarity of these tumors is their ability to modify their clinical expression from a silent form to Cushing disease or vice versa. The aim of this study was to review a series of patients with pituitary adenomas and analyze the clinical implications of the transformation of clinical expression in 5 cases that showed this phenomenon. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed a series of patients with pituitary adenoma and collected clinical, biohumoral, and neuroradiological data of those who presented with a transformation from silent ACTH adenomas to functioning tumors or vice versa. In all the cases, preoperative assessment consisted of brain MRI, ophthalmological examination, and complete baseline endocrinological investigation. In patients with clinical and/or biochemical findings suspicious for Cushing syndrome, a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test was performed to rule in or out this diagnosis. Endocrinological evaluations were repeated 1 month after surgery, 3 months after surgery, and every 6 months or annually thereafter. Ophthalmological evaluations and brain MRIs were repeated after 3 months and then every 6 or 12 months thereafter. RESULTS Five patients (2 men and 3 women) included in this series had corticotropic tumors that showed transformation from an endocrinologically silent form to manifest Cushing disease and vice versa. The mean age at presentation was 40 years (range 18-51 years). In 3 of these patients, a transformation from silent to functioning ACTH adenoma with manifest Cushing disease occurred. In 1 patient, the authors observed the transition from a functioning to a silent adenoma with spontaneous resolution of hypercortisolism. Another patient's silent adenoma "shifted" to a functioning adenoma and then regressed back to a silent form with spontaneous

  19. A Comprehensive Study of Soft Palate Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Alexandre; Parada, Carolina; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common congenital birth defects. Tremendous efforts have been made over the last decades towards understanding hard palate development. However, little is known about soft palate morphogenesis and myogenesis. Finding an appropriate surgical repair to restore physiological functions of the soft palate in patients with cleft palate is a major challenge for surgeons, and complete restoration is not always achievable. Here, we first analyzed the morphology, orientation and attachments of the four muscles of the murine soft palate and found that they are very similar to their counterparts in humans, validating the use of mus musculus as a model for future studies. Our data suggests that muscle differentiation extends from the lateral region to the midline following palatal fusion. We also detected an epithelial seam in the fusing soft palatal shelves, consistent with the process of fusion of the posterior palatal shelves, followed by degradation of the epithelial remnants. Innervation and vascularization are present mainly in the oral side of the soft palate, complementing the differentiated muscles. Cell lineage tracing using Wnt1-Cre;Zsgreenfl/fl mice indicated that all the tendons and mesenchyme embedding the soft palate muscles are neural crest-derived. We propose that the posterior attachment of the soft palate to the pharyngeal wall is an interface between the neural crest- and mesoderm-derived mesenchyme in the craniofacial region, and thus can serve as a potential model for the study of boundaries during development. Taken together, our study provides a comprehensive view of the development and morphology of the murine soft palate and serves as a reference for further molecular analyses. PMID:26671681

  20. Tbx1 regulates oral epithelial adhesion and palatal development

    PubMed Central

    Funato, Noriko; Nakamura, Masataka; Richardson, James A.; Srivastava, Deepak; Yanagisawa, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    Cleft palate, the most frequent congenital craniofacial birth defect, is a multifactorial condition induced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. In addition to complete cleft palate, a large number of human cases involve soft palate cleft and submucosal cleft palate. However, the etiology of these forms of cleft palate has not been well understood. T-box transcriptional factor (Tbx) family of transcriptional factors has distinct roles in a wide range of embryonic differentiation or response pathways. Here, we show that genetic disruption of Tbx1, a major candidate gene for the human congenital disorder 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (Velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome), led to abnormal epithelial adhesion between the palate and mandible in mouse, resulting in various forms of cleft palate similar to human conditions. We found that hyperproliferative epithelium failed to undergo complete differentiation in Tbx1-null mice (Tbx1−/−). Inactivation of Tbx1 specifically in the keratinocyte lineage (Tbx1KCKO) resulted in an incomplete cleft palate confined to the anterior region of the palate. Interestingly, Tbx1 overexpression resulted in decreased cell growth and promoted cell-cycle arrest in MCF7 epithelial cells. These findings suggest that Tbx1 regulates the balance between proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes and is essential for palatal fusion and oral mucosal differentiation. The impaired adhesion separation of the oral epithelium together with compromised palatal mesenchymal growth is an underlying cause for various forms of cleft palate phenotypes in Tbx1−/− mice. Our present study reveals new pathogenesis of incomplete and submucous cleft palate during mammalian palatogenesis. PMID:22371266

  1. A Comprehensive Study of Soft Palate Development in Mice.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Alexandre; Parada, Carolina; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common congenital birth defects. Tremendous efforts have been made over the last decades towards understanding hard palate development. However, little is known about soft palate morphogenesis and myogenesis. Finding an appropriate surgical repair to restore physiological functions of the soft palate in patients with cleft palate is a major challenge for surgeons, and complete restoration is not always achievable. Here, we first analyzed the morphology, orientation and attachments of the four muscles of the murine soft palate and found that they are very similar to their counterparts in humans, validating the use of mus musculus as a model for future studies. Our data suggests that muscle differentiation extends from the lateral region to the midline following palatal fusion. We also detected an epithelial seam in the fusing soft palatal shelves, consistent with the process of fusion of the posterior palatal shelves, followed by degradation of the epithelial remnants. Innervation and vascularization are present mainly in the oral side of the soft palate, complementing the differentiated muscles. Cell lineage tracing using Wnt1-Cre;Zsgreenfl/fl mice indicated that all the tendons and mesenchyme embedding the soft palate muscles are neural crest-derived. We propose that the posterior attachment of the soft palate to the pharyngeal wall is an interface between the neural crest- and mesoderm-derived mesenchyme in the craniofacial region, and thus can serve as a potential model for the study of boundaries during development. Taken together, our study provides a comprehensive view of the development and morphology of the murine soft palate and serves as a reference for further molecular analyses.

  2. Hearing outcomes in patients with cleft lip/palate.

    PubMed

    Skuladottir, Hildur; Sivertsen, Ase; Assmus, Jorg; Remme, Asa Rommetveit; Dahlen, Marianne; Vindenes, Hallvard

    2015-03-01

    Objective : Children with cleft lip and palate or cleft palate only have a high incidence of conductive hearing loss from otitis media with effusion. Studies demonstrating longitudinal results are lacking. This study was undertaken to investigate long-term longitudinal hearing outcomes of children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate and cleft palate only. Design : Retrospective chart review. Setting : Clinical charts of patients born with cleft lip and palate or cleft palate only in 1985 to 1994 who were referred to the cleft team in Bergen, Norway. Study findings include 15 years of follow-up. Participants : The study population consisted of 317 children of whom 159 had nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate and 158 had nonsyndromic cleft palate. Main Outcome Measures : Pure tone average calculated from pure tone audiometry at ages 4, 6, and 15 years. Results : The median pure tone average significantly improved with increasing age. For the cleft lip and palate group, the median pure tone average at ages 4, 6, and 15 years was 16 dB hearing level (HL), 13 dB HL, and 9 dB HL, respectively (P ≤ .001). In the cleft palate group the median pure tone average at ages 4, 6, and 15 years was 15 dB HL, 12 dB HL, and 9 dB HL, respectively (P ≤ .001). There was no significant difference in the hearing levels between the two groups. Patients who had surgical closure of the palate at age 18 months had a significantly better pure tone average outcome at age 15 compared with patients who had surgery at 12 months. Conclusions : Hearing improves significantly from childhood to adolescence in patients with cleft lip and palate and cleft palate only.

  3. Flap Necrosis after Palatoplasty in Patients with Cleft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Rossell-Perry, Percy

    2015-01-01

    Palatal necrosis after palatoplasty in patients with cleft palate is a rare but significant problem encountered by any cleft surgeon. Few studies have addressed this disastrous complication and the prevalence of this problem remains unknown. Failure of a palatal flap may be attributed to different factors like kinking or section of the pedicle, anatomical variations, tension, vascular thrombosis, type of cleft, used surgical technique, surgeon's experience, infection, and malnutrition. Palatal flap necrosis can be prevented through identification of the risk factors and a careful surgical planning should be done before any palatoplasty. Management of severe fistulas observed as a consequence of palatal flap necrosis is a big challenge for any cleft surgeon. Different techniques as facial artery flaps, tongue flaps, and microvascular flaps have been described with this purpose. This review article discusses the current status of this serious complication in patients with cleft palate. PMID:26273624

  4. Nonsyndromic palate Synechia with floor of mouth

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Sharan; Bütow, Kurt W.

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the embryological basis, sequela and management of intraoral synechia, and to report on the incidence of this condition at a facial cleft deformity clinic (FCDC), with specific attention to two rare cases of mucosal bands involving the floor of the mouth and palate. Review of the literature and a retrospective analysis of FCDC and case report of two cases. During the period of 30 years (1983–2013), the FCDC - University of Pretoria has managed in excess of 4000 cases. A review of the clinic statistics revealed only six cases in which intraoral synechiae occurred. The rarity of this condition at the FCDC is in keeping with the rare incidence in the international literature. Four syndromic cases were identified. Three cases were cleft palate lateral synechia syndrome, and one was an orofacial digital syndrome. Two nonsyndromic cases were identified, and both cases involved the floor of the mouth and palate. The attending physicians and surgeons should be aware of the most appropriate timing for management of this condition, in order to avoid unwanted sequelae. Supportive care should be provided, and emergency airway protocol should be available for all cases. A differential diagnosis should be considered which includes syndromic conditions. PMID:26389045

  5. Molecular Characterization of Pancreatic Serous Microcystic Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Patrick S.; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Brighenti, Antonietta; Lissandrini, Daniele; Antonello, Davide; Capelli, Paola; Rigaud, Gildas; Falconi, Massimo; Scarpa, Aldo

    2001-01-01

    Pancreatic serous microcystic adenomas (SCAs) are rare, benign tumors with a striking female preference. Virtually no information is available about chromosomal or genetic anomalies in this disease. We performed extensive molecular characterization of 21 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sporadic SCAs consisting in genome-wide allelic loss analysis with 79 microsatellite markers covering all 22 autosomes, assessment of microsatellite instability, and mutational analysis of the VHL, K-ras, and p53 genes in nine cases for which frozen tissue was available. Although no case showed microsatellite instability of the type seen in mismatch repair-deficient tumors, a relatively low fractional allelic loss of 0.08 was found. Losses on chromosome 10q were the most frequent event in SCAs (50% of cases), followed by allelic losses on chromosome 3p (40% of cases). Moderately frequent losses (>25% of cases) were found on chromosomes 1q, 2q, and 7q. The VHL gene, located on chromosome 3p, had somatic inactivating mutations in two of nine cases (22%), whereas no mutations were found in either K-ras or p53, in agreement with the finding that all 21 cases stained negative for p53 by immunohistochemistry. Our study indicates that the involvement of chromosomal arms 10q and 3p is characteristic of SCAs and that the VHL gene is involved in a subset of sporadic cases. PMID:11141506

  6. Autofluorescence ratio imaging of human colonic adenomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaizumi, Katsuichi; Harada, Yoshinori; Wakabayashi, Naoki; Yamaoka, Yoshihisa; Dai, Ping; Tanaka, Hideo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Recently autofluorescence imaging (AFI) endoscopy, visualizing tissue fluorescence in combination with reflected light, has been adopted as a technique for detecting neoplasms in the colon and other organs. However, autofluorescence colonoscopy is not infallible, and improvement of the detection method can be expected to enhance the performance. Colonic mucosa contains metabolism-related fluorophores, such as reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which may be useful for visualizing neoplasia in autofluorescence endoscopy. We examined sliced cross-sections of endoscopically resected tubular adenomas under a microscope. Fluorescence images acquired at 365-nm excitation (F365ex) and 405-nm excitation (F405ex), and reflectance images acquired at 550 nm (R550) were obtained. Fluorescence ratio (F365ex/F405ex) images and reflectance/fluorescence ratio (R550/F405ex) images were calculated from the acquired images. The fluorescence ratio images could distinguish adenomatous mucosa from normal mucosa more clearly than the reflectance/fluorescence ratio images. The results showed that the autofluorescence ratio imaging is a potential technique for increasing the diagnostic power of autofluorescence endoscopy.

  7. Volumetric Growth Rate of Recurrent Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Naunheim, Molly; Wu, Xin; Ryan, William R; Wang, Steven J; Heaton, Chase M

    2017-07-01

    Surgery for recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA) can be challenging and may increase the risk of operative complications, particularly facial nerve weakness. As observation may be a viable alternative to surgery for slow-growing tumors, our objective was to assess the growth rate of recurrent PAs. This study is a case series of patients at our tertiary academic medical center with recurrent PA. Two magnetic resonance images (MRI) were compared; total volume (TV) of recurrent tumor on both studies was calculated to obtain our main outcomes of percent change in TV and tumor growth rate. Fourteen patients with recurrent PA had a median interval time between MRI of 12.8 months. Though growth rates were variable, the median continuous compound growth per year was 10.2%. Notably, 3 patients (21%) had no growth, and 2 patients (14%) had a reduction in TV. The median growth rate for enlarging tumors is estimated at 10.2% per year. Due to variability, tumor growth rate should be estimated on an individual patient basis. For slow-growing tumors, physicians may weigh the risk of this slow growth with the morbidity of reoperation.

  8. Predictors of aggressive clinical phenotype among immunohistochemically confirmed atypical adenomas.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Hasan A; Cote, David J; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2016-12-01

    Despite formal pathological criteria, not all atypical pituitary adenomas display clinically aggressive behavior. We set out to determine which factors predict a clinically aggressive phenotype among a cohort of atypical pituitary adenomas. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed from April 2008 to July 2015. Of 569 pituitary adenomas, 47 (8.3%) patients were surgically treated for atypical adenomas as defined by the WHO criteria. Clinically aggressive adenomas were defined as occurring in those patients who necessitated additional therapeutic intervention after the index (first) surgery, including additional surgery, medical therapy, or radiosurgery. Forty-seven patients with histopathological and immunohistochemical confirmation of atypical adenomas were identified and of these, 23 were noted to have a clinically aggressive course. Among the remaining 24 patients, the disease remained quiescent after the index surgery. On univariate analysis, clinically aggressive lesions were more likely to have a larger axial diameter on MRI (2.9±1.9cm vs. 1.9±0.7cm, p=0.02), greater incidence of cavernous sinus invasion (65.2% vs. 20.8%, p<0.01), and greater incidence of clival extension (60.9% vs. 0, p<0.01) on preoperative imaging. The two groups were equivalent with regard to immunohistochemical staining for ACTH, HGH, LH, FSH, PRL, and TSH. Clinically aggressive lesions, however, trended towards a greater average MIB-1 proliferative index (7.5%±4.9 vs. 6.0%±3.6, p=0.03). On multivariate analysis, the MIB-1 proliferative index trended towards statistical significance (p=0.06) as an independent predictor of clinical aggressiveness. Atypical pituitary adenomas are defined by a rigid set of immunohistochemical markers, but not all necessarily demonstrate an aggressive clinical phenotype.

  9. Treatment Options for Villous Adenoma of the Ampulla of Vater

    PubMed Central

    Cugat, E.; Veloso, E.; Marco, C.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Duodenal villous adenoma arising from the ampulla of Vater has a high risk of malignant development. Excluding associated malignant disease prior to resection of an adenoma of the ampulla is not always possible. Therefore, the surgical procedure of choice to treat this rare tumour is still controversial. Objective: To evaluate retrospectively results of treatment of villous adenoma arising from ampulla of Vater with dysplasia or associated carcinoma limited to the ampulla. Patients and Methods: From 1985 to 1996, eight patients have been diagnosed with ampullary villous adenoma suitable for resection. We have reviewed treatment, morbidity, mortality, follow-up and final outcome. Results: Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) was performed in 4 patients. Transduodenal ampullectomy and endoscopic resection was performed in 2 patients each. There was no perioperative mortality. None of the patients had biliary, pancreatic or intestinal leakage but two patients who underwent PD had minor postoperative complications. The mean follow-up was 44 (range: 6–132) months. Villous adenoma was associated with adenocarcinoma in 50% of the cases (4/8 patients). During the followup both patients who underwent transduodenal ampullectomy developed recurrent disease. All patients initially treated by PD are alive without evidence of recurrent disease. Conclusions: Treatment of villous adenoma of the ampulla must be individualized within certain limits. In our series, PD achieve good results and it appears to be the procedure of choice in order to treat villous adenomas with proved presence of carcinoma, carcinoma in situ or severe dysplasia. Endoscopic or local resection may be appropriate for small benign tumours in high risk patients. PMID:10674748

  10. Parental satisfaction in Ugandan children with cleft lip and palate following synchronous lip and palatal repair.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Anke; D'haeseleer, Evelien; Budolfsen, Dorte; Hodges, Andrew; Galiwango, George; Vermeersch, Hubert; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present case control study was to assess parental satisfaction with speech and facial appearance in Ugandan children with complete unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP), who underwent a synchronous lip and palatal closure. The results are compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. The experimental group consisted of the parents or guardians of 44 Ugandan patients (21 males, 23 females) with complete unilateral or bilateral CLP (mean age: 3;1 years). The control group included the foster mothers of 44 orphan children matched by age and gender (mean age: 3;7 years). A survey based on the Cleft Evaluation Profile was used to assess the perceived satisfaction for individual features related to cleft care. Overall high levels of satisfaction were observed in the experimental group for all features (range: 56-100%). No significant differences could be established regarding age, gender, age of lip and palatal closure, cleft type or maternal vs. paternal judgments. In participants who were dissatisfied with the appearance of the lip, the time period between the cleft closure and the survey was significantly larger compared with satisfied participants. Furthermore, significantly lower levels of satisfaction were observed in the cleft group for speech and the appearance of the teeth and the nose compared with the control group. Satisfaction with speech and facial appearance in Ugandan children with cleft lip and/or palate is important since normal esthetics and speech predominantly determine the children's social acceptance in the Ugandan society. As a result of reading this manuscript, the reader will be able to explain the attitudes of parents toward the surgical repair of their children's cleft lip and palate. As a result of reading this manuscript, the reader will be able to identify differences in parental attitudes toward synchronous lip and palate repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Middle ear adenoma is an amphicrine tumor: why call it adenoma?

    PubMed

    Ketabchi, S; Massi, D; Franchi, A; Vannucchi, P; Santucci, M

    2001-01-01

    Middle ear adenoma (MEA) is a rare tumor postulated to take origin from the lining epithelium of the middle ear cavity. The authors report on a case of MEA arising in a 53-year old woman suffering from a sensation of fullness in her left ear, otalgia, and light left-sided hearing loss. Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of cuboidal and polygonal cells displaying a trabecular, tubulo-glandular, and solid pattern of growth. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells diffusely stained with anti-vimentin antibodies and were focally positive for chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, lysozyme, and cytokeratins AE1/AE3. The majority of tumor cells showed weak and diffuse staining with both anti-PP and anti-ACTH antibodies and intense positivity with anti-glucagon and anti Leu-7 antibodies. Ultrastructural investigation revealed both mucinous-glandular and neuroendocrine differentiation. The authors suggest that the appropriate terminology would be adeno-carcinoid or amphicrine tumor of the middle ear rather than "adenoma," a term that does not reflect its dual nature.

  12. Psychogenic palatal tremor may be underrecognized: reappraisal of a large series of cases.

    PubMed

    Stamelou, Maria; Saifee, Tabish A; Edwards, Mark J; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2012-08-01

    Palatal tremor is characterized by rhythmic movements of the soft palate and can be essential or symptomatic. Some patients can have palatal movements as a special skill or due to palatal tics. Psychogenic palatal tremor is recognized but rarely reported in the literature. We retrospectively evaluated all patients with palatal tremor seen in our center over a period of 10 years. Of 17 patients with palatal tremor, we identified 10 patients with isolated palatal tremor. In 70% of those the diagnosis of psychogenic palatal tremor could be made. Of the remainder, 2 had palatal tics and 1 essential palatal tremor. We suggest that psychogenic palatal tremor may be underrecognized and propose that targeted clinical examination of positive signs for psychogenic movement disorders in these patients is essential. The correct identification of such patients has important clinical and scientific implications. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  13. A Glance at Methods for Cleft Palate Repair

    PubMed Central

    Tavakolinejad, Sima; Ebrahimzadeh Bidskan, Alireza; Ashraf, Hami; Hamidi Alamdari, Daryoush

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cleft palate is the second most common birth defect and is considered as a challenge for pediatric plastic surgeons. There is still a general lack of a standard protocol and patients often require multiple surgical interventions during their lifetime along with disappointing results. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed search was undertaken using search terms including 'cleft palate repair', 'palatal cleft closure', 'cleft palate + stem cells', 'cleft palate + plasma rich platelet', 'cleft palate + scaffold', 'palatal tissue engineering', and 'bone tissue engineering'. The found articles were included if they defined a therapeutic strategy and/or assessed a new technique. Results: We reported a summary of the key-points concerning cleft palate development, the genes involving this defect, current therapeutic strategies, recently novel aspects, and future advances in treatments for easy and fast understanding of the concepts, rather than a systematic review. In addition, the results were integrated with our recent experience. Conclusions: Tissue engineering may open a new window in cleft palate reconstruction. Stem cells and growth factors play key roles in this field. PMID:25593724

  14. Sex-specific prevalence of adenomas, advanced adenomas, and colorectal cancer in individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ferlitsch, Monika; Reinhart, Karoline; Pramhas, Sibylle; Wiener, Caspar; Gal, Orsolya; Bannert, Christina; Hassler, Michaela; Kozbial, Karin; Dunkler, Daniela; Trauner, Michael; Weiss, Werner

    2011-09-28

    Although some studies have shown that men are at greater age-specific risk for advanced colorectal neoplasia than women, the age for referring patients to screening colonoscopy is independent of sex and usually recommended to be 50 years. To determine and compare the prevalence and number needed to screen (NNS) for adenomas, advanced adenomas (AAs), and colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) for different age groups in men and women. Cohort study of 44,350 participants in a national screening colonoscopy program over a 4-year period (2007 to 2010) in Austria. Prevalence and NNS of adenomas, AAs, and CRCs in different age groups for men and women. The median ages were 60.7 years (interquartile range [IQR], 54.5-67.5 years) for women and 60.6 years (IQR, 54.3-67.6 years) for men, and the sex ratio was nearly identical (51.0% [22,598] vs 49.0% [21,572]). Adenomas were found in 19.7% of individuals screened (95% CI, 19.3%-20.1%; n = 8743), AAs in 6.3% (95% CI, 6.1%-6.5%; n = 2781), and CRCs in 1.1% (95% CI, 1.0%-1.2%; n = 491); NNS were 5.1 (95% CI, 5.0-5.2), 15.9 (95% CI, 15.4-16.5), and 90.9 (95% CI, 83.3-100.0), respectively. Male sex was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of adenomas (24.9% [95% CI, 24.3%-25.4%] vs 14.8% [95% CI, 14.3%-15.2%]; P < .001; unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.9 [95% CI, 1.8-2.0]), AAs (8.0% [95% CI, 7.6%-8.3%] vs 4.7% [95% CI, 4.4%-4.9%]; P < .001; unadjusted OR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.6-1.9]), and CRCs (1.5% [95% CI, 1.3%-1.7%] vs 0.7% [95% CI, 0.6%-0.9%]; P < .001; unadjusted OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.7-2.5]). The prevalence of AAs in 50- to 54-year-old individuals was 5.0% (95% CI, 4.4%-5.6%) in men but 2.9% (95% CI, 2.5%-3.4%) in women (adjusted P = .001); the NNS in men was 20 (95% CI, 17.8-22.6) vs 34 in women (95% CI, 29.1-40; adjusted P = .001). There was no statistical significance between the prevalence and NNS of AAs in men aged 45 to 49 years compared with women aged 55 to 59 years (3.8% [95% CI, 2.3%-6.1%] vs 3.9% [95% CI, 3.3%-4.5%] and

  15. Surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion with tent screws and a custom-made palatal expander: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Kang-Nam; Lee, Chang Youn; Park, In Young; Kim, Jwa Young; Yang, Byoungeun

    2015-12-01

    Rapid palatal expansion(RPE) with the tooth-born appliance is not sufficient to apply to the patients with periodontal problem or insufficient tooth anchorage, and it leads to tipping of the anchorage teeth and increasing teeth mobility and root resorption. To avoid these disadvantages, we present the case using palatal screws and custommade palatal expander. A 23-year-old patient underwent surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with the Hyrax expansion using 4 tent screws. The study models were used to measure the pre-/-post surgical width of the anterior and posterior dental arches with a digital sliding caliper. In the result, the custom-made palatal expander with 4 tent screws is suitable for delivering a force to the mid-palatal suture expansion. And it is low cost, small sized and simply applied. The results indicated that maxillary expansion with the custom-made palatal anchorage device is predictable and stable technique without significant complications in patients.

  16. Severe hyponatremia after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Boehnert, M; Hensen, J; Henig, A; Fahlbusch, R; Gross, P; Buchfelder, M

    1998-02-01

    Severe hyponatremia has been described after elective surgery with subsequent permanent brain damage. Other authors, however, have noted that morbidity and mortality rates of severe hyponatremia have been greatly overestimated. We retrospectively examined 19 patients (8 male, 11 female) who developed severe hyponatremia (100 to 124 mmol/liter) after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas. Eight patients had hormonally inactive adenomas, 5 ACTH-secreting adenomas, 2 GH-secreting adenomas and 4 prolactin-secreting adenomas. The mean age of the patients was 47.5 years, with a range from 16 to 71 years. The mean preoperative serum sodium level was 137.8 mmol/liter. The timing of hyponatremia showed two different patterns. Five patients developed early postoperative hyponatremia (mean 114.0 mmol/liter +/- 4.85) and 14 patients showed the lowest mean serum level one week after surgery (118.1 mmol/liter +/- 6.86). Patients with early hyponatremia had fewer and less severe symptoms than patients with delayed hyponatremia. None of the patients developed seizures or a demyelination syndrome. Despite severe degree of hyponatremia for most of our patients treatment with water restriction and oral sodium supplementation was sufficient.

  17. Mucosal adherent bacterial dysbiosis in patients with colorectal adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingying; Chen, Jing; Zheng, Junyuan; Hu, Guoyong; Wang, Jingjing; Huang, Chunlan; Lou, Lihong; Wang, Xingpeng; Zeng, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). The composition of gut microbiota in CRC precursors has not been adequately described. To characterize the structure of adherent microbiota in this disease, we conducted pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA genes to determine the bacterial profile of normal colons (healthy controls) and colorectal adenomas (CRC precursors). Adenoma mucosal biopsy samples and adjacent normal colonic mucosa from 31 patients with adenomas and 20 healthy volunteers were profiled using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed structural segregation between colorectal adenomatous tissue and control tissue. Alpha diversity estimations revealed higher microbiota diversity in samples from patients with adenomas. Taxonomic analysis illustrated that abundance of eight phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Candidate-division TM7, and Tenericutes) was significantly different. In addition, Lactococcus and Pseudomonas were enriched in preneoplastic tissue, whereas Enterococcus, Bacillus, and Solibacillus were reduced. However, both PCoA and cluster tree analyses showed similar microbiota structure between adenomatous and adjacent non-adenoma tissues. These present findings provide preliminary experimental evidence supporting that colorectal preneoplastic lesion may be the most important factor leading to alterations in bacterial community composition. PMID:27194068

  18. Altered tissue metabolites correlate with microbial dysbiosis in colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Julia L; McCoy, Amber N; Addamo, Cassandra J; Jia, Wei; Sandler, Robert S; Keku, Temitope O

    2014-04-04

    Several studies have linked bacterial dysbiosis with elevated risk of colorectal adenomas and cancer. However, the functional implications of gut dysbiosis remain unclear. Gut bacteria contribute to nutrient metabolism and produce small molecules termed the "metabolome", which may contribute to the development of neoplasia in the large bowel. We assessed the metabolome in normal rectal mucosal biopsies of 15 subjects with colorectal adenomas and 15 nonadenoma controls by liquid chromatography and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure abundances of specific bacterial taxa. We identified a total of 274 metabolites. Discriminant analysis suggested a separation of metabolomic profiles between adenoma cases and nonadenoma controls. Twenty-three metabolites contributed to the separation, notably an increase in adenoma cases of the inflammatory metabolite prostaglandin E2 and a decrease in antioxidant-related metabolites 5-oxoproline and diketogulonic acid. Pathway analysis suggested that differential metabolites were significantly related to cancer, inflammatory response, carbohydrate metabolism, and GI disease pathways. Abundances of six bacterial taxa assayed were increased in cases. The 23 differential metabolites demonstrated correlations with bacteria that were different between cases and controls. These findings suggest that metabolic products of bacteria may be responsible for the development of colorectal adenomas and CRC.

  19. Familial pituitary adenomas - who should be tested for AIP mutations?

    PubMed

    Korbonits, Márta; Storr, Helen; Kumar, Ajith V

    2012-09-01

    Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenomas (FIPA), an autosomal dominant disease with low penetrance is being increasingly recognized. FIPA families can be divided into two distinct groups based on genetic and phenotypic features. Patients with mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene are characterized by young-onset somatotroph or lactotroph macroadenomas, while in the other, larger group of FIPA patients with typically adult-onset disease and more varied adenoma types, no causative gene(s) has been identified. Young-onset macroadenoma patients can also be identified with germline AIP mutation without an apparent family history. Further data and longer follow-up are necessary to establish formal guidelines, but the current data suggest genetic screening of the AIP gene in patients with a pituitary adenoma and no other associated features who have (i) a family history of pituitary adenoma, (ii) childhood-onset pituitary adenoma or (iii) a pituitary somatotroph or lactotroph macroadenoma diagnosed before the age of 30 years.

  20. Pleomorphic adenoma of the tongue base: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Luiz Augusto; Vilela, Thais Gonçalves Pinheiro

    2014-07-01

    Introduction Pleomorphic adenoma, also known as mixed tumor, is the most common benign tumor of the major and minor salivary glands. The occurrence of pleomorphic adenoma of the tongue base is very rare, and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Objective The authors present a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma of the tongue base and a review of the literature. Case Report A 55-year-old woman had an extensive cervical mass, with little pain, from the submental level to the level below the hyoid bone. Fiberoptic endoscopic examination showed an extensive mass at the base of the tongue with considerable reduction in the airway. Magnetic resonance image scan revealed a contrast-enhancing mass of heterogeneous density over the base of the tongue of 8 × 8 × 7 cm and a reduction of the hypopharyngeal airway. Biopsy of the lesion was performed along with a tracheostomy due to the bulging tongue base and acute respiratory failure. Histologic examination with an immunohistochemistry study revealed a diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma. The excision of the tumor was performed by a lateral pharyngotomy approach and the total mass was excised. Conclusion The authors consider the rarity of this case and show that this is the 11th and the largest pleomorphic adenoma reported in the English-language medical literature.

  1. [Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland, rules for resection].

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Mischa; Smeele, Ludi E; Balm, Alfons J M

    2012-01-01

    The importance of complete excision of a benign pleomorphic adenoma is illustrated by two patients' histories. A 28-year-old man underwent a local excision of a nodule under the left ear without histological confirmation. Ten years later he returned to our institute with a large multilocular process and subcutaneous nodules. Cytology showed pleomorphic adenoma. Patient was treated with total facial nerve preserving parotidectomy and radiotherapy. An 81-year-old male underwent a surgical removal of a swelling under his left ear eight years before admission for a large diffusely infiltrating tumor in the neck. Repeated cytology showed carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. This tumor was inoperable and he was treated by palliative irradiation. In case of incomplete resection, pleomorphic adenoma cells are spilled with an increasing chance of local recurrence. Also degeneration into carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is possible after incomplete resection, with impact on survival. These risks of residual disease determine the need of centralization of diagnosis and treatment of this benign parotid tumor.

  2. [A case of parotid pleomorphic adenoma metastasis to multiple organs].

    PubMed

    Kessoku, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Iino, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, a 64-year-old woman who had undergone tumor resection for pleomorphic adenoma of the left parotid gland four times since her first operation in 1996 visited an orthopedist in our hospital complaining of pain in her right lower limb. Computed tomography (CT) of the whole body showed multiple tumors on the left parotid gland, right kidney, the sacrum, and both lungs. Biopsy of the sacral region and right nephrectomy were performed based on a clinical diagnosis of sacral and pulmonary metastases from renal cell carcinoma, and palliative radiation therapy was immediately begun on the sacral region. Given the definitive pathological diagnosis of metastasis of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland, the recurrent tumor of the left parotid gland and the surrounding lymph nodes were first removed. Postoperative findings demonstrated that the pleomorphic adenoma had metastasized to the lymph nodes. The lung tumors were resected subsequently, and postoperative findings led to the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma. Metastasis of pleomorphic adenoma is known to be extremely rare, and to our knowledge this case of metastasis to a kidney is the first reported in Japan.

  3. Colorectal villous adenoma: transrectal US in screening for invasive malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hulsmans, F H; Tio, T L; Mathus-Vliegen, E M; Bosma, A; Tytgat, G N

    1992-10-01

    Exclusion of focal infiltrating malignancy in colorectal villous adenoma is a prerequisite when nonsurgical treatment is considered. In a study of 81 patients with endoscopically identified colorectal villous adenoma screened for malignancy with transrectal ultrasonography (US), 15 patients were excluded because of incomplete follow-up. Twelve carcinomas were present, confirmed with either histopathologic examination after surgical resection (n = 9) or biopsies during laser treatment (n = 3). Nine of them were detected with transrectal US on the basis of disruption of the anatomic wall layers (sensitivity, 75%). In 46 of the 54 adenomas transrectal US helped confirm the benign nature of the lesion (specificity, 85%). Seven of the eight false-positive cases happened to be previously treated with surgery or coagulation. Treatment-associated inflammatory changes in the wall layers seemed responsible for this misinterpretation. Because of the high predictive value for a negative result (benign adenoma, 94%), transrectal US is recommended for the evaluation of villous adenomas to detect malignancy, especially when nonsurgical treatment is considered. Transrectal US should be performed before diagnostic polypectomy.

  4. Diagnosing subtle palatal anomalies: Validation of video-analysis and assessment protocol for diagnosing occult submucous cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Rourke, Ryan; Weinberg, Seth M; Marazita, Mary L; Jabbour, Noel

    2017-09-01

    Submucous cleft palate (SMCP) classically involves bifid uvula, zona pellucida, and notched hard palate. However, patients may present with more subtle anatomic abnormalities. The ability to detect these abnormalities is important for surgeons managing velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) or considering adenoidectomy. Validate an assessment protocol for diagnosis of occult submucous cleft palate (OSMCP) and identify physical examination features present in patients with OSMCP in the relaxed and activated palate positions. Study participants included patients referred to a pediatric VPD clinic with concern for hypernasality or SMCP. Using an appropriately encrypted iPod touch, transoral video was obtained for each patient with the palate in the relaxed and activated positions. The videos were reviewed by two otolaryngologists in normal speed and slow-motion, as needed, and a questionnaire was completed by each reviewer pertaining to the anatomy and function of the palate. 47 patients, with an average age of 4.6 years, were included in the study over a one-year period. Four videos were unusable due to incomplete view of the palate. The most common palatal abnormality noted was OSMCP, diagnosed by each reviewer in 26/43 and 30/43 patients respectively. Using the assessment protocol, agreement on palatal diagnosis was 83.7% (kappa = 0.68), indicating substantial agreement, with the most prevalent anatomic features being vaulted palate elevation (96%) and visible notching of hard palate (75%). The diagnosis of subtle palatal anomalies is difficult and can be subjective. Using the proposed video-analysis method and assessment protocol may improve reliability of diagnosis of OSMCP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Case Report of a Giant Tubular Adenoma With a Concurrent Fibroadenoma of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Kalipatnapu, Sasank; Samuel, Vimalin; Johnson, Martha; Perookavil Daniel, Koshy

    2015-01-01

    Tubular adenomas are rare benign epithelial tumors of the breast. Only a handful of cases have been reported in literature. We describe a very rare case of a giant tubular adenoma with a concurrent fibroadenoma in a young woman.

  6. Parathyroid cyst with adenoma on thallium-201/technetium-99m subtraction imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, K.G.; Baeumler, G.R.

    1987-04-01

    A case of a parathyroid cyst with adenoma was seen on Tl-201/Tc-99m subtraction imaging. The literature regarding parathyroid cysts and the subtraction technique for parathyroid adenoma imaging was reviewed.

  7. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland with hepatic metastasis: clinic-radiological case report.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Manu; Tomar, Divya; Sharma, Manu; Goel, Samta; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2014-04-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma originally called the mixed tumour is a neoplasm commonly involving major salivary glands. The spectrum of malignancy in pleomorphic adenoma comprises three distinct entities - Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, carcinosarcoma and benign metastasising pleomorphic adenoma. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma consists of pleomorphic adenoma with a malignant epithelial component. Occasionally, carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma develops metastasis. Here we are reporting here a case of benign pleomorphic adenoma arising in parotid gland which turned into malignancy after four years. The patient developed facial nerve paralysis suggesting malignant transformation. Along the course of the disease, the patient developed regional metastasis to lymph nodes and neck and distant metastasis to liver. This case report emphasises the role of advanced imaging modalities in the early diagnosis of the condition and evaluation of metastasis. The patients with this condition should be treated early for favorable outcome and investigated for distant metastasis.

  8. Effects of variation of the timing of palatal repair on nasality of speech in complete cleft lip and palate children.

    PubMed

    Nandlal, B; Tewari, A; Utreja, A K; Chari, P S; Raghunathan, N

    1999-12-01

    Nasality is related to factors like velopharyngeal closure and acoustic factors pertaining to cavities. The present investigation is a retrospective study aimed at evaluating the effects of variation in the timing of palatal repair on nasality during speech development in complete cleft lip and palate cases. It has been observed that the delay in palatal repair is associated with increase in nasality. Also, from the operated complete cleft lip and palate cases, it has been observed that the early and medium repair groups had almost similar effects on nasality of speech. (if they were operated before 36 months of age).

  9. Nonfunctioning giant pituitary adenomas: Invasiveness and recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Landeiro, José Alberto; Fonseca, Elissa Oliveira; Monnerat, Andrea Lima Cruz; Taboada, Giselle Fernandes; Cabral, Gustavo Augusto Porto Sereno; Antunes, Felippe

    2015-01-01

    Background: We report our surgical series of 35 patients with giant nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (GNFPA). We analyzed the rule of Ki-67 antigen expression in predicting recurrence. Methods: Thirty-five patients were operated between 2000 and 2010. Suprassellar extension of the tumors were classified according to Hardy and Mohr based on magnetic resonance (MR) studies. Pituitary endocrine function and MR scans were assessed preoperatively and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Immunohistochemical studies were based in regard to the expression of the proliferative Ki-67 index and the hormonal receptor for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and prolactin. Tumors specimens were obtained from 35 patients with GNFPA. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery was the approach of choice. Results: Thirty-five patients were submitted to 49 surgeries, 44 (89.8%) were transsphenoidal and 5 (10.2%) were transcranial. The most frequent preoperative complaints were visual acuity impairment and visual field defect in 25 (71.2%) and 23 (65.7%) cases, respectively. Improvement of visual acuitiy and visual field deficit after surgery was seen in 20 (80%) and 17 (73.9%) patients, respectively. Endocrinological deficits were encountered in 20 patients (57.1%). After surgery, 18 patients (51.4%) required hormonal replacement. Three patients had visual symptoms related to pituitary apoplexy and recovered after surgery. The Ki-67 labeling index (LI) ranged from <1% to 4.8%. The rate of recurrence in tumors with Ki-67 <3% was 7.7% (2 patients), Ki-67 >3% was present in 5 patients and the recurrence committed 3 patients. Conclusion: In our series, regardless the improvement of visual function and compressing symptoms, 5 patients with expression of Ki-67 LI more than 3% experienced a recurrence. PMID:26674325

  10. Impact of subclinical haemorrhage on the pituitary gland in patients with pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yasuyuki; Tominaga, Atsushi; Usui, Satoshi; Arita, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2014-05-01

    Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical instruments for surgery frequently demonstrate subclinical haemorrhage in pituitary adenomas; however, the effects of subclinical haemorrhage on pituitary glands remain unclear. We sought to clarify the pituitary function in patients with subclinical pituitary adenoma haemorrhage (SPAH). Between January 2006 and December 2012, we retrospectively reviewed 328 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for pituitary adenoma. SPAH was defined as an intratumoral haemorrhage based on both 3 tesla MRI and operative findings, with no clinical symptoms of acute pituitary adenoma apoplexy. The pituitary dysfunction assessed using pre- and postoperative provocative tests was investigated in patients categorized into three groups: nonapoplectic adenoma, adenoma with SPAH and adenoma with clinical apoplexy. The main outcome measure was the incidence of pituitary dysfunction. The overall incidence of nonapoplectic adenomas, adenomas with SPAH and adenomas with clinical apoplexy was 82·3%, 14·3% and 3·4%, respectively. Clinical pituitary apoplexy frequently occurred in male patients with large nonfunctioning adenomas, causing pituitary dysfunction. Contrastingly, the incidence of SPAH was significantly higher in the patients with prolactinoma (P = 0·0260), including those with relatively small adenomas (P = 0·0007). No medications, such as dopamine agonists or somatostatin analogues, were observed to affect the occurrence of SPAH. No deterioration of the pituitary function was observed in the SPAH patients in comparison with the patients with nonapoplectic adenoma, and the size of the haematoma occupying the pituitary adenoma did not exhibit any relationships with the deterioration of the pituitary function. Furthermore, SPAH caused no deterioration of the pituitary function after a surgery based on the postoperative provocation tests. Subclinical pituitary adenoma haemorrhage does not cause any added dysfunction in

  11. Putative functions of extracellular matrix glycoproteins in secondary palate morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    d'Amaro, Rocca; Scheidegger, Rolf; Blumer, Susan; Pazera, Pawel; Katsaros, Christos; Graf, Daniel; Chiquet, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Cleft palate is a common birth defect in humans. Elevation and fusion of paired palatal shelves are coordinated by growth and transcription factors, and mutations in these can cause malformations. Among the effector genes for growth factor signaling are extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins. These provide substrates for cell adhesion (e.g., fibronectin, tenascins), but also regulate growth factor availability (e.g., fibrillins). Cleft palate in Bmp7 null mouse embryos is caused by a delay in palatal shelf elevation. In contrast, palatal shelves of Tgf-β3 knockout mice elevate normally, but a cleft develops due to their failure to fuse. However, nothing is known about a possible functional interaction between specific ECM proteins and Tgf-β/Bmp family members in palatogenesis. To start addressing this question, we studied the mRNA and protein distribution of relevant ECM components during secondary palate development, and compared it to growth factor expression in wildtypewild type and mutant mice. We found that fibrillin-2 (but not fibrillin-1) mRNA appeared in the mesenchyme of elevated palatal shelves adjacent to the midline epithelial cells, which were positive for Tgf-β3 mRNA. Moreover, midline epithelial cells started expressing fibronectin upon contact of the two palatal shelves. These findings support the hypothesis that fibrillin-2 and fibronectin are involved in regulating the activity of Tgf-β3 at the fusing midline. In addition, we observed that tenascin-W (but not tenascin-C) was misexpressed in palatal shelves of Bmp7-deficient mouse embryos. In contrast to tenascin-C, tenascin-W secretion was strongly induced by Bmp7 in embryonic cranial fibroblasts in vitro. These results are consistent with a putative function for tenascin-W as a target of Bmp7 signaling during palate elevation. Our results indicate that distinct ECM proteins are important for morphogenesis of the secondary palate, both as downstream effectors and as regulators of Tgf

  12. High 18Fluor-DCFPyL Uptake in Adrenal Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Peper, Johannes Gerrit Karel; Srbljin, Sandra; van der Zant, Friso Martijn; Knol, Remco Johannes Jacob; Wondergem, Maurits

    2017-08-19

    Radioisotope-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) tracers have been proven accurate for detection of prostate cancer localizations. Uptake of those tracers in other malignant and benign lesions has been reported, including faint accumulation of Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC in adrenal adenoma. A 77-year-old man with prostate carcinoma was scanned with F-DCFPyL, a promising F-labeled PSMA ligand, for prostate-specific antigen progression while on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy. The PET/CT shows F-DCFPyL uptake in bilateral enlarged adrenals. Non-contrast-enhanced CT scan indicated left adrenal adenoma. Regarding the high positive predictive value of multiphase contrast-enhanced CT (98%), presence of right adrenal adenoma is also likely.

  13. PLAG1 expression is maintained in recurrent pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Beatriz Samara; Gaspar, Natália Giovanelli; Egal, Erika Said Abu; Sanchez-Romero, Celeste; Martins, Antonio Santos; Tincani, Álfio José; de Oliveira Gondak, Rogério; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Altemani, Albina; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane

    2016-10-01

    The proto-oncogene (pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1)) is immunohistochemically overexpressed in pleomorphic adenoma (PA). Its expression in recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (RPA), however, has not been investigated. Since complex mechanisms are involved in tumor recurrence, the aim of this study was to investigate whether PLAG1 overexpression occurs in RPA. We studied PLAG1 protein expression in 40 PAs and 36 RPAs by immunohistochemistry. Cases with immunopositive cells were classified into two categories, between 10 and 50 % and >50 %. In both groups, PLAG1 expression was observed in both epithelial and myoepithelial cells. Of PAs, 37 cases (93 %) were positive, while this was the case in 34 RPA cases (94 %). Our findings suggest that in addition to morphological similarity, PA and RPA express PLAG1, which might play a role in tumor recurrence. Furthermore, as for PA, expression of PLAG1 can be considered a valuable diagnostic marker for RPA.

  14. Remarkable Triple Pleomorphic Adenoma Affecting both Parotid and Submandibular Glands

    PubMed Central

    Pingarrón-Martín, Lorena; Arias-Gallo, L. J.; Demaría-Martínez, G.; Chamorro Pons, M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the first case reported in the literature of metachronous pleomorphic adenoma of bilateral parotid glands and submaxillary gland. The authors report the case of a 27-year-old female with metachronous mixed tumors in her right parotid and submandibular glands. The patient has no history of previous radiotherapy. All three lesions were diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. The histopathologic evaluation of all three major salivary gland masses demonstrated pleomorphic adenomas, with no occult malignancy observed on serial sections. The presentation of pleomorphic adenomas in the parotids and submandibular glands probably represents three unrelated primary sites of tumor, yet the possibility of metastasis from one gland to the other cannot be excluded. PMID:26000084

  15. Immunohistochemistery study in a case of nephrogenic adenoma of bladder.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Akbar; Farzaneh, Mohamad Reza; Amin Sharifi, Ali Reza

    2012-06-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a rare benign lesion of bladder that may be confused with malignant lesions. There is a strong relation with urinary tract irritation and intravesicle instrumentations. Nephrogenic adenoma was initially thought to originate from urothelial metaplasia; however, no solid proof is available. We present a case of 55-year-old lady with urinary problem. Cystocopic examination showed a sessile mass, and biopsy revealed circumscribed proliferation of tubules, cysts, and papillae that were lined by low cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells. Nephrogenic adenoma can be a significant diagnostic pitfall due to the presence of certain histological features such as the presence of enlarged nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemistery study was strongly positive for CK7, P504S, CD10, and EMA, but negative for CK20, PSA, and P63.

  16. Immunohistochemical study of basal cell adenoma in the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Hamano, H; Abiko, Y; Hashimoto, S; Inoue, T; Shimono, M; Takagi, T; Noma, H

    1990-02-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland was studied with immunohistochemical methods. We observed cells in the tumor with positive reaction to polyclonal keratin, prekeratin, monoclonal PKK-1, polyclonal S-100 protein, monoclonal S-100 protein (alpha), secretory component, actin and laminin. However, no cells which stained positively with monoclonal KL-1, amylase, carcinoembryonic antigen, or epithelial membrane antigen were recognized. From these immunohistochemical results and our ultrastructural observations reported previously, we conclude that the cells constituting the basal cell adenoma are ductal, myoepithelial, and squamous cells but not secretory ones. It is also suggested that the origins of basal cell ademona as well as those of pleomorphic and clear cell adenoma are undifferentiated cells of intercalated duct.

  17. [Atypical presentation of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma with necrotic foci].

    PubMed

    Casado, A; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, V; Barrancos, C; Albandea, A

    2015-09-01

    The case is presented of 48 year-old male complaining of a painful left upper eyelid and swelling of the lacrimal gland, with a suspicion of dacryoadenitis. Removal was decided after dacriops suspicion. Histopathology diagnosed a pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland, with areas of necrosis. Lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma usually presents as a slowly progressive painless mass. However, painful presentation in this case might be related with necrotic foci found in the histopathological examination. Although not described in lacrimal glands, pleomorphic adenomas have already been reported in the major and minor salivary glands, and these patients also presented with a painful mass. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. MRI of mediastinal parathyroid cystic adenoma causing hyperparathyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Bargiela, A.; Cordido, F.; Aguilera, C.; Argueeso, R.; Cao, I.

    1996-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common disorder that results from an increased secretion of parathyroid hormone, most often due to a solitary and solid parathyroid adenoma usually found in the inferior group of parathyroid glands. Parathyroid gland is ectopic in approximately 10 to 20% of the cases, and the retrosternal and prevascular mediastinum is the most common location. Most mediastinal parathyroid adenomas are solid and <3 cm, but mediastinal parathyroid cysts are very uncommon and rarely cause hyperparathyroidism. We know of 18 cases of mediastinal parathyroid cysts that have been previously reported and only four of them presented with hyperparathyroidism. We report an unusual case of hyperparathyroidism due to a large cystic parathyroid adenoma located in the anterior mediastinum diagnosed by MRI. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  19. [Intrasellar small TSH secreting pituitary adenomas, 2 case reports].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Tominaga, Teiji; Ikeda, Hidetoshi

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma accounts for 1% of pituitary adenoma and often manifests as invasive macroadenoma. If the TSH value is not high enough to cause clinical symptoms presenting as inappropriate secretion of TSH, the tumor may be missed or misdiagnosed as Graves disease. Some of these patients receive inadequate treatment with the antithyroid agent, radioiodine treatment, and thyroidectomy. This tumor is also known as a tough and firm tumor because of the significant interstitial fibrosis. We report two cases of TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas which were comparatively small. Although a tough and difficult operation was expected, actual tumor dissection was easy and gross total removal was achieved within less than 3 hours. We discuss the relationship between the intraoperative findings and histopathology, as well as the ultrastructure and endocrinology.

  20. Thyrotropin secreting pituitary adenoma accompanying a silent somatotropinoma.

    PubMed

    Berker, Dilek; Isik, Serhat; Aydin, Yusuf; Tutuncu, Yasemin; Akdemir, Gokhan; Ozcan, Hatice Nursun; Guler, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting pituitary adenomas are rare tumors manifested as hyperthyroidism with goiter in the presence of elevated TSH. We present a case with pituitary adenoma secreting both TSH and growth hormone (GH) with the prominent clinical findings of hyperthyroidism but without clinical findings of acromegaly. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging revealed a macroadenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed twice. The immunohistochemical staining showed that tumor cells were strongly reactive to GH and relatively mildly reactive to TSH. Control pituitary imaging revealed a residual macroadenoma, and long acting octreotide treatment was administered. After two years of the treatment, tumor size remained the same while thyroid function tests and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) values returned to normal ranges. In conclusion, we always recommend hormonal examinations for all patients who have pituitary adenoma without signs and symptoms of acromegaly.

  1. [Giant parathyroid adenoma causing early recurrence of renal stones].

    PubMed

    Traxer, Olivier; Mouton, Albert; Abbecassis, Rémy; Tassard, Marc; Vigneau, Cécile; Gattegno, Bernard; Thibault, Philippe

    2004-06-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is not a rare disease. Renal stones are the most frequent complication of PHPT The authors report the case of a patient with giant parathyroid adenoma responsible for early recurrence of renal stones. Ultrasound examination of the neck, parathyroid MRI and Technetium99m-Sestamibi scintigraphy confirmed the parathyroid adenoma. Surgical exploration allowed resection of a giant adenoma (6.5 x 2.5 x 1.5 cm weighing 17 g). In the light of this case, the authors describe the characteristics of HPT define the place of preoperative imaging and emphasize the need for systematic aetiological work-up looking for HPT in all patients with a first episode of renal stones.

  2. Water-Clear Cell Adenoma of the Mediastinal Parathyroid Gland.

    PubMed

    Arik, Deniz; Dündar, Emine; Yilmaz, Evrim; Sivrikoz, Cumhur

    2017-10-06

    Water-clear cell adenoma of the parathyroid gland is a rare neoplasm that consists of cells with abundant clear-pink cytoplasm. There have only been 19 cases reported in the English literature. Here we report a case of water-clear cell adenoma of the mediastinal parathyroid gland. A 70-year-old male patient presented to the hospital with back pain and a mediastinal mass 6 cm in size was detected. After excision and microscopic evaluation, uniform, large clear cells with fine cytoplasmic vacuolization, without nuclear atypia, and arranged in solid and acinar patterns were revealed. The cells formed nests that were separated by fine fibrovascular septae and stained positively with anti-parathyroid hormone. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in this location. In the differential diagnosis of clear cell lesions of the mediastinum, water-clear cell parathyroid adenoma should be considered.

  3. Water-Clear Cell Adenoma of the Mediastinal Parathyroid Gland.

    PubMed

    Arik, Deniz; Dündar, Emine; Yilmaz, Evrim; Sivrikoz, Cumhur

    2017-01-01

    Water-clear cell adenoma of the parathyroid gland is a rare neoplasm that consists of cells with abundant clear-pink cytoplasm. There have only been 19 cases reported in the English literature. Here we report a case of water-clear cell adenoma of the mediastinal parathyroid gland. A 70-year-old male patient presented to the hospital with back pain and a mediastinal mass 6 cm in size was detected. After excision and microscopic evaluation, uniform, large clear cells with fine cytoplasmic vacuolization, without nuclear atypia, and arranged in solid and acinar patterns were revealed. The cells formed nests that were separated by fine fibrovascular septae and stained positively with anti-parathyroid hormone. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in this location. In the differential diagnosis of clear cell lesions of the mediastinum, water-clear cell parathyroid adenoma should be considered.

  4. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma -- a giant tumor.

    PubMed

    Lung, T; Juncar, M

    2013-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is one of the most frequent tumors that involve the parotid gland. The tumor constantly increases in dimension if not cured in due time and may become malignant. A case of a patient suffering from a carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma that had a 20-year-evolution and reached impressive dimensions is presented. The tumor holds the second place worldwide among the largest carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma in terms of size and the ninth place worldwide among the most voluminous parotid tumors ever surgically excised, as far as we know. Nevertheless, the regional invading character of the tumor in this particular case has been limited, without generating local lymph node invasion or metastases.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in the progression of colorectal adenoma to carcinoma : Matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in the colorectal adenoma and carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira K; Abdel-Aziz, Azza

    2014-06-01

    Most colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) are considered to arise from conventional adenoma based on the concept of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be overexpressed as normal mucosa progresses to adenomas and carcinomas. There has been little previous investigation about MMP-13 expression in adenoma-carcinoma sequence. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of MMP-13 in colorectal adenoma and CRC specimens using tissue microarray (TMA) technique. A total of 40 cases of CRC associated with adenoma were collected from files of the Pathology laboratory at Mansoura Gastroenterology Center between January 2007 and January 2012. Sections from TMA blocks were prepared and stained for MMP-13. Immunoreactivity to MMP-13 staining was localized to the cytoplasm of mildly, moderately, and severely dysplatic cells of adenomas and CRC tumor cells that were either homogenous or heterogeneous. There was no significant difference in MMP-13 expression between adenomas and CRCs either non-mucinous or mucinous. Adenomas with high MMP-13 expression were significantly associated with moderate to marked degree of inflammatory cellular infiltrate and presence of familial adenomatous polyps. In conclusion, MMP-13 may be a potential biological marker of early tumorigenesis in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.

  6. Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenomas (FIPA) and the Pituitary Adenoma Predisposition due to Mutations in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interacting Protein (AIP) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Daly, Adrian F.

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are one of the most frequent intracranial tumors and occur with a prevalence of approximately 1:1000 in the developed world. Pituitary adenomas have a serious disease burden, and their management involves neurosurgery, biological therapies, and radiotherapy. Early diagnosis of pituitary tumors while they are smaller may help increase cure rates. Few genetic predictors of pituitary adenoma development exist. Recent years have seen two separate, complimentary advances in inherited pituitary tumor research. The clinical condition of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) has been described, which encompasses the familial occurrence of isolated pituitary adenomas outside of the setting of syndromic conditions like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. FIPA families comprise approximately 2% of pituitary adenomas and represent a clinical entity with homogeneous or heterogeneous pituitary adenoma types occurring within the same kindred. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene has been identified as causing a pituitary adenoma predisposition of variable penetrance that accounts for 20% of FIPA families. Germline AIP mutations have been shown to associate with the occurrence of large pituitary adenomas that occur at a young age, predominantly in children/adolescents and young adults. AIP mutations are usually associated with somatotropinomas, but prolactinomas, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, Cushing disease, and other infrequent clinical adenoma types can also occur. Gigantism is a particular feature of AIP mutations and occurs in more than one third of affected somatotropinoma patients. Study of pituitary adenoma patients with AIP mutations has demonstrated that these cases raise clinical challenges to successful treatment. Extensive research on the biology of AIP and new advances in mouse Aip knockout models demonstrate multiple pathways by which AIP may contribute to tumorigenesis. This review assesses

  7. Familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the pituitary adenoma predisposition due to mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Albert; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Daly, Adrian F; Karhu, Auli

    2013-04-01

    Pituitary adenomas are one of the most frequent intracranial tumors and occur with a prevalence of approximately 1:1000 in the developed world. Pituitary adenomas have a serious disease burden, and their management involves neurosurgery, biological therapies, and radiotherapy. Early diagnosis of pituitary tumors while they are smaller may help increase cure rates. Few genetic predictors of pituitary adenoma development exist. Recent years have seen two separate, complimentary advances in inherited pituitary tumor research. The clinical condition of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) has been described, which encompasses the familial occurrence of isolated pituitary adenomas outside of the setting of syndromic conditions like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. FIPA families comprise approximately 2% of pituitary adenomas and represent a clinical entity with homogeneous or heterogeneous pituitary adenoma types occurring within the same kindred. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene has been identified as causing a pituitary adenoma predisposition of variable penetrance that accounts for 20% of FIPA families. Germline AIP mutations have been shown to associate with the occurrence of large pituitary adenomas that occur at a young age, predominantly in children/adolescents and young adults. AIP mutations are usually associated with somatotropinomas, but prolactinomas, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, Cushing disease, and other infrequent clinical adenoma types can also occur. Gigantism is a particular feature of AIP mutations and occurs in more than one third of affected somatotropinoma patients. Study of pituitary adenoma patients with AIP mutations has demonstrated that these cases raise clinical challenges to successful treatment. Extensive research on the biology of AIP and new advances in mouse Aip knockout models demonstrate multiple pathways by which AIP may contribute to tumorigenesis. This review assesses

  8. Timing of palate repair affecting growth in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xue; Zheng, Qian; Lu, Dawei; Huang, Ning; Li, Jingtao; Li, Sheng; Wang, Yan; Shi, Bing

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the facial morphology characteristics of patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCCLPs) who had undergone cleft palate repair at different times. This study included 46 nonsyndromic UCCLPs and 38 age and sex matched non-cleft patients. 35 cephalometric measurements were used to evaluate the facial morphology. Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA and rank sum tests were used for comparison. Significant difference was defined at 95% level. The data showed that UCCLPs who had palatoplasty between 7 and 12 years had greater PMP-A, PMP-ANS, Ba-ANS, Ba-A, Ba-N-ANS than those operated on before 4 years of age, and UCCLPs who had palatoplasty at 4-12 years had smaller Y-axis angle than those operated on before 4 years of age. The maxillary sagittal length increased gradually as von Langenbeck repair was delayed. UCCLPs who underwent palate repair using von Langenbeck technique at 4-12 years had a more protrusive maxilla and less clockwise rotated mandible than those repaired before 4 years. UCCLPs operated using the von Langenbeck technique at 4-12 years had better head-face morphology than those operated on before 4 years. There was no difference in facial morphology among UCCLPs with palate repair at 4-12 years. Copyright © 2012 European Assocation for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Unilateral cleft lip and palate: Simultaneous early repair of the nose, anterior palate and lip

    PubMed Central

    Laberge, Louise Caouette

    2007-01-01

    Unilateral cleft lip and palate is a defect involving the lip, nose and maxilla. These structures are inter-related, and simultaneous early correction of all the aspects of the defect is necessary to obtain a satisfactory result that will be maintained with growth. The surgical technique combining various procedures is presented and compared with previously published reports. PMID:19554125

  10. Weight Gain in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate without Use of Palatal Plates

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Freitas, Renato; Lopes-Grego, Andrey Bernardo; Dietrich, Helena Luiza Douat; Cerchiari, Natacha Regina de Moraes; Nakakogue, Tabatha; Tonocchi, Rita; Gabardo, Juarez; da Silva, Éder David Borges; Forte, Antonio Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Goals/Background. To evaluate children's growth in the first year of life, who have cleft palate and lip, without the use of palatal plates. Materials/Method. Chart review was conducted, retrospectively, in the Center for Integral Assistance of Cleft Lip and Palate (CAIF), in Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Results for both genders were compared to the data published by the World Health Organization (WHO) regarding average weight gain in children during their first year of life. Results. Patients with syndromic diagnosis and with cleft classified as preforamen were excluded, resulting in a final number of 112 patients: 56 male and 56 female. Similar patterns were seen comparing the two genders. Although it was observed weight gain below the average until the 11th month in male patients and until 9 months in female patients, both genders remained at the 50th percentile (p50) and improved after the 4th month of age for boys and the 9th month of age for girls. Conclusion. Children with cleft palate weigh less than regular children during their first months of life. At the end of the first year, weight gain is similar comparing normal and affected children. However, factors that optimized weight gain included choosing the best treatment for each case, proper guidance, and multiprofessional integrated care. PMID:23304489

  11. [Mediastinal parathyroid adenomas on a 5th ectopic gland. 2 case reports].

    PubMed

    Emy, P; Combe, H; Marchand, J P; Villeneuve, A; Sicre, G; Chadenas, D

    1992-11-01

    Mediastinal parathyroid adenoma located on the 5th ectopic gland is rare. We report here two new cases diagnosed by scintigraphy. In one case the adenoma was found to be located in the mediastinum prior to cervicotomy. The modern imaging methods capable of locating parathyroid adenomas are evaluated.

  12. Paternal deprivation prior to adolescence and vulnerability to pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Sobrinho, L G; Duarte, J S; Paiva, I; Gomes, L; Vicente, V; Aguiar, P

    2012-06-01

    It has been reported that women with prolactinoma were exposed, early in life, to an environment characterized by an absent or violent father. The present study was designed to evaluate whether paternal absence or violent paternal behavior were more prevalent in patients with pituitary adenomas (prolactinoma, acromegaly, non-secreting adenoma and Cushing's disease) compared to a control population. We conducted an observational case-control multicenter study. We interviewed 395 patients with prolactinoma (296 females and 99 males), 130 with acromegaly (87 females and 43 males), 237 with non-secreting adenoma (144 females and 93 males) and 68 with Cushing's disease (61 females and 7 males) and 365 patients from the same clinics with nodular thyroid disease or lymphocytic thyroiditis with euthyroidism as controls. Violent or absent fathers were significantly more prevalent in patients with prolactinoma or acromegaly than in controls (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) but not in patients with non-secreting adenoma or corticotrophinoma. Absent fathers in prolactinoma and acromegaly versus controls: P = 0.001 and P = 0.119. Violent fathers in prolactinoma and acromegaly versus controls: P = 0.069 and P = 0.001. The prevalence of absent or violent fathers was also significantly higher in prolactinoma and acromegaly when compared to non-secreting adenoma (P = 0.039 and P = 0.033, respectively). Paternal deprivation before adolescence may be a risk factor for prolactinoma and acromegaly but not for non-secreting pituitary adenomas or Cushing's disease.

  13. Non-functioning pituitary adenoma: immunohistochemical analysis of 85 cases.

    PubMed

    Mahta, Ali; Haghpanah, Vahid; Lashkari, Anahita; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas without clinically active hypersecretion are summarized under the term non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). Since there are no specific serum markers, the differential diagnosis and treatment imply special difficulties. By using immunohistochemical methods we will have new insight into the nature and pathogenesis of these tumours. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen detected by the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 and its labelling index (LI) is considered a marker of normal and abnormal cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of immunohistochemistry and MIB1-LI determination in NFPAs to predict tumoural behaviour and better management. In this clinicopathological study, 85 cases of NFPAs were analysed immunohistochemically. MIB1-LI was also determined in studied cases. Clinical presentation, treatment and follow-up data were also reviewed and the correlation between clinical and pathologic findings was established. Eighteen adenomas (21.2%) were immunoreactive to one or two adenohypophysial hormones of which 4 GH positive adenomas had aggressive behaviour (2 significant juxtasellar extensions and 2 recurrences). MIB-1 LI was more than 5% in only 5 cases including 2 invasive adenomas but with no evidence of recurrence. No significant statistical difference between clinical presentations in immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive NFPAs was observed except for unilateral temporal hemianopia which was more common in immunoreactive adenomas (P=0.022). NFPAs comprise several pathologically different types of tumours, some of which are potentially hormone producing, but some defects in hormone secretion or production of biologically inactive or insufficient amount of hormone may be the culprit in the lack of evidence of rising serum hormone levels. MIB-1 LI may be indicative of invasiveness but not a predictor of recurrence. Silent somatotropinomas may have more aggressive behaviour in comparison with other NFPAs.

  14. Insulin resistance, central obesity, and risk of colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Thompson, Cheryl L; Chak, Amitabh; Berger, Nathan A; Li, Li

    2012-04-01

    Increasing evidence supports insulin resistance (IR) as the underpinning of the obesity-colorectal neoplasia link. The homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) is a widely accepted index of evolving hyperinsulinemia and early IR. Studies of the relation between HOMA-IR and colorectal adenomas are limited. Therefore, the authors sought to determine the associations of HOMA-IR and central obesity (waist to hip ratio [WHR]) with risk of colorectal adenomas in a screening colonoscopy-based study. The authors collected lifestyle information and fasting blood samples from 1222 participants (320 incident adenoma cases and 902 without adenomas) before their screening colonoscopies. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess risk associations. In multivariate analysis of participants (n = 1093) reporting no antidiabetic medication use, those in the top quartile of WHR were twice as likely (odds ratio [OR], 2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-3.57; P-trend = .003) and those in the top quartile of HOMA-IR were 63% more likely (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.09-2.44; P-trend = .01) to have adenomas compared with those in the bottom quartiles. Stratified analysis revealed a statistically significant interaction between HOMA-IR and sex (P-interaction = .04), with the association largely limited to men; compared with those in the bottom tertile, men in the top tertile of HOMA-IR were twice more likely to have adenomas (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.18-3.78; P-trend = .01). The results support central obesity and insulin resistance, particularly in men, as important risk factors for the development of early colorectal neoplasia. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  15. No association between mitochondrial DNA copy number and colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, Bharat; Guan, Weihua; Fedirko, Veronika; Barcelo, Helene; Tu, Huakang; Gross, Myron; Goodman, Michael; Bostick, Roberd M

    2016-08-01

    Despite previously reported associations between peripheral blood mtDNA copy number and colorectal cancer, it remains unclear whether altered mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood is a risk factor for colorectal cancer or a biomarker for undiagnosed colorectal cancer. Though colorectal adenomas are well-recognized precursor lesions to colorectal cancer, no study has evaluated an association between mtDNA copy number and colorectal adenoma risk. Hence, we investigated an association between peripheral blood mtDNA copy number and incident, sporadic colorectal adenoma in 412 colorectal adenoma cases and 526 cancer-free controls pooled from three colonoscopy-based case-control studies that used identical methods for case ascertainment, risk factor determination, and biospecimen collection. We also evaluated associations between relative mtDNA copy number and markers of oxidative stress, including circulating F2 -isoprostanes, carotenoids, and fluorescent oxidation products. We measured mtDNA copy number using a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We used unconditional logistic regression to analyze the association between mtDNA copy number and colorectal adenoma risk after multivariable adjustment. We found no association between logarithmically transformed relative mtDNA copy number, analyzed as a continuous variable, and colorectal adenoma risk (odds ratio = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.82-1.27; P = 0.86). There were no statistically significant associations between relative mtDNA copy number and other markers of oxidative stress. Our findings, taken together with those from previous studies, suggest that relative mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood may more likely be a marker of early colorectal cancer than of risk for the disease or of in vivo oxidative stress. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Whole-Exome Sequencing Studies of Nonhereditary (Sporadic) Parathyroid Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Newey, Paul J.; Nesbit, M. Andrew; Rimmer, Andrew J.; Attar, Moustafa; Head, Rosie T.; Christie, Paul T.; Gorvin, Caroline M.; Stechman, Michael; Gregory, Lorna; Mihai, Radu; Sadler, Greg; McVean, Gil; Buck, David

    2012-01-01

    Context: Genetic abnormalities, such as those of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and Cyclin D1 (CCND1) genes, occur in <50% of nonhereditary (sporadic) parathyroid adenomas. Objective: To identify genetic abnormalities in nonhereditary parathyroid adenomas by whole-exome sequence analysis. Design: Whole-exome sequence analysis was performed on parathyroid adenomas and leukocyte DNA samples from 16 postmenopausal women without a family history of parathyroid tumors or MEN1 and in whom primary hyperparathyroidism due to single-gland disease was cured by surgery. Somatic variants confirmed in this discovery set were assessed in 24 other parathyroid adenomas. Results: Over 90% of targeted exons were captured and represented by more than 10 base reads. Analysis identified 212 somatic variants (median eight per tumor; range, 2–110), with the majority being heterozygous nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants that predicted missense amino acid substitutions. Somatic MEN1 mutations occurred in six of 16 (∼35%) parathyroid adenomas, in association with loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11. However, no other gene was mutated in more than one tumor. Mutations in several genes that may represent low-frequency driver mutations were identified, including a protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) mutation that resulted in exon skipping and disruption to the single-stranded DNA-binding domain, which may contribute to increased genomic instability and the observed high mutation rate in one tumor. Conclusions: Parathyroid adenomas typically harbor few somatic variants, consistent with their low proliferation rates. MEN1 mutation represents the major driver in sporadic parathyroid tumorigenesis although multiple low-frequency driver mutations likely account for tumors not harboring somatic MEN1 mutations. PMID:22855342

  17. Salivary gland monomorphic adenoma. Ultrastructural, immunoperoxidase, and histogenetic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Dardick, I.; Kahn, H. J.; Van Nostrand, A. W.; Baumal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Monomorphic adenoma of basal cell type is a salivary gland tumor believed to result from a proliferation of a single type of cell. However, ultrastructural and immunocytochemical investigations of 6 monomorphic adenomas (5 from parotid and 1 from intraoral minor salivary gland) indicate that there are two classes of these lesions, one composed of two types of tumor cells and the other wholly or predominantly made up of one type of cell (isomorphic). In the former group, the organization of the tumor cells closely mimicked that of normal and hyperplastic salivary gland intercalated ducts. Aggregates of tumor cells were arranged as an inner layer of luminal epithelial cells which were surrounded by an outer layer of cells that, in some cases, had ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features indicating myoepithelial cell differentiation. In some adenomas formed by two types of tumor cells, basal-lamina-lined extracellular spaces were identified ultrastructurally in relation to modified myoepithelial cells; such spaces had the same fine-structural features as those reported in pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Predominantly isomorphic adenomas were composed exclusively of luminal epithelial cells. These results indicate that despite the varied histologic patterns in the numerous subtypes of monomorphic adenoma, there is a central theme of differentiation and organization in this type of neoplasm which recapitulates the ductoacinar unit of normal salivary gland parenchyma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:6375388

  18. Differential microRNA expression in cultured palatal fibroblasts from infants with cleft palate and controls.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Christian; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Abghari, Shaghayegh; Bloemen, Marjon; Aschrafi, Armaz; Carels, Carine E L; Von den Hoff, Johannes W

    2017-05-09

    The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in animal models of palatogenesis has been shown, but only limited research has been carried out in humans. To date, no miRNA expression study on tissues or cells from cleft palate patients has been published. We compared miRNA expression in palatal fibroblasts from cleft palate patients and age-matched controls. Cultured palatal fibroblasts from 10 non-syndromic cleft lip and palate patients (nsCLP; mean age: 18 ± 2 months), 5 non-syndromic cleft palate only patients (nsCPO; mean age: 17 ± 2 months), and 10 controls (mean age: 24 ± 5 months) were analysed with next-generation small RNA sequencing. All subjects are from Western European descent. Sequence reads were bioinformatically processed and the differentially expressed miRNAs were technically validated using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Using RNA sequencing, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-18a-5p, and hsa-miR-92a-3p) were up-regulated and six (hsa-miR-29c-5p, hsa-miR-549a, hsa-miR-3182, hsa-miR-181a-5p, hsa-miR-451a, and hsa-miR-92b-5p) were down-regulated in nsCPO fibroblasts. One miRNA (hsa-miR-505-3p) was down-regulated in nsCLP fibroblasts. Of these, hsa-miR-505-3p, hsa-miR-92a, hsa-miR-181a, and hsa-miR-451a were also differentially expressed using RT-PCR with a higher fold change than in RNAseq. The small sample size may limit the value of the data. In addition, interpretation of the data is complicated by the fact that biopsy samples are taken after birth, while the origin of the cleft lies in the embryonic period. This, together with possible effects of the culture medium, implies that only cell-autonomous genetic and epigenetic differences might be detected. For the first time, we have shown that several miRNAs appear to be dysregulated in palatal fibroblasts from patients with nsCLP and nsCPO. Furthermore, large-scale genomic and expression studies are needed to validate these findings.

  19. Long QT Syndrome and Duodenal Ampullary Adenoma: A New Association

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Laura; Talha Khan, Muhammad; Khalid Hasan, Muhammad; Inayat, Irteza

    2016-01-01

    KCNQ1 gene mutation has a well-known association with long QT syndrome (LQTS). However, recent studies suggest that it may be implicated in intestinal neoplasia. We present a 27-year-old Hispanic man with a known history of LQTS secondary to KCNQ1 mutation, who presented with painless jaundice. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatic cholangiography revealed a prominent ampulla, with histology consistent with ampullary adenoma with high-grade dysplasia. Further endoscopic studies did not suggest familial adenomatous polyposis. To date, this is the index case of duodenal ampullary adenoma in the setting of KCNQ1 mutation. PMID:27921062

  20. Cerebral hemorrhagic infarction after radiation for pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Ogaki, Satoko; Suzuki, Seiji; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Masatsune; Shimano, Hitoshi; Toyoshima, Hideo; Sone, Hirohito; Okuda, Yukichi; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2002-10-01

    We report a case of cerebral hemorrhagic infarction after radiation for pituitary adenoma. A 55-year-old woman was hospitalized to check for aldosteronism, post-operative pituitary function, and recurrence of thyroid cancer. She had short-term memory disturbance beginning two months prior to admission. Brain MRI showed a T1 and T2 high intensity lesion of her left anterolateral thalamus. Brain MRA revealed a narrowing in her left middle cerebral artery. The abnormal brain lesion was diagnosed as cerebral hemorrhagic infarction. She had received radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma 20 years earlier. It was considered that her cerebral hemorrhagic infarction was caused by radiation therapy.

  1. Adenoma detection rate and risk of colorectal cancer and death.

    PubMed

    Corley, Douglas A; Jensen, Christopher D; Marks, Amy R; Zhao, Wei K; Lee, Jeffrey K; Doubeni, Chyke A; Zauber, Ann G; de Boer, Jolanda; Fireman, Bruce H; Schottinger, Joanne E; Quinn, Virginia P; Ghai, Nirupa R; Levin, Theodore R; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2014-04-03

    The proportion of screening colonoscopic examinations performed by a physician that detect one or more adenomas (the adenoma detection rate) is a recommended quality measure. However, little is known about the association between this rate and patients' risks of a subsequent colorectal cancer (interval cancer) and death. Using data from an integrated health care delivery organization, we evaluated the associations between the adenoma detection rate and the risks of colorectal cancer diagnosed 6 months to 10 years after colonoscopy and of cancer-related death. With the use of Cox regression, our estimates of attributable risk were adjusted for the demographic characteristics of the patients, indications for colonoscopy, and coexisting conditions. We evaluated 314,872 colonoscopies performed by 136 gastroenterologists; the adenoma detection rates ranged from 7.4 to 52.5%. During the follow-up period, we identified 712 interval colorectal adenocarcinomas, including 255 advanced-stage cancers, and 147 deaths from interval colorectal cancer. The unadjusted risks of interval cancer according to quintiles of adenoma detection rates, from lowest to highest, were 9.8, 8.6, 8.0, 7.0, and 4.8 cases per 10,000 person-years of follow-up, respectively. Among patients of physicians with adenoma detection rates in the highest quintile, as compared with patients of physicians with detection rates in the lowest quintile, the adjusted hazard ratio for any interval cancer was 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.69), for advanced-stage interval cancer, 0.43 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.64), and for fatal interval cancer, 0.38 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.65). Each 1.0% increase in the adenoma detection rate was associated with a 3.0% decrease in the risk of cancer (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96 to 0.98). The adenoma detection rate was inversely associated with the risks of interval colorectal cancer, advanced-stage interval cancer, and fatal interval cancer. (Funded by the Kaiser Permanente

  2. Minimally invasive approach to management of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, I N

    2005-06-01

    Pituitary adenomas are the third most common benign intracranial tumor seen in neurosurgical practice. They represent >or= 15 % of all primary intracranial tumors with 25 % prevalence as reported in autopsy series. Advances in biomedical assays, imaging studies support their diagnosis and tailor their management. The direct endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is the recommended intervention for adenoma resection in more than 95 %. The safety and efficacy of this intervention was enhanced by microsurgery and more recently by the introduction of neuronavigation, assisted endoscopy and intraoperative MRI. Anticipation of clinical, biochemical, radiological and surgical pitfalls by a multidisciplinary team is of paramount importance in improving treatment and preventing potential complications.

  3. A new look at pituitary adenomas: structure elucidating function.

    PubMed Central

    Sirek, A. M.; Corenblum, B.; Horvath, E.; Rewcastle, B.; Ezrin, C.; Kovacs, K.

    1976-01-01

    Cases of seven different types of surgically resected pituitary adenoma are described. Included are tumours secreting prolactin or growth hormone or both, and nonfunctioning tumours--undifferentiated and oncocytic tumours, and one tumour with cells of the adrenocorticotropin-melanocyte-stimulating hormone type. The final interpretation of a case of pituitary adenoma should include an assessment of thorough morphologic studies, using not only routine staining and light microscopy but also immunostaining and electron microscopy, to complement the biochemical, radiologic and clinical evaluation. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:204403

  4. Vesical nephrogenic adenoma: an unusual presentation of a bladder tumour

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sanchíz, Carlos; Martínez-Ruiz, Jesús; Anguita-Fernandez, Pedro J.; Giménez-Bachs, José M.; Atiénzar-Tobarra, Manuel; Rodríguez, Julio Antonio Virseda; Salinas-Sánchez, Antonio S.

    2011-01-01

    Vesical nephrogenic adenoma is a rare, benign entity that appears most commonly in middle-aged males. Its etiology is unknown, but it has been linked to chronic irritating factors, such as infection, trauma, urological surgery, kidney stones, foreign bodies and chemical agents, such as Bacille Calmette-Guerin. We report 2 new cases with a history of transurethral resection of the bladder and the prostate and a history of prolonged voiding symptoms. In both cases, the findings of encysted tubular structures lined with flattened cuboidal cells without atypia were consistent with the diagnosis of vesical nephrogenic adenoma. PMID:21989174

  5. Neuroendocrine Adenoma of the Middle Ear: A Rare Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    McGinness, Sam; Coleman, Hedley; Varikatt, Winny; da Cruz, Melville

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours occur throughout the body but are rare in the head and neck region and particularly rare in the middle ear. Clinical findings are often nonspecific and therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. Furthermore, the nomenclature of neuroendocrine tumours of the middle ear is historically controversial. Herein a case is presented of a middle ear adenoma in a 33-year-old patient who presented with otalgia, hearing loss, and facial nerve palsy. A brief discussion is included regarding the histopathological features of middle ear adenomas and seeks to clarify the correct nomenclature for these tumours. PMID:27429819

  6. [Tetraparesis revealing Conn adenoma in a pregnant woman].

    PubMed

    Assoufi, Naoufal; Bahadi, Nessrine; Omri, Nawal El; Sekkach, Youssef; Ameziane, Taoufiq; Ghafir, Driss

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of Conn adenoma revealed by tetraparesis in a 33-year old pregnant woman at the 16(th)week of amenorrhea. The patient had a blood pressure of 147/87 mmHg, which was considered high-normal, hypokalemia at 1.1 mmol/l. The diagnosis was confirmed by hormone dosage which showed elevated plasma aldosterone levels and decreased plasma renin activity. MRI showed a left adrenal nodule, 1.5 cm in diameter, compatible with adrenal adenoma. Left adrenalectomy was performed with simple postoperative course and normalization of kalemia and blood pressure.

  7. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis and renal tubulopapillary adenomas: A rare coexistence.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Deval; Sengupta, Moumita; Das, Mou; Chatterjee, Uttara

    2016-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an uncommon inflammatory condition accounting for 1% of chronic pyelonephritis cases. Clinically and radiologically it mimics other renal space occupying lesions. Hence, correct preoperative diagnosis is not possible in all cases and nephrectomy is done in most patients. Renal tubulopapillary adenomas are benign epithelial lesions of kidney found to be associated with papillary renal cell carcinoma, acquired renal cystic disease, long term hemodialysis, arteriosclerotic renal vascular disease, etc. Here, we report two cases of Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with the rare finding of renal tubulopapillary adenomas.

  8. Vomer flap for hard palate repair is related to favorable maxillary growth in unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Fang; Lee, Ying-Hsin; Wang, Ruby; Huang, Chiung-Shing; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Lo, Lun-Jou; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2014-05-01

    Vomer flap repair is assumed to improve maxillary growth because of reduced scarring in growth-sensitive areas of the palate. Our aim was to evaluate whether facial growth in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate was significantly affected by the technique of hard palate repair (vomer flap versus two-flap). For this retrospective longitudinal study, we analyzed 334 cephalometric radiographs from 95 patients with nonsyndromic complete unilateral cleft lip and palate who underwent hard palate repair by two different techniques (vomer flap versus two-flap). Clinical notes were reviewed to record treatment histories. Cephalometry was used to determine facial morphology and growth rate. The associations among facial morphology at age 20, facial growth rate, and technique of hard palate repair were assessed using generalized estimating equation analysis. The hard palate repair technique significantly influenced protrusion of the maxilla (SNA: β = -3.5°, 95 % CI = -5.2-1.7; p = 0.001) and the anteroposterior jaw relation (ANB: β = -4.2°, 95 % CI = -6.4-1.9; p = 0.001; Wits: β = -5.7 mm, 95 % CI = -9.6-1.2; p = 0.01) at age 20, and their growth rates (SNA p = 0.001, ANB p < 0.01, and Wits p = 0.02). The results suggest that in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate, vomer flap repair has a smaller adverse effect than two-flap on growth of the maxilla. This effect on maxillary growth is on the anteroposterior development of the alveolar maxilla and is progressive with age. We now perform hard palate closure with vomer flap followed by soft palate closure using Furlow palatoplasty. These findings may improve treatment outcome by modifying the treatment protocol for patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

  9. Muencke syndrome with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter J; Snell, Broughton; Moore, Mark H

    2013-07-01

    Muencke syndrome results from mutations in the FGFR3 gene, and although it is well recognized that the clinical presentation is variable, the important key finding includes coronal synostosis. We present a family where a mother with proven FGFR3 Pro250Arg mutation gave birth to identical twins both of whom had craniosynostosis but had coexisting bilateral cleft lip and palate. We believe that this is the first description of clefting occurring in conjunction with Muencke syndrome and so further extends the range of phenotypic variation that can occur in this syndrome.

  10. Genetics of Cleft Palate and Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Walter M.; Lanier, Steve T.; Purnell, Chad A.; Gosain, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) can occur in the setting of an unrepaired or repaired cleft lip and palate. The rate of VPI has been documented as high as 33% in some studies with higher rates of recurrences following surgery associated with genetic syndromes such as 22q11.2 deletions. The primary cause of VPI in these groups is still identified as the anatomic abnormalities of the velum. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of the velum are discussed along with genetic mutations associated with VPI. PMID:27617110

  11. A case of hard palate perforation

    PubMed Central

    Saroch, Atul; Pannu, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in developing countries. Lung is most common affected organ, however extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is also not uncommon. The clinical manifestations of EPTB may be non-specific that mimics other diseases and is usually misdiagnosed. Therefore, high clinical suspicion of EPTB infection is important, especially in endemic areas. Here, we present a case of hard palate perforation that proved to be tuberculous in origin. The diagnosis was made by histo-pathological examination and positive TB Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:28349008

  12. Surgical correction of cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Rahul; Huppa, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Surgical cleft repair aims to restore function of the oro-nasal sphincter and oro-nasal soft tissues and re-establish the complex relationship between perioral and perinasal muscle rings without compromising subsequent mid-facial growth and development. Here we review the surgical anatomy of this region, optimal timing for surgical repair and current thinking on the use of surgical adjuncts. In addition, an overview of current surgical techniques available for the repair of cleft lip, cleft palate and velopharyngeal insufficiency is presented. Finally, we briefly discuss nasal revision surgery and the use of osteotomy, including distraction osteogenesis in the cleft patient.

  13. Interspeaker variability in hard palate morphology and vowel production.

    PubMed

    Lammert, Adam; Proctor, Michael; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2013-12-01

    Differences in vocal tract morphology have the potential to explain interspeaker variability in speech production. The potential acoustic impact of hard palate shape was examined in simulation, in addition to the interplay among morphology, articulation, and acoustics in real vowel production data. High-front vowel production from 5 speakers of American English was examined using midsagittal real-time magnetic resonance imaging data with synchronized audio. Relationships among hard palate morphology, tongue shaping, and formant frequencies were analyzed. Simulations were performed to determine the acoustical properties of vocal tracts whose area functions are altered according to prominent hard palate variations. Simulations revealed that altering the height and position of the palatal dome alters formant frequencies. Examinations of real speech data showed that palatal morphology is not significantly correlated with any formant frequency but is correlated with major aspects of lingual articulation. Certain differences in hard palate morphology can substantially affect vowel acoustics, but those effects are not noticeable in real speech. Speakers adapt their lingual articulation to accommodate palate shape differences with the potential to substantially affect formant frequencies, while ignoring palate shape differences with relatively little acoustic impact, lending support for acoustic goals of vowel production.

  14. Palatalization and Intrinsic Prosodic Vowel Features in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordin, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The presented study is aimed at investigating the interaction of palatalization and intrinsic prosodic features of the vowel in CVC (consonant+vowel+consonant) syllables in Russian. The universal nature of intrinsic prosodic vowel features was confirmed with the data from the Russian language. It was found that palatalization of the consonants…

  15. Palatalization and Intrinsic Prosodic Vowel Features in Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordin, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The presented study is aimed at investigating the interaction of palatalization and intrinsic prosodic features of the vowel in CVC (consonant+vowel+consonant) syllables in Russian. The universal nature of intrinsic prosodic vowel features was confirmed with the data from the Russian language. It was found that palatalization of the consonants…

  16. Enhancement technology improves palatability of normal and callipyge lamb

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research was to determine if BPI Processing Technology improved palatability of normal (NN) and callipyge (CN) lamb meat and determine the mechanism by which palatability was improved. Ten ewe and 10 wether lambs of each phenotype were harvested and carcass traits were assessed by a trained eva...

  17. Algorithms for the treatment of cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Stal, S; Klebuc, M; Taylor, T D; Spira, M; Edwards, M

    1998-10-01

    Developing standardized outcomes and algorithms of treatment is a constantly evolving task. This article examines four variables in this process: cleft type, operative technique, surgical experience, and timing. Input from international cleft lip and palate programs regarding techniques and treatment modalities provide a dynamic tool for assessment and the development of guidelines in the treatment of the cleft lip and palate patient.

  18. [Cleft palate surgery with ENT-pathology correction].

    PubMed

    Radkevich, A A; Vakhrushev, S G; Gantimurov, A A; Ivanov, V A

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the cases of cleft palate surgical treatment with simultaneous intervention in ENT organs (bypass of the tympanic cavity, segmental or total adenotomy, etc.) with the restoration of vomer anatomy and hard palate reconstruction by means of super-elastic low-profile nickel titanium implant. The article describes the advantages of the method in comparison with the conventional ones.

  19. Early Speech Production of Children with Cleft Palate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrem, Theresa; Broen, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    The study comparing word-initial target phonemes and phoneme production of five toddlers with cleft palate and five normal toddlers found that the cleft palate children tended to target more words with word-initial nasals, approximants, and vowels and fewer words with word-initial stops, fricatives, and affricates than normal children. (Author/DB)

  20. Single-Word Intelligibility in Speakers with Repaired Cleft Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehill, Tara; Chau, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    Many speakers with repaired cleft palate have reduced intelligibility, but there are limitations with current procedures for assessing intelligibility. The aim of this study was to construct a single-word intelligibility test for speakers with cleft palate. The test used a multiple-choice identification format, and was based on phonetic contrasts…

  1. The Soft Palate Friendly Speech Bulb for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kahlon, Monaliza; Gupta, Shilpa; Dhingra, Parvinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Velopharyngeal insufficiency is an anatomic defect of the soft palate making palatopharyngeal sphincter incomplete. It is an important concern to address in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Speech aid prosthesis or speech bulbs are best choice in cases where surgically repaired soft palate is too short to contact pharyngeal walls during function but these prosthesis have been associated with inadequate marginal closure, ulcerations and patient discomfort. Here is a case report of untreated bilateral cleft lip and palate associated with palatal insufficiency treated by means of palate friendly innovative speech bulb. This modified speech bulb is a combination of hard acrylic and soft lining material. The hard self-curing acrylic resin covers only the hard palate area and a permanent soft silicone lining material covering the soft palate area. A claw-shaped wire component was extended backwards from acrylic and was embedded in soft silicone to aid in retention and approximation of two materials. The advantage of adding the soft lining material in posterior area helped in covering the adequate superior extension and margins for maximal pharyngeal activity. This also improved the hypernasality, speech, comfort and overall patient acceptance. PMID:27790589

  2. Pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands: retrospective multicentric study of 130 cases with emphasis on histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; Barroso, Keila Martha Amorim; Henriques, Águida Cristina Gomes; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Martins, Manoela Domingues; de Souza, Lélia Batista

    2017-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most frequent benign epithelial lesion of salivary gland origin, showing great histopathological diversity. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis, with emphasis on histopathologic features of PA of salivary glands. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics of 130 cases of minor and major salivary glands PAs from three Brazilian reference centers were studied. Higher frequency of PAs was observed in female (55.4 %) subjects, with mean age of 49.7 years. The most common affected site was palate (64.5 %) for the PAs of minor salivary glands and parotid for cases affecting major glands (86.2 %). Microscopically, most cases were classified as classic PAs (50 %). Incomplete capsule was observed in 36.2 % of the cases, while 47.2 % showed capsular infiltration. Rounded (66.9 %), angular (49.2 %), oval (46.2 %) and plasmacytoid (39.2 %) cells were widely observed, as well as fibrous (73.8 %) and myxoid (69.2 %) stroma, squamous metaplasia (25.4 %) and cystic degeneration (43.1 %). Crystalloids (3.1 %), increased mitotic activity (5.4 %) and vascular invasion (2.3 %) were rarely observed. PAs arising in minor salivary glands were associated with incomplete capsules, spindle, oval, angular, plasmacytoid and pleomorphic cells, fibrous and hyaline stroma, cystic degeneration, squamous metaplasia and pleomorphism (p < 0.05). No association between capsular features and histological subtype was noted (p ≥ 0.05). These results confirm the findings of previous studies regarding major clinicopathological features of pleomorphic adenomas; and highlighted some important morphologic characteristics like the capsule, vascular invasion, pleomorphism and increased mitotic activity, which can reflect the biological behavior of these tumors.

  3. Soft palate preservation after tumor resection with transoral laser microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Gómez-Pedraza, Antonio; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto

    2013-05-01

    Management and preservation of the soft palate is dependent on clinical stage and tumor histology. However, available literature is scarce regarding the palate preservation with the use of laser CO₂. We report the results obtained after management with laser surgery and soft palate preservation in three patients with salivary gland neoplasms. Three patients with minor salivary gland tumors were treated by means of transoral laser microsurgery. All tumors were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. All tumors were >3 cm. Soft palate function was preserved and reconstruction was performed with primary closure. Patients began oral feeding the same day and were discharged after 24 h. Transoral laser microsurgery is recommended for treatment of soft palate tumors. This treatment can be considered a better option when compared with other modalities such as radio- or chemoradiotherapy which require a longer time of treatment, are more expensive and tend to produce significant toxicity.

  4. Multiple, zonal and multi-zone adenoma detection rates according to quality of cleansing during colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Cesare; Maselli, Roberta; Pontone, Paolo; Angelini, Rita; Brighi, Manuela; Patrizi, Gregorio; Pironi, Daniele; Magliocca, Fabio Massimo; Filippini, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Background The safety and diagnostic accuracy of colonoscopy depend on the quality of colon cleansing. The adenoma detection rate is usually used as a quality measurement score. Objective We aimed to introduce and evaluate three new parameters to determine polyps and adenomas segmental localization and their distribution in association with different bowel preparation levels during colonoscopy. We introduce the multiple adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy), the zonal adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy in different colon areas (rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, ascending and cecum colon)), and multi-zone adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy in different colon areas with at least a segment between them with or without lesions (i.e. rectum and descending colon with or without lesions in the sigmoid)). Methods We prospectively enrolled outpatients who underwent colonoscopy from January 2013 to October 2014. The bowel preparation quality, according to the Aronchick modified scale, number and location of lesions, Paris classification and histology, were recorded. The multiple adenoma/polyp detection rate, zonal adenoma/polyp detection rate, and multi-zone adenoma/polyp detection rate were determined. Results In total, 519 consecutive patients (266/253 M/F; mean age 55.3 ± 12.8 years) were enrolled. The adenoma and polyp detection rates were 21% and 35%, respectively. Multiple adenomas were detected in 28 patients. Adenoma and polyp detection rate and new parameters were statistically significantly higher in the optimal as compared with the adequate bowel preparation. Conclusions An optimal level of bowel preparation was strongly associated not only with a higher adenoma detection rate, but also with a higher chance of detecting multiple clinically relevant lesions in adjacent or

  5. Contractile properties of single permeabilized muscle fibers from congenital cleft palates and normal palates of Spanish goats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A goat model in which cleft palate is induced by the plant alkaloid, anabasine was used to determine muscle fiber integrity of the levator veli palatine muscle. It was determined that the muscle fibers of the cleft palate-induced goats were primarily of the type 2 (fast fibers) which fatigue easil...

  6. The Effect of Cleft Palate Repair on Contractile Properties of Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers From Congenitally Cleft Goats Palates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A cleft palate goat model was used to study the contractile properties of the levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle which is responsible for the movement of the soft palate. In 15-25% of patients that undergo palatoplasty, residual velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) remains a problem and often require...

  7. Development of the Object Permanence Concept in Cleft Lip and Palate and Noncleft Lip and Palate Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecyna, Paula M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The development of the concept of object permanence was investigated with eight infants with cleft lip/palate and four nonimpaired infants. Superior performance of the cleft lip/palate group was found, possibly due to increased environmental stimulation provided by parents. (DB)

  8. Rehabilitation of a One-day-Old Neonate with Cleft Lip and Palate using Palatal Obturator: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Pathak, Ashish; Bhatia, Baldev; Gupta, Sailesh; Kumar Gautam, Keshav

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Feeding a neonate with a complete cleft lip and palate is difficult pursuit due to communication between oral cavity and nasal cavity. A multidisciplinary approach is required to manage the complex problems involved in case of such neonates and their families. Present case is of a 1-day-old neonate having complete bilateral cleft lip and palate for which palatal obturator was constructed. A stepwise simple, easy and uncomplicated procedure for making accurate impressions, maxillary cast and fabrication of palatal obturator in infants with cleft lip and palate has been presented. The objective to present this case report is to emphasize the fact that how these palatal obturators /plates help in feeding, speech/language development, presurgical orthopedics and prevent other associated otorhinolaryngeal problems. How to cite this article: Bansal R, Pathak AK, Bhatia B, Gupta S, Gautam KK. Rehabilitation of a One-day Old Neonate with Cleft Lip and Palate using Palatal Obturator: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):145-147. PMID:25206156

  9. Development of the Object Permanence Concept in Cleft Lip and Palate and Noncleft Lip and Palate Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecyna, Paula M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The development of the concept of object permanence was investigated with eight infants with cleft lip/palate and four nonimpaired infants. Superior performance of the cleft lip/palate group was found, possibly due to increased environmental stimulation provided by parents. (DB)

  10. Preoperative Localization of Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma with Intra-arterial Methylene Blue.

    PubMed

    Salman, Rida; Sebaaly, Mikhael G; Wehbe, Mohammad Rachad; Sfeir, Pierre; Khalife, Mohamad; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2017-06-01

    Ectopic parathyroid is found in 16% of patients with hyperparathyroidism. 2% of ectopic parathyroid adenomas are not accessible to standard cervical excision. In such cases, video-assisted thoracoscopic resection is the recommended definitive treatment. We present a case of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma localized preoperatively by injecting methylene blue within a branch of the internal mammary artery that is supplying the adenoma. Intra-arterial methylene blue injection facilitated visualization and resection of the adenoma. The preoperative intra-arterial infusion of methylene blue appears to be an effective and safe method for localization of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas and allows rapid identification during thoracoscopic resection.

  11. Impact of the endoscopic teaching process on colonic adenoma detection.

    PubMed

    Lasa, J S; Moore, R; Peralta, A D; Dima, G; Zubiaurre, I; Arguello, M; Senderovsky, M; Moretti, L; Avagnina, A; Soifer, L

    2014-01-01

    There has been little reported experience in the Latin American hospital setting in relation to the impact of the endoscopic training process on colonoscopy quality. To determine the effect that training in the technique of colonoscopy has on adenoma detection in an Argentinian teaching hospital. Within the time frame of July 2012 and July 2013, 3 physicians received training in colonoscopy from 4 experienced endoscopists. The colonoscopies performed by the supervised trainees were compared with those carried out by the experienced endoscopists. A total of 318 colonoscopies performed by any one of the 3 supervised trainees and 367 carried out by any one of the experienced endoscopists were included. The univariate analysis showed a non-significant difference in the detection rate of adenomas (30.4 vs. 24.7%, P=.09). In the multivariate analysis, the detection rate of adenomas was significantly higher in the colonoscopies performed by one of the 3 trainees (odds ratio = 1.72 [1.19-2.48]). The supervised involvement of endoscopic trainees has a positive effect on adenoma detection. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. A Postnatal Pax7+ Progenitor Gives Rise to Pituitary Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Hosoyama, Tohru; Nishijo, Koichi; Garcia, Melinda M.; Schaffer, Beverly S.; Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Prajapati, Suresh I.; Davis, Michael D.; Grant, Wilmon F.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Marks, Daniel L.; Rubin, Brian P.; Keller, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are classified into functioning and nonfunctioning (silent) tumors on the basis of hormone secretion. However, the mechanism of tumorigenesis and the cell of origin for pituitary adenoma subtypes remain to be elucidated. Employing a tamoxifen-inducible mouse model, we demonstrate that a novel postnatal Pax7+ progenitor cell population in the pituitary gland gives rise to silent corticotroph macro-adenomas when the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor is conditionally deleted. While Pax transcriptional factors are critical for embryonic patterning as well as postnatal stem cell renewal for many organs, we have discovered that Pax7 marks a restricted cell population in the postnatal pituitary intermediate lobe. This Pax7+ early progenitor cell population is overlapping but ontologically downstream of the Nestin+ pituitary stem cell population, yet upstream of another newly discovered Myf6+ late progenitor cell population. Interestingly, the Pax7+ progenitor cell population is evolutionarily conserved in primates and humans, and Pax7 expression is maintained not only in murine tumors but also in human functioning and silent corticotropinomas. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that human silent corticotroph adenomas may in fact arise from a Pax7 lineage of the intermediate lobe, a region of the human pituitary bearing closer scientific interest as a reservoir of pituitary progenitor cells. PMID:20811506

  13. Canalicular adenoma: a case report of an unusual parotid lesion

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Colin; Kulendra, Kevin N; Menon, Gopind; D’Souza, Alwyn R

    2009-01-01

    The present report describes a case of an 85-year-old woman who underwent an excisional biopsy of a preauricular lesion centred over the zygoma and subsequently developed an immediate iatrogenic facial palsy. Histopathological diagnosis revealed a canalicular adenoma of the parotid gland. PMID:21686469

  14. Accumulation of I-123 IMP in hepatic cell adenoma

    SciTech Connect

    Suto, Yuji; Kodama, Fumiko; Kato, Takashi

    1995-07-01

    I-123 IMP is now widely used as a radioactive material for cerebral blood flow scintigraphy. It is also known that this substance will accumulate in certain types of tumors. The authors present a case of a 47-year-old woman who showed accumulation of I-123 IMP in hepatic cell adenoma. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Clinical Concerns about Recurrence of Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Ho; Lee, Ju Hee; Seol, Ho Jun; Lee, Jung-Il; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kong, Doo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are clinically challenging because they present at a late stage with local mass effects or hypopituitarism. Surgery for non-functioning pituitary adenoma requires a special strategic approach for both minimal morbidity and radical resection. However, the clinical predictive factors associated with recurrence are limited. Here, we investigated optimal treatment of non-functioning pituitary adenoma. Methods We enrolled 289 patients who presented with non-functioning pituitary adenoma between January 2000 and January 2012 and who had received follow-up for at least one year for this retrospective study. Of these patients, 152 were male and 137 were female, with a median age of 51 years (range 15.79 years) and a median follow-up of four years (range 1.12.6 years). Characteristics of patients and tumors were reviewed with electronic medical records and radiologic images, retrospectively. Results Of the tumors, 193 were gross-totally resected, 53 were near-totally resected, and 43 were sub-totally resected. The extent of resection and adjuvant radiotherapy were both statistically significant prognostic factors of recurrence. Immunohistochemistry of tumor specimens did not yield consistent results. Conclusion With a high rate of recurrence, NFPA should be closely followed-up over a long-term period. Improvement of surgical techniques with advanced surgical equipment and adjuvant radiosurgery would lead to reduce the recurrence rate and improve patients' outcome. PMID:27195254

  16. Diagnosis and management of acromegaly: giant invasive adenoma.

    PubMed

    Cahyanur, Rahmat; Setyawan, Wawan; Sudrajat, Dedy G; Setyowati, Susie; Purnamasari, Dyah; Soewondo, Pradana

    2011-04-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by excessive growth hormone. Majority of acromegaly are due to pituitary adenoma. It is estimated that 5% of pituitary adenoma become invasive and may grow to gigantic sizes (>4 cm in diameter). We would like to describe a man with giant invasive adenoma. We describe the case of 52-year-old man with acromegaly. The patient was presented to medical care because of hemichorea. He also had visual field defect, uncontrolled diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Hormonal profile showed increment of GH 2-hour after a standard 75-g oral glucose load and of high IGF-1 level with low level of FSH and LH. The next was performed by pituitary imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a macroadenoma with diameter 2.3x3.5x6.6 cm3 that fills the sella tursica, and enlarges into suprasella, genu of corpus collosum, and invades third ventricle. This report describes a rare case of acromegalic patient with giant invasive adenoma. This could be a demonstrative case and lesson for diagnosis and manage acromegalic patient.

  17. Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma: preoperative identification and localization by parathyroid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Suhaili, A.R.; Lynn, J.; Lavender, J.P.

    1988-07-01

    The authors report, probably for the first time, a successful pre-operative localization of 7 mm intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma which was successfully removed by using parathyroid imaging using a dual tracer (T1-201 and Tc-99m) and subtraction technique.

  18. Concurrent somatotroph and plurihormonal pituitary adenomas in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Mellora; FitzGerald, Louise; Kiupel, Matti

    2013-10-01

    An 8-year-old, male neutered, domestic longhair cat was referred for investigation of insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. Routine haematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis (including culture), total T4 and urine creatinine:cortisol ratio were unremarkable, but markedly increased insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration was identified and a pituitary mass was subsequently documented. The cat was treated conservatively with the dopamine agonist L-deprenyl and was re-presented 16 months later for worsening polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, marked lumbar muscle atrophy, development of a pendulous abdomen and marked thinning of the abdominal skin. Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed based on abdominal ultrasonography, dexamethasone suppression testing and endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The cat was treated with trilostane (30 mg q24h PO) and showed some clinical improvement, but developed an opportunistic fungal infection and skin fragility syndrome 4.5 months after commencing treatment, and was euthanased. A double-pituitary adenoma comprising a discrete somatotroph adenoma and a separate plurihormonal adenoma (positive immunoreactivity for ACTH, melanocyte-stimulating hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) was identified on post-mortem examination. These two pituitary adenomas were suspected to have arisen as independent neoplastic entities with the plurihormonal tumour either being clinically silent at the initial presentation or having developed over the subsequent 16 months.

  19. CT of adenomas of the middle ear and mastoid cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Van Thong Ho; Rao, V.J.; Mikaelian, D.O.

    1996-03-01

    A case of mixed type adenoma of the middle ear and mastoid is presented in which CT showed complete opacification of the middle ear and mastoid air cells with bulging of the tympanic membrane but without ossicular or bony destruction. 7 refs., 1 figs.

  20. Prolactin-cell adenoma with signet-ring cells: a case report.

    PubMed

    Binello, E; Cunliffe, C; Post, K D; Kleinman, G M

    2011-01-01

    Signet-ring cell changes in the pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. To date, there have been only two reports documenting signet-ring cells in pituitary adenomas, one in a growth-hormone cell adenoma and the other in a nullcell adenoma. This report describes, for the first time, signet-ring cells in a prolactincell adenoma. The patient is a 46-year-old male who presented with severe headache and acute on chronic visual loss. Radiographic studies demonstrated a large cystic pituitary lesion with evidence of pituitary apoplexy. Laboratory values were consistent with a prolactin-cell adenoma. The patient underwent transsphenoidal resection of the prolactin-cell adenoma with significant post-operative improvement. The tumor was composed of sheets of monomorphic round cells with conspicuous nuclei and granular cytoplasm, consistent with pituitary adenoma. Many cells had eccentric, often crescentic-shaped nuclei, imparting a signet-ring appearance and immunostaining was positive for prolactin, denoting an atypical prolactin-cell adenoma. The MIB-1 labeling index was slightly elevated. Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of vacuolated areas in the cytoplasm that were not membrane bound and did not have specific inclusions. This case augments the literature on pituitary adenomas with signet-ring cells. The clinical significance of signet-ring cells in pituitary adenomas is unknown. Accumulation of clinical cases, together with the advances in molecular techniques and experimental models, may yield further insight.

  1. An intracapsular carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma with lung metastases composed exclusively of benign elements: histological evidence of a continuum between metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Langman, Gerald

    2010-07-15

    Malignant mixed tumors of the salivary glands, encompassing carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (ca ex PA), carcinosarcoma and metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma (mPA), are rare neoplasms. Ca ex PA arises in a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma (PA). When the malignant component does not breach the capsule of the parent PA, the lesion is termed intracapsular ca ex PA, a neoplasm which is thought to have no metastatic potential. Metastatic deposits of ca ex PA are composed exclusively of malignant elements or mixed benign and malignant components. We describe the case of a 62-year-old female with an intracapsular ca ex PA of the buccal mucosa with subsequent metastases to the lung. The metastatic deposits resembled benign PA with no histological evidence of malignancy. This pattern of spread is described with mPA, an entity that caused controversy in the past regarding its exact classification as a benign or malignant tumor. The possibility that ca ex PA originates from a mPA, with intracapsular ca ex PA representing an intermediate lesion in a histological continuum, is discussed.

  2. Neural crest-specific deletion of Ldb1 leads to cleft secondary palate with impaired palatal shelf elevation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background LIM domain binding protein 1 (LDB1) is a transcriptional co-factor, which interacts with multiple transcription factors and other proteins containing LIM domains. Complete inactivation of Ldb1 in mice resulted in early embryonic lethality with severe patterning defects during gastrulation. Tissue-specific deletions using a conditional knockout allele revealed additional roles of Ldb1 in the development of the central nervous system, hematopoietic system, and limbs. The goal of the current study was to determine the importance of Ldb1 function during craniofacial development in mouse embryos. Results We generated tissue-specific Ldb1 mutants using Wnt1-Cre, which causes deletion of a floxed allele in the neural crest; neural crest-derived cells contribute to most of the mesenchyme of the developing face. All examined Wnt1-Cre;Ldb1 fl/- mutants suffered from cleft secondary palate. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to investigate how Ldb1 regulated palate development. First, we examined the expression of Ldb1 during normal development, and found that Ldb1 was expressed broadly in the palatal mesenchyme during early stages of palate development. Second, we compared the morphology of the developing palate in control and Ldb1 mutant embryos using sections. We found that the mutant palatal shelves had abnormally blunt appearance, and failed to elevate above the tongue at the posterior domain. An in vitro head culture experiment indicated that the elevation defect was not due to interference by the tongue. Finally, in the Ldb1 mutant palatal shelves, cell proliferation was abnormal in the anterior, and the expression of Wnt5a, Pax9 and Osr2, which regulate palatal shelf elevation, was also altered. Conclusions The function of Ldb1 in the neural crest-derived palatal mesenchyme is essential for normal morphogenesis of the secondary palate. PMID:24433583

  3. Whole-exome sequencing identifies variants in invasive pituitary adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xiaolei; Gao, Hua; Wang, Fei; Feng, Jie; Bai, Jiwei; Zhao, Peng; Cao, Lei; Gui, Songbai; Gong, Lei; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas exhibit a wide range of behaviors. The prediction of invasion or malignant behavior in pituitary adenomas remains challenging. The objective of the present study was to identify the genetic abnormalities associated with invasion in sporadic pituitary adenomas. In the present study, the exomes of six invasive pituitary adenomas (IPA) and six non-invasive pituitary adenomas (nIPA) were sequenced by whole-exome sequencing. Variants were confirmed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing, and candidate driver genes were assessed in an additional 28 pituitary adenomas. A total of 15 identified variants were mainly associated with angiogenesis, metabolism, cell cycle phase, cellular component organization, cytoskeleton and biogenesis immune at a cellular level, including 13 variants that occurred as single nucleotide variants and 2 that comprised of insertions. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of diffuse panbronchiolitis critical region 1 (DPCR1), KIAA0226, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance, proline-rich protein BstNI subfamily 3, PR domain containing 2, with ZNF domain, RIZ1 (PRDM2), PR domain containing 8 (PRDM8), SPANX family member N2 (SPANXN2), TRIO and F-actin binding protein and zinc finger protein 717 in IPA specimens were 50% decreased compared with nIPA specimens. In particular, DPCR1, PRDM2, PRDM8 and SPANXN2 mRNA levels in IPA specimens were approximately four-fold lower compared with nIPA specimens (P=0.003, 0.007, 0.009 and 0.004, respectively). By contrast, the mRNA levels of dentin sialophospho protein, EGF like domain, multiple 7 (EGFL7), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B and dynein, axonemal, assembly factor 1 (LRRC50) were increased in IPA compared with nIPA specimens (P=0.041, 0.037, 0.022 and 0.013, respectively). Furthermore, decreased PRDM2 expression was associated with tumor recurrence. The findings of the present study indicate that DPCR1, EGFL7, the PRDM family and LRRC50 in pituitary adenomas are modifiers of

  4. Assessment of Mitotic Activity in Pituitary Adenomas and Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Kamal; Yamada, Yukio; Scheithauer, Bernd; Kovacs, Kalman; Yamada, Shozo; Stefaneanu, Lucia

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of mitotic activity represents one of the oldest and most routinely used histopathologic methods of evaluating the biological aggressiveness of human tumors. In the case of pituitary tumors, however, the relevance of this approach as a means of gauging tumor behavior remains ill-defined. In this article, the relationship between the mitotic index and biological aggressiveness of pituitary tumors was evaluated in a series of 54 pituitary adenomas and 6 primary pituitary carcinomas. All tumors were fully classified by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy; adenomas were further stratified on the basis of their invasion status, the latter being defined as gross, operatively, or radiologically apparent infiltration of dura or bone. Mitotic figures were present in 11 tumors, 10 being either invasive adenomas or pituitary carcinomas. A significant association between the presence of mitotic figures and tumor behavior was noted, as evidenced by progressive increments in the proportion of cases expressing mitotic figures in the categories of noninvasive adenoma, invasive adenoma, and pituitary carcinoma (3.9, 21.4, and 66.7%, respectively; Fisher's exact test, two-tailed, p < 0.001). The mitotic index, however, appeared to be a less informative parameter, being extremely low in all cases (mean = 0.016% +/- 0.005 [+/- SEMI). Although the mean mitotic index in pituitary carcinomas (0.09% +/- 0.035) was significantly higher than the mean mitotic index of either noninvasive adenomas (0.002% +/- 0.002) or invasive adenomas (0.013% +/- 0.005), no practical threshold value capable of distinguishing these three groups was evident. Comparison of the mitotic index with Ki-67 derived growth fractions in these tumors revealed a significant but weak linear correlation (r = 0.41, p < 0.01). These data suggest that when, mitotic figures are present, they do provide some indication of the behavior and invasive potential of pituitary tumors. For routine diagnostic

  5. Acoustic and Perceptual Analysis of Speech Adaptation to an Artificial Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuliffe, Megan J.; Robb, Michael P.; Murdoch, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated adaptation to a standard electropalatographic (EPG) practise palate in a group of eight adults (mean age = 24 years). The participants read the phrase "a CVC" over four sampling conditions: prior to inserting the palate, immediately following insertion of the palate, 45 minutes after palate insertion, and 3 hours after…

  6. Differentiation of human pituitary adenomas determines the pattern of chromogranin/secretogranin messenger ribonucleic acid expression.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Chandler, W F; Smart, J B; England, B G; Lloyd, R V

    1993-03-01

    The distribution of chromogranin/secretogranin (Cg/Sg) mRNAs, determined by Northern and in situ hybridization, was analyzed in 14 cultured pituitary adenomas characterized by immunohistochemistry and hormone secretion in a defined medium in vitro. There were 5 functional GH adenomas, 1 silent GH adenoma, 7 null cell adenomas, and 1 oncocytoma. The null cell adenomas, oncocytoma, and silent GH adenomas were also analyzed by electron microscopy. Most null cell adenomas and the oncocytoma secreted FSH and LH into the culture medium. GH adenomas, which are examples of well differentiated tumors based on morphological examination, expressed significantly more SgIII mRNA compared to the null cell adenomas and oncocytoma (70 +/- 6% vs. 22 +/- 5%; P < 0.001). GH adenomas also expressed significantly less CgA mRNA compared to the less well differentiated null cell adenomas and oncocytoma (27 +/- 6% vs. 67 +/- 4%; P < 0.001), which could be considered less well differentiated based on ultrastructural morphological features. After treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (10(-7) M) for 7 days, there was an increase in the mRNA for CgB and SgII mRNAs in GH and null cell tumors, while dexamethasone treatment for 7 days increased CgA mRNA in GH and null cell adenomas. GnRH treatment for 7 days increased CgB mRNA in null cell adenomas. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also decreased the percentage of immunoreactive GH cells and GHm RNA, determined by in situ and Northern hybridization analyses. These results indicate that pituitary adenomas have a distinct pattern of Cg/Sg mRNA expression, which appears to be related to the degree of morphological differentiation of these neoplasms, and suggest that the effects of secretagogues on various Cg/Sg mRNA levels may be related to the stimulation of hormone secretion.

  7. Short duration of sleep increases risk of colorectal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cheryl L; Larkin, Emma K; Patel, Sanjay; Berger, Nathan A; Redline, Susan; Li, Li

    2011-02-15

    Short duration and poor quality of sleep have been associated with increased risks of obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and total mortality. However, few studies have investigated their associations with risk of colorectal neoplasia. In a screening colonoscopy-based case-control study, the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was administered to 1240 study participants before colonoscopy. Three hundred thirty-eight (27.3%) of the participants were diagnosed with incident colorectal adenomas. Although there was no appreciable difference in the overall PSQI score between cases and adenoma-free controls (5.32 vs 5.11; P = .37), the authors found a statistically significant association of colorectal adenoma with the PSQI component 3, which corresponds to sleep duration (P = .02). Cases were more likely to average less than 6 hours of sleep per night (28.9% vs 22.1% in controls, P = .01). In multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, race, smoking, family history of colorectal cancer, and waist-to-hip ratio, individuals averaging less than 6 hours per night had an almost 50% increase in risk of colorectal adenomas (OR = 1.47; CI = 1.05-2.06, P for trend = .02) as compared with individuals sleeping at least 7 hours per night. Cases were also more likely to report being diagnosed with sleep apnea (9.8% vs 6.5%, P = .05) and more likely to have worked alternate shifts (54.0% vs 46.1%, P = .01), although these differences were not significant in multivariate models. Shorter duration of sleep significantly increases risk of colorectal adenomas. The authors' results suggest sleep duration as a novel risk factor for colorectal neoplasia. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  8. Short duration of sleep increases risk of colorectal adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cheryl L.; Larkin, Emma K.; Patel, Sanjay; Berger, Nathan A.; Redline, Susan; Li, Li

    2010-01-01

    Background Short duration and poor quality of sleep have been associated with increased risks of obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and total mortality. However, few studies have investigated their associations with risk of colorectal neoplasia. Methods In a screening colonoscopy-based case-control study, the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was administered to 1,240 study participants prior to their colonoscopy. Results Three hundred and thirty eight (27.3%) of the participants were diagnosed with incident colorectal adenomas. Although there was no appreciable difference in the overall PSQI score between cases and adenoma-free controls (5.32 vs. 5.11; p=0.37), we found a statistically significant association of colorectal adenoma with the PSQI component 3, which corresponds to sleep duration (p=0.02). Cases were more likely to average less than 6 hours of sleep per night (28.9% vs. 22.1% in controls, p=0.01). In multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, race, smoking, family history of colorectal cancer, and waist-to-hip ratio, individuals averaging less than 6 hours per night had an almost 50% increase in risk of colorectal adenomas (OR=1.47, CI =1.05-2.06, p for trend=0.02) as compared with individuals sleeping at least 7 hours per night. Cases were also more likely to report of being diagnosed with sleep apnea (9.8% vs. 6.5%, p=0.05) and more likely to have worked alternate shifts (54.0% vs. 46.1%, p=0.01), although these differences were not significant in multivariate models. Conclusions Shorter duration of sleep significantly increases risk of colorectal adenomas. Our results suggest sleep duration as a novel risk factor for colorectal neoplasia. PMID:20936662

  9. Long-Term Outcomes of Radiotherapy for Pituitary Adenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Felicia E. Amdur, Robert J. M.D.; Morris, Christopher G. M.S.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term local control and toxicity for pituitary adenomas treated with fractionated radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The records of 100 patients with pituitary adenomas treated between 1983 and 2003 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-one patients had hormone-secreting tumors; 69 patients were treated with surgery and postoperative RT. Median follow-up was 6.7 years (range, 0.6-20.2 years) for all patients and 6.2 years (range, 2-20.2 years) for living patients. The mean dose delivered was 45 Gy (range, 43-50.4 Gy). Results: The 10-year actuarial local control rates for nonsecreting and secreting adenomas were 98% and 73%, respectively (p 0.0015). Actuarial 10-year cause-specific survival (CSS) rates were 95% and 88%, and overall survival rates were 66% and 79% for nonsecreting and secreting adenomas, respectively. Involvement of the sphenoid sinus was found to be significantly associated with decreased 10-year CSS (p = 0.0453). When compared with the two- or three-field techniques, stereotactic RT was associated with improved CSS (p = 0.0775). CSS was not significantly associated with hormone excretion, extent of surgery, or whether RT was administrated postoperatively or for salvage after a postsurgical recurrence. New cases of hypopituitarism occurred in 35 patients. One patient experienced vision loss, and one patient developed a post-treatment glioma. Conclusions: This is one of the most mature series in the literature that documents excellent results with fractionated RT for pituitary adenoma. We recommend 45 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction using stereotactic noncoplanar fields.

  10. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

    2014-06-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

  11. Two Phenotypes of Traditional Serrated Adenomas Nationwide Survey in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A; Jónasson, Jón G

    2015-09-01

    Iceland has a total population of 300,000 inhabitants. All patients consulting for symptoms of the lower digestive tract during a four-year period (2003-2006) were subjected to a colonoscopic examination; all polyps were endoscopically removed. Out of the total 3,037 colorectal adenomas (CRAs), 308 (10.2%) were traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs). TSAs were divided according the predominant histological phenotype (>50%) into those with ectopic crypt formations (ECF), and those with unlocked serrations (US). ECF-TSA accounted for 5.9% (178/3037) and US-TSA for 4.3% (130/3037). The majority of patients with ECF-TSA and US-TSA were ≥ 60 years of age (74.1% and 76.2%, respectively). Notwithstanding, when patients having advanced adenomas (with high-grade dysplasia, with or without intramucosal carcinoma) were listed by age, those with ECF-TSA were significantly younger than those with US-TSA (p<0.05). ECF-TSA were more frequently left-sided (71.8%), whereas US-TSA were more frequently right-sided (60.0%). Invasive carcinoma evolved more frequently in ECF-TSA (7.8%) and in US-TSA (7.7%) than in tubular adenomas and in villous/tubulovillous adenomas (0.1% and 4.4%, respectively). Comparative studies indicated that the incidence rates/year of ECF-TSA and US-TSA were significantly higher in Iceland than in Sweden or in Italy (p<0.05). Genetic and putative epigenetic (environmental) factor(s) might account for the high incidence rate/year of ECF-TSA and US-TSA in this country.

  12. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi

    2014-01-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings. PMID:25077093

  13. Circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and risk of colorectal adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmi; Keku, Temitope O.; Martin, Christopher; Galanko, Joseph; Woosley, John T.; Schroeder, Jane C.; Satia, Jessie A.; Halabi, Susan; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The association between obesity and colorectal neoplasia may be mediated by inflammation. Circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are elevated in the obese. Adipose tissue can produce and release the inflammatory cytokines that are potentially procarcinogenic. We examined circulating levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in relation to risk factors and the prevalence of colorectal adenomas. Plasma levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α were quantified in 873 participants (242 colorectal adenoma cases and 631 controls) in a colonoscopy-based cross-sectional study conducted between 1998 and 2002. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate associations between levels of inflammatory cytokines, colorectal adenomas, and known risk factors. Several known risk factors for colorectal neoplasia were associated with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines such as older age, current smoking, and increasing adiposity. The prevalence of colorectal adenomas was associated with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α, and to a lesser degree, with CRP. For IL-6, adjusted odds ratios for colorectal adenomas were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18–2.68) for the second highest plasma level, and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.24– 2.74) for the highest level compared with the reference level. A similar association was found with TNF-α, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.02–2.33) and 1.65 (95% CI: 1.09–2.50), respectively. Our findings indicate that inflammation might be involved in the early development of colorectal neoplasia, and suggest that systemic inflammatory cytokines might be an indicator of obesity and other risk factors for colorectal neoplasia. PMID:18172326

  14. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal adenomas: single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Mikelis, Kipras; Samalavicius, Robertas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a method of choice for the local treatment of rectal adenomas. Though generally considered as a safe method, some authors have expressed skepticism about the anorectal function following TEM. Aim To review our experience in using TEM for removal of rectal adenomas. We focused on morbidity, local recurrence rates, and anorectal function following the operation. Material and methods The study included 72 patients who underwent TEM for rectal adenomas from December 2009 to November 2014 at the Department of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Institute. Of the 72 patients, 31 (43.1%) were lost in the follow-up. We recorded the demographics, operative details, final pathology, post-operative length of stay, post-operative complications, recurrences and functional outcome for each of the 41 (56.9%) remaining participants. Results Of the 41 eligible patients, 19 (46.3%) were male and 22 (53.7%) were female. The mean age of our patients was 66.8 years. There were no intraoperative complications. In 4 (9.8%) cases, postoperative complications were observed – urinary retention (2 cases, 4.9%) and postoperative hemorrhage (2 cases, 4.9%). All complications were treated conservatively. There was a single case (2.4%) of adenoma recurrence during the follow-up period. The mean score of the FISI questionnaire was 7.6 ±9.2 (ranging from 0 to 36), and the mean Wexner score was 2.3 ±3.4 (ranging from 0 to 17). Conclusions Transanal endoscopic microsurgery in our experience demonstrated low complication and recurrence rates, and good functional results. We conclude that TEM is an effective and safe method for the treatment of rectal adenomas. PMID:28133497

  15. Meat intake and the recurrence of colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Mathew, A; Sinha, R; Burt, R; Caan, B; Paskett, E; Iber, F; Kikendall, W; Lance, P; Shike, M; Weissfeld, J; Schatzkin, A; Lanza, E

    2004-06-01

    A large multicenter randomized controlled trial was re-assessed to check whether meat intake and a reduction in its consumption are associated with recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel, which are precursors of most colorectal malignancies. All subjects (n = 1905; 958 interventions and 947 controls) had one or more histologically confirmed colorectal adenomas removed during a colonoscopy within 6 months before randomization. The subjects were followed-up for approximately 4 years after randomization and a colonoscopy for detecting adenomas was conducted at the 1st and 4th year after randomization. Dietary variables were assessed at baseline (T0) and in conjunction with annual visits at the end of the 1st (T1), 2nd (T2), 3rd (T3) and 4th (T4) years. Odds ratios using logistic regression models for meat variables were estimated based on the average intake at T0, T1, T2, T3 and T4 (prior to the T4 colonoscopy) as well as change (T0-T4) in intake. In the intervention group, the total reduction in median intake of red meat from T0 to T4 was observed by the end of 1st year itself (30 and 31% for men and women, respectively). The analysis provide no evidence to suggest that lower intake or reduction in total and in red meat consumption during a period of 4 years reduces the risk of adenoma recurrence (including multiple or advanced adenoma), whereas the data suggest that high intake of fish is associated with lower risk of adenoma recurrence.

  16. RT-01FRACTIONATED STEREOTACTIC RADIOTHERAPY FOR PITUITARY ADENOMA WITH NOVALIS

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Yoshiki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Ogura, Kengo; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Hojo, Masato; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Murata, Daiki

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is an available treatment modality for pituitary adenoma. In particular, it is effective for the case unable to be removed with surgery or repeating recurrence. However, hypopituitarism and optic nerve injury associated with radiation therapy become a problem. Novalis® (Brain Lab) is an equipment of radiation to establish the detailed irradiation area, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (fSRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Retrospectively, we review local control and morbidity following fSRT with Novalis in pituitary adenoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2007 and 2012, 29 patients with pituitary adenoma (9 functioning, 20 non-functioning) received fSRT with Novalis in our institute. Total radiation dose was 50.4-54Gy (1.8 Gy per fraction) and prescribed to the gross target volume + 2 mm. The effectiveness of fSRT was evaluated by tumor volume and clinical symptoms on pre- fSRT, and every 1-year. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 59.1 months (20 to 83 months). Tumor regrowth was observed in 2 cases. Progression free survival rate was 93%. New visual field deficit was observed in 1 case, and new pituitary dysfunction were not observed in all patients. CONCLUSION: fSRT with Novalis is safe and effective in the treatment for pituitary adenoma. Although follow-up time is short, any problematic complications were not observed. In the future, fSRT is expected to make for safe and effective treatment in pituitary adenoma impossible to cure surgically.

  17. Three-dimensional palatal development between 3 and 6 years.

    PubMed

    Ciusa, Veronica; Dimaggio, Francesca Romana; Sforza, Chiarella; Ferrario, Virgilio Ferruccio

    2007-07-01

    To measure palatal landmarks of healthy nonpatient children aged 3 to 6 years with a normal deciduous dentition and to evaluate palatal shape independent of size. Fifty-eight dental casts of children with a normal and complete deciduous dentition were obtained and digitized with a computerized 3D instrument. At all ages, male and female data did not differ (Student's t-test), so the pooled values were considered. Dimensions were compared between ages by analyses of variance. Palatal slope and height increased significantly as a function of age (P < .001). Palatal length did not change with age (average: 23.1 mm). In the frontal plane, the intermolar width increased slightly with age by about 1.8 mm at the second molars, 1.1 mm at the first molars, and 0.9 mm at the canines. Palatal height in the frontal plane did not change in the posterior part of the palate, but decreased anteriorly. The intercanine distance increased by 0.9 mm with age. However, this change did not reach statistical significance. Between 3 and 6 years of age, palatal shape changed and became proportionally higher in both the frontal and sagittal planes.

  18. Morphology and function of the palatal dentition in Choristodera.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ryoko; Evans, Susan E

    2016-03-01

    Choristoderes are a group of extinct freshwater reptiles that were distributed throughout Laurasia from the Middle Jurassic to the Miocene. They are inferred to have had a lifestyle similar to that of extant gavialid crocodiles, but they differed from crocodiles in retaining an extensive palatal dentition. All choristoderes had teeth on the vomers, palatines and pterygoids, and teeth are rarely present on the parasphenoid. Palatal teeth are conical, as in the marginal dentition, and form longitudinal and transverse rows. Detailed examination of different genera shows that the orientation of the palatal tooth crowns changes with their position on the palate, supporting the view that they are involved in intra-oral food transportation, presumably in combination with a fleshy tongue. Moreover, observed variation in palatal tooth shape and the width of palatal tooth batteries may provide additional clues about diet. The European Simoedosaurus lemoinei has sharper palatal teeth than its North American counterpart, S. dakotensis, suggesting a preference for softer prey - a conclusion consistent with the more gracile teeth and narrower snout.

  19. A modified feeding plate for a newborn with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Mustafa; Karaçay, Seniz; Atay, Arzu; Günay, Yumuşhan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Cleft palate is a common congenital maxillofacial defect. We wish to present the fabrication of a modified feeding plate that will adapt to the changing palatal and velopharyngeal morphology during function. Case Report : A neonate with unilateral cleft lip and palate was referred to our clinic for the fabrication of a feeding plate. Intraoral examination revealed a cleft involving the uvula and the soft palate, with an alveolar defect on the left side. An impression was taken and a dental cast was obtained. A 1-mm Bioplast clear soft plate was pressed on the model. After trimming the edges of the plate, several retentive holes were made for its attachment to the hard plate. With the Bioplast soft plate replaced on the cast, plaster was used to cover parts of the soft plate that were not to come in contact with the hard plate. Biocryl resin was put on the retentive holes and 2-mm Biocryl C Rosa-transparent plate was pressed. The edges of the plate were cut, trimmed, and polished. Conclusion : This modified feeding plate effectively obstructed the soft palate defect. The adaptation of the flexible bulb of the appliance with the soft palate was excellent. Evaluation with nasoendoscopy revealed the synchronized movement of the bulb of the appliance with the soft palate during swallowing. Soft extension of the feeding plate eliminated the risk of irritation, and the baby accepted the appliance easily.

  20. Anterior pillarplasty: a modification in cleft palate repair.

    PubMed

    Çelebiler, Özhan; Ersoy, Burak; Numanoğlu, Ayhan

    2011-07-01

    After the primary repair of cleft palate, surgeons are frequently confronted with a short soft palate and a wide velopharyngeal space, both of which are known to diminish the quality of speech. We introduce a new modification of the primary repair of cleft palate that lengthens the soft palate and helps to reduce the volume of the velopharyngeal space. Ten patients younger than 12 months with nonsyndromic cleft palate were operated on with this technique. The incision at the cleft margin extended behind the uvula as a modification to the classic design of mucoperiosteal flaps. The sagittally divided mucosal layers of each anterior tonsillar pillar are sutured at the midline 1 cm posterior to the new uvula. The rate of postoperative fistula formation and other complications were evaluated postoperatively. One patient had a uvular and partly pillar detachment at the postoperative period. All other clefts healed without complication. The primary repair of the cleft palate with the anterior pillarplasty technique is a safe and easy-to-perform procedure. This modification can effectively reduce the transverse diameter of the velopharyngeal space and increase the anteroposterior length of the palate.

  1. Presurgical orthopedic premaxillary alignment in cleft lip and palate reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Papay, F A; Morales, L; Motoki, D S; Yamashiro, D K

    1994-11-01

    Premaxillary malposition is a difficult problem in cleft lip and palate repair. Orthopedic palatal devices are excellent in positioning the premaxilla, though they are somewhat cumbersome and require complex techniques in adjusting precisely the position of the premaxilla prior to repair. A new technique has been developed for premaxillary repositioning in conjunction with palatal shelf expansion and obturation. The procedure implements microplate fixation anterior to the premaxillary segment and linked to a palatal splint by adjustable elastics. The microplate is inserted through a nasal floor incision and secured by a tight submucosal tunnel through minimal dissection between the prolabium and premaxilla. The last hole of each microplate protrudes through the mucosa and is attached to a pin-retained palatal splint by an elastic chain. Differential tension is applied to the chains to allow gradual repositioning of the protruding maxilla while the splint expands and maintains positioning of the lateral palatal segments. These elastic retractors can be adjusted by staff in the outpatient office. During the past 2 years, this technique has been used successfully in 21 consecutive patients with unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate. Its technical ease and design allows simple adjustments to control premaxillary positioning and growth before definitive surgical closure.

  2. Receptor-dependent mechanisms of glucocorticoid and dioxin-induced cleft palate.

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, R M

    1985-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (triamcinolone) and dioxins (TCDD) are highly specific teratogens in the mouse, in that cleft palate is the major malformation observed. Glucocorticoids and TCDD both readily cross the yolk sac and placenta and appear in the developing secondary palate. Structure-activity relationships for glucocorticoid- and TCDD-induced cleft palate suggest a receptor involvement. Receptors for glucocorticoids and TCDD are present in the palate and their levels in various mouse strains are highly correlated with their sensitivity to cleft palate induction. Receptors for glucocorticoids appear to be more prevalent in the palatal mesenchymal cells whereas those for TCDD are probably located in the palatal epithelial cells. Glucocorticoids exert their teratogenic effect on the palate by inhibiting the growth of the palatal mesenchymal cells whereas TCDD alters the terminal cell differentiation of the medial palatal epithelial cells. PMID:2998748

  3. Receptor-dependent mechanisms of glucocorticoid and dioxin-induced cleft palate

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    Glucocorticoids (triamcinolone) and dioxins (TCDD) are highly specific teratogens in the mouse, in that cleft palate is the major malformation observed. Glucocorticoids and TCDD both readily cross the yolk sac and placenta and appear in the developing secondary palate. Structure-activity relationships for glucocorticoid- and TCDD-induced cleft palate suggest a receptor involvement. Receptors for glucocorticoids and TCDD are present in the palate and their levels in various mouse strains are highly correlated with their sensitivity to cleft palate induction. Receptors for glucocorticoids appear to be more prevalent in the palatal mesenchymal cells whereas those for TCDD are probably located in the palatal epithelial cells. Glucocorticoids exert their teratogenic effect on the palate by inhibiting the growth of the palatal mesenchymal cells whereas TCDD alters the terminal cell differentiation of the media palatal epithelial cells. 71 references.

  4. Use of buccal myomucosal flap for palatal lengthening in cleft palate patient: Experience of 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Don; Datta, Shubharanjan; Varghese, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of the buccal myomucosal flap in secondary repairs of cleft palate in 20 patients. Patients and Methods: Totally, 20 patients, who underwent secondary palatoplasty between 5 years and 8 years in which a buccal myomucosal flap was used, were reviewed retrospectively. All patients had undergone at least one previous attempted repair at other institutions. Indications for the secondary repair included velopharyngeal incompetence and/or oronasal fistula. Patients were evaluated preoperatively for oronasal fistula status, velopharyngeal competence, nasal resonance, speech quality, and nasal escape. Results: The buccal myomucosal flap was used in all 20 patients, and there was marked increase in the quality of speech as well as nasal regurgitation decreased. In patients with levator dysfunction due to poor primary surgery and glottal speech the results were inconclusive Conclusion: Palate re-repair combined with a buccal myomucosal flap, occasionally in conjunction with other techniques, is an effective method for correcting failed cleft palate repairs. Minimum donor site morbidity and complication makes the buccal flap a useful armamentarium of a cleft surgeon. PMID:25821372

  5. Otologic Concerns for Cleft Lip and Palate Patient.

    PubMed

    Berryhill, Wayne

    2016-05-01

    Understanding eustachian tube physiology and anticipating probable eustachian tube dysfunction is an important component of cleft palate management. This article provides a brief summary of the otologic physiology and issues that may be of concern to cleft palate management. It is of critical importance not only to provide primary closure of the cleft palate, but also to recognize that along with speech, hearing has a critical component to the educational and social success of all individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Speech evaluation and treatment for patients with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, David P; Henne, Lisa J

    2003-02-01

    This compendium has been written in conjunction with a cleft lip and palate surgical mission that took place in Villahermosa, Mexico, February 4-9, 2001. Fifty children, 10 per day, received lip or palate surgery. This report, available in both English and Spanish, is intended as a practical and concise guide to basic aspects of evaluation and treatment of speech disorders associated with cleft palate. More detailed and comprehensive sources dealing with this topic are available and have been reviewed by D. P. Kuehn and K. T. Moller (2000).

  7. Simplified feeding appliance for an infant with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Masih, Shaila; Chacko, Reena Annie; Thomas, Abi M; Singh, Namita; Thomas, Rodny; Abraham, Deena

    2014-01-01

    A child born with cleft palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Early surgical treatment may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain of the infant. The case presented here is of a 1-month-old neonate born with cleft palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using pressure molding technique to aid in proper feeding. The patient's weight and health significantly improved after the insertion of obturator. The advantages of this material included being lightweight, moldability, good palatal fit and decreased soft tissue injury.

  8. Gene expression profiling analysis of MENX-associated rat pituitary adenomas contributes to understand molecular mechanisms of human pituitary adenomas

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HONGZHI; XU, CHUAN; SUN, NINGYANG; ZHOU, YINTING; YU, XIAOFEI; YAN, XUE; ZHANG, QIUJUAN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to screen potential genes associated with pituitary adenomas to obtain further understanding with regard to the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas. The microarray GSE23207 dataset, containing 16 pituitary adenoma samples from multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome-associated rats and 5 normal pituitary tissue samples, was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. The Linear Models for Microarray Data package was used to identify the differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) with the cut-off criteria of a |log2fold change (FC)|>1 and adjusted P-values of <0.05. The potential functions of the DEGs were predicted by functional and pathway enrichment analysis with the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Furthermore, the interaction associations of the up- and downregulated DEGs obtained from the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database were respectively revealed by the protein-protein interaction networks visualized with Cytoscape. A total of 391 upregulated and 238 downregulated DEGs in were screened in the pituitary adenoma samples. The upregulated DEGs with a higher degree in the protein-protein interaction network (e.g., CCNA2, CCNB1 and CDC20) were significantly involved in cell cycle and cell division. Notably, PTTG1 was enriched in every functional term. These DEGs interacted with each other. The downregulated DEGs (e.g., GABRA1, GABRA4 and GABRB1) also interacted with each other, and were relevant to neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction; the DEG POU1F1, interacting with POMC, was correlated with the development of the pituitary gland, adenohypophysis and endocrine system. Certain DEGs, including CCNB1, CCNA2, CDC20, GABRA1, GABRA4, GABRB1, POU1F1 and POMC, and particularly PTTG1, were shown to be closely involved in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas. PMID:26870179

  9. Sessile serrated adenomas of the large bowel. Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study including comparison with common hyperplastic polyps and adenomas.

    PubMed

    Chlumská, A; Boudová, L; Zámecník, M

    2006-07-01

    Sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) is a newly characterized type of the large bowel adenoma. It arises in hyperplastic polyp (HP) and represents a precursor lesion of colorectal carcinoma with microsatellite instability. SSAs differ from common HPs by abnormal proliferation of the crypt epithelium and by nuclear atypia. We examined 15 SSAs from 15 patients. The age range was 25-80 years (average 60 years). Six patients were females and 9 were males. For comparison, we examined 10 conventional tubular adenomas and 10 common HPs with vesicular cells. The sites of SSAs were as follows: 8 in rectum, 4 in rectosigmoid colon, 1 in transverse colon, 1 next to mucinous carcinoma of ascending colon, 1 in anastomosis after resection of the transverse colon adenocarcinoma. The diameter of the lesions ranged from 5 to 12 mm. Histologically, SSAs showed asymmetrical proliferation of the epithelium, irregular shape of the crypts with their branching and some crypt dilatations especially in the basal parts of the crypts. Cellular atypia (dysplasia) was usually low. In 5 cases the nuclei were focally stratified and localized in the lower part of the cells. High-grade dysplasia was found only in SSA adjacent to mucinous adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemically, SSAs showed secretion of gastrointestinal mucin expressing MUC2 and MUC5A. Both MUC2 and MUC5A were also positive in mucinous carcinoma. In previous studies these expressions were considered specific for serrated type of carcinogenesis. However, our study found positivity of MUC2 and MUC5A also in conventional adenomas. Expression of p53 in SSAs was minimal. SSAs have malignant potential comparable with conventional adenomas and for this reason they must be distinguished from HPs.

  10. The anatomy of the dog soft palate. III. Histological evaluation of the caudal soft palate in brachycephalic neonates.

    PubMed

    Pichetto, Michela; Arrighi, Silvana; Gobbetti, Matteo; Romussi, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    A thickened and abnormally long soft palate is mostly involved in the pathogenesis of both nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal narrowing, affecting the respiratory activity in virtually all of the brachycephalic dogs suffering from Brachycephalic Airway Obstructive Syndrome (BAOS). The morphology of the soft palate in adult mesaticephalic and brachycephalic dogs has been previously described. In this article specimens from brachycephalic dog neonates (N=10) dead from one to 3 hr after birth of unrelated conditions were collected and histologically evaluated at three transverse levels to describe the microscopic aspect of the caudal part of the soft palate. The soft palate of neonate brachycephalic dogs was histologically characterized by a musculo-connective axis containing salivary glands and coated by a mucosal layer on both the nasopharyngeal and the oral side. Quali-quantitative features, such as thickened superficial epithelium, broad oedema of the lamina propria, mucous gland hyperplasia and diverse muscular modifications described in adult brachycephalic dogs, were not observed in the soft palate of brachycephalic neonate dogs. The lack of tissue lesions in the soft palate of newborn brachycephalic dogs further supports the hypothesis that inspiratory depression during the inspiratory phase causes chronic vibration and microtrauma, which lead to soft palate alterations in adult brachycephalic dogs starting from the earliest grade of the respiratory syndrome. Overall, this study provides baseline information for the comprehension of the pathogenesis of BAOS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Obturator prostheses following palatal resection: clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Tirelli, G; Rizzo, R; Biasotto, M; Di Lenarda, R; Argenti, B; Gatto, A; Bullo, F

    2010-02-01

    Malignant tumours of the upper gum and hard palate account for 1-5% of malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity; two thirds of the lesions which involve these areas are squamous cell carcinomas. Most of these carcinomas are diagnosed late, when they invade the underlying bone. The procedures of choice for removal are: alveolectomy, palatectomy, maxillectomy, which may be total or partial. Surgical reconstruction of the defect may be carried out using a wide range of microvascularized flaps: osteomuscolocutaneous of the internal iliac crest, an osteocutaneous flap of the fibula or scapula, fascia, or osteocutaneous radial flap, or a pedicled flap of temporal muscle. These flaps are supported by single or multiple obturator prostheses. Rehabilitation via palatal obturators is preferred in patients with a poor prognosis or in weak condition. Rehabilitation aims to: restore the separation between the oral and nasal cavities, enable the patient to swallow, maintain or provide mastication, sufficient occlusion and mandibular support, support the soft facial tissues, re-establish speech and restore an aesthetically pleasing smile. Hence, it is crucial to work in close cooperation with the staff who makes the prosthesis and who evaluates the case when the surgery is planned and obtains the necessary gnatological, anatomical and functional information. Thereafter, during the surgical stage, for the immediate obturators, or in the successive days, for the temporary obturators, work is devoted to making the prostheses. In this regard, the Odonto-prostheses Service of the Stomatological Clinic does not follow a rigid protocol but materials and techniques are selected on a personal basis, according to the features of each individual clinical case. Mobile rehabilitative systems are the systems of choice, both of which related to the traditional concepts of retention and stability and systems of self-stabilizing prostheses according to J. Dichamp, albeit modified in materials

  12. Obturator prostheses following palatal resection: clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    Tirelli, G; Rizzo, R; Biasotto, M; Di Lenarda, R; Argenti, B; Gatto, A; Bullo, F

    2010-01-01

    Summary Malignant tumours of the upper gum and hard palate account for 1-5% of malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity; two thirds of the lesions which involve these areas are squamous cell carcinomas. Most of these carcinomas are diagnosed late, when they invade the underlying bone. The procedures of choice for removal are: alveolectomy, palatectomy, maxillectomy, which may be total or partial. Surgical reconstruction of the defect may be carried out using a wide range of microvascularized flaps: osteomuscolocutaneous of the internal iliac crest, an osteocutaneous flap of the fibula or scapula, fascia, or osteocutaneous radial flap, or a pedicled flap of temporal muscle. These flaps are supported by single or multiple obturator prostheses. Rehabilitation via palatal obturators is preferred in patients with a poor prognosis or in weak condition. Rehabilitation aims to: restore the separation between the oral and nasal cavities, enable the patient to swallow, maintain or provide mastication, sufficient occlusion and mandibular support, support the soft facial tissues, re-establish speech and restore an aesthetically pleasing smile. Hence, it is crucial to work in close cooperation with the staff who makes the prosthesis and who evaluates the case when the surgery is planned and obtains the necessary gnatological, anatomical and functional information. Thereafter, during the surgical stage, for the immediate obturators, or in the successive days, for the temporary obturators, work is devoted to making the prostheses. In this regard, the Odonto-prostheses Service of the Stomatological Clinic does not follow a rigid protocol but materials and techniques are selected on a personal basis, according to the features of each individual clinical case. Mobile rehabilitative systems are the systems of choice, both of which related to the traditional concepts of retention and stability and systems of self-stabilizing prostheses according to J. Dichamp, albeit modified in

  13. Early hard palate closure using a vomer flap in unilateral cleft lip and palate: effects on cleft width.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Johanna P; Breugem, Corstiaan C

    2014-05-01

    Although no universal consensus exists on treatment of cleft palates, early hard palate closure is commonly performed. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of a vomer flap for early hard palate closure on residual palatal cleft width in patients with a unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Forty-seven UCLP patients were retrospectively divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 25 patients who underwent early lip closure and simultaneous hard palate closure using a vomer flap. Group B included 22 patients who had lip closure only at first surgery. Palatal cleft widths of both groups were measured at two time points and were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test to examine the influence of vomerplasty in this very early stage. No significant difference of baseline characteristics between the groups was found, and comparison of age at the time of surgeries was not significantly different. Mean age at the time of vomerplasty was 4.0 months. After the first surgery, a significantly greater total cleft width reduction of 5.0 mm average was found in group A compared to only 1.5 mm reduction in group B. This reduction took place after an average of 7.1 and 7.0 months, respectively. Lip closure accompanied by early hard palate closure using a vomer flap is associated with a significant postoperative reduction of the residual cleft when compared to lip closure only. This study shows another great advantage of performing early hard palate closure using a vomer flap.

  14. The Palatal and Oral Manifestations of Muenke Syndrome (FGFR3 related craniosynostosis)

    PubMed Central

    Agochukwu, Nneamaka B.; Solomon, Benjamin D.; Doherty, Emily S.; Muenke, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    Palatal anomalies including cleft palate and higharched palate have been reported in the most common craniosynostosis syndromes, including Pfeiffer syndrome (associated with mutations in FGFR1, FGFR2), Apert syndrome (FGFR2), Muenke syndrome (FGFR3) and Crouzon syndrome (FGFR2). Although Muenke syndrome is the most common syndromic form of craniosynostosis, the frequency of oral and palatal anomalies including high arched palate, cleft lip with or without cleft palate has not been documented in a patient series of Muenke syndrome to date. Further, to our knowledge, cleft lip and palate has not been reported yet in a patient with Muenke syndrome (a previous patient with isolated cleft palate has been reported). This study sought to evaluate the frequency of palatal anomalies in patients with Muenke syndrome through both a retrospective investigation and literature review. A total of 21 patients who met criteria for this study were included in the retrospective review. 15 patients (71%) had a structural anomaly of the palate. Cleft lip and palate was present in one patient (5%). Other palatal findings included: high arched hard palate in 14 patients (67%). Individuals with Muenke syndrome have the lowest incidence of cleft palate among the most common craniosynostosis syndromes. However, high arched palate in Muenke syndrome is common and may warrant clinical attention, as these individuals are more susceptible to recurrent chronic otitis media with effusion, dental malocclusion and hearing loss. PMID:22565872

  15. Sprouty2 controls proliferation of palate mesenchymal cells via fibroblast growth factor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Kaori; Taketomi, Takaharu; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Arai, Shinsaku; Sanui, Terukazu; Yoshiga, Daigo; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Nakamura, Seiji

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Sprouty2-deficient mice exhibit cleft palate as a result of failure of palatal shelf elevation. {yields} We examined palate cell proliferation in Sprouty2-deficient mice. {yields} Palate mesenchymal cell proliferation was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice. {yields} Sprouty2 plays roles in murine palatogenesis by regulating cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Cleft palate is one of the most common craniofacial deformities. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plays a central role in reciprocal interactions between adjacent tissues during palatal development, and the FGF signaling pathway has been shown to be inhibited by members of the Sprouty protein family. In this study, we report the incidence of cleft palate, possibly caused by failure of palatal shelf elevation, in Sprouty2-deficient (KO) mice. Sprouty2-deficient palates fused completely in palatal organ culture. However, palate mesenchymal cell proliferation estimated by Ki-67 staining was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice compared with WT mice. Sprouty2-null palates expressed higher levels of FGF target genes, such as Msx1, Etv5, and Ptx1 than WT controls. Furthermore, proliferation and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation in response to FGF was enhanced in palate mesenchymal cells transfected with Sprouty2 small interfering RNA. These results suggest that Sprouty2 regulates palate mesenchymal cell proliferation via FGF signaling and is involved in palatal shelf elevation.

  16. Mutational Profiles Reveal an Aberrant TGF-β-CEA Regulated Pathway in Colon Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Jogunoori, Wilma; Menon, Vipin; Majumdar, Avijit; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Gi, Young Jin; Jeong, Yun Seong; Phan, Liem; Belkin, Mitchell; Gu, Shoujun; Kundra, Suchin; Mistry, Nipun A.; Zhang, Jianping; Su, Xiaoping; Li, Shulin; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Javle, Milind; McMurray, John S.; Rahlfs, Thomas F.; Mishra, Bibhuti; White, Jon; Rashid, Asif; Beauchemin, Nicole; Weston, Brian R.; Shafi, Mehnaz A.; Stroehlein, John R.; Davila, Marta; Akbani, Rehan; Weinstein, John N.; Wu, Xifeng; Mishra, Lopa

    2016-01-01

    Mutational processes and signatures that drive early tumorigenesis are centrally important for early cancer prevention. Yet, to date, biomarkers and risk factors for polyps (adenomas) that inordinately and rapidly develop into colon cancer remain poorly defined. Here, we describe surprisingly high mutational profiles through whole-genome sequence (WGS) analysis in 2 of 4 pairs of benign colorectal adenoma tissue samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustered transcriptomic analysis of a further 7 pairs of adenomas reveals distinct mutational signatures regardless of adenoma size. Transitional single nucleotide substitutions of C:G>T:A predominate in the adenoma mutational spectrum. Strikingly, we observe mutations in the TGF-β pathway and CEA-associated genes in 4 out of 11 adenomas, overlapping with the Wnt pathway. Immunohistochemical labeling reveals a nearly 5-fold increase in CEA levels in 23% of adenoma samples with a concomitant loss of TGF-β signaling. We also define a functional role by which the CEA B3 domain interacts with TGFBR1, potentially inactivating the tumor suppressor function of TGF-β signaling. Our study uncovers diverse mutational processes underlying the transition from early adenoma to cancer. This has broad implications for biomarker-driven targeting of CEA/TGF-β in high-risk adenomas and may lead to early detection of aggressive adenoma to CRC progression. PMID:27100181

  17. Nonampullary duodenal adenoma: Current understanding of its diagnosis, pathogenesis, and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chul-Hyun; Cho, Young-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Nonampullary duodenal adenomas are relatively common in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), but nonampullary sporadic duodenal adenomas (SDAs) are rare. Emerging evidence shows that duodenal adenomas, regardless of their anatomic location and whether they are sporadic or FAP-related, share morphologic and molecular features with colorectal adenomas. The available data suggest that duodenal adenomas develop to duodenal adenocarcinomas via similar mechanisms. The optimal approach for management of duodenal adenomas remains to be determined. The techniques for endoscopic resection of duodenal adenoma include snare polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), and argon plasma coagulation ablation. EMR may facilitate removal of large duodenal polyps. Although several studies have reported cases of successful ESD for duodenal adenomas, the procedure is technically difficult to perform safely because of the anatomical properties of the duodenum. Although current clinical practice recommends endoscopic resection of all large duodenal adenomas in patients with FAP, endoscopic treatment is usually insufficient to guarantee a polyp-free duodenum. Surgery is indicated for FAP patients with severe polyposis or nonampullary SDAs or FAP-related polyps not amenable to endoscopic resection. Further studies are needed to develop newer endoscopic techniques to guide diagnostic and therapeutic decisions for future management of nonampullary duodenal adenomas. PMID:26811631

  18. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome due to follicle-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Caretto, Amelia; Lanzi, Roberto; Piani, Cecilia; Molgora, Michela; Mortini, Pietro; Losa, Marco

    2017-07-04

    Gonadotroph adenomas are pituitary adenomas with inefficient and variable secretory characteristics, that is why they are usually considered as a subgroup of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) and are recognized only at immunohistochemistry. When gonadotroph adenomas secrete active hormones, they may cause spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in premenopausal women. Aim of our study is to describe three women with OHSS diagnosed before the removal of the adenoma and to calculate the prevalence of OHSS in premenopausal women with a clinical diagnosis of NFPA. We reviewed clinical records of premenopausal women that underwent neurosurgery for NFPA at our centre between 1993 and 2014. OHSS was diagnosed in patients with high levels of FSH, suppressed LH, hyperestrogenism, abdominal symptoms, polymenorrhea, enlarged ovaries with cysts or previous surgery for ovarian cysts. 171 women were included into the study; 62 (36.6%) had a gonadotroph adenoma diagnosed at immunohistochemistry. Two patients were retrospectively diagnosed as having OHSS due to gonadotroph adenoma and three had OHSS diagnosed before neurosurgery. The prevalence of OHSS was 2.9% in the overall group of patients with NFPA and 8.1% among patients with a gonadotroph adenoma detected at immunohistochemistry. Frequency of OHSS due to a gonadotroph adenoma is not negligible. Increased awareness of the characteristic clinical and hormonal picture should permit an early detection of this condition in premenopausal women with a pituitary adenoma.

  19. Effects of variation in the timing of palatal repair on sagittal craniofacial morphology in complete cleft lip and palate children.

    PubMed

    Nandlal; Utreja, A; Tewari, A; Chari, P S

    2000-12-01

    The complete cleft lip and palate children, ranging from 6-14 years of age were studied to evaluate the effect of variation in the timing of palatal repair on craniofacial morphology and compared to the noncleft children. It was observed that all the groups early (8 to < or = 24 months), medium (> 24 to < or = 36 months) and late repair (> 36 to < or = 78 months) had significantly larger cranial base, retruded maxillomandibular relations, skeletodental and incisal relationships compared to the noncleft children. However, intercomparison among the cleft groups showed insignificant difference amongst them suggesting that the timing of palatal repairs does not effect the anterioposterior (sagittal) relationship.

  20. Computational Embryology and Predictive Toxicology of Cleft Palate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capacity to model and simulate key events in developmental toxicity using computational systems biology and biological knowledge steps closer to hazard identification across the vast landscape of untested environmental chemicals. In this context, we chose cleft palate as a model ...

  1. Computational Embryology and Predictive Toxicology of Cleft Palate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capacity to model and simulate key events in developmental toxicity using computational systems biology and biological knowledge steps closer to hazard identification across the vast landscape of untested environmental chemicals. In this context, we chose cleft palate as a model ...

  2. Putative functions of extracellular matrix glycoproteins in secondary palate morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    d'Amaro, Rocca; Scheidegger, Rolf; Blumer, Susan; Pazera, Pawel; Katsaros, Christos; Graf, Daniel; Chiquet, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Cleft palate is a common birth defect in humans. Elevation and fusion of paired palatal shelves are coordinated by growth and transcription factors, and mutations in these can cause malformations. Among the effector genes for growth factor signaling are extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins. These provide substrates for cell adhesion (e.g., fibronectin, tenascins), but also regulate growth factor availability (e.g., fibrillins). Cleft palate in Bmp7 null mouse embryos is caused by a delay in palatal shelf elevation. In contrast, palatal shelves of Tgf-β3 knockout mice elevate normally, but a cleft develops due to their failure to fuse. However, nothing is known about a possible functional interaction between specific ECM proteins and Tgf-β/Bmp family members in palatogenesis. To start addressing this question, we studied the mRNA and protein distribution of relevant ECM components during secondary palate development, and compared it to growth factor expression in wildtypewild type and mutant mice. We found that fibrillin-2 (but not fibrillin-1) mRNA appeared in the mesenchyme of elevated palatal shelves adjacent to the midline epithelial cells, which were positive for Tgf-β3 mRNA. Moreover, midline epithelial cells started expressing fibronectin upon contact of the two palatal shelves. These findings support the hypothesis that fibrillin-2 and fibronectin are involved in regulating the activity of Tgf-β3 at the fusing midline. In addition, we observed that tenascin-W (but not tenascin-C) was misexpressed in palatal shelves of Bmp7-deficient mouse embryos. In contrast to tenascin-C, tenascin-W secretion was strongly induced by Bmp7 in embryonic cranial fibroblasts in vitro. These results are consistent with a putative function for tenascin-W as a target of Bmp7 signaling during palate elevation. Our results indicate that distinct ECM proteins are important for morphogenesis of the secondary palate, both as downstream effectors and as regulators of Tgf

  3. [Cleft lip and palate--problematic cleft speech].

    PubMed

    Hortis-Dzierzbicka, M A

    1999-01-01

    The early restoration of facial and palatal morphology in patients with cleft of lip and/or palate provides the anatomical base for good speech outcome. The author gives the up todate overview of the main problems concerning cleft speech, such as velopalatal insufficiency and typical articulation errors. The article describes the modern methods for the evaluation of VPI and current trends in treatment modalities for VPI.

  4. Dislocated Tongue Muscle Attachment and Cleft Palate Formation.

    PubMed

    Kouskoura, T; El Fersioui, Y; Angelini, M; Graf, D; Katsaros, C; Chiquet, M

    2016-04-01

    In Pierre Robin sequence, a retracted tongue due to micrognathia is thought to physically obstruct palatal shelf elevation and thereby cause cleft palate. However, micrognathia is not always associated with palatal clefting. Here, by using the Bmp7-null mouse model presenting with cleft palate and severe micrognathia, we provide the first causative mechanism linking the two. In wild-type embryos, the genioglossus muscle, which mediates tongue protrusion, originates from the rostral process of Meckel's cartilage and later from the mandibular symphysis, with 2 tendons positive for Scleraxis messenger RNA. In E13.5 Bmp7-null embryos, a rostral process failed to form, and a mandibular symphysis was absent at E17.5. Consequently, the genioglossus muscle fibers were diverted toward the lingual surface of Meckel's cartilage and mandibles, where they attached in an aponeurosis that ectopically expressed Scleraxis. The deflection of genioglossus fibers from the anterior-posterior toward the medial-lateral axis alters their direction of contraction and necessarily compromises tongue protrusion. Since this muscle abnormality precedes palatal shelf elevation, it is likely to contribute to clefting. In contrast, embryos with a cranial mesenchyme-specific deletion of Bmp7 (Bmp7:Wnt1-Cre) exhibited some degree of micrognathia but no cleft palate. In these embryos, a rostral process was present, indicating that mesenchyme-derived Bmp7 is dispensable for its formation. Moreover, the genioglossus appeared normal in Bmp7:Wnt1-Cre embryos, further supporting a role of aberrant tongue muscle attachment in palatal clefting. We thus propose that in Pierre Robin sequence, palatal shelf elevation is not impaired simply by physical obstruction by the tongue but by a specific developmental defect that leads to functional changes in tongue movements. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  5. Orthognathic surgery in the cleft lip and palate patient.

    PubMed

    Herber, S C; Lehman, J A

    1993-10-01

    Orthognathic surgery for the cleft lip and palate patient should be designed to achieve good facial aesthetics and a stable, functional occlusion. Maxillary and mandibular osteotomies, which benefit cleft lip and palate patients with associated dentofacial deformities, should be modified to meet the needs of the individual patient. Soft-tissue correction of the upper lip and nose adds to the overall aesthetic result, but should be performed as a separate procedure.

  6. Postsurgical use of prosthetic palatal appliances. Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Artopoulou, Ioli-Ioanna; Higuera, Stephen; Martin, Jack W; Stal, Samuel; Chambers, Mark S

    2005-01-01

    Patients with cleft lip or palate encounter a myriad of difficulties in their early years of life, some of which begin at birth. The defect often impairs suckling and deglutition in the neonate. It can hinder appropriate speech development and may impose undue social and psychological stresses. Surgical and orthodontic interventions are essential and prosthetic palatal appliances play an important role not only throughout the patient's treatment course, but also in the treatment of unfavorable surgical sequelae.

  7. Treatment of a Maxillary First Molar with Two Palatal Roots

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Vahideh; Rahimi, Saeed; Ghasemi, Negin; Talebzadeh, Bita; Norlouoni, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of the morphology and internal anatomy of the root canal system is essential, because it determines the successful outcome of endodontic treatment. The main goal of endodontic treatment is to prevent apical periodontitis and/or to promote the healing of periapical lesion. Presence of two canals or roots on the palatal side of the first maxillary molar has rarely been reported. This case report presents a maxillary first molar with two separate palatal roots. PMID:26523146

  8. A Rat Model for Muscle Regeneration in the Soft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal Monroy, Paola L.; Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M.; Helmich, Maria P. A. C.; Ulrich, Dietmar J. O.; Von den Hoff, Johannes W.; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with a cleft in the soft palate have difficulties with speech, swallowing, and sucking. Despite successful surgical repositioning of the muscles, optimal function is often not achieved. Scar formation and defective regeneration may hamper the functional recovery of the muscles after cleft palate repair. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the anatomy and histology of the soft palate in rats, and to establish an in vivo model for muscle regeneration after surgical injury. Methods Fourteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 (n = 4) and 2 (n = 2) were used to investigate the anatomy and histology of the soft palate, respectively. Group 3 (n = 6) was used for surgical wounding of the soft palate, and group 4 (n = 2) was used as unwounded control group. The wounds (1 mm) were evaluated by (immuno)histochemistry (AZAN staining, Pax7, MyoD, MyoG, MyHC, and ASMA) after 7 days. Results The present study shows that the anatomy and histology of the soft palate muscles of the rat is largely comparable with that in humans. All wounds showed clinical evidence of healing after 7 days. AZAN staining demonstrated extensive collagen deposition in the wound area, and initial regeneration of muscle fibers and salivary glands. Proliferating and differentiating satellite cells were identified in the wound area by antibody staining. Conclusions This model is the first, suitable for studying muscle regeneration in the rat soft palate, and allows the development of novel adjuvant strategies to promote muscle regeneration after cleft palate surgery. PMID:23554995

  9. Adenoma, advanced adenoma and colorectal cancer prevalence in asymptomatic 40- to 49-year-old subjects with a first-degree family history of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio Blanco, G; Cretella, M; Paoluzi, O A; Caruso, A; Mannisi, E; Servadei, F; Romeo, S; Grasso, E; Sileri, P; Giannelli, M; Biancone, L; Palmieri, G; Pallone, F

    2013-09-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have an increased CRC risk. Few studies have addressed if adenoma and advanced adenoma risk is increased among individuals, 40-49 years of age, with a family history of CRC. Therefore, the aim of the study was to define the prevalence and location of adenoma, advanced adenoma and CRC, according to age, in asymptomatic individuals with a family history of CRC. Retrospective study of asymptomatic FDRs, 40 to ≥70 years of age undergoing first screening colonoscopy over a 3-year period, of CRC patients. Among 464 individuals studied, the prevalence of adenoma and advanced adenoma was 18.1% and 6.4%, respectively. According to age intervals, the prevalences of adenoma and advanced adenoma were 14% and 3.5%, respectively, in subjects 40-49 years of age; 14.4% and 6.3%, respectively, in subjects 50-59 years of age; 27% and 8%, respectively, in subjects 60-69 years of age; and 25% and 14%, respectively, in subjects ≥70 years of age; no significant difference was found among the four groups. No difference in lesion location was found, with similar numbers of preneoplastic lesions being present in the right colon and the left colon. CRC was diagnosed in three (0.64%) subjects, one of whom was in the 40-49 years age group. In our population of FDRs of CRC patients, 40-49 years of age, the prevalences of adenoma and advanced adenoma were similar to those observed in older subjects with the same CRC risk. Our data support the current indication to perform screening colonoscopy earlier than 45 years of age in subjects at high CRC risk. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Gallium-67 uptake by a benign adrenocortical adenoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; Naul, L.G.; Montgomery, J.L.; Carpentier, W.R.; Roberts, J.W.

    1988-08-01

    A 55-yr-old man presented with an atypical relapsing meningitis and was found to have intense unilateral adrenal uptake by /sup 67/Ga imaging. Computed tomography showed a 4-cm right adrenal mass which was hypointense on the T1-weighted images and mildly hyperintense on the T2-weighted images of a magnetic resonance (MR) scan. At surgery, a coincidental benign adrenocortical adenoma was found. Because /sup 67/Ga uptake is usually associated with inflammatory or malignant lesions and malignant adrenal lesions are hyperintense on T2-weighted MR images, these findings contributed to diagnostic uncertainty in this patient. Thus, a nonhyperfunctional adrenocortical adenoma may be associated with abnormal /sup 67/Ga uptake and atypical MR findings.

  11. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicole M; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-07-28

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks.

  12. Radiation therapy in the multimodal treatment approach of pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Becker, Gerd; Kocher, Martin; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Paulsen, Frank; Jeremic, Branislav; Müller, Rolf-Peter; Bamberg, Michael

    2002-04-01

    Pituitary tumors are relatively uncommon, comprising 10-12% of all intracranial tumors. The treatment consisting of surgery, radiotherapy and drug therapy or a combination of these modalities is aimed at the control of tumor cell proliferation and--in endocrine active tumors--the reduction of hormone secretion. However, the slow proliferation characteristics of pituitary tumors necessitate long-term studies for the evaluation of the treatment results. In the last decade there has been continuous improvement in surgical procedures, radiotherapy techniques and drug generation. In this paper, literature will be reviewed to assess the role of modern radiotherapy and radiosurgery in the management of pituitary adenomas. Nowadays, magnetic resonance imaging for the definition of the target volume and a real three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning with field conformation and the possibility for non-coplanar irradiation has to be recommended. Most groups irradiate these benign tumors with single doses of 1.8-2.0 Gy up to a total dose of 45 Gy or 50.4 Gy in extensive parasellar adenomas. Adenomas are mostly small, well circumscribed lesions, and have, therefore, attracted the use of stereotactically guided high-precision irradiation techniques which allow extreme focussing and provide steep dose gradients with selective treatment of the target and optimal protection of the surrounding brain tissue. Radiation therapy controls tumor growth in 80-98% of patients with non-secreting adenomas and 67-89% for endocrine active tumors. Reviewing the recent literature including endocrine active and non-secreting adenomas, irradiated postoperatively or in case of recurrence the 5-, 10- and 15-year local control rates amount 92%, 89% and 79%. In cases of microprolactinoma primary therapy consists of dopamine agonists. Irradiation should be preferred in patients with macroprolactinomas, when drug therapy and/or surgery failed or for patients medically unsuitable for surgery. Reduction

  13. Urolithiasis and primary parathyroid adenoma: report of one case.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jing-Sheng; Lau, Beng-Huat; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Lee, Chin-Cheng

    2003-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl was admitted to ward because of persistent left flank pain, vomiting, and hematuria. A stone was located at the ureteropelvic junction of the left kidney, as determined by means of abdominal sonography. Metabolic investigation for a renal stone revealed that she had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypercalciuria. Hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed based on the hypercalcemia and inappropriately elevated serum parathyroid hormone level. A parathyroid adenoma was successfully diagnosed by using thallium/technetium subtraction parathyroid scanning. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy was performed to treat the renal stone, and the parathyroid adenoma was successfully removed. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. This case is presented because urolithiasis and hyperparathyroidism are rare in children. Metabolic evaluation is mandatory in children with a renal stone. Further investigation for the hyperparathyroidism should be performed if hypercalcemia associated with hypercalciuria is documented.

  14. Galactorrhoea, hyperprolactinaemia, and pituitary adenoma presenting during metoclopramide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, B. T.; Mountford, R. A.; McKee, C.

    1982-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman presented with a one month history of headaches, loss of libido and galactorrhoea. She had been taking metoclopramide for the previous 3 months for reflux oesophagitis. She was found to have substantially elevated serum prolactin levels and a pituitary adenoma, which have not been previously described in a patient taking metoclopramide. The drug was stopped and the serum prolactin level fell progressively to normal with resolution of symptoms over 4 months. This suggested that contrary to our original impression that she had a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma which had been stimulated by metoclopramide, she had metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinaemia and an incidental pituitary tumour. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7202198

  15. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Nicole M; Dayyeh, Barham K Abu; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks. PMID:18680242

  16. Pituitary adenomas: historical perspective, surgical management and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Theodros, Debebe; Patel, Mira; Ruzevick, Jacob; Lim, Michael; Bettegowda, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are among the most common central nervous system tumors. They represent a diverse group of neoplasms that may or may not secrete hormones based on their cell of origin. Epidemiologic studies have documented the incidence of pituitary adenomas within the general population to be as high as 16.7%. A growing body of work has helped to elucidate the pathogenesis of these tumors. Each subtype has been shown to demonstrate unique cellular changes potentially leading to tumorigenesis. Surgical advancements over several decades have included microsurgery and the employment of the endoscope for surgical resection. These advancements increase the likelihood of gross-total resection and have resulted in decreased patient morbidity. PMID:26497533

  17. Pure Androgen-Secreting Adrenal Adenoma Associated with Resistant Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Bautista-Medina, Mario Arturo; Teniente-Sanchez, Ana Eugenia; Zapata-Rivera, Maria Azucena; Montes-Villarreal, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Pure androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma is very rare, and its diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. Its association with resistant hypertension is uncommon and not well understood. We present an 18-year-old female with a 10-year history of hirsutism that was accidentally diagnosed with an adrenal mass during the evaluation of a hypertensive crisis. She had a long-standing history of hirsutism, clitorimegaly, deepening of the voice, and primary amenorrhea. She was phenotypically and socially a male. FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and progesterone were normal. Total testosterone and DHEA-S were elevated. Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, and nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia were ruled out. She underwent adrenalectomy and pathology reported an adenoma. At 2-month followup, hirsutism and virilizing symptoms clearly improved and blood pressure normalized without antihypertensive medications, current literature of this unusual illness and it association with hypertension is presented and discussed. PMID:23819074

  18. Pure androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma associated with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Bautista-Medina, Mario Arturo; Teniente-Sanchez, Ana Eugenia; Zapata-Rivera, Maria Azucena; Montes-Villarreal, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Pure androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma is very rare, and its diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. Its association with resistant hypertension is uncommon and not well understood. We present an 18-year-old female with a 10-year history of hirsutism that was accidentally diagnosed with an adrenal mass during the evaluation of a hypertensive crisis. She had a long-standing history of hirsutism, clitorimegaly, deepening of the voice, and primary amenorrhea. She was phenotypically and socially a male. FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and progesterone were normal. Total testosterone and DHEA-S were elevated. Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, and nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia were ruled out. She underwent adrenalectomy and pathology reported an adenoma. At 2-month followup, hirsutism and virilizing symptoms clearly improved and blood pressure normalized without antihypertensive medications, current literature of this unusual illness and it association with hypertension is presented and discussed.

  19. Pedunculated carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Po-Wu; Chen, Yen-Lin; Chen, Jeng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: A carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is an epithelial malignancy arising in or from a benign pleomorphic salivary adenoma. The parotid gland is the most common location of CXPAs. Minor salivary gland CXPAs of the nasal cavity are exceedingly rare, with only 6 documented in the literature. Methods and Result: We present a 7th case: an unusual pedunculated intranasal CXPA, which had a favorable outcome after a wide endoscopic excision and the longest follow-up period reported to date. The clinical features, immunohistochemical characteristics, treatment choices, and disease outcomes of the intranasal CXPAs reported in previous studies are also reviewed. Conclusion: This case demonstrates the importance of considering the possibility of CXPA in the differential diagnosis of minor salivary gland malignancies in the nasal cavity. PMID:27684860

  20. Examination of the depth of the equine hard palate.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rebecca Gay; Lowder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Equine behavioral problems and loss of optimum performance have been associated with musculoskeletal injury and, more recently, dental disease. Injuries to a horse's tongue and bars of the mandible due to bitting have been documented. However, another point of contact of the bit, the hard palate, has thus far been virtually ignored. The objective of the study was to determine if there was a significant range associated with the depth of the equine hard palate and if this range was associated with a certain breed, age, or sex of the horse. Oral examinations were performed on 52 horses and a measurement of the hard palate was taken. The study group was comprised of 27 mares, 24 geldings and 1 stallion. They were further divided into the age groups: 3-5 years (3), > 5-10 years (18), > 10-15 years (19), and > 15 years (12). Lastly, the groups were divided into the following breed categories: Quarter Horse, Thoroughbred, and Other. Analyses revealed that palate depth has a broad range that is not associated with any breed, age, or sex. Normal reference ranges were established for the data and suggests that the hard palate should be considered and measured when choosing a bit. Further research is necessary to determine which bits are best suited for each palate depth.

  1. Hard palate perforation due to mucormycosis: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Barrak, H A

    2007-11-01

    Mucormycosis is an opportunistic, fulminating fungal infection of the sino-nasal region. It tends to affect people with immune suppression. The hard palate is a rare site of the disease and few cases have been reported in the literature. This report discusses the nature of hard palate mucormycosis, with the aim of outlining possible explanations and reviewing associated characteristics. This was a prospective analysis of four cases of hard palate mucormycosis. The patients were referred from the medical department, with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. An aggressive treatment protocol was used, i.e. an intensive course of antifungal drugs and frequent debridement of dead tissue. A painful, dusky red swelling was noticed at the early stages of the hemi-palate lesion. It was eventually followed by deep ulceration and even big perforation. Orbit and intracranial extension was the preceding sign in all instances. The progression of the perforation was not controlled by a full course of treatment. There were two deaths during the treatment course. Mucormycosis of the hard palate is an ominous sign. Although rare, the lesion is progressive in nature and barely controlled by treatment. Clinicians should maintain a high degree of clinical suspicion in the management of patients with palatal ulcer and debilitating illness.

  2. Birthplace is not a determinant of colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Tran, Fiona; Koo, Jenn Hian

    2014-07-14

    To examine the impact of the patient's birthplace on the prevalence of colonic polyps and histopathological subtypes. This is a retrospective audit of the colonoscopy practice of one Gastroenterologist in a tertiary-referral hospital from 2008 to 2011. Data collected include demography, birthplace, language spoken, details of the colonoscopy including indications, completion rates, complications, results including prevalence and histopathology of polyps. Statistical methods used were binary logistic regression, χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U. A total of 623 patients (48% male, 67% aged over 50 years) were recruited and categorised according to birthplace: Australia/New Zealand 42%, European 20%, Asian 15%, Middle Eastern/African 11%, South American 9% and Pacific Islander 3%. The median age of the cohort was 56.3 years (range: 17-91 years), median body mass index 27.3 kg/m(2) (range: 16-51 kg/m(2)), 25% were smokers, 25% had hypercholesterolemia, 20% had diabetes mellitus 16% were on aspirin and 7% were on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A total of 651 colonoscopies were performed for standard indications. The prevalence of polyps varied according to patient's birthplace: Europe 45.1%, Australia and New Zealand 39.5%, Pacific Islands 33.3%, Asia 30.3%, Middle East and Africa 26.9% and South America 24.5% (P = 0.027, df = 6). However, multivariate analysis revealed that birthplace was not an independent predictor of developing polyps, including adenomas and advanced adenomas after correcting for age and male sex. Birthplace is not a predictor for developing colorectal neoplasia, including adenomas and advanced adenomas; hence, should not influence the recommendations for colorectal cancer screening.

  3. Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Case report.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky, Alejandro; Klurfan, Federico Juan; Gonzalez, Maximiliano Jorge; Camaly, Diego; Villa, Diego

    2005-01-01

    Lacrimal gland tumors are rare. We present a case of a 69 year old male patient with a one year history of an orbital tumor (Pleomorphic Adenoma). The tumor was surgically enucleated and patient recovery was very satisfactory, with no signs of recurrence after one year of follow-up. A review of the clinical symptoms, radiologic features, treatment and histopathology of this kind of tumors is also made.

  4. Dietary factors and truncating APC mutations in sporadic colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Diergaarde, Brenda; Tiemersma, Edine W; Braam, Hanneke; van Muijen, Goos N P; Nagengast, Fokko M; Kok, Frans J; Kampman, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Inactivating mutations in APC are thought to be early, initiating events in colorectal carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the relationship between diet and inactivating APC mutations, we evaluated associations between dietary factors and the occurrence of these mutations in a Dutch case-control study of sporadic colorectal adenomas (278 cases; 414 polyp-free controls). Direct-sequencing was used to screen adenomas for mutations in the mutation cluster region of APC; truncating mutations were detected in 161 (58%) of the adenomas. Red meat consumption was significantly differently related to polyps with truncating APC mutation (APC(+) polyps) compared to polyps without truncating APC mutation (APC(-) polyps) (highest vs. lowest tertile, odds ratio [OR] = 0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.3-1.0). High intake of red meat and fat seemed to increase the risk of APC(-) polyps only (APC(+) vs. controls: red meat, OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6-1.6; fat, OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.6-1.9; APC(-) vs. controls: red meat, OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0-3.1; fat, OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.7). Intake of carbohydrates was inversely associated with both polyp groups, most noticeably with APC(-) polyps. Most other evaluated dietary factors were not distinctively associated with a specific APC status. None of the dietary factors was specifically associated with a particular type of truncating APC mutation. Our data suggest that red meat and fat may increase the risk of APC(-) polyps in particular, whereas carbohydrates may especially decrease the risk of APC(-) polyps. However, most examined dietary factors do not appear to be specifically associated with the occurrence of truncating APC mutations in colorectal adenomas but seem to affect both pathways equally.

  5. Pleomorphic adenoma of the trachea: A case report.

    PubMed

    Casillas-Enríquez, José D; Álvarez-Maldonado, Pablo; Salguero-Cruz, Luís; Navarro-Reynoso, Francisco; Cicero-Sabido, Raúl; Núñez-Pérez Redondo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 33-year-old woman who was being treated for bronchial asthma for 4 years. A tracheal tumor was evident on a computed tomography of the thorax and removed with argon plasma coagulation. It was diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma of the trachea. It is a rare tracheal tumor without definite treatment guidelines. Our endoscopic approach to this rare lesion is discussed.

  6. Endoscopic innovations to increase the adenoma detection rate during colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dik, Vincent K; Moons, Leon MG; Siersema, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Up to a quarter of polyps and adenomas are missed during colonoscopy due to poor visualization behind folds and the inner curves of flexures, and the presence of flat lesions that are difficult to detect. These numbers may however be conservative because they mainly come from back-to-back studies performed with standard colonoscopes, which are unable to visualize the entire mucosal surface. In the past several years, new endoscopic techniques have been introduced to improve the detection of polyps and adenomas. The introduction of high definition colonoscopes and visual image enhancement technologies have been suggested to lead to better recognition of flat and small lesions, but the absolute increase in diagnostic yield seems limited. Cap assisted colonoscopy and water-exchange colonoscopy are methods to facilitate cecal intubation and increase patients comfort, but show only a marginal or no benefit on polyp and adenoma detection. Retroflexion is routinely used in the rectum for the inspection of the dentate line, but withdrawal in retroflexion in the colon is in general not recommended due to the risk of perforation. In contrast, colonoscopy with the Third-Eye Retroscope® may result in considerable lower miss rates compared to standard colonoscopy, but this technique is not practical in case of polypectomy and is more time consuming. The recently introduced Full Spectrum Endoscopy™ colonoscopes maintains the technical capabilities of standard colonoscopes and provides a much wider view of 330 degrees compared to the 170 degrees with standard colonoscopes. Remarkable lower adenoma miss rates with this new technique were recently demonstrated in the first randomized study. Nonetheless, more studies are required to determine the exact additional diagnostic yield in clinical practice. Optimizing the efficacy of colorectal cancer screening and surveillance requires high definition colonoscopes with improved virtual chromoendoscopy technology that visualize the

  7. Spontaneous thyroid follicular adenoma in a laboratory mouse (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Onyekaba, C O

    1986-10-01

    Spontaneous thyroid micro-follicular adenoma was found in an 18-month-old nursing Swiss albino mouse. The lesion was first noted as a tiny bulge at the base of the neck. The tumor was solid, and within two months, had grown such an enormous size that movement, feeding and suckling of the litter were greatly hampered. The litter of seven mice later died due to improper nursing while their mother remained generally unaffected by the mass.

  8. [Pituitary adenomas--where is the treatment heading at the beginning of the 21st century?].

    PubMed

    Marek, J

    2010-07-01

    To treat pituitary adenomas, three modes of treatment are usually combined: neurosurgery, radiation and pharmacological. Prolactinomas are an exception with predominantly pharmacological management. Patients with acromegaly are usually diagnosed late and thus many neurosurgeries fail to completely remove the adenoma. Any residual tumour tissue is usually irradiated with the Leksell Gamma Knife, and dopamine agonists, somatostatine analogues or growth hormone receptor antagonists are used to normalize the hormonal hypersecretion until the complete effect of the radiation. The same surgical and Gamma Knife procedures are used in patients with the Cushing's disease and TSH-secreting adenomas. Ketoconazole, metyrapone and cabergoline are used until the radiation effect in the Cushing's disease is complete, similarly, somatostatine analogues are used in TSH-secreting adenomas. Nonfunctional adenomas are less responsive to pharmacological treatment. Proautophagic cytostatic temozolamide has been used in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas.

  9. Intraoperative Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Parathyroid Adenomas using Low-Dose Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    van der Vorst, Joost R.; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Swijnenburg, Rutger-Jan; Tummers, Quirijn; Hutteman, Merlijn; Hamming, Jaap F.; Kievit, J.; Frangioni, John V.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Intraoperative identification of parathyroid adenomas can be challenging. We hypothesized that low-doses methylene blue (MB) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging could be used to identify parathyroid adenomas intraoperatively. Methods MB was injected intravenously after exploration at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg into 12 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery. NIRF imaging was performed using the Mini-FLARE™ imaging system. Results In 10 of 12 patients, histology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. In 9 of these patients, NIRF could clearly identify the parathyroid adenoma during surgery. Seven of these 9 patients had a positive preoperative 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT scan. Importantly, in two patients, parathyroid adenomas could be identified only using NIRF. Conclusion This is the first study to show that low-dose MB can be used as NIRF tracer for identification of parathyroid adenomas, and suggests a correlation with preoperative 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT scanning. PMID:23720199

  10. Huge Parathyroid Adenoma with Dysphagia Presentation; A Case Report from Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ziaeean, Bizhan; Sohrabi-Nazari, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid adenoma is a benign tumor of the parathyroid glands. The cause of most parathyroid adenomas is unknown. Parathyroid adenoma increases the secretion of parathyroid hormone and results in primary hyperparathyroidism. High amounts of parathyroid hormone in the blood cause the imbalance of calcium, which leads to various complications such as kidney stones, depression, lethargy, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, myalgia, bone and joint pain, hoarseness, etc. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is defined as having problem in swallowing due to abnormalities in the structure and function of oropharynx and other related organs. The exact prevalence of dysphagia caused by parathyroid adenoma is unknown, but since this complication can lead to increased mortality and morbidity, its diagnosis is important. It is difficult to distinguish parathyroid malignancies from parathyroid adenoma even after surgery. Therefore, the final diagnosis is possible through surgery and histopathological evaluation. Here, a case of parathyroid adenoma with first presentation of generalized weakness and dysphagia has been reported. PMID:27582595

  11. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Minor Salivary Gland in a 14 year Old Child.

    PubMed

    Pramod Krishna, B

    2013-06-01

    Salivary gland tumours are rare in childhood, and almost all of them occur in parotid gland. Minor salivary gland tumours are even rarer, pleomorphic adenoma being the most frequently found tumour. Only seventeen cases of pleomorphic adenoma arising in the minor salivary gland tumour have been reported in children and adolescents. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland represents about 45% of all the tumours of the minor salivary glands. Pleomorphic adenoma is slowly enlarging tumour indistinguishable from adenoid cystic carcinoma clinically, except for pain and ulceration, which is more common in the latter. Carcinoma arising from pleomorphic adenoma has been reported in 3% cases amongst the minor salivary gland tumours. This report presents a case of pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland in a 14 year old female patient with a brief review of literature.

  12. Clinicopathologic analysis of pituitary adenoma: a single institute experience.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hwa Jin; Kim, Hanna; Kwak, Yoon Jin; Seo, Jeong Wook; Paek, Sun Ha; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Yun, Jung Min; Kim, Da Seu Ran; Kang, Peter; Park, Peom; Park, Sung-Hye

    2014-03-01

    Pituitary adenoma (PA) is a common benign neuroendocrine tumor; however, the incidence and proportion of hormone-producing PAs in Korean patients remain unknown. Authors analyzed 506 surgically resected and pathologically proven pituitary lesions of the Seoul National University Hospital from 2006 to 2011. The lesions were categorized as: PAs (n = 422, 83.4%), Rathke's cleft cysts (RCCs) (n = 54, 10.6%), inflammatory lesions (n = 8, 1.6%), meningiomas (n = 4), craniopharyngiomas (n = 4), granular cell tumors (n = 1), metastatic renal cell carcinomas (n = 2), germinomas (n = 1), ependymomas (n = 1), and unsatisfactory specimens (n = 9, 1.8%). PAs were slightly more prevalent in women (M: F = 1:1.17) with a mean age of 48.8 yr (9-80 yr). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that prolactin-producing PAs (16.6%) and growth hormone-producing adenomas (9.2%) were the most common functional PAs. Plurihormonal PAs and nonfunctioning (null cell) adenomas were found in 14.9% and 42.4% of patients with PAs, respectively. The recurrence rate of PAs was 11.1%, but nearly 0% for the remaining benign lesions such as RCCs. 25.4% of patients with PAs were treated by gamma-knife after surgery due to residual tumors or regrowth of residual tumor. In conclusion, the pituitary lesions and the proportions of hormone-producing PAs in Korean patients are similar to those of previous reports except nonfunctioning (null cell) PAs, which are unusually frequent.

  13. A Case of Metanephric Adenoma and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Dusan, Ruzicic; Relja, Kovacevic; Marija, Mirkovic; Jelena, Radovanovic; Vesna, Krstevska; Milijana, Terzic; Vladimir, Pantelic; Irena, Matic; Dragan, Hrncic

    2016-01-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA) is a rare neoplasm that acounts for 0.2% of adult renal neoplasms. MAs are typically discover incidentally during detailed examinations for nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal or flank pain, hematuria, fever and palpable abdominal mass. Additionally, polycythemia has occasionally been reported as well. Herein we describe a case of metanephric adenoma which was an incidental finding in the course of a clinical autopsy in a patient with complete AV block and polycythemia. Histologically, the tumor was composed of small and uniform tubular structures reminiscent of renal tubuli, without signs of cellular atypia and pleomorphism. Such tumor histomorphology was consistent with the diagnosis of metanephric adenoma. Thrombosis is a common complication of polycythemia that often causes death. Polycythemia with an increasing number of blood cells causes hyperviscosity and, in 20-40% of cases, lethal thrombosis or hemorrhage. Hyperviscosity and coronary artery disease in our patient caused acute myocardial infarction with the subsequent rupture of posterior left ventricle wall and hemopericardium. PMID:27471365

  14. A Case of Metanephric Adenoma and Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dusan, Ruzicic; Relja, Kovacevic; Marija, Mirkovic; Jelena, Radovanovic; Vesna, Krstevska; Milijana, Terzic; Vladimir, Pantelic; Irena, Matic; Dragan, Hrncic

    2016-07-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA) is a rare neoplasm that acounts for 0.2% of adult renal neoplasms. MAs are typically discover incidentally during detailed examinations for nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal or flank pain, hematuria, fever and palpable abdominal mass. Additionally, polycythemia has occasionally been reported as well. Herein we describe a case of metanephric adenoma which was an incidental finding in the course of a clinical autopsy in a patient with complete AV block and polycythemia. Histologically, the tumor was composed of small and uniform tubular structures reminiscent of renal tubuli, without signs of cellular atypia and pleomorphism. Such tumor histomorphology was consistent with the diagnosis of metanephric adenoma. Thrombosis is a common complication of polycythemia that often causes death. Polycythemia with an increasing number of blood cells causes hyperviscosity and, in 20-40% of cases, lethal thrombosis or hemorrhage. Hyperviscosity and coronary artery disease in our patient caused acute myocardial infarction with the subsequent rupture of posterior left ventricle wall and hemopericardium.

  15. Adenoma of the ampulla of Vater: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lesions of the ampulla of Vater are rare histological entities with an incidence of between 0.1 and 0.2% of gastrointestinal tumors. Until recently the main response to this kind of lesion was duodenopancreatectomy, regardless of the cellular atypia and local edema. In this study, we propose the application of transduodenal local excision of the ampulla of Vater especially in recognized cases of nonmalignant adenomas. Case presentation In this case report we analyze the case of a 78-year-old Greek man who revealed symptoms such as icterus, abdominal pain without constipation and bloody stools. A physical examination showed painless swelling of the gallbladder (Courvoisier sign). No previous abdominal operations or hernias were identified. Blood tests, computed tomography scan analysis, gastroscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography along with biopsies and cytological tests diagnosed nonmalignant adenoma of the ampulla of Vater with high-grade dysplasia. The treatment we followed was transduodenal local excision of his ampulla of Vater. Conclusions Transduodenal local excision of the ampulla of Vater has limited side effects and postoperative complications, suggesting this particular technique to be the proper treatment for nonmalignant cases of adenomas. PMID:24965285

  16. Multifocal canalicular adenoma of the minor labial salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Samar, María Elena; Avila, Rodolfo Esteban; Fonseca, Ismael Bernardo; Anderson, William; Fonseca, Gabriel M; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Canalicular adenoma (CA) is an uncommon benign neoplasia of salivary glands which is clinically difficult to recognise. Despite having an excellent prognosis, the histological diagnosis and clinical management of this entity can be troublesome. While the main differential diagnosis to consider is basal cell adenoma (BCA), similar histological patterns and multifocality have been observed in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA), both locally-aggressive malignancies which require radically different treatment to CA. An emphasis has been placed on the value of immunohistochemistry in avoiding diagnostic and surgical errors. CA is positive for AE1/AE3, CD117 and S-100 protein, and negative for p63, α-SMA, Ki 67 and vimentin. Here we discuss the case of a 61-year-old female with CA in her right upper lip, showing multifocal growth histologically. The differential diagnosis with other adenomas is discussed in addition to the role of immunohistochemical studies that can confirm the clinical and surgical findings. PMID:25550873

  17. [Treatment of prostatic adenoma with concomitant chronic bacterial prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Davidov, M I

    2011-01-01

    A randomized trial of efficacy and safety of vitaprost plus and vitaprost forte has been made in 70 patients with prostatic adenoma comorbid with chronic bacterial prostatitis. The patients were randomized into two groups: group 1 patients received vitaprost plus in rectal suppositoria for 1 months, then vitaprost forte for 2 months; group 2 patients (control) received gentos and lomefloxacin per os. Short- and long-term results were evaluated in 3 and 6 months. By all parameters group 1 achieved better treatment results than controls. Immediate positive response was observed in 97.1% patients, long-term positive effects were observed in 85.7%. Total points of prostatic adenoma symptoms reduced by 37%, chronic prostatitis--by 55%, residual urine diminished by 66%, Qmax increased, quality of life improved by 45%, sexual function enhanced. Size of the prostate decreased by 7.4 cm3, leukocyte count in prostatic secretion fell 6-fold, eradication of prostatitis causing agent was achieved in 3 months in 80% patients. Side effects and complications were not registered. Thus, vitaprost plus and vitaprost forte are highly effective and safe for treatment of patients with combination of prostatic adenoma with chronic bacterial prostatitis.

  18. Thyrotropin receptor gene alterations in thyroid hyperfunctioning adenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, D.; Arturi, F.; Filetti, S.

    1996-04-01

    Forty-four thyroid autonomously hyperfunctioning adenomas were analyzed to assess the frequency of mutations occurring in the TSH receptor (TSHR). PCR-amplified fragments encompassing the entire exon 10 of the TSHR gene were obtained from the genomic DNA extracted from the tumors and their adjacent normal tissues and were examined by direct nucleotide sequencing. Point mutations were found in 9 of 44 adenomas examined (20%). One mutation occurred in codon 619 (Asp to Gly), four in codon 623 (three were Ala to Ser, one Ala to substitution), two in codon 632 (both Thr to Ile), and two in codon 633 (Asp to Tyr or His). All the alterations were located in a part of the gene coding for an area including the third intracellular loop and the sixth transmembrane domain of the TSH receptor. All mutations were somatic and heterozygotic, and none was simultaneous with alterations of ras or gsp oncogenes. Thus, our data show that in our series of 44 hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, a somatic mutation of the TSHR, responsible for the constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway, occurs in 20% of the tumors. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Management of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Chanson, Philippe; Raverot, Gerald; Castinetti, Frédéric; Cortet-Rudelli, Christine; Galland, Françoise; Salenave, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Clinically NFPA is currently the preferred term for designing all the pituitary adenomas which are not hormonally active (in other words, not associated with clinical syndromes such as amenorrhea-galactorrhea in the context of prolactinomas, acromegaly, Cushing's disease or hyperthyroidism secondary to TSH-secreting adenomas). They account for 15-30% of pituitary adenomas. Diagnosis is usually made either in the context of mass effect due to a macroadenoma or, increasingly, fortuitously during imaging performed for some unrelated purpose; the latter case is known as pituitary incidentaloma. Surgery is indisputably indicated in case of tumoral syndrome, but other aspects of NFPA (hormonal work-up, follow-up, and especially postoperative follow-up, management of remnant or recurrence, the special case of incidentaloma, or apoplexy) remain controversial. The French Endocrinology Society (SFE) therefore set up an expert working group of endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, neuroradiologists, pathologists and biologists to draw up guidelines, at the 2012 SFE Congress in Toulouse, France. The present article presents the guidelines suggested by this group of French-speaking experts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Traditional serrated adenomas of the upper digestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, CA

    2016-01-01

    For many years, it was generally accepted that the vast majority of the colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) evolved from conventional adenomas, via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. More recently, serrated colorectal polyps (hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated polyps and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs)) have emerged as an alternative pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis. It has been estimated that about 30% of the CRC progress via the serrated pathway. Recently, TSAs were also detected in the upper digestive tract. In this work, we review the literature on TSA in the oesophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the pancreatic main duct and the gallbladder. The review indicated that 53.4% (n=39) out of the 73 TSA of the upper digestive tract now in record showed a simultaneously growing invasive carcinoma. As a corollary, TSAs of the upper digestive tract are aggressive adenomas that should be radically excised, either endoscopically or surgically, to rule out the possibility of a synchronously growing invasive adenocarcinoma or to prevent cancer progression. The present findings substantiate a TSA pathway of carcinogenesis in the upper digestive tract. PMID:26468393

  1. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: A diagnostic challenge on cytology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanika; Agarwal, Charu; Pujani, Mukta; Verma, Pragya; Chauhan, Varsha

    2017-03-06

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca ex PA) is a malignant neoplasm arising from primary or recurrent benign pleomorphic adenoma. It is rare with an annual incidence rate of 0.17 tumors per million. Histopathology remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of Ca ex PA, with only a handful of cases reported on cytology. In our case a 66-year-old male presented with the right parotid mass for 5 years rapidly increasing for the last 3 months. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears showed malignant tumor cells in clusters along with benign myoepithelial cells in chondromyxoid background. Histopathologically, highly pleomorphic malignant epithelial cells in sheets along with foci of comedonecrosis and areas corresponding to benign pleomorphic adenoma were observed on careful scrutiny. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for cytokeratin (CK 7) and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15) while CK5/6 and high molecular weight CK (34 βE12) were negative in the malignant tumor cells. So, the final impression was Ca ex PA with salivary duct carcinoma as malignant component. We hereby report this case to highlight the significance of FNAC in the diagnosis of Ca ex PA which can be easily missed on cytopathology. However, it is important to corroborate the cytological findings with clinical suspicion of malignancy as well as radiology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Sodium hyaluronate in treatment of diffuse nephrogenic adenoma of the bladder in a child.

    PubMed

    Campobasso, Paolo; Fasoli, Lorella; Dante, Stefania

    2007-04-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a rare, benign lesion of the bladder, occurring as an epithelial response to chronic infection or trauma, probably arising from nephrogenic metaplasia. In contrast to nephrogenic adenomas in adults, who present with this tumor in the entire ureteral tract, it has been observed exclusively in the bladder of children thus far. We report and discuss here the case of a 12-year-old boy with diffuse calculus-producing nephrogenic adenoma successfully treated with sodium hyaluronate.

  3. Distinct patterns of DNA methylation in conventional adenomas involving the right and left colon.

    PubMed

    Koestler, Devin C; Li, Jing; Baron, John A; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Butterly, Lynn F; Goodrich, Martha; Lesseur, Corina; Karagas, Margaret R; Marsit, Carmen J; Moore, Jason H; Andrew, Angeline S; Srivastava, Amitabh

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown two distinct non-CIMP methylation clusters in colorectal cancer, raising the possibility that DNA methylation, involving non-CIMP genes, may play a role in the conventional adenoma-carcinoma pathway. A total of 135 adenomas (65 left colon and 70 right colon) were profiled for epigenome-wide DNA methylation using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. A principal components analysis was performed to examine the association between variability in DNA methylation and adenoma location. Linear regression and linear mixed effects models were used to identify locus-specific differential DNA methylation in adenomas of right and left colon. A significant association was present between the first principal component and adenoma location (P=0.007), even after adjustment for subject age and gender (P=0.009). A total of 168 CpG sites were differentially methylated between right- and left-colon adenomas and these loci demonstrated enrichment of homeobox genes (P=3.0 × 10(-12)). None of the 168 probes were associated with CIMP genes. Among CpG loci with the largest difference in methylation between right- and left-colon adenomas, probes associated with PRAC (prostate cancer susceptibility candidate) gene showed hypermethylation in right-colon adenomas whereas those associated with CDX2 (caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2) showed hypermethylation in left-colon adenomas. A subgroup of left-colon adenomas enriched for current smokers (OR=6.1, P=0.004) exhibited a methylation profile similar to right-colon adenomas. In summary, our results indicate distinct patterns of DNA methylation, independent of CIMP genes, in adenomas of the right and left colon.

  4. Genomic Landscape of Colorectal Mucosa and Adenomas in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Borras, Ester; San Lucas, F. Anthony; Chang, Kyle; Zhou, Ruoji; Masand, Gita; Fowler, Jerry; Mork, Maureen E.; You, Y. Nancy; Taggart, Melissa W.; McAllister, Florencia; Jones, David A.; Davies, Gareth E.; Edelmann, Winfried; Ehli, Erik A.; Lynch, Patrick M.; Hawk, Ernest T.; Capella, Gabriel; Scheet, Paul; Vilar, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The molecular basis of the adenoma to carcinoma transition has been deduced using comparative analysis of genetic alterations observed through the sequential steps of intestinal carcinogenesis. However, comprehensive genomic analyses of adenomas and at-risk mucosa are still lacking. Therefore, our aim was to characterize the genomic landscape of colonic at-risk mucosa and adenomas. Experimental Design We analyzed the mutation profile and copy number changes of 25 adenomas and adjacent mucosa from 12 familial adenomatous polyposis patients using whole-exome sequencing and validated allelic imbalances in 37 adenomas using SNP arrays. We assessed for evidence of clonality and performed estimations on the proportions of driver and passenger mutations using a systems biology approach. Results Adenomas had lower mutational rates than did colorectal cancers and showed recurrent alterations in known cancer-driver genes (APC, KRAS, FBXW7, TCF7L2) and allelic imbalances in chromosomes 5, 7 and 13. Moreover, 80% of adenomas had somatic alterations in WNT pathway genes. Adenomas displayed evidence of multiclonality similar to stage I carcinomas. Strong correlations between mutational rate and patient age were observed in at-risk mucosa and adenomas. Our data indicate that at least 23% of somatic mutations are present in at-risk mucosa prior to adenoma initiation. Conclusions The genomic profiles of at-risk mucosa and adenomas illustrate the evolution from normal tissue to carcinoma via greater resolution of molecular changes at the inflection point of premalignant lesions. Furthermore, substantial genomic variation exists in at-risk mucosa before adenoma formation, and deregulation of the WNT pathway is required to foster carcinogenesis. PMID:27221540

  5. MRI appearances of an ectopic pituitary adenoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Slonim, S M; Haykal, H A; Cushing, G W; Freidberg, S R; Lee, A K

    1993-01-01

    MR images of an ectopic pituitary adenoma have been published in only a single case, a suprasellar mass. We present a patient with Cushing's disease in whom MRI revealed a pituitary adenoma within the sphenoid sinus. Radiologic characteristics of ectopic pituitary adenomas are reviewed, with emphasis on MRI, which demonstrates a soft tissue mass, isointense with gray matter on T1-weighted images, which enhances in a heterogeneous manner.

  6. Ultrasonography in the evaluation of the mid-palatal suture in rapid palatal expansion

    PubMed Central

    Gumussoy, I; Bayrakdar, I S; Dagistan, S; Caglayan, F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Orthodontists usually evaluate the mid-palatal sutural opening with occlusal radiography. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the sutural opening with ultrasonography (USG) in a series of patients undergoing rapid palatal expansion (RPE). Methods: The study included 87 USG images and 87 occlusal radiographs from 29 healthy patients (mean age, 13.9 years; range, 11–20 years; boys, 12; girls, 17) who required RPE treatment. The sutural opening was assessed with USG, and the amount of sutural expansion as mesiodistal length was measured immediately after appliance practice (T0), 10 turns (T1) and 20 turns (T2) during the expansion period. Sutural expansion evaluated by occlusal radiographs was scored at every stage. Measurements obtained by USG and scores observed in the occlusal radiographs were compared by non-parametric Kendall's tau test. Results: Both USG and radiographic images revealed normal anatomical structure during pre-expansion (stage T0). On USG, sutural expansion was seen in 19 patients at stage T1. There was no expansion at this stage in ten patients. At stage T2, on USG and radiography, an increase in the amount of expansion was observed in 19 patients with sutural expansion at stage T1 and sutural expansion was observed in 5 patients without sutural expansion at stage T1. No expansion was observed at both stages T1 and T2 in five patients. USG measurements and occlusal scores in both T1 and T2 turns showed statistically significant correlation (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results indicate that USG might be a useful method to assess mid-palatal sutural opening in patients undergoing RPE. PMID:25168810

  7. A Comparative Study of Oral Microbiota in Infants with Complete Cleft Lip and Palate or Cleft Soft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Tanasiewicz, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Few reports have been published on the early microbiota in infants with various types of cleft palate. We assessed the formation of the oral microbiota in infants with complete cleft lip and palate (CLP n = 30) or cleft soft palate (CSP n = 25) in the neonatal period (T1 time) and again in the gum pad stage (T2 time). Culture swabs from the tongue, palate, and/or cleft margin at T1 and T2 were taken. We analysed the prevalence of the given bacterial species (the percentage) and the proportions in which the palate and tongue were colonised by each microorganism. At T1, Streptococcus mitis (S. mitis) were the most frequently detected in subjects with CLP or CSP (63% and 60%, resp.). A significantly higher frequency of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus MSSA) was observed in CLP compared to the CSP group. At T2, significantly higher percentages of S. mitis, S. aureus MSSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were noted in CLP infants compared to the CSP. S. mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis appeared with the greatest frequency on the tongue, whereas Streptococcus salivarius was predominant on the palate. The development of the microbiota in CLP subjects was characterised by a significant increase in the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:28393073

  8. The anatomy of the dog soft palate. I. Histological evaluation of the caudal soft palate in mesaticephalic breeds.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Silvana; Pichetto, Michela; Roccabianca, Paola; Romussi, Stefano

    2011-07-01

    The gross anatomy and overall structure of the soft palate has been described in the average dog's head, however, no descriptive microanatomical studies of the dog soft palate are available, despite their possible utility in view of the manifold and important repercussions of this organ physiology. This is the first of two companion papers, dealing with the caudal part of the soft palate in the canine species, in mesaticephalic and brachycephalic dogs. Specimens from mesaticephalic healthy dogs (N = 8) were collected after euthanasia, processed for histology and sectioned at six transversal levels. Morphological stainings were used for a microscopic evaluation of the tissue layers composing the distal part of the soft palate in adult mesaticephalic dogs, and histochemical reactions were applied to assess mucin types within glandular tissue and to investigate the connective tissues. The organ was characteristically organized into a major deep musculo-connective axis mixed with salivary glands and covered by the mucosal lining on either the nasopharyngeal or the oral sides. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of the anatomy of soft palate in the canine species and establish baseline information for the parallel study on the long and thickened soft palate, which is typical of adult brachycephalic dogs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. A Comparative Study of Oral Microbiota in Infants with Complete Cleft Lip and Palate or Cleft Soft Palate.

    PubMed

    Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Mertas, Anna; Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Morawiec, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Few reports have been published on the early microbiota in infants with various types of cleft palate. We assessed the formation of the oral microbiota in infants with complete cleft lip and palate (CLP n = 30) or cleft soft palate (CSP n = 25) in the neonatal period (T1 time) and again in the gum pad stage (T2 time). Culture swabs from the tongue, palate, and/or cleft margin at T1 and T2 were taken. We analysed the prevalence of the given bacterial species (the percentage) and the proportions in which the palate and tongue were colonised by each microorganism. At T1, Streptococcus mitis (S. mitis) were the most frequently detected in subjects with CLP or CSP (63% and 60%, resp.). A significantly higher frequency of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus MSSA) was observed in CLP compared to the CSP group. At T2, significantly higher percentages of S. mitis, S. aureus MSSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were noted in CLP infants compared to the CSP. S. mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis appeared with the greatest frequency on the tongue, whereas Streptococcus salivarius was predominant on the palate. The development of the microbiota in CLP subjects was characterised by a significant increase in the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria.

  10. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of soft palate muscles and nerves in dogs with an elongated soft palate.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kiyotaka; Kobayashi, Masanori; Harada, Yasuji; Hara, Yasushi; Michishita, Masaki; Ohkusu-Tsukada, Kozo; Takahashi, Kimimasa

    2016-01-01

    To histologically evaluate and compare features of myofibers within the elongated soft palate (ESP) of brachycephalic and mesocephalic dogs with those in the soft palate of healthy dogs and to assess whether denervation or muscular dystrophy is associated with soft palate elongation. Soft palate specimens from 24 dogs with ESPs (obtained during surgical intervention) and from 14 healthy Beagles (control group). All the soft palate specimens underwent histologic examination to assess myofiber atrophy, hypertrophy, hyalinization, and regeneration. The degrees of atrophy and hypertrophy were quantified on the basis of the coefficient of variation and the number of myofibers with hyalinization and regeneration. The specimens also underwent immunohistochemical analysis with anti-neurofilament or anti-dystrophin antibody to confirm the distribution of peripheral nerve branches innervating the palatine myofibers and myofiber dystrophin expression, respectively. Myofiber atrophy, hypertrophy, hyalinization, and regeneration were identified in almost all the ESP specimens. Degrees of atrophy and hypertrophy were significantly greater in the ESP specimens, compared with the control specimens. There were fewer palatine peripheral nerve branches in the ESP specimens than in the control specimens. Almost all the myofibers in the ESP and control specimens were dystrophin positive. These results suggested that palatine myopathy in dogs may be caused, at least in part, by denervation of the palatine muscles and not by Duchenne- or Becker-type muscular dystrophy. These soft palate changes may contribute to upper airway collapse and the progression of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome.

  11. Progressive ataxia and palatal tremor (PAPT): clinical and MRI assessment with review of palatal tremors.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael; Torun, Nurhan; Tuite, Paul J; Sharpe, James A; Lang, Anthony E

    2004-06-01

    Palatal tremor has been subdivided into essential (EPT) and symptomatic palatal tremor (SPT). A subgroup of the SPT form has a syndrome of progressive ataxia and palatal tremor (PAPT). Published details of cases of PAPT are sparse and the disorder appears heterogeneous. We present clinical and MRI features of six patients with sporadic PAPT who attended The University Health Network between 1991 and 2002. Eye movements were recorded using a magnetic search coil technique. We review previously reported cases of PAPT from the English language literature and relate this disorder to EPT and SPT. PAPT may be divided into sporadic and familial forms. We identified 22 other prior reported cases of sporadic PAPT. Sporadic PAPT is a subtype of SPT in which progressive cerebellar degeneration is the most symptomatic feature. A combination of vertical nystagmus and palatal tremor was found in one of our cases. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia, a new finding, was present in two of our patients and indicated additional brainstem dysfunction. Inferior olivary high signal abnormalities were present on MRI in all of our cases. The cause of sporadic PAPT remains uncertain. In some previous reports of sporadic PAPT, the combination of brainstem or pontine atrophy, parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction or corticospinal tract abnormalities suggests a diagnosis of multiple system atrophy, although pathological verification is lacking. Familial PAPT is associated with marked brainstem and cervical cord atrophy with corticospinal tract findings, but the typical olivary MRI abnormalities have not been reported. A substitution in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene has been described in a family with PAPT, raising the possibility of Alexander's disease. One other familial syndrome of PAPT, termed 'dark dentate disease', has also been reported. PAPT is a subgroup of SPT in which ataxia progresses and is not usually the result of a monophasic illness. Eye movement abnormalities suggest

  12. Role of neurotransmitters in palate development and teratologic implications.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, E F

    1985-01-01

    It is hypothesized that neuropharmacologic agents are more teratogenic to humans. Since many neuropharmacologic agents function through neurotransmitter mechanisms, then neurotransmitters should function to regulate embryonic development. Evidence has been obtained that neurotransmitters do indeed function as biological signals in palate development. It has been shown that palate reorientation is modulated by neurotransmitters with a wide range of diversity, similar to the CNS. Thus serotonin and acetylcholine stimulate and GABA inhibits the reorientation process. Spatial diversity is also observed: serotonin functions at the anterior and acetylcholine at the posterior end, and GABA functions more efficiently at either end in different inbred strains. Many criteria for functioning neurotransmitters have been obtained. Both serotonin and GABA have been measured in the palate and developmental changes observed. Physiologic responses to serotonin have been monitored. Serotonin has been shown to stimulate palate cell motility as well as protein carboxyl methylation and cyclic GMP. The serotonin effects on protein carboxyl methylation and cyclic GMP could function to stimulate palate reorientation by modulating cell contractility and protein secretion. Further support for the hypothesis that neuropharmacologic agents could be teratogenic by perturbation of neurotransmitter mechanisms comes from studying GABA and diazepam. Evidence has been obtained that diazepam induces cleft palate by mimicking GABA in a functional GABAergic system in palate development. A significant finding is that genetic differences in both diazepam teratogenesis and in a GABAergic system have been observed. Comparing the SWV and AJ strains, the SWV mouse showed (1) a greater sensitivity to diazepam-induced cleft palate, (2) a greater sensitivity to GABA and diazepam inhibition of palate reorientation in embryo culture, (3) a greater concentration of palatal GABA and (4) a more efficient GABA

  13. Small "flat adenoma" of the large bowel with special reference to its clinicopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Muto, T; Kamiya, J; Sawada, T; Konishi, F; Sugihara, K; Kubota, Y; Adachi, M; Agawa, S; Saito, Y; Morioka, Y

    1985-11-01

    Thirty-three small "flat adenomas," not more than 1 cm in diameter, were collected from surgically and colonoscopically removed specimens, and their colonoscopic and histologic characteristics were described. There were 14 adenomas with mild atypia, five with moderate atypia, 14 with severe atypia (or focal carcinoma limited to the mucosa). The grade of atypia seems to increase with the size of lesions, and these lesions were assumed to play an important role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. The importance of recognizing the presence of these small "flat adenomas" in everyday practice is stressed.

  14. Expression of Neuropeptide Y and Its Relationship with Molecular and Morphological Changes in Human Pituitary Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ruichao; Li, Mu; Chang, Binge; Chen, Laichao; Ma, Jingjian

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on molecular and histological changes in human pituitary adenomas. The localization of NPY and its expression at the protein, messenger RNA (mRNA), and receptor levels were investigated here in different subcategories of pituitary adenomas. Immunohistochemical staining was performed in all cases to assess expression of NPY. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to study the mRNA expression of NPY. NPY subcellular localization was observed using immunoelectron microscopy in cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and cell matrix in four of the six cases of pituitary adenoma. NPY protein expression was observed in 59.6% of 57 cases of pituitary adenoma and in 2 cases of pituitary hyperplasia. mRNA expression of NPY was observed in all 57 cases of pituitary adenoma and in 2 cases of pituitary hyperplasia. Significantly different levels of expression were observed across different subcategories of pituitary adenoma. mRNA expression of Y1R and Y2R was observed across all subcategories of pituitary adenomas, and a positive correlation was observed between NPY and Y2R. In conclusion, evidence is provided here for the expression of NPY and its receptors, Y1R and Y2R, in human pituitary adenoma, and the levels of expression were found to differ across different subcategories. Differences in expression of Y2R in human pituitary adenomas were found to have remarkable statistical significance.

  15. Genetic instability associated with adenoma to carcinoma progression in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, R F; Marshall, D J; Kailas, S; Schlack, S; Harms, B; Love, R

    1995-07-01

    Genetic instability related to defective DNA mismatch repair genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of carcinoma in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). However, nonneoplastic tissues from patients inheriting defects in human MSH2 or human MLH1 do not show significant genetic instability. The aim of this study was to determine whether acquisition of genetic instability at the adenoma stage promotes malignant transformation by studying adenoma-carcinoma progression in HNPCC. Dinucleotide repeat loci were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction from microdissected adenoma and/or carcinoma stages from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded HNPCC tumors. Although genetic instability was observed at some loci in almost all cases, the proportion of microsatellite loci altered was significantly less (P < 0.01) in completely benign adenomas (24%) than in benign areas of adenomas with malignancy (54%). Molecular fingerprints indicated intratumor heterogeneity, with evolution of related subclones of neoplastic cells. However, in all cases of tumor progression, at least one subclone from the adenoma stage was closely related to the carcinoma. Some genetic instability develops at the benign adenoma stage in most HNPCC tumors. Adenomas with a greater rate of genetic instability are more likely to progress to carcinoma. Topographic genotyping data provides evidence supporting the hypothesis of adenoma-carcinoma progression in HNPCC.

  16. Familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene.

    PubMed

    Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-03-01

    The most frequent conditions that are associated with inherited/familial pituitary adenomas are familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), which together account for up to 5% of pituitary adenomas. One important genetic cause of FIPA are inactivating mutations or deletions in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene. FIPA is the most frequent clinical presentation of AIP mutations. This article traces the current state of knowledge regarding the clinical features of FIPA and the particular genetic, pathologic, and clinical characteristics of pituitary adenomas due to AIP mutations.

  17. Immunocytochemical localization of lymphatic and venous vessels in colonic polyps and adenomas.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Tatsuo

    2008-07-01

    Histopathological localization of lymphatic vessels has been hindered because of a lack of suitable immunocytochemical markers for lymphatic vessels. Using lymphatic vessels endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) immunocytochemical staining, hyperplastic polyps, tubular adenomas to villous adenomas, were investigated for lymphatic vessels compared with immunostained blood vessels using factor-8. Four cases each of hyperplastic polyps, tubular adenomas to villous adenomas, were routinely fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin and were immunostained using goat anti-LYVE-1 for lymphatic vessels and rabbit anti-factor-8 for blood vessels. In normal colon and hyperplastic polyps, slender lymphatic vessels were noted in muscularis mucosa, which spread into the base of colonic crypt, whereas round venous vessels, they extend into lamina propria. In tubular adenomas, small lymphatic and venous vessels were noted in broad fibrous stalks. In villous adenomas, smaller lymphatic and venous vessels were noted in fine intervillous stroma. In normal colon and hyperplastic polyps, slender, irregularly shaped lymphatic vessels were present in muscularis mucosa, spreading into the base of the colonic crypt. In tubular adenomas, small lymphatic and venous vessels were noted in fibrous stalks. In villous adenomas, smaller lymphatic and venous vessels were noted in intervillous stroma. There are no increased lymphatic and venous vessels in intermucosal stroma and stalks of adenomas compared with normal colon.

  18. Aerodynamic studies of cleft-palate speech.

    PubMed

    Dickson, S; Barron, S; McGlone, R E

    1978-05-01

    The aerodynamic oral-nasal factors related to the speech of two groups of cleft-palate children were evaluated. One group presented hypernasality and the other group presented normal nasal resonance. The aerodynamic parameters evaluated were oral pressure, nasal flow, and flow-pressure ratio (nasal flow/oral pressure). Oral temperature readings were also obtained. These parameters were evaluated under three conditions (1) blowing, (2) vocalizing the vowel /i/, and (3) reading eight sentences representing two different rhythm patterns, two types of consonant loadings, and two conditions of syllable stress. The findings revealed significant differences between the hypernasal and normal resonance groups in flow-pressure ratio, oral pressure, and nasal flow while subjects were reading sentences. However, only a small proportion of the variability in these aerodynamic measurements could be accounted for based on the classification of hypernasality or normal nasal resonance. Oral-nasal aerodynamic studies done during speaking activity are more useful clinically than blowing activity or saying vowel sounds. No aerodynamic differences were noted between the two groups for the different rhythm and stress patterns and phonemic loadings within the sentences used.

  19. PREVALENCE OF CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Chincharadze, S; Vadachkoria, Z; Mchedlishvili, I

    2017-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate take significant place in congenital malformations. We aimed to study epidemiological peculiarities of these pathologies in Georgia for 2006-2015. We compared magnitude of its distribution with the data from 1981-1990. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate in Georgia in 2006-2015 was 0.95±0.04 per 1000 live births, while in 1981-1990- it was 1.05, i.e. in contrast to 1980's frequency of these pathological conditions decreased to some extent. Distribution of cleft lip and palate varies across the country regions. The most intensive spread has been observed in Mtskheta-Mtianeti region, where prevalence composed 2.28/1000. In the rest of the regions frequency of these pathologies is significantly lower. For instance, in Kakheti the rate is equal to 1,87/1000, in Kvemo Kartli - 1.56/1000, in Shida Kartli - 1.55/1000. In the rest of the regions prevalence rate is lower than the country average. It should be noted that in Tbilisi the rate is as low as 0.80/1000. The lowest level has been reported in Guria - 0.56/1000. Currently cleft lip with palate is the most frequently occurring anomaly in Georgia accounting for 39.8% of all congenital malformations. Cleft lip alone ranks the second - 36.1%, followed by cleft palate (24.1%). These pathologies are more frequent in boys than in girls. 60.3% of the cases are reported in males, in contrast to girls - 39.7% (p<0.01). Usually, cleft palate is the most common among girls, but in our case, it had higher prevalence among boys, 53.6% vs. 46,4%. Thus cleft lip and palate distribution in Georgia is characterized by epidemiological peculiarities, which should be considered in implementation of preventive measures.

  20. Effects of dexamethasone on palate mesenchymal cell phospholipase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bulleit, R.F.; Zimmerman, E.F.

    1984-09-15

    Corticosteroids will induce cleft palate in mice. One suggested mechanism for this effect is through inhibition of phospholipase activity. This hypothesis was tested by measuring the effects of dexamethasone, a synthetic corticosteroid, on phospholipase activity in cultures of palate mesenchymal cells. Palate mesenchymal cells were prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid. The cells were subsequently treated with various concentrations of dexamethasone. Concurrently, cultures of M-MSV-transformed 3T3 cells were prepared identically. After treatment, phospholipase activity was stimulated by the addition of serum or epidermal growth factor (EGF), and radioactivity released into the medium was taken as a measure of phospholipase activity. Dexamethasone (1 X 10(-5) or 1 X 10(-4) M) could inhibit serum-stimulated phospholipase activity in transformed 3T3 cells after 1 to 24 hr of treatment. However, no inhibition of activity was measured in palate mesenchymal cells following this period of treatment. Not until 120 hr of treatment with dexamethasone (1 X 10(-4) M) was any significant inhibition of serum-stimulated phospholipase activity observed in palate mesenchymal cells. When EGF was used to stimulate phospholipase activity, dexamethasone (1 X 10(-5) M) caused an increase in phospholipase activity in palate mesenchymal cells. These observations suggested that phospholipase in transformed 3T3 cells was sensitive to inhibition by dexamethasone. However, palate mesenchymal cell phospholipase is only minimally sensitive to dexamethasone, and in certain instances can be enhanced. These results cannot support the hypothesis that corticosteroids mediate their teratogenic effect via inhibition of phospholipase activity.

  1. Expression of Cold-Inducible RNA-Binding Protein (CIRP) in Pituitary Adenoma and its Relationships with Tumor Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingguang; Zhang, Huan; Heng, Xueyuan; Pang, Qi; Sun, Aigang

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to detect the expression of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein in pituitary adenoma and to determine its effects on tumor recurrence. Material/Methods We collected a total of 60 post-op samples collected from pituitary adenoma patients (including 20 cases of invasive pituitary adenoma, 20 cases of non-invasive adenoma, and 20 cases of non-invasive recurrent adenoma) admitted in our hospital. Both protein and mRNA levels of CIRP in 3 types of pituitary adenoma samples were quantified by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. Results Western blotting revealed significantly elevated CIRP expression levels in invasive pituitary adenoma compared to non-invasive tumors, with statistical significance (p<0.05). Recurrent pituitary adenoma expressed significantly higher CIRP levels compared to non-recurrent tumors (p<0.05). Real-time PCR for CIRP mRNA obtained consistent results: transcript levels were significantly higher in invasive pituitary adenoma compared to non-invasive adenoma (p<0.05); recurrent adenoma also had significantly higher CIRP mRNA levels compared to non-recurrent tumors (p<0.05). Among all 3 types of pituitary adenoma, recurrent tumors had the highest levels of CIRP mRNA and protein. Conclusions The expression of CIRP in pituitary adenoma is closely related with tumor proliferation and invasion, and its significantly elevated expression level indicates post-op recurrence. PMID:25934796

  2. Impact of an Endoscopic Quality Improvement Program Focused on Adenoma Detection on Sessile Serrated Adenoma/Polyp Detection.

    PubMed

    Racho, Ronald G; Krishna, Murli; Coe, Susan G; Thomas, Colleen S; Crook, Julia E; Diehl, Nancy N; Wallace, Michael B

    2017-06-01

    Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/P) are an under-recognized disease with a unique malignant pathway. Improved endoscopic recognition and pathological interpretation is needed. To determine whether an educational intervention that improved adenoma detection rate (ADR) could improve SSA/P detection rate after reclassification of previously termed "hyperplastic" polyps. We reanalyzed data from a prospective randomized trial of an educational intervention aimed at increasing ADR. All hyperplastic polyps ≥6 mm reported in a previously published study were rereviewed and reclassified using standardized criteria for serrated lesions. Detection rates of sessile serrated adenomas/polyps and other clinically relevant serrated polyps were calculated in the baseline and post-training phases of the original study. Of 263 available for rereview, 33 (12.5%) were reclassified as SSA/P (N = 32) or traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) (N = 1). Reclassification was more common in the right colon (18 vs. 8%, p = 0.02). Baseline SSA/P detection rate was 0.7% in the untrained group and 1.3% in the trained group. Post-training, the SSA/P detection rate increased to 2.1 and 1.5%, respectively. The clinically relevant serrated polyp detection rate at baseline was 14.2% in the untrained group and 11.3% in the trained group. After the educational intervention, the clinically relevant serrated polyp detection rates increased to 16.5 and 14.8% in the untrained and trained groups, respectively. The estimated odds of an endoscopist detecting either a SSA/P or other clinically relevant serrated polyp during colonoscopy increased by only 3% with the educational intervention (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.61-1.74, p = 0.91). Pathological re-interpretation of larger serrated polyps resulted in the reclassification of 12.5% of lesions. Quality improvement methods focused on adenoma detection did not impact SSA/P detection, and thus specific methods for serrated polyp detection are needed.

  3. Oxytocin gene deletion mice overconsume palatable sucrose solution but not palatable lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Miedlar, J A; Rinaman, L; Vollmer, R R; Amico, J A

    2007-09-01

    We previously reported that oxytocin knockout (OT KO) mice display markedly enhanced intake of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions compared with intake by wild-type (WT) mice of the same background strain. The present study was conducted to determine whether OT KO mice demonstrate enhanced intake of Intralipid, a palatable lipid emulsion. Male or female mice of both genotypes that were naive to the test solution were given continuous two-bottle access to Intralipid and water with food available ad libitum for 3 days. Throughout the experiment, mice of both genotypes showed a marked preference for Intralipid over water. On the 1st day, OT KO mice displayed twofold greater preference and consumed nearly twice as much Intralipid compared with WT cohorts. However, on subsequent days of exposure, Intralipid preference and intake did not differ between genotypes over a range of lipid concentrations presented in descending or ascending order. Daily and hourly measures of lipid vs. sucrose intake confirmed that OT KO mice consumed more sucrose solution, but not lipid emulsion, than WT mice. During ad libitum access to Intralipid, both genotypes consumed significantly more calories from the emulsion as concentration increased. Both genotypes maintained consistent total daily caloric intake (lipid plus chow) and compensated by decreasing chow intake over the course of the study. These findings, coupled with prior reports from our laboratory, support the view that OT signaling pathways participate in limiting intake of palatable carbohydrate-containing solutions, but do not appear to play a role in limiting intake of Intralipid.

  4. Traditional serrated adenomas and serrated carcinomas in carcinogen-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2017-04-01

    A recent review of archived sections from early experiments in rats showed neoplasias exhibiting serrated configurations. The aim was to assess the frequency of serrated neoplasias in the colon and small intestine of carcinogen-treated rats. While reviewing archival sections from early experiments in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Fisher-344 (F-344) rats, we recently detected colonic and intestinal traditional serrated adenomas (displaying serrated or microtubular patterns) and serrated carcinomas. SD rats were injected 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) for 27 weeks whereas F-344 rats were fed with a pyrolysate (GLU-1) for 24 months. Filed sections from 358 colonic and small intestinal neoplasias were re-evaluated. DMH-treated SD rats had 215 colonic neoplasias (1.4% were serrated adenomas, 7.9% microtubular adenomas, 2.8% serrated carcinomas and 2.8% microtubular carcinomas). GLU1-treated F-344 rats had 53 colonic neoplasias (1.9% were serrated adenomas and 20.8% microtubular adenomas), and 89 small intestinal neoplasias (1.1% were serrated adenomas, 42.7% microtubular adenomas and 6.7%, microtubular carcinomas). DMH/SD-rats develop serrated and microtubular adenomas and carcinomas in the colon, whereas GLU1/F-344 rats develop microtubular adenomas in the colon and microtubular adenomas and carcinomas in the small intestine. The two rat-settings emerge as suitable models to study the molecular attributes of serrated and microtubular neoplasias under the standard conditions of the laboratory. This study is the first showing that a substantial number of serrated and particularly microtubular adenomas and carcinomas develop in the colon and small intestine of experimental rats. Importantly, serrated and microtubular neoplasias in rats recreate the histology of duodenal and colonic traditional serrated neoplasias in human beings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Distinct patterns of DNA methylation in conventional adenomas involving the right and left colon

    PubMed Central

    Koestler, Devin C; Li, Jing; Baron, John A; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Butterly, Lynn F; Goodrich, Martha; Lesseur, Corina; Karagas, Margaret R; Marsit, Carmen J; Moore, Jason H; Andrew, Angeline S; Srivastava, Amitabh

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown two distinct non-CIMP methylation clusters in colorectal cancer, raising the possibility that DNA methylation, involving non-CIMP genes, may play a role in the conventional adenoma–carcinoma pathway. A total of 135 adenomas (65 left colon and 70 right colon) were profiled for epigenome-wide DNA methylation using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. A principal components analysis was performed to examine the association between variability in DNA methylation and adenoma location. Linear regression and linear mixed effects models were used to identify locus-specific differential DNA methylation in adenomas of right and left colon. A significant association was present between the first principal component and adenoma location (P = 0.007), even after adjustment for subject age and gender (P = 0.009). A total of 168 CpG sites were differentially methylated between right- and left-colon adenomas and these loci demonstrated enrichment of homeobox genes (P = 3.0 × 10−12). None of the 168 probes were associated with CIMP genes. Among CpG loci with the largest difference in methylation between right- and left-colon adenomas, probes associated with PRAC(prostate cancer susceptibility candidate) gene showed hypermethylation in right-colon adenomas whereas those associated with CDX2(caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2) showed hypermethylation in left-colon adenomas. A subgroup of left-colon adenomas enriched for current smokers (OR = 6.1, P = 0.004) exhibited a methylation profile similar to right-colon adenomas. In summary, our results indicate distinct patterns of DNA methylation, independent of CIMP genes, in adenomas of the right and left colon. PMID:23868178

  6. Speech outcomes of early palatal repair with or without intravelar veloplasty in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Jean-Charles; Herlin, Christian; Captier, Guillaume; Baylon, Hélène; Verdeil, Mélanie; Bigorre, Michèle

    2013-12-01

    We compared the early speech outcomes of 40 consecutive children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) who had been treated according to different 2-stage protocols: the Malek protocol (soft palate closure without intravelar veloplasty at 3 months; lip and hard palate repair at 6 months) (n=20), and the Talmant protocol (cheilorhinoplasty and soft palate repair with intravelar veloplasty at 6 months; hard palate closure at 18 months) (n=20). We compared the speech assessments obtained at a mean (SD) age of 3.3 (0.35) years after treatment by the same surgeon. The main outcome measures evaluated were acquisition and intelligibility of speech, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and incidence of complications. A delay in speech articulation of one year or more was seen more often in patients treated by the Malek protocol (11/20) than in those treated according to the Talmant protocol (3/20, p=0.019). Good intelligibility was noted in 15/20 in the Talmant group compared with 6/20 in the Malek group (p=0.010). Assessment with an aerophonoscope showed that nasal air emission was most pronounced in patients in the Malek group (p=0.007). Velopharyngeal insufficiency was present in 11/20 in the Malek group, and in 3/20 in the Talmant group (p=0.019). No patients in the Talmant group had an oronasal fistula (p<0.001). All other outcomes were similar. Despite later closure of the soft and hard palate, early speech outcomes were better in the Talmant group because intravelar veloplasty was successful and there were no fistulas after closure of the hard palate in 2 layers.

  7. Soft palate preservation after tumor resection with transoral laser microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Gómez-Pedraza, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background: Management and preservation of the soft palate is dependent on clinical stage and tumor histology. However, available literature is scarce regarding the palate preservation with the use of laser CO2. Objectives: We report the results obtained after management with laser surgery and soft palate preservation in three patients with salivary gland neoplasms. Method: Three patients with minor salivary gland tumors were treated by means of transoral laser microsurgery. All tumors were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. All tumors were >3 cm. Soft palate function was preserved and reconstruction was performed with primary closure. Patients began oral feeding the same day and were discharged after 24 h. Conclusions: Transoral laser microsurgery is recommended for treatment of soft palate tumors. This treatment can be considered a better option when compared with other modalities such as radio- or chemoradiotherapy which require a longer time of treatment, are more expensive and tend to produce significant toxicity. Key words:Laser CO2, neoplasms, salivary gland. PMID:23229273

  8. Functional anatomy of the soft palate applied to wind playing.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alison; Ackermann, Bronwen; Driscoll, Tim

    2010-12-01

    Wind players must be able to sustain high intraoral pressures in order to play their instruments. Prolonged exposure to these high pressures may lead to the performance-related disorder velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). This disorder occurs when the soft palate fails to completely close the air passage between the oral and nasal cavities in the upper respiratory cavity during blowing tasks, this closure being necessary for optimum performance on a wind instrument. VPI is potentially career threatening. Improving music teachers' and students' knowledge of the mechanism of velopharyngeal closure may assist in avoiding potentially catastrophic performance-related disorders arising from dysfunction of the soft palate. In the functional anatomy of the soft palate as applied to wind playing, seven muscles of the soft palate involved in the velopharyngeal closure mechanism are reviewed. These are the tensor veli palatini, levator veli palatini, palatopharyngeus, palatoglossus, musculus uvulae, superior pharyngeal constrictor, and salpingopharyngeus. These muscles contribute to either a palatal or a pharyngeal component of velopharyngeal closure. This information should guide further research into targeted methods of assessment, management, and treatment of VPI in wind musicians.

  9. Cleft lip and palate: series of unusual clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Paranaíba, Lívia Máris Ribeiro; Miranda, Roseli Teixeira de; Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Almeida, Hudson de; Orsi Júnior, Julian Miranda; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2010-01-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) represent the most common congenital anomalies of the face, corresponding to approximately 65% of all malformations of the craniofacial region. to describe unusual clinical cases of non-syndromic CL/P (CL/PNS), diagnosed in a reference service in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and correlate these alterations with possible risk factors. we carried out a retrospective study, between the years of 1992 and the 1st half of 2009, from medical records. Among the 778 cases of CL/PNS diagnosed in the period of 17 years, 5 (0.64%) were unusual CL/PNS, and all patients were male. It was found that among the 5 patients, 2 had incomplete right cleft lip with incomplete cleft palate, 2 were affected by left incomplete cleft lip and incomplete cleft palate, and 1 had a cleft lip and palate associated with complete right cleft palate. Risk factors such as consanguinity, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption, medication usage during pregnancy, history of abortion and/or stillbirths and maternal diseases were not associated with unusual CL/PNS. This study described 5 unusual cases of CL/PNS in a Brazilian population; no associations with the risk factors analyzed were seen. It also confirmed the unusualness of the prevalence of such alterations.

  10. Recent advances in primary palate and midface morphogenesis research.

    PubMed

    Diewert, V M; Wang, K Y

    1992-01-01

    During the sixth week of human development, the primary palate develops as facial prominences enlarge around the nasal pits to form the premaxillary region. Growth of craniofacial components changes facial morphology and affects the extent of contact between the facial prominences. Our recent studies have focused on developing methods to analyze growth of the primary palate and the craniofacial complex to define morphological phases of normal development and to determine alterations leading to cleft lip malformation. Analysis of human embryos in the Carnegie Embryology Collection and mouse embryos of cleft lip and noncleft strains showed that human and mouse embryos have similar phases of primary palate development: first, an epithelial seam, the nasal fin, forms; then a mesenchymal bridge develops through the nasal fin and enlarges rapidly. A robust mesenchymal bridge must form between the facial prominences before advancing midfacial growth patterns tend to separate the facial components as the medial nasal region narrows and elongates, the nasal pits narrow, and the primary choanae (posterior nares) open posterior to the primary palate. In mouse strains with cleft lip gene, maxillary growth, nasal fin formation, and mesenchymal replacement of the nasal fin were all delayed compared with noncleft strains of mice. Successful primary palate formation involves a sequence of local cellular events that are closely timed with spatial changes associated with craniofacial growth that must occur within a critical developmental period.

  11. Hypopituitarism after gamma knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Zibar Tomšić, Karin; Dušek, Tina; Kraljević, Ivana; Heinrich, Zdravko; Solak, Mirsala; Vučinović, Ana; Ozretić, David; Mihailović Marasanov, Sergej; Hršak, Hrvoje; Kaštelan, Darko

    2017-05-24

    The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for hypopituitarism after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for pituitary adenoma. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the pituitary function of 90 patients who underwent GKRS for pituitary adenoma at the University Hospital Centre Zagreb between 2003 and 2014. Twenty seven of them met the inclusion criteria and the others were excluded from the study due to pituitary insufficiency which was present before GKRS. Eighteen patients had non-functioning and 9 patients had secretory adenomas. Median patients' age was 56 years (24-82). GKRS was performed using the Leksell gamma knife Model C. The median prescription radiation dose was 20 Gy (15-25) and the median tumor volume size was 3.4 cm(3) (0.06-16.81). New onset hypopituitarism was defined as a new deficit of one of the three hormonal axes (corticotroph, thyreotroph, or gonadotroph) ≥3 months following GKRS. SPSS was used for statistical analysis, with the significance level at P<0.05. During the median follow-up period of 72 months (range 6-144), 30% of patients developed new hypopituitarism after GKRS. This corresponds to incidence of one new case of hypopituitarism per 15 patient-years. Age, gender, tumor function, tumor volume, suprasellar extension, prescription dose of radiation, as well as dose-volume to the pituitary gland, stalk and hypothalamus were not predictive factors for the development of hypopituitarism. In our cohort of patients with pituitary tumors who underwent GKRS, 30% developed new hypopituitarism during the follow-up period.

  12. Differential Gene Expression in Chemically Induced Mouse Lung Adenomas1

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ruisheng; Wang, Yian; Lubet, Ronald A; You, Ming

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Because of similarities in histopathology and tumor progression stages between mouse and human lung adenocarcinomas, the mouse lung tumor model with lung adenomas as the endpoint has been used extensively to evaluate the efficacy of putative lung cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study, a competitive cDNA library screening (CCLS) was employed to determine changes in the expression of mRNA in chemically induced lung adenomas compared with paired normal lung tissues. A total of 2555 clones having altered expression in tumors were observed following competitive hybridization between normal lung and lung adenomas after primary screening of over 160,000 clones from a mouse lung cDNA library. Among the 755 clones confirmed by dot blot hybridization, 240 clones were underexpressed, whereas 515 clones were overexpressed in tumors. Sixty-five clones with the most frequently altered expression in six individual tumors were confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. When examining the 58 known genes, 39 clones had increased expression and 19 had decreased expression, whereas the 7 novel genes showed overexpression. A high percentage (>60%) of overexpressed or underexpressed genes was observed in at least two or three of the lesions. Reproducibly overexpressed genes included ERK-1, JAK-1, surfactant proteins A, B, and C, NFAT1, α-1 protease inhibitor, helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase (CHUK), α-adaptin, α-1 PI2, thioether S-methyltransferase, and CYP2C40. Reproducibly underexpressed genes included paroxanase, ALDH II, CC10, von Ebner salivary gland protein, and α- and β-globin. In addition, CCLS identified several novel genes or genes not previously associated with lung carcinogenesis, including a hypothetical protein (FLJ11240) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor homologue. This study shows the efficacy of this methodology for identifying genes with altered expression. These genes may prove to be helpful in our understanding of the genetic basis of lung

  13. Large Brunner’s gland adenoma: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Alba; Borriello, Pasquale; Compare, Debora; Colibus, Patrizia De; Pica, Loredana; Iacono, Alessandro; Nardone, Gerardo

    2006-01-01

    Brunner’s gland adenoma (BGA)is a very rare benign tumour of the duodenum, which is usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally at endoscopy. Occasionally, this lesion may be large, causing upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage or intestinal obstruction. The case had a large Brunner’s gland adenoma, presenting melena that was managed by endoscopic excision. PMID:16610009

  14. Hyperplasia-adenoma sequence in pituitary tumorigenesis related to aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Villa, Chiara; Lagonigro, Maria Stefania; Magri, Flavia; Koziak, Maria; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Brauner, Raja; Bouligand, Jerome; Junier, Marie Pierre; Di Rocco, Federico; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Beckers, Albert; Roux, François Xavier; Daly, Adrian F; Chiovato, Luca

    2011-06-01

    Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene are associated with pituitary adenomas that usually occur as familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). Detailed pathological and tumor genetic data on AIP mutation-related pituitary adenomas are not sufficient. Non-identical twin females presented as adolescents to the emergency department with severe progressive headache caused by large pituitary macroadenomas require emergency neurosurgery; one patient had incipient pituitary apoplexy. Post-surgically, the patients were found to have silent somatotrope adenomas on pathological examination. Furthermore, the light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies demonstrated tumors of virtually identical characteristics. The adenomas were accompanied by multiple areas of pituitary hyperplasia, which stained positively for GH, indicating somatotrope hyperplasia. Genetic analyses of the FIPA kindred revealed a novel E216X mutation of the AIP gene, which was present in both the affected patients and the unaffected father. Molecular analysis of surgical specimens revealed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the adenoma but showed that LOH was not present in the hyperplastic pituitary tissue from either patient. AIP immunostaining confirmed normal staining in the hyperplastic tissue and decreased staining in the adenoma in the tumors from both patients. These results demonstrate that patients with AIP germline mutation can present with silent somatotrope pituitary adenomas. The finding of somatotrope hyperplasia unaccompanied by AIP LOH suggests that LOH at the AIP locus might be a late event in a potential progression from hyperplastic to adenomatous tissue.

  15. Spontaneous pituitary adenoma occurring after resection of a Rathke's cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nauman S; Raber, Michael R; Cote, David J; Laws, Edward R

    2016-11-01

    Rathke's cleft cysts (RCC) are benign cystic lesions that originate from remnants of the epithelial lining of Rathke's pouch. RCC are known rarely to occur together with a concomitant pituitary adenoma. Here, we report a patient with a pituitary adenoma arising in the same location as a previously-resected RCC, 3 years post-operatively, and review the literature of "collision" sellar lesions. Consecutive transsphenoidal operations from a single-center between 2008 and 2016 were reviewed to identify patients with pituitary adenoma arising after surgical resection of RCC, and a systematic search of the literature was also performed to identify such patient reports, as well as reports of concomitant pituitary adenoma and RCC. Of 837 transsphenoidal operations from our own experience, one patient with pituitary adenoma occurring after RCC resection was identified and is reported here. A systematic review of the literature resulted in identification of 34 patients with concomitant RCC and pituitary adenoma and no incidents of pituitary adenoma occurring after resection of RCC. Concomitant occurrence of RCC and pituitary adenoma was more commonly diagnosed in women (61%), at a median age of diagnosis of 44 years. The RCC histological analysis in these patients consistently described ciliated columnar or cuboidal epithelium. Although rare, the presence of a new, pathologically-distinct lesions in the sella after prior surgical treatment, is possible. During post-operative monitoring, physicians should consider that what appears as a "recurrent" lesion may actually be growth of a new and entirely different lesion.

  16. Adenoma Prevalence and Distribution Among US Latino Subgroups Undergoing Screening Colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Chablani, Sumedha V; Jandorf, Lina; DuHamel, Katherine; Lee, Kristen K; Sriphanlop, Pathu; Villagra, Cristina; Itzkowitz, Steven H

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading malignancy diagnosed among US Latinos. Latinos in the USA represent a heterogeneous amalgam of subgroups varying in genetic background, culture, and socioeconomic status. Little is known about the frequency of CRC precursor lesions found at screening colonoscopy among Latino subgroups. The aim was to determine the prevalence and distribution of histologically confirmed adenomas found at screening colonoscopy among average-risk, asymptomatic US Latinos according to their subgroup and socio-demographic background. Cross-sectional analysis of pathological findings resulting from screening colonoscopy among average-risk, asymptomatic US Latinos aged ≥50 in two prospective randomized controlled trials at an academic medical center. Among the 561 Latinos who completed screening colonoscopy, the two largest subgroups were Puerto Ricans and Dominicans. The findings among both subgroups were: adenomas 30.6%, proximal adenomas 23.5%, advanced adenomas 12.0%, and proximal advanced adenomas 8.9%. These rates are at least as high as those found at screening colonoscopy among US whites. While Puerto Ricans were more likely than Dominicans to be born in the USA, speak English, be acculturated, have a smoking history, and be obese, there were no significant differences in adenoma rates between these subgroups. The prevalence of adenomas, advanced adenomas, and proximal neoplasia was high among both subgroups. These findings have implications for CRC screening and surveillance among the increasingly growing Latino population in the USA.

  17. Association between dietary fat intake and colorectal adenoma in korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeehyun; Oh, Seung-Won; Kim, Young-Sun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Park, Danbee; Park, Jae-Hong; Ko, Ah-Ryoung; Kim, Ye-Ji

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of colorectal cancer is rapidly increasing in South Korea. It is important to clarify the association between colorectal cancer and diet, being one of the main modifiable risk factors, as such studies in the Korean population are lacking. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from participants who had undergone a screening colonoscopy and a nutritional assessment during a routine health check-up from January 2008 to December 2011. Dietary intake data were derived from 1-day food records; colorectal adenoma was histopathologically confirmed by biopsy during colonoscopy. Eventually, 2604 participants were included in the analysis. The risk of colorectal adenoma by quintile of dietary fat intake was analyzed using logistic regression. Subgroup analyses by degree of risk and by location of colorectal adenoma were additionally performed. In men, total fat intake was not associated with risk of colorectal adenoma. However, risk of colorectal adenoma increased with higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake. The adjusted odds ratio in the highest quintile was 1.71 (95% confidence interval, 1.01–2.91) compared with that in the lowest quintile. There was no significant association between fat intake and risk of colorectal adenoma characterized by subsite. In female participants, total fat and specific fatty acid intake were not associated with risk of colorectal adenoma. These data support that high SFA intake is associated with risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean men. PMID:28072719

  18. Coexisiting adenoma and granuloma involving the right inferior parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Kandasamy, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions, particularly granulomas, involving adenoma of the parathyroid gland are rare. Ectopic thymic tissue is commonly associated with the thyroid and/or parathyroid gland due to their close embryonic relationship. We report a rare case of coexisting adenoma and granuloma of the parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue. PMID:24957592

  19. Pathological study of thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma: plurihormonality and medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Akira; Sanno, Naoko; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Osamura, Yoshiyuki R

    2004-08-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting adenomas are rare and, as most adenomas are large, invasive and difficult to cure by surgery only, many require additional medical treatment. Many TSH-secreting adenomas cosecrete growth hormone (GH) and/or prolactin (PRL). We evaluated the relationship between pathology and the effect of dopamine agonist bromocriptine and somatostatin analogue octreotide in 20 operated patients with TSH-secreting adenomas. The four men and 16 women ranged in age from 23 to 62 years; three had clinically overt acromegaly; two manifested galactorrhea-amenorrhea. Endocrinologically, elevated serum GH, and/or IGF-1 were observed in six patients and elevated serum PRL was observed in eight. Immunohistochemically, 16 of the 20 adenomas were positive for GH and/or PRL (GH-positive, n=13; PRL-positive, n=9). Pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1 was demonstrated in the nuclei of all adenoma cells. Octreotide tests showed suppression of serum TSH (<50%) in ten of 14 patients. Preoperative octreotide treatment effectively reduced serum TSH and tumor size in two patients. Electron micrographs of octreotide-treated TSH-secreting adenomas showed shrinkage of the cytoplasm and diffuse distribution of secretory granules. Our study suggests that cosecretion of GH and/or PRL from TSH-secreting adenoma has no correlation with response of tumor cells to medical treatment.

  20. Isolated double adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    PU, JIUJUN; WANG, ZHIMING; ZHOU, HUI; ZHONG, AILING; JIN, KAI; RUAN, LUNLIANG; YANG, GANG

    2016-01-01

    Only a few cases of double or multiple pituitary adenomas have previously been reported in the literature; however, isolated double adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are even more rare. The present study reports a rare case of a 50-year-old female patient who presented with typical clinical features of Cushing's disease and was diagnosed with isolated double ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Endocrinological examination revealed an ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma, and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a microadenoma with a lower intensity on the right side of the pituitary gland. The patient underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery, which revealed another pituitary tumor in the left side of the pituitary gland. The two, clearly separated, pituitary adenomas identified in the same gland were completely resected. Immunohistochemistry and pathology revealed that the clearly separated double pituitary adenomas were positive for ACTH, thyroid-stimulating, growth and prolactin hormones. Postoperatively, the levels of ACTH and cortisol hormone decreased rapidly. The case reported in the present study is considerably rare, due to the presence of a second pituitary adenoma in the same gland, which was not detected by preoperative MRI scan, but was noticed during surgery. Intraoperative evaluation may be important in the identification of double or multiple pituitary adenomas. PMID:27347184

  1. Disulfiram sensitizes pituitary adenoma cells to temozolomide by regulating O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yachao; Xiao, Zheng; Chen, Wenna; Yang, Jinsheng; Li, Tao; Fan, Bo

    2015-08-01

    O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity is responsible for temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in patients harboring aggressive pituitary adenomas. Recently, disulfiram (DSF) has been shown to induce the loss of MGMT protein and increase TMZ efficacy in glioblastoma cells, while CD133+ nestin+ cells isolated from the cell population have been implicated as pituitary adenoma stem-like cells. However, whether DSF is able to potentiate the cytotoxic effects of TMZ on human pituitary adenoma cells has not been investigated to date. In the present study, CD133+ nestin+ phenotype cells were isolated from primary cultured human pituitary adenoma cells using microbeads. It was found that DSF reduced MGMT protein expression and sensitized human pituitary adenoma cells and stem-like cells to TMZ in vitro, while the proteasome inhibitor PS-341 abrogated the inhibitory effect of DSF on MGMT in vitro. The sensitizing effect of DSF was also verified in primary cultured human pituitary adenoma cells in vivo. The results of the present study suggested that DSF can increase the efficacy of the anti-tumor effect of TMZ on human pituitary adenoma cells and CD133+ nestin+ stem like cells via the ubiquitin-proteasomal MGMT protein elimination route. DSF combined with TMZ may be an effective therapeutic strategy against aggressive pituitary adenomas.

  2. Association of liver steatosis with colorectal cancer and adenoma in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Enrico; Lamazza, Antonietta; De Masi, Ercole; Schillaci, Alberto; Crocetti, Daniele; Antoniozzi, Angelo; Sterpetti, Antonio V; De Toma, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been identified as a risk factor for colorectal cancer and adenoma. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in an adult Italian population with metabolic syndrome. Ninety patients with metabolic syndrome were prospectively compared against a matched population without the syndrome to assess the prevalence of colorectal adenoma. Another 1,500 patients undergoing screening colonoscopy were prospectively analyzed: 134 patients with metabolic syndrome and colorectal adenoma were compared against a group of 108 patients with colorectal adenoma without metabolic syndrome to assess the prevalence of cancer. The study was performed from January 2008 until December 2010. Data were analyzed from March to June 2011. The prevalence of colorectal adenoma was twice as high in patients with metabolic syndrome. The incidence of cancer was higher in patients with colorectal adenoma and metabolic syndrome. Associated obesity and liver steatosis were the only factors with independent statistical value. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for adenoma and cancer degeneration when obesity is present. Associated liver steatosis is a significant risk factor for colorectal cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Coexisiting adenoma and granuloma involving the right inferior parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mayank; Kandasamy, Subramaniam

    2014-06-23

    Inflammatory lesions, particularly granulomas, involving adenoma of the parathyroid gland are rare. Ectopic thymic tissue is commonly associated with the thyroid and/or parathyroid gland due to their close embryonic relationship. We report a rare case of coexisting adenoma and granuloma of the parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Case report of a large lactating adenoma with rapid antepartum enlargement.

    PubMed

    Teng, Cindy Y; Diego, Emilia J

    2016-01-01

    Lactating adenomas are rare benign breast tumors, most commonly found during pregnancy and lactation. They are usually slow growing and smaller than 3cm in maximal diameter. Rare cases of giant lactating adenomas and rapid postpartum enlargement have been reported, but none have shown a giant lactating adenoma with rapid antepartum enlargement or antepartum surgical management. A 27 year-old pregnant woman presented at 28 weeks gestation with a 5cm left breast mass that doubled to 10cm within six weeks and was increasingly tender. Histopathologic examination of a core biopsy was consistent with a lactating adenoma. The mass was excised at 31 weeks gestation with no complications. Lactating adenomas are common during pregnancy and need to be distinguished from breast cancer, a commonly diagnosed malignancy in pregnancy. They can be distinguished from carcinoma and other benign tumors like fibroadenoma under histopathologic examination. Rare cases of giant lactating adenomas with rapid postpartum enlargement that were managed by postpartum excision have been reported. However, a giant lactating adenoma with rapid antepartum enlargement, managed by excision in the third trimester of pregnancy, has not been reported. Excision of a large, rapidly enlarging lactating adenoma in the third trimester of pregnancy is a safe and feasible management option. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential expression in normal-adenoma-carcinoma sequence suggests complex molecular carcinogenesis in colon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungkoo; Bang, Seunghyun; Song, Kyuyoung; Lee, Inchul

    2006-10-01

    The majority of colon cancers develop from pre-existing adenomas. We analyzed the expression profiles in the sequence of normal colon crypts, adenomas and early-stage carcinomas using microdissected cells from tubular adenomas with foci of malignant transformation. Differentially expressed genes were detected between normal-adenoma and adenoma-carcinoma, and were grouped according to the patterns of expression changes in the sequence. Down-regulated genes in the sequence included PLA2G2A, TSPAN1, PDCD4, FCGBP, AATK, EPLIN, FABP1, AGR2, MTUS1, TSC1, galectin 4 and MT1F. PLA2G2A has been shown to suppress colon tumorigenesis in mice, but the pathobiological role in humans has been controversial. Our data showed continuous down-regulation of PLA2G2A in the sequence supporting an implication in human colon cancer. Tumor suppressor and/ or proapoptotic activities have also been reported in other genes. Up-regulated genes included ribosomal proteins, IER3 and TPR. TGF-beta2 and matrix metalloproteinase 23B were up-regulated in carcinoma but not in adenoma, supporting the pathobiological roles in malignant transformation. Differentially expressed genes partly coincided with those in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of the stomach, which was published previously, suggesting a partial overlap between the adenoma-carcinoma sequences of the colon and stomach.

  6. Dysbiosis of Fungal Microbiota in the Intestinal Mucosa of Patients with Colorectal Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Chunguang; Xie, Lingling; Yang, Xi; Miao, Huifang; Lv, Na; Zhang, Ruifen; Xiao, Xue; Hu, Yongfei; Liu, Yulan; Wu, Na; Zhu, Yuanmin; Zhu, Baoli

    2015-01-01

    The fungal microbiota is an important component of the human gut microbiome and may be linked to gastrointestinal disease. In this study, the fungal microbiota of biopsy samples from adenomas and adjacent tissues was characterized by deep sequencing. Ascomycota, Glomeromycota and Basidiomycota were identified as the dominant phyla in both adenomas and adjacent tissues from all subjects. Among the 60 genera identified, the opportunist pathogens Phoma and Candida represented an average of 45% of the fungal microbiota. When analyzed at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level, however, a decreased diversity in adenomas was observed, and three OTUs differed significantly from the adjacent tissues. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that the core OTUs formed separate clusters for advanced and non-advanced adenomas for which the abundance of four OTUs differed significantly. Moreover, the size of adenomas and the disease stage were closely related to changes in the fungal microbiota in subjects with adenomas. This study characterized the fungal microbiota profile of subjects with adenomas and identified potential diagnostic biomarkers closely related to different stages of adenomas. PMID:25613490

  7. Thoracoscopic resection with intraoperative use of methylene blue to localize mediastinal parathyroid adenomas.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yoshin; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Yuji; Miwa, Ken; Fujioka, Shinji; Haruki, Tomohiro

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of thoracoscopic resection of mediastinal parathyroid adenomas using methylene blue to localize the tumors during the operation. After methylene blue 4 mg/kg was injected intravenously, we easily identified methylene blue-stained parathyroid glands and successfully resected them with sufficient surgical margins. The use of methylene blue for detection of parathyroid adenoma is a useful technique.

  8. Isolated double adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jiujun; Wang, Zhiming; Zhou, Hui; Zhong, Ailing; Jin, Kai; Ruan, Lunliang; Yang, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Only a few cases of double or multiple pituitary adenomas have previously been reported in the literature; however, isolated double adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are even more rare. The present study reports a rare case of a 50-year-old female patient who presented with typical clinical features of Cushing's disease and was diagnosed with isolated double ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Endocrinological examination revealed an ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma, and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a microadenoma with a lower intensity on the right side of the pituitary gland. The patient underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery, which revealed another pituitary tumor in the left side of the pituitary gland. The two, clearly separated, pituitary adenomas identified in the same gland were completely resected. Immunohistochemistry and pathology revealed that the clearly separated double pituitary adenomas were positive for ACTH, thyroid-stimulating, growth and prolactin hormones. Postoperatively, the levels of ACTH and cortisol hormone decreased rapidly. The case reported in the present study is considerably rare, due to the presence of a second pituitary adenoma in the same gland, which was not detected by preoperative MRI scan, but was noticed during surgery. Intraoperative evaluation may be important in the identification of double or multiple pituitary adenomas.

  9. A large neglected pleomorphic adenoma of the lung: Report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Gakidis, Ioannis; Mihos, Petros T; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Stamatelopoulos, Athanasios; Eftychiadis, Christos; Mantas, Constantinos

    2014-06-01

    Primary pleomorphic adenomas of the lung are very rare tumors that have peculiar clinical and oncologic features. We report here on the diagnostic and therapeutic approach for a patient with a large neglected pulmonary pleomorphic adenoma that presented initially as pneumonia.

  10. Palatal growth in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients following neonatal cheiloplasty: Classic and geometric morphometric assessment.

    PubMed

    Hoffmannova, Eva; Bejdová, Šárka; Borský, Jiri; Dupej, Ján; Cagáňová, Veronika; Velemínská, Jana

    2016-11-01

    A new method of early neonatal cheiloplasty has recently been employed on patients having complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (cUCLP). We aimed to investigate (1) their detailed palatal morphology before surgery and growth during the 10 months after neonatal cheiloplasty, (2) the growth of eight dimensions of the maxilla in these patients, (3) the development of these dimensions compared with published data on noncleft controls and on cUCLP patients operated using later operation protocol (LOP; 6 months of age). Sixty-six virtual dental models of 33 longitudinally evaluated cUCLP patients were analysed using metric analysis, a dense correspondence model, and multivariate statistics. We compared the palatal surfaces before neonatal cheiloplasty (mean age, 4 days) and before palatoplasty (mean age, 10 months). The palatal form variability of 10-month-old children was considerably reduced during the observed period thanks to their undisturbed growth, that is, the palate underwent the same growth changes following neonatal cheiloplasty. A detailed colour-coded map identified the most marked growth at the anterior and posterior ends of both segments. The maxilla of cUCLP patients after neonatal cheiloplasty had a growth tendency similar to noncleft controls (unlike LOP). Both methodological approaches showed that early neonatal cheiloplasty in cUCLP patients did not prevent forward growth of the upper jaw segments and did not reduce either the length or width of the maxilla during the first 10 months of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of palatal lift and palatal augmentation prostheses to improve dysarthria in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Esposito, S J; Mitsumoto, H; Shanks, M

    2000-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, adult onset neurodegenerative disorder manifesting itself as a loss of motor capabilities and untimely death. The dysarthria seen in patients with ALS who have bulbar symptoms causes severe problems with communication. The struggle to be understood comes at a time when progressive cumulative disabilities make communication with family, friends, and healthcare workers vital. The use of palatal lift/augmentation prostheses for dysarthria in ALS is not a frequently requested procedure by neurologists. The purpose of this retrospective outcomes study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment on improving speech function and intelligibility in this group of patients. This study also reviews the history, incidence, pathogenesis, and speech characteristics of the patient with ALS. A retrospective study of 25 patients treated with a prosthesis was performed using chart reviews and phone/office interviews to evaluate the efficacy of a palatal lift and/or augmentation prosthesis to improve speech in ALS patients. Twenty-one patients (84%) treated with a palatal lift demonstrated improvement in their dysarthria, specifically in reduction of hypernasality, with 19 (76%) benefiting at least moderately for 6 months. Of the 10 patients treated with a combination palatal lift and augmentation prosthesis, 6 (60%) demonstrated improvement in articulation. A majority of patients indicated it was easier to speak with less effort involved when wearing the prosthesis. On the basis of this preliminary retrospective study, the use of a palatal lift/augmentation prosthesis should be considered in ALS patients with dysarthria.

  12. Non-functioning adrenal adenomas discovered incidentally on computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Mitnick, J.S.; Bosniak, M.A.; Megibow, A.J.; Naidich, D.P.

    1983-08-01

    Eighteen patients with unilateral non-metastatic non-functioning adrenal masses were studied with computed tomography (CT). Pathological examination in cases revealed benign adrenal adenomas. The others were followed up with serial CT scans and found to show no change in tumor size over a period of six months to three years. On the basis of these findings, the authors suggest certain criteria of a benign adrenal mass, including (a) diameter less than 5 cm, (b) smooth contour, (c) well-defined margin, and (d) no change in size on follow-up. Serial CT scanning can be used as an alternative to surgery in the management of many of these patients.

  13. Retroauricular Pleomorphic Adenoma Arising from Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bacaj, Patrick; Borah, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 38-year-old woman is described who presented with a slowly growing mass on the posterior aspect of the left ear. Excision and histopathologic evaluation revealed a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) originating from heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Many authors have presented cases of PAs originating from ceruminous glands in the external auditory canal or of so-called chondroid syringoma originating from apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. This is the only case in the recent literature of a PA originating from a heterotopic rest of salivary gland tissue in the retroauricular region. The 3 main sources of PAs, their embryologic derivation, and treatment are described. PMID:27757344

  14. Retroauricular Pleomorphic Adenoma Arising from Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue.

    PubMed

    Grome, Luke; Bacaj, Patrick; Borah, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    A 38-year-old woman is described who presented with a slowly growing mass on the posterior aspect of the left ear. Excision and histopathologic evaluation revealed a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) originating from heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Many authors have presented cases of PAs originating from ceruminous glands in the external auditory canal or of so-called chondroid syringoma originating from apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. This is the only case in the recent literature of a PA originating from a heterotopic rest of salivary gland tissue in the retroauricular region. The 3 main sources of PAs, their embryologic derivation, and treatment are described.

  15. Occult invasive pituitary adenoma predisposing to fatal bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Laszewski, M J; Moore, S A

    1990-01-01

    Pituitary adenomata are benign neoplasms which usually grow slowly and present with manifestations relating to an associated endocrinopathy or visual disturbance. Rarely these neoplasms will demonstrate a more aggressive behavior with extracranial extension and symptoms of upper airway obstruction or anosmia. Several reported cases suggest that although these neoplasms behave aggressively the overall survival and prognosis for these patients remains good. We present the clinical and postmortem findings of an occult invasive pituitary adenoma leading to the development of bacterial meningitis, coma and death. This communication stresses the necessity for the early diagnosis and treatment of the invasive adenomata to prevent the development of potentially fatal infectious sequelae.

  16. Improved Techniques for Endoscopic Mucosal Resection (EMR) in Colorectal Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Sold, Moritz; Kähler, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Endoscopic therapy of colorectal adenomas and early cancers is a standard method. Besides oncological criteria, the method is limited by polyp location, size, and texture. Method Based on the current literature, technical modifications and developments in endoscopic mucosal resection are described. Results Numerous approaches exist to improve the conditions of resection, including optimisation of mucosal elevation and modification of techniques, tools, and devices. Conclusion Endoscopic therapy of sessile and flat colorectal polyps remains a challenge. Some of the presented modifications can help to address this challenge. PMID:26286120

  17. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-01-01

    LIN, J.-Y., J. Arthurs and S. Reilly. Conditioned taste aversion: Palatability and drugs of abuse. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(x) XXX-XXX, 2014. – We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. PMID:24813806

  18. Prosthetic rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Hugo Ramalho; Rodigues, Polyana Barbara; Marcello-Machado, Raissa Micaella; Pinto, Luciana Rezende; Faot, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult today to find older patients without their cleft palate prosthetically rehabilitated. This case report presents the rehabilitation by conventional dental prostheses of a cleft palate patient who had no prior treatment. A 52-year-old male presented himself to have his fissured palate obturated and occlusion restored. He reported difficulties in swallowing food and liquids, along with a severe speech disability. The patient's medical history revealed diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension, low vision due to macular atrophic lesions, and xerostomia. The upper and lower arches were completely and partially edentulous, respectively. The treatment plan involved a conventional denture to be placed in the upper arch, and a removable partial denture to be placed in the lower arch.

  19. Tongue-palate contact of perceptually acceptable alveolar stops.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-04-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of /t/, 13 /d/ and 11 /n/) to those produced by eight typical children (32 /t/, 24 /d/ and 16 /n/). The results showed that children with SSD had significantly higher percent contact than the typical children for target /t/; the difference for /d/ and /n/ was not significant. Children with SSD generally showed more contact in the posterior central area of the palate than the typical children. The results suggested that broader tongue-palate contact is a general articulatory feature for children with SSD and its differential effect on error perception might be related to the different articulatory requirements.

  20. Palatal rugae and their role in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anoop; Chowdhary, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    Establishing a person's identity can be a difficult task in cases of traffic accidents or in mass disaster situations. The records collected to identify a decedent should be accurate and totally inclusive of objective findings. When a victim has no teeth, information for use in personal identification based on methods available in forensic odontology is much more limited than in the case of dentate victims. Palatal rugae have been considered relevant for human identification due to its stability, which is equivalent to the fingerprint, in that it is unique for each ruga pattern. Palatal rugae appear to possess the features of an ideal forensic identification parameter, that is, uniqueness, postmortem resistance, and stability. The purpose of this article was to review the literature, in order to determine if there is enough evidence to establish the use of palatal rugae in dental identification. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Palatal avulsion injury by a foreign body in a child

    PubMed Central

    Alabi, Sulyman Biodun; Aremu, Shuaib Kayode; Abdulkadir, A Y; Legbo, J N; Akande, Halima J

    2012-01-01

    A 6-year-old girl who claimed to have fallen while playing with metal rod that resulted in palatal avulsion injuries was presented. Neither of the parents was around when the incidence happened. She was brought to the hospital because of pain, bleeding from the mouth, drooling of saliva mixed with blood and inability to feed or phonate appropriately. Examinations of the oral cavity revealed a triangular area of avulsion in the posterior aspect of the hard palate extending to the soft palate. She had examination under anaesthesia and wound repaired with 3-0 vicryl interrupted sutures after thorough wound debridement. She did well and was discharged from the clinic. PMID:22605851

  2. Bubble palate and failure to thrive: a case report.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J B

    1997-06-01

    In this report, a mother presents at 29 days postpartum with extremely sore nipples. Her infant is 1 1b 2 oz (511 gms) below birth weight, a continuing weight loss consistent with failure to thrive. Failure to thrive may be caused by a variation in infant palatal structure (VIPS) such as a bubble palate. The mother demonstrated correct latch-on, positioning, and soreness secondary to nipple candidiasis concealing the VIPS as a hidden component to this breastfeeding problem. A thorough assessment of the infant at breast, the infant's oral anatomy and the mother's breasts revealed the VIPS and information necessary for treatment. Alternative positioning and repatterning of oral behavior resolved the breastfeeding problem. A variation in infant palatal structure may be a hidden breastfeeding problem and needs to be considered.

  3. Simple Technique Overcoming a Persistent Problem in Cleft Palate Repair.

    PubMed

    Kotrashetti, S M; Dube, Gunjan; Thakkar, Bhushan; Ahuja, Manav

    2016-12-01

    Cleft palate repair mandates use of a mouth gag and Dingmans moth gag is the most commonly used for the same; but the use of Dingmans mouth gag may have the demerit of the suture getting tethered at various places of the instrument during cleft palate closure particularly in the hands of the beginner surgeon. This article discusses about a simple technique of using a rubber dam sheet to cover the frame of the mouth gag. The technique discussed in this article is simple, cost effective method to overcome the potential disadvantage of suture adherence during repair of palatal tissue. The technique also has the potential to reduce the total operative time which needs a further study to validate the same.

  4. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma derived from recurrent pleomorphic adenoma shows important difference by array CGH compared to recurrent pleomorphic adenoma without malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; Giovanetti, Karina; Saccomani, Luis Fernando Vidal; Del Negro, André; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Krepischi, Ana Cristina Victorino; Altemani, Albina

    A key step of cancer development is the progressive accumulation of genomic changes resulting in disruption of several biological mechanisms. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is an aggressive neoplasm that arises from a pleomorphic adenoma. CXPA derived from a recurrent PA (RPA) has been rarely reported, and the genomic changes associated with these tumors have not yet been studied. We analyzed CXPA from RPAs and RPAs without malignant transformation using array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to identify somatic copy number alterations and affected genes. DNA samples extracted from FFPE tumors were submitted to array-CGH investigation, and data was analyzed by Nexus Copy Number Discovery Edition v.7. No somatic copy number alterations were found in RPAs without malignant transformation. As for CXPA from RPA, although genomic profiles were unique for each case, we detected some chromosomal regions that appear to be preferentially affected by copy number alterations. The first case of CXPA-RPA (frankly invasive myoepithelial carcinoma) showed copy number alterations affecting 1p36.33p13, 5p and chromosomes 3 and 8. The second case of CXPA-RPA (frankly invasive epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma) showed several alterations at chromosomes 3, 8, and 16, with two amplifications at 8p12p11.21 and 12q14.3q21.2. The third case of CXPA-RPA (minimally invasive epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma) exhibited amplifications at 12q13.3q14.1, 12q14.3, and 12q15. The occurrence of gains at chromosomes 3 and 8 and genomic amplifications at 8p and 12q, mainly those encompassing the HMGA2, MDM2, WIF1, WHSC1L1, LIRG3, CDK4 in CXAP from RPA can be a significant promotional factor in malignant transformation. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Indirect modulation of Shh signaling by Dlx5 affects the oral-nasal patterning of palate and rescues cleft palate in Msx1-null mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun; Mayo, Julie; Xu, Xun; Li, Jingyuan; Bringas, Pablo; Maas, Richard L; Rubenstein, John L R; Chai, Yang

    2009-12-01

    Cleft palate represents one of the most common congenital birth defects in human. During embryonic development, palatal shelves display oronasal (O-N) and anteroposterior polarity before the onset of fusion, but how the O-N pattern is established and how it relates to the expansion and fusion of the palatal shelves are unknown. Here we address these questions and show that O-N patterning is associated with the expansion and fusion of the palatal shelves and that Dlx5 is required for the O-N patterning of palatal mesenchyme. Loss of Dlx5 results in downregulation of Fgf7 and expanded Shh expression from the oral to the nasal side of the palatal shelf. This expanded Shh signaling is sufficient to restore palatal expansion and fusion in mice with compromised palatal mesenchymal cell proliferation, such as Msx1-null mutants. Exogenous Fgf7 inhibits Shh signaling and reverses the cranial neural crest (CNC) cell proliferation rescue in the Msx1/Dlx5 double knockout palatal mesenchyme. Thus, Dlx5-regulated Fgf7 signaling inhibits the expression of Shh, which in turn controls the fate of CNC cells through tissue-tissue interaction and plays a crucial role during palatogenesis. Our study shows that modulation of Shh signaling may be useful as a potential therapeutic approach for rescuing cleft palate.

  6. Effectiveness of the immunochemical fecal test (FIT) for detection of advanced adenomas in colorectal carcinoma screening in an asymptomatic population.

    PubMed

    Miuţescu, B; Sporea, I; Popescu, Alina; Bota, Simona; Iovănescu, Dana; Burlea, Amelia; Mos, Liana; Palaghia, Mădălina; Vasilescu, A; Miuţescu, E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the benefit of the immunochemical fecal blood test (FIT) for detection of advanced adenomas. We have conducted a screening study on a average-risk cohort of subjects, aged 50 -74 years. We used a rapid quantitative FIT to perform the screening. Colonoscopy was recommended in all participants with positive FIT. We assessed the participation rate and analyzed advanced adenomas detected in the screening examinations. Our study enrolled 1111 asymptomatic participants. Immunochemical test results were positive in 72 subjects (6.5%). Colonoscopy was performed by 50/72 (69.4%) subjects. The detection rate for advanced adenomas was 2.2%. A total number of 28 advanced adenomas were detected in 24 subjects, meaning 1.2 advanced adenoma/subject. Analyzing the 3 characteristics of advanced adenomas, we observed in our study that 25/28 adenomas (89.3%) had sizes > or = 10 mm, 11/28 adenomas (39.3%) were tubulovillous/villous and 19/28 adenomas (67.9%) had high dysplasia. The majority of advanced adenomas were found in the left colon as compared to the right colon: 71.4% vs. 28.6%. p = 0.0008. In our study was obtained a 2.2% detection rate for advanced adenomas, most of them (71.4%) being located in the left colon. The dominant feature of advanced adenomas detected was the size > or = 10 mm (89.3% of cases).

  7. Double pituitary adenomas are most commonly associated with GH- and ACTH-secreting tumors: systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ogando-Rivas, Elizabeth; Alalade, Andrew F; Boatey, Jerome; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2017-08-01

    Double adenomas in the pituitary gland are a rare occurrence. The ability to cure a hormone-producing adenoma with surgery is dependent on the ability to identify and completely remove the correct adenoma. The relative frequency of each subtype of hormone-secreting adenomas confirmed with magnetic resonance image (MRI), surgery and immunohistochemistry is not defined. Following PRISMA guidelines, we performed a systematic review of PubMed Central, Google Scholar, Scopus Database, Cochrane database and Science Research, using the key-words: "double pituitary adenomas", "multiple pituitary adenomas" and only papers where multiple or truly separate double pituitary adenomas were identified pre-surgically by MRI and/or confirmed by pathology/immunohistochemistry staining were included. We reviewed papers from 1975 to 2016 and found 17 cases with two pituitary adenomas and 1 with three pituitary adenomas. The ages ranged from 22 to 67 years old, and there were twelve females and five males. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the most common double pituitary adenomas were growth hormone (GH)- followed by adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)-secreting. Double pituitary adenomas are rare but most commonly found with GH- or ACTH-producing tumors. It is critical to remove all identified possible adenomas to achieve biochemical cure and clinicians should have heightened sensitivity in patients with acromegaly or Cushing's Disease.

  8. Development of the lip and palate: FGF signalling.

    PubMed

    Stanier, Philip; Pauws, Erwin

    2012-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling pathway is critically involved in several aspects of craniofacial development, including formation of the lip and the palate. FGF receptors are activated by extracellular FGF ligands in order to regulate cellular processes such as migration and morphogenesis through instruction of specific target gene expression. A key factor in the development of orofacial structures is the interaction between mesodermal- and neural crest-derived mesenchyme and ecto- and endodermal-derived epithelium. FGF signalling occurs in both cell types and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal communication through region-specific expression of receptor subtypes. Many FGF ligands and receptors are expressed at specific stages and at precise locations during normal palatogenesis and an absolute requirement of some has been demonstrated by their (conditional) inactivation resulting in a cleft palate phenotype. Other important signalling pathways involving SHH and SPRY are intricately involved in the interpretation of FGF signalling. As a cause of human pathology, functionally validated FGF pathway gene mutations have been exclusively associated with syndromic forms of cleft lip and palate. Most commonly, this includes patients with mutations in FGFR1 and FGFR2 (Kallmann, Pfeiffer, Apert and Crouzon syndromes) where cleft palate is part of a broad craniofacial phenotype, including craniosynostosis. Similarly, FGF8 mutations have been found in patients with Kallmann-like idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, some also with cleft lip and palate. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of the relevant FGF ligands and receptors important for lip and palate morphogenesis, correlating their expression patterns with the effects of their perturbation that lead to a clefting pathogenesis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Methylated MicroRNA Genes of the Developing Murine Palate

    PubMed Central

    Seelan, Ratnam S.; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Warner, Dennis R.; Appana, Savitri N.; Brock, Guy N.; Pisano, M. Michele; Greene, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors contribute to the etiology of cleft palate (CP). Environmental factors can also affect gene expression via alterations in DNA methylation suggesting a possible mechanism for the induction of CP. Identification of genes methylated during development of the secondary palate provides the basis for examination of the means by which environmental factors may adversely influence palatal ontogeny. We previously characterized the methylome of the developing murine secondary palate focusing primarily on protein-encoding genes. We now extend this study to include methylated microRNA (miRNA) genes. A total of 42 miRNA genes were found to be stably methylated in developing murine palatal tissue. Twenty eight of these were localized within host genes. Gene methylation was confirmed by pyrosequencing of selected miRNA genes. Integration of methylated miRNA gene and expression datasets identified 62 miRNAs, 69% of which were non-expressed. For a majority of genes (83%), upstream CpG islands (CGIs) were highly methylated suggesting down-regulation of CGI-associated promoters. DAVID and IPA analyses indicated that both expressed and non-expressed miRNAs target identical signaling pathways and biological processes associated with palatogenesis. Furthermore, these analyses also identified novel signaling pathways whose roles in palatogenesis remain to be elucidated. In summary, we identify methylated miRNA genes in the developing murine secondary palate, correlate miRNA gene methylation with expression of their cognate miRNA transcripts, and identify pathways and biological processes potentially mediated by these miRNAs. PMID:25642850

  10. Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding in unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Zuhaib, Mohammed; Bonanthaya, Krishnamurthy; Parmar, Renu; Shetty, Pritham N; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM) is a non-surgical method of reshaping the cleft lip, alveolus, palate and the nose to minimize the severity of the cleft deformity, before primary cheiloplastyand palatoplasty. In this context, PNAM proves to be an invaluable asset in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate. The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PNAM in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate with the following objectives: (1) To assess and compare the degree of reduction in the size of cleft palate and alveolus (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (2) To evaluate and compare the improvement in columellar length and correction of columellar deviation (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (3) To assess the changes in the position of the alar base and the alar cartilages. Prospective study. A prospective study consisting of, which included 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate was conducted. The age at the start of PNAM treatment of the infants ranged from 2 to 44 days of age reporting to our institute between December 2011 and August 2013. All the patients underwent PNAM therapy before primary cheiloplasty at 6 months of age; clinical parameters were assessed pre- and post-therapy using photographs and dental study models of the maxilla. Student's t-test for paired comparisons. Results of the study showed a promising reduction in the cleft size before the surgery, significant improvement in nasal symmetry, including the columellar length on the cleft side. PNAM is a valuable adjunct to our surgical armamentarium in dealing with the challenges of primary closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate thereby enhancing the overall surgical outcome. The advantages of this method include the simplicity of the procedure and improving the quality of surgical repair, particularly in obtaining tension free muscle closure in unilateral clefts.

  11. Immunohistochemical expression of p16 in Carcinoma Ex-pleomorphic Adenoma (undifferentiated and Adenocarcinoma Types)

    PubMed Central

    Tarakji, Bassel; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassain, Mohammad Z; Alenzi, Faris Q

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed at characterizing alterations in the immunohistochemical expression of p16 in carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenomas. Study Design: A selected series of 27 cases of carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenomas were examined. Results: The results showed that p16 expression in non tumour duct cells was strongly positive nuclear staining in 23 (85%) cases out of 27 cases, that 3 (11.1%) had moderate staining, and that 1 (3.7%) had weak staining. p16 expression in carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenomas was indicated as a negative nuclear staining in 22 (81.4%) cases out of 27cases, and 5 (18.5%) cases expressed moderate staining. Conclusion: This study suggests that alteration of p16 expression is detected in carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenomas. p16 has a role in development of carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenomas. PMID:24551726

  12. Secondary abscess formation in pituitary adenoma after tooth extraction. Case report.

    PubMed

    Kroppenstedt, S N; Liebig, T; Mueller, W; Gräf, K J; Lanksch, W R; Unterberg, A W

    2001-02-01

    The presence of an abscess in a pituitary tumor is a very rare finding. The authors report the case of a 69-year-old man with a pituitary adenoma confirmed by neuroimaging results, in whom a high fever, meningismus, and left-sided ophthalmoplegia developed 4 days after tooth extraction. The results of serial cranial magnetic resonance imaging were highly indicative of an abscess formation within the pituitary adenoma. During surgery the tumor was approached transsphenoidally and removed. Histological examination confirmed the presence of an abscess formation within the pituitary adenoma. It is most likely that the tooth extraction caused a bacteremia, which led to an inflammation with abscess formation within the pituitary adenoma. The authors conclude that invasive dental procedures should be avoided before planned resection of a pituitary adenoma.

  13. Establishment of a protocol to extend the lifespan of human hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Aurora; Cassarino, Maria Francesca; Nanni, Simona; Sesta, Antonella; Ferraú, Francesco; Grassi, Claudio; Losa, Marco; Trimarchi, Francesco; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Cannavò, Salvatore; Pecori Giraldi, Francesca; Farsetti, Antonella

    2017-04-26

    The aim of this study was to generate immortalized human anterior pituitary adenoma cells. Reliable cell models for the study of human pituitary adenomas are as yet lacking and studies performed so far used repeated passaging of freshly excised adenomas, with the attendant limitations due to limited survival in culture, early senescence, and poor reproducibility. We devised a technique based upon repeated co-transfections of two retroviral vectors, one carrying the catalytic subunit of human telomerase, hTERT, the other SV40 large T antigen. This approach extended the lifespan of cells derived from a human growth hormone-secreting adenoma up to 18 months while retaining morphology of primary cells, growth hormone synthesis and growth hormone secretion. Our attempt represents the first demonstration of successful lifespan extension of human growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma cells via co-transfection of hTERT and SV40T and paves the way to future attempts to obtain stable cell lines.

  14. [Expression of CD10 in tumor-associated fibroblast of cancerized or recurrent colorectal adenomas].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiangjiang; Zhu, Yin; Li, Changshui; Li, Yinya; Nie, Qianqian; Zhu, Ziling; Deng, Hong

    2016-05-25

    Objective: To investigate the expression of CD10 in tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) in colorectal adenomas and its relation to cancerization and recurrence of adenoma. Methods: Tissue samples of low-grade adenoma (n=50), high-grade adenoma (n=50) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (n=50) were collected, and tissue samples at the distal margin of corresponding colorectal lesions were taken as controls. The expression of CD10 in the stromal TAFs, and the expressions of β-catenin, Ki-67, p53 and CyclinD1 in tumor cells were detected by immunohistochemistry (Envision). The correlation of CD10 expression in stromal TAFs with the expressions of β-catenin, Ki-67, p53 and CyclinD1 in tumor cells was analyzed by Spearmen. One hundred samples of low-grade colorectal adenoma were collected, including 57 non-recurrent cases and 43 recurrent cases (16 cases of recurrent adenoma and 27 cases of recurrent adenocarcinoma); the expression of stromal TAF CD10 were determined and compared among groups. Results: There was no TAF in normal colorectal mucosa. The expression rates of TAF CD10 in low-grade adenoma, high-grade adenoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma were 22%, 50% and 78%, respectively (all P<0.05). The expression of Ki-67 and β-catenin in low-grade adenoma, high-grade adenoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma was on a rising trend (all P<0.01). The expression of CyclinD1 in high-grade adenoma was higher than that in colorectal adenocarcinoma and low-grade adenoma (all P>0.05). The expression of p53 in colorectal adenocarcinoma and high-grade adenoma was higher than that in low grade adenoma (all P<0.01). The expression of TAF CD10 was correlated with the expression of p53, Ki-67 and β-catenin-nucleus(r=0.264、0.307、0.320, all P<0.01),but not correlated with CyclinD1 and β-catenin-membrane (r=0.012、-0.073, all P>0.05). The TAF CD10 level was significantly higher in low-grade adenoma with recurrence than that in those without recurrence (P<0.05).The expression of CD10 in

  15. Pleomorphic adenoma in the nasal cavity: a clinicopathological study of ten cases in Finland.

    PubMed

    Vento, S I; Numminen, J; Kinnunen, I; Rautiainen, M; Tarkkanen, J; Hagström, J; Mäkitie, A A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the nationwide occurrence of sinonasal pleomorphic adenoma in Finland. A retrospective study was conducted at The Departments of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, and Pathology at the five university hospitals in Finland. Data were obtained by searching for sinonasal pleomorphic adenoma cases in the clinical and histopathological registries at these institutions for the past two to four decades. All patients who had had a histologically proven pleomorphic adenoma in the sinonasal area were included as participants. Ten cases with pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal cavity were found. The majority of these tumours originated in the septum, and there were no malignant transformations. Pleomorphic adenomas of the nasal cavity were found to be extremely rare in this nationwide investigation.

  16. A Cross-Linguistic Articulatory Analysis of Palatalization in Korean, English, and Scottish Gaelic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Palatalization refers to a type of coarticulation in which the place of articulation of some sound is closer to the palate than otherwise expected, very often triggered by adjacent palatal segments. It has been known as one of the most dynamic phonological phenomena in phonetic and phonological research, but the articulatory nature of…

  17. A Cross-Linguistic Articulatory Analysis of Palatalization in Korean, English, and Scottish Gaelic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Palatalization refers to a type of coarticulation in which the place of articulation of some sound is closer to the palate than otherwise expected, very often triggered by adjacent palatal segments. It has been known as one of the most dynamic phonological phenomena in phonetic and phonological research, but the articulatory nature of…

  18. TCDD AND EGF AFFECT MAPK PATHWAY ACTIVATION IN MURINE EMBRYONIC PALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Palatal fusion occurs on GD 14-15 in the mouse, accompanied by a decrease in EGF receptor (EGFR) at the medial edge of the palatal shelves. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces cleft palate and maintains EGF and EGF receptor (EGFR) expression levels in the medial ed...

  19. Single-layer Closure with Tongue Flap for Palatal Fistula in Cleft Palate Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alsalman, Abdulla K.; Alwabari, Mufeed Saeed; Almugarrab, Fatimah Jawad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tongue flap is a good option to close a complicated palatal fistula in cleft patients. Most surgeons advocate a double-layer closure to decrease the recurrence rates. In this study, we have reported our experience with a modified single-layer closure with tongue flap in cleft patients. Method: All cases done by a single surgeon using this modified technique in a period of 10 years were retrospectively reviewed. A thorough description of this technique is also provided in the study. Results: Only 5 cases were operated on using this technique. The success rate of all these cases was 100%, with no recurrence of fistula and few complications. Conclusions: This technique provides a way to avoid nasal layer closure in cases where nasal layer is difficult or impossible to close. It also limits the need for a second flap for nasal layer closure. PMID:27622120

  20. Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma of the palate.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomohiro; Yoshimura, Tomohide; Kitamura, Naoya; Sasabe, Eri; Ohno, Seiji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma (LGMS) is a rare, malignant tumor with myofibroblastic differentiation. Despite it being classified as a distinct entity by the World Health Organization, a few cases were reported in the oral and maxillofacial region. Here, a LGMS developed on the palate of a 73-year-old man who presented with a 1-cm tumor on the posterior border of the palate. Based on the histological and immunohistochemical features, a diagnosis of LGMS was established. The tumor was resected, and no recurrence was observed over 2 years. Although the tongue is the most preferred site for LGMS, it may occur in any region of the oral cavity.