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Sample records for palatina mediana seis

  1. SEI: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, Lewis L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An update on the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include the key prerequisites of human exploration, project planning, Mars and lunar explorations, supporting technologies, near-term strategies for SEI, human support elements, and Space Station Freedom SEI accommodations.

  2. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  3. SeisCORK Meeting Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    microbiological sampling) on a single CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) system [ Davis et al., 1992; Jannasch el al., 2003; Shipboard Scientific...Shiboard Scie tif gic Party 04) Sir For2B SeisCORK Meeting Report WHOI-01-2006 Appendix A: Meeting Participants Tom Pettigrew, P.E. Fred Spiess Staff...Expedition 301 benefits from operational and scientific achievements from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 168 [ Davis et al., 1997], which focused on

  4. SeisCORK Engineering Design Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Deployment and servicing of wellhead frame 20 Power Consumption 21 Acknowledgements 21 FA Qs 21 Table 1: Summaries of SeisCORK Seafloor Hardware for...was not designed for remote operation. It is quite power hungry and has a form factor that is not compatible with a PC104. Substantial NRE would be...are designed to be installed and operated on land with essentially unlimited power and data storage and with reliable data telemetry. In a SeisCORK

  5. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Malware Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-29

    Recommendation-Verification System for Cybersecurity" IEEE International Conference on Malicious and Unwanted Software (MALCON) 2014 , Fajardo , Puerto Rico... 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Malware Analysis Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University...Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Jonathan Spring October 29, 2014 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  6. Shizuko Sei, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Shizuko Sei (formerly Shizuko Aoki) is a medical officer with over 27 years of translational and clinical research experience in the field of cancer and AIDS. After completing her pediatric oncology fellowship at NCI Center for Cancer Research (CCR), she held various positions in the CCR and Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD) before joining the DCP in July 2015. |

  7. Draft SEI Program Plans: 1994-1998

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    analyzed within a specific area of knowledge and experience. The SEI has developed a feature-oriented domain analysis ( FODA ) method that develops a...Computer Resources Support Improvement Program FAA Federal Aviation Administration FFRDC federally funded research and development center FODA feature

  8. SEIS Experiment for the INSIGHT Mission: Towards 2018 Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdier, N.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.; De Raucourt, S.; IJpelaan, F.; Jerjean, L.; Pont, G.; Sylvestre-Baron, A.; Laudet, P.; Bousquet, P.; Hohhman, T.; Umland, J.; Bone, B.; Hurst, K.; Giardini, D.; Zweifel, P.; Bramanti, C.; Pike, W. T.; Calcutt, S.; Mimoun, D.; Bierwirth, M.; Christensen, U.

    2016-10-01

    After giving an outline of the InSight mission, with a focus on SEIS activities on Mars, we will describe the SEIS instrument and its performances, and provide a status of its development at the time of the workshop.

  9. Prototype Tool Support for SEI Process and Risk Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M.; Kelly, J.; Kiper, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of tool support for risk assessment that uses selected components of the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) information, specifically: Capability Maturity Model (CMM) process activities, CMM process goals and the SEI taxonomy of software project risks.

  10. The SEIS Experiment: A Mars Seismic Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schibler, P.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Banerdt, B.; Karczewski, J. F.; Mimoun, D.; Zweifel, P.; Pike, T.; Ammann, J.; Anglade, A.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment will integrate a VBB (Very Broad Band) two axis seismometer, a three axis Short Period seismometer and a series of environmental sensors for pressure, infra-sounds and temperature. IPGP (France) has the overall responsibility of the experiment and is responsible for the VBB and environmental sensors. ETHZ (Switzerland) is responsible for the electronics of the experiment and JPL (USA) for the SP (Short Period) sensors. SEIS instrument was first proposed and accepted for NetLander mission (and will also be in charge of data acquisition for SPICE experiment). This seismic package should also be proposed for future missions.

  11. The SEIS Experiment: A Mars Seismic Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schibler, P.; Lognonne, P.; Giardini, D.; Banerdt, B.; Karczewski, J. F.; Mimoun, D.; Zweifel, P.; Pike, T.; Ammann, J.; Anglade, A.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment will integrate a VBB (Very Broad Band) two axis seismometer, a three axis Short Period seismometer and a series of environmental sensors for pressure, infra-sounds and temperature. IPGP (France) has the overall responsibility of the experiment and is responsible for the VBB and environmental sensors. ETHZ (Switzerland) is responsible for the electronics of the experiment and JPL (USA) for the SP (Short Period) sensors. SEIS instrument was first proposed and accepted for NetLander mission (and will also be in charge of data acquisition for SPICE experiment). This seismic package should also be proposed for future missions.

  12. Adaptive harvest management: Adjustments for SEIS 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boomer, Scott; Johnson, Fred A.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a summary of revised methods and assessment results based on updated adaptive harvest management (AHM) protocols developed in response to the preferred alternative specified in the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Issuance of Annual Regulations Permitting the Hunting of Migratory Birds (SEIS; U.S. Department of the Interior 2013). We describe necessary changes to optimization procedures and decision processes for the implementation of AHM for midcontinent, eastern and western mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern pintails (Anas acuta), and scaup (Aythya affinis, A. marila) decision frameworks. We present this final report for communication purposes, and acknowledge that any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  13. Future needs for space robots for SEI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Price, Charles R.; Cooke, Don

    1992-03-01

    Recent studies of the types, numbers, and roles of robotic systems for use in the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), with a focus on planet surface systems (PSS), are summarized in this paper. These high-level systems' engineering, modeling, and analysis activities have supported trade studies and development of preliminary requirements for intelligent systems including supervised autonomous robotic systems. The analyses are summarized, results presented, and conclusions and recommendations are made. One conclusion is that SEI will be `enabled' by the use of supervised intelligent systems on the planet surfaces. These intelligent systems include capabilities for control and monitoring of all elements including supervised autonomous robotic systems. With the proper level of intelligent systems, the number and skills of humans on the planet surface will be determined predominantly by surface science and technology (not outpost) objectives and requirements. A broad range of robotic system uses in Earth orbit or during space transport are indicated by current studies. These include assembly of very large spacecraft systems such as propulsion systems and aerobraking structures. Maintenance is another robotic system use being studied. The differences in requirements for these and other space robotic systems compared to current industrial robotic systems are presented. Improvements in safety, reliability, and maintainability for these remote systems are stressed. Space robotics, especially those systems being developed to operate on planetary surfaces, can be considered a form of the emerging technology of field robotics on Earth. The solutions to the problems we will be solving to make the exploration of our solar system possible and practical will apply to the many problems we have which require operating in hazardous environments on Earth and to critically improving human productivity in many fields.

  14. Conducting SEI (Software Engineering Institute)-Assisted Software Process Assessments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Agresti, W.W., "Applying Industrial Engineering to the Software Development Process," Proceedings, IEEE Fall COMPCON, Washington, DC: IEEE Com- puter...information. CMU/SEI-89-TR-7 1.2. Software Process Maturity Framework A software process maturity framework was developed by the SEI for two purposes : to pro...training. The purpose of this briefing is to give SEI team members a good understanding of the organization and the types of software it develops . Typical

  15. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings. [Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  16. A multidisciplinary approach to the study of cultural heritage environments: Experience at the Palatina Library in Parma.

    PubMed

    Pasquarella, C; Balocco, C; Pasquariello, G; Petrone, G; Saccani, E; Manotti, P; Ugolotti, M; Palla, F; Maggi, O; Albertini, R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a multidisciplinary approach including biological and particle monitoring, and microclimate analysis associated with the application of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). This approach was applied at the Palatina historical library in Parma. Monitoring was performed both in July and in December, in the absence of visitors and operators. Air microbial monitoring was performed with active and passive methods. Airborne particles with a diameter of ≥0.3, ≥0.5, ≥1 and ≥5 μm/m3, were counted by a laser particle counter. The surface contamination of shelves and manuscripts was assessed with nitrocellulose membranes. A spore trap sampler was used to identify both viable and non-viable fungal spores by optical microscope. Microbiological contaminants were analyzed through cultural and molecular biology techniques. Microclimatic parameters were also recorded. An infrared thermal camera provided information on the surface temperature of the different building materials, objects and components. Transient simulation models, for coupled heat and mass-moisture transfer, taking into account archivist and general public movements, combined with the related sensible and latent heat released into the environment, were carried out applying the CFD-FE (Finite Elements) method. Simulations of particle tracing were carried out. A wide variability in environmental microbial contamination, both for air and surfaces, was observed. Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium spp. were the most frequently found microfungi. Bacteria such as Streptomyces spp., Bacillus spp., Sphingomonas spp., and Pseudoclavibacter as well as unculturable colonies were characterized by molecular investigation. CFD simulation results obtained were consistent with the experimental data on microclimatic conditions. The tracing and distribution of particles showed the different slice planes of diffusion mostly influenced by the convective

  17. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Malware Distribution Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Malware Distribution Networks Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon...DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Malware Distribution Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Project Description Create an approach to graph the topological structure of a domain name based malware distribution network (MDN) by leveraging

  18. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Aligining Acquisition Strategy and Software Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    CMU /SEI-2010-TN-018: “Relating Business Goals to Architecturally Significant Requirements for Software Systems“ 8 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review...occur for a given AQA  Created acquisition strategy tactics associated with AQAs *Results published in SEI TN CMU /SEI-2013-TN-026: “Results in...published in SEI TN CMU /SEI-2014-TN-019: “A Method for Aligning Acquisition Strategies and Software Architectures“ 12 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review

  19. TeleMEDiana: telesurgery and telemedicine by satellite and the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrosavljevic, Sneja; Welter, Roger

    2002-08-01

    The rapid development of technology and its integration into the spectrum of medical care are creating a pressing need for healthcare professionals to continuously update their knowledge and skills. In view of these needs the European Association of Visceral Surgery (AECV) which had been a platform for medical congresses in Luxembourg (1988, 1992, 1995, 1998) has developed TeleMEDiana a new broadband communication service introducing standards of excellence in Continuous Medical Education.TeleMEDiana broadcast a daily program with pedagogically enhanced video content in a number of therapeutic areas to MD's, professors and students in hospitals, universities and research centers. The educational programs are provided by leading European hospitals which have joined the TeleMEDiana Scientific Network TSN. The scientific integrity is certified by an international committee composed of recognized pioneers. Committed to deliver high resolution video streaming, TeleMEDiana has set up and successfully tested a new platform built on secure and cost-efficient satellite operator SES-ASTRA complemented by the Internet and can deliver programs to any workplace equipped with satellite dishes and high-quality set-top boxes. Telemediana offers herewith an optimal collaboration and dissemination platform to decisive players involved in Continuing Medical Education.

  20. The SEI facility for fluid-bed wood gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Bullpitt, W.S.; Rittenhouse, O.C. ); Masterson, L.D. )

    1989-09-01

    In mid 1985, construction was begun on the world's largest fluidized bed, wood gasification plant at the clay processing plant in Quincy, Fla. In March 1986, the plant was purchased by Southern Electric International (SEI). This paper describes how SEI coordinated the redesign of many of the plant systems and supervised the completion of construction and startup. In late 1986, the gasifier plant was sold. SEI remains involved as the operations and maintenance contractor on-site and is now responsible for design changes and equipment maintenance.

  1. Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Dufek

    2014-08-01

    A multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) model has been developed to characterize SEI formation. The model, which consists of two Cauchy layers, is constructed with an inner layer meant to model primarily inorganic compounds adjacent to an electrode and an outer layer which mirrors polymeric, organic constituents on the exterior of the SEI. Comparison of 1:1 EC:EMC and 1:4 EC:EMC with 1.0 M LiPF6 shows distinct differences in the two modeled layers. The data suggest that the thickness of both layers change over a wide potential range. These changes have been linked with other reports on the growth of the SEI.

  2. Evaluation of the SEI using a multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry model

    DOE PAGES

    Dufek, Eric J.

    2014-08-28

    A multilayer spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) model has been developed to characterize SEI formation. The model, which consists of two Cauchy layers, is constructed with an inner layer meant to model primarily inorganic compounds adjacent to an electrode and an outer layer which mirrors polymeric, organic constituents on the exterior of the SEI. Comparison of 1:1 EC:EMC and 1:4 EC:EMC with 1.0 M LiPF₆ shows distinct differences in the two modeled layers. The data suggest that the thickness of both layers change over a wide potential range. These changes have been linked with other reports on the growth of the SEI.

  3. 1989 SEI Report on Graduate Software Engineering Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Software Specification: A Framework, H. Dieter Rombach CM-17 User Interface Development, Gary Perlman CM-19 Software Requirements, John W. Brackett...reviews. Support Materials for The Software Technical Review Process Edited by John Cross, This support materials package includes materials helpful in...engineer. It discusses both written and oral communication. SEI-CM-18-1.0 CMU/SEI-89-TR-21 79 Software Requirements John Brackett, Boston

  4. The influence of etiological factors in the occurence of diastema mediana.

    PubMed

    Kapusevska, Biljana; Dereban, Nikola; Zabokova-Bilbilova, Efka; Popovska, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Even from the distant past the aesthetic perception in an individual was diminished by the presence of gap between the central incisors. This condition is found under the term "dents du bonheur" or "lucky teeth" and is encountered even among world famous figures including Brigitte Bardot, Eliah Wood, Madonna, Zac Efron, Amy Winehouse and Elton John. The teeth gaps are still considered main reasons for dissatisfaction of the dental patients and reasons for the requirement of aesthetic treatment. The purpose of this study is to exhibit the influence of the etiological factors in the occurrence of diastema mediana classified according to the dominance of their occurrence expressed in percentage values. Materials of this investigation were 100 patients with diastema mediana from the following factors: inheritance, disproportion in the dental arches, inborn or acquired missing teeth, harmful oral habits, high insertion of the labial frenulum as well as mesiodens. After the diagnosis and evaluation of the etiological factor for diastema mediana was performed, a decision regarding the course of treatment was made in direction of the removal of the etiological factor at an early age and orthodontic treatment. The end of the orthodontic treatment in a group of the patients was the beginning of prosthodontic reconstruction. From our clinical investigation we came to the realization that in 49 patients (49%) the hereditary influence was a dominant factor, next followed disproportions and discrepancies in the dental arch in 14 (14%), inborn or acquired missing teeth in 11 patients (11%), harmful oral habits in 10 (10%), high frenulum insertion in 4 (4%), and pathological objects between central incisors, mesiodens, iatrogenic factors and periodontal disease, in 3 of the clinical cases (3%) each. We concluded that the occurrence of diastema mediana is multi-causal. The dominant place is occupied by the hereditary factors. With regard to the mutual relationship between the

  5. Future needs for space robots for SEI. [Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Price, Charles R.; Cooke, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    High level systems engineering modeling and analysis activities for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, with emphasis on planet surface systems. Particular attention is given to SEI studies, preliminary space robotic system requirements, and usefulness of space robotic systems developed to operate on planetary surfaces on earth. It is concluded that supervised intelligent systems on the planet surfaces are necessary to make SEI planet surface activities reliable and productive and encompass capabilities for control and monitoring of all elements, including supervised autonomous robotic systems. Amplification of human capabilities due to applying more knowledge and reasoning in more flexible and appropriate ways than conventional automation approaches will provide more robust performance, greater choice of interaction modes with operators, and greater transparency of operation.

  6. The Mars SEIS Experiment: A Mars Seismic Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimoun, D.; Lognonne, P.; Banerdt, W. B.; Schibler, P.; Giardini, D.; Pont, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars SEIS experiment. The SEIS experiment was first proposed by IPGP (and accepted) for the NetLander mission. It integrates two VBB (Very Broad Band) seismometers, a three axis Short Period seismometer and a series of environmental sensors for pressure, infra-sounds and temperature. IPGP (France) has the overall responsibility of the experiment and is responsible for the seismic and environmental sensors. ETHZ (Switzerland) is responsible for the electronics of the experiment and JPL (USA) for the SP (Short Period) sensors. As NetLander mission has been cancelled (while fortunately the development still goes on), this seismic package can be proposed for future Mars missions.

  7. The Mars SEIS Experiment: A Mars Seismic Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimoun, D.; Lognonne, P.; Banerdt, W. B.; Schibler, P.; Giardini, D.; Pont, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars SEIS experiment. The SEIS experiment was first proposed by IPGP (and accepted) for the NetLander mission. It integrates two VBB (Very Broad Band) seismometers, a three axis Short Period seismometer and a series of environmental sensors for pressure, infra-sounds and temperature. IPGP (France) has the overall responsibility of the experiment and is responsible for the seismic and environmental sensors. ETHZ (Switzerland) is responsible for the electronics of the experiment and JPL (USA) for the SP (Short Period) sensors. As NetLander mission has been cancelled (while fortunately the development still goes on), this seismic package can be proposed for future Mars missions.

  8. SATURN Session Summary Use of the SEI ATAM in Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    of Applying the SEI ATAM to a Software Testing Automation Solution Fernando Enobi & Reginaldo Arakaki, Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas de São...a Software Testing Automation Solution Fernando Enobi & Reginaldo Arakaki, Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas de São Paulo When applying the ATAM

  9. LispSEI: The Programmer’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Taste ) .:( Smell ) .;(See) (defvar *TRACE-SENSE* NIL) (defvar $SOUNO-TYPE: 0) ;;Equivalent to... taste touch)) (defvar *ENTITIES* ’(object sound smell taste contact)) ;Wanked from LispSEI.l: (defvar PRIMITIVE 0) (defvar COMPLEXOBJ 1) (defvar POLYGON... smell -threshold. (dot-constraint smell -intensity-constraint ( smell -threshold) smell (> (emission-intensity entity) smell -threshol d)) ;;Only taste

  10. SEI in-space operations and support challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Ronald

    A modeling and assessment process used to integrate SEI operations and support (OAS) planning processes with the systems engineering design, and system integration disciplines. Four areas of the OAS activity require the development of large infrastructures to maintain an operational capability: earth, orbital, transorbital, and lunar/Martian surface locations. An analytical process that can be used to develop OAS requirements is illustrated. Relationships of manufacturing, prelaunch operations, and orbital operations when deriving requirements are shown. If a concurrent engineering process is used, a more operationally efficient design can be defined early in the program to support all functions. Challenges associated with SEI logistics, the necessity for using functional analyses in the development of system requirements, some candidate operational lunar or Mars systems, and analytical modeling results on the candidate designs are discussed.

  11. Robotic on-orbit fueling of SEI vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Margaret M.; Haines, David E.; Mauceri, A. J.

    Research to investigate the feasibility of, and to develop concepts for, the robotic supply of consumables on orbit is examined, with emphasis on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) assets. Principal methods for effecting propellant transfer on orbit are summarized, and the pros and cons of applying robotics to each method are discussed. Methods include direct transfer of fuel and oxidizer, assembly of tanks to the vehicle, and assembly of propulsion modules to the vehicles. Guidelines are developed for the automated/robotic cryogenic propellant transfer mechanism to accomplish on-orbit consumable supply of SEI vehicles by direct fluid transfer. The development of initial design concepts for the LEO fueling of the Mars Transfer System is traced.

  12. MatSeis developer's guide:version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Lane Christopher; Young, Christopher John

    2007-05-01

    This guide is intended to enable researchers working with seismic data, but lacking backgrounds in computer science and programming, to develop seismic algorithms using the MATLAB-based MatSeis software. Specifically, it presents a series of step-by-step instructions to write four specific functions of increasing complexity, while simultaneously explaining the notation, syntax, and general program design of the functions being written. The ultimate goal is that that the user can use this guide as a jumping off point from which he or she can write new functions that are compatible with and expand the capabilities of the current MatSeis software that has been developed as part of the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEMRE) program at Sandia National Laboratories.

  13. The role of SEI in lithium and lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Peled, E.; Golodnitsky, D.; Ardel, G.; Menachem, C.; Bar-Tow, D.; Eshkenazy, V.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents and discusses fundamental processes taking place at the lithium and Li{sub x}C{sub 6} electrode/electrolyte interphases and models for these interphases. The authors deal with both nonaqueous and polymer (dry and gel) electrolytes, graphitized and nongraphitized carbonaceous materials as anodes for Li-ion batteries. Each electrode/electrolyte combination has its own unique features and problems but there are some general phenomena common to all of them. Issues to be reviewed include SEI composition, morphology and formation reactions, graphite surface modifications including chemical bonded SEI and micro channels formation, electrode degradation processes, lithium deposition-dissolution and intercalation-deintercalation mechanisms, rate-determining steps (RDS), electrolyte and electrode parameters and conditions affecting the above mentioned processes. Technology-related issues are emphasized.

  14. SEI SPRUCE Project: Curating Recommended Practices for Software Producibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    content that would engage practitioners as well as researchers. The project resulted in recommended practices on five software topics: Agile at Scale...number of visitors to the recommended practices temporarily increased after webinars on Agile at Scale and Safety-Critical Systems.1 1 Available at...will help readers learn more about the topic, organized by subtopic 4 | SEI SPRUCE PROJECT Agile at Scale The recommended practices area of the

  15. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects Len Bass, Dionisio de Niz, Jörgen Hansson, John Hudak, Peter H. Feiler, Don...Performance Challenges of Modern Hardware Architectures for Real-Time Systems 8 Dionisio de Niz, Jörgen Hansson, John Hudak, and Peter H. Feiler 8 3.1...Presentations 25 4.7 References 26 5 A Software System Engineering Approach for Fault Containment 28 Peter H. Feiler, Dionisio de Niz, Jörgen Hansson, Lui

  16. FAll 2014 SEI Research Review Verifying Evolving Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    Scalable verification of evolving software • reduce re-verification effort • close semantic gap between compiler and verifier • enable safe use of... compiler optimizations in safety-critical code Related Work: Current solutions are limited by • effectiveness (syntactic slicing, regression...developed by us 5 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Gurfinkel, October 28, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Model Problem: Certifying Compiler for

  17. TOF SIMS characterization of SEI layer on battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veryovkin, I. V.; Tripa, C. E.; Zinovev, A. V.; Baryshev, S. V.; Li, Y.; Abraham, D. P.

    2014-08-01

    In the last decade, many studies applied surface analysis techniques (SEM, XPS and SIMS) to understand the formation of SEI layers on Li-ion battery electrodes. This work was meant as a comparative model study of the SEI layer formation, which combined in situ SEM imaging with TOF SIMS depth profiling of four samples of the same graphite electrode material, which was subjected to different charge-discharge cycling schemes in a Li-ion battery. Besides comparing compositions of sub-surface regions of these differently processed electrodes, we wanted to know whether these compositions depend on after-cycling sample preparation, in particular if a brief exposure of these samples to air would affect the compositions measured by TOF SIMS. We found that the exposure to air (1) increases secondary ion yield for all species, and (2) changes shapes of SIMS depth profiles for some key species. For selected samples, we also conducted a comparison between the conventional single beam TOF-SIMS depth profiling and a high resolution dual beam depth profiling and found that the former approach can detect the same features in depth profiles as the latter one. We interpreted this as an indication that the sample surface morphology (high roughness) could be a limiting factor in this SEI study, suggesting that specially designed model samples with smooth surfaces are a better choice for future studies.

  18. Surface Wave Simulation and Processing with MatSeis

    SciTech Connect

    THOMPSON,BEVERLY D.; CHAEL,ERIC P.; YOUNG,CHRISTOPHER J.; WALTER,WILLIAM R.; PASYANOS,MICHAEL E.

    2000-08-07

    In order to exploit the information on surface wave propagation that is stored in large seismic event datasets, Sandia and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories have developed a MatSeis interface for performing phase-matched filtering of Rayleigh arrivals. MatSeis is a Matlab-based seismic processing toolkit which provides graphical tools for analyzing seismic data from a network of stations. Tools are available for spectral and polarization measurements, as well as beam forming and f-k analysis with array data, to name just a few. Additionally, one has full access to the Matlab environment and any functions available there. Previously the authors reported the development of new MatSeis tools for calculating regional discrimination measurements. The first of these performs Lg coda analysis as developed by Mayeda and coworkers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A second tool measures regional phase amplitude ratios for an event and compares the results to ratios from known earthquakes and explosions. Release 1.5 of MatSeis includes the new interface for the analysis of surface wave arrivals. This effort involves the use of regionalized dispersion models from a repository of surface wave data and the construction of phase-matched filters to improve surface wave identification, detection, and magnitude calculation. The tool works as follows. First, a ray is traced from source to receiver through a user-defined grid containing different group velocity versus period values to determine the composite group velocity curve for the path. This curve is shown along with the upper and lower group velocity bounds for reference. Next, the curve is used to create a phase-matched filter, apply the filter, and show the resultant waveform. The application of the filter allows obscured Rayleigh arrivals to be more easily identified. Finally, after screening information outside the range of the phase-matched filter, an inverse version of the filter is applied to obtain a

  19. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...; request for information. SUMMARY: NMFS announces a 5-year review of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis... of any such information on sei whales that has become available since that has become available...

  20. Bloedite sedimentation in a seasonally dry saline lake (Salada Mediana, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mees, Florias; Castañeda, Carmen; Herrero, Juan; Van Ranst, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Salt crusts covering the surface of the Salada Mediana, a seasonally dry saline lake in northern Spain, consist predominantly of bloedite (Na 2Mg(SO 4) 2.4H 2O). Microscopic features of the crust were investigated to understand processes of bloedite sedimentation. This study was combined with satellite and airborne observations, revealing asymmetrical concentric and parallel-linear patterns, related to wind action. Gypsum (CaSO 4.H 2O) and glauberite (Na 2Ca(SO 4) 2) in the calcareous sediments below the crust, and abundant eugsterite (Na 4Ca(SO 4) 3.2H 2O) along the base of the crust, largely formed at a different stage than bloedite. The main part of the crust consists predominantly of coarse-crystalline xenotopic-hypidiotopic bloedite, but fan-like aggregates with downward widening, radial aggregates, surface layers with vertically aligned elongated crystals, and partially epitaxial coatings occur as well. The upper part of the crust is marked by a bloedite-thenardite (Na 2SO 4) association, recording a change in brine composition that is not in agreement with results of modelling of local brine evolution. A thin fine-grained thenardite-dominated surface formed in part by subaqueous settling of crystals, but there are also indications for development by transformation of bloedite. Surface features include fan-like bloedite aggregates with upward widening, formed by bottom growth. Overall, the Salada Mediana crusts record a complex history of bloedite and thenardite precipitation by various processes.

  1. Detection of seg, seh, and sei genes in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates and Determination of the Enterotoxin Productivities of S. aureus Isolates Harboring seg, seh, or sei Genes

    PubMed Central

    Omoe, Katsuhiko; Ishikawa, Machiko; Shimoda, Yu; Hu, Dong-Liang; Ueda, Shigeko; Shinagawa, Kunihiro

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) A to I (SEA to SEI) genes (sea to sei) in Staphylococcus aureus, 146 isolates obtained in Japan from humans involved in and samples from food poisoning outbreaks, healthy humans, cows with mastitis, and bovine raw milk were analyzed by multiplex PCR. One hundred thirteen (77.4%) S. aureus isolates were found to be positive for one or more se genes. The se genotype was classified into 14 genotypes. seg and sei coexisted in the same S. aureus strain. The newly developed sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that most seh-harboring S. aureus isolates were able to produce a significant amount of SEH. However, most of the S. aureus isolates harboring seg and about 60% of the isolates harboring sei did not produce a detectable level of SEG or SEI, while reverse transcription-PCR analysis proved that the mRNAs of SEG and SEI were transcribed in S. aureus strains harboring seg and sei genes. These results suggest the importance of quantitative assessment of SEG and SEI production in foods in order to clarify the relationship between these new SEs and food poisoning. PMID:11880405

  2. Low frequency vocalizations attributed to sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis).

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Mark F; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Wenzel, Frederick W; Tremblay, Christopher J; Carter Esch, H; Warde, Ann M

    2008-08-01

    Low frequency (<100 Hz) downsweep vocalizations were repeatedly recorded from ocean gliders east of Cape Cod, MA in May 2005. To identify the species responsible for this call, arrays of acoustic recorders were deployed in this same area during 2006 and 2007. 70 h of collocated visual observations at the center of each array were used to compare the localized occurrence of this call to the occurrence of three baleen whale species: right, humpback, and sei whales. The low frequency call was significantly associated only with the occurrence of sei whales. On average, the call swept from 82 to 34 Hz over 1.4 s and was most often produced as a single call, although pairs and (more rarely) triplets were occasionally detected. Individual calls comprising the pairs were localized to within tens of meters of one another and were more similar to one another than to contemporaneous calls by other whales, suggesting that paired calls may be produced by the same animal. A synthetic kernel was developed to facilitate automatic detection of this call using spectrogram-correlation methods. The optimal kernel missed 14% of calls, and of all the calls that were automatically detected, 15% were false positives.

  3. Communications system evolutionary scenarios for Martian SEI support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Paulman W.; Bruno, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    In the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) mission scenarios, expanding human presence is the primary driver for high data rate Mars-Earth communications. To support an expanding human presence, the data rate requirement will be gradual, following the phased implementation over time of the evolving SEI mission. Similarly, the growth and evolution of the space communications infrastructure to serve this requirement will also be gradual to efficiently exploit the useful life of the installed communications infrastructure and to ensure backward compatibility with long-term users. In work conducted over the past year, a number of alternatives for supporting high data rate Mars-Earth communications have been analyzed with respect to their compatibility with gradual evolution of the space communications infrastructure. The alternatives include RF, millimeter wave (MMW), and optical implementations, and incorporate both surface and space-based relay terminals in the Mars and Earth regions. Each alternative is evaluated with respect to its ability to efficiently meet a projected growth in data rate over time, its technology readiness, and its capability to satisfy the key conditions and constraints imposed by evolutionary transition. As a result of this analysis, a set of attractive alternative communications architectures have been identified and described, and a road map is developed that illustrates the most rational and beneficial evolutionary paths for the communications infrastructure.

  4. Communications system evolutionary scenarios for Martian SEI support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Paulman W.; Bruno, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    In the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) mission scenarios, expanding human presence is the primary driver for high data rate Mars-Earth communications. To support an expanding human presence, the data rate requirement will be gradual, following the phased implementation over time of the evolving SEI mission. Similarly, the growth and evolution of the space communications infrastructure to serve this requirement will also be gradual to efficiently exploit the useful life of the installed communications infrastructure and to ensure backward compatibility with long-term users. In work conducted over the past year, a number of alternatives for supporting high data rate Mars-Earth communications have been analyzed with respect to their compatibility with gradual evolution of the space communications infrastructure. The alternatives include RF, millimeter wave (MMW), and optical implementations, and incorporate both surface and space-based relay terminals in the Mars and Earth regions. Each alternative is evaluated with respect to its ability to efficiently meet a projected growth in data rate over time, its technology readiness, and its capability to satisfy the key conditions and constraints imposed by evolutionary transition. As a result of this analysis, a set of attractive alternative communications architectures have been identified and described, and a road map is developed that illustrates the most rational and beneficial evolutionary paths for the communications infrastructure.

  5. Early Track NEP system options for SEI missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, J. H.; George, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    A development option for nuclear electric propulsion, the 'Early Track' option, is considered from system and mission application viewpoints. The intent of this development option is to address demanding missions of the future, such as robotic outer planet exploration or the Space Exploration Initiative. The 'Early Track' scheme utilizes existing technologies, such as the SP-100 space reactor and radiator components, as well as subsystems scalable from existing programs, such as 50 to 100 kWe ion thrusters. Up to 1.5 MWe of powder can be generated by the existing 2.4 MWt SP-100 reactor through the use of dynamic Rankine or Brayton power conversion. The performance characteristics of these systems are projected, and assessed for SEI missions currently under consideration.

  6. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Value-Driven Iterative and Incremental Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and...0001795 3 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Value-Driven Incremental Development...Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Technical Approach Multi-dimensional Analysis Drives

  7. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: FY14-03 Software Assurance Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie...service marks of Carnegie Mellon University. DM-0001767 3 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie...2: Applying Software Quality Models to Software Assurance 4 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon

  8. 77 FR 40406 - Cancellation of Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS); Travis County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Federal Highway Administration Cancellation of Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS); Travis... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for proposed improvements to U.S. Highway 290 (US 290)/State... would no longer be applicable to the project and a full environmental impact statement (EIS) would be...

  9. Ground test facility for SEI nuclear rocket engines

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, C.D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-08-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) has been identified as a critical technology in support of the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). In order to safely develop a reliable, reusable, long-lived flight engine, facilities are required that will support ground tests to qualify the nuclear rocket engine design. Initial nuclear fuel element testing will need to be performed in a facility that supports a realistic thermal and neutronic environment in which the fuel elements will operate at a fraction of the power of a flight weight reactor/engine. Ground testing of nuclear rocket engines is not new. New restrictions mandated by the National Environmental Protection Act of 1970, however, now require major changes to be made in the manner in which reactor engines are now tested. These new restrictions now preclude the types of nuclear rocket engine tests that were performed in the past from being done today. A major attribute of a safely operating ground test facility is its ability to prevent fission products from being released in appreciable amounts to the environment. Details of the intricacies and complications involved with the design of a fuel element ground test facility are presented in this report with a strong emphasis on safety and economy.

  10. Dissection of CDK4-binding and transactivation activities of p34(SEI-1) and comparison between functions of p34(SEI-1) and p16(INK4A).

    PubMed

    Li, Junan; Muscarella, Peter; Joo, Sang Hoon; Knobloch, Thomas J; Melvin, W Scott; Weghorst, Christopher M; Tsai, Ming-Daw

    2005-10-11

    Recent studies showed that p34(SEI-1), also known as TRIP-Br1 or SEI-1, plays a dual role in the regulation of cell-cycle progression. It exhibits the transactivation activity and regulates a number of genes required for G1/S transition, while it also binds and activates cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) independent of the inhibitory activity of p16. The goals of this paper are to further dissect the two roles and to compare the functions between SEI-1 and p16. (i) Yeast one-hybrid-based random mutagenesis was first used to identify a number of SEI-1 residues important for LexA-mediated transactivation, including residues L51, K52, L53, H54, L57, and L69 located within the heptad repeat (residues 30-88), a domain required for LexA-mediated transactivation, and two residues M219 and L228 at the C-terminal segment that contributes to transactivation through modulating the heptad repeat. (ii) The functional significance of these residues was further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. It was also shown that the heptad repeat-involving transactivation is distinct from the well-known acidic region-involving transactivation. (iii) Yeast two-hybrid-based binding analysis was made possible with the transactivation-negative SEI-1 mutants, and the results showed that some of such mutants retain full ability to bind and activate CDK4. (iv) Site-specific mutants of CDK4 were used to show that there are notable differences among SEI-1, p16, and cyclin D2 in binding to CDK4. (v) The expression levels of SEI-1 and p16 were compared in 32 tumor specimens of human squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. The results indicate that SEI-1 was consistently overexpressed, while p16 was consistently underexpressed. These results provide important information on the molecular mechanism of the functions of SEI-1 and on the comparison between SEI-1 and p16 at both molecular and cellular levels.

  11. Mineralogical aspects of Morro de Seis Lagos deposit (Amazonas, Brazil).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Lucy; Almeida, Marcelo; Silveira, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    The alkaline body Morro dos Seis Lagos, situated in the northwest Amazonian region, is a Nb bearing deposit formed by thick lateritic regolith as circular geological feature about 5 km in diameter. The host rock of this deposit is an intensely weathered siderite carbonatite. The alkaline intrusion body was formed during the late Mesozoic and enriched during the Cenozoic by process of denudation of the surrounding rocks and formation of lateritic cover with thickness in the order of hundreds of meters. In this process, enrichment of Nb, Fe, Ti, Mn, P and rare earth elements (REE) occurred where the lateritic regolith represents the major Nb mineralization, with estimated inferred reserves of 2.9 billion ton@ 2.8 % Nb2O5, one of the largest deposits of Nb in the world. The mineralogical composition of the lateritic regolith has the predominance of the goethite and hematite, followed by oxy - hydroxides of Mn, Ti - Nb oxides, pyrochlore, cerianite and phosphates. The lateritic regolith samples showed high contents of Fe2O3 < 89.0%, TiO2 (< 12.54 %) and MnO2 (< 9.90 %). The goethite minerals show several generations that are related to different environmental conditions with dissolution and precipitation process, which indicate intense movement of the solutions with Fe in the aqueous medium. The main Nb minerals are ilmenorutile, rutile and brookite where the ilmenorutile can have content up to 20 % Nb2O5. The P-rich minerals, like monazite and its alteration products, is the main REE phases. These minerals have high concentration of Ce2O3, La2O3 and Nb2O3, where ∑REE > 40 %, and is followed by elevated Th concentration, which locally has concentration higher than (18%). Another REE mineral is the cerianite. The main manganese minerals are hollandite, romanechite (BaMn9O16[OH4] - mixtures of manganese oxides) and amorphous Mn oxy - hydroxides. The higher concentration of MnO2 (about 40 %) is restricted to manganesiferous range, where manganese minerals occur as

  12. 75 FR 39916 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... its intent to prepare a recovery plan for the Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis) and requests... ``Sei Whale Recovery Plan Information'' 3. Mail: National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of...

  13. The Noise Model of the SEIS Seismometer of the InSight Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, David; Murdoch, Naomi; Lognonné, Philippe; Hurst, Kenneth; Pike, William T.; Hurley, Jane; Nébut, Tanguy; Banerdt, William B.

    2017-08-01

    The SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structures) instrument on board the InSight mission to Mars is the critical instrument for determining the interior structure of Mars, the current level of tectonic activity and the meteorite flux. Meeting the performance requirements of the SEIS instrument is vital to successfully achieve these mission objectives. The InSight noise model is a key tool for the InSight mission and SEIS instrument requirement setup. It will also be used for future operation planning. This paper presents the analyses made to build a model of the Martian seismic noise as measured by the SEIS seismometer, around the seismic bandwidth of the instrument (from 0.01 Hz to 1 Hz). It includes the instrument self-noise, but also the environment parameters that impact the measurements. We present the general approach for the model determination, the environment assumptions, and we analyze the major and minor contributors to the noise model.

  14. 75 FR 65005 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Mississippi Barrier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Statement (SEIS), Mississippi Barrier Island Restoration, Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP... comprehensive restoration of the Mississippi barrier islands. These actions are related to the consequences of... and wildlife, prevention of erosion, barrier island restoration, and other related water...

  15. SEI (Software Engineering Institute) Report on Graduate Software Engineering Education, 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Framework, H. Dieter Rombach CM-17 User Interface Development, Gary Perlman CM-19 Software Requirements, John W. Brackett Pedagogical Concerns Case...Software Technical Review Process Edited by John Cross, This support materials package includes materials helpful in teach- Indiana University of ing a...communication. SEI-CM- 18-1.0 CMU/SEI-89-TR-21 79 Software Requirements • John Brackett, This curriculum module is concerned with the definition of

  16. Errores fotométricos debido al uso del filtro anular de mediana en imágenes CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada, M.; Noel, N.

    El filtro anular de mediana tiene la importante propiedad de tener una escala claramente definida, lo que permite remover de una imagen CCD todos los objetos con tamaños menores a esta escala, independientemente de su morfología particular, y reemplazarlos por el correspondiente ``background" local. Este filtro es de gran utilidad para remover gradientes de fondo, ``fringing" y halos de objetos extendidos mediante el simple procedimiento de restar a la imagen original una imagen filtrada, repitiendo el proceso las veces que sea necesario. En este trabajo se presentan resultados sobre los errores que introduce este filtro en la fotometría de objetos con diferente relación S/N y su aplicación a imágenes con gradientes de fondo y ``fringing".

  17. Solid state NMR study of SEI formation in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dachun

    Recently, rechargeable lithium ion batteries, which offer high energy density and long cycle life, are in great demand as power sources for our mobile electronic society. The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the surface of electrodes in lithium ion batteries plays an essential role in their performance. This thesis presents solid state NMR and MAS NMR results on the SEI, which contribute to our understanding of SEI formation on both cathodes and anodes. This thesis is organized as following: Chapter 1 surveys the history of batteries and the challenges to further development of the lithium ion battery. Fundamental aspects and SEI formation mechanisms are also included in Chapter l. Chapter 2 deals with the principles and experimental techniques of solid state NMR. Chapter 3 presents studies of SEI formation on anode and cathode in lithium ion batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and NMR. The results provide EIS and NMR evidence that cells containing electrolytes with high EC content display less irreversible capacity after high temperature storage. The irreversible capacity is attributed to SEI growth on electrode surfaces. NMR results on cathodes, on the other hand, imply that the presence of Ni in the cathode may reduce cell performance due to the oxidation of Ni 3+ to Ni4+. Our simulations show that a lower EC/DMC ratio is associated with a smaller SEI intensity for the cathode and higher intensity for the anode. Chapter 4 discusses the effect of temperature on SEI formation on anodes and cathodes. NMR measurements show that MCMB graphite based anodes exhibit high stability no chemical shift is evident over a wide temperature range. On cathodes, however, NMR does reveal changes in SEI intensity as a function of temperature. These changes are believed to be the result of decomposition of the SEI. Evidently, then, changes in the performance of the cell as a factor of temperature are, at least in part, due to changes in

  18. NMR uncovers direct interaction between human NEDD4-1 and p34(SEI-1).

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Pravesh; Yun, Ji-Hye; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Yeon, Kyu Jeong; Kim, Dooseop; Lee, Heejong; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Nam, Ki-Yup; Yoo, Hye Dong; Lee, Weontae

    2017-08-26

    PTEN, an important tumor suppressor and a key regulator of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, is often deleted/mutated in different types of cancer. The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-1 catalyzes the polyubiquitination of PTEN, thereby acting as a negative regulator of PTEN. Stability of NEDD4-1, in turn, is tightly controlled by a 34 kDa oncoprotein, p34(SEI-1) and it regulates PTEN degradation and activates PI3K/AKT pathway, resulting in cancer metastasis. p34(SEI-1) affects not only the expression of NEDD4-1 during transcription and translation but also the subcellular localization of PTEN. This emphasizes the need to understand, at molecular level, the interaction between NEDD4-1 and p34(SEI-1). A recent study showed that NEDD4-1 interacts with p34(SEI-1) via its WWI domain. However, a detailed interaction for molecular level is yet unknown. We report that the WW1 domain of NEDD4-1 recognizes the SERTA domain containing the proline rich region (PRR motif) in p34(SEI-1). TALOS analysis based on NMR data confirms three conserved β-sheets in NEDD4-1 WW1 and the central β-sheet of NEDD4-1 WW1 plays a role for protein stability by the backbone dynamics experiments. NMR titration data revealed the binding site for p34(SEI-1) with NEDD4-1. Our data will provide insights into the molecular mechanism of NEDD4-1 and p34(SEI-1) interaction, which will be directly used for drug design which inhibits the molecular interaction involved in different cancer signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genomic and proteomic characterization of SE-I, a temperate bacteriophage infecting Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wentao; Zhang, Yaning; Wang, Guangcao; Bai, Juan; Wang, Xianwei; Li, Yufeng; Jiang, Ping

    2016-11-01

    A bacteriophage infecting pathogenic Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from a swine farm experiencing an outbreak of acute swine erysipelas; we designated this phage SE-I. SE-I has an icosahedral head, a long tail and a double-stranded DNA genome. The 34,997-bp genome has a GC content of 34 % and contains 43 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding packaging, structural, lysin-holin, and hypothetical proteins. Components of purified SE-I were separated using SDS-PAGE and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine proteins were identified, encoded by ORF9, ORF15, ORF23, ORF30, ORF31, ORF33, ORF39, ORF40 and ORF 42. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on the sequence of the large terminase subunit revealed that SE-I is closely related to Staphylococcus phages P954 and phi3396. The CHAP-domain-containing protein encoded by ORF25 was expressed in E. coli and which was able to inactivate host bacteria. SE-I was able to infect 7 of 13 E. rhusiopathiae strains, but was unable to infect Salmonella, Streptococcus suis, and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of the isolation, characterization, and genomic and proteomic analysis of a temperate phage infecting E. rhusiopathiae, and it might lead to the development of new anti- E. rhusiopathiae agents.

  20. Silicon nanowire degradation and stabilization during lithium cycling by SEI layer formation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Hyun; Picraux, S Tom

    2014-06-11

    Silicon anodes are of great interest for advanced lithium-ion battery applications due to their order of magnitude higher energy capacity than graphite. Below a critical diameter, silicon nanowires enable the ∼300% volume expansion during lithiation without pulverization. However, their high surface-to-volume ratio is believed to contribute to fading of their capacity retention during cycling due to solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) growth on surfaces. To better understand this issue, previous studies have examined the composition and morphology of the SEI layers. Here we report direct measurements of the reduction in silicon nanowire diameter with number of cycles due to SEI formation. The results reveal significantly greater Si loss near the nanowire base. From the change in silicon volume we can accurately predict the measured specific capacity reduction for silicon nanowire half cells. The enhanced Si loss near the nanowire/metal current collector interface suggests new strategies for stabilizing nanowires for long cycle life performance.

  1. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Kohout, L. L.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, James C.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    To support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), a study was performed to investigate power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area, and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  2. SEIS/INSIGHT: One year prior launch for Seismic Discovery on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Giardini, Domenico; Pike, W. Tom; Christensen, Ulli; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; de Raucourt, Sebastien; Umland, Jeff; Hurst, Ken; Zweifel, Peter; Calcutt, Simon; Bierwirth, Marco; Mimoun, David; Pont, Gabriel; Verdier, Nicolas; Laudet, Philippe; Smrekar, Sue; Hoffman, Tom

    2017-04-01

    InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is the next NASA Discovery mission due to launch in May 2018 for a landing by the end of November 2018. The payload is a complete geophysical observatory, with a seismometer (SEIS, F), a heat flux experiment (HP3, D), a geodesy experiment (RISE, US), a magnetometer and the APSS (US) suite of atmospheric sensors measuring wind (TWINS, Spain), atmospheric temperature, pressure and magnetic field. SEIS is the primary instrument of the mission and consists of a 3-axis very-broad-band (VBB, F) instrument and a 3-axis short period (SP, UK) instrument mounted on a Leveling system (LVL, D) protected and connected by a Wind and Thermal Shield (WTS, US) and a Tether (US). The 3 axis VBBs are enclosed in a vacuum thermal enclosure (EC, US). A leak detected in the EC-2016 during the final integration forced to postponement of the launch from 2016 to 2018 and to redesign a new EC under JPL, US responsibility. SEIS is expected to provide the very first seismic records of Mars. Thus implementation of the science goals is very challenging due to the almost complete lack of information on the deep seismic interior structure of Mars, as well as its level of seismic activity and surface seismic noise. In parallel to the hardware technical developments made by the SEIS hardware team, efforts of the SEIS science team were concentrated in three areas, associated with the challenges of single-station seismic analysis methodology, prelaunch estimation of the seismic and station-generated noise and amplitude of seismic and gravity signals generated not only by quakes but also by other non-seismic sources (for example, impacts, seismic waves generated by the atmosphere or Phobos tide), including in 3D Mars interior configurations. We present the status of the SEIS experiment as well as the performances of the seismic payload, following its characterization in the 2017 Flight Model deliveries activities

  3. Controlling SEI Formation on SnSb-Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Na Ion Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Liwen; Gu, Meng; Shao, Yuyan; Li, Xiaolin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-05-14

    Porous carbon nanofiber (CNF)-supported tin-antimony (SnSb) alloys is synthesized and applied as sodium ion battery anode. The chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film and its correlation with the electrode performance are studied. The addition of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) in electrolyte significantly reduces electrolyte decomposition and creates a very thin and uniform SEI layer on the cycled electrode surface which could promote the kinetics of Na-ion migration/transportation, leading to excellent electrochemical performance.

  4. How many records should be used in ASCE/SEI-7 ground motion scaling procedure?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, Juan C.; Kalkan, Erol

    2012-01-01

    U.S. national building codes refer to the ASCE/SEI-7 provisions for selecting and scaling ground motions for use in nonlinear response history analysis of structures. Because the limiting values for the number of records in the ASCE/SEI-7 are based on engineering experience, this study examines the required number of records statistically, such that the scaled records provide accurate, efficient, and consistent estimates of “true” structural responses. Based on elastic–perfectly plastic and bilinear single-degree-of-freedom systems, the ASCE/SEI-7 scaling procedure is applied to 480 sets of ground motions; the number of records in these sets varies from three to ten. As compared to benchmark responses, it is demonstrated that the ASCE/SEI-7 scaling procedure is conservative if fewer than seven ground motions are employed. Utilizing seven or more randomly selected records provides more accurate estimate of the responses. Selecting records based on their spectral shape and design spectral acceleration increases the accuracy and efficiency of the procedure.

  5. SeisRockHT - Seismic Rockfall Monitoring in the Hohe Tauern region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Daniel; Hartmeyer, Ingo; Keuschnig, Markus; Mertl, Stefan; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    SeisRockHT focuses on open hardware and free software applied for scientific long-term monitoring strategies in harsh environments. In detail, SeisRockHT aims at the establishment of two seismic networks to quantitatively observe seismicity and rockfall events at high alpine north faces. Due to the rare character of rockfall events, a continuous and long-term observation strategy is targeted. The long-term perspective is assured through the project partner of the Austrian seismic service who will include SeisRockHT networks when the project is completed. Two study sites were selected for monitoring: the Kitzsteinhorn and the Hohe Sonnblick exhibiting two different scales of monitoring networks. The smaller scaled Kitzsteinhorn investigation site is closely related to bedrock permafrost processes, whereas the larger-scaled Sonnblick investigation site aims a classic alpine north face. SeisRockHT will develop a suite of optimum methods for characterization, detection and localization of the seismic events recorded at the two sites. Beside analysis of discrete seismic events, ambient seismic noise analysis promises a closer insight into rockfall precursory seismic characteristics.Based on the high quality complementary data delivered by already established long-term monitoring projects at the two sites, potential rockfall triggers will be suggested.

  6. 77 FR 62214 - Travel Management Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Eldorado National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... Travel Management Final Environmental Impact Statement (ENF TM FEIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The...] [FR Doc No: 2012-25100] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Travel Management Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Eldorado National Forest, El Dorado County, CA AGENCY: Forest Service...

  7. 75 FR 54420 - Cancellation of Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS); Travis County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Statement (SEIS) would be prepared for the proposed SH 71 roadway between Riverside Drive and SH 130 in... for proposed improvements to State Highway (SH) 71 from Riverside Drive to SH 130, in Travis County... to 40 CFR 1508.22 and 43 TAC Sec. 2.5(e)(2) for proposed improvement of SH 71 from Riverside Drive...

  8. Lessons learned on utilizing the SEI/CMM in the federal government work for others environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on lessons learned on utilizing the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model in the federal government work for others environment. These viewgraphs outline: data systems research and development; what is the SEI/CMM; Data Systems Research and Development process improvement approach; accomplishments; and lessons learned.

  9. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Applying Agile Methods to DoD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Agile Defense Adoption Proponents Team (ADAPT) member E-Learning Agile Course Multiple Presentations ... presentations , program committees: GSAW 2014, Agile 2014, Contracts in Agile International Meeting, AFEI/SEI DoD Agile Summit, GAO Working Groups 8

  10. Required number of records for ASCE/SEI 7 ground-motion scaling procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, Juan C.; Kalkan, Erol

    2011-01-01

    The procedures and criteria in 2006 IBC (International Council of Building Officials, 2006) and 2007 CBC (International Council of Building Officials, 2007) for the selection and scaling ground-motions for use in nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) of structures are based on ASCE/SEI 7 provisions (ASCE, 2005, 2010). According to ASCE/SEI 7, earthquake records should be selected from events of magnitudes, fault distance, and source mechanisms that comply with the maximum considered earthquake, and then scaled so that the average value of the 5-percent-damped response spectra for the set of scaled records is not less than the design response spectrum over the period range from 0.2Tn to 1.5Tn sec (where Tn is the fundamental vibration period of the structure). If at least seven ground-motions are analyzed, the design values of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) are taken as the average of the EDPs determined from the analyses. If fewer than seven ground-motions are analyzed, the design values of EDPs are taken as the maximum values of the EDPs. ASCE/SEI 7 requires a minimum of three ground-motions. These limits on the number of records in the ASCE/SEI 7 procedure are based on engineering experience, rather than on a comprehensive evaluation. This study statistically examines the required number of records for the ASCE/SEI 7 procedure, such that the scaled records provide accurate, efficient, and consistent estimates of" true" structural responses. Based on elastic-perfectly-plastic and bilinear single-degree-of-freedom systems, the ASCE/SEI 7 scaling procedure is applied to 480 sets of ground-motions. The number of records in these sets varies from three to ten. The records in each set were selected either (i) randomly, (ii) considering their spectral shapes, or (iii) considering their spectral shapes and design spectral-acceleration value, A(Tn). As compared to benchmark (that is, "true") responses from unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground

  11. Cluster-search based monitoring of local earthquakes in SeisComP3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, D.; Becker, J.; Ellguth, E.; Herrnkind, S.; Weber, B.; Henneberger, R.; Blanck, H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a new cluster-search based SeisComP3 module for locating local and regional earthquakes in real time. Real-time earthquake monitoring systems such as SeisComP3 provide the backbones for earthquake early warning (EEW), tsunami early warning (TEW) and the rapid assessment of natural and induced seismicity. For any earthquake monitoring system fast and accurate event locations are fundamental determining the reliability and the impact of further analysis. SeisComP3 in the OpenSource version includes a two-stage detector for picking P waves and a phase associator for locating earthquakes based on P-wave detections. scanloc is a more advanced earthquake location program developed by gempa GmbH with seamless integration into SeisComP3. scanloc performs advanced cluster search to discriminate earthquakes occurring closely in space and time and makes additional use of S-wave detections. It has proven to provide fast and accurate earthquake locations at local and regional distances where it outperforms the base SeisComP3 tools. We demonstrate the performance of scanloc for monitoring induced seismicity as well as local and regional earthquakes in different tectonic regimes including subduction, spreading and intra-plate regions. In particular we present examples and catalogs from real-time monitoring of earthquake in Northern Chile based on data from the IPOC network by GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences for the recent years. Depending on epicentral distance and data transmission, earthquake locations are available within a few seconds after origin time when using scanloc. The association of automatic S-wave detections provides a better constraint on focal depth.

  12. SEI Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-11

    Architecting • Edge Programming for Mobile Platforms • Software Assurance Argumentation Theories • Secure Coding Patterns for C, C++, and Java...ACE/TSP Software Assurance Cases SOA Certification Program V&B Documentation SMART Malware & Forensics Analysis for Mobile Platforms XNET 14...Technology Specific Training • IPv6 • Wireless Security • SiLK & Netflow Analysis 75 The Cyber Exercise Challenge How to make cyber exercises

  13. Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) at TiO2 Electrodes in Li-Ion Batteries: Defining Apparent and Effective SEI Based on Evidence from X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy and Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ventosa, Edgar; Madej, Edyta; Zampardi, Giorgia; Mei, Bastian; Weide, Philipp; Antoni, Hendrik; La Mantia, Fabio; Muhler, Martin; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2017-01-25

    The high (de)lithiation potential of TiO2 (ca. 1.7 V vs Li/Li(+) in 1 M Li(+)) decreases the voltage and, thus, the energy density of a corresponding Li-ion battery. On the other hand, it offers several advantages such as the (de)lithiation potential far from lithium deposition or absence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The latter is currently under controversial debate as several studies reported the presence of a SEI when operating TiO2 electrodes at potentials above 1.0 V vs Li/Li(+). We investigate the formation of a SEI at anatase TiO2 electrodes by means of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The investigations were performed in different potential ranges, namely, during storage (without external polarization), between 3.0-2.0 V and 3.0-1.0 V vs Li/Li(+), respectively. No SEI is formed when a completely dried and residues-free TiO2 electrode is cycled between 3.0 and 2.0 V vs Li/Li(+). A SEI is detected by XPS in the case of samples stored for 6 weeks or cycled between 3.0 and 1.0 V vs Li/Li(+). With use of SECM, it is verified that this SEI does not possess the electrically insulating character as expected for a "classic" SEI. Therefore, we propose the term apparent SEI for TiO2 electrodes to differentiate it from the protecting and effective SEI formed at graphite electrodes.

  14. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Mckissock, B. I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, J. C.; Schmitz, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the study performed to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which investigated power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that would be used for construction and operation of a lunar base is described. Using the mission requirements and power profiles that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of the mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  15. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Mckissock, B. I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, J. C.; Schmitz, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the study performed to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which investigated power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that would be used for construction and operation of a lunar base is described. Using the mission requirements and power profiles that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of the mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  16. On the use of Space Station Freedom in support of the SEI - Life science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leath, K.; Volosin, J.; Cookson, S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) for life sciences research is evaluated from the standpoint of requirements for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). SEI life sciences research encompasses: (1) biological growth and development in space; (2) life support and environmental health; (3) physiological/psychological factors of extended space travel; and (4) space environmental factors. The platforms required to support useful study in these areas are listed and include ground-based facilities, permanently manned spacecraft, and the Space Shuttle. The SSF is shown to be particularly applicable to the areas of research because its facilities can permit the study of gravitational biology, life-support systems, and crew health. The SSF can serve as an experimental vehicle to derive the required knowledge needed to establish a commitment to manned Mars missions and colonization plans.

  17. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Behavior Based Analysis and Detection of Mobile Malware

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Behavior Based Analysis and Detection of Mobile Malware Software Engineering...Detection of Mobile Malware 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jose A. Morales 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Impact for the DoD: identify potential malware early enough to avoid potential damage to the device. Provide fast accurate suspicion assessment of an

  18. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Contract-Based Integration of CPS Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Dionisio de Niz Team: Sagar Chaki (SEI), Ivan Ruchkin (ISR), David Garlan (SCS) October 28th...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) ; ; Chaki / Dionisio de Niz SagarRuchkin /IvanGarlan /David 5d...28th, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Contact Information Dionisio de Niz Senior MTS CSD/CSC Telephone: +1 412-268-9002 Email: dionisio

  19. The SEIS Experiment for the Insight Mission: Development and management plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudet, P.

    2015-10-01

    SEIS is a Mars seismometer, provided by CNES to JPL to be the threshold instrument of the next Mars mission, InSight, to be launched by NASA in March 2016. Discovery missions leads to a very strict frame of development, where schedule is driving development and qualification plans. We will explain how this constraint has been taken into account during development phases, until delivery of flight model, with a context of international cooperation without exchange of founds between partners.

  20. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Eliciting Unstated Requirements at Scale (EURS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    Innovative product and service features that sustain customer loyalty And if left undiscovered, can result in: • Stakeholder/user disruption...moderate scale use? • Identifying innovative requirements that anticipate unstated needs? • Increasing end-user satisfaction ? • Mitigating...Solutions Division Telephone: +1 412-268-5813 Email: mdk@sei.cmu.edu U.S. Mail Software Engineering Institute Customer Relations 4500 Fifth

  1. Development of nuclear fuels and materials for propulsion systems for SEI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Olsen, C. S.; Titran, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    A panel was organized by NASA/DOE/DOD to study nuclear fuels, materials, and related nuclear propulsion technologies for SEI, and the panel findings are discussed. The fuels/materials requirements for nuclear thermal propulsion and nuclear electric propulsions are reviewed, and the development items such as 'element' development and characterization, fabrication process development, nuclear capsule tests, nuclear loop tests, and nuclear furnace tests are examined for selected classes of fuels.

  2. In Situ Studies of Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) Formation on Crystalline Carbon Surfaces by Neutron Reflectometry and Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, Miriam; Stich, Michael; Kurniawan, Mario; Seidlhofer, Beatrix-Kamelia; Trapp, Marcus; Bund, Andreas; Wagner, Norbert; Friedrich, K Andreas

    2017-10-05

    The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is a complex and fragile passivation layer with crucial importance for the functionality of lithium-ion batteries. Due to its fragility and reactivity, the use of in situ techniques is preferable for the determination of the SEI's true structure and morphology during its formation. In this study, we use in situ neutron reflectometry (NR) and in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the SEI formation on a carbon surface. It was found that a lithium-rich adsorption layer is already present at the open circuit voltage on the carbon sample surface and that the first decomposition products start to deposit close to this potential. During the negative potential sweep, the growth of the SEI can be observed in detail by AFM and NR. This allows precise monitoring of the morphology evolution and the resulting heterogeneities of individual SEI features. NR measurements show a maximum SEI thickness of 192 Å at the lower cutoff potential (0.02 V vs Li/Li(+)), which slightly decreases during the positive potential scan. The scattering length density (SLD) obtained by NR provides additional information on the SEI's chemical nature and structural evolution.

  3. Electronic structure and defect properties of Tl6SeI4: Density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Koushik; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

    2012-10-01

    We report density functional calculations of electronic structure, phase diagram, and dielectric, optical, and defect properties of Tl6SeI4. We discuss how electronic structure and defect properties affect resistivity and carrier mobility-lifetime (μτ) products in Tl6SeI4. We find large Born effective charges due to covalency involving Tl-6p states. High Born charges generally enhance the static dielectric constant. This provides a mechanism for effective screening of charged defects and impurities. We find that high resistivity can be obtained under near-stoichiometric growth conditions via Fermi level pinning near the middle of the band gap by shallow donors and acceptors, as opposed to deep traps that can give high resistivity, but at the expense of short carrier drift lengths. Defect calculations also reveal the presence of deep native donors that may cause electron trapping. The experimentally observed good μτ products may be explained by a combination of small effective masses and effective screening of charged defects. High resistivity and good μτ products make Tl6SeI4 a promising room-temperature radiation detector material. We also show the calculated defect diffusion barriers, which affect defect migration under external bias in a detector.

  4. SeisCode: A seismological software repository for discovery and collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabant, C.; Reyes, C. G.; Clark, A.; Karstens, R.

    2012-12-01

    SeisCode is a community repository for software used in seismological and related fields. The repository is intended to increase discoverability of such software and to provide a long-term home for software projects. Other places exist where seismological software may be found, but none meet the requirements necessary for an always current, easy to search, well documented, and citable resource for projects. Organizations such as IRIS, ORFEUS, and the USGS have websites with lists of available or contributed seismological software. Since the authors themselves do often not maintain these lists, the documentation often consists of a sentence or paragraph, and the available software may be outdated. Repositories such as GoogleCode and SourceForge, which are directly maintained by the authors, provide version control and issue tracking but do not provide a unified way of locating geophysical software scattered in and among countless unrelated projects. Additionally, projects are hosted at language-specific sites such as Mathworks and PyPI, in FTP directories, and in websites strewn across the Web. Search engines are only partially effective discovery tools, as the desired software is often hidden deep within the results. SeisCode provides software authors a place to present their software, codes, scripts, tutorials, and examples to the seismological community. Authors can choose their own level of involvement. At one end of the spectrum, the author might simply create a web page that points to an existing site. At the other extreme, an author may choose to leverage the many tools provided by SeisCode, such as a source code management tool with integrated issue tracking, forums, news feeds, downloads, wikis, and more. For software development projects with multiple authors, SeisCode can also be used as a central site for collaboration. SeisCode provides the community with an easy way to discover software, while providing authors a way to build a community around their

  5. In situ scanning tunneling microscopy studies of the SEI formation on graphite electrodes for Li+-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Lukas; Martens, Slađana; Ma, Jiwei; Stimming, Ulrich; Schneider, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The SEI-formation on graphitic electrodes operated as an Li+-ion battery anode in a standard 1 M LiPF6 EC/DMC (1 : 1) electrolyte has been studied in situ by EC-STM. Two different modes of in situ study were applied, one, which allowed to follow topographic and crystallographic changes (solvent cointercalation, graphite exfoliation, SEI precipitation on the HOPG basal plane) of the graphite electrode during SEI-formation, and the second, which gave an insight into the SEI precipitation on the HOPG basal plane in real time. From the in situ EC-STM studies, not only conclusions about the SEI-topography could be drawn, but also about the formation mechanism and the chemical composition, which strongly depend on the electrode potential. It was shown that above 1.0 V vs. Li/Li+ the SEI-formation is still reversible, since the molecular structure of the solvent molecules remains intact during an initial reduction step. During further reduction, the molecular structures of the solvents are destructed, which causes the irreversible charge loss. The STM studies were completed by electrochemical methods, like cyclic voltammetry, the potentiostatic intermittent titration technique and charge/discharge tests of MCMB electrodes.

  6. In situ scanning tunneling microscopy studies of the SEI formation on graphite electrodes for Li(+)-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Lukas; Martens, Slađana; Ma, Jiwei; Stimming, Ulrich; Schneider, Oliver

    2016-08-07

    The SEI-formation on graphitic electrodes operated as an Li(+)-ion battery anode in a standard 1 M LiPF6 EC/DMC (1 : 1) electrolyte has been studied in situ by EC-STM. Two different modes of in situ study were applied, one, which allowed to follow topographic and crystallographic changes (solvent cointercalation, graphite exfoliation, SEI precipitation on the HOPG basal plane) of the graphite electrode during SEI-formation, and the second, which gave an insight into the SEI precipitation on the HOPG basal plane in real time. From the in situ EC-STM studies, not only conclusions about the SEI-topography could be drawn, but also about the formation mechanism and the chemical composition, which strongly depend on the electrode potential. It was shown that above 1.0 V vs. Li/Li(+) the SEI-formation is still reversible, since the molecular structure of the solvent molecules remains intact during an initial reduction step. During further reduction, the molecular structures of the solvents are destructed, which causes the irreversible charge loss. The STM studies were completed by electrochemical methods, like cyclic voltammetry, the potentiostatic intermittent titration technique and charge/discharge tests of MCMB electrodes.

  7. SEIS/INSIGHT and Mars seismology: Development status and focus on the Impact detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Banerdt, William; Pike, Tom; Giardini, Domenico; Christensen, Ulli; Banfield, Don; Mimoun, David; Laudet, Philippe; de Raucourt, Sebastien; Bierwirth, Marco; Zweifel, Peter; Calcutt, Simon; Hurst, Ken; Bruce, Carl

    2014-05-01

    The INSIGHT NASA Discovery mission will deploy in September 2016 a 3 axis Very Broad band seismometer and a 3 axis SP seismometer, as well as other instruments enabling the installation of a complete geophysical observatory recording seismic, heat flow, magnetic and geodetic signals, in addition to atmospheric wind, pressure and temperature. We first present the science goals status of the SEIS experiment and its development status. The SEIS sensor assembly, which contains both the VBB and SP seismometer, will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from a Phoenix-type lander platform and protected by a wind and thermal shield. The wind and thermal shield, a vacuum sphere for VBBs and a passive compensation system will achieve a very high protection of the seismometers against temperature and pressure variations, allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment while reaching a detection threshold below 10^(-9) m/s/s Hz^(-1/2) in the VBB bandwidth and 10^(-8) m/s/s Hz^(-1/2) for the SP. A levelling system will allow the VBB to operate, while providing to both seismometer the best possible mechanical coupling with the ground motion. The SEIS instrument will be provided by CNES, which will coordinate a wide set of international contributors from the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, the Imperial College from London and the Open University, the Max-Planck Insitute of Lindau, the École polytechnique fédérale de Zurich (ETHZ), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Institut de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace from Toulouse. We then illustrate the science goals by a focus on the capability of INSIGHT to detect either seismic or acoustic signals from impacts, with both the seismometers and the pressure sensor, and present both amplitude and occurrence expectation, based on comparative modeling between Mars, Earth and the Moon.

  8. An application of queuing theory to SIS and SEIS epidemic models.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Suarez, Carlos M; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Lopez, Osval Montesinos; Hernandez-Cuevas, Karla

    2010-10-01

    In this work we consider every individual of a population to be a server whose state can be either busy (infected) or idle (susceptible). This server approach allows to consider a general distribution for the duration of the infectious state, instead of being restricted to exponential distributions. In order to achieve this we first derive new approximations to quasistationary distribution (QSD) of SIS (Susceptible- Infected- Susceptible) and SEIS (Susceptible- Latent- Infected- Susceptible) stochastic epidemic models. We give an expression that relates the basic reproductive number, R0 and the server utilization,p.

  9. SEI-forming electrolyte additives for lithium-ion batteries: development and benchmarking of computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Piotr; Wieczorek, Władysław; Johansson, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    SEI-forming additives play an important role in lithium-ion batteries, and the key to improving battery functionality is to determine if, how, and when these additives are reduced. Here, we tested a number of computational approaches and methods to determine the best way to predict and describe the properties of the additives. A wide selection of factors were evaluated, including the influences of the solvent and lithium cation as well as the DFT functional and basis set used. An optimized computational methodology was employed to assess the usefulness of different descriptors.

  10. A Bibliography of Externally Published Works by the SEI Engineering Techniques Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    disciplines. Supporting material can be found in many standard engineering texts. [Feiler88] Feller, RH.; Smeaton , R. "Managing Development of Very Large...17,20,21,22, 23, 24, 25 F r Smeaton , R. 16Feiler, P.H. 4, 12, 14, 16, 17 Smith, D. 7 G Spector, A. 8 Garlan, D. 17 Stevens, S.M. 7, 11, 25,26 Stewart...RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include Area Code) 22e. OFFICE SYMBOL John S. Herman, Capt, USAF (412) 268-7631 ESC/AVS (SEI) DD FORM

  11. SEI film formation on highly crystalline graphitic materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buqa, H.; Würsig, A.; Vetter, J.; Spahr, M. E.; Krumeich, F.; Novák, P.

    In situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) was used to study the SEI film formation on highly crystalline TIMREX ® SLX50 graphite negative electrodes during the first electrochemical lithium insertion using either 1 M LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) with either dimethyl carbonate (DMC) or propylene carbonate (PC) as co-solvent. In the case of the propylene and ethylene carbonate containing electrolyte, DEMS measurements indicate strong formation of ethylene and propylene gas below 0.75 V versus Li/Li +, which does not decrease at lower cell potential and in the subsequent charge/discharge cycles. Whereas for the dimethyl carbonate containing electrolyte, ethylene gas formation could be observed already above 1 V versus Li/Li +. Post mortem scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the electrodes show strong exfoliation of the graphite electrode when they are discharged in the ethylene/propylene carbonate electrolyte, indicating the formation of an unstable SEI layer. The addition of vinylene carbonate (VC) as a film forming additive significantly decreases the gas formation at the graphite electrode in the propylene carbonate containing electrolyte. The exfoliation was suppressed by the vinylene carbonate additive. We show that the combination of different in situ and ex situ methods can provide new useful information about the passivation process of graphite, as well as the solid electrolyte interphase layer formed, during the first electrochemical insertion of lithium into graphite negative electrode materials.

  12. Electrochemical in situ investigations of SEI and dendrite formation on the lithium metal anode.

    PubMed

    Bieker, Georg; Winter, Martin; Bieker, Peter

    2015-04-14

    This comparative work studies the self-enforcing heterogeneity of lithium deposition and dissolution as the cause for dendrite formation on the lithium metal anode in various liquid organic solvent based electrolytes. In addition, the ongoing lithium corrosion, its rate and thus the passivating quality of the SEI are investigated in self-discharge measurements. The behavior of the lithium anode is characterized in two carbonate-based standard electrolytes, 1 M LiPF6 in EC/DEC (3 : 7) and 1 M LiPF6 in EC/DMC (1 : 1), and in two alternative electrolytes 1 M LiPF6 in TEGDME and 1 M LiTFSI in DMSO, which have been proposed in the literature as promising electrolytes for lithium metal batteries, more specifically for lithium/air batteries. As a result, electrolyte decomposition, SEI and dendrite formation at the lithium electrode as well as their mutual influences are understood in the development of overpotentials, surface resistances and lithium electrode surface morphologies in subsequent lithium deposition and dissolution processes. A general model of different stages of these processes could be elaborated.

  13. Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES) Investigation of the Silicon Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Young, Benjamin T; Heskett, David R; Nguyen, Cao Cuong; Nie, Mengyun; Woicik, Joseph C; Lucht, Brett L

    2015-09-16

    Binder-free silicon (BF-Si) nanoparticle anodes were cycled with 1.2 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), or EC with 15% FEC (EC:FEC), extracted from cells and analyzed by Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES). All of the electrolytes generate an SEI which is integrated with Si containing species. The EC and EC:FEC electrolytes result in the generation of LixSiOy after the first cycle while LixSiOy is only observed after five cycles for the FEC electrolyte. The SEI initially generated from the EC electrolyte is primarily composed of lithium ethylene dicarbonate (LEDC) and LiF. However, after five cycles, the composition changes, especially near the surface of silicon because of decomposition of the LEDC. The SEI generated from the EC:FEC electrolytes contains LEDC, LiF, and poly(FEC) and small changes are observed upon additional cycling. The SEI generated with the FEC electrolyte contains LiF and poly(FEC) and small changes are observed upon additional cycling. The stability of the SEI correlates with the observed capacity retention of the cells.

  14. The SEIS Experiment for the InSight mission: status and performance expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, David; Lognonne, Philippe; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Laudet, Philippe; De Raucourt, Sébastien; IJpelaan, Frans; Kerjean, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Pont, Gabriel; Sylvestre-Baron, Annick; verdier, Nicolas; Denise, Robert; Feldman, Jason; Hurst, Ken; Klein, Kerry; Giardini, Domenico; Zweifel, Peter; Pike, W. Tom; Calcutt, Simon; Bramanti, Christina

    2015-04-01

    The Insight NASA Discovery mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, will deploy in September 2016 a very broadband seismometer on the Mars surface, SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure). It is a hybrid 3-axes instrument, which encloses 3 very broadband oblique sensors and 3 short period sensors. The sensor assembly and its wind and thermal shield will by deployed on the Mars surface from the Phoenix-like spacecraft by a robotic arm (IDS). The acquisition system will be hosted in the spacecraft warm electronics box, and connected to the deployed sensor assembly by a tether. The SEIS experiment is provided by CNES, the French Space Agency that makes the coordination of a wide consortium including IPGP of Paris (SEIS PI Institution), Imperial College of London, Oxford University, MPS of Göttingen, ETH of Zürich, ISAE from Toulouse and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Pasadena. In addition to the seismometer, the Insight payload will also include a suite of instruments complementary to the seismometer, such as a precision temperature sensor, a micro-barometer, a magnetometer and a wind sensor, making it the first geophysical multi-parameter station on another planet. A heat flow sensor and geodetic measurements will provide additional science measurements, in order to constrain the internal structure of Mars. Several challenges have been overcome to design and realize the planetary seismometer, which will exhibit a noise of about 10-9 m/s2/sqrt(Hz) in its seismic bandwidth bandwidth (0.01-1 Hz) for the very broadband component. These challenges include a very efficient insulation from the external temperature variations, and a finely crafted mechanical design to keep the extreme sensitivity of the seismometer, while allowing enough robustness for the harsh mechanical environment encountered during the launch and landing sequences. Also, specific attention has been paid to understanding the various environment contributions to the noise figure. A

  15. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Brown, Neil W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry

    1992-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  16. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  17. Assessment of the state of the art in life support environmental control for SEI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonds, Charles H.; Noyes, Gary P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper defines the types of technology that would be used in a lunar base for environmental control and life support system and how it might relate to in situ materials utilization (ISMU) for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). There are three types of interaction between ISMU and the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS): (1) ISMU can reduce cost of water, oxygen, and possibly diluent gasses provided to ECLSS--a corollary to this fact is that the availability of indigenous resources can dramatically alter life support technology trade studies; (2) ISMU can use ECLSS waste systems as a source of reductant carbon and hydrogen; and (3) ECLSS and ISMU, as two chemical processing technologies used in spacecraft, can share technology, thereby increasing the impact of technology investments in either area.

  18. Gas evolution from cathode materials: A pathway to solvent decomposition concomitant to SEI formation.

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, Katie L; Baggetto, Loic; Unocic, Raymond R; Dudney, Nancy J; Veith, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    This work reports a method to explore the catalytic reactivity of electrode surfaces towards the decomposition of carbonate solvents [ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and EC/DMC]. We show that the decomposition of a 1:1 wt% EC/DMC mixture is accelerated over certain commercially available LiCoO2 materials resulting in the formation of CO2 while over pure EC or DMC the reaction is much slower or negligible. The solubility of the produced CO2 in carbonate solvents is high (0.025 grams/mL) which masks the effect of electrolyte decomposition during storage or use. The origin of this decomposition is not clear but it is expected to be present on other cathode materials and may affect the analysis of SEI products as well as the safety of Li-ion batteries.

  19. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Brown, Neil W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry

    1992-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  20. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H. ); Sawyer, J.C. Jr. ); Bari, R.A. ); Brown, N.W. ); Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C. (National Aeronautics and Space Administ

    1992-01-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  1. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H.; Sawyer, J.C. Jr.; Bari, R.A.; Brown, N.W.; Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C.; Niederauer, G.F.; Remp, K.; Rice, J.W.; Sholtis, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  2. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Brown, Neil W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Lee, James H.; McCulloch, William H.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry

    1992-07-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  3. Electronic states and spectroscopic parameters of selenium monoiodide, SeI: A theoretical contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinassi, Antonio Ricardo; Alves, Tiago Vinicius; Ornellas, Fernando R.

    2017-03-01

    A new species, selenium monoiodide (SeI), was investigated for the first time at a high level of theoretical approach, SA-CASSCF/MRCI. The overall picture of all doublet and quartet (Λ + S) states correlating with the three lowest dissociation channels and the associated Ω states provide reliable results to help understand the lack of experimental data on its transitions and to plan the investigation and determination of spectroscopic parameters. Transition probabilities were computed for the transitions X2 - X1, A1 - X1, A2 - X1, and A2 - X2, originated from the spin-forbidden 1 4Σ- - X 2Π system, and the corresponding radiative lifetimes evaluated.

  4. First Principles Analysis of Defect Thermodynamics and Ion Transport in Inorganic SEI Compounds: LiF and NaF

    SciTech Connect

    Yildirim, Handan; Kinaci, Alper; Chan, Maria K. Y.; Greeley, J. P.

    2015-09-02

    The formation mechanism and composition of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) in lithium ion batteries has been widely explored. However, relatively little is known about the function of the SEI as a transport medium. Such critical information is directly relevant to battery rate performance, power loss, and capacity fading. To partially bridge this gap in the case of inorganic SEI compounds, we report herein the results of first-principles calculations on the defect thermodynamics, the dominant diffusion carriers, and the diffusion pathways associated with crystalline LiF and NaF, which are stable components of the SEI in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries, respectively. The thermodynamics of common point defects are computed, and the dominant diffusion carriers are determined over a voltage range of 0-4 V, corresponding to conditions relevant to both anode and cathode SEI's. Our analyses reveal that for both compounds, vacancy defects are energetically more favorable, therefore form more readily than interstitials, due to the close-packed nature of the crystal structures. However, the vacancy concentrations are very small for the diffusion processes facilitated by defects. Ionic conductivities are calculated as a function of voltage, considering the diffusion carrier concentration and the diffusion barriers as determined by nudged elastic band calculations. These conductivities are more than ten orders of magnitude smaller in NaF than in LiF. As compared to the diffusivity of Li in other common inorganic SEI compounds, such as Li2CO3 and Li2O,the cation diffusivity in LiF and NaF is quite low, with at least three orders of magnitude lower ionic conductivities. The results quantify the extent to which fluorides pose rate limitations in Li and Na batteries.

  5. 76 FR 336 - Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for PacRim Coal's Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... (SEIS) for PacRim Coal's Proposed Chuitna Coal Project AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION... Project. It is anticipated that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Native Village of Tyonek... the Alaska Surface Coal Mining Control and Reclamation Act (ASCMCRA) permit, which governs all aspects...

  6. 77 FR 36032 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and To Conduct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... such energy-related pipelines pursuant to authority delegated to it by the President under Executive... environment. For this reason, Department of State intends to prepare a Supplement to the Final Environmental... a Presidential permit for the revised Keystone XL Pipeline Project. The SEIS will supplement...

  7. Met promotes the formation of double minute chromosomes induced by Sei-1 in NIH-3T3 murine fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    You, Jia; Wu, Di; Yu, Yang; Liu, Chang; Wang, Lei; Wang, Fei; Xu, Lu; Wang, Liqun; Wang, Nan; Tian, Xing; Wang, Falin; Liang, Hongbin; Gao, Yating; Cui, Xiaobo; Ji, Guohua; Bai, Jing; Yu, Jingcui; Meng, Xiangning; Jin, Yan; Sun, Wenjing; Guan, Xin-yuan; Zhang, Chunyu; Fu, Songbin

    2016-01-01

    Background Sei-1 is an oncogene capable of inducing double minute chromosomes (DMs) formation. DMs are hallmarks of amplification and contribute to oncogenesis. However, the mechanism of Sei-1 inducing DMs formation remains unelucidated. Results DMs formation significantly increased during serial passage in vivo and gradually decreased following culture in vitro. micro nuclei (MN) was found to be responsible for the reduction. Of the DMs-carrying genes, Met was found to be markedly amplified, overexpressed and highly correlated with DMs formation. Inhibition of Met signaling decreased the number of DMs and reduced the amplification of the DMs-carrying genes. We identified a 3.57Mb DMs representing the majority population, which consists of the 1.21 Mb AMP1 from locus 6qA2 and the 2.36 Mb AMP2 from locus 6qA2-3. Materials and Methods We employed NIH-3T3 cell line with Sei-1 overexpression to monitor and characterize DMs in vivo and in vitro. Array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to reveal amplification regions and DMs-carrying genes. Metaphase spread was prepared to count the DMs. Western blot and Met inhibition rescue experiments were performed to examine for involvement of altered Met signaling in Sei-1 induced DMs. Genomic walking and PCR were adopted to reveal DMs structure. Conclusions Met is an important promotor of DMs formation. PMID:27494853

  8. 75 FR 52589 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Cal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... concerning the development of a replacement airport. In 1990, the FAA issued a Draft and Final Environmental... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Cal Black Memorial Airport at Halls Crossing, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  9. Update on the Next Generation Earthquake Early Warning in SeisComP3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Yannik; Boese, Maren; Smith, Deborah; Clinton, John; Meier, Men-Andrin

    2016-04-01

    An effective Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system has to be evolutionary, updating its alerts as new data becomes available progressively in real-time. Typically, this involves combining different algorithms tailored towards providing alerts for either moderate or large sized earthquakes using either seismic or geodetic data, or a combination of both. A common approach in most algorithms is to rapidly estimate rupture parameters and then use ground motion prediction equations to compute the expected peak ground motion at a target site. For moderate size earthquakes (SeisComP3, combining point-source algorithms (Gutenberg algorithm: Meier et al. [2015]; Virtual Seismologist: Cua and Heaton [2007]) with a finite rupture algorithm (FinDer: Böse et al., [2012]). Relying on a widely used real-time monitoring platform, such as SeisComP3, facilitates testing and operating new algorithms in real-time in different seismic networks and thus different tectonic regimes. Special focus has also been given to modularity and

  10. RapidSeis: Enabling User-Defined Seismological Waveform Data Processing over the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Heath, Andy; Koestjer, Jos; Trani, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this JISC-funded pilot project was to remove perceived barriers to uptake of an application that performs analysis of seismic waveform data. The aim was to provide the seismological community with a simplified system that overcame important barriers such as installation and understanding of the analysis package, location and transfer of large amounts of input data and visualisation of results. The project combined the expertise of three distinct teams. The Orfeus Data Centre provided discovery services and access management to distributed earthquake waveform data and metadata, supported by technologies such as webservices, SPARQL/RDF and a JSR-168 portal framework based on the WSRP portlet architecture. Analysis and visualisation of the waveform data were performed by SDX (Seismic Data eXplorer) developed at the University of Liverpool. SDX formed the core processing engine - this application's functionality can be extended via user-defined algorithms coded as plugins. The processing engine was supported by several webservice-enabled modules used for data and plugin exchange. The user, data and processing infrastructure were connected using the Rapid framework created by the UK National e-Science Centre. Rapid generates intuitive interfaces to the processing core in the form of two self-contained JSR-168 remote portlets. One portlet facilitated plugin creation, whilst the other allowed execution of plugin code within the processing core running on a campus or national Grid infrastructure. The RapidSeis system was deployed within a community gateway: the NERIES web portal. Although RapidSeis originated within the seismological community we suggest it forms a framework which could be exploited in different domains or scientific gateways where users can discover data, store data within a cart and wish to apply specialised processing algorithms remotely through a web browser. Processing performed on Grid infrastructure is completely transparent: the

  11. SeisCube Instrument and Environment Considerations for the Didymos System Geophysical Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadu, Alexandre; Murdoch, Naomi; Mimoun, David; Karatekin, Ozgur; Garica, Raphaël F.; Carrasco, Jose A.; De Quiros, Francisco G.; Vasseur, Hugues; Eubanks, Marshall; Radley, Charles; Ritter, Birgit; Dehant, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    In the context of the Asteroid Impact & Deviation Assessment (AIDA) mission proposed by ESA and NASA, the Asteroid Geophysical Explorer (AGEX) mission concept has been selected for a preliminary study phase. Two 3-Unit CubeSats are embedded into the AIM probe and released into the asteroid binary system [1]. SeisCube will be deployed close to the secondary to reach its surface at a low relative velocity in order to stay on the ground after several rebounds, in a similar way that is foreseen for Mascot-2. The purpose of SeisCube is to provide information about the surface, the sub-surface and the internal structure of the asteroid, by analyzing rebound acceleration profile and seismic activity [2]. We describe the considered instrumentation necessary to fulfill the science objectives (gravimeters, accelerometers, geophones, etc.) in terms of measurement dynamics, frequency ranges, acquisition methods and other common budgets for space equipment. We also present the environment considerations which have to be taken into account for the platform and payload designs. The thermal aspect will be particularly discussed since it is a major issue in the airless body exploration [3] [4]. It implies some modifications in the CubeSat structure, integration and thermal regulation to ensure survival and operations under extreme conditions at the asteroid surface. We then describe the platform subsystems needed to ensure the operations after the deployment and the associated budgets and accommodation. As a direct consequence of the previous topics, we will finally discuss the possible trades-off to satisfy the main science requirements and the associated concept of operations. [1] O. Karatekin, D. Mimoun, J. A. Carrasco, N. Murdoch, A. Cadu, R. F. Garcia, F. G. De Quiros, H. Vasseur, B. Ritter, M. Eubanks, C. Radley and V. Dehant, "The Asteroid Geophysical Explorer (AGEX): Proposal to explore Didymos system using Cubsats," in European Geophysical Union, 2016. [2] N. Murdoch, A

  12. SHARD - a SeisComP3 module for Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, B.; Becker, J.; Ellguth, E.; Henneberger, R.; Herrnkind, S.; Roessler, D.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring building and structure response to strong earthquake ground shaking or human-induced vibrations in real-time forms the backbone of modern structural health monitoring (SHM). The continuous data transmission, processing and analysis reduces drastically the time decision makers need to plan for appropriate response to possible damages of high-priority buildings and structures. SHARD is a web browser based module using the SeisComp3 framework to monitor the structural health of buildings and other structures by calculating standard engineering seismology parameters and checking their exceedance in real-time. Thresholds can be defined, e.g. compliant with national building codes (IBC2000, DIN4149 or EC8), for PGA/PGV/PGD, response spectra and drift ratios. In case thresholds are exceeded automatic or operator driven reports are generated and send to the decision makers. SHARD also determines waveform quality in terms of data delay and variance to report sensor status. SHARD is the perfect tool for civil protection to monitor simultaneously multiple city-wide critical infrastructure as hospitals, schools, governmental buildings and structures as bridges, dams and power substations.

  13. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-05-16

    Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

  14. Identification of Li-Ion Battery SEI Compounds through (7)Li and (13)C Solid-State MAS NMR Spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huff, Laura A; Tavassol, Hadi; Esbenshade, Jennifer L; Xing, Wenting; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2016-01-13

    Solid-state (7)Li and (13)C MAS NMR spectra of cycled graphitic Li-ion anodes demonstrate SEI compound formation upon lithiation that is followed by changes in the SEI upon delithiation. Solid-state (13)C DPMAS NMR shows changes in peaks associated with organic solvent compounds (ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, EC/DMC) upon electrochemical cycling due to the formation of and subsequent changes in the SEI compounds. Solid-state (13)C NMR spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time measurements of lithiated Li-ion anodes and reference poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) powders, along with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry results, indicate that large-molecular-weight polymers are formed in the SEI layers of the discharged anodes. MALDI-TOF MS and NMR spectroscopy results additionally indicate that delithiated anodes exhibit a larger number of SEI products than is found in lithiated anodes.

  15. Earthquake Monitoring: SeisComp3 at the Swiss National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Kaestli, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismicity monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations with spacing of ~25km, the SED operates one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by ~ 50 realtime strong motion stations. The strong motion network is expected to grow with an additional ~80 stations over the next few years. Furthermore, the backbone of the network is complemented by broadband data from surrounding countries and temporary sub-networks for local monitoring of microseismicity (e.g. at geothermal sites). The variety of seismic monitoring responsibilities as well as the anticipated densifications of our network demands highly flexible processing software. We are transitioning all software to the SeisComP3 (SC3) framework. SC3 is a fully featured automated real-time earthquake monitoring software developed by GeoForschungZentrum Potsdam in collaboration with commercial partner, gempa GmbH. It is in its core open source, and becoming a community standard software for earthquake detection and waveform processing for regional and global networks across the globe. SC3 was originally developed for regional and global rapid monitoring of potentially tsunamagenic earthquakes. In order to fulfill the requirements of a local network recording moderate seismicity, SED has tuned configurations and added several modules. In this contribution, we present our SC3 implementation strategy, focusing on the detection and identification of seismicity on different scales. We operate several parallel processing "pipelines" to detect and locate local, regional and global seismicity. Additional pipelines with lower detection thresholds can be defined to monitor seismicity within dense subnets of the network. To be consistent with existing processing

  16. Testing the ability of the INSIGHT-SEIS experiment to model Mars deep interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, M. P.; Beucler, E.; Mocquet, A.; Drilleau, M.; Lognonne, P. H.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2013-12-01

    In 2016, the SEIS experiment, part of the INSIGHT mission of NASA's Discovery program to Mars, is expected to provide the very first seismic records on this planet. This experiment consists in a single station that will record both short-period and broad-band data. The challenge of obtaining information on the location of seismic sources and on the deep seismic structure of the planet using a single station is tested against Earth analogues recorded at the German Black Forest Observatory (BFO), where the signal to noise ratios of the records are close to the values expected for the SEIS experiment on Mars. Estimates of tectonic activity from mapped fault features and thermal modeling suggest that, in addition to smaller events, it is reasonable to anticipate recording a few events with equivalent Earth moment magnitudes in the range 4.5 - 5, or even larger, within one Martian year (i.e. two Earth years). Taking into account the smaller planetary radius of Mars relative to the Earth and lower anticipated seismic noise, due primarily to the absence of oceans, this may allow for recording of multiple orbit surface waves. Considering geometrical scaling between Mars and the Earth, we take a dataset of Earth events with moment magnitudes between 6 and 6.5, which are just above the threshold for detectability of 3rd orbit fundamental mode Rayleigh waves (R3) on quiet stations, and explore the use of several single station techniques for the estimation of source location (distance and back-azimuth from the station) and interior structure. By using the group arrival times of the first three orbits of the fundamental mode surface waves of these events, we are able to estimate the origin time and epicentral distance of the events within the accuracy of the shortest period used in the analysis (here 40 s). The precision on the estimate of the epicentral distance is about one degree, i.e. approximately 55 km on Mars, while the origin time is estimated with an accuracy of

  17. Distribution of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) in the subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific in relation to oceanic fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Hiroto; Hakamada, Takashi; Matsuoka, Koji; Nishiwaki, Shigetoshi; Inagake, Denzo; Okazaki, Makoto; Tojo, Naoki; Kitakado, Toshihide

    2014-09-01

    The subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific is an important summer feeding grounds of sei whales. The oceanographic structure and circulation of this area are largely determined by strong oceanic fronts and associated geostrophic currents, namely the Polar Front (PF), Subarctic Front (SAF) and Kuroshio Extension Front (KEF). The relationship between the distribution of sei whales and oceanographic fronts was investigated using a generalized additive model (GAM), and the cetacean sighting survey data and oceanographic observations in July from 2000 to 2007 were used in the analysis. The number of individual sei whales was used as the response variable while the distances from the PF, SAF, and KEF to the whales were used as explanatory variables along with the longitude values. Sei whales were concentrated north and south of the SAF and the areas from 250 to 300 km north and from 100 to 200 km south of the SAF were estimated as high-density areas of sei whales. The entire inter-frontal zone between the PF and SAF featured an elevated concentration of sei whales, and the area south of the PF and along the SAF was identified as an important feeding ground of sei whales in July from 2000 to 2007.

  18. Automated infrasound signal detection algorithms implemented in MatSeis - Infra Tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Darren

    2004-07-01

    MatSeis's infrasound analysis tool, Infra Tool, uses frequency slowness processing to deconstruct the array data into three outputs per processing step: correlation, azimuth and slowness. Until now, an experienced analyst trained to recognize a pattern observed in outputs from signal processing manually accomplished infrasound signal detection. Our goal was to automate the process of infrasound signal detection. The critical aspect of infrasound signal detection is to identify consecutive processing steps where the azimuth is constant (flat) while the time-lag correlation of the windowed waveform is above background value. These two statements describe the arrival of a correlated set of wavefronts at an array. The Hough Transform and Inverse Slope methods are used to determine the representative slope for a specified number of azimuth data points. The representative slope is then used in conjunction with associated correlation value and azimuth data variance to determine if and when an infrasound signal was detected. A format for an infrasound signal detection output file is also proposed. The detection output file will list the processed array element names, followed by detection characteristics for each method. Each detection is supplied with a listing of frequency slowness processing characteristics: human time (YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS.SSS), epochal time, correlation, fstat, azimuth (deg) and trace velocity (km/s). As an example, a ground truth event was processed using the four-element DLIAR infrasound array located in New Mexico. The event is known as the Watusi chemical explosion, which occurred on 2002/09/28 at 21:25:17 with an explosive yield of 38,000 lb TNT equivalent. Knowing the source and array location, the array-to-event distance was computed to be approximately 890 km. This test determined the station-to-event azimuth (281.8 and 282.1 degrees) to within 1.6 and 1.4 degrees for the Inverse Slope and Hough Transform detection algorithms, respectively, and

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopic Indicators in SeisMic Archive (SISMA) (Rainer+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Misto, A.; Panzera, M. R.; Molinaro, M.; Cepparo, F.; Roth, M.; Michel, E.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.

    2017-02-01

    We created a large database of physical parameters and variability indicators by fully reducing and analyzing the large number of spectra taken to complement the asteroseismic observations of the COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits (CoRoT) satellite. CoRoT was launched on 2006 December 27 and it was retired on 2013 June 24. 7103 spectra of 261 stars obtained with the ESO echelle spectrograph High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) have been stored in the VO-compliant database Spectroscopic Indicators in a SeisMic Archive (SISMA; http://sisma.brera.inaf.it/), along with the CoRoT photometric data of the 72 CoRoT asteroseismic targets. The ground-based activities started with the Large Programme 178.D-0361 using the FEROS spectrograph at the 2.2m telescope of the ESO-La Silla Observatory, and continued with the Large Programmes LP182.D-0356 and LP185.D-0056 using the HARPS instrument at the 3.6m ESO telescope. In the framework of the awarded two HARPS Large Programmes, 15 nights were allocated each semester over nine semesters, from 2008 December to 2013 January, for a total of 135 nights. The HARPS spectrograph covers the spectral range from 3780 to 6910Å, distributed over echelle orders 89-161. We usually used it in the high-efficiency mode EGGS, with resolving power R=80000 to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectroscopic time series. All of the data (reduced spectra, indicators, and photometric series) are stored as either FITS or PDF files in the SISMA archive and can be accessed at http://sisma.brera.inaf.it/. The data can also be accessed through the Seismic Plus portal (http://voparis-spaceinn.obspm.fr/seismic-plus/), developed in the framework of the SpaceInn project in order to gather and help coordinated access to several different solar and stellar seismic data sources. (1 data file).

  20. Conceptualizing ¬the Abstractions of Earthquakes Through an Instructional Sequence Using SeisMac and the Rapid Earthquake Viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.; Wysession, M.

    2007-12-01

    Newsworthy earthquakes provide an engaging hook for students in Earth science classes, particularly when discussing their effects on people and the landscape. However, engaging students in an analysis of earthquakes that extends beyond death and damage, is frequently hampered by the abstraction of recorded ground motion data in the form of raw seismograms and the inability of most students to personally relate to ground accelerations. To overcome these challenges, an educational sequence has been developed using two software tools: SeisMac by Daniel Griscom, and the Rapid Earthquake Viewer (REV) developed by the University of South Carolina in collaboration with IRIS and DLESE. This sequence presents a unique opportunity for Earth Science teachers to "create" foundational experiences for students as they construction a framework of understanding of abstract concepts. The first activity is designed to introduce the concept of a three-component seismogram and to directly address the very abstract nature of seismograms through a kinesthetic experience. Students first learn to take the pulse of their classroom through a guided exploration of SeisMac, which displays the output of the laptop's built-in Sudden Motion Sensor (a 3-component accelerometer). This exploration allows students to view a 3-component seismogram as they move or tap the laptop and encourages them to propose and carry out experiments to explain the meaning of the 3-component seismogram. Once completed students are then asked to apply this new knowledge to a real 3-component seismogram printed from REV. Next the activity guides students through the process of identifying P and S waves and using SeisMac to connect the physical motion of the laptop to the "wiggles" they see on the SeisMac display and then comparing those to the "wiggles" they see on their seismogram. At this point students are more fully prepared to engage in an S-P location exercise such as those included in many state standards

  1. The state of understanding of the lithium-ion-battery graphite solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and its relationship to formation cycling

    DOE PAGES

    An, Seong Jin; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus; ...

    2016-04-09

    An in-depth review is presented on the science of lithium-ion battery (LIB) solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation on the graphite anode, including structure, morphology, chemical composition, electrochemistry, formation mechanism, and LIB formation cycling. During initial operation of LIBs, the SEI layer forms on the graphite surfaces, the most commonly used anode material, due to side reactions with the electrolyte solvent/salt at low electro-reduction potentials. It is accepted that the SEI layer is essential to the long-term performance of LIBs, and it also has an impact on its initial capacity loss, self-discharge characteristics, cycle life, rate capability, and safety. While themore » presence of the anode SEI layer is vital, it is difficult to control its formation and growth, as the chemical composition, morphology, and stability depend on several factors. These factors include the type of graphite, electrolyte composition, electrochemical conditions, and cell temperature. Thus, SEI layer formation and electrochemical stability over long-term operation should be a primary topic of future investigation in the development of LIB technology. We review the progression of knowledge gained about the anode SEI, from its discovery in 1979 to the current state of understanding, and covers its formation process, differences in the chemical and structural makeup when cell materials and components are varied, methods of characterization, and associated reactions with the liquid electrolyte phase. It also discusses the relationship of the SEI layer to the LIB formation step, which involves both electrolyte wetting and subsequent slow charge-discharge cycles to grow the SEI.« less

  2. Results from the NEAREST-SEIS deep seismic cruise across the Gulf of Cadiz accretionary wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.; Graindorge, D.; Sallares, V.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz lies offshore of Southwest Iberia and Northwest Morocco where the famous Lisbon earthquake and tsunami struck in 1755. Here the plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia is complex, marked by a broad region of deformation spanning about 200 km in a north-south direction. Structurally, the Gulf of Cadiz is the presence of a thick tectonically deformed sedimentary wedge, interpreted as an accretionary wedge formed by the SW migration of the Rif-Betic block. Numerous marine geophysical surveys performed here recently, including multi-beam bathymetry and multi-channel seismics (MCS) help constrain the seafloor morphology and shallow crustal structure. MCS data reveal sediment thicknesses in the central Gulf of Cadiz (beneath the accretionary wedge) reaching a maximum of 12-13 km. Past wide-angle seismic surveys had difficulty penetrating below this thick sedimentary body. During the NEAREST-SEIS cruise on the B/O Hesperides (Nov. 2008), two wide-angle seismic lines were acquired in the Gulf of Cadiz area using a source composed of seven 1500liter Bolt airguns (4520 in3), shot at 90 s intervals. 19 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) from Ifremer and the University of Brest and 17 OBS from UTM-CSIC, Barcelona were deployed during the survey. The shorter profile, P2 trending NNE-SSW, was a line roughly perpendicular to the South Portuguese margin (inner part of the Gulf), crossing from Portimao Canyon, the frontal portion of the accretionary wedge, where the sedimentary cover is relatively thin. The main purpose was to determine the location of the transition between continental and oceanic crust. 15 OBS were deployed along this line with a ~7 nm spacing, which was extended by landstations (onshore in S. Portugal). The data generally show clear sedimentary refracted phases, deeper intracrustal phases, some arrivals refracted in the upper mantle and reflections at the boundary between the crust and the mantle (PmP). A layer-stripping modelling of the

  3. Distributed Computing for Seismic Data Retrieval using FISSURES DHI Client FMI Implimented from MatSeis 1.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, D. M.; Li, Q.; Creager, K. C.; Ning, R.; Crotwell, H. P.; Zuzlewski, S.; Hellman, S. B.; Schoch, K. S.; Laughbon, C. J.; Stromme, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Three software development efforts have recently combined to allow a seamless method for obtaining data from the IRIS DMC over the Internet and analyzing it in MATLAB. During the past few years IRIS has constructed the initial framework and definitions for FISSURES servers and Data Handling Interface (DHI) clients. FISSURES uses the distributed computing language Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), which allows software systems to work across the Internet in a platform independent and computer-language neutral manner. Starting from the FISSURES object model three seismic services have been defined: event, network and seismogram. From these three object types a DHI client is used to access information through FISSURES services. Using the University of Washington developed FISSURES-Matlab-Interface (FMI) DHI client, all three FISSURES objects can be accessed via the Internet and downloaded into local MATLAB objects, allowing access to earthquake event catalogs, seismograms, network and instrument information. The DHI client FMI can be implemented from MatSeis. MatSeis, developed at Sandia National Laboratory, is a MATLAB based, Graphical User Interface (GUI) controlled software package with seismic data visualization, signal processing, and database importing and exporting capabilities, to list just a few. In this poster, we will discuss the seismic data retrieval currently prototyped for the IRIS DMC, as well as the planned connections to the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC), Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC), and South Carolina Earth Physics Project (SCEPP) data center.

  4. BlueSeis3A - full characterization of a 3C broadband rotational ground motion sensor for seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Frenois, Arnaud; Krissou, Rahma; Bigueur, Alexandre; Gaillot, Arnaud; de Toldi, Elliot; Ponceau, Damien; Guattari, Frederic; Igel, Heiner

    2017-04-01

    In this contribution we present a full characterization of the first three component interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope (IFOG) especially designed for the needs of seismology. The sensor is called BlueSeis3A and is manufactured by iXBlue, France. It is developed in the framework of the European Research Council Project, ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology). To fully explore the benefits of this new seismic observable especially in the fields of volcanology, ocean bottom seismology and geophysical exploration, a portable rotational motion sensor has to fulfill certain requirements regarding dynamic range, portability, power consumption and sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature and magnetic field. For BlueSeis3A, power consumption is in an acceptable range for a portable and field deployable instrument. We will quantify sensor self noise by means of operating range diagrams as well as Allan variance and show results from tests on thermal and magnetic sensitivity. Tests on orthogonality and sensitivity to linear motion complete our full characterization.

  5. Attempts at in vitro fertilization and culture of in vitro matured oocytes in sei ( Balaenoptera borealis) and Bryde's ( B. edeni) whales.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M M U; Suzuki, Y; Watanabe, H; Matsuoka, K; Fujise, Y; Ishikawa, H; Ohsumi, S; Fukui, Y

    2009-02-01

    The cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) recovery rates with respect to reproductive status per sei (Balaenoptera borealis) and Bryde's (B. edeni) whales were determined in Experiment 1. The number of COCs recovered ranged from 16.0 to 30.6 and from 6.7 to 26.8 per sei and Bryde's whales, respectively. The effects of COCs grades and protein supplementation in embryo culture medium on development of in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos were evaluated in sei and Bryde's whales in Experiment 2. The COCs were classified into either Grade A (COCs with five or more layers of compact cumulus cells) or Grade B (COCs with less than five layers of compact or expanded cumulus cells) before being cultured for IVM. The cleavage (12.0 to 19.5%), 4-cell (8.0 to 12.0%) and 8-cell (4.0 to 8.0%) formation rates in sei whales did not vary significantly between embryos derived from either grade A or B oocytes and between embryos cultured in either fetal whale serum (FWS)- or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-supplemented medium. The cleavage (4.0 to 14.8%), 4-cell (0.0 to 7.5%) and 8-cell (0.0 to 2.6%) formation rates in Bryde's whales did not vary significantly between embryos derived from either grade A or B oocytes and between embryos cultured in either FWS- or BSA-supplemented medium. The grade B oocytes cultured in FWS-supplemented medium developed to morula stage (1.1%) in sei whales. In conclusion, the present study indicates that IVF in sei whales is possible to achieve cleaved embryos developing to morula stage. This is the first in vitro embryo production attempt in sei and Bryde's whales.

  6. Mars deep internal structure determination using Phobos tide measurement strategy with the SEIS/InSight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pou, Laurent; Mimoun, David; Garcia, Raphaël; Lognonné, Philippe; Banerdt, William Bruce; Karatekin, Özgür; Dehant, Véronique; Zhu, Ping

    2016-04-01

    The Insight NASA Discovery mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, will deploy in 2018 a very broadband seismometer on the Mars surface, SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure). It is a hybrid 3-axes instrument, which encloses 3 very broadband oblique sensors and 3 short period sensors. The sensor assembly and its wind and thermal shield will by deployed on the Mars surface from the Phoenix-like spacecraft by a robotic arm (IDS). The acquisition system will be hosted in the spacecraft warm electronics box, and connected to the deployed sensor assembly by a tether. The SEIS experiment is provided by CNES, the French Space Agency that makes the coordination of a wide consortium including IPGP of Paris, ETH of Zürich, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Pasadena, MPS of Göttingen, Imperial College of London, and ISAE from Toulouse. One of the mission goals is to determine the deep internal structure of Mars in order to improve our models on the formation and evolution of telluric planets. In particular, the SEIS experiment aims at assessing the state (solid or liquid) of the planet core together with its size. This will be possible using the Phobos tide, a solid tide on Mars induced by one of its natural satellite, Phobos. As it orbits the planet, Phobos creates a small displacement of the Martian surface which will be measured to determine the absolute amplitude of one of the tide main harmonics which depends on Mars internal structure through the gravimetric factor γ2 (a combination of the gravitational and displacement Love numbers) at a frequency range around 50 μHz. Since Phobos orbital properties are already well-known, comparing these measurements with existing proposed models of Mars allows us to refine the previous estimations of the Mars core state and diameter. Reliable assessment of the core state will be possible if the Phobos tide absolute amplitude is measured with a precision of 2.5 10-11 m/s2 at 50μHz, making noise determination and

  7. Implementation of the Virtual Seismologist Early Warning Algorithm within the SeisComP3 Earthquake Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, G. B.; Fischer, M.; Heimers, S.; Clinton, J. F.; Diehl, T.; Kaestli, P.; Becker, J.; Saul, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Virtual Seismologist (VS) earthquake early warning (EEW) methodology is a Bayesian approach to EEW, wherein the most probable source estimate at any given time is a combination of contributions from a likelihood function that evolves in response to incoming data from the on-going earthquake, and selected prior information, which can include factors such as network topology, the Gutenberg-Richter relationship or previously observed seismicity. The VS algorithm, implemented by the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) at ETH Zurich, is a fundamental component of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, and has been thoroughly tested in real-time the Southern California Seismic Network since July 2008, and at the Northern California Seismic Network since February 2009. SeisComP3 (SC3) is a fully featured automated real-time earthquake monitoring software developed by GeoForschungZentrum Potsdam in collaboration with commercial partner, gempa GmbH. It is becoming a community standard software for earthquake detection and waveform processing for regional and global networks across the globe, including at the SED. As part of efforts in the development of real-time seismology tools supported by the Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation (NERA), the VS EEW algorithm has been implemented within the SeisComP3 framework. We discuss the software design and development, as well as testing and performance evaluation on real-time and archived waveform data from the SED. The "VS in SC3" effort facilitates the seamless integration of real-time EEW within standard network processing at SED, as well as the distribution, installation, and real-time testing of the VS codes at various European networks, in particular, real-time test sites at Naples, Istanbul, Patras, and Iceland planned as part of FP7 project REAKT "Strategies and Tools for Real-Time Earthquake Risk Mitigation".

  8. Attitude of Academic Staff in Nigerian Tertiary Educational Institutions to Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI): A Case Study of Cross River State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaka, Idaka I.; Joshua, Monday T.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of academic staff in Nigerian tertiary educational institutions to student evaluation of instruction (SEI) and to find out the variable factors that influenced the expressed attitude of members of the academic staff, using Cross River State University as a case study. The study was a survey and so a…

  9. Connecting the irreversible capacity loss in Li-ion batteries with the electronic insulating properties of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Kevin; Lin, Yu -Xiao; Liu, Zhe; Chen, Long -Qing; Lu, Peng; Qi, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The formation and continuous growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss of batteries in the initial and subsequent cycles, respectively. In this article, the electron tunneling barriers from Li metal through three insulating SEI components, namely Li2CO3, LiF and Li3PO4, are computed by density function theory (DFT) approaches. Based on electron tunneling theory, it is estimated that sufficient to block electron tunneling. It is also found that the band gap decreases under tension while the work function remains the same, and thus the tunneling barrier decreases under tension and increases under compression. A new parameter, η, characterizing the average distances between anions, is proposed to unify the variation of band gap with strain under different loading conditions into a single linear function of η. An analytical model based on the tunneling results is developed to connect the irreversible capacity loss, due to the Li ions consumed in forming these SEI component layers on the surface of negative electrodes. As a result, the agreement between the model predictions and experimental results suggests that only the initial irreversible capacity loss is due to the self-limiting electron tunneling property of the SEI.

  10. SEI Formation and Interfacial Stability of a Si Electrode in a LiTDI-Salt Based Electrolyte with FEC and VC Additives for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Fredrik; Xu, Chao; Niedzicki, Leszek; Marcinek, Marek; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Björefors, Fredrik; Edström, Kristina; Younesi, Reza

    2016-06-22

    An electrolyte based on the new salt, lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)imidazolide (LiTDI), is evaluated in combination with nano-Si composite electrodes for potential use in Li-ion batteries. The additives fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and vinylene carbonate (VC) are also added to the electrolyte to enable an efficient SEI formation. By employing hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), the SEI formation and the development of the active material is probed during the first 100 cycles. With this electrolyte formulation, the Si electrode can cycle at 1200 mAh g(-1) for more than 100 cycles at a coulombic efficiency of 99%. With extended cycling, a decrease in Si particle size is observed as well as an increase in silicon oxide amount. As opposed to LiPF6 based electrolytes, this electrolyte or its decomposition products has no side reactions with the active Si material. The present results further acknowledge the positive effects of SEI forming additives. It is suggested that polycarbonates and a high LiF content are favorable components in the SEI over other kinds of carbonates formed by ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) decomposition. This work thus confirms that LiTDI in combination with the investigated additives is a promising salt for Si electrodes in future Li-ion batteries.

  11. Connecting the irreversible capacity loss in Li-ion batteries with the electronic insulating properties of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Xiao; Liu, Zhe; Leung, Kevin; Chen, Long-Qing; Lu, Peng; Qi, Yue

    2016-03-01

    The formation and continuous growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss of batteries in the initial and subsequent cycles, respectively. In this article, the electron tunneling barriers from Li metal through three insulating SEI components, namely Li2CO3, LiF and Li3PO4, are computed by density function theory (DFT) approaches. Based on electron tunneling theory, it is estimated that sufficient to block electron tunneling. It is also found that the band gap decreases under tension while the work function remains the same, and thus the tunneling barrier decreases under tension and increases under compression. A new parameter, η, characterizing the average distances between anions, is proposed to unify the variation of band gap with strain under different loading conditions into a single linear function of η. An analytical model based on the tunneling results is developed to connect the irreversible capacity loss, due to the Li ions consumed in forming these SEI component layers on the surface of negative electrodes. The agreement between the model predictions and experimental results suggests that only the initial irreversible capacity loss is due to the self-limiting electron tunneling property of the SEI.

  12. An Artificial SEI Enables the Use of A LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 5 V Cathode with Conventional Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Juchuan; Baggetto, Loic; Martha, Surendra K; Veith, Gabriel M; Nanda, Jagjit; Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J

    2013-01-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel is considered one of the most promising cathodes for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, the operation potential of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, ~4.75 V, is beyond the high voltage limit of the state-of-art electrolyte, ~4.3 V. Here, using thin films of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a model material, we show evidence that an artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) enables the use of this 5 V cathode with conventional carbonate electrolytes. A thin coating of Lipon (lithium phosphorus oxynitride) as an artificial SEI on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 could remedy the decomposition of the electrolyte. The thickness of the Lipon artificial SEI is optimized by balancing the protection and additional resistance. The strategy of artificial SEI on cathodes is expected to enable the wide application of other high voltage cathodes for lithium ion batteries.

  13. Connecting the irreversible capacity loss in Li-ion batteries with the electronic insulating properties of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components.

    DOE PAGES

    Leung, Kevin; Lin, Yu -Xiao; Liu, Zhe; ...

    2016-01-01

    The formation and continuous growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss of batteries in the initial and subsequent cycles, respectively. In this article, the electron tunneling barriers from Li metal through three insulating SEI components, namely Li2CO3, LiF and Li3PO4, are computed by density function theory (DFT) approaches. Based on electron tunneling theory, it is estimated that sufficient to block electron tunneling. It is also found that the band gap decreases under tension while the work function remains the same, and thus the tunneling barrier decreases under tension and increases under compression.more » A new parameter, η, characterizing the average distances between anions, is proposed to unify the variation of band gap with strain under different loading conditions into a single linear function of η. An analytical model based on the tunneling results is developed to connect the irreversible capacity loss, due to the Li ions consumed in forming these SEI component layers on the surface of negative electrodes. As a result, the agreement between the model predictions and experimental results suggests that only the initial irreversible capacity loss is due to the self-limiting electron tunneling property of the SEI.« less

  14. Attitude of Academic Staff in Nigerian Tertiary Educational Institutions to Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI): A Case Study of Cross River State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaka, Idaka I.; Joshua, Monday T.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of academic staff in Nigerian tertiary educational institutions to student evaluation of instruction (SEI) and to find out the variable factors that influenced the expressed attitude of members of the academic staff, using Cross River State University as a case study. The study was a survey and so a…

  15. InSight/SEIS@Mars Educational program : Sharing the InSight NASA mission and the Seismic Discovery of Mars with a International Network of classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Berenguer, J. L.; Sauron, A.; Denton, P.; Carrer, D.; Taber, J.; Bravo, T. K.; Gaboriaud, A.; Houston Jones, J.; Banerdt, W. B.; Martinuzzi, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The InSIght mission will deploy in September 2016 a Geophysical Station on Mars, equipped with a suite of geophysical instruments, including 3 axis Very Broad Band Seismometer, 3 axis Short Period Seismometer, 3 axis Flux gate Magnetometer, Heat flow probe, geodetic beacon, infrasound/microbarometer, wind sensors and cameras. As for all NASA missions, Children and teenagers will be associated to the mission in the framework of the K12 InSight program, part of it being associated to the SEIS instrument.The two faces of the InSight/SEIS Education program are directed toward the promotion of Space Technologies and of Space Science.For Space technologies, this has already started with the InSight Elysium Educational project. The goal of the project, supported by CNES and performed by Technical High School near Toulouse, was the fabrication of a full scale mockup of the lander (see more at https://jeunes.cnes.fr/fr/elysium-le-jumeau-terrestre-dinsight ). The mockup was exhibited during the June, 2015 Paris air show. More than 300 students participated to the Elysium project.For Space Science, this will be made with the SEIS@Mars Educational project. Its plan is to transmit the SEIS data to a network of several hundred of middle and high schools worldwide, associated to existing "seismo(graph) at school" programs in the United States (https://www.iris.edu/hq/sis), France (www.edusismo.org) Switzerland (www.seismoatschool.ethz.ch) and United Kingdom (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/schoolseismology/). If the transmission of these data to the SEIS@school network will be automatic after their release by the NASA Planetary Data System, an earlier transmission will be made, especially after mid 2017, but also before through the integration of selected Schools to the project activities: the selected classrooms will perform the same activities as the project scientists. They will have to process rapidly the proprietary data in order to identify MarsQuake(s) and will be allowed to perform

  16. Wide-Angle Refraction Tomographic Inversion of Mid Cayman Spreading Center and its Oceanic Core Complex, CaySEIS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, J.; Van Avendonk, H. J.; Hayman, N. W.; Grevemeyer, I.; Peirce, C.; Dannowski, A.; Papenberg, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The CaySEIS experiment, conducted in April 2015, is a multi-national collaborative seismic study of the Mid Cayman Spreading Center (MCSC), an ultra-slow spreading center [15 mm/yr fr] in the Caribbean Sea. Ultra-slow spreading centers are thought to have very thin crust and a paucity of magmatism due to cooler mantle conditions. However, the suggestion that gabbro-cored oceanic core complexes (OCCs), volcanic deposits, and multiple layers of hydrothermal vents are widespread in the MCSC and other ultra-slow spreading centers has led to questions about the relationship between seafloor spreading rates and magmatism. To investigate this further, we conducted the CaySEIS experiment, with five wide-angle seismic refraction lines parallel and perpendicular to the neovolcanic zone. This analysis is based on two east-west oriented 100-km-long seismic refraction lines, which were each occupied by 18 ocean bottom seismometers. Line 2 lies across the central MCSC and an OCC called Mt. Dent. Line 3 crosses the northern end of the MCSC near the Oriente Transform Zone. With the wide-angle OBS data we can image the seismic velocity structure of Mt. Dent and distinguish between two models of OCCs - either Mt. Dent is composed of mostly gabbro with peridotite lenses identified by a low velocity gradient, or it is composed of mostly peridotite with gabbroic bodies identified by a constant velocity gradient. The crustal structure of both lines gives more insight into the asymmetry of the MCSC and the style of seafloor spreading to the east vs. the west. The 2-D velocity models reveal Mt. Dent has thick crust of 8 km with a low velocity gradient, supporting the magmatic gabbroic origin of OCCs. The surrounding crust to the west of the MCSC is highly variable, with areas of very thin crust. The crust to the east of the MCSC has an approximately constant thickness of 4 km. The development of OCCs may contribute to the crustal heterogeneity of ultra-slow spreading centers.

  17. MineSeis -- A MATLAB GUI program to calculate synthetic seismograms from a linear, multi-shot blast source model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.

    1998-12-31

    Modeling ground motions from multi-shot, delay-fired mining blasts is important to the understanding of their source characteristics such as spectrum modulation. MineSeis is a MATLAB{reg_sign} (a computer language) Graphical User Interface (GUI) program developed for the effective modeling of these multi-shot mining explosions. The program provides a convenient and interactive tool for modeling studies. Multi-shot, delay-fired mining blasts are modeled as the time-delayed linear superposition of identical single shot sources in the program. These single shots are in turn modeled as the combination of an isotropic explosion source and a spall source. Mueller and Murphy`s (1971) model for underground nuclear explosions is used as the explosion source model. A modification of Anandakrishnan et al.`s (1997) spall model is developed as the spall source model. Delays both due to the delay-firing and due to the single-shot location differences are taken into account in calculating the time delays of the superposition. Both synthetic and observed single-shot seismograms can be used to construct the superpositions. The program uses MATLAB GUI for input and output to facilitate user interaction with the program. With user provided source and path parameters, the program calculates and displays the source time functions, the single shot synthetic seismograms and the superimposed synthetic seismograms. In addition, the program provides tools so that the user can manipulate the results, such as filtering, zooming and creating hard copies.

  18. SEI lander requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daues, Katherine R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses lander requirements for missions to the moon and to Mars. These requirements vary depending on a number of factors ranging from overall program strategy to specific mission needs. There are also differences between landers delivering people and cargo to the moon and those required to deliver people and cargo to Mars. These differences are discussed and example missions are used to illustrate the ranges in lander requirements.

  19. SEI Approach to Harmonization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-18

    Osterweil: Little JIL process language • Amescua, Garcia , Sanchez et. al.: Patterns • Others Multimodel Harmonization Builds on Existing Works © 2008...James, A Systems Approach to Process Infrastructure, INCOSE Symposium 2005 [Amescua-Sanchez] Amescua, Antonio, Javier Garcia , Maria-Isabel Sanchez-Segura...Industrial Design Engineering at the Royal College of Art (RCA) in London. [Byrnes –Vasques 07] Byrnes, Paul D. and Renato Chaves Vasques, Integrated

  20. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Chiyo; Sasaki, Motoki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time.

  1. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  2. DigitSeis: A New Digitization Software and its Application to the Harvard-Adam Dziewoński Observatory Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogiatzis, P.; Altoé, I. L.; Karamitrou, A.; Ishii, M.; Ishii, H.

    2015-12-01

    DigitSeis is a new open-source, interactive digitization software written in MATLAB that converts digital, raster images of analog seismograms to readily usable, discretized time series using image processing algorithms. DigitSeis automatically identifies and corrects for various geometrical distortions of seismogram images that are acquired through the original recording, storage, and scanning procedures. With human supervision, the software further identifies and classifies important features such as time marks and notes, corrects time-mark offsets from the main trace, and digitizes the combined trace with an analysis to obtain as accurate timing as possible. Although a large effort has been made to minimize the human input, DigitSeis provides interactive tools for challenging situations such as trace crossings and stains in the paper. The effectiveness of the software is demonstrated with the digitization of seismograms that are over half a century old from the Harvard-Adam Dziewoński observatory that is still in operation as a part of the Global Seismographic Network (station code HRV and network code IU). The spectral analysis of the digitized time series shows no spurious features that may be related to the occurrence of minute and hour marks. They also display signals associated with significant earthquakes, and a comparison of the spectrograms with modern recordings reveals similarities in the background noise.

  3. Enterotoxin Gene Cluster-Encoded SEI and SElN from Staphylococcus aureus Isolates are Crucial for the Induction of Human Blood Cell Proliferation and Pathogenicity in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Roetzer, Andreas; Gruener, Corina S.; Haller, Guenter; Beyerly, John; Model, Nina; Eibl, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Among the toxin family of bacterial superantigens, the six members of the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) seem to have unusual characteristics. They are present in the majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains, but their role in disease remains uncertain. We assessed secretion levels, immunogenicity, and toxicity of native and recombinant egc proteins. After having developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we found different quantities of egc proteins secreted by bacterial isolates. Supernatants induced proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, purified recombinant egc proteins were shown to have differing superantigenicity potentials. Immunization with identical amounts of all members of egc, and the prominent toxic agent SEB, resulted in neutralizing antisera. Two egc proteins, SEI and SElN, were found to play a predominant role within the cluster. Both displayed the highest potential to activate blood cells, and were essential to be neutralized in supernatants. The application of a supernatant of a strain bearing only egc was sufficient for a lethal outcome in a rabbit model. Again, neutralization of SEI and SElN led to the survival of all tested animals. Finally, nanogram amounts of purified rSEI and rSElN led to lethality in vivo, pointing out the importance of both as virulence determinants among egc superantigens. PMID:27801832

  4. Social Exclusion Index-for Health Surveys (SEI-HS): a prospective nationwide study to extend and validate a multidimensional social exclusion questionnaire.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Addi P L; Hoff, Stella J M; Schreurs, Hanneke; van Loon, Annelies; van Hemert, Albert M

    2017-03-14

    Social exclusion (SE) refers to the inability of certain groups or individuals to fully participate in society. SE is associated with socioeconomic inequalities in health, and its measurement in routine public health monitoring is considered key to designing effective health policies. In an earlier retrospective analysis we demonstrated that in all four major Dutch cities, SE could largely be measured with existing local public health monitoring data. The current prospective study is aimed at constructing and validating an extended national measure for SE that optimally employs available items. In 2012, a stratified general population sample of 258,928 Dutch adults completed a version of the Netherlands Public Health Monitor (PHM) questionnaire in which 9 items were added covering aspects of SE that were found to be missing in our previous research. Items were derived from the SCP social exclusion index, a well-constructed 15-item instrument developed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP). The dataset was randomly divided into a development sample (N =129,464) and a validation sample (N = 129,464). Canonical correlation analysis was conducted in the development sample. The psychometric properties were studied and compared with those of the original SCP index. All analyses were then replicated in the validation sample. The analysis yielded a four dimensional index, the Social Exclusion Index for Health Surveys (SEI-HS), containing 8 SCP items and 9 PHM items. The four dimensions: "lack of social participation", "material deprivation", "lack of normative integration" and "inadequate access to basic social rights", were each measured with 3 to 6 items. The SEI-HS showed adequate internal consistency for both the general index and for two of four dimension scales. The internal structure and construct validity of the SEI-HS were satisfactory and similar to the original SCP index. Replication of the SEI-HS in the validation sample confirmed its

  5. Developing Sustainable Urban Water-Energy Infrastructures: Applying a Multi-Sectoral Social-Ecological-Infrastructural Systems (SEIS) Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswami, A.

    2016-12-01

    Urban infrastructure - broadly defined to include the systems that provide water, energy, food, shelter, transportation-communication, sanitation and green/public spaces in cities - have tremendous impact on the environment and on human well-being (Ramaswami et al., 2016; Ramaswami et al., 2012). Aggregated globally, these sectors contribute 90% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and 96% of global water withdrawals. Urban infrastructure contributions to such impacts are beginning to dominate. Cities are therefore becoming the action arena for infrastructure transformations that can achieve high levels of service delivery while reducing environmental impacts and enhancing human well-being. Achieving sustainable urban infrastructure transitions requires: information about the engineered infrastructure, and its interaction with the natural (ecological-environmental) and the social sub-systems In this paper, we apply a multi-sector, multi-scalar Social-Ecological-Infrastructural Systems framework that describes the interactions among biophysical engineered infrastructures, the natural environment and the social system in a systems-approach to inform urban infrastructure transformations. We apply the SEIS framework to inform water and energy sector transformations in cities to achieve environmental and human health benefits realized at multiple scales - local, regional and global. Local scales address pollution, health, wellbeing and inequity within the city; regional scales address regional pollution, scarcity, as well as supply risks in the water-energy sectors; global impacts include greenhouse gas emissions and climate impacts. Different actors shape infrastructure transitions including households, businesses, and policy actors. We describe the development of novel cross-sectoral strategies at the water-energy nexus in cities, focusing on water, waste and energy sectors, in a case study of Delhi, India. Ramaswami, A.; Russell, A.G.; Culligan, P.J.; Sharma, K

  6. A New Look at the Bathymetric and Potential-Field Structure of the Cayman Trough via CaySEIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, N. W.; Harding, J.; Van Avendonk, H. J.; Peirce, C.; Grevemeyer, I.; Dannowski, A.; Papenberg, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cayman Trough (CT) has one of the world's deepest axial valleys, thinnest crust, end-member basalt composition, and slowest spreading rate. Accommodating motion between the North American and Caribbean plates, and the Gonave microplate, marine magnetic anomalies show that the Mid-Cayman Spreading Center (MCSC) has been spreading at ~15 mm/yr (F.R.) since 20 Ma, if not 49 Ma. At a little over 100 km in length, the MCSC is now recognized to host oceanic core complexes (OCCs), hydrothermal vents, and a seafloor of variably distributed lower crustal gabbros, upper mantle peridotite/serpentinite, and basaltic lavas. Though spreading rate appears to be relatively symmetric over geologic time, the structure of the CT is quite asymmetric, with a broad region of low gravity and somewhat lineated magnetic anomalies to the east, and gravity highs and irregular magnetic anomalies to the west. Until now it has been difficult to further assess the nature of the CT because of the sparse and generally old data from the region; the CT's claim on thinnest crust, for example, stems primarily from pre-1960's seismic data and inferences from satellite gravity. The CaySEIS active-source OBS-experiment on the R/V Meteor thus set out in April of 2015 to provide a more complete, deeper view of the CT. A serendipitous discovery during the expedition is that the off-axis seafloor is characterized by curvilinear ridges preserving what appear to be dismembered OCCs. Thus, a previously proposed model based on the oblique volcanic ridge to the south of the axial OCC, Mt. Dent, could also apply to the geologic history of the CT. This model, which we call "the magmatic cleaver", envisions how intrusions cut the OCC surfaces and raft the hanging-wall-dominated portion of the OCC to the east, and the footwall-dominated portion to the west. The "cleaver" appears to have been operating over at least the last 20 Ma, illustrating how melt flow in ultraslow-spread crust can create distinctive

  7. Cusp Ion Fountain Observations from the e-POP Suprathermal Electron Imager (SEI) with DMSP and RISR-N conjunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Low-energy (<10 eV) ion upflows associated with ambipolar ion acceleration in the cusp/cleft and polar cap regions are investigated using conjunctions of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) satellite, the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N) and the DMSP satellites in June 2014. e-POP encountered the cusp/cleft ion fountain at 10-14 MLT and around 1000 km altitude during these experiments. Such intermediate-altitude observations of ion upflow have been sampled only rarely by previous satellite missions and ground-based radars. The Suprathermal Electron Imager (SEI) onboard e-POP measures two-dimensional ion distribution functions with a frame rate of 100 images per second, from which, high-precision energy and angle information of entering ions can be inferred. Large field-aligned ion bulk flow velocities (2.5 km/s) are estimated from the angle information with a resolution of the order of 25 m/s. The ion velocities were, in general, upward in the cusp region and downward in the polar cap region. The ion temperatures have been resolved by investigating the slop shape of the distribution function. It has been found that only weak perpendicular (to B) heating occurred during these events, which when combined with the simultaneous soft electron precipitation observed by the DMSP SSJ/4 instrument, suggests that ambipolar electric fields play a dominant role in accelerating ions upward at and below 1000 km. Also, structured DC field-aligned currents derived from the magnetic field instrument (MGF) onboard e-POP are found to be well-correlated with upflow velocities. In addition, ion composition information is available from e-POP's ion mass spectrometer (IRM). Oxygen ions (O+) were found to dominate (85%) in the identified events, accompanied by a small fraction (15%) of hydrogen ions (H+) and helium ions (He+). We will compare these in situ measurements with RISR-N observations in order to further our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for, and

  8. p34SEI-1 inhibits doxorubicin-induced senescence through a pathway mediated by protein kinase C-delta and c-Jun-NH2-kinase 1 activation in human breast cancer MCF7 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sae Lo Oom; Hong, Seung-Woo; Shin, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jin Sun; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Hong, Nam-Joo; Kim, Dae Jin; Lee, Wang-Jae; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Myeong-Sok

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we describe a novel function of the p34(SEI-1) protein, which is both an oncogenic protein and a positive regulator of the cell cycle. The p34(SEI-1) protein was found to inhibit doxorubicin-induced senescence. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of p34(SEI-1) on senescence. First, we found that the activation of protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta), which is cleaved into a 38 kDa active form from a 78 kDa pro-form, induced after doxorubicin treatment, was inhibited by p34(SEI-1). Furthermore, p34(SEI-1) induced the ubiquitination of PKC-delta. Yet, there is no interaction between p34(SEI-1) and PKC-delta. We also found that the phosphorylation of c-Jun-NH(2)-kinase 1 (JNK1) induced after doxorubicin treatment was suppressed by p34(SEI-1), but not in JNK2. Consistently, pharmacologic or genetic inactivation of either PKC-delta or JNK1 was found to inhibit doxorubicin-induced senescence. In addition, the genetic inactivation of PKC-delta by PKC-delta small interfering RNA resulted in an inhibition of JNK1 activation, but PKC-delta expression was not inactivated by JNK1 small interfering RNA, implying that the activation of JNK1 could be dependently induced by PKC-delta. Therefore, p34(SEI-1) inhibits senescence by inducing PKC-delta ubiquitination and preventing PKC-delta-dependent phosphorylation of JNK1.

  9. Molecular and epidemiological characterization of staphylococcal foodborne outbreak of Staphylococcus aureus harboring seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and selu genes without production of classical enterotoxins.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Kaoru; Nakamura, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Kaori; Nishina, Nobuko; Yasufuku, Kiyoshi; Hirai, Yuki; Hirayama, Teruo; Goto, Kaoru; Hase, Atsushi; Ogasawara, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is the result of consumption of food contaminated with staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus. To date, 23 SEs and SE-like enterotoxins (SEls) have been described in the literature. They are divided into classical SEs (SEA-SEE) and new SE/SEls (SEG-SElX). Some have proved to be foodborne-inducible, but others remain unidentified. In May 2016, at an elderly group home in Osaka city, Japan, an outbreak from foodborne pathogens occurred among lunch party participants. Within 2h 30min to 4h 40min, 15 of 53 participants presented gastrointestinal symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, and nausea. A subsequent laboratory investigation detected S. aureus from most stool samples from patients, several left-over food items, a kitchen swab, and hand swabs from two food handlers. Classical SEs was not detected from S. aureus isolates or left-over food items. From examination for the presence of SE/SEl genes of 20 kinds by PCR, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and selu genes were detected in almost all isolates. These isolates exhibited identical or closely related types by coagulase type (type VII), Sma I digested pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST-CC45 lineage). These results suggest that the foodborne outbreak was caused by S. aureus harboring seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and selu genes without production of classical SEs. Additionally, some S. aureus isolates from human nasal swabs and healthy human feces harboring seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and selu genes without production of classical SEs were classified into CC45 lineage using MLST. These findings suggest new SE/SEls as a potential cause of foodborne outbreaks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. SM1.3 Seismic Centers Data Acquisition: an introduction to Antelope, EarthWorm, SeisComP and their usage around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Sleeman, Reinoud

    2010-05-01

    Many medium to big size seismic data centers around the world are facing the same question: which software to use to acquire seismic data in real-time? A home-made or a commercial one? Both choices have pros and cons. The in-house development of software usually requires an increased investment in human resources rather than a financial investment. However, the advantage of fully accomplishing your own needs could be put in danger when the software engineer quits the job! Commercial software offers the advantage of being maintained, but it may require both a considerable financial investment and training. The main seismic software data acquisition suites available nowadays are the public domain SeisComP and EarthWorm packages and the commercial package Antelope. Nanometrics, Guralp and RefTek also provide seismic data acquisition software, but they are mainly intended for single station/network acquisition. Antelope is a software package for real-time acquisition and processing of seismic network data, with its roots in the academic seismological community. The software is developed by Boulder Real Time Technology (BRTT) and commercialized by Kinemetrics. It is used by IRIS affiliates for off-line data processing and it is the main acquisition tool for the USArray program and data centers in Europe like the ORFEUS Data Center, OGS (Italy), ZAMG (Austria), ARSO (Slovenia) and GFU (Czech Republic). SeisComP was originally developed for the GEOFON global network to provide a system for data acquisition, data exchange (SeedLink protocol) and automatic processing. It has evolved into to a widely distributed, networked seismographic system for data acquisition and real-time data exchange over Internet and is supported by ORFEUS as the standard seismic data acquisition tool in Europe. SeisComP3 is the next generation of the software and was developed for the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). SeisComP is licensed by GFZ (free of charge) and

  11. Strategy on removing oxygen impurity for crystal growth of one candidate Tl6SeI4 for room-temperature hard radiation detector(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenwen; Liu, Zhifu; Churilov, Alexei V.; He, Yihui; Kim, Hadong; Cirignano, Leonard J.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Li, Hao; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Chung, Duck Young; Wessels, Bruce W.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2016-09-01

    Thallium based chalcogenide and halide semiconductors such as Tl4HgI6, TlGaSe2, Tl6SeI4 and Tl6SI4 are promising materials for room-temperature hard radiation detection. They feature appropriate band gaps, high mass densities and facile growth technology. However, these materials are being plagued by the Tl oxides impurity from Tl precursor or Tl containing binary precursors, which leads to problems including tube breakage, parasitic nucleation and detector performance deterioration. In this work, we present a facile way to chemically reduce Tl oxidations, and then eliminate oxygen impurity by adding high-purity graphite powder during synthesis and crystal growth. We also further investigated the reactivity between Tl oxides and graphite. The detector performance of Tl6SeI4 crystal was dramatically improved after lowering/removing the oxygen impurities. This result not only indicates the significance of removing oxygen impurity for improving detector performance. Our results suggest that the chemical reduction method we developed by adding carbon powder during synthesis is highly effective in substantially reducing oxygen impurities from Tl containing materials.

  12. The Smile Esthetic Index (SEI): A method to measure the esthetics of the smile. An intra-rater and inter-rater agreement study.

    PubMed

    Rotundo, Roberto; Nieri, Michele; Bonaccini, Daniele; Mori, Massimiliano; Lamberti, Elena; Massironi, Domenico; Giachetti, Luca; Franchi, Lorenzo; Venezia, Piero; Cavalcanti, Raffaele; Bondi, Elena; Farneti, Mauro; Pinchi, Vilma; Buti, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    To propose a method to measure the esthetics of the smile and to report its validation by means of an intra-rater and inter-rater agreement analysis. Ten variables were chosen as determinants for the esthetics of a smile: smile line and facial midline, tooth alignment, tooth deformity, tooth dischromy, gingival dischromy, gingival recession, gingival excess, gingival scars and diastema/missing papillae. One examiner consecutively selected seventy smile pictures, which were in the frontal view. Ten examiners, with different levels of clinical experience and specialties, applied the proposed assessment method twice on the selected pictures, independently and blindly. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Fleiss' kappa) statistics were performed to analyse the intra-rater and inter-rater agreement. Considering the cumulative assessment of the Smile Esthetic Index (SEI), the ICC value for the inter-rater agreement of the 10 examiners was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.51 to 0.72), representing a substantial agreement. Intra-rater agreement ranged from 0.86 to 0.99. Inter-rater agreement (Fleiss' kappa statistics) calculated for each variable ranged from 0.17 to 0.75. The SEI was a reproducible method, to assess the esthetic component of the smile, useful for the diagnostic phase and for setting appropriate treatment plans.

  13. First results from the NEAREST-SEIS deep seismic cruise across the Gulf of Cadiz accretionary wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.-A.; Graindorge, D.; Sallarès, V.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz lies offshore of Southwest Iberia and Northwest Morocco, bounded to the West by the Azores-Gibraltar transform and to the East by the Betic-Rif mountain belt. The region is famous for the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami. Here the plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia is complex, marked by a broad region of deformation spanning about 200 km in a north-south direction. One of the most striking structures characterizing the Gulf of Cadiz is the presence of a thick tectonically deformed sedimentary wedge, which is interpreted as an accretionary wedge formed by the W to SW migration of the Rif-Betic block. Two types of geodynamic models have been proposed to explain the recent tectonics and formation of this region: those invoking delamination of continental lithosphere beneath the Betic-Rif Alboran Sea region, and those favouring subduction of oceanic lithosphere, with associated roll-back. Numerous marine geophysical surveys were performed in the Gulf of Cadiz area during the last years, many as part of the NEAREST European project. Multi-beam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic (MCS) data were acquired, which help constrain the upper crustal structures. Deep structural maps demonstrate that sediment thicknesses in the central Gulf of Cadiz (beneath the accretionary wedge) reach a maximum of 12-13 km. Additional wide-angle seismic records acquired during the SISMAR experiment (2001) testify to the difficulty of even low-frequency waves to penetrate below this thick sedimentary body. Nevertheless, from the resulting models a 7-to-10-km thick basement is inferred beneath the western and central Gulf, which forms a roughly E-W oriented trough between the thicker (20-30 km) continental crust of SW Iberia and NW Morocco. During the NEAREST-SEIS cruise on the B/O Hesperides (nov. 2008), two wide-angle seismic lines were acquired in the Gulf of Cadiz area using a seismic source composed of seven 1500LL Bolt airguns (4520 in3), shot at 90 s

  14. Small-scale spatial variability of sperm and sei whales in relation to oceanographic and topographic features along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skov, H.; Gunnlaugsson, T.; Budgell, W. P.; Horne, J.; Nøttestad, L.; Olsen, E.; Søiland, H.; Víkingsson, G.; Waring, G.

    2008-01-01

    The 2004 Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR)-ECO expedition on the R.V. G.O. Sars provided the first opportunity to correlate oceanic distributions of cetaceans with synoptic acoustic (ADCP to 700 m depth, multi-beam echosounders) measurements of high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) potential habitat (spatial scale<100 km). The identified habitat features were tested with independent observations from the Icelandic combined cetacean and redfish cruises in 2001 and 2003 using data from a 3D ocean general circulation model of the MAR region (Regional Oceans Modelling System (ROMS) model 5 km resolution). The spatial autocorrelation of sampled encounter rates of sperm Physeter macrocephalus and sei whales Balaenoptera borealis indicated scale-dependent variability in the distribution of both species. Despite the large area surveyed, the observations of both species exhibited a strong small-scale structure (range parameter 20-50 km), indicating affinities to cross-seamount or cross-frontal structures. Potential cross-seamount and cross-frontal habitat structures were derived from the acoustic transect data by analysing fine-scale gradients in the 3D flow patterns and bathymetry, including interactions between frontal and topographic parameters. PLS regression was used to determine the potential habitat drivers of sperm and sei whales, both during the G.O. Sars cruise and during the Icelandic cruises in 2001 and 2003. The selected parameters, which reflected flow gradients interacting with the steep topography, were finally applied for modelling the habitat suitability of both target species along the northern MAR using Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. The results suggest aggregations of sperm and sei whales along the MAR are primarily associated with fine-scale frontal processes interacting with the topography in the upper 100 m of the water column just north of the Sub-Polar Front (SPF) and the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ). As moderate and high habitat suitabilities

  15. The Multi-factor Predictive Seis &Gis Model of Ecological, Genetical, Population Health Risk and Bio-geodynamic Processes In Geopathogenic Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Y.

    I. Goal and Scope. Human birth rate decrease, death-rate growth and increase of mu- tagenic deviations risk take place in geopathogenic and anthropogenic hazard zones. Such zones create unfavourable conditions for reproductive process of future genera- tions. These negative trends should be considered as a protective answer of the com- plex biosocial system to the appearance of natural and anthropogenic risk factors that are unfavourable for human health. The major goals of scientific evaluation and de- crease of risk of appearance of hazardous processes on the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, along with creation of the multi-factor predictive Spirit-Energy-Information Space "SEIS" & GIS Model of ecological, genetical and population health risk in connection with dangerous bio-geodynamic processes, were: multi-factor modeling and correla- tion of natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and those of human health; determination of indicators that show the risk of destruction structures appearance on different levels of organization and functioning of the city ecosystem (geophys- ical and geochemical fields, soil, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere); analysis of regularities of natural, anthropogenic, and biological rhythms' interactions. II. Meth- ods. The long spatio-temporal researches (Y. Bondarenko, 1996, 2000) have proved that the ecological, genetic and epidemiological processes are in connection with de- velopment of dangerous bio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic processes. Mathemat- ical processing of space photos, lithogeochemical and geophysical maps with use of JEIS o and ERDAS o computer systems was executed at the first stage of forma- tion of multi-layer geoinformation model "Dnipropetrovsk ARC View GIS o. The multi-factor nonlinear correlation between solar activity and cosmic ray variations, geophysical, geodynamic, geochemical, atmospheric, technological, biological, socio- economical processes and oncologic case rate frequency, general and primary

  16. Recent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatories Part 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm and SeisComP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurel, Jean-Marie; Randriamora, Frédéric; Bosson, Alexis; Kitou, Thierry; Vidal, Cyril; Bouin, Marie-Paule; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Clouard, Valérie

    2010-05-01

    Lesser Antilles observatories are in charge of monitoring the volcanoes and earthquakes in the Eastern Caribbean region. During the past two years, our seismic networks have evolved toward a full digital technology. These changes, which include modern three components sensors, high dynamic range digitizers, high speed terrestrial and satellite telemetry, improve data quality but also increase the data flows to process and to store. Moreover, the generalization of data exchange to build a wide virtual seismic network around the Caribbean domain requires a great flexibility to provide and receive data flows in various formats. As many observatories, we have decided to use the most popular and robust open source data acquisition systems in use in today observatories community : EarthWorm and SeisComP. The first is renowned for its ability to process real time seismic data flows, with a high number of tunable modules (filters, triggers, automatic pickers, locators). The later is renowned for its ability to exchange seismic data using the international SEED standard (Standard for Exchange of Earthquake Data), either by producing archive files, or by managing output and input SEEDLink flows. French Antilles Seismological and Volcanological Observatories have chosen to take advantage of the best features of each software to design a new data flow scheme and to integrate it in our global observatory data management system, WebObs [Beauducel et al., 2004]1, see the companion paper (Part 2). We assigned the tasks to the different softwares, regarding their main abilities : - EarthWorm first performs the integration of data from different heterogeneous sources; - SeisComP takes all this homogeneous EarthWorm data flow, adds other sources and produces SEED archives and SEED data flow; - EarthWorm is then used again to process this clean and complete SEEDLink data flow, mainly producing triggers, automatic locations and alarms; - WebObs provides a friendly human interface, both

  17. Predicting the occurrence of embolic events: an analysis of 1456 episodes of infective endocarditis from the Italian Study on Endocarditis (SEI)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Embolic events are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with infective endocarditis. We analyzed the database of the prospective cohort study SEI in order to identify factors associated with the occurrence of embolic events and to develop a scoring system for the assessment of the risk of embolism. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 1456 episodes of infective endocarditis from the multicenter study SEI. Predictors of embolism were identified. Risk factors identified at multivariate analysis as predictive of embolism in left-sided endocarditis, were used for the development of a risk score: 1 point was assigned to each risk factor (total risk score range: minimum 0 points; maximum 2 points). Three categories were defined by the score: low (0 points), intermediate (1 point), or high risk (2 points); the probability of embolic events per risk category was calculated for each day on treatment (day 0 through day 30). Results There were 499 episodes of infective endocarditis (34%) that were complicated by ≥ 1 embolic event. Most embolic events occurred early in the clinical course (first week of therapy: 15.5 episodes per 1000 patient days; second week: 3.7 episodes per 1000 patient days). In the total cohort, the factors associated with the occurrence of embolism at multivariate analysis were prosthetic valve localization (odds ratio, 1.84), right-sided endocarditis (odds ratio, 3.93), Staphylococcus aureus etiology (odds ratio, 2.23) and vegetation size ≥ 13 mm (odds ratio, 1.86). In left-sided endocarditis, Staphylococcus aureus etiology (odds ratio, 2.1) and vegetation size ≥ 13 mm (odds ratio, 2.1) were independently associated with embolic events; the 30-day cumulative incidence of embolism varied with risk score category (low risk, 12%; intermediate risk, 25%; high risk, 38%; p < 0.001). Conclusions Staphylococcus aureus etiology and vegetation size are associated with an increased risk of embolism. In left

  18. The Correlation of Tree Phenology with nest number of Orang Utan Sumatera (Pongo abelii) on Primary Forest, Resort Sei Betung, Gunung Leuser National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartini, K. S.; Patana, P.; Oktaviani, M.

    2017-03-01

    Food availability affect the orangutan activities, including activities to make nests. This study was conducted to determine the correlation between the phenology of trees with the number of nests made by orangutans in primary forest Resort Sei Betung, Gunung Leuser National Park. Multi linear regression was used in this study to determine the relation and correlation between phenology and the presence of orangutan nests on a track that has been created. It took over 6 months (March - August 2015). There were 15 orangutan nests found on the track during the study. The equation model was : = 27,649 -0,011X1-0,104X2-0,056X3, and there was no significant differences (sig >0,05). The value of R2 was 70,3%. It means that all predictors simultaneously explain 70,3% of the presence of orangutan’s nest, and there is an expected predictors that may be the most affect on nest presence. The season or the intensity of rain may consider as an expected predictor.

  19. MineSeis -- A MATLAB{reg_sign} GUI program to calculate synthetic seismograms from a linear, multi-shot blast source model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.

    1998-04-01

    Large scale (up to 5 kt) chemical blasts are routinely conducted by mining and quarry industries around the world to remove overburden or to fragment rocks. Because of their ability to trigger the future International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), these blasts are monitored and studied by verification seismologists for the purpose of discriminating them from possible clandestine nuclear tests. One important component of these studies is the modeling of ground motions from these blasts with theoretical and empirical source models. The modeling exercises provide physical bases to regional discriminants and help to explain the observed signal characteristics. The program MineSeis has been developed to implement the synthetic seismogram modeling of multi-shot blast sources with the linear superposition of single shot sources. Single shot sources used in the modeling are the spherical explosion plus spall model mentioned here. Mueller and Murphy`s (1971) model is used as the spherical explosion model. A modification of Anandakrishnan et al.`s (1997) spall model is developed for the spall component. The program is implemented with the MATLAB{reg_sign} Graphical User Interface (GUI), providing the user with easy, interactive control of the calculation.

  20. SEI Software Engineering Education Directory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    Applications, Kroenke, D. Systems: VAx-8600 Artficial Intelligence : Theory and Practice CS 462 U P X T Textbooks:Artficial Intelligence , Winston, Patrick H...and the second part, if present, is the subject. The abbreviations used are: DEGREES SUBJECTS B Bachelor Degree Al Artificial Intelligence BA...3 Systems Analysis and Design IE 431 U P R 0 Systems: UNIX ECN Network Programming Languages for Artificial Intelligence IE 547 B P E Y Textbooks

  1. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales

    PubMed Central

    KITAYAMA, Chiyo; SASAKI, Motoki; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KONDOH, Daisuke; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe3+) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  2. Recommendations from the AIA/SEI Workshop on Research Advances Required for Real-Time Software Systems in the 1990’s held at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on 13-14 September 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    decision making under a problem domain "* online planning - shipboard, in route, getting back, on-vehicle mission replanning "• low-level adaptive control...of an ultra-reliable underwater vehicle: "* fault tolerance "• vehicle online planning "• adaptive control "* data compression "* rule-based systems...SEI-89-SR-18 6.5 System Connectivity * As SPOc systems employ distributed processor architectures and themselves form part of even larger space

  3. New Constraints on Buried Triassic Basins of the Eastern North American Margin and Implications for Regional Tectonics from Reanalysis of SeisData6 Seismic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, C. C.; Akintunde, O. M.; Knapp, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) is most significant due to the complexity and regional extent of this mature Mesozoic passive margin rift system encompassing: (1) a large volume and regional extent of related magmatism, (2) a preserved complete stratigraphic column that records the post-rift evolution in several basins, (3) preserved lithospheric-scale pre-rift structures including Paleozoic sutures, and (4) a wide-range of geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies both onshore and offshore. The short-lived but most voluminous magmatic event associated with the initiation of rifting, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), is one of the most significant magmatic events in North America. The South Georgia Rift (SGR) basin is believed to be the largest and probably the most geologically complex Mesozoic graben of the ENAM formed during crustal extension associated with the breakup of Pangea and later opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The separation of the African and North American plates, the formation of the Atlantic Ocean and the associated zones of weakness in eastern North America have been stated as the initial events in the breakup of Pangea. At least four major unanswered questions of regional tectonic significance derive from a previous study of the USGS SeisData6 seismic profile across the Coastal Plain of South East Georgia and are now addressed through reprocessing. These issues are: (1) the stratigraphy, structural composition, extent and thickness of this buried basin which have remained unknown, (2) whether or not the SGR basin is connected with the Riddleville and Dunbarton basins in Georgia and South Carolina, (3) whether or not the Augusta fault, an inferred crustal scale thrust fault which approximately represents the Piedmont-Coastal Plain boundary in Georgia and South Carolina, extends underneath the Coastal Plain sediments, and (4) weather there is evidence of CAMP basalt flows or sills within the SGR basin along this

  4. Seismic structure and crustal nature of the geological provinces off the SW Iberian margin: results of the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallares, V.; Martinez, S.; Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.; Diaz, J.

    2010-12-01

    The region offshore the SW Iberian margin hosts the present-day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates causing continuous seismic activity of moderate magnitude. In autumn 2008 a Spanish-French team carried out a wide-angle seismic survey in the area (NEAREST-SEIS cruise), in the framework of the EU-funded NEAREST project. During the survey two long profiles were acquired using a pool of 36 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), to provide information about the crustal structure and nature of the different geological provinces, and to reveal the deep geometry of the main fault interfaces. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE from the Tagus abyssal plain (TAP), crossing the Gorringe bank (GB), the Horseshoe abyssal plain (HAP) and the Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), up to the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine abyssal plain (SAP). The inverted model along this profile show four different domains. In the TAP a 3-4 km-thick, low velocity sedimentary layer covers the basement, which shows a velocity >7 km/s just 2-3 km below its top, similarly to that of the basement outcropping in the Gorringe bank. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an upper unit with low velocity corresponding to the Horseshoe gravitational unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which may represent the highly consolidated Mesozoic sedimentary sequence, with a total thickness of 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, we interpret this basement as highly serpentinized, exhumed mantle. In contrast, the CPR and SAP show evidences for the presence of a well-developed, 6-7 km-thick oceanic crust, underlying the sedimentary sequence. Profile P2 is 256 km long, and trends S-N from the easternmost SAP beyond the NW Moroccan margin, crossing the Gulf of Cadiz imbricated wedge and the Portimao bank ending at the

  5. Crustal nature and seismic structure of the geological provinces offshore the SW Iberia: Highlights of the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Loriente, S.; Sallares, V.; Gailler, A.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.; Gutscher, M.; Diaz, J.

    2011-12-01

    The SW Iberian margin hosts the present day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates at a rate of 4.5 mm/yr causing seismic activity of moderate magnitude. During fall 2008 and in the frame of the EU-funded NEAREST project, was carried out a wide-angle seismic survey (NEAREST-SEIS cruise) consisting in 2 profiles. The main objectives of the survey were to gather information about the geometry of the crust-mantle boundary, identify the nature of the different geological provinces, obtain the physical properties of the crust, and unveil the deep geometry of the interfaces between main faults. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE running from the Tagus Abyssal Plain (TAP), Gorringe Bank (GB), Horseshoe Abyssal Plain (HAP), Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), and finally reaching the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine Abyssal Plain (SAP). The inverted model shows four well-differentiated domains in terms of seismic structure. In the TAP there is a 3-4 km-thick sediment layer with low velocity, lying above a basement showing a remarkably high velocity (< 7 km/s), similar to that of the basement outcropping in the GB. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an uppermost unit with very low velocity corresponding to the Upper Miocene Horseshoe Gravitational Unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which corresponds to the Mesozoic sedimentary sequence, with a total thickness of 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, we interpret this basement as very serpentinized, exhumed upper mantle. In contrast, the CPR and SAP show evidence for the presence of a well-developed, 6-7 km-thick oceanic crust, underlying the 2-3 km thick Mesozoic and Neogene sedimentary sequence. Profile P2 is 256 km long and trends N-S, across the Iberian margin shelf, Portimao Bank, Gulf of Cadiz imbricated wedge and

  6. Seismic structure of the main geological provinces off the SW Iberian margin: first results from the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Gailler, Audrey; Bartolomé, Rafael; Gutscher, Marc-André; Graindorge, David; Lia Grácia, Eulà; Díaz, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    The region offshore the SW Iberian margin hosts the present-day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates at a rate of 4.5 mm/yr, fact that causes continuous seismic activity of moderate magnitude. In autumn 2008 a Spanish-French team carried out a refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic survey in the area (NEAREST-SEIS cruise), in the framework of the EU, FP6-funded NEAREST project. During the survey two long seismic profiles were acquired using a pool of 36 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), with the objectives of providing information about the geometry of the crust-mantle boundary and the physical properties of the crust, revealing the deep geometry of the main fault interfaces, and identifying the nature of the basement and the limits of the different geological provinces in the region. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE from the Tagus abyssal plain (TAP), crossing the Gorringe bank (GB), the Horseshoe abyssal plain (HAP) and the Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), up to the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine abyssal plain (SAP). The acquired data were modeled by joint refraction and reflection travel time inversion, following a layer-stripping strategy. The inverted model show four well-differentiated domains in terms of its seismic structure: In the TAP a 3-4 km-thick, low velocity sedimentary layer covers the basement, which shows a remarkably high velocity (>7 km/s), similar to that of the basement outcropping in the Gorringe bank. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an upper unit with low velocity corresponding to the Horseshoe gravitational unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which may represent the highly consolidated Mesozoic sedimentary sequence. The thickness of the two units together exceeds 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, and considering that

  7. The reactions of para-halo diaryl diselenides with halogens. A structural investigation of the CT compound (p-FC6H4)2Se2I2, and the first reported “RSeI3” compound, (p-ClC6H4)SeI·I2, which contains a covalent Se-I bond.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nicholas A; Godfrey, Stephen M; Hughes, Jill; Khan, Rana Z; Mushtaq, Imrana; Ollerenshaw, Ruth T A; Pritchard, Robin G; Sarwar, Shamsa

    2013-02-28

    The reactions of the diaryl-diselenides (p-FC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2) and (p-ClC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2) with diiodine have been investigated. Species of stoichiometry "RSeI" are formed when the ratio employed is 1:1. The solid-state structure of "(p-FC(6)H(4))SeI" has been determined, and shown to be a charge-transfer (CT) adduct, (p-FC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2)I(2), where the Se-Se bond is retained and the diiodine molecule interacts with only one of the selenium atoms. The Se-I bond in (p-FC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2)I(2) is 2.9835(12) Å, which is typical for a (10-I-2) Se-I-I CT system. When diiodine is reacted in a 3:1 ratio with (p-XC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2) (X = F, Cl) species of stoichiometry "RSeI(3)" are formed. The structure of "(p-ClC(6)H(4))SeI(3)" reveals that this is not a selenium(IV) compound, but is better represented as a selenium(II) CT adduct, (p-ClC(6)H(4))SeI·I(2). The Se-I bond to the diiodine molecule is typical in magnitude for a CT adduct, Se-I: 2.8672(5) Å, whereas the other Se-I bond is much shorter, Se-I: 2.5590(6) Å, and is a genuine example of a rarely observed covalent Se-I bond, which appears to be stabilised by a weak Se···I interaction from a neighbouring iodine atom. The reaction of (p-ClC(6)H(4))SeI with Ph(3)P results in the formation of a CT adduct, Ph(3)PSe(p-ClC(6)H(4))I, which has a T-shaped geometry at selenium (10-Se-3). By contrast, the reaction of (p-FC(6)H(4))SeI with Ph(3)P does not form an adduct, but results in the formation of Ph(3)PI(2) and (p-FC(6)H(4))(2)Se(2).

  8. Computational Exploration of the Li-Electrode|Electrolyte Interface in the Presence of a Nanometer Thick Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Layer [Computational exploration of the Li-electrode|electrolyte interface complicated by a nanometer thin solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yunsong; Leung, Kevin; Qi, Yue

    2016-09-30

    A nanometer thick passivation layer will spontaneously form on Li-metal in battery applications due to electrolyte reduction reactions. This passivation layer in rechargeable batteries must have “selective” transport properties: blocking electrons from attacking the electrolytes, while allowing Li+ ion to pass through so the electrochemical reactions can continue. The classical description of the electrochemical reaction, Li+ + e → Li0, occurring at the Li-metal|electrolyte interface is now complicated by the passivation layer and will reply on the coupling of electronic and ionic degrees of freedom in the layer. We consider the passivation layer, called “solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)”, as “themore » most important but the least understood in rechargeable Li-ion batteries,” partly due to the lack of understanding of its structure–property relationship. In predictive modeling, starting from the ab initio level, we find that it is an important tool to understand the nanoscale processes and materials properties governing the interfacial charge transfer reaction at the Li-metal|SEI|electrolyte interface. Here, we demonstrate pristine Li-metal surfaces indeed dissolve in organic carbonate electrolytes without the SEI layer. Based on joint modeling and experimental results, we point out that the well-known two-layer structure of SEI also exhibits two different Li+ ion transport mechanisms. The SEI has a porous (organic) outer layer permeable to both Li+ and anions (dissolved in electrolyte), and a dense (inorganic) inner layer facilitate only Li+ transport. This two-layer/two-mechanism diffusion model suggests only the dense inorganic layer is effective at protecting Li-metal in electrolytes. This model suggests a strategy to deconvolute the structure–property relationships of the SEI by analyzing an idealized SEI composed of major components, such as Li2CO3, LiF, Li2O, and their mixtures. After sorting out the Li+ ion diffusion carriers and

  9. Computational Exploration of the Li-Electrode|Electrolyte Interface in the Presence of a Nanometer Thick Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Layer [Computational exploration of the Li-electrode|electrolyte interface complicated by a nanometer thin solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yunsong; Leung, Kevin; Qi, Yue

    2016-09-30

    A nanometer thick passivation layer will spontaneously form on Li-metal in battery applications due to electrolyte reduction reactions. This passivation layer in rechargeable batteries must have “selective” transport properties: blocking electrons from attacking the electrolytes, while allowing Li+ ion to pass through so the electrochemical reactions can continue. The classical description of the electrochemical reaction, Li+ + e → Li0, occurring at the Li-metal|electrolyte interface is now complicated by the passivation layer and will reply on the coupling of electronic and ionic degrees of freedom in the layer. We consider the passivation layer, called “solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)”, as “the most important but the least understood in rechargeable Li-ion batteries,” partly due to the lack of understanding of its structure–property relationship. In predictive modeling, starting from the ab initio level, we find that it is an important tool to understand the nanoscale processes and materials properties governing the interfacial charge transfer reaction at the Li-metal|SEI|electrolyte interface. Here, we demonstrate pristine Li-metal surfaces indeed dissolve in organic carbonate electrolytes without the SEI layer. Based on joint modeling and experimental results, we point out that the well-known two-layer structure of SEI also exhibits two different Li+ ion transport mechanisms. The SEI has a porous (organic) outer layer permeable to both Li+ and anions (dissolved in electrolyte), and a dense (inorganic) inner layer facilitate only Li+ transport. This two-layer/two-mechanism diffusion model suggests only the dense inorganic layer is effective at protecting Li-metal in electrolytes. This model suggests a strategy to deconvolute the structure–property relationships of the SEI by analyzing an idealized SEI composed of major components, such as Li2CO3, LiF, Li

  10. Computational Exploration of the Li-Electrode|Electrolyte Interface in the Presence of a Nanometer Thick Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Layer [Computational exploration of the Li-electrode|electrolyte interface complicated by a nanometer thin solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yunsong; Leung, Kevin; Qi, Yue

    2016-09-30

    A nanometer thick passivation layer will spontaneously form on Li-metal in battery applications due to electrolyte reduction reactions. This passivation layer in rechargeable batteries must have “selective” transport properties: blocking electrons from attacking the electrolytes, while allowing Li+ ion to pass through so the electrochemical reactions can continue. The classical description of the electrochemical reaction, Li+ + e → Li0, occurring at the Li-metal|electrolyte interface is now complicated by the passivation layer and will reply on the coupling of electronic and ionic degrees of freedom in the layer. We consider the passivation layer, called “solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)”, as “the most important but the least understood in rechargeable Li-ion batteries,” partly due to the lack of understanding of its structure–property relationship. In predictive modeling, starting from the ab initio level, we find that it is an important tool to understand the nanoscale processes and materials properties governing the interfacial charge transfer reaction at the Li-metal|SEI|electrolyte interface. Here, we demonstrate pristine Li-metal surfaces indeed dissolve in organic carbonate electrolytes without the SEI layer. Based on joint modeling and experimental results, we point out that the well-known two-layer structure of SEI also exhibits two different Li+ ion transport mechanisms. The SEI has a porous (organic) outer layer permeable to both Li+ and anions (dissolved in electrolyte), and a dense (inorganic) inner layer facilitate only Li+ transport. This two-layer/two-mechanism diffusion model suggests only the dense inorganic layer is effective at protecting Li-metal in electrolytes. This model suggests a strategy to deconvolute the structure–property relationships of the SEI by analyzing an idealized SEI composed of major components, such as Li2CO3, LiF, Li

  11. SEI Strategic Plan: 1997-2001.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    planning starts long before the Congress completes its budget authorization and appropriation. Historically, circumstances such as changing customer needs and shifting resource allocations have made it necessary to change our plans.

  12. Shizuko Sei, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Draft SEI Program Plans: 1995-1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    EngineeringofTNtrk m*n Auftomatioeo Modeling fly Aquisition EngindeModng Prci e InietP vnio e Maturation of Engineering Practice Figure 3-1: Proposed 1995 Strategic...example, data that are generated in the course of software development but are pragmatically difficult to record). These issues will be addressed by...an- other, with the levels of knowledge maturity (described below) in the center: 0 Folklore: Pragmatic rules for recurring technical problems exist as

  14. NAVAIR/MITRE/SEI (NMS) Collaboration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    service to the Fleet. Aircraft: AV-8B, Harrier; H-53, Sea Stallion; C-130, Hercules; H-46, Sea Knight; V-22, Osprey ; VH-3, Presidential Helicopter http...FY 01 0 FY M - S L O C F L E E T S O F T W A R E Actual Growth Projection (00-03) Growth Includes: V22 1.2M F/A18EF...FY91 FY92 FY93 FY94 FY95 FY96 FY97 FY98 FY99 FY00 FY01 Reqmts Des Develop Ver Val OT Reqmts Design Develop V V OT Reqmts Design Develop Va Ve OT Reqmts

  15. Comparison of EPA's QMS to SEI's CMMI.

    PubMed

    Mills, P; Braun, L; Marohl, D

    2001-01-01

    EPA and other government organizations make decisions based on environmental measurements. How good are the data? How well are the data generators performing? What measurements apply to them? How can the data life cycle processes be improved so data generators can continually provide the best data? EPA's Quality Management System requirements go beyond evaluation of environmental data quality itself to examine systems associated with production, collection, processing (validation/verification), transfer, reduction, storage, and retrieval of data throughout a life cycle. This QMS specifies minimum quality requirements for particular environmental programs. But how can you measure and compare programs that go well beyond the minimum, towards optimal quality? This paper compares EPA's requirements for Quality Management Systems (R2) and Project Plans (R5) to the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model (CMMISM). The CMMISM model provides for growth (staged or continuous) and a comprehensive assessment that is not yet provided in EPA's R2 or R5. Properly implemented, the CMMISM model serves as a quality framework for integrating and aligning organizational processes and implementing a program of continual process improvements. It identifies process areas ("things to do"), and provides measures of performance ("how well things are done") against specific goals and practices. CMMISM uses a Systems Engineering Management approach, built on process models, that helps identify "how good" the system is. Goodness is defined as stages in a complete model for optimal operation. CMMISM provides two methods for evaluating the goodness of the project. The Staged model in CMMISM provides a Maturity Level that is a well-defined evolutionary plateau describing the manner in which a specified set of processes are performed. As the organization advances in maturity, these levels become more defined and processes are tailored for specific project needs. The other method is called the Continuous Model in CMMISM, and it allows you to achieve Capability Levels. These are used to describe how well each project is doing in relationship to the different process areas. There are six Capability Levels from 0-5 that apply to individual process areas. Organizations using the Capability Level approach can select individual process areas that are important to specific projects and work to improve the processes. Improving capability in individual process areas raises the organization's overall quality of products delivered. The Continuous Model, unlike the Staged Model, lets you pick higher maturity level process areas before completing all of the ones below. Environmental measurement programs need to focus on the quality of the systems where data are collected, processed, transferred, and so forth. DynCorp built on the quality foundation from our experience with R2 to successfully implement CMMISM practices in the development of Forms II Lite and other applications. DynCorp is now migrating to the CMMISM model that has evolved from the existing CMM model. The CMMISM model focuses on the full cycle of Requirements Management from identification, development, collection, refinement, analysis, and validation throughout a project life cycle. It also has a more refined focus on the identification, development, collection, analysis, and evaluation of meaningful measurements, so the results can be used to improve a process or product.

  16. SEI needs for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W.; Cataldo, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) for transportation to the moon and Mars is examined, and the use on Mars and moon bases of thermal conversion subsystems based on either a Brayton or a Stirling cycle is examined. It is shown that both cycles are attractive alternatives for those applications where continuous field operation is desired. Nuclear power systems have a clear advantage with regard to the moon and a lesser one with regard to Mars.

  17. Real time monitoring of induced seismicity in the Insheim and Landau deep geothermal reservoirs, Upper Rhine Graben, using the new SeisComP3 cross-correlation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasterling, Margarete; Wegler, Ulrich; Bruestle, Andrea; Becker, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Real time information on the locations and magnitudes of induced earthquakes is essential for response plans based on the magnitude frequency distribution. We developed and tested a real time cross-correlation detector focusing on induced microseismicity in deep geothermal reservoirs. The incoming seismological data are cross-correlated in real time with a set of known master events. We use the envelopes of the seismograms rather than the seismograms themselves to account for small changes in the source locations or in the focal mechanisms. Two different detection conditions are implemented: After first passing a single trace correlation condition, secondly a network correlation is calculated taking the amplitude information of the seismic network into account. The magnitude is estimated by using the respective ratio of the maximum amplitudes of the master event and the detected event. The detector is implemented as a real time tool and put into practice as a SeisComp3 module, an established open source software for seismological real time data handling and analysis. We validated the reliability and robustness of the detector by an offline playback test using four month of data from monitoring the power plant in Insheim (Upper Rhine Graben, SW Germany). Subsequently, in October 2013 the detector was installed as real time monitoring system within the project "MAGS2 - Microseismic Activity of Geothermal Systems". Master events from the two neighboring geothermal power plants in Insheim and Landau and two nearby quarries are defined. After detection, manual phase determination and event location are performed at the local seismological survey of the Geological Survey and Mining Authority of Rhineland-Palatinate. Until November 2015 the detector identified 454 events out of which 95% were assigned correctly to the respective source. 5% were misdetections caused by local tectonic events. To evaluate the completeness of the automatically obtained catalogue, it is

  18. 1990 SEI Report on Undergraduate Software Engineering Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    definition [Bauer72]: The establishment and use of sound engineering principles (methods) in order to obtain economically software that is reliable...rather lengthy description [BCS89]: Software Engineering requires understanding and application of engineering principles , design skills, good...to practical problems in the service of mankind. • Software engineering is that form of engineering that applies the principles of computer

  19. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Team Software Process. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishers, 2000 (ISBN: 020147719X). [ Kaplan 1996] Kaplan , R. & Norton , D. The Balanced ... Scorecard : Translating Strategy into Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1996. [ Kaplan 2004] Kaplan , R. & Norton , D. Strategy Maps...Business The team noted that extensive work is published on the Voice of the Business. Most notably, the work surrounding the Balanced Scorecard concept

  20. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    goals. If we ask, for example, ―Why do you want this system to have a really fast response time?‖ we might hear that this will differentiate the product ...quality and reputation of products Figure 3-2: Ten Categories of Business Goals In addition to papers enumerating and describing business goals, we also...individual who has these goals has them for him/herself or his/her family. System These can be goals for a system being developed or acquired. Portfolio

  1. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    including internet technologies, and (3) very high consequences associated with a successful cyber attack . Operating securely in extreme adversarial...exposure of our civilian and military critical infrastructures to the potential for very high con- sequence cyber attack from adversaries with nation...Survivability is de- pendent upon the ability to recognize, during an attack or accident, what parts of your system remain trustworthy [Lipson 1999]. Hence the

  2. Summary of SEI (Software Engineering Institute) Technical Operations: 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    University (Texas Instruments) • Florida A & M University • George Mason University • Johns Hopkins University (Westinghouse Electric Corporation...assignments in 1987, two from the Navy, and one each from the Air Force and the Army. Craig Meyers and Roger Smeaton , both Navy affiliates, worked on...the Ada Embedded Systems Testbed Project. Meyers was from the Naval Surface Weapons Center in Dahlgren, Virginia; and Smeaton was from the Naval

  3. Near-term thermoelectric nuclear power options for SEI missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Jerry R.

    1992-01-01

    Three different types of thermoelectric nuclear space power systems are discussed. First, the general purpose heat source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), which was qualified and flown on Galileo/Ulysses and is in development for Cassini, is discussed. Second, the modular RTG, which is undergoing life verification, is discussed. Finally, the SP-100 is discussed. The information is presented in viewgraph form.

  4. Software engineering activities at SEI (Software Engineering Institute)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittister, Clyde

    1990-01-01

    Prototyping was shown to ease system specification and implementation, especially in the area of user interfaces. Other prototyping approaches do not allow for the evolution of the prototype into a production system or support maintenance after the system is fielded. A set of goals is presented for a modern user interface environment and Serpent, a prototype implementation that achieves these goals, is described.

  5. Space radiation issues within the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.E. ||

    1993-12-31

    One of the more important considerations of manned space-flight, outside the Earth`s magnetosphere with exploration and habitation of the lunar and Martian surfaces, is the radiation hazard. Specifically, the risk of high levels of radiation, due to Galactic Cosmic-Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) during long duration manned missions of 2 - 3 years length, must be quantitatively assessed. Current limits of space radiation to astronauts (NCRP, 1989) could easily be exceeded on long missions, if shielding requirements are not met for spacecraft and habitats. Life-threatening solar flares occurring during a solar maximum are readily detected but not reliably predicted. Quantitative shielding estimates (Simonsen and Nealy, 1991a) for spacecraft indicate that 10 - 20 metric tons (mt) of water are required for shielding from a large solar flare event. It is therefore necessary and prudent to define the passive shielding requirements quantitatively with minimum uncertainties in order to reduce the overall vehicle mass. Additionally, the engineering design that utilizes materials, fuels, and cargo for supplemental shielding to a storm shelter will further reduce the weight penalty for radiation protection shielding.

  6. SEI rover solar-electrochemical power system options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Bents, David J.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    A trade study of power system technology for proposed lunar vehicles and servicers is presented. A variety of solar-based power systems were selected and analyzed for each. The analysis determined the power system mass, volume, and deployed area. A comparison was made between periodic refueling/recharging systems and onboard power systems to determine the most practical system. The trade study concluded that the power system significantly impacts the physical characteristics of the vehicle. The refueling/recharging systems were lighter and more compact, but dependent on availability of established lunar base infrastructure. Onboard power systems pay a mass penalty for being fully developed systems.

  7. Dynamics of stochastic SEIS epidemic model with varying population size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Wei, Fengying

    2016-12-01

    We introduce the stochasticity into a deterministic model which has state variables susceptible-exposed-infected with varying population size in this paper. The infected individuals could return into susceptible compartment after recovering. We show that the stochastic model possesses a unique global solution under building up a suitable Lyapunov function and using generalized Itô's formula. The densities of the exposed and infected tend to extinction when some conditions are being valid. Moreover, the conditions of persistence to a global solution are derived when the parameters are subject to some simple criteria. The stochastic model admits a stationary distribution around the endemic equilibrium, which means that the disease will prevail. To check the validity of the main results, numerical simulations are demonstrated as end of this contribution.

  8. Results of SEI Line-Funded Exploratory New Starts Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    that are suspected of being plagiarized ; in order to communicate information, the document must un- ambiguously deliver semantic content to the reader...like for fuzzy hashing techniques to give us the same sense of derivation that plagiarism detection or generative text detection techniques do...more detail than the two academic papers about the concepts used in HDFS and provides an architectural diagram, as shown in Figure 9. Figure 9

  9. Advancing Cyber Intelligence Practices Through the SEI’s Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-27

    and why Training Type and quality Intent Motive Intrinsic Personal rewards to act on the threat-bragging rights, knowledge, justify skills...satisfy boredom, patriotism, or hacktivist a llegiance Extrinsic External rewards to act on the threat- fame, money--or to avoid punishment...localjnational politics Motive The reasons for why such individuals are susceptible to the cyber threat-ignorance, financial trouble

  10. 76 FR 72729 - SEI Investments Management Corporation, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... (``SASP''), and Adviser Managed Trust (``AMT'') (each a ``Trust'' and collectively the ``Trusts''). DATES... organized as a Massachusetts business trust, with the exception of AMT, which is organized as a...

  11. Laser photovoltaic power system synergy for SEI applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Hickman, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Solar arrays can provide reliable space power, but do not operate when there is no solar energy. Photovoltaic arrays can also convert laser energy with high efficiency. One proposal to reduce the required mass of energy storage required is to illuminate the photovoltaic arrays by a ground laser system. It is proposed to locate large lasers on cloud-free sites at one or more ground locations, and use large lenses or mirrors with adaptive optical correction to reduce the beam spread due to diffraction or atmospheric turbulence. During the eclipse periods or lunar night, the lasers illuminate the solar arrays to a level sufficient to provide operating power.

  12. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Insider Threat Mitigation LINE Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    ORA toolset) • Connection strength measures: communication frequency, reciprocity, time spent, volume, affect , truthfulness (in order of ease... plagiarism detection, keyword matching – Flow Similarity : graph matching algorithms – eg, using GED measures * Ard, et.al., “Information Behaving Badly

  13. Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Seies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bree, Germaine, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Germaine Bree, Nicola Chairmonte, Serge Doubrovsky, Justin O'Brien, Wilfrid Sheed, Roger Quilliot, Thomas L. Hanna, Bernard C. Murchland, Henri Peyre, S. Beynon John, Rachel Bespaloff, Jean-Paul Sartre, Robert Champigny,…

  14. Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Seies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bree, Germaine, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Germaine Bree, Nicola Chairmonte, Serge Doubrovsky, Justin O'Brien, Wilfrid Sheed, Roger Quilliot, Thomas L. Hanna, Bernard C. Murchland, Henri Peyre, S. Beynon John, Rachel Bespaloff, Jean-Paul Sartre, Robert Champigny,…

  15. A horizontal inflatable habitat for SEI. [Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    1992-01-01

    The inflatable habitat described in this paper is a horizontally-oriented cylindrical pneumatic structure. It is part of NASA's ongoing effort to study inflatables as alternative habitats for the Space Exploration Initiative. This inflatable habitat provides a living and working environment for a crew of 12. It is an 8-m diameter by 45.34-m cylinder containing 2145 cu m of volume. Two levels of living and working areas make up the 547 sq m of floor space.

  16. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review High Confidence Cyber Physical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    scholes body- track canneal ferret fluid- animate freq- mine ray- trace stream- cluster swap- tions vips x264 We should predict, bound and... ferret fluid- animate freq- mine ray- trace stream- cluster swap- tions vips x264 H.Kim, D. de Niz, B. Andersson, M. Klein, O. Mutlu, and R

  17. Near-term thermoelectric nuclear power options for SEI missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Jerry R.

    1992-01-01

    Three different types of thermoelectric nuclear space power systems are discussed. First, the general purpose heat source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), which was qualified and flown on Galileo/Ulysses and is in development for Cassini, is discussed. Second, the modular RTG, which is undergoing life verification, is discussed. Finally, the SP-100 is discussed. The information is presented in viewgraph form.

  18. SEI nuclear technology findings by the Stafford Synthesis Group

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion is key to reducing travel time to Mars, greatly reducing the mass in low Earth orbit, and enhancing schedule flexibility by increasing the Earth orbit departure launch window. Nuclear thermal rockets have twice to three times the performance of the best chemical rockets. This directly translates into reduced trip times and lower mass in low Earth orbit. Trip times of < 400 days in space are possible, a limitation if restricted to chemical propulsion. Psychological, physiological and radiological problems are significant issues for long mission times. The psychology of being cooped up so long in a minimum-sized capsule is cause for concern - much longer than considered healthy for nuclear submarine crews. The effects of long-term weightlessness are being debated. Short trip times eliminate the need for artificial gravity. The largest uncertainty is the effect of galactic radiation that will expose the crew to high levels of radiation for as much as 60 rem/yr.

  19. Summary of SEI Accomplishments for Software Development and Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    ornferetices. Inicluding tie Hu man- (onitpliter InteractLion Consortium and an architecture wkorkshop at Bell Labs . InI .anuar\\ , a projct unbeilr...the project were also discussed. It; JantnarNy a spec.ial ses ion of the 2 ’rd Annual I ta aii International Conference on Svsten Scinces , eaMitled...s) from each of 5 Navy labs supporting NAVAIR weapon systems (for example. Naval Air Development (’enter [NADCI, Naval Weapons Center [NWC], Pacific

  20. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Littlewood et al. [ Littlewood 1993] measure the operational security of a system by quantitatively estimating the intuitive notion of “the system’s ability to...2003. [ Littlewood 1993] Littlewood , B.; Brocklehurst, S.; Fenton, N.; Mellor, P.; Page, S.; Wright, D.; Dobson, J.; McDermid, J.; & Gollman, D

  1. SEI Report on Graduate Software Engineering Education for 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    product eventually reaches its limit of adaptability and its old environment gradually erodes. The end result is analogous to extinction . There is an...Mehdi Jazayeri, and Dino Mandrioli. Fundamentals of Software Engineering Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1991. 573 pages. Table of Contents

  2. Accounting for the differences in the structures and relative energies of the highly homoatomic np pi-np pi (n > or = 3)-bonded S2I4 2+, the Se-I pi-bonded Se2I4 2+, and their higher-energy isomers by AIM, MO, NBO, and VB methodologies.

    PubMed

    Brownridge, Scott; Crawford, Margaret-Jane; Du, Hongbin; Harcourt, Richard D; Knapp, Carsten; Laitinen, Risto S; Passmore, Jack; Rautiainen, J Mikko; Suontamo, Reijo J; Valkonen, Jussi

    2007-02-05

    The bonding in the highly homoatomic np pi-np pi (n > or = 3)-bonded S2I42+ (three sigma + two pi bonds), the Se-I pi-bonded Se2I42+ (four sigma + one pi bonds), and their higher-energy isomers have been studied using modern DFT and ab initio calculations and theoretical analysis methods: atoms in molecules (AIM), molecular orbital (MO), natural bond orbital (NBO), and valence bond (VB) analyses, giving their relative energies, theoretical bond orders, and atomic charges. The aim of this work was to seek theory-based answers to four main questions: (1) Are the previously proposed simple pi*-pi* bonding models valid for S2I42+ and Se2I42+? (2) What accounts for the difference in the structures of S2I42+ and Se2I42+? (3) Why are the classically bonded isolobal P2I4 and As2I4 structures not adopted? (4) Is the high experimentally observed S-S bond order supported by theoretical bond orders, and how does it relate to high bond orders between other heavier main group elements? The AIM analysis confirmed the high bond orders and established that the weak bonds observed in S2I42+ and Se2I42+ are real and the bonding in these cations is covalent in nature. The full MO analysis confirmed that S2I42+ contains three sigma and two pi bonds, that the positive charge is essentially equally distributed over all atoms, that the bonding between S2 and two I2+ units in S2I42+ is best described by two mutually perpendicular 4c2e pi*-pi* bonds, and that in Se2I42+, two SeI2+ moieties are joined by a 6c2e pi*-pi* bond, both in agreement with previously suggested models. The VB treatment provided a complementary approach to MO analysis and provided insight how the formation of the weak bonds affects the other bonds. The NBO analysis and the calculated AIM charges showed that the minimization of the electrostatic repulsion between EI2+ units (E = S, Se) and the delocalization of the positive charge are the main factors that explain why the nonclassical structures are favored for S2I42

  3. Geografia de America Latina. Grados Seis-Diez (Geography of Latin America. Grades Six-Ten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The…

  4. High-Fidelity e-Learning: SEI’s Virtual Training Environment (VTE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    2009-005 Affinnative progress tracking is particularly important for training that is provided to support compliance or regulatory requirements. To...combinations 0f virtualized corrvuters in a sandboxed network and publi±! them to V IT along with instructions for completing the lab. Students provision the

  5. Software Design-for-Six Sigma (SDFSS) and SEI Technologies meet!

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-14

    Capability data sharing; Theory of Inventing ( TRIZ ) methods ; Usage of performance models to identify the major opportunities for improvement...Tradeoff Analysis Method ® • ATAM® © 2005 by Carnegie Mellon University page 3 2007 European SEPG June 11-14, 2007 Product Experience © 2005 by Carnegie...Using Statistical Methods : 1. Identify Opportunities, Markets and Market Segments, 2. Gather Long Range Voice of the Customer, 3. Obtain Technology

  6. An Alternative Three-Level Model for Estimating SEIs and Their Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.

    After a brief review of recent research concerning school effectiveness, this paper proposes an approach to operationalizing school effectiveness that is based on the achievement of students in a school over a period of time. This three-level model does not follow a single cohort of students as they progress through school. Rather, it uses the…

  7. A Software Process Framework for the Software Engineering Institute’s (SEI) Capability Maturity Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    named after the 19th-century economist Vilfredo Pareto , that most effects come from relatively few causes, i.e., 80% of the effects come from 20% of the... Pareto analysis The analysis of defects by ranking causes from most significant to least significant. Pareto analysis is based on the principle

  8. A Software Process Framework for the SEI Capability Maturity Model: Repeatable Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Vilfredo Pareto , that most effects I come from relatively few causes, i.e., 80% of the effects come from 20% of the possible causes. peer review - A review...to the next maturity level. Using the Pareto principle [Juran88b], the CMM prescribes the "vital few" key process areas to focus on depending on an...or interfacing with the individuals responsible for performing in the topic area. (See train for contrast.) Pareto analysis - The analysis of defects

  9. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Probabilistic Analysis of Time Sensitive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    Osmosis SMC Tool Osmosis is a tool for Statistical Model Checking (SMC) with Semantic Importance Sampling. • Input model is written in subset of C...ASSERT() statements in model indicate conditions that must hold. • Input probability distributions defined by the user. • Osmosis returns the...on: – Target relative error, or – Set number of simulations Osmosis Main Algorithm 1 http://dreal.cs.cmu.edu/ (?⃑?): Indicator

  10. Robotic lunar rover technologies and SEI supporting technologies at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klarer, Paul R.

    1992-09-01

    Existing robotic rover technologies at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) can be applied toward the realization of a robotic lunar rover mission in the near term. Recent activities at the SNL-RVR have demonstrated the utility of existing rover technologies for performing remote field geology tasks similar to those envisioned on a robotic lunar rover mission. Specific technologies demonstrated include low-data-rate teleoperation, multivehicle control, remote site and sample inspection, standard bandwidth stereo vision, and autonomous path following based on both internal dead reckoning and an external position location update system. These activities serve to support the use of robotic rovers for an early return to the lunar surface by demonstrating capabilities that are attainable with off-the-shelf technology and existing control techniques. The breadth of technical activities at SNL provides many supporting technology areas for robotic rover development. These range from core competency areas and microsensor fabrication facilities, to actual space qualification of flight components that are designed and fabricated in-house.

  11. Relation of the lunar power system to the SEI program and to landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criswell, David R.; Waldron, Robert D.

    The people of Earth will need more than 20,000 billion watts (GWe) of electric power by 2050 for a high level of prosperity. Power needs in the 22nd Century could exceed 100,000 GWe. By 2100 the total quantity of thermal energy used could fully deplete the known inventory (10(exp 7) GWt-Y) of all non-renewable sources on Earth except for deuterium and hydrogen for use in proposed fusion reactors. The labor, capital, and mass of power plants required to produce 1 GWe-Y of energy from present-day power plants is summarized. Fossil and nuclear plants respectively consume 80 to 190 M$ and 12 to 48 M$ of fuel per GWe-Y. The Lunar Power System (LPS) uses solar power bases on the moon to beam electric power to Earth. The LPS in the figure supplies load-following power to rectennas on Earth. Additional solar power conversion units are located across the lunar limb from their respective Earthward transmitting stations. LPS can be augmented by mirrors in polar orbit about the moon. The construction of rectennas on Earth determines the base cost (0.001s$/kWe-H) of LPS power. A manned International Lunar Base (ILB) can accelerate the development of LPS by providing the initial transportation and habitation facilities and base operations. ILB can greatly reduce up front costs and risks by emplacing a moderate scale LPS (1-100 GWe). LPS can accelerate the development of the ILB by providing greater funding than is reasonable to expect for purely scientific research. An international ILB/LPS program can foster world trust and prosperity.

  12. An Alternative Three-Level Model for Estimating SEIs and Their Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.

    After a brief review of recent research concerning school effectiveness, this paper proposes an approach to operationalizing school effectiveness that is based on the achievement of students in a school over a period of time. This three-level model does not follow a single cohort of students as they progress through school. Rather, it uses the…

  13. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Edge-Enabled Tactical Systems (EETS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-29

    distributed collaboration in VREP simulations for 5-12 quadcopters and ground robots • Open-source middleware and algorithms released to community...Integration into CMU Drone-RK quadcopter and Platypus autonomous boat platforms • Presentations at DARPA (CODE), AFRL C4I Workshop, and AFRL Eglin

  14. Space Station Freedom (SSF) crew systems SE&I. [System Engineering and Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station program office planning and requirements activity has accelerated during the past year to bring the Space Station Freedom Program (SSF) through the program requirements review phase during 1988. The preliminary design review cycle began in Jan. 89, and is now planned for completion, with formal preliminary design reviews between Apr. and Sept., 1990. This paper briefly describes the PROGRAMMATIC aspects of the engineering and integration management of the SSF crew systems. Emphasis is given to the Crew Health Care System, which includes the Health Maintenance Facility, the Exercise Countermeasure Facility, and the Environmental Health System; all managed within the Man-Systems, one of the twelve 'distributed systems.' Medical and engineering requirements to meet the needs of the mature Space Station operations environment and highlights of critical technologies and equipment in development will be reviewed.

  15. 76 FR 60017 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... burnable absorber rods. The rods are inserted in the reactor fuel assemblies to absorb excess neutrons... beginning of an operating cycle. DOE's tritium program developed TPBARs in which neutrons are absorbed by a... similar manner to absorb excess neutrons in the reactor core, there is one notable difference:...

  16. 76 FR 43985 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... insufficient, NMFS will consider Tier II actions, building upon research conducted during Tier I. Tier II adds more extensive directed demographic survey research and actions that are dependent upon acquiring..., the primary purpose of the draft Recovery Plan is to provide a research strategy to obtain data...

  17. Characterization of the SEI on a carbon film electrode by combinedEQCM and spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    evans@socrates.berkeley.edu

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) andcyclic voltammetry have been applied simultaneously to characterizeelectron-beam deposited carbon film electrodes in LiClO4 orLiPF6-containing mixed electrolytes of ethylene carbonate (EC) anddimethyl carbonate (DMC). The structure of the carbon electrode was foundto be amorphous/disordered using Raman spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetryin LiClO4 / EC+DMC demonstrated features typical of Liintercalation/deintercalation into/from the disordered carbon electrode,and EQCM showed a corresponding mass increase/decrease. Contrary to thecase of LiClO4 / EC+DMC electrolyte, LiPF6/EC+DMC electrolyte showed noLi deintercalation out of the thin-film carbon electrode. Combined EQCMand spectroscopic ellipsometry data were compared, and the solidelectrolyte interphase density after the first cycle in LiClO4 /EC+DMCwas estimated to be 1.3 g/cm3.

  18. Robotic Lunar Rover Technologies and SEI Supporting Technologies at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klarer, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    Existing robotic rover technologies at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) can be applied toward the realization of a robotic lunar rover mission in the near term. Recent activities at the SNL-RVR have demonstrated the utility of existing rover technologies for performing remote field geology tasks similar to those envisioned on a robotic lunar rover mission. Specific technologies demonstrated include low-data-rate teleoperation, multivehicle control, remote site and sample inspection, standard bandwidth stereo vision, and autonomous path following based on both internal dead reckoning and an external position location update system. These activities serve to support the use of robotic rovers for an early return to the lunar surface by demonstrating capabilities that are attainable with off-the-shelf technology and existing control techniques. The breadth of technical activities at SNL provides many supporting technology areas for robotic rover development. These range from core competency areas and microsensor fabrication facilities, to actual space qualification of flight components that are designed and fabricated in-house.

  19. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  20. Preparation and Properties of Non-Crystalline Glasses in the System Se-I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    34Transylvania", 2200-Brasov, Romania Vitreous Sexl-., samples (x=0.1; 0.15; 0.20) have been prepared and studied by thermal analysis, iodometry , X-ray...thermogravimetric curves reveal important loss of material (iodine) of the same order of magnitude as for the losses observed by iodometry measurements. 3.3

  1. Relation of the lunar power system to the SEI program and to landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, David R.; Waldron, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    The people of Earth will need more than 20,000 billion watts (GWe) of electric power by 2050 for a high level of prosperity. Power needs in the 22nd Century could exceed 100,000 GWe. By 2100 the total quantity of thermal energy used could fully deplete the known inventory (10(exp 7) GWt-Y) of all non-renewable sources on Earth except for deuterium and hydrogen for use in proposed fusion reactors. The labor, capital, and mass of power plants required to produce 1 GWe-Y of energy from present-day power plants is summarized. Fossil and nuclear plants respectively consume 80 to 190 M$ and 12 to 48 M$ of fuel per GWe-Y. The Lunar Power System (LPS) uses solar power bases on the moon to beam electric power to Earth. The LPS in the figure supplies load-following power to rectennas on Earth. Additional solar power conversion units are located across the lunar limb from their respective Earthward transmitting stations. LPS can be augmented by mirrors in polar orbit about the moon. The construction of rectennas on Earth determines the base cost (0.001s$/kWe-H) of LPS power. A manned International Lunar Base (ILB) can accelerate the development of LPS by providing the initial transportation and habitation facilities and base operations. ILB can greatly reduce up front costs and risks by emplacing a moderate scale LPS (1-100 GWe). LPS can accelerate the development of the ILB by providing greater funding than is reasonable to expect for purely scientific research. An international ILB/LPS program can foster world trust and prosperity.

  2. Relation of the lunar power system to the SEI program and to landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, David R.; Waldron, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    The people of Earth will need more than 20,000 billion watts (GWe) of electric power by 2050 for a high level of prosperity. Power needs in the 22nd Century could exceed 100,000 GWe. By 2100 the total quantity of thermal energy used could fully deplete the known inventory (10(exp 7) GWt-Y) of all non-renewable sources on Earth except for deuterium and hydrogen for use in proposed fusion reactors. The labor, capital, and mass of power plants required to produce 1 GWe-Y of energy from present-day power plants is summarized. Fossil and nuclear plants respectively consume 80 to 190 M$ and 12 to 48 M$ of fuel per GWe-Y. The Lunar Power System (LPS) uses solar power bases on the moon to beam electric power to Earth. The LPS in the figure supplies load-following power to rectennas on Earth. Additional solar power conversion units are located across the lunar limb from their respective Earthward transmitting stations. LPS can be augmented by mirrors in polar orbit about the moon. The construction of rectennas on Earth determines the base cost (0.001s$/kWe-H) of LPS power. A manned International Lunar Base (ILB) can accelerate the development of LPS by providing the initial transportation and habitation facilities and base operations. ILB can greatly reduce up front costs and risks by emplacing a moderate scale LPS (1-100 GWe). LPS can accelerate the development of the ILB by providing greater funding than is reasonable to expect for purely scientific research. An international ILB/LPS program can foster world trust and prosperity.

  3. Geografia de America Latina. Grados Seis-Diez (Geography of Latin America. Grades Six-Ten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The…

  4. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  5. The Watts New? Collection: Columns by the SEI’s Watts Humphrey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    included with all reproductions and derivative works. External use. This document may be reproduced in its entirety, without modification, and freely...all of the buzzwords, would like to act strategically, and talks about being the industry leader, managers are hypnotized by their short-term problems

  6. 75 FR 16731 - Young Dodge SEIS; Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Interface, to decrease the likelihood that fires would become stand-replacing wildfires; (2) Restore... the likelihood that wildfires would become large stand-replacing wildfires, and to restore...

  7. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects and Report on Emerging Technologies and Technology Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    always feasible. However, today more and more systems have this requirement, including e - commerce systems and mobile embedded systems . For systems to...interfaces—similar to the distributed com- ponent object model (DCOM) or object request brokers (ORBs) based on the CORBA speci- fication. A system or...of automated development based on “ modeling software system families such that, given a particular requirements specification, a highly customized

  8. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects and Report on Emerging Technologies and Technology Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Kaiser 03] Kaiser, G.; Parekh, J.; Gross, P.; & Veletto, G. � Kinesthetics eX- treme: An External Infrastructure for Monitoring Distributed Leg- acy...multiple learner in- stances across calls to the verification engine and implementing algorithms to validate multi- ple previous observation tables in an

  9. Seis-Net a Possible Very Broad Band Seismometer for the Future Mars-Net Russian Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibler, P.; Lognonne, P.; Nibut, T.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction: Following the invitation from IKI for participating to the future Russian Mars-Net mission, our objective is to realize a preliminary study for the deployment of a seismometers network, on the surface of Mars. This experiment would be realized thanks to the "basic brick" of the planetary seismometer developed by IPGP: a Very Broad Band (VBB) axis/pendulum adapted to the Mars-Net mission but analog to the one already proposed for other missions (Humboldt-ExoMars, Selene 2, Discovery GEMS). In order to respect, as much as possible, the mass and power budgets of the Mars96/OPTIMISM seismometer, we plan to propose only one axis/pendulum modified in order to become vertical. This adaptation could be, for instance, simply realized by adding an additional mass and modifying the axis tilt. Compared to the seismic sensor proposed for GEMS, there would be a deployment on Mars without any uncoupling from the lander. So, we estimate that the performances of the Mars-Net seismometer (< 0.1 ng/Hz1/2) will be halfway between OPTIMISM (1 ng/Hz1/2) and GEMS (< 0.05 ng/Hz1/2) seismometers. Scientific objectives: Since the projects Mesur/InterMarsNet in 1990 years then NetLander in 2000 years, our knowledge of interior of Mars has progressed. A network mission about 2018-2020 has to take into account these evolutions. However a lot of questions are still open without any answer. Which is the seismic activity of the planet? Which is the average thickness of the crust? Which is the detailed mineralogy of the mantle? Is there thermical heterogeneities inside mantle associated to a remaining of contemporary mantlellic convection? Which is the fine structure of the core? Therefore one of the first objectives of a network mission is the seismic discovery of Mars. That means, in particularly, to obtain for the first time the quantification of the contemporary seismic activity of the planet and the determination of the absolute thickness of the crust. That will be possible with the first station. But, of course, with the deployment of other stations it will be possible to inverse more elaborated models of the internal structure of Mars. Instrument description: The heritage, at IPGP, of planetary seismometers was often presented. Our accommodation study will be, obviously, based on this heritage. The idea is to reuse our "basic brick", that means the recurrent pendulum of ExoMars mission by aiming the same performances in terms of resolution. On the other hand, we will aim the OPTIMISM-Mars96 specifications in terms of mass, volume and power budgets. Taking in account the preliminary lander mass budget, we will propose only one axis, by using an oblique VBB axis and by tilting it until its sensibility axis became vertical. We would bring back the gravity center of the whole on the sensibility axis by adding a 50g mass on OG axis (which will become horizontal).

  10. Approaches to Process Performance Modeling: A Summary from the SEI Series of Workshops on CMMI High Maturity Measurement and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Prediction Model 22  Table 5:  Parametric Cost Models vs . Process Performance Models 54  Table 6:   Uncertainty / Range Size of Parameter Values 57  Table 7...Systems • Lynn Penn and Pete McLoone, Lockheed Martin Information Systems and Global Services • Jim Perry, BAE Armament Systems • David M. Raffo...Lockheed Martin Information Systems and Global Services • Neal Mackertich and Michael Campo, Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems • Raymond Kile

  11. Early SEI milestones - Underwater habitats and Antarctic research outposts as analogs for long duration spaceflight and lunar and Mars outposts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Wharton, Robert A.; Andersen, Dale T.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1992-01-01

    The use of analog environments for space research is considered focusing on underwater habitats and Antarctic research sites as analogous settings to long-duration space flight. It is pointed out that the use of these earth analogs can provide engineers, scientists, and future crew members with critical 'mission' experience at a relatively low cost.

  12. 78 FR 16565 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and To Conduct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... current Presidential Permit authorizing it to operate at a higher capacity the existing crude oil pipeline... barrels per day (bpd) of crude oil across the border from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin to... Canada refineries for supplies of heavy crude oil from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin...

  13. Performance Estimate of Large-Scale Ion Engines for SEI-Type Missions Using C(sub 60) Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Juergen

    1993-01-01

    Engine performance parameter, such as thrust, efficiency, specific mass, thruster input, power, thrust-to-power ratio and discharge current have been calculated with specific impulse the indupendent variablel.

  14. Crystal structure of staphylococcal enterotoxin I (SEI) in complex with a human major histocompatibility complex class II molecule.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Marisa M; Guan, Rongjin; Swaminathan, Chittoor P; Malchiodi, Emilio L; Mariuzza, Roy A

    2006-09-01

    Superantigens are bacterial or viral proteins that elicit massive T cell activation through simultaneous binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and T cell receptors. This activation results in uncontrolled release of inflammatory cytokines, causing toxic shock. A remarkable property of superantigens, which distinguishes them from T cell receptors, is their ability to interact with multiple MHC class II alleles independently of MHC-bound peptide. Previous crystallographic studies have shown that staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens belonging to the zinc family bind to a high affinity site on the class II beta-chain. However, the basis for promiscuous MHC recognition by zinc-dependent superantigens is not obvious, because the beta-chain is polymorphic and the MHC-bound peptide forms part of the binding interface. To understand how zinc-dependent superantigens recognize MHC, we determined the crystal structure, at 2.0 A resolution, of staphylococcal enterotoxin I bound to the human class II molecule HLA-DR1 bearing a peptide from influenza hemagglutinin. Interactions between the superantigen and DR1 beta-chain are mediated by a zinc ion, and 22% of the buried surface of peptide.MHC is contributed by the peptide. Comparison of the staphylococcal enterotoxin I.peptide.DR1 structure with ones determined previously revealed that zinc-dependent superantigens achieve promiscuous binding to MHC by targeting conservatively substituted residues of the polymorphic beta-chain. Additionally, these superantigens circumvent peptide specificity by engaging MHC-bound peptides at their conformationally conserved N-terminal regions while minimizing sequence-specific interactions with peptide residues to enhance cross-reactivity.

  15. Understanding CMMI Measurement Capabilities & Impact on Performance: Results from the 2007 SEI State of the Measurement Practice Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-14

    Measurement in the Organization ML1&DK ML2 ML3 ML4&5 N = 151 N = 84 N = 59 N = 71 Gamma = .73 p < .0001 30% 28% 34% 8% 8% 2% 70% 22% 75% 3% 1...2007 © 2007 Carnegie Mellon University Interpreting the results: The Respondents’ Measurement Roles ML1&DK ML2 ML3 ML4&5 N = 151 N = 84 N = 59 N = 70...Goldenson, 14 November 2007 © 2007 Carnegie Mellon University How Measurement Work is Staffed ML1&DK ML2 ML3 ML4&5 N = 78 N = 60 N = 58 N = 60 p < .006

  16. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  17. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: El Bebe de Seis Meses (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Six-Month Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Distributed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Education, and Health and Human Services, this Spanish-language pamphlet provides parents with information and advice about their infants in the sixth month of life. Following a brief description of developmental characteristics at this age, the pamphlet offers advice on a variety of topics,…

  18. "Wenn ich leben soll, so sei es mit dir!" The relationship of father and son in Goethe's "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre".

    PubMed

    Lee, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between father and son is a highly nuanced and persistent theme in Goethe's late novel Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre, but has received relatively little critical attention. Drawing on various aspects of the text, from the relationship between Wilhelm and his own son Felix, to the theme of migration from the ‘fatherland’, this essay contends that the relationship of the younger generation to the older traces a pattern of departure and return. The development in the son of an identity distinct and independent from that of the father is a preoccupation of the earlier chapters of the Wanderjahre in particular; but this process of individuation tends to be accompanied in the novel by continued, even increased, identification with the father, which may be conscious or unconscious. All the various stages of this fluctuating relationship are telescoped into a few rich, enigmatic images in the novel's closing scene, in which the threat of separation and the desire for proximity are held in suspension.

  19. Performance Estimate of Large-Scale Ion Engines for SEI-Type Missions Using C(sub 60) Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Juergen

    1993-01-01

    Engine performance parameter, such as thrust, efficiency, specific mass, thruster input, power, thrust-to-power ratio and discharge current have been calculated with specific impulse the indupendent variablel.

  20. Catholic Educational Publishing between the Two Wars: The Case of the Publishers SEI of Turin and La Scuola of Brescia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Only at the beginning of the Twentieth century, a confessional type of publishing, directed mainly at schools and teachers and devoted, almost exclusively, to publishing textbooks for every level and type of school, came into existence in Italy. In the period between the two World Wars and especially after the Gentile Reform (1923), this type of…

  1. [Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting in Orofacial Cleft: A Survey of a Portuguese Tertiary Hospital].

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Isabel; Morgado, Hélder; Mariz, Carlos; Estevão-Costa, José Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: A fenda lábio-palatina é a malformação congénita craniofacial mais frequente. Na presença de defeito ósseo, a técnica de enxerto ósseo alveolar secundário é o método de correção mais consensual entre os autores. Neste estudo avalia-se o resultado da aplicação desta técnica num hospital terciário. Material e Métodos: Análise dos enxertos ósseos alveolares secundários realizados entre 2007 e 2014, sendo incluídos os casos em que a crista ilíaca foi a região dadora e em que a informação clínica e imagiológica estava completa. A eficácia da intervenção foi avaliada radiologicamente com recurso à escala de Bergland (tipo I-IV), e correlacionada com variáveis associadas à patologia e/ou correção cirúrgica. Resultados: Dos 32 enxertos ósseos alveolares secundários realizados, 29 cumpriam os critérios de inclusão: 13 casos (44,8%) correspondiam a fendas pré-forâmen unilaterais completas; quatro (13,8%) a fendas pré-forâmen bilaterais completas; oito (27,6%) a fendas transforâmen unilaterais e quatro (13,8%) a fendas transforâmen bilaterais. Pela escala de Bergland (aplicada com um seguimento médio de 8 ± 5 meses), seis eram do tipo I, 15 do tipo II, cinco de tipo III e três do tipo IV. Não foi encontrada associação entre a eficácia da intervenção cirúrgica e o tipo de fenda lábio-palatina, presença do incisivo e fase de erupção do canino. Cinco doentes foram submetidos a novo enxerto ósseo alveolar (três tipo II e dois tipo III na avaliação inicial). Discussão: Na presente série, o enxerto ósseo alveolar foi eficaz na maioria dos doentes (72%, tipo I e II), independentemente do tipo de fenda lábio-palatina. A proporção de falências (10,3%) e a necessidade ulterior de reintervenção (17%) foram relativamente altas justificando o seguimento a longo-prazo e a continuação deste estudo. Conclusão: Importa realçar o envolvimento multidisciplinar para identificação atempada do momento

  2. The Role of Electrolyte Upon the SEI Formation Characteristics and Low Temperature Performance of Lithium-Ion Cells With Graphite Anodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M.; Ratnakumar, B.; Greenbaum, S.; Surampudi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Quarternary lithium-ion battery electrolyte solutions containing ester co-solvents in mixtures of carbonates have been demonstrated to have high conductivity at low temperatures (<-20 degrees Celcius).

  3. Peak position differences observed during XPS sputter depth profiling of the SEI on lithiated and delithiated carbon-based anode material for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Zier, M.

    2017-04-01

    The ability of delivering chemical information from peak shift phenomena has ever since made X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) an ideal tool for material characterization in Li-ion batteries (LIB). Upon investigation, charging is inevitable as most of the chemical species involved are non-conducting. Thus, the binding energy (BE) scale must be corrected to allow an accurate interpretation of the results. This is usually done using the peak position of the ubiquitous surface carbon contamination detectable for all Li-ion battery relevant materials. We herein report on the occurrence of peak shift phenomena that can be observed when investigating surface layers on graphite anodes using sputter depth-profiling. These shifts, however, are not related to classical static electric charging, but are depending on the state of charge (lithiation) of the anode material. The observations presented are in agreement with previous findings on other Li-containing materials and are obviously caused by the presence of Li in its elemental state. As aging and failure mechanisms in LIBs are closely linked to electrolyte reaction products on electrode surfaces it is of high importance to draw the correct conclusions on their chemical origin from XP spectra. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the BE positions, implanted Ar can be used for identification of relevant peak positions and species involved in the phenomena observed.

  4. Use and Organizational Effects of Measurement and Analysis in High Maturity Organizations: Results from the 2008 SEI State of Measurement and Analysis Practice Surveys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    pro ce ss es So ftw are de sig n a nd co din g Re qu ire me nts en gin ee rin g Pr oc es s d oc um en tat ion Sy ste ms en gin ee rin g p roc es...em en t ( N =1 45 ) St at is tic al p ac ka ge s (N =1 44 ) W or k flo w a ut om at io n (N =1 45 ) R ep or t p re pa ra tio n so ftw ar e (N

  5. The Role of Electrolyte Upon the SEI Formation Characteristics and Low Temperature Performance of Lithium-Ion Cells With Graphite Anodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Greenbaum, S.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Quarternary lithium-ion battery electrolyte solutions containing ester co-solvents in mixtures of carbonates have been demonstrated to have high conductivity at low temperatures (< -20C). However, in some cases the presence of such co-solvents does not directly translate into improved low temperature cell performance, presumably due to the formation of ionically resistive surface films on carbonaceous anodes. In order to understand this behavior, a number of lithium-graphite cells have been studied containing electrolytes with various ester co-solvents, including methyl acetate (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), ethyl propionate (EP), and ethyl butyrate (EB). The charge/discharge characterization of these cells indicates that the higher molecular weight esters result in electrolytes which possess superior low temperature performance in contrast to the lower molecular weight ester-containing solutions, even though these solutions display lower conductivity values.

  6. Using the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) and Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models to improve employment and clinical outcomes of homeless youth with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M

    2013-09-01

    Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach.

  7. SEI Program Plans: 1996-2000. Volume 1. Five-Year Strategic Plan. Volume 2. One-Year Plans/Proposals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    architecture for a family of sys- tems. The Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis ( FODA ) method looks primarily at "user-visible" aspects of a domain. The...features" of FODA . The add-on task will formally describe all aspects contributing to product line understanding and building. Activity 2: Domain...EDCS EPRI ESC ETRB FAA FEAST FODA FTP HIC IEEE IP IPD IPI IPPD ISO/IEC ITSM JAST JLC JPO KPA K-SAV MBSE MCC MEL MICOM MIT

  8. Using the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) and Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models to improve employment and clinical outcomes of homeless youth with mental illness1

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach. PMID:24294127

  9. [High performance of an implantable Holter monitor in the detection of concealed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with cryptogenic stroke and a suspected embolic mechanism].

    PubMed

    Rojo-Martinez, Esther; Sandín-Fuentes, María; Calleja-Sanz, Ana I; Cortijo-García, Elisa; García-Bermejo, Pablo; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Rubio-Sanz, Jerónimo; Arenillas-Lara, Juan F

    2013-09-16

    Introduccion. El holter implantable permite detectar fibrilacion auricular paroxistica (FAP) oculta en pacientes con ictus criptogenico, pero se desconoce que algoritmo de seleccion tiene un mayor rendimiento y la duracion optima de monitorizacion. Objetivo. Conocer la frecuencia y el tiempo hasta detectar la FAP mediante un holter implantable Reveal XT ® en pacientes con ictus criptogenico seleccionados por sospecha elevada de embolismo cerebral. Pacientes y metodos. Criterios de seleccion: ausencia de etiologia del ictus tras el estudio completo incluyendo un ecocardiograma transesofagico, monitorizacion ECG y holter de 24 horas, asi como confirmacion de oclusion aguda embolica de la arteria intracraneal por duplex transcraneal o bien alta sospecha de embolismo por caracteristicas de neuroimagen. Tras implantar el holter Reveal XT se formo a los pacientes para que emprendieran transmisiones todos los meses o ante sintomas. Se reviso la informacion online mensualmente y se realizaron visitas clinicas en las unidades de Neurologia y Cardiologia. Resultados. Se incluyeron 101 pacientes con ictus criptogenico y al menos un mes de seguimiento: edad media de 67 años, 54 mujeres (53,5%). Tiempo medio de seguimiento: 281 ± 212 dias. Se detecto FAP oculta en 34 pacientes (33,7%) y falsos positivos en 23 (22,8%). Mediana desde el implante hasta la deteccion de la arritmia: 102 dias (rango: 26-240 dias). En un 70% de los pacientes se registraron multiples episodios de FAP. El 75% de los eventos se detectaron durante los primeros seis meses de monitorizacion. Conclusiones. El algoritmo de seleccion de pacientes con ictus criptogenico segun sospecha de embolismo cerebral se asocio a una elevada frecuencia (33,7%) de FAP oculta con holter implantable. Uno de cada cuatro eventos sucedio tras los primeros seis meses de monitorizacion.

  10. Respiratory manifestations in late-onset Pompe disease: a case series conducted in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sixel, Bruna de Souza; Silva, Luanda Dias da; Cavalcanti, Nicolette Celani; Penque, Glória Maria Cardoso de Andrade; Lisboa, Sandra; Horovitz, Dafne Dain Gandelman; Llerena, Juan Clinton

    2017-01-01

    ância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos e capacidade de locomoção. Análises por frequência, mediana, valor mínimo e valor máximo foram realizadas. Foram incluídos seis pacientes no estudo. A mediana de idade ao início dos sintomas foi de 15 anos (variação, 13-50 anos) e a de idade ao diagnóstico foi de 39,5 anos (variação, 10-63 anos). A mediana de tempo entre o início dos sintomas e a confirmação diagnóstica foi de 8 anos (variação, 0-45 anos). A manifestação inicial da doença foi de sintomas motores de fraqueza muscular em todos os casos. As medianas da CVF em porcentagem do previsto (CVF%) em posição sentada, em supino e ΔCVF% foram de, respectivamente, 71,0% (variação, 22,9-104,6%), 58,0% (variação, 10,9-106,9%) e 24,5% (-4,59 a 52,40%). A mediana da distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos foi de 391,7 m (variação, 97-702 m) . Nesta série, o tempo entre o início dos sintomas e o diagnóstico foi longo. A manifestação inicial da doença não foi de sinais ou sintomas respiratórios, embora 66,7% dos pacientes apresentassem redução da CVF% em posição sentada e em supino no momento do diagnóstico.

  11. Quantifying Uncertainty in Early Lifecycle Cost Estimation for DOD Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-31

    Acquisition Programs Cost Estimation Research Team: Bob Ferguson ( SEI - SEMA) Dennis Goldenson PhD ( SEI - SEMA) Jim McCurley ( SEI ...SEMA) Bob Stoddard ( SEI - SEMA) Dave Zubrow PhD ( SEI - SEMA) Julie Cohen ( SEI - ASP) Tim Morrow ( SEI - ASP) Eduardo Miranda PhD (CMU ISR...McCurley Senior Technical Staff Jim McCurley is a Senior Member of the Technical Staff at the Software Engineering Institute ( SEI ). During his 15

  12. Usual dietary glycemic load is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Cocate, Paula G; Natali, Antônio J; de Oliveira, Alessandro; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Longo, Giana Z; Buthers, Jéssica M; dos Santos, Eliziária C; de Oliveira, Leandro L; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia G

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: Los efectos de la carga glucémica (CG) de la dieta sobre los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en sujetos físicamente activos no están establecidos por completo. Objetivo: Este estudio transversal evaluó la asociación entre la CG de la dieta habitual y los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres brasileños de mediana edad físicamente activos. Métodos: Ciento setenta y seis sujetos (índice de masa corporal: 25,5 ± 3,6 kg/m2; edad: 50,6 ± 5,0 años) fueron evaluados. Antropometría, características del estilo de vida, la resistencia a la insulina, biomarcadores del estrés oxidativo (8-iso-prostaglandina F2, 8-iso-PGF2y 8 hidroxideoxiguanosina, 8-OHdG) y el perfil lipídico fueron evaluados. La ingesta dietética se estimó por medio de un cuestionario cuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo. Resultados: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con las concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres (= 0,311, r2 = 0,13, P = 0,034) y la razón triglicéridos/colesterol HDL (= 0,598, r2 = 0,19, P = 0,028), independientemente de los factores de confusión (obesidad central, consumo de carne roja, edad e ingesta calórica). El biomarcador del estrés oxidativo, 8-OHdG, también se asoció con CG de la dieta habitual (= 0,432, r2 = 0,11, P = 0,004), independientemente de los factores de confusión anteriores más el consumo excesivo de alcohol, la ingesta de hierro y tabaquismo actual. Conclusiones: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con el perfil lipídico (concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres y razón triglicéridos/HDL colesterol) y el biomarcador de estrés oxidativo 8-OHdG. Estos resultados indican el potencial de nocividad de una dieta con mayor CG respecto a los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres de mediana edad, incluso en aquellos físicamente activos.

  13. Omental infarction: a reappraisal of conservative management in children.

    PubMed

    Estevão-Costa, José; Alvarenga, Ana Sofia; Fragoso, Ana Catarina; Garcia, Maria; Campos, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A melhoria da acuidade diagnóstica do enfarte do omento resultou num incremento da atitude conservadora no seu tratamento. Com o objectivo de avaliar a eficácia e segurança da abordagem não-operatória, analisámos os casos de enfarte do omento tratados num hospital terciário. Material e Métodos: Incluímos os casos de enfarte do omento primários tratados entre 2004 e 2011. Os enfartes do omento diagnosticados por imagiologia foram submetidos a tratamento conservador que constou de analgésicos e antibioterapia intravenosa. Avaliámos os dados demográficos, apresentação clínica, dados laboratoriais, imagiologia e resultado. Resultados: Ocorreram nove casos de enfarte do omento. Oito pacientes (4 rapazes), com uma idade mediana de 8,5 anos, apresentaram- se na fase inicial da doença por dor abdominal à direita; a contagem leucocitária era normal ou ligeiramente elevada. Seis casos, diagnosticados por TC após ecografia suspeita de enfarte do omento em quatro, foram trados conservadoramente sem complicações, tendo alta ao terceiro dia (mediana). Dois doentes foram apenas diagnosticados durante a intervenção cirúrgica por suposta apendicite. O nono caso apresentou-se com uma obstrução intestinal devida a hérnia interna que foi resolvida por laparoscopia. Discussão: A imagiologia foi diagnóstica na maioria dos casos de enfarte do omento, permitindo a adoção de uma abordagem conservadora. O tratamento não-operatório foi eficaz e sem complicações em todos os doentes que se apresentaram na fase inicial da doença. Um doente apresentou-se com uma complicação grave que requereu intervenção cirúrgica. Conclusão: Na ausência de um tratamento consensual para o enfarte do omento, a abordagem não-operatória é uma alternativa não invasiva e eficaz, mas requer uma vigilância clínica ativa.

  14. Recommendations from the AIA/SEI Workshop on Research Advances Required for Real-Time Software Systems in the 1990s Held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on 13-14 September 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-14

    MS WT-1 7 (513) 255-3947 Dallas, TX 75265-0003 (214) 266-7791 Walt Scacchi Assistant Professor Daniel P. Siewiorek University of Southern California...Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 scacchi @pollux.usc.edu (412) 268-2570 arpanet:dps@a.gp.cs.cmu.edu Lui Sha Senior Member of the Technical Staff David R. Smith

  15. Caregivers' Practical Help. A Six Session Course for Informal Caregivers = Ayuda Practica para las Personas Que Cuidan a Envejecientes. Curso de Seis Sesiones para las Personas Que Informalmente Cuidan a Envejecientes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office for the Aging, Albany.

    This document is a six-session course designed for those individuals who provide care to their homebound elderly relatives and friends and who need practical information and skills to support their caregiving role. The course helps caregivers identify and use community services. It provides an opportunity to acquire personal care skills and…

  16. Considerations for Using Agile in DoD Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Buettner, Aerospace Joe Tatem, Raytheon Stephany Bellomo, SEI Nanette Brown, SEI John Foreman, SEI Dr. John Goodenough, SEI Harry Levinson, SEI...event_details.php?id=452 [2] H. Glazer, J. Dalton, D. Anderson, M. Konrad , and S. Shrum, "CMMI or Agile: Why Not Embrace Both," Carnegie Mellon

  17. [Surgical treatment of hypospadias and complications in relation to the child's age].

    PubMed

    Arreola-García, Joel; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo Daniel; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Morales-González, Carlos Abel; González-Ledón, Fernando; Díaz-Pardo, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el hipospadias es una de las malformaciones congénitas más comunes. Pocos estudios han explorado la asociación de la edad al momento de la cirugía y las complicaciones. Objetivo: determinar si la edad al momento de la corrección del hipospadias es un factor de riesgo de complicaciones. Material y métodos: estudio de cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con reparación del hipospadias en un tiempo quirúrgico. Los datos incluyeron: edad, tipo de hipospadias, técnica quirúrgica y complicaciones. El seguimiento se efectuó incluso seis meses después de la cirugía. Los pacientes se clasificaron según su edad: el grupo A menores de 24 meses, grupo B de 24 a 48 meses y el grupo C mayores de 48 meses. Se calculó el riesgo relativo y los intervalos de confianza de 95%. Resultados: se analizaron los expedientes de 170 pacientes. La incidencia de complicaciones fue de 24.1%, la más frecuente fue la fistula uretrocutánea (52.2%). La mediana de edad en meses del grupo con complicación fue: 40.8 (6-196), mientras que en el grupo sin complicación fue: 37.5 (6-196). La edad no se asoció con mayor riesgo de complicaciones, grupo B (RR= 0.975 [IC 95% 0.374-2.547]); y el grupo C (RR= 0.966 [IC 95% 0.386-2.416]) al compararla con el grupo A. Conclusiones: la edad al momento de la corrección del hipospadias en un tiempo quirúrgico no se asocia con complicaciones quirúrgicas.

  18. [Risk factors related with ventilator-associated pneumonia in a neonatal intensive care therapy].

    PubMed

    Romo-Gamboa, Juan Pablo; Sandoval-Pérez, Bertha Alicia; Rodríguez-López, Ana Bertha; Torres-González, Marco Antonio; Barrera-de León, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: la neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica (NAVM) representa la segunda causa de infección nosocomial y se asocia con una mayor morbilidad, duración de ventilación mecánica (VM) y estancia hospitalaria. El objetivo fue determinar los factores asociados a NAVM en neonatos. Métodos: estudio transversal analítico en el que se incluyeron recién nacidos que ingresaron intubados con menos de 48 horas de VM o que se intubaron en terapia neonatal. Se definió la NAVM, según los criterios de los Centros para el Control y la Prevencion de Enfermedades (CDC), como “aquella infección nosocomial diagnosticada en pacientes sometidos a VM durante al menos 48 horas”. Se empleó estadística inferencial para el análisis estadístico. Resultados: se estudiaron 82 neonatos, desarrollaron NAVM 27 (33%). La mediana del desarrollo de neumonía fue de seis días (rango 5-11). El germen aislado más común fue la Escherichia coli (27%). Las variables estadísticamente significativas fueron la edad gestacional (p = 0.05) y el uso de antiácidos al ingreso (p = 0.007). Los pacientes con neumonía tuvieron mayor tiempo de estancia hospitalaria (0.001) y tiempo con VM (p = 0.002). Murieron 22 neonatos en población general (27%), de los cuales nueve eran pacientes con NAVM. Conclusión: los factores de riesgo para NAVM incluyen menor edad gestacional, antiácidos y ventilación mecánica prolongada.

  19. [Electrical status epilepticus during sleep: a retrospective multi-centre study of 29 cases].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Ruiz, María; Miguel-Martin, Beatriz; García-Pérez, Asunción; Martínez-Granero, Miguel A; Aguilera-Albesa, Sergio; Yoldi-Petri, M Eugenia; Sánchez-Ruiz de Gordoa, Javier; Castro-De Castro, Pedro; Sánchez-Carpintero, Rocío

    2015-02-01

    Introduccion. El estado epileptico electrico durante el sueño (ESES) es un sindrome epileptico caracterizado por la presencia de descargas epilepticas tipo punta-onda lenta de manera muy persistente durante el sueño no REM. En la actualidad, el manejo de esta patologia es heterogeneo y no hay estudios controlados con los tratamientos utilizados, ni se ha comprobado si estos mejoran la evolucion cognitiva de los pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Se revisan los pacientes diagnosticados de ESES durante 15 años en cuatro centros hospitalarios, se recoge la presentacion clinica, el manejo terapeutico y la evolucion clinica, y se compara con la bibliografia. Resultados. Se seleccionaron 29 pacientes con ESES, 20 de ellos idiopatico y 26 de ellos generalizado. Los farmacos con los que se consiguio mayor control de la actividad electrica fueron los corticoides/hormona adrenocorticotropa (ACTH), el clobazam y el levetiracetam. La mediana de duracion del ESES en los casos primarios fue de seis meses, y en los secundarios, el doble. El 45% de los pacientes mantuvo un cociente intelectual normal y un 40% presento en la evolucion discapacidad cognitiva de diferente grado. Conclusiones. El pronostico neuropsicologico evolutivo suele ser desfavorable y la evolucion cognitiva parece estar en relacion con la duracion del ESES y el area donde este concentrada la actividad epileptica, lo que sugiere que el mal pronostico, si se trata precozmente, se puede evitar. Los antiepilepticos mas frecuentemente utilizados son el acido valproico, la etosuximida y el levetiracetam, y en nuestra muestra tambien se utilizaron con frecuencia el clobazam y la lamotrigina. Los farmacos mas eficaces para el control del ESES fueron los corticoides/ACTH, el clobazam y el levetiracetam.

  20. [The use of the ketogenic diet as treatment for refractory epilepsy in the paediatric age].

    PubMed

    Pablos-Sánchez, Tamara; Oliveros-Leal, Liliana; Núñez-Enamorado, Noemí; Camacho-Salas, Ana; Moreno-Villares, José Manuel; Simón-De las Heras, Rogelio

    2014-01-16

    Introduccion. El 23-25% de los niños epilepticos son refractarios a farmacos antiepilepticos. El interes por la dieta cetogenica como tratamiento en estos pacientes no candidatos a otras opciones terapeuticas ha resurgido ultimamente. Objetivo. Valorar la eficacia y seguridad del tratamiento con dieta cetogenica en un importante numero de pacientes pediatricos con epilepsia refractaria en nuestro centro y determinar si los resultados obtenidos corroboran otros de publicacion reciente. Pacientes y metodos. Se revisaron retrospectivamente las historias clinicas de 41 niños con epilepsia refractaria que fueron tratados con dieta cetogenica entre 1998 y 2011, la mayoria con dieta tipo Radcliffe II. La mediana de edad al inicio de la dieta fue de 3,92 años. Resultados. A los seis meses del inicio de la dieta se redujeron las crisis en al menos un 50% en un 36,84% de la muestra (el 10,53% de los niños alcanzo mas de un 90% de reduccion y un 5,26% quedo sin crisis). Aproximadamente un 50% por grupo de edad en los mas pequeños respondio de manera positiva. Un 58,54% de los pacientes presento algun efecto secundario, tolerable y transitorio, principalmente elevacion de los niveles de colesterol y estreñimiento, sin observarse variacion en los parametros antropometricos. Conclusiones. La dieta cetogenica supone una buena alternativa terapeutica en los casos de epilepsia refractaria en la edad pediatrica, con mayor probabilidad de beneficio cuanto menor sea la edad del niño al inicio de la dieta. En general, es bien tolerada. Son de gran importancia en estos pacientes las revisiones periodicas con control nutricional.

  1. [Infectious complications in children with end-stage renal disease on replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Robles-Vázquez, Néstor Daniel; Aguilar-Kitsu, María Alejandra; Mendoza-Guevara, Leticia; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: aproximadamente 5000 niños menores de 20 años y 200 menores de dos años inician anualmente tratamiento para enfermedad renal terminal (ERT). Se buscó estimar la incidencia de complicaciones infecciosas en niños con ERT en terapia sustitutiva. Métodos: cohorte retrospectiva, se incluyeron pacientes en los programas de diálisis peritoneal y hemodiálisis, con seguimiento mínimo de tres meses. Se calculó la densidad de incidencia para las infecciones asociadas a terapia sustitutiva. Resultados: se analizaron 67 pacientes. En 88 % la terapia inicial fue diálisis peritoneal. Se presentaron 52 eventos de peritonitis y la densidad de incidencia fue de 0.63 episodios/paciente por año. Treinta niños (48 %) nunca tuvieron peritonitis. A los seis meses de seguimiento 90 % de los niños continuaban con el mismo catéter, lo cual disminuyó a 84, 74 y 50 % a los 12, 18 y 24 meses, respectivamente. Cuarenta y cinco niños estuvieron en hemodiálisis, 82 % de ellos precedidos por diálisis peritoneal. El tiempo en hemodiálisis en 25 % fue mayor a 19 meses. Se presentaron 22 eventos de bacteriemia y la densidad de incidencia fue 1 episodio/1000 días-catéter ó 2.5/1000 sesiones de hemodiálisis. Se trasplantaron 29 pacientes (43 %), dos fallecieron. La mediana de espera para trasplante fue de 15 meses. Conclusiones: la incidencia de complicaciones infecciosas es similar a lo registrado en la literatura. A los 20 meses, la mitad de los pacientes tuvieron al menos una complicación infecciosa.

  2. [Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium in the acute phase of relapses in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, P; Bareno, J; Cabrera, L; Rueda, K; Rovira, A

    2017-03-16

    Objetivo. Describir los factores que estan relacionados con el realce de gadolinio en la resonancia magnetica (RM) en pacientes con esclerosis multiple (EM) con sintomas de recaida. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional de corte transversal, retrospectivo, de pacientes mayores de 18 años con diagnostico de EM remitente recurrente o progresiva, que presentaron actividad clinica y a quienes se les realizo resonancia cerebral y medular con contraste durante la fase aguda de los sintomas. Resultados. De los 93 pacientes incluidos, el 70% fueron mujeres, con una edad media de 37 ± 9,6 años. El 90% presentaba un diagnostico de EM remitente recurrente y el 50% tenia una duracion de la enfermedad de al menos cinco años. El 56% presento actividad clinica de origen medular, y las alteraciones sensitivas fueron las mas frecuentes (44%). La mediana de duracion de los sintomas fue de seis dias (rango: 1-89 dias). El 93% requirio tratamiento con metilprednisolona intravenosa durante 3-5 dias, que se administro despues de realizar los estudios de RM. La presencia de lesiones que realzaran con contraste durante la fase de recaida en los estudios de RM no mostro relacion significativa con ninguna de las variables clinicas analizadas y solo se observo una tendencia con los sintomas asociados (p = 0,07). Conclusiones. La definicion de recaida en la EM es clinica. Una RM en la fase de recaida podria ser util para confirmar la actividad de la enfermedad, pero el realce de gadolinio durante la recaida no se encontro que fuera determinado por la presentacion clinica, la localizacion anatomica o la duracion del sintoma.

  3. [Lesiones de mucosa bucal. Factores asociados en población infantil].

    PubMed

    Linares-Vieyra, Celia; Meza-Sánchez, Julieta Del Carmen; González-Guevara, Martha Beatriz; Murrieta-Pruneda, José Francisco; Salgado-Rodríguez, Sandra Jessica; Morales-Jaimes, Rosalba

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la prevalencia de las lesiones de mucosa bucal en los niños varía de 4.1 a 52.6 %, debido a diferencias poblacionales y metodológicas. El objetivo fue identificar la prevalencia de dichas lesiones y su posible asociación con antecedentes patológicos y hábitos parafuncionales en una población infantil, atendida en la clínica dental San Lorenzo Atemoaya. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal de niños atendidos entre 2006 y 2009. Se obtuvieron las prevalencias de las lesiones y para la asociación entre variables se utilizó regresión logística no condicional. Resultados: de 1228 expedientes, 367 correspondieron a niños, 200 del sexo masculino (54.5 %). La mediana de edad fue de seis años. La prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa bucal fue de 66.2 %. Las lesiones más frecuentes fueron la queilitis simple (41.1 %), la mácula melanótica (18.3 %), las petequias (16.9 %) y la úlcera traumática (12 %), sin diferencias entre sexos. La succión labial se asoció con queilitis simple (RM = 1.7, p = 0.013) y onicofagia con úlceras recurrentes (RM = 15.75, p = 0.026). Conclusiones: se observó alta prevalencia de lesiones de mucosa bucal en la población infantil estudiada y se confirma la asociación con hábitos parafuncionales.

  4. Quantifying Uncertainty for Early Life Cycle Cost Estimates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University,Software Engineering Institute ( SEI ),Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8...the technical staff at the Software Engineering Institute ( SEI ). During his 15 years at the SEI , his areas of expertise have included data analysis...sei.cmu.edu] Robert Ferguson—Ferguson is a senior member of the technical staff at the Software Engineering Institute ( SEI ). He works primarily on

  5. Competency Lifecycle Roadmap: Toward Performance Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    CMU/ SEI -2012-TN-020 CERT® Program http://www.sei.cmu.edu SEI markings v3.2 / 30 August 2011 Copyright 2012 Carnegie Mellon University. This...report was prepared for the SEI Administrative Agent AFLCMC/PZE 20 Schilling Circle, Building 1305, 3rd Floor Hanscom AFB, MA 01731-2125 NO WARRANTY...Mellon University. * These restrictions do not apply to U.S. government entities. CMU/ SEI -2012-TN-020 | i Table of Contents Abstract vii 1

  6. [Clinical and Epidemiological Study of Complicated Infection by Varicella-Zoster Virus in the Pediatric Age].

    PubMed

    Maia, Catarina; Fonseca, Jacinta; Carvalho, Isabel; Santos, Helena; Moreira, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Em Portugal, a incidência da infeção complicada por vírus varicela-zoster e respetivos custos é desconhecida. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as características clinico-epidemiológicas dos doentes em idade pediátrica internados com o diagnóstico de infeção complicada por vírus varicela-zoster. Material e Métodos: Estudo descritivo, baseado na análise dos processos clínicos dos doentes internados entre janeiro de 1999 e julho de 2013, com diagnóstico de infeção complicada por vírus varicela-zoster. Resultados: Foram internados 94 doentes por infeção complicada a vírus varicela-zoster, dois por reativação de infeção latente. A mediana da idade foi 38 (IQR 18 - 65) meses. As complicações mais frequentes foram as infeciosas (70,2%), destacando-se a sobreinfeção bacteriana da pele/tecido celular subcut'neo (37,2%) e as complicações respiratórias (24,5%). Seguiram-se as complicações neurológicas (19,1%), gastrointestinais (9,6%), hematológicas (5,3%) e osteoarticulares (4,3%). Diagnosticaram-se 38 (40,4%) infeções bacterianas invasivas, seis com bacteriemia. A mediana da idade na admissão foi mais elevada nas complicações imunológicas relativamente às complicações infeciosas. As complicações neurológicas ocorreram preferencialmente em crianças saudáveis, enquanto as complicações infeciosas, nomeadamente as infeções bacterianas invasivas foram mais frequentes nos doentes medicados com ibuprofeno e/ou corticoide. A evolução foi favorável na maioria dos casos. Discussão: As complicações da infeção pelo vírus varicela-zoster ocorreram preferencialmente em idade pré-escolar e doentes saudáveis. As complicações infeciosas, nomeadamente as dermatológicas e respiratórias, foram as mais frequentes, tendo sido verificada associação com a terapêutica prévia com ibuprofeno e /ou corticoide.Conclusão: Estudos multicêntricos deverão ser planeados com o intuito de otimizar e ajustar as

  7. [Laparoscopic vs opened appendicovesicostomy in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Landa-Juárez, Sergio; Montes de Oca-Muñoz, Lorena Elizabeth; Castillo-Fernández, Ana María; de la Cruz-Yañez, Hermilo; García-Hernández, Carlos; Andraca-Dumit, Roxona

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la apendicovesicostomía suele practicarse para facilitar el drenaje de orina por medio del cateterismo. La tendencia a ofrecer procedimientos menos invasivos a pacientes con vejiga neurogénica ha hecho de la laparoscopia una alternativa a la cirugía abierta, por sus ventajas de recuperación, menor tiempo de íleo postoperatorio, mejor cosmética, menor dolor postquirúrgico y reintegración temprana a la vida cotidiana. Objetivo: comparar los resultados de la apendicovesicostomía laparoscópica con la abierta. Material y métodos: estudio de cohorte, observacional, analítico, longitudinal, ambispectivo, que incluyó pacientes de 6 a 16 años, con diagnóstico de vejiga neurogénica, intervenidos mediante laparoscopia y cirugía abierta entre enero de 2009 y junio 2013, recuperándose la información de los expedientes clínicos. Resultados: seis pacientes se operaron mediante laparoscopia y 14 con cirugía abierta. El tiempo quirúrgico fue mayor en el grupo intervenido mediante laparoscopia, con una mediana de 330 minutos (300-360), en comparación con el abierto de 255 minutos (180-360), diferencia estadísticamente significativa. Siete pacientes del grupo abierto tuvieron complicaciones y solo 1 del grupo laparoscópico. La diferencia en la dosis de analgésicos y en el tiempo de su consumo fue estadísticamente significativa a favor del grupo intervenido mediante laparoscopia. El grado de continencia urinaria por la derivación fue mayor para el procedimiento laparoscópico (100%) que para el abierto (64%). Conclusiones: la apendicovesicostomía laparoscópica resultó una mejor alternativa para pacientes con vejiga neurogénica con parámetros urodinámicos de capacidad vesical y presión de punto de fuga dentro de valores aceptables.

  8. PubMed

    García Almeida, Jose M; Lupiáñez Pérez, Yolanda; Blanco Naveira, Mercedes; Ruiz Nava, Josefina; Medina, José Antonio; Cornejo Pareja, Isabel; Gómez Pérez, Ana; Molina Vega, María; López-Medina, José A; Tinahones Madueño, Francisco

    2017-06-05

    Introducción: en pacientes con riesgo nutricional, la Sociedad Europea de Clínica y Metabolismo (ESPEN) y Parenteral recomienda suplementos nutricionales durante el tratamiento oncológico para prevenir la pérdida de peso involuntaria.Objetivos: nuestro objetivo es conocer el cumplimiento, la aceptabilidad y la tolerancia de un suplemento hiperproteico, hipercalórico, rico en omega 3 en pacientes oncológicos.Métodos: estudio unicéntrico, observacional y prospectivo en pacientes oncológicos con un suplemento nutricional hiperproteico, hipercalórico, rico en omega 3 y de bajo volumen. Fueron incluidos 30 pacientes con desnutrición o en riesgo de desnutrición. La suplementación duró seis días. Se evaluaron el cumplimiento (envases utilizado), la aceptabilidad (escala Madrid), las variables antropométricas y los acontecimientos adversos (AA) gastrointestinales.Resultados: el 70% fueron hombres, con una edad media de 60 años (rango: 32 a 79) y con neoplasias de pulmón (43,3%), ORL (26,7%) y mama (13,3%), en estadio III-IV (56,7%), tratados con radioterapia (93,3%), quimioterapia (60%) y cirugía (16,7%). El producto fue aceptado por todos los pacientes. Se observó un cumplimiento del 100%. En dos pacientes (6,7%) se observaron AA gastrointestinales (grado II) relacionados con el suplemento; ambos sujetos presentaban patologías gastrointestinales previas. La mediana del peso, índice de masa corporal (IMC) y proteínas ingeridas aumentó durante la suplementación (0,2 kg, 0,1 kg/m2 y 6,2 g). No se observaron diferencias respecto a la ingesta de calorías, lípidos y carbohidratos. Conclusión: la elevada aceptación y cumplimiento del suplemento nutricional específico se asoció con la mejora nutricional de los pacientes oncológicos, pues revirtió la pérdida de peso, sin presentar problemas gastrointestinales severos ni producir desplazamiento de la ingesta.

  9. Impact of preoperative analytical values on post-operative mortality rate of intertrochanteric fractures.

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana; Torres, João; São Simão, Ricardo; Cabral, Abel Trigo; Pinto, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A incidência das fraturas intertrocantéricas tem aumentado ao longo dos últimos anos, bem como todos os problemas a elas associados. É importante pesquisar possíveis formas de reduzir quer co-morbilidades, quer a mortalidade pós-operatória. Decidimos avaliar o impacto de alguns valores analíticos pré-operatórios na mortalidade pós-operatória de doentes com fractura intertrocantérica, com idade igual ou superior a 65 anos.Material e Métodos: De todas as fracturas intertrocantéricas admitidas entre Janeiro de 2007 e Maio 2012, 160 doentes foram incluídos no estudo. As variáveis estudadas foram idade, género, tempo de internamento, e dados analíticos, como hemoglobina, contagem de leucócitos e plaquetas, níveis de ureia e creatinina e concentração de sódio plasmática. Informação relativa à mortalidade foi obtida através do registo civil e, considerando um ponto de corte de seis meses após a cirurgia, os doentes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a sua sobrevida. Os testes de Mann-Whitney e Chi-quadrado foram utilizados para estudar a associação entre as nossas variáveis e a sobrevida dos doentes.Resultados: A nossa população apresentava uma idade mediana de 82 anos de idade e uma maioria de mulheres (79,4%). Nos primeiros 6 meses após a cirurgia, 27 doentes dos iniciais 160 (16,1%) faleceram. A mortalidade estava relacionada com valores baixos de hemoglobina, elevados de plaquetas, elevados de creatinina e baixa concentração de sódio plasmático.Conclusão: A taxa de mortalidade pos-operatória da cirurgia da anca é elevada. Os nossos resultados podem ser utilizados parareduzir esta taxa, corrigindo valores analíticos pré-operatórios.

  10. Malignant transformation in non-recurrent peritoneal cystic mesothelioma Our experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Giuseppe; Accardo, Marina; De Vita, Ferdinando; Del Giudice, Santolo; Gallucci, Federica; Fabozzi, Alessio; De Falco, Massimo

    2016-01-29

    Il mesotelioma peritoneale cistico è un tumore raro. Si tratta di un tumore benigno, che tuttavia va incontro a recidive locali post-chirurgiche in oltre il 50% dei casi. È proprio a seguito di recidive ricorrenti che si possono determinare trasformazioni maligne di questa neoplasia, come descritto in Letteratura. Nel Giugno del 2004 un paziente di 73 anni è giunto presso la nostra struttura con una tumefazione addominale causa di dolore gravativo: si trattava di una massa di 16 cm, la cui struttura, agli esami strumentali (ecografia, TC con m.d.c. e RMN), appariva pluricistica. Attraverso una laparotomia mediana si è provveduto alla sua rimozione e il paziente è stato dimesso in VIII giornata post-operatoria senza complicanze. L’esame istologico, corredato da studio immunoistochimico e di microscopia elettronica, ha consentito di porre diagnosi di mesotelioma peritoneale pluricistico in trasformazione maligna. D’accordo con gli oncologi, in considerazione della scarsa efficacia dei trattamenti adiuvanti e della scarsità dei dati riportati in Letteratura sull’argomento, si è deciso di sottoporre il paziente unicamente ad uno stretto follow-up, con esecuzione di ecografia addominale ogni sei mesi e TC addominale ogni anno. Ad oggi, dieci anni dopo il trattamento, il paziente, di 83 anni, gode di un discreto stato di salute e non si sono verificate riprese o recidive di malattia, né locali, né a distanza. Oltre al fatto di essere risultato maligno alla sua prima manifestazione e non dopo ripetute recidive, il caso presenta altre particolarità: il mesotelioma peritoneale cistico, infatti, solitamente colpisce soggetti di sesso femminile (con un rapporto F:M di 4,5:1) ad un’età media di 60 anni, mentre il caso descritto riguarda un soggetto di sesso maschile di 73 anni. La nostra osservazione dimostra la possibilità che il mesotelioma peritoneale vada incontro a trasformazioni maligne già alla sua prima manifestazione e non esclusivamente dopo

  11. [VITAMIN D AND CHRONIC LUNG COLONIZATION IN PEDIATRIC AND YOUNG ADULTS CYSTIC FIBROSIS PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    González Jiménez, David; Muñoz Codoceo, Rosana; Garriga García, María; Molina Arias, Manuel; Alvarez Beltran, Marina; García Romero, Ruth; Martínez Costa, Cecilia; Meavilla Olivas, Silvia María; Peña Quintana, Luis; Gallego Gutierrez, Silvia; Marugan de Miguelsanz, Jose Manuel; Suarez Cortina, Lucrecia; Castejón Ponce, Esperanza Natividad; Leis Trabazo, Rosaura; Martín Cruz, Fayna; Díaz Martín, Juan Jose; Bousoño García, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Introducción y objetivos: conocer la situación en la que se encuentran los pacientes con fibrosis quística en relación con sus niveles de vitamina D y su asociación con las colonizaciones pulmonares crónicas. Material y métodos: estudio multicéntrico transversal. Participaron 12 hospitales nacionales. De noviembre a abril del 2012 al 2014 se incluyeron 377 pacientes con fibrosis quística. Se consideraron insuficientes niveles de vitamina D < 30 ng/ml. Presentar al menos dos cultivos positivos en el último año fue considerado un criterio de colonización crónica. Resultados: los pacientes tenían una mediana de edad de 8,9 años (2 meses—20 años). Un 65% presentaban niveles insuficientes de vitamina D. Se observó una correlación inversa entre edad y niveles de vitamina D (r = -0,20 p < 0,001). Los diagnosticados por cribado eran más jóvenes y tenían niveles de vitamina D más altos. Los niveles de vitamina D presentaron una correlación inversa con el número de colonizaciones pulmonares (r = -0,16 p = 0,0015). Ajustando por edad, función pancreática y diagnóstico mediante cribado, la colonización por S. Aureus en menores de seis años y por Pseudomonas sp. en los mayores de esa edad, incrementaban el riesgo de presentar niveles insuficientes de vitamina D: OR 3,17 (IC95% 1,32-7,61) (p=0,010) y OR 3,77 (IC95% 1,37- 10,37)(p = 0,010), respectivamente. Conclusiones: a pesar de una suplementación adecuada, más de la mitad de nuestros pacientes no alcanzan niveles óptimos de vitamina D. La colonización crónica por Pseudomonas sp. en escolares y adolescentes y por S. Aureus en lactantes y preescolares se asocia de forma independiente con la deficiencia de vitamina D.

  12. Exploration Technology Program plans and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Arnold; Rosen, Robert; Craig, Mark; Mankins, John C.

    1990-01-01

    A summary of the proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) needs that have been identified is presented along with a detailed review of the status of SEI technology planning. Plans are also being formulated to implement an Exploration Technology Program (ETP) that will develop the major technologies required for SEI. The ETP will provide in the near term clear demonstrations of potential exploration technologies, results of research to support SEI architecture decisions, and a foundation of mature technology that is ready to be applied in the first round of SEI missions. A family of functional building blocks has been defined from which both lunar and Mars SEI mission architectures can be constructed.

  13. Synthesis, NMR characterisation and X-ray structures of mixed chalcogenido PNP ligands containing tellurium: crystal structures of SeiPr2PNP(H)iPr2 and [NaN(EPiPr2)2]infinity (E = Se, Te).

    PubMed

    Robertson, Stuart D; Chivers, Tristram

    2008-04-07

    Reaction of HN(PiPr2)2 with one equivalent of selenium in hexane at room temperature yields the monoselenide as the P-H tautomer Se=PiPr2-N=P(H)iPr2 (2b). Deprotonation of 2b with n butyllithium in the presence of TMEDA at -78 degrees C followed by addition of tellurium produces the air-sensitive, mixed chalcogenido complex [(TMEDA)Li(SePiPr2)(TePiPr2)N] (8Li) in >97% purity after recrystallisation. Similarly, deprotonation of Te=PiPr2-N=P(H)iPr2 (2c), followed by addition of sulfur, gives the sulfur analogue [(TMEDA)Li(SPiPr2)(TePiPr2)N] (7Li) in >99% purity. The symmetrical complexes [(TMEDA)Li(SePiPr2)2N] (4Li) and [(TMEDA)Li(TePiPr2)2N] (5Li) are produced by similar methods. Compounds 2b, 4Li, 5Li, 7Li and 8Li were characterised in solution by multinuclear (1H, 31P, 77Se and 125Te) NMR spectroscopy and their solid-state structures were determined by X-ray crystallography. The X-ray crystal structures of the polymeric chains [NaN(EPiPr2)2]infinity (4Na, E = Se and 5Na, E = Te) are also reported.

  14. Geoacoustic Inversion and Source Localization in a Randomly Fluctuating Shallow Water Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    with a standard deviation of 570 m. 2.2 SVV06 experiment data analysis: Sei whale localization Comparatively little is known about sei whale ...large number of sei whale calls were unexpectedly collected during the SW06 experiment, which introduced the first evidence of sei whales in this...shallow water region. Using the normal mode approach developed in this project, we are able to track the remote locations of these whales up to tens of

  15. The Chief Software Architect in U.S. Army Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    workforce. the chief Software Architect in u.S. Army Acquisition Stephen Blanchette, Jr. and John Bergey Software Engineering Institute Report...Norwich University. E-mail: sblanche@sei.cmu.edu John Bergey is a senior member of the technical staff at SEI, specializing in transitioning SEI...across the Armed Services. Prior to joining SEI, he served over 25 years as a software division manager with the U.S. Navy. Mr. Bergey is a

  16. Interface between social support, quality of life and depression in users eligible for palliative care.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Cissa; Pessalacia, Juliana Dias Reis; Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira da; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Pereira, Maria da Graça

    2017-08-28

    Analyzing the relationship between social support, quality of life and depression in patients eligible for palliative care at Primary Health Care of a municipality in the interior of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A correlational cross-sectional study carried out with patients treated in six primary health care units. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, tests for differences between averages and medians, and correlation tests. The significance level was 0.05. The sample consisted of 115 participants, and it was identified that the higher the social support, the better the global quality of life (p<0.001) and functional quality of life (p=0.035); the greater the presence of physical symptoms, the lower the level of social support (p=0.012) and the higher the level of depression (p<0.001); the higher the symptoms of depression, the worse the global quality of life (p<0.001), functional quality of life (p<0.001) and the lower the levels of social support (p<0.001). Levels of quality of life, social support and depression of patients eligible for palliative care are influenced by socioeconomic factors such as marital status, gender, age, income, education and presence of a caregiver. Analisar a relação entre apoio social, qualidade de vida e depressão em pacientes elegíveis para cuidados paliativos atendidos na Atenção Primária à Saúde de um município no interior de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Estudo transversal correlacional, realizado com pacientes atendidos em seis unidades da atenção primária à saúde. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva, testes de diferenças entre médias e medianas e testes de correlação. O nível de significância adotado foi 0,05. A amostra foi composta por 115 participantes, e identificou-se que quanto maior o apoio social, melhor é a qualidade de vida global (p<0,001) e funcional (p=0,035); quanto maior a presença de sintomas físicos, menor o nível de apoio social (p=0,012) e maior o n

  17. A Study of Arizona's Teachers of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Gonzalez Canche, Manuel S.; Moll, Luis C.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: In September 2007, the Arizona State Board of Education adopted the Structured English Immersion (SEI) model proposed by the Arizona English Language Learner (ELL) Task Force.During the 2008-2009 academic year, it required all school districts to implement the SEI model.The SEI program, best known as the 4-hour English Language…

  18. A Study of Arizona's Teachers of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Gonzalez Canche, Manuel S.; Moll, Luis C.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: In September 2007, the Arizona State Board of Education adopted the Structured English Immersion (SEI) model proposed by the Arizona English Language Learner (ELL) Task Force.During the 2008-2009 academic year, it required all school districts to implement the SEI model.The SEI program, best known as the 4-hour English Language…

  19. Emerging Technologies for Software-Reliant Systems of Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    please visit the library on the SEI website (www.sei.cmu.edu/library). i | CMU/SEI-2010-TN-019 Table of Contents Abstract v 1 Introduction 1 2...Levine, A., Smith, R., & Stone, S. The 2010 Horizon Report. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. 2010. http://www.nmc.org/pdf/2010-Horizon- Report.pdf

  20. Systems engineering and integration and management for manned space flight programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Owen

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the history of SE&I management of the overall program architecture, organizational structure and the relationship of SE&I to other program organizational elements. A brief discussion of the method of executing the SE&I process, a summary of some of the major lessons learned, and identification of things that have proven successful are included.

  1. Status and plans for exploration technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Arnold D.; Rosen, Robert; Harris, Leonard A.; Reck, Gregory M.; Mankins, John C.

    1991-01-01

    The present status of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is discussed. SEI mission planning is reviewed, including various architectural options, their waypoints, and their strategic features. SEI technology needs and issues are examined in order of priority and technology development plans are described.

  2. Science and Engineering Indicators 2010. NSB 10-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehming, Rolf F.; Alt, Martha Naomi; Chen, Xianglei; Hall, Leslie; Burton, Lawrence; Burrelli, Joan S.; Kannankutty, Nirmala; Proudfoot, Steven; Regets, Mark C.; Boroush, Mark; Moris, Francisco A.; Wolfe, Raymond M.; Britt, Ronda; Christovich, Leslie; Hill, Derek; Falkenheim, Jaquelina C.; Dunnigan, Paula C.

    2010-01-01

    "Science and Engineering Indicators" (SEI) is first and foremost a volume of record comprising the major high-quality quantitative data on the U.S. and international science and engineering enterprise. SEI is factual and policy neutral. It does not offer policy options, and it does not make policy recommendations. SEI employs a variety…

  3. Agile Development & Software Architecture - Crossing the Great Divide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-22

    University What is Architecture? Structure A Thematic Analysis System Qualities Decisions / Governance Multi-Dimensional SEI IEEE TOGAF Rozanski & Woods 12...TWITTER Hashtag #seiwebinar Crossing the Great Divide Brown , 4/22/2010 © 2010 Carnegie Mellon University Architectural Themes SEI IEEE TOGAF Rozanski...2010 © 2010 Carnegie Mellon University Structure System Qualities Decisions / Governance Multi-Dimensional Architectural Themes SEI IEEE TOGAF Rozanski

  4. 78 FR 19330 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Ross In-Situ Uranium Recovery Project in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... statement; request for comment. SUMMARY: By letter dated January 4, 2011, Strata Energy, Inc., (Strata... Statement (Draft SEIS) for the Ross Project. The Draft SEIS is Supplement 5 to NUREG-1910, ``Generic...-415-4737, or by email to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . The Draft SEIS (NUREG-1910, Supplement 5) is...

  5. Operando Measurement of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation at Working Electrode of Li-Ion Battery by Time-Slicing Neutron Reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Kawaura, Hiroyuki; Harada, Masashi; Kondo, Yasuhito; Kondo, Hiroki; Suganuma, Yoshitake; Takahashi, Naoko; Sugiyama, Jun; Seno, Yoshiki; Yamada, Norifumi L

    2016-04-20

    We report the first operando measurement of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation at an electrode using in situ neutron reflectometry. The results revealed the growth of the SEI and intercalation of ions during the charge reaction. Furthermore, we propose a way of evaluating the charge used for the SEI formation.

  6. Science and Engineering Indicators 2012. NSB 12-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Science and Engineering Indicators (SEI) is first and foremost a volume of record comprising the major high-quality quantitative data on the U.S. and international science and engineering enterprise. SEI is factual and policy neutral. It does not offer policy options, and it does not make policy recommendations. SEI employs a variety of…

  7. In Situ AFM Imaging of Solid Electrolyte Interfaces on HOPG with Ethylene Carbonate and Fluoroethylene Carbonate-Based Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cai; Wang, Shuwei; Jin, Yan; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-18

    Chemical and morphological structure of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) plays a vital role in lithium-ion battery (LIB), especially for its cyclability and safety. To date, research on SEI is quite limited because of the complexity of SEI and lack of effective in situ characterization techniques. Here, we present real-time views of SEI morphological evolution using electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM). Complemented by an ex situ XPS analysis, fundamental differences of SEI formation from ethylene carbonate (EC) and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC)-based electrolytes during first lithiation/delithiation cycle on HOPG electrode surface were revealed.

  8. A thermal-electrochemical model that gives spatial-dependent growth of solid electrolyte interphase in a Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Park, Jonghyun; Lin, Xianke; Sastry, Ann Marie; Lu, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The formation of a SEI layer and its growth cause internal resistance increase and capacity loss, leading to performance degradation of lithium-ion batteries. In order to comprehensively investigate the effects of SEI growth on battery performance, a one-dimensional thermal-electrochemical model was developed. This model is equipped with a growth mechanism of the SEI layer coupled with thermal evolution, based on the diffusional process of the solvent through the SEI layer and the kinetic process at the interface between the solid and liquid phases. The model is able to reveal the effects of diffusivity, reaction kinetics and temperature on SEI layer growth and cell capacity fade. We show that depending on the SEI thickness, the growth can be kinetics-limited or diffusion-limited. With the layer becoming thicker, its growth rate slows down gradually due to increased diffusion resistance. The SEI layer grows faster during charge than discharge due to the difference in the electron flux through the SEI layer and the temperature change during cycling. Temperature rise due to reaction and joule heating accelerates the SEI layer growth, leading to more capacity loss. Our model can provide insights on position-dependent SEI growth rate and be used to guide the strategic monitoring location.

  9. Pulmonary Embolism in Ambulatory Oncologic Patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia; Rosales, Maria; Milheiro, Maria João; Santos, Luísa L

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A associação entre a doença oncológica e a doença tromboembólica venosa é conhecida. O doente oncológico apresenta um risco de evento trombótico seis a sete vezes superior à população em geral. O tromboembolismo pulmonar é uma importante causa de morbilidade e mortalidade neste grupo de doentes, encontrando-se a sua prevalência subestimada. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospetivo de todos os episódios de tromboembolismo pulmonar referenciados num período de cinco anos. Selecionaram-se os doentes oncológicos em regime de ambulatório, tendo sido revistos os dados demográficos, fatores de risco, presença de sintomatologia ao diagnóstico, estratificação de risco de doença tromboembólica venosa pelo modelo de Khorana, probabilidade de mortalidade aos 30 dias e sobrevivência global. O trabalho elaborado está de acordo com a declaração de Helsínquia. Resultados: Avaliaram-se 186 doentes, 55,9% do sexo feminino, mediana de idade de 64 anos. As neoplasias mais prevalentes foram a colo-rectal (24,2%) e a pulmonar (17,7%), sendo que a maioria apresentava metástases (66,1%) ou realizaram quimioterapia (69,4%). O tromboembolismo pulmonar foi um achado imagiológico em 69,4%, sendo que nenhum dado clínico analisado no nosso estudo mostrou ter significado estatístico na apresentação de tromboembolismo pulmonar com sintomatologia clínica evidente. Observou-se uma mortalidade aos 30 dias resultante do tromboembolismo pulmonar de 7,5%, tendo-se verificado que os doentes sintomáticos apresentaram uma sobrevivência média inferior relativamente aos assintomáticos (12 vs. 20 meses; p = 0,029). A aplicação retrospetiva do modelo preditivo de Khorana para doença tromboembólica venosa nos doentes sob quimioterapia permitiu identificar 11% dos indivíduos em alto risco. Discussão: O tromboembolismo pulmonar foi um achado imagiológico na maioria dos doentes, sendo que nenhuma variável clínica se associou à presença ou aus

  10. Influence of duodenogastric reflux in the gastric mucosa histological changes of rats infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Araujo, José Carlos Ribeiro DE; Carvalho, Jorge José DE; Serra, Humberto Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the influence of Duodenal reflux in histological changes of the gastric mucosa of rats infected with Helicobacter pylori submitted to pyloroplasty. after two weeks of acclimation, we infected 30 male Wistar rats with Helicobacter pylori. We randomly divided them into three groups: one submitted to pyloroplasty, another to partial gastrectomy and the third, only infected, was not operated. After six months of surgery, euthanasia was carried out. Gastric fragments were studied by light microscopy to count the number of H. pylori, and to observe the histological changes (gastritis, metaplasia, dysplasia and neoplasia). We confirmed these changes by immunohistochemistry using the molecular markers PCNA and TGF-beta. the animals submitted to pyloroplasty had higher percentage of colonization by H. pylori (median=58.5; gastrectomy=16.5; control=14.5). There was a positive correlation between the amount of H. pylori and the occurrence of chronic gastritis present in the antral fragments. Neoplasia occurred in 40% of rats from the group submitted to pyloroplasty. The staining with PCNA and TGF-ß confirmed the histopathological changes visualized by optical microscopy. the antral region was the one with the highest concentration of H. pylori, regardless of the group. There was a positive correlation between the appearance of benign disorders (chronic gastritis, metaplasia, dysplasia) and cancer in mice infected with H. pylori submitted to pyloroplasty. avaliar a influência do refluxo duodenogástrico nas alterações histológicas da mucosa gástrica de ratos, infectados por Helicobacter pylori, submetidos à piloroplastia. após duas semanas de aclimatação, 30 ratos machos da raça Wistar, foram infectados com o microorganismo patogênico H. pylori. De forma aleatória, foram divididos em três grupos: um submetido à piloroplastia, outro à gastrectomia parcial e o terceiro, apenas infectados, não foi operado. Após seis meses de operados, procedeu-se a

  11. Mumps Outbreak among Highly Vaccinated Teenagers and Children in the Central Region of Portugal, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Eugénio; Ferreira, Muriel; Rodrigues, Fernanda; Palminha, Paula; Vinagre, Elsa; Pimentel, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A vacina contra o sarampo, parotidite epidémica e rubéola foi introduzida no Programa Nacional de Vacinação em 1987, atingindo rapidamente uma cobertura vacinal > 92% para duas doses, com redução importante da incidência anual da doença. Reportamos um surto de parotidite na Região Centro de Portugal ocorrido entre outubro de 2012 e março de 2013. Material e Métodos: Foram investigados os casos de tumefação de glândulas salivares e sintomas compatíveis com parotidite. Para cada caso foram analisados dados demográficos, clínicos, laboratoriais e vacinais. Resultados: Ao longo de seis meses foram notificados 148 casos: 87,8% ocorreram em três dos 16 concelhos afetados e 78,4% tinham uma relação epidemiológica conhecida. A idade mediana foi de 14,5 anos (2-62) e 70,3% tinham entre 11 e 20 anos; 61,5% eram do sexo masculino. Na maioria dos casos a doença foi ligeira, com uma duração média de sete dias (2-20). A febre ocorreu em 80,4% e a glândula parótida apresentou envolvimento unilateral em 55,4%; sete casos tiveram orquite, um ooforite e uma nefrite. Dois doentes foram internados. A transmissão da doença ocorreu predominantemente em ambiente escolar, com taxas de ataque < 30%. A maioria dos casos ocorreu em indivíduos vacinados (92%), dos quais 86,8% com duas doses. Em 17,7% foi identificada uma dosede vacina contendo a estirpe Rubini. Foi identificado o genótipo G do vírus da parotidite em quatro casos. Discussão: Este surto de parotidite numa população com coberturas vacinais elevadas, atingindo principalmente adolescentes em meio escolar, poderá dever-se à efetividade parcial da vacina contra a doença (especialmente no grupo vacinado com a estirpe Rubini), à perda de imunidade ao longo do tempo ou ainda à discordância entre os genótipos vacinal e circulante causador de doença. Conclusões: O relato deste surto releva a importância da discussão sobre a necessidade de mais doses de reforço da vacina atual

  12. Team Software Process (TSP) Coach Mentoring Program Guidebook Version 1.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    complete C NO YES Document how the provisional coach performed in comparison to the DACUM Mentoring artifacts, to be submitted to the SEI during...016 Appendix B TSP Coach Job Analysis Report B-2 | CMU/SEI-2010-SR-016 B-3 | CMU/SEI-2010-SR-016 DACUM Research Chart for Team Software...ProcessSM (TSPSM) Coach DACUM Panel Dan Burton Software Engineering Institute Robert Cannon Software Engineering Institute Noopur

  13. Insider Threats in the Software Development Lifecycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-05

    organization sanctions O O O Addiction to Financial Gain Initial Satisfaction S S S Financial Needs increasing financial need decreasing financial...including mobile devices. Beginning with the hiring process, monitor and respond to suspicious or disruptive behavior. Develop a comprehensive...Relations Email: info@sei.cmu.edu Telephone: +1 412-268-5800 SEI Phone : +1 412-268-5800 SEI Fax: +1 412-268-6257

  14. The CERT Approach to Cybersecurity Workforce Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    CMU/SEI-2010-TR-045 | i Table of Contents Executive Summary iii Abstract v 1 Shortcomings with the Traditional Classroom Training Model 1 2 A New...workforce development. CMU/SEI-2010-TR-045 | vi CMU/SEI-2010-TR-045 | 1 1 Shortcomings with the Traditional Classroom Training Model The...most common workforce development training solution is the traditional classroom training model. While this training model is easy to implement and is

  15. Assurance Cases for Medical Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-28

    SEI’s  Research,  Technology,  and  System   Solu2ons  program.  With  his  colleague  John   Goodenough ,  Weinstock...contact The SEI and Medical Devices *Charles B. Weinstock and John B. Goodenough , Towards an Assurance Case Practice for Medical Devices, CMU/SEI-2009-TN

  16. Software Assurance vs. Security Compliance: Why is Compliance Not Enough

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-26

    Goodenough , Charles Weinstock, & Carol Woody. (CMU/SEI-2008-TR- 008), May 2008. http://www.sei.cmu.edu/library/abstracts/reports/08tr008.cfm 24 Supply...Supply Chain Resources Software Supply Chain Risk Management: From Products to Systems of Systems, Robert J. Ellison, John B. Goodenough , Charles B...Software Supply Chain Security Risks, Robert J. Ellison, , John B. Goodenough , Charles B. Weinstock, & Carol Woody. (CMU/SEI-2010-TN-016), May 2010

  17. Insights on Program Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    SR-023 iii | CMU/SEI-2009-SR-023 Acknowledgments The Systems and Software Consortium, Inc. ( SSCI ) and the Software Engineering Institute (SEI...wish to acknowledge contributions to this report from the following people: From the SSCI : James Kane, Susan Rose, and Mark Blackburn From the...factors that lead to program success? Two organiza- tions, the Systems and Software Consortium, Inc. ( SSCI ) and the Software Engineering Institute (SEI

  18. Agile Methods in Air Force Sustainment: Status and Outlook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Software 2005] 14 Figure 4: Types of Backlogs [Palmquist 2013] 16 Figure 5: Continuous Delivery Deployment Pipeline [Humble 2010] 28 CMU/SEI-2014-TN... pipeline , and the team can no longer proceed due to external dependencies. In some cases, the regulatory mandate CMU/SEI-2014-TN-009 | 25 has a...team members [Humble 2010, Swartout 2012]. CMU/SEI-2014-TN-009 | 29 One way to describe the deployment of an automated pipeline is as follows

  19. CMMI-Acquisition Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-04

    Acquisition Module • Air Force Space and Missile Command (SMC) developed a CMMI-A for SMC programs • General Motors and the SEI have initiated a...representatives for the Advisory Group 5 General Motors /SEI Joint Project: The Initial CMMI-Acquisition • Project Goal: Develop an Acquisition Model that...Acquisition Verification Core Processes *based on initial CMMI-Acquisition model developed by General Motors /SEI 7 Pilot Participation • Pilot initial GM

  20. CERT Resilience Management Model (CERT-RMM) V1.1: NIST Special Publication Crosswalk Version 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Organization for Standards (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 27000 series, COBIT , the British Standards Institution’s BS 25999...Abstract The CERT® Resilience Management Model (CERT®-RMM) allows organizations to determine how their current practices support their desired levels of...CMU/SEI-2011-TN-012). CMU/SEI-2011-TN-028 | iv CMU/SEI-2011-TN-028 | 1 1 Introduction Organizations can use the CERT® Resilience

  1. Mapping a Domain Model and Architecture to a Generic Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    software engineering life cycle entitled Mode/-Based Software Engineerng ( MBSE ), a concept first described by the SEI In [Feller 93]. MBSE enables...organizations to build software applications which must evolve with a minimum of rework and scrap to meet changes in mission and technology. MBSE Involves...software models are also built. MBSE is a focus area for the SEI’s Engineering Techniques Program and is the subjedt of a recent SEI report [Withey 94

  2. Real-Time Mobile Applications in Intermittently Connected Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Copyright 2014 Carnegie Mellon University This material is based...Engineering Institute at permission@sei.cmu.edu. DM-0001791 3 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon...make these more effective. 4 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Approach: Keep

  3. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    SciTech Connect

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  4. A Review of Solid Electrolyte Interphases on Lithium Metal Anode

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xin‐Bing; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Chen‐Zi; Wei, Fei; Zhang, Ji‐Guang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal batteries (LMBs) are among the most promising candidates of high‐energy‐density devices for advanced energy storage. However, the growth of dendrites greatly hinders the practical applications of LMBs in portable electronics and electric vehicles. Constructing stable and efficient solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is among the most effective strategies to inhibit the dendrite growth and thus to achieve a superior cycling performance. In this review, the mechanisms of SEI formation and models of SEI structure are briefly summarized. The analysis methods to probe the surface chemistry, surface morphology, electrochemical property, dynamic characteristics of SEI layer are emphasized. The critical factors affecting the SEI formation, such as electrolyte component, temperature, current density, are comprehensively debated. The efficient methods to modify SEI layer with the introduction of new electrolyte system and additives, ex‐situ‐formed protective layer, as well as electrode design, are summarized. Although these works afford new insights into SEI research, robust and precise routes for SEI modification with well‐designed structure, as well as understanding of the connection between structure and electrochemical performance, is still inadequate. A multidisciplinary approach is highly required to enable the formation of robust SEI for highly efficient energy storage systems. PMID:27774393

  5. A Systematic Approach for Assessing Workforce Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    A Systematic Approach for Assessing Workforce Readiness Christopher Alberts David McIntire August 2014 TECHNICAL REPORT CMU/ SEI -2014...sei.cmu.edu. Carnegie Mellon® and CERT® are registered marks of Carnegie Mellon University. DM-0001276 CMU/ SEI -2014-TR-009 | i Table of Contents...5.2.1 Guidelines 23 5.2.2 Results 23 5.3 Design and Develop Readiness Tests (Step 2.3) 23 5.3.1 Guidelines 23 CMU/ SEI -2014-TR-009 | ii 5.3.2

  6. 77 FR 1973 - Environmental Impact Statement: In the Vicinity of the City and Borough of Juneau, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... provide travel flexibility, capacity to meet demand, and greater travel opportunity while reducing travel... requested. Newspaper notices, newsletters, and Web site postings will explain the SEIS process, describe...

  7. Disordered eating links to body-relevant and body-irrelevant influences on self-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Halley E; Rizk, Marianne T; Wang, Shirley S; Treat, Teresa A

    2014-04-01

    We investigated eating- and weight-related correlates of self-evaluation influences (SEIs) and examined the extent to which such SEIs can be both over- and undervalued and the extent to which measurement strategy affects SEIs. A female undergraduate sample (n = 549) completed 3 measures of SEI importance and questionnaires assessing disordered eating (DE), body mass index (BMI), and depression. SEI measures included Likert scale, rank ordering, and pairwise forced choice; a subset (n = 62) also completed the Shape- and Weight-Based Self-Esteem Scale (SAWBS). Only rank ordering, forced choice, and SAWBS constrain choices among SEIs, such that prioritizing one SEI necessarily deprioritizes another, which reflects real-world restrictions on individuals' allotment of time and energy (e.g., spending hours exercising daily necessarily reduces time available for other activities). By any measure, women with DE overvalue body shape and weight. The constraining measures reveal systematic undervaluation of intelligence and achievement among women with DE and an enhanced effect of DE on the overvaluation of weight and on the undervaluation of being a good person among those with higher BMI. Depressed women's self-evaluations overemphasize appearance and underemphasize interpersonal relationships. Self-evaluations of women with DE are marked by both over- and undervaluation of relevant SEIs; the overvaluation of shape and weight in DE may be associated with costs. Future use of constraining measures, such as forced choice or rank ordering, may enhance our understanding of both over- and underemphasized SEIs among women with DE.

  8. 78 FR 23538 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17312

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (B. physalus), sei (B. borealis), Southern Resident stock of killer (Orcinus orca), Hawaii insular stock of false killer (Pseudorca crassidens), sperm (Physeter macrocephalus), North...

  9. Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon.

    PubMed

    Soto, Fernando A; Yan, Pengfei; Engelhard, Mark H; Marzouk, Asma; Wang, Chongmin; Xu, Guiliang; Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Balbuena, Perla B; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-03-07

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films with controllable properties are highly desirable for improving battery performance. In this paper, a combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study SEI films formed on hard carbon in Li- and Na-ion batteries. It is shown that a stable SEI layer can be designed by precycling an electrode in a desired Li- or Na-based electrolyte, and that ionic transport can be kinetically controlled. Selective Li- and Na-based SEI membranes are produced using Li- or Na-based electrolytes, respectively. The Na-based SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the Li-based SEI shuts off Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI layer with film-forming electrolyte additives, or by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to < 25 mAh g(-1) ; ≈ 1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh g(-1) ). Unusual selective/preferential transport of Li ions is demonstrated by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion-selective conductors using electrochemical approaches.

  10. Spiritual Openness, Revisiting a Potentially Important Aspect of Spirituality: Scale Review and Revision.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Joshua C; Kapoor, Shweta; Combs, Martha A; Jay, Emberly M; Thorn, Beverly E

    2017-07-08

    Religiousness and spirituality (R/S) exert important influences on individuals across a range of domains. Spiritual Openness is theoretically linked with the personality trait of Openness to Experience, suggesting promise for future research. Using responses from 366 undergraduates on the Spiritual Experience Index-Revised (SEI-R: subscales of Spiritual Openness and Spiritual Support), analyses evaluated and revised the SEI-R, deleting poor items and generating a 10-item measure. The new SEI-S exhibits better psychometric properties and reduced participant burden, and subscales displayed a curvilinear relationship in which increases in Spiritual Openness showed a trade-off in levels of Spiritual Support.

  11. A Review of Solid Electrolyte Interphases on Lithium Metal Anode.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin-Bing; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Chen-Zi; Wei, Fei; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Lithium metal batteries (LMBs) are among the most promising candidates of high-energy-density devices for advanced energy storage. However, the growth of dendrites greatly hinders the practical applications of LMBs in portable electronics and electric vehicles. Constructing stable and efficient solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is among the most effective strategies to inhibit the dendrite growth and thus to achieve a superior cycling performance. In this review, the mechanisms of SEI formation and models of SEI structure are briefly summarized. The analysis methods to probe the surface chemistry, surface morphology, electrochemical property, dynamic characteristics of SEI layer are emphasized. The critical factors affecting the SEI formation, such as electrolyte component, temperature, current density, are comprehensively debated. The efficient methods to modify SEI layer with the introduction of new electrolyte system and additives, ex-situ-formed protective layer, as well as electrode design, are summarized. Although these works afford new insights into SEI research, robust and precise routes for SEI modification with well-designed structure, as well as understanding of the connection between structure and electrochemical performance, is still inadequate. A multidisciplinary approach is highly required to enable the formation of robust SEI for highly efficient energy storage systems.

  12. Optimization of the forming conditions of the solid-state interface in the Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. S.; Xu, K.; Jow, T. R.

    We optimized the forming conditions of Li-ion batteries from the standpoint of the stability of the solid-state interface (SEI) on the surface of graphite. The optimization processes were focused on the initial two cycles of the Li/graphite half-cell in terms of the current density and the temperature. We evaluated the stability of the SEI from two aspects: (1) self-delithiation at 60 °C of the lithium intercalation compound, which reflects storage stability of the SEI and (2) cycling performance of the Li/graphite cell, which reflects cycling stability of the SEI. It was observed that the low current density and the low temperature favored increasing effectiveness of the SEI formation, and resulted in formation of a stable SEI. However, the SEI formed under such conditions had relatively high impedance. That is, there was a contradictory relationship between the ionic conductivity and the stability of the SEI. Based on the graphite and electrolyte used in this work, we found that the optimum conditions for the formation of the SEI were at the current densities of 10-20 mA/g and at the temperatures of 20-35 °C.

  13. 77 FR 26517 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14118

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...- and long- finned pilot whales (Globicephala spp.) and endangered humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) whales. Fin (B. physalus) and sei (B. borealis) whales may be incidentally harassed. ADDRESSES:...

  14. Organizational Considerations for Implementing Systems Engineering and Integration in the Ares Projects Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, LeAnn; Doreswamy, Rajiv N.

    2008-01-01

    Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) is a critical discipline in developing new space systems. In 2005, NASA performed an internal study of 24 agency and Department of Defense (DoD) programs to evaluate methods of integrating SE&I practices and determine their effectiveness. The goal of the study was to determine the best SE&I implementation strategy for the Ares Projects Office. The study identified six SE&I organizational structures: 1. Lead systems integrator (LSI) with SE&I responsibility and government technical insight. 2a. Integration contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government insight). 2b. Integration contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 3a. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government insight). 3b. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 3c. Prime contractor with SE&I responsibility (government/industry partnership). 4a.Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government insight). 4b. Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility (government oversight). 4d.Prime contractors with total system performance responsibility (TSPR). 5. Prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility and integration products through a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC). 6. Government/FFRDC in-house development with SE&I responsibility and function. The organizational structure used most often was number 4, using a prime contractor with government SE&I responsibility and government technical insight. However, data analyses did not establish a positive relationship between program development costs and specific SE&I organizational types, nor did it positively determine the relationship between successful programs or projects and their SE&I structure. The SE&I study reached the following conclusions: (1) Large, long-duration, technically complex programs or projects reach their technical goals, but rarely meet schedule or cost goals. NASA's recent

  15. Proposal for a biological environmental monitoring approach to be used in libraries and archives.

    PubMed

    Pasquarella, Cesira; Saccani, Elisa; Sansebastiano, Giuliano Ezio; Ugolotti, Manuela; Pasquariello, Giovanna; Albertini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In cultural-heritage-related indoor environments, biological particles represent a hazard not only for cultural property, but also for operators and visitors. Reliable environmental monitoring methods are essential for examining each situation and assessing the effectiveness of preventive measures. We propose an integrated approach to the study of biological pollution in indoor environments such as libraries and archives. This approach includes microbial air and surface sampling, as well as an investigation of allergens and pollens. Part of this monitoring plan has been applied at the Palatina Library in Parma, Italy. However, wider collections of data are needed to fully understand the phenomena related with biological contamination, define reliable contamination threshold values, and implement appropriate preventive measures.

  16. Diet misreporting can be corrected: confirmation of the association between energy intake and fat-free mass in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vainik, Uku; Konstabel, Kenn; Lätt, Evelin; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-10-01

    Subjective energy intake (sEI) is often misreported, providing unreliable estimates of energy consumed. Therefore, relating sEI data to health outcomes is difficult. Recently, Börnhorst et al. compared various methods to correct sEI-based energy intake estimates. They criticised approaches that categorise participants as under-reporters, plausible reporters and over-reporters based on the sEI:total energy expenditure (TEE) ratio, and thereafter use these categories as statistical covariates or exclusion criteria. Instead, they recommended using external predictors of sEI misreporting as statistical covariates. We sought to confirm and extend these findings. Using a sample of 190 adolescent boys (mean age=14), we demonstrated that dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-measured fat-free mass is strongly associated with objective energy intake data (onsite weighted breakfast), but the association with sEI (previous 3-d dietary interview) is weak. Comparing sEI with TEE revealed that sEI was mostly under-reported (74 %). Interestingly, statistically controlling for dietary reporting groups or restricting samples to plausible reporters created a stronger-than-expected association between fat-free mass and sEI. However, the association was an artifact caused by selection bias - that is, data re-sampling and simulations showed that these methods overestimated the effect size because fat-free mass was related to sEI both directly and indirectly via TEE. A more realistic association between sEI and fat-free mass was obtained when the model included common predictors of misreporting (e.g. BMI, restraint). To conclude, restricting sEI data only to plausible reporters can cause selection bias and inflated associations in later analyses. Therefore, we further support statistically correcting sEI data in nutritional analyses. The script for running simulations is provided.

  17. Improving Teaching Effectiveness through the Application of SPC Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadden, David; Driscoll, Vincent; Thompson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    One method used extensively to aid in determining instruction effectiveness is Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEI). This paper examines the use of statistical Process Control charts as a way to correctly measure teaching effectiveness. This field studying SEIs has produced a significant literature. It is not surprising that there is…

  18. 75 FR 6065 - Extension of Public Comment Period on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Moore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... COMMISSION Extension of Public Comment Period on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Moore Ranch... for the NRC's Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (Draft SEIS) for the Moore Ranch In... public comment period on the Draft SEIS for the Moore Ranch ISR Project to March 3, 2010. DATES:...

  19. Role of surface oxides in the formation of solid-electrolyte interphases at silicon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Kjell W; Dylla, Anthony G; Harris, Stephen J; Webb, Lauren J; Stevenson, Keith J

    2014-12-10

    Nonaqueous solvents in modern battery technologies undergo electroreduction at negative electrodes, leading to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). The mechanisms and reactions leading to a stable SEI on silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries are still poorly understood. This lack of understanding inhibits the rational design of electrolyte additives, active material coatings, and the prediction of Li-ion battery life in general. We prepared SEI with a common nonaqueous solvent (LiPF6 in PC and in EC/DEC 1:1 by wt %) on silicon oxide and etched silicon (001) surfaces in various states of lithiation to understand the role of surface chemistry on the SEI formation mechanism and SEI structure. Anhydrous and anoxic techniques were used to prevent air and moisture contamination of prepared SEI films, allowing for more accurate characterization of SEI chemical stratification and composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) depth profiling. Additionally, multivariate statistical methods were used to better understand TOF-SIMS depth profiling studies. We conclude that the absence of native-oxide layer on silicon has a significant impact on the formation, composition, structure, and thickness of the SEI.

  20. 77 FR 12818 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Rio Grande...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Salado was filed with the Council on Environmental Quality in 1977. An SEIS evaluating the effects of the... withstand long- duration floods and evaluating effects to recently listed endangered species was filed with... draft SEIS is being developed to evaluate effects of revised levee design and additional...

  1. An Assessment of the Growth in Coverage of Social and Environmental Issues in Graduate Accounting Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sharon; Weber, James

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines if there has been an increase in the attention paid to social and environmental issues (SEI) in accounting curricula. Using schools participating in the Aspen Institute's Beyond Grey Pinstripes (BGP) program, we measure the increase in the number of accounting courses incorporating SEI across the biennial application years of…

  2. In-Situ AFM Investigation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation and Failure Mechanisms in Lithium -Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Kumar, Ravi; Tokranov, Anton; Huang, Teddy; Li, Chunzeng; Xiao, Xingcheng; Sheldon, Brian

    The formation and evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is critical for lifetime and performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), particularly for LIBs with high energy density materials such as silicon. Si has almost ten time theoretical specific capacity vs graphite, but its volume changes during cycling (up to 400%) put enormous strains on the SEI layer, resulting in continuous capacity loss. In this study we report in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigation on the formation and failure mechanisms of SEI layer using patterned Si island structures. Due to the shear lag effect, patterned Si islands go through lateral expansion and Contraction, putting the SEI layer in tension and compression during lithiation and delithiation, respectively. Experimentally, we performed the studies in a glovebox with <1 ppm O2 and H2O, using PeakForce Tapping to image the extremely fragile SEI layer. We show for the first time the in operando cracking of SEI layer. To understand the mechanics of the SEI layer, the critical strain for cracking was derived from a progression of the AFM images. Our studies provide new insight into SEI formation, evolution and its mechanical response, and offer guidance to tailor passivation layers for optimal performance.

  3. Reading and Language Outcomes of a Five-Year Randomized Evaluation of Transitional Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy; Calderon, Margarita; Chamberlain, Anne; Hennessy, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the fifth-year results of a study comparing the English and Spanish language and reading performance of Spanish-dominant children randomly assigned beginning in kindergarten to Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE) or Structured English Immersion (SEI). This is the first randomized study to compare TBE and SEI reading…

  4. Strain-Induced Lithium Losses in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase on Silicon Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravi; Lu, Peng; Xiao, Xingcheng; Huang, Zhuangqun; Sheldon, Brian W

    2017-08-30

    The chemical and mechanical stability of SEI layers are particularly important for high capacity anode materials such as silicon, which undergoes large volume changes (∼300%) during cycling. In this work, we present a novel approach for applying controlled strains to SEI films with patterned Si electrodes to systematically investigate the impact of large volume changes on SEI formation and evolution. Comparisons between patterned silicon islands and continuous silicon thin films make it possible to correlate the irreversible capacity losses due to expansion and contraction of underlying silicon. The current work demonstrates that strain in the SEI layer leads to more lithium consumption. The combination of in situ AFM and electrochemical lithium loss measurements provides further information on SEI layer growth. These experiments indicate that in-plane strains in the SEI layer lead to substantial increases in the amount of inorganic phase formation, without significantly affecting the overall SEI thickness. These observations are further supported with EIS and TOF-SIMS results. A map of irreversible capacity evolution with strain in the SEI is obtained from the experimental results.

  5. Evaluation of the Rational Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    three evaluations of the Delta release of the Rational Environments. John Devitofran- ceschi took care of the Rational machine at the SEI. Frost...Feiler, P. H., Smeaton , R. The Project Management Experiment: Evaluation of Ada Environments. Technical Report CMU/SEI-88-TR-7, Software Engineering

  6. Structured English Immersion: A Step-by-Step Guide for K-6 Teachers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haver, Johanna J.

    This book describes Structured English Immersion (SEI) for English language learners (ELLs). Seven chapters focus on the following: (1) "Identification, Assessment, and Placement" (e.g., California's school districts implement SEI and proper placement of students); (2) "Listening Skills" (e.g., time on task, total physical…

  7. Improving Teaching Effectiveness through the Application of SPC Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadden, David; Driscoll, Vincent; Thompson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    One method used extensively to aid in determining instruction effectiveness is Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEI). This paper examines the use of statistical Process Control charts as a way to correctly measure teaching effectiveness. This field studying SEIs has produced a significant literature. It is not surprising that there is…

  8. Observed and Modeled Bio-Optical, Bioluminescent, and Physical Properties during a Coastal Upwelling Event in Monterey Bay, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-27

    users’ guide, report, Sequoia Sei., Inc., Mercer Island, Wash. (Available at http://www. HydroLight. info). Moblcy, C. D., and L. K. Sundman (2001b...HydroLight 4.2 technical doc- umentation, report. Sequoia Sei.. Inc., Mercer Island. Wash. (Available at http://www.HydroLight.info). Molinc, M

  9. 78 FR 77417 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Little Otter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Little Otter Creek Watershed Plan, Caldwell County, Missouri AGENCY..., will prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Little Otter Creek Watershed... the Little Otter Creek Watershed Plan and Environmental Impact Statement in 2003. The SEIS will update...

  10. Tailoring and Combining the CMMI-ACQ and Quality Models to Improve the Military’s Requirements Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    have been used, CAIR (developed at the SEI), Semio Text, TextSmart, Lexiquest Mine and Leximancer . This is not an exhaustive list and SEI does not...following describes the approach used with Leximancer . 13 Tailoring and Combining the CMMI-ACQ and Quality Models to Improve the Military’s

  11. A parametric study of non-thermal plasma synthesis of silicon nanoparticles from a chlorinated precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi; Yamada, Riku; Gresback, Ryan; Zhou, Shu; Pi, Xiaodong; Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2014-12-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) synthesized in non-thermal plasma with silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) are anticipated as a non-toxic and inexpensive Si source for important applications. This study examines the crystallinity, yield, and size distribution of Si NPs in terms of specific energy input (SEI) for 2.5-65 J cm‒3 and the H2/SiCl4 ratio (1-10). The particle growth mechanism is discussed comprehensively. Atomic hydrogen (H) production using non-thermal plasma is the primary important step for SiCl4 dechlorination at low temperatures. The Si NP yield increases with SEI (plasma power divided by total gas flow) because SiCl4 conversion increases with energy fed into the unit volume of the feed gas. At low SEI, Si NPs were mostly in amorphous material because of insufficient plasma heating. A maximum yield of 50 wt% was obtained when SEI = 10 J cm‒3 (H2/SiCl4 = 10) with a crystal fraction of about 1%. Increased SEI is necessary to improve crystal fraction, but excessive SEI decreases the NP yield remarkably. The NP yield losses correspond to increasing NP-free thin film growth on the reactor wall. Mass spectrometry shows that SiCl4 is highly decomposed with greater SEI. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) increases as a by-product. At higher SEI, particle nucleation and subsequent growth are suppressed.

  12. An Examination of the Validity of Two Measures of Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Amy L.; Betts, Joseph; Appleton, James J.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of two measures of student engagement, the Student Engagement Instrument (SEI) and the Motivation-Engagement Scale (MES), with adolescents in the southeastern United States. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed an acceptable fit of the SEI and a relatively poor fit of the MES in this sample.…

  13. Exploring Family Environment Characteristics and Multiple Abuse Experiences among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study used data from the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) pilot study, a comprehensive vocational training program with integrated clinical services for homeless youth. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 homeless youth participating in the SEI study to explore their perceptions of family environment characteristics and…

  14. Structured English Immersion: A Step-by-Step Guide for K-6 Teachers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haver, Johanna J.

    This book describes Structured English Immersion (SEI) for English language learners (ELLs). Seven chapters focus on the following: (1) "Identification, Assessment, and Placement" (e.g., California's school districts implement SEI and proper placement of students); (2) "Listening Skills" (e.g., time on task, total physical…

  15. 24 CFR 3285.4 - Incorporation by reference (IBR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-00, Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil... materials listed below are available for purchase from the Structural Engineering Institute/American Society of Civil Engineers (SEI/ASCE), 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, Virginia 20191. (1) SEI/ASCE 32-01...

  16. VAXELN Experimentation: Programming a Real-Time Periodic Task Dispatcher Using VAXELN Ada 1.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    and is approved for publication. FOR THE COMMANDER Karl Shingler SEI Joint Program Office This work is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense...34); 28 CMU/SEI-87.TR-532 boom I@. Pat (OXT"rant.mimlteo). slaw- Lise ; WmttedStriaoLvat (0em.dl; BOOCNOZO.Vat (Caguemi S.stio); enale) M%.: i Fremttedl

  17. Unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico: la influencia del clima, el substrato y la topografia

    Treesearch

    William Gould; Michael E. Jimenez; Gary Potts; Maya Quinones; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2008-01-01

    El mapa de unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico representa variaciones climaticas, topograficas y del substrato mediante la integracion de seis zonas climaticas (Ewel y Whitmore, 1973), seis substratos (Bawiec, 2001; USGS, 2005), cinco posiciones topograficas, o topoformas (Martinuzzi et al. 2007), y cuerpos de agua (USGS 2005). Los substratos representan el conjunto...

  18. Science & Engineering Indicators 2016. National Science Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Science and Engineering Indicators" (SEI) is first and foremost a volume of record comprising high-quality quantitative data on the U.S. and international science and engineering enterprise. SEI includes an overview and seven chapters that follow a generally consistent pattern. The chapter titles are as follows: (1) Elementary and…

  19. Evaluating and Improving Cybersecurity Capabilities of the Electricity Critical Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Evaluating and Improving Cybersecurity Capabilities of the Electricity Critical Infrastructure May 2015 Katie...Approach A Family of Cybersecurity Maturity Models Model Architecture • Domains • Scaling • Diagnostic Methodology Using the Model Relationship to NIST... Cybersecurity Framework 4 CMU – SEI – CERT Division Software Engineering Institute (SEI) • Federally funded research and development center based

  20. A Case Study in Structural Modeling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    synchronization mechanism, such as semaphores [ Abowd 94]. The import and export operations are from the point of view of the surrogate. Hence, the...Control: Aperiodic CMU/SEI-96-TR-035 51 52 CMU/SEI-96-TR-035 References Abowd 94 Abowd , Gregory D.; Bass, Len; Howard, Larry; & Northrop, Linda

  1. A Proven Method for Identifying Security Gaps in International Postal and Transportation Critical Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Inspection Service Julia H. Allen, Software Engineering Institute Pamela D. Curtis, Software Engineering Institute Nader Mehravari, Software... Engineering Institute January 2014 TECHNICAL NOTE CMU/SEI-2013-TN-033 CERT® Division http://www.sei.cmu.edu Copyright 2014 Carnegie Mellon...Carnegie Mellon University for the operation of the Soft- ware Engineering Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by

  2. 76 FR 55723 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2 License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... (SQN) in Soddy-Daisy, Tennessee. A notice of availability (NOA) of the Sequoyah License Renewal Final... Protection Agency (USEPA) published the NOA for the Draft SEIS in the Federal Register on November 5, 2010... considering and responding to all substantive comments, TVA completed and issued the Final SEIS. The NOA...

  3. 76 FR 21711 - Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period for the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    .... A Notice of Availability (NOA) and Notice of Public Hearing (NOPH) for the Draft SEIS were published... Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal and Reuse of HPS (March 2000). A NOA and NOPH for... information of the Draft SEIS can be found in the previously published NOA and NOPH (see Federal...

  4. Software Product Lines: Experiences from the Eighth DoD Software Product Line Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    K. Bergey Sholom Cohen Patrick Donohoe Lawrence G. Jones December 2005 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited...Software Product Lines: Experiences from the Eighth DoD Software Product Line Workshop CMU/SEI-2005-TR-023 ESC-TR-2005-023 John K. Bergey Sholom Cohen...Evaluation in DoD System Acquisitions - John Bergey , SEI ......................................................................................... 14

  5. 78 FR 78948 - Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement...), will prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact ] Statement (SEIS) for the Route 460 Location Study Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS). The purpose of this SEIS is to evaluate new information...

  6. Single nanowire electrode electrochemistry of silicon anode by in situ atomic force microscopy: solid electrolyte interphase growth and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Rui; Deng, Xin; Liu, Ran-Ran; Yan, Hui-Juan; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2014-11-26

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have attracted great attention as promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) on account of their high capacity and improved cyclability compared with bulk silicon. The interface behavior, especially the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), plays a significant role in the performance and stability of the electrodes. We report herein an in situ single nanowire atomic force microscopy (AFM) method to investigate the interface electrochemistry of silicon nanowire (SiNW) electrode. The morphology and Young's modulus of the individual SiNW anode surface during the SEI growth were quantitatively tracked. Three distinct stages of the SEI formation on the SiNW anode were observed. On the basis of the potential-dependent morphology and Young's modulus evolution of SEI, a mixture-packing structural model was proposed for the SEI film on SiNW anode.

  7. From a lunar outpost to Mars: science, policy and the U.S. Space Exploration Initiative.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C B

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is aimed at the establishment of an outpost for humans on the Moon, followed by the human exploration of Mars. It also encompasses robotic missions to the Moon and Man that will precede and perhaps accompany human presence. Science plays a dual role in SEI. First, many scientific questions must be answered to insure the health and safety of human explorers. Second, scientific investigations will be among the central objectives of human explorers. A substantial body of U.S. policy on SEI has been announced by President Bush. Its implementation is coordinated by the U.S. National Space Council under the Chairmanship of Vice President Quayle. That policy directs the early focus of SEI to be on technology development, including the identification of "high leverage technologies," and the identification of alternative mission architectures. It also envisions international cooperation as an important beneficial aspect of SEI.

  8. Spontaneous evaluative inferences and their relationship to spontaneous trait inferences.

    PubMed

    Schneid, Erica D; Carlston, Donal E; Skowronski, John J

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments are reported that explore affectively based spontaneous evaluative impressions (SEIs) of stimulus persons. Experiments 1 and 2 used modified versions of the savings in relearning paradigm (Carlston & Skowronski, 1994) to confirm the occurrence of SEIs, indicating that they are equivalent whether participants are instructed to form trait impressions, evaluative impressions, or neither. These experiments also show that SEIs occur independently of explicit recall for the trait implications of the stimuli. Experiment 3 provides a single dissociation test to distinguish SEIs from spontaneous trait inferences (STIs), showing that disrupting cognitive processing interferes with a trait-based prediction task that presumably reflects STIs, but not with an affectively based social approach task that presumably reflects SEIs. Implications of these findings for the potential independence of spontaneous trait and evaluative inferences, as well as limitations and important steps for future study are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Estimating the thickness of diffusive solid electrolyte interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, XiaoHe; Shen, WenHao; Huang, XianFu; Zang, JinLiang; Zhao, YaPu

    2017-06-01

    The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) is a hierarchical structure formed in the transition zone between the electrode and the electrolyte. The properties of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, such as cycle life, irreversible capacity loss, self-discharge rate, electrode corrosion and safety are usually ascribed to the quality of the SEI, which are highly dependent on the thickness. Thus, understanding the formation mechanism and the SEI thickness is of prime interest. First, we apply dimensional analysis to obtain an explicit relation between the thickness and the number density in this study. Then the SEI thickness in the initial charge-discharge cycle is analyzed and estimated for the first time using the Cahn-Hilliard phase-field model. In addition, the SEI thickness by molecular dynamics simulation validates the theoretical results. It has been shown that the established model and the simulation in this paper estimate the SEI thickness concisely within order-of-magnitude of nanometers. Our results may help in evaluating the performance of SEI and assist the future design of Li-ion battery.

  10. Analysis of the solid electrolyte interphase formed with an ionic liquid electrolyte for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shizhao; Xie, Kai; Blomberg, Erik; Jacobsson, Per; Matic, Aleksandar

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on lithium electrodes in the presence of an ionic liquid electrolyte with a particular focus on the influence of polysulfides present in the electrolyte on the SEI. The electrochemical performance of symmetric cells with lithium electrodes and electrolytes composed of N-Methyl-(n-butyl)pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14-TFSI) and LiTFSI, with and without the addition of polysulfides, were analyzed as well as the chemical composition of the SEI, before and after cycling. The cycling behavior of the symmetrical cells shows that the SEI films are relatively stable in the ionic liquid electrolyte, also in the presence of polysulfides. However, the presence of polysulfides results in a higher SEI layer resistance (RSEI) and a higher activation energy. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra (XPS), with argon-ion sputtering for depth profiling, we find that the SEI is formed by decomposition products from both cations and anions of the electrolyte. The XPS spectra show that the presence of polysulfides alters the decomposition process of the electrolyte, resulting in a SEI film with different chemical composition and structure, in line with the results from the electrochemical performance.

  11. Ligand Efficiency Outperforms pIC50 on Both 2D MLR and 3D CoMFA Models: A Case Study on AR Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Bai, Fang; Liu, Huanxiang; Gramatica, Paola

    2015-12-01

    The concept of ligand efficiency is defined as biological activity in each molecular size and is widely accepted throughout the drug design community. Among different LE indices, surface efficiency index (SEI) was reported to be the best one in support vector machine modeling, much better than the generally and traditionally used end-point pIC50. In this study, 2D multiple linear regression and 3D comparative molecular field analysis methods are employed to investigate the structure-activity relationships of a series of androgen receptor antagonists, using pIC50 and SEI as dependent variables to verify the influence of using different kinds of end-points. The obtained results suggest that SEI outperforms pIC50 on both MLR and CoMFA models with higher stability and predictive ability. After analyzing the characteristics of the two dependent variables SEI and pIC50, we deduce that the superiority of SEI maybe lie in that SEI could reflect the relationship between molecular structures and corresponding bioactivities, in nature, better than pIC50. This study indicates that SEI could be a more rational parameter to be optimized in the drug discovery process than pIC50. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Surface-Sensitive NMR Detection of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase Layer on Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Leskes, Michal; Kim, Gunwoo; Liu, Tao; Michan, Alison L; Aussenac, Fabien; Dorffer, Patrick; Paul, Subhradip; Grey, Clare P

    2017-03-02

    Forming a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is critical for rechargeable batteries' performance and lifetime. Understanding its formation requires analytical techniques that provide molecular-level insight. Here, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is utilized for the first time to enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy to the SEI. The approach is demonstrated on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) cycled in Li-ion cells in natural abundance and (13)C-enriched electrolyte solvents. Our results indicate that DNP enhances the signal of outer SEI layers, enabling detection of natural abundance (13)C spectra from this component of the SEI on reasonable time frames. Furthermore, (13)C-enriched electrolyte measurements at 100 K provide ample sensitivity without DNP due to the vast amount of SEI filling the rGO pores, thereby allowing differentiation of the inner and outer SEI layer composition. Developing this approach further will benefit the study of many electrode materials, equipping ssNMR with the necessary sensitivity to probe the SEI efficiently.

  13. New method to estimate the possibility of natural pregnancy using computer-assisted sperm analysis.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, which include percent motility and sperm concentration, are the only criteria for evaluating sperm quality and conception ability. However, these criteria are insufficient to evaluate the possibility of natural pregnancy. Thus, an index that can directly evaluate the possibility of a natural pregnancy is necessary. A new sperm energy theory without approximation was developed to assess the possibility of natural pregnancy based on mechanical sperm energy. Sperm motility parameters were measured using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) in 129 ejaculated semen samples from 50 men in couples diagnosed with infertility, in which no abnormalities were found in women (sterile group), and 157 ejaculated semen samples from 57 men who had already fathered children in natural pregnancies (control group). A total of 129 subjects were selected from the control group and classified as the fertile group in order of the sample measurement date. The sperm energy index (SEI) and mean sperm energy index (MEI) were accurately obtained according to the methods described by the new sperm energy theory. SEI reflects total mechanical energy of the sperm in a visual field during CASA measurements. MEI reflects the mean mechanical energy of one sperm in a measurement field. All subjects with (MEI)/(SEI) > 2 were assigned to the sterile group. The larger the SEI, the higher was the probability of predicting fertile subjects. The probability of predicting fertile subjects was approximately 60% with a SEI of > 0.5, 70% with a SEI of > 1, 80% with a SEI of > 3, and 90% with a SEI of > 6 in cases where (MEI)/(SEI) is < 2. The data support the view that this novel method can be used to estimate the possibility of a natural pregnancy.

  14. Applications of the mobile servicing system to the space exploration initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueckman, J. H.

    This paper provides an analysis by Spar Aerospace of the potential application of the Mobile Servicing System (MSS), developed under the Canadian Space Station Program, to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Initially, an overview of the MSS is provided which outlines the essential functions and elements of the MSS. An overview of the SEI is also provided which summarizes the overall goals and objectives of the initiative. This discussion also outlines the basic SEI missions and summarizes the infrastructure required to support them. The potential applications of the MSS to the SEI are summarized. For each application, the performance capability of the MSS is compared to the expected level of performance required to support the SEI missions. Any areas of potential performance increase are identified and design changes proposed. Finally, the growth capabilities of the MSS are compared to those which may be required to fully support the SEI. The MSS has the potential to play a significant role in the development and operational phases of the SEI. Additional growth capabilities could allow the MSS to play an even greater role, particularly in the areas of transportation and payload handling. MSS technologies are applicable to the systems required for surface operations. The MSS can play an important role in the areas of low earth orbit node construction and assembly, vehicle assembly, integration, and verification, servicing and maintenance, transportation, payload handling, and extra vehicular activity support. The technologies currently being developed for the MSS are applicable for the development of surface robotic systems. In general, the performance capabilities of the MSS, in its baseline Space Station Freedom role, are sufficient to accommodate its potential role on the SEI. However, the expected increases in launch vehicle and spacecraft mass may exceed its payload handling and transportation capabilities. If the MSS is to be utilized on SEI to this

  15. Atomistic Modeling of the Electrode–Electrolyte Interface in Li-Ion Energy Storage Systems: Electrolyte Structuring

    SciTech Connect

    Jorn, Ryan P.; Kumar, Revati; Abraham, Daniel P; Voth, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) forms as a result of side reactions between the electrolyte and electrode surfaces in Li-ion batteries and can adversely impact performance by impeding Li-ion transport and diminishing the storage capacity of the battery. To gain a detailed understanding of the impact of the SEI on electrolyte structure, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the electrode/electrolyte interface were performed in the presence and absence of the SEI under applied voltages. The composition of the SEI was guided by a wealth of data from experiments and allowed to vary across the simulations. A novel computational approach was implemented that showed significant computational speedup compared to fully polarizable electrode simulations, yet, retained the correct qualitative physics for the electrolyte. A force-matching algorithm was used to construct a new force field for the pure electrolyte, LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate, which was developed from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The electrode/electrolyte interface was included using a simple, physically motivated model, which includes the polarization of the conducting graphitic electrode by the electrolyte and the application of an external voltage. Changes in the structure of the electrolyte at the interface as a function of applied voltage, the thickness of the SEI layer, and composition of the SEI provide molecular level insight into the species present at these interfaces and potential clues to the effect of the SEI on transport. It is noted that, with increasing SEI thickness and LiF content, lithium ions are drawn closer to the SEI surface, which implies that these interfaces favor desolvation and promote more rapid lithium transport.

  16. A novel electrolyte salt additive for lithium-ion batteries with voltages greater than 4.7 V

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yunchao; Wan, Shun; Veith, Gabriel M.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao -Guang

    2016-11-07

    Here, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), as an additive in conventional electrolyte for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, exhibits improved coulombic efficiencies and cycling stability. Cyclic voltammograms indicate the cells with additive form good SEIs during the first cycle whereas no additive cell needs more cycles to form a functional SEI. XPS reveals LiBMFMB could reduce the decomposition of LiPF6 salt and solvents, resulting in thinner SEI.

  17. A novel electrolyte salt additive for lithium-ion batteries with voltages greater than 4.7 V

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yunchao; Wan, Shun; Veith, Gabriel M.; ...

    2016-11-07

    Here, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), as an additive in conventional electrolyte for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, exhibits improved coulombic efficiencies and cycling stability. Cyclic voltammograms indicate the cells with additive form good SEIs during the first cycle whereas no additive cell needs more cycles to form a functional SEI. XPS reveals LiBMFMB could reduce the decomposition of LiPF6 salt and solvents, resulting in thinner SEI.

  18. Direct determination of solid-electrolyte interphase thickness and composition as a function of state of charge on a silicon anode

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Doucet, Mathieu; Baldwin, J. K.; Sacci, Robert L.; Fears, Tyler M.; Wang, Yongqiang; Browning, Jim

    2015-08-17

    Using neutron reflectometry we have determined the thickness and chemistry of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer grown on a silicon anode as a function of state of charge and during cycling. We show the chemistry of this SEI layer becomes more LiF like with increasing lithiation and more Li-C-O-F like with delithiation. More importantly the SEI layer thickness appears to increase (about 250 ) as the electrode becomes less lithiated and thins to 180 with increasing Li content (Li3.7Si). We attribute this breathing to the continual consumption of electrolyte with cycling.

  19. Direct determination of solid-electrolyte interphase thickness and composition as a function of state of charge on a silicon anode

    DOE PAGES

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Doucet, Mathieu; Baldwin, J. K.; ...

    2015-08-17

    Using neutron reflectometry we have determined the thickness and chemistry of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer grown on a silicon anode as a function of state of charge and during cycling. We show the chemistry of this SEI layer becomes more LiF like with increasing lithiation and more Li-C-O-F like with delithiation. More importantly the SEI layer thickness appears to increase (about 250 ) as the electrode becomes less lithiated and thins to 180 with increasing Li content (Li3.7Si). We attribute this breathing to the continual consumption of electrolyte with cycling.

  20. Enhancing the stability of silicon nanosheets electrodes by fluoroethylene carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong Min; Kim, Sujin; Ha, Jung Hoon; Kim, Sung Wook; Lee, Jaejun; Park, Sangwon; Cho, Byung-Won; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2017-09-01

    Stabilization of the SEI layer that is formed by consuming active lithium in electrolytes is a critical issue for improving the cyclability of lithium ion batteries. We used SiNSs as anodes and investigated the effect of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additives on the SEI layer. Our XPS, EIS and TEM analysis of Csbnd O and Cdbnd O bonds, interfacial resistance and thickness of SEl layer, respectively, shows that the FEC produces electrochemically and mechanically stable SEI layer. The SiNSs with FEC showed the capacity of over 1500 mA h g-1 with 95% efficiency after 200 cycles.

  1. A private power entree

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    In the foothills of the Andes, nestled in an area known as the Patagonia region of Argentina, the 1,000 MW, Hidroelectrica Alicura, S.A. project generates about 2,480 GWh of electrical capacity each year. Interestingly, the plant is operated by Southern Electric International (SEI) - based in Atlanta. Little more than a year ago, a consortium, led by SEI, purchased a 59 percent share of the hydropower project. SEI is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Southern Company, and in line with its investment strategy, it holds operations an maintenance responsibility on the project.

  2. Readdressing gender bias in the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory-short form.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Paula L; Mullis, Ann K

    2002-12-01

    The short form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was evaluated for gender bias. The authors replicated a study by L. Francis and D. James (1998) and administered the SEI to 361 middle and high school students (146 boys, 2l5 girls). They found that gender bias existed in 6 of the 25 items on the SEI, with 5 of those items favoring boys. Because recent literature indicates that male and female adolescents experience problems in different areas of their lives, the authors suggest that researchers consider such differences when selecting items for a standardized measure.

  3. A Robust Cramer-Rao Analogue.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    indicated in section 1, the pair (fL’ 6L) in (1.7) and (1.8) may be shown to be regular L -optimal under certain smoothness conditions 1 on the...4.11). Example 4.1. (N(0,1), ") is regular L1-optimal. .’i 13 REFERENCES ALAMO, J. B. (1964), "Estimacion en Mediana," Trabajos de Estadistica , 15, 93

  4. [Efficacy of intestinal splinting in hostile abdomen secondary to postoperative flanges in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Bracho-Blanchet, Eduardo; Langarica-Bulos, Mónica; Dávila-Pérez, Roberto; Fernández-Portilla, Emilio; Zalles-Vidal, Cristian; Nieto-Zermeño, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    Objetivo: Mostrar la eficacia de la FI para prolongar el tiempo libre de oclusión intestinal quirúrgica en niños con abdomen hostil secundario a bridas posquirúrgicas. Método: Análisis retrospectivo de FI por abdomen hostil de 2000 a 2011 y su seguimiento a largo plazo. Comparamos el tiempo libre de oclusión quirúrgica antes y después de la FI. Resultados: Se incluyeron 20 FI en 19 pacientes. Predominaron las causas congénitas, la mediana de edad en la cirugía fue de 6 meses, todos tenían cirugías previas con mediana de tres, y dos de ellas fueron por oclusión intestinal previa. La férula se quitó a los 28 días (mediana). Con un seguimiento de 1-183 meses, hubo una recurrencia de oclusión quirúrgica. El tiempo libre de oclusión quirúrgica posferulización fue significativamente mayor que el preferulización mediante la prueba de Wilcoxon, con un valor Z = -3.594; p = < 0.0001. Conclusiones: Esta es la segunda serie exclusiva en niños que muestra que la FI es eficaz para prolongar el tiempo libre de oclusión quirúrgica.

  5. [Infective endocarditis. 5-years experience in a third-level reference center in Yucatan, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Vega-Sánchez, Angel Emmanuel; Santaularia-Tomas, Miguel; Pérez-Román, Diana Isabel; Cortés-Telles, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad con elevada morbilidad y mortalidad. La expresión clínica es variable en diferentes poblaciones, por lo que es imperativo conocer las características de la enfermedad en nuestra región. Métodos: estudio observacional que incluyo la totalidad de los pacientes diagnosticados con endocarditis bacteriana entre el 1 de enero de 2009 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2014. Los datos se presentan como frecuencias con porcentajes y medianas con rango intercuartílico, según sea el caso. Resultados: se incluyen 10 casos. La mediana de edad fue 34 años (RIC 26-41). Los factores de riesgo identificados fueron: enfermedad valvular previa, enfermedad renal crónica con acceso vascular y enfermedad inmunológica. La válvula mitral nativa fue la más afectada. La mediana de longitud de las vegetaciones fue de 14 mm (RIC 9.3-16). El estreptococo alfa hemolítico fue el microorganismo más común. La tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue del 10 %. Conclusiones: el comportamiento de la enfermedad es similar a otras series nacionales. Identificamos factores de riesgo que pueden circunscribirse a las morbilidades en la región.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase supplemental environmental impact statement. Implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) has two primary purposes: (1) To report on the results of the scoping process (2) To provide guidance for preparing SEIS-II SEIS-II will be the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for WIPP`s disposal phase. Chapter 1 of this plan provides background on WIPP and this NEPA review. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and need for action by the Department of Energy (hereafter DOE or the Department), as well as a description of the Proposed Action and alternatives being considered. Chapter 3 describes the work plan, including the schedule, responsibilities, and planned consultations with other agencies and organizations. Chapter 4 describes the scoping process, presents major issues identified during the scoping process, and briefly indicates how issues will be addressed in SEIS-II.

  7. 77 FR 26521 - Withdrawal of Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ..., Maui, HI (Second SEIS for the Project) AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Do..., Ft. Shafter, HI 96858, email: cindy.s.barger@usace.army.mil , telephone: (808) 438-6940...

  8. 75 FR 63434 - Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, Montana; Grizzly Vegetation and Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ] ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare a supplemental... Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Grizzly Vegetation and Transportation Management Project (Grizzly Project). The Grizzly Project includes vegetation management, fuels reduction, watershed...

  9. 77 FR 40345 - Notice of the Availability of Record of Decision for the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Office (PMO) Web site ( http://www.bracpmo.navy.mil/ ). The ROD and Final SEIS are also available for... will be made available upon request by contacting: Director, BRAC PMO West, Attention: Mr. Ronald...

  10. Decomposing self-estimates of intelligence: structure and sex differences across 12 nations.

    PubMed

    von Stumm, Sophie; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-05-01

    This study examines the structure of self-estimates of intelligence (SEI) across 12 nations (Australia, Austria, Brazil, France, Iran, Israel, Malaysia, South Africa, Spain, Turkey, UK and US). Participants rated themselves on general and specific abilities from three popular models of intelligence: Gardner's multiple intelligences, Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, and Goleman's emotional intelligence. The results showed that (a) laypeople across nations have similar and invariant concepts of intelligence, (b) concepts of intelligence are cross-culturally closely related to academic notions of intellectual ability and (c) sex differences in general and specific SEI favouring men are consistent across countries. Male hubris and female humility in SEI seem independent of sex differences in actual cognitive ability and national levels of masculinity-femininity. Furthermore, international mean differences in general SEI could not be attributed to discrepancies in national intelligence quotient (IQ) levels or to cultural variations.

  11. Systems of Systems: Scaling up the Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    47 CMU/SEI-2006-TR-017 iii List of Figures Figure 1: Multi- Team Role -Manager Communication Network...Customer Interface Design Implementation Test The role manager network The management hierarchy Figure 1: Multi- Team Role -Manager Communication Network

  12. Systems of Systems: Scaling Up the Development Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    47 CMU/SEI-2006-TR-017 iii List of Figures Figure 1: Multi- Team Role -Manager Communication Network...Customer Interface Design Implementation Test The role manager network The management hierarchy Figure 1: Multi- Team Role -Manager Communication Network

  13. Lower Bounds on Type Checking Overloading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Algebraic Structure of Atomic FormulasMachine Intelligence pp Sei Seidl H Haskell Overloading is DEXPTIME complete Information ... Process ing Letters pp October Smi Smith G S Polymorphic Type Inference for Languages with Overloading and Subtyping Ph D

  14. 77 FR 12244 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... (Physeter macrocephalus), and killer whales (Orcinus orca). DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments... Atlantic (fin, blue, sei, minke, sperm and killer whales). Research would occur in the waters off Maine to...

  15. Direct Visualization of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Sacci, Robert L.; Adamczyk, Leslie A.; Alsem, Daan Hein; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie

    2014-08-01

    Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.

  16. Reports of Public Scoping Meetings for the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Designation of Dredged Material Disposal Sites in Eastern Long Island Sound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These reports provide summaries of the scoping meetings as part of the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) process for the designation of dredged material disposal sites in Eastern Long Island Sound.

  17. 50 CFR 216.271 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... following marine mammals of concern: Beaked whale of any species, dwarf or pygmy sperm whales, short-finned pilot whales, humpback whales, sperm whales, blue whales, fin whales, or sei whales. (iii) A group of...

  18. 77 FR 29955 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... critical habitat: Sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis); North Pacific Right whales (Eubalaena japonica); Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus); Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus); Sperm whales (Physter macrocephalus... medirostris), eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus), humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), Steller sea...

  19. 50 CFR 218.71 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of concern: beaked whale of any species, Kogia spp., Risso's dolphin, melon-headed whale, pilot whale, humpback whale, sperm whale, blue whale, fin whale, sei whale, or monk seal. (iii) A group of two or...

  20. 77 FR 33198 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16019

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... research are listed as threatened or endangered: Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), fin whale (B. physalus), ] humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis), sei whale (B. borealis), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), hawksbill sea...

  1. 50 CFR 216.271 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... following marine mammals of concern: Beaked whale of any species, dwarf or pygmy sperm whales, short-finned pilot whales, humpback whales, sperm whales, blue whales, fin whales, or sei whales. (iii) A group of...

  2. 50 CFR 218.81 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... concern: beaked whale of any species, Kogia spp., Risso's dolphin, melon-headed whale, pilot whale, North Atlantic right whale, humpback whale, sperm whale, blue whale, fin whale, or sei whale. (iii) A group...

  3. Examining the solid electrolyte interphase on binder-free graphite electrodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, A.; Yang, L.; Lucht, B. L.; Kang, S.-H.; Abraham, D. P.

    2009-01-01

    The solid electrode interphase (SEI) on graphite electrodes is important to the performance, calendar life, and safety characteristics of lithium-ion cells. This article examines the SEI formed on binder-free graphite electrodes prepared by electrophoretic deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis data were obtained on electrodes cycled in cells containing four electrolytes comprising ethylene carbonate: ethylmethyl carbonate (3:7 by weight) solvent and 1.2 M LiPF{sub 6}, 1 M LiF{sub 2}BC{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 1 M LiBF{sub 4}, or 0.7 M LiB(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} salt. Our observations suggest that, in addition to solvent reduction, the reduction of electrolyte salts plays an important role in SEI formation. Mechanisms to account for the formation of these SEI constituents are included in the article.

  4. Direct visualization of solid electrolyte interphase formation in lithium-ion batteries with in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Unocic, Raymond R; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Sacci, Robert L; Adamczyk, Leslie A; Alsem, Daan Hein; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J; More, Karren L

    2014-08-01

    Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.

  5. Characterisation of the solid electrolyte interface during lithiation/delithiation of germanium in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Abhishek; Borisenko, Natalia; Borodin, Andriy; Olschewski, Mark; Endres, Frank

    2016-02-21

    In this paper, we present investigations of the interface of electrodeposited Ge during lithiation/delithiation in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide containing 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI/[Py1,4]TFSI). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and infrared spectroscopy were used to study the electrochemistry and the changes in the electrolyte during the Li intercalation/deintercalation processes. From infrared spectroscopic analysis, it was found that the TFSI(-) anion decomposes during the lithiation process, resulting in the formation of a solid-liquid interface (SEI) layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyse the composition of the SEI layer and the changes in the electrodeposited germanium. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the changes in the SEI layer which showed that the SEI layer was inhomogenous and changed during the lithiation/delithiation processes.

  6. Confined Solid Electrolyte Interphase Growth Space with Solid Polymer Electrolyte in Hollow Structured Silicon Anode for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tianyi; Yu, Xiangnan; Cheng, Xiaolu; Li, Huiyu; Zhu, Wentao; Qiu, Xinping

    2017-04-19

    Silicon anodes for lithium-ion batteries are of much interest owing to their extremely high specific capacity but still face some challenges, especially the tremendous volume change which occurs in cycling and further leads to the disintegration of electrode structure and excessive growth of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Here, we designed a novel approach to confine the inward growth of SEI by filling solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) into pores of hollow silicon spheres. The as-prepared composite delivers a high specific capacity of more than 2100 mAh g(-1) and a long-term cycle stability with a reversible capacity of 1350 mAh g(-1) over 500 cycles. The growing behavior of SEI was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, and the results revealed that SPE occupies the major space of SEI growth and thus confines its excessive growth, which significantly improves cycle performance and Coulombic efficiency of cells embracing hollow silicon spheres.

  7. 50 CFR 216.271 - Effective dates and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cetacean species (not including mother/calf pairs, unless of species of concern listed in § 216.271(b)(1... whales, blue whales, fin whales, or sei whales. (iii) A group of 2 or more cetaceans of any...

  8. 77 FR 31326 - Notice of Availability of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Replacement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Replacement of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service Southwest... and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS); Opportunity for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA announces...

  9. Exploration technology prioritization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dula, Alex

    1992-01-01

    A series of outlines and graphs describing NASA's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) technology prioritization are presented. Prioritization criteria and preliminary critical technology priorities for a first lunar outpost and a Mars and permanently-manned lunar mission are addressed.

  10. 78 FR 76189 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study, Prince George...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460.... ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The Federal...) will prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) to evaluate the Route 460 Location...

  11. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with

  12. Cyber Intelligence Research Consortium (Poster)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-24

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...internal and external to an organization Contact: cyber-intel@sei.cmu.edu twitter: @sei_etc ©2014 Software Engineering Institute Analytical Acumen...guides for navigating key analytical practices and technologies to apply analytical techniques and technologies to a simulated cyber attack Crisis

  13. Wireless Emergency Alerts: New York City Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Wireless Emergency Alerts: New York City Demonstration Elizabeth Trocki Stark, SRA International, Inc. Jennifer Lavan, SRA International, Inc...Acknowledgments We thank Mark Frankel, information security officer at the New York City Office of Emergency Management, for generously volunteering his time to...share information and experiences with us. CMU/SEI-2012-SR-016 | viii CMU/SEI-2012-SR-016 | ix Executive Summary The Wireless Emergency

  14. Lecture Notes on Requirements Elicitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    Sridhar Raghavan Digital Equipment Corporation Gregory Zelesnik CMU School of Computer Science Gary Ford SEI Curriculum Research Project Approved for... developer who shows much promise. You gained high marks in school in all of your software engineering classes. You were hired onto the 16 CMU/SEI-94-EM- 10...Stealth Helicopter project because of your high marks in school and because your two years of software development experience were with Ada, on DEC

  15. Using Defined Processes as a Context for Resilience Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    projects. CMU/SEI-2011-TN-029 | iv CMU/SEI-2011-TN-029 | v Abstract The CERT® Resilient Enterprise Management ( REM ) team is researching...requirements or policies for data • As a result, number of successful intrusions into technology assets (digital data) or facility assets (physical...requirements for data Data intrusions Data violations Implementation; possibly Effectiveness Base of type count Physical data: 2.0, 3.0, 6.0

  16. Software Supply Chain Risk Management: From Products to Systems of Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Attack 9 Figure 5: Suppliers 11 Figure 6: Acquirers 15 Figure 7: Supply Chain Factors for Acquisitions 16 CMU/SEI-2010-TN-026 | iv CMU/SEI...Branch of the Department of Homeland Security’s National Cyber Security Division. The Acquisition Support Program at the Software Engineering...between these kinds of acquisitions . Product development is completed in advance of an acquirer’s product and supplier assessment. There is no

  17. Ada Adoption Handbook: A Program Manager’s Guide, Version 2.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    Information... 90 Appendix A. Ada Information 91 A.1. Readings 91 A.2. Resources 91 Appendix B. Ada Working Groups and Resources 95 B.1. Professional...Consortium Rick Barbour, SEI Reed Little, SEI Capt. Jim Cardow, USAF, Steven Lltvintchouk, MITRE Air Force Institute of Technology Robert Mathis Susan...Recommended readings and resources for individuals looking for fun- damental Ada information. B. Ada Working Groups and Resources: Information about

  18. Generalized Criteria and Evaluation Method for Center of Excellence: A Preliminary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    framework and the approach to developing the appropriate criteria were derived from ele- ments of both the balanced scorecard (BSC) [ Kaplan 1998] and the... Norton , David P. Ch. 6, “The Balanced Scorecard —Measures that Drive Performance, ” 71-79. Harvard Business Review on Measuring Corporate Performance...Summary 19 References/Bibliography 21 ii | CMU/SEI-2009-TN-011 iii | CMU/SEI-2009-TN-011 List of Figures Figure 1: Balanced Scorecard

  19. CERT Resilience Management Model - Mail-Specific Process Areas: Mail Revenue Assurance (Version 1.0)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    States Postal Inspection Service) Pamela D. Curtis Nader Mehravari David W. White (formerly with the SEI) August 2014 TECHNICAL NOTE CMU/SEI-2014-TN...improving the security and resilience of a national postal sector directly contribute to protecting public and postal personnel, assets, and revenues...supply chain. Since 2011, the U.S. Postal Inspection Service (USPIS) has collaborated with the CERT® Division at Carnegie Mellon University’s Software

  20. SGMM: Smart Grid Maturity Model. A Zero-depth Entry to Using the TSP: How TSP Was Used to Turn Around the SGMM Project that Was Drowning in Details

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-04

    collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and...great to have new team members, good meeting, great food - ran out of time, doing math was BAD 7 Roles Project manager Model owner and...SGMM Partners SGMM Partners are licensed by the SEI to provide official SGMM services , which are delivered by SEI-certified SGMM

  1. Defining a Maturity Scale for Governing Operational Resilience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Defining a Maturity Scale for Governing Operational Resilience Katie Stewart Julia Allen Audrey Dorofee Michelle Valdez Lisa Young March...Goal 2: Plan for Operational Resilience 8 Table 5: MIL Definitions for Specific Goal 3: Establish Sponsorship 9 Table 6: MIL Definitions for...Specific Goal 4: Provide Resilience Oversight 9 CMU/SEI-2015-TN-004 | iv CMU/SEI-2015-TN-004 | v Acknowledgments The authors would like to

  2. A Bibliography of the Personal Software Process (PSP) and the Team Software Process (TSP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Redwood City , CA (July 2008). 10 | CMU/SEI-2009-SR-025 McHale, James; Chick, Tim; Davis, Noopur; & Miluk, Gene. ―Accelerating CMMI Adoption with PSP...sei/wattssum00.cfm Humphrey, Watts S. ―Putting Engineering Into Software.‖ Software Engineering Education and Training Annual Conference 00 in Chennai ...821796 26th Annual Conference Salt Lake City , UT (November 1996). 1995 Humphrey, Watts S. ―Introducing the Personal Software Process.‖ Annals of Software

  3. Development and Performance of the W/Sb2O3/KIO4/Lubricant Pyrotechnic Delay in the US Army Hand-Held Signal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    were obtained from Sigma Aldrich. Stearic acid (19–5010) was obtained from Hummel Croton. A Malvern Morphologi G3S optical micros- copy particle size...35 – 40 Full Paper J. C. Poret, A. P. Shaw, C. M. Csernica, K. D. Oyler, D. P. Estes equipped with a secondary electron imaging ( SEI ) detector. The...an ongoing area of research in our laboratories. Symbols and Abbreviations HHS Hand-held signal SEM Scanning electron microscopy SEI Secondary

  4. An Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase with High Li-Ion Conductivity, Mechanical Strength, and Flexibility for Stable Lithium Metal Anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yayuan; Lin, Dingchang; Yuen, Pak Yan; Liu, Kai; Xie, Jin; Dauskardt, Reinhold H; Cui, Yi

    2017-03-01

    An artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is demonstrated for the efficient and safe operation of a lithium metal anode. Composed of lithium-ion-conducting inorganic nanoparticles within a flexible polymer binder matrix, the rationally designed artificial SEI not only mechanically suppresses lithium dendrite formation but also promotes homogeneous lithium-ion flux, significantly enhancing the efficiency and cycle life of the lithium metal anode.

  5. Agile Software Teams: How They Engage with Systems Engineering on DoD Acquisition Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    rather than adhering to more traditional “ waterfall ”-based development lifecycles. For this TN, the SEI gathered more data from users of Agile methods in...Interviews with Agile Program Managers and DoD Accreditation Reviewers (CMU/SEI 2012-TN-024) • Parallel Worlds: Agile and Waterfall Differences and...definitions. See the tech- nical note Parallel Worlds: Agile and Waterfall Differences and Similarities for basic information about Agile terms and practices

  6. Fine Scale Baleen Whale Behavior Observed via Tagging Over Daily Time Scales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    right whales and sei whales) and the diel vertical migration behavior of their copepod prey. I hypothesize that (1) right whales track the diel...vertical migration of copepods by feeding near the bottom during the day and at the surface at night, and (2) sei whales are unable to feed on copepods at...depth during the day, and are therefore restricted to feeding on copepods at the surface only. Because copepod diel vertical migration is variable

  7. Driving Out Technical Risk by Blending Architecture, Process, and Project Discipline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    coaching, coupled with the discipline of the Team Software Process, built a competent architecture team and an architecture with successful...Low Latency Communication Multicast Network • In memory data storage during trading session • Hot-Hot High Availability configuration...TSP Mentor Coach jdm@sei.cmu.edu RTSS Program Linda Northrop RTSS Program Director lmn@sei.cmu.edu Felix Bachmann Architecture Mentor

  8. Terrestrial analogs for space exploration habitation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Paul D.; Brown, Jeri W.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) can use early earth-based analogs to simulate many aspects of space flight missions and system operation. These analogs can thus provide information supporting future missions to the moon and to Mars. A study was performed to investigate the potential of terrestrial analogs in simulating human space exploration missions. The study resulted in preliminary requirements and concepts for analog habitation systems, and further study in this area is necessary for SEI terrestrial analog development.

  9. The Space Exploration Initiative. [permanent lunar outpost and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Arnold D.; Craig, Mark K.; O'Handley, Douglas A.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and the content and current status of NASA activities and studies relevant to the SEI are briefly reviewed. The principal way points of the program are discussed with particular reference to lunar exploration, preparations for a Martian mission, habitation, and fuels. Attention is also given to the problem of enhancing energy delivery on earth, the use of asteroids as way points, and activities related to the human exploration of Mars.

  10. Assessment of Army Contracting Command’s Contract Management Processes (TACOM and RDECOM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    proposals, etc.); b. Determining the contract type (fixed price versus cost); c. Developing the solicitation document (IFB, RFQ , or RFP); d...models include the Software Engineering Institute’s (SEI) Capability Maturity Model (CMM) and the Kerzner Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM). The...SEI CMM is used to assess an organization’s software development process (Persse, 2001; Ahern et al., 2001). The PMMM is used to assess an

  11. Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    www.3csoftware.com/blog/the-five-ws-and-one-h-of- designing -systems (2011). [Bass 2003] Bass, L.; Clements, P. C.; & Kazman, R. Software Architecture...Evaluate Architectural Design Approaches in a Major System Acquisition: A Case Study (CMU/SEI-2000-TN-010). Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie...Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios The WEA Project Team May 2012 SPECIAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2012-SR-020 CERT® Division, Software

  12. Modifiability Tactics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    about purchasing paper copies of SEI reports, please visit the publications portion of our Web site (http://www.sei.cmu.edu/ publications /pubweb.html...architects need to understand how architectural tactics and patterns relate and how to use them effectively. In this report, we explore the relation ...architecture transformations that support the achievement of modifiability [Bass 2003]. In this report, we relate coupling and cohesion to tactics

  13. Certified Binaries for Software Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    certification technology is compatible with, and can indeed exploit, model-driven approaches to software development. Moreover, this approach allows the...Development Projects and Report on Emerging Technologies and Technology Trends (CMU/SEI-2005-TR-020, ADA449433). Pittsburgh, PA: Software Engineering Institute...J.; Plakosh, D.; & Wallnau, K. C. Pin Component Technology (V1.0) and Its C Interface (CMU/SEI-2005-TN-001, ADA441815). Pittsburgh, PA: Software

  14. Artificial solid electrolyte interphase for aqueous lithium energy storage systems.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Jian; Yazdi, Alireza Zehtab; Valappil, Gayathri; Haime, Jessica; Chen, Pu

    2017-09-01

    Aqueous lithium energy storage systems address environmental sustainability and safety issues. However, significant capacity fading after repeated cycles of charge-discharge and during float charge limit their practical application compared to their nonaqueous counterparts. We introduce an artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) to the aqueous systems and report the use of graphene films as an artificial SEI (G-SEI) that substantially enhance the overall performance of an aqueous lithium battery and a supercapacitor. The thickness (1 to 50 nm) and the surface area (1 cm(2) to 1 m(2)) of the G-SEI are precisely controlled on the LiMn2O4-based cathode using the Langmuir trough-based techniques. The aqueous battery with a 10-nm-thick G-SEI exhibits a discharge capacity as high as 104 mA·hour g(-1) after 600 cycles and a float charge current density as low as 1.03 mA g(-1) after 1 day, 26% higher (74 mA·hour g(-1)) and 54% lower (1.88 mA g(-1)) than the battery without the G-SEI, respectively. We propose that the G-SEI on the cathode surface simultaneously suppress the structural distortion of the LiMn2O4 (the Jahn-Teller distortion) and the oxidation of conductive carbon through controlled diffusion of Li(+) and restricted permeation of gases (O2 and CO x ), respectively. The G-SEI on both small (~1 cm(2) in 1.15 mA·hour cell) and large (~9 cm(2) in 7 mA·hour cell) cathodes exhibit similar property enhancement, demonstrating excellent potential for scale-up and manufacturing.

  15. Proceedings of the Second Software Architecture Technology User Network (SATURN) Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    architect for The Open Group Architecture Framework ( TOGAF ), Version 8.1, ATAM Evaluator (SEI), and Software Architecture Profes- 8 | CMU/SEI-2006-TR...quality attribute UML extensions − The DoDAF − The Object Management Group (OMG) − The Open Group Architecture Framework ( TOGAF ) • Describe tactics...Measurement and Analysis SOA service-oriented architecture SoS system of systems TIG Technical Interest Group TOGAF The Open Group Architecture

  16. The Space Exploration Initiative: a challenge to advanced life support technologies: keynote presentation.

    PubMed

    Mendell, W W

    1991-10-01

    President Bush has enunciated an unparalleled, open-ended commitment to human exploration of space called the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). At the heart of the SEI is permanent human presence beyond Earth orbit, which implies a new emphasis on life science research and life support system technology. Proposed bioregenerative systems for planetary surface bases will require carefully designed waste processing elements whose development will lead to streamlined and efficient and efficient systems for applications on Earth.

  17. Agile Methods in Air Force Sustainment: Status and Outlook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    of Backlogs [Palmquist 2013] 16 Figure 5: Continuous Delivery Deployment Pipeline [Humble 2010] 28 CMU/SEI-2014-TN-009 | iii CMU/SEI-2014-TN...documentation in support of regulatory mandates seems reasonable or even logical until the work products enter the traditional pipeline , and the team can no...pattern, the deployment pipeline , is an automated implementation of an application or system’s build, deploy, test, and release process. Generally

  18. Lecture Notes on Software Process Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    also available from Research Acess, Inc.. 3400 Forbes Avenue, Suits -102, Piftburgh, PA 15213 Use of any tradem-,"•, i.. ; 14, ,o-: is not intended...Tech. Rep. CMU/SEI-92-TR-22). Pittsburgh, Pa .: Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 1992. Fowler9O Fowler, P.; & Rifkin, S...Software Engineering Process Group Guide (Tech. Rep. CMU/SEI-90-TR-24, ADA235639). Pittsburgh, Pa .: Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon

  19. The U.S. Army’s Common Avionics Architecture System (CAAS) Product Line: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    30 7.3 Lessons Learned: Rockwell Collins ......................................................32 7.4 Lessons Learned: TAPO ...report would not have been possible without the time, energy, enthusiasm, and patience of the U.S. Army’s Technical Applications Program Office ( TAPO ...Overbeck, Scott White, and John Terry of Rockwell Collins and the TAPO staff. CMU/SEI-2005-TR-019 vii viii CMU/SEI-2005-TR-019 Abstract This report

  20. Integrating the Capability Maturity Model for Software and the Quality Air Force Criteria.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    teachers. Of course, this whole experience at AFIT would not have been possible without the loving support from my wife Mia, and children, Wesley, Casey ...PAUL93a] Paulk , Mark C, and others. Capability Maturity Model for Software, Version 1.1. CMU/SEI-93-TR-24. Pittsburgh: Software Engineering...Institute, February 1993. [PAUL93b] Paulk , Mark C, and others. Key Practices of the Capability Maturity Model. Version 1.1. CMU/SEI-93-TR-25. Pittsburgh

  1. A structural study of solid electrolyte interface on negative electrode of lithium-Ion battery by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Tadashi; Watanabe, Jiro; Nakao, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Seiichi

    2014-11-01

    For the last decades, the performance of the lithium-ion battery (LIB) has been significantly improved and its applications have been expanding rapidly. However, its performance has yet to be enhanced.In the lithium-ion battery development, it is important to elucidate the electrode structure change in detail during the charge and discharge cycling. In particular, solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed by decomposition of the electrolytes on the graphite negative electrode surface should play an important role for battery properties. Therefore, it is essential to control the structure and composition of SEI to improve the battery performance. Here, we conducted a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) study to elucidate the structures of the SEI during the charge and discharge process using LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 [1] cathode and graphite anode. [2] Since SEI is a lithium-containing compound with high activity, it was observed without being exposed to the atmosphere. The electrodes including SEI were sampled after dismantling batteries with cutoff voltages of 3V and 4.2V for the charge process and 3V for the discharge process. Fig.1 shows SEM images of the graphite electrode surface during the charge and discharge process. The change of the SEI structure during the process was clearly observed. Further, TEM images showed that the SEI grew thicker during the charge process and becomes thinner when discharged. These results with regard to the reversible SEI structure could give a new insight for the battery development.jmicro;63/suppl_1/i21/DFU056F1F1DFU056F1Fig. 1.SEM images of the graphite electrode surface:(a) before charge process;(b) with charge-cutoff voltage of 3.0V; (c) with charge-cutoff voltage of 4.2V; (d) with discharge-cutoff voltage of 3.0V.

  2. Smart Grid Maturity Model: A Vision for the Future of Smart Grid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-24

    2011 Carnegie Mellon University SEI Technologies Forum Twitter: #SEIVirtualForum Smart Grid Maturity Model : A Vision for...the Future of Smart Grid David W. White Smart Grid Maturity Model Project Manager White is a member of the Resilient Enterprise Management (REM...infrastructure protection, and smart grid deployment. He is the project manager and a core member of the development team for the SEI Smart Grid Maturity Model (SGMM

  3. Policy Assessment for the Software Process Maturity Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Institute (SEI) software process maturity model . The results of this analysis will be used by DARPA and SWAP to formulate a DoD-wide policy associated with...mandating SEI’s process maturity model . This document presents the analysis, focusing on a) implementation issues associated with mandating software...effectiveness of process maturity, and c) a comparison of the maturity model and methods with similar techniques. Based on the analysis, we conclude

  4. Directory of Industry and University Collaborations with a Focus on Software Engineering Education and Training, Version 7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    engineering cur- ricula, coalitions in other countries, Software Process Improvement Networks (SPINs), and the Capability Maturity Model ® (CMM®) for Software...the goals of the collaborations. ’ Capability Maturity Model and CMM are registered in the U.S Patent and Trademark Office. CMU/SEI-99-SR-001 2...Department of Defense. Both of these divisions have been rated at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Capability Maturity Model (CMM) Level 3 or

  5. Insider Threat Control: Using Universal Serial Bus (USB) Device Auditing to Detect Possible Data Exfiltration by Malicious Insiders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Insider Threat Control: Using Universal Serial Bus (USB) Device Auditing to Detect Possible Data Exfiltration by Malicious Insiders George...SYSLOG Alerts 9 Execute the Script Regularly 9 2.5 OSSEC HIDS Integration 10 2.5.1 Prerequisites 10 2.5.2 OSSEC Configuration for USB Auditing 11...CMU/SEI-2013-TN-003 | vi CMU/SEI-2013-TN-003 | vii Abstract Universal serial bus (USB) storage devices are useful for transferring

  6. Implications of Distributed Object Technology for Reengineering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    rather than on questions of what functionality is provided by specific components. A discussion of these ideas can be found in [ Abowd 93]. However...future. CMU/SEI-97-TR-005 27 28" " " " CMU/SEI-97-TR-005 References [ Abowd 93] [Bruzas 97] [Calvin 96] [Campbell 96] [Chikofsky 90] [Choi 92...Chung 97] [Gamma 95] [Garlan 93] [Garlan 95] [Gosling 96] Abowd , G.; Bass, L; Howard, L; and Northrop, L. Structural Modeling: An Application

  7. Software Acquisition Planning Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Bergey , Julie Cohen, Robert Ferguson, Donald Firesmith, Mary Ann Lapham, B. Craig Meyers, Patricia Oberndorf, Patrick Place, John Robert, and Ray...Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 2005. http://www.sei.cmu.edu/pubfications/documents/02.reports/02tn005.html Bergey , John K. & Clements, Paul C...Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 2005. http://www.sei.cmu.edu/pubhcations/documents/05.reports/05tn020.html Bergey , John K. & Fisher

  8. Industry Standard Notation for Architecture-Centric Model-Based Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-20

    Bruce Lewis (AMRDEC SED) served as subcommittee chair, with Peter Feiler (SEI) as technical lead and author of the language. AADL incorporates concepts...underlying runtime system [ Feiler 09]. A number of recent studies have identified this problem and recommended a paradigm shift towards architecture-centric...AVSI 09] Feiler P. H., Hansson J., de Niz D., & Wrage L. System Architecture Virtual Integration: An Industrial Case Study (CMU/SEI-2009-TR-017

  9. TSP Symposium 2013 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    PSP Training Course 37 Table 13: Residual Standard Error ( RSE ) Comparison 43 CMU/SEI-2013-SR-022 | vi CMU/SEI-2013-SR-022 | vii...residual, that is, the difference between actual and regression values • ≜ ∑ / : residuals standard error ( RSE ) for the n = 10 projects (data...A positive answer to RQ3 is given in Table 13. Table 13: Residual Standard Error ( RSE ) Comparison Projects with Size and Effort Estimates (2 to 9

  10. Analysis of Lead Assessor Feedback for CBA IPI Assessments Conducted July 1998 - October 1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    feedback data are required of a Lead Assessor in order to monitor the consistency of use of the assessment method for quality control purposes. Data...In the Appraiser Program of the Software Engineering Institute (SEI), authorized Lead Assessors lead Capability Maturity Model-Based Appraisals for...Internal Process Improvement (CBA IPI). At the conclusion of each assessment, they are required to submit certain artifacts to the SEI. Data from

  11. Team Attributes & Team Performance - FY14-7 Expert Performance and Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-26

    Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Copyright 2014 Carnegie Mellon University This material is based upon work...Mellon® and CERT® are registered marks of Carnegie Mellon University. DM-0001754 3 Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and...SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University What is an expert in this context? Software Engineering

  12. Transition metal dissolution, ion migration, electrocatalytic reduction and capacity loss in Lithium-ion full cells

    DOE PAGES

    Gilbert, James A.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2017-01-05

    Continuous operation of full cells with layered transition metal (TM) oxide positive electrodes (NCM523) leads to dissolution of TM ions and their migration and incorporation into the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) of the graphite-based negative electrode. These processes correlate with cell capacity fade and accelerate markedly as the upper cutoff voltage (UCV) exceeds 4.30 V. At voltages ≥ 4.4 V there is enhanced fracture of the oxide during cycling that creates new surfaces and causes increased solvent oxidation and TM dissolution. Despite this deterioration, cell capacity fade still mainly results from lithium loss in the negative electrode SEI. Among TMs,more » Mn content in the SEI shows a better correlation with cell capacity loss than Co and Ni contents. As Mn ions become incorporated into the SEI, the kinetics of lithium trapping change from power to linear at the higher UCVs, indicating a large effect of these ions on SEI growth and implicating (electro)catalytic reactions. Lastly, we estimate that each MnII ion deposited in the SEI causes trapping of ~102 additional Li+ ions thereby hastening the depletion of cyclable lithium ions. Using these results, we sketch a mechanism for cell capacity fade, emphasizing the conceptual picture over the chemical detail.« less

  13. Evaluating the solid electrolyte interphase formed on silicon electrodes: A comparison of ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Doucet, Mathieu; Browning, Jim; Baldwin, J. K.; Winiarz, Jeffrey; Kaiser, Helmut; Taub, H.; Veith, Gabriel M.

    2016-04-15

    This work details the in situ characterization of the interface between a silicon electrode and an electrolyte using a linear fluorinated solvent molecule, 0.1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in deuterated dimethyl perfluoroglutarate (d6-PF5M2) (1.87 x 10-2 mS/cm-1). The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition and thickness determined via in situ neutron reflectometry (NR) and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were compared. The data show that SEI expansion and contraction (breathing) during electrochemical cycling was observed via both techniques; however, ex situ XPS suggests that the SEI thickness increases during Si lithiation and decreases during delithiation, while in situ NR suggests the opposite. The most likely cause of this discrepancy is the selective removal of SEI components (top 20 nm of the SEI) during the electrode rinse process, required to remove electrolyte residue prior to ex situ analysis, demonstrating the necessity of performing SEI characterizations in situ.

  14. The seirena B class floral homeotic mutant of California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica) reveals a function of the enigmatic PI motif in the formation of specific multimeric MADS domain protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Lange, Matthias; Orashakova, Svetlana; Lange, Sabrina; Melzer, Rainer; Theißen, Günter; Smyth, David R; Becker, Annette

    2013-02-01

    The products of B class floral homeotic genes specify petal and stamen identity, and loss of B function results in homeotic conversions of petals into sepals and stamens into carpels. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of seirena-1 (sei-1), a mutant from the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) that shows homeotic changes characteristic of floral homeotic B class mutants. SEI has been previously described as EScaGLO, one of four B class-related MADS box genes in California poppy. The C terminus of SEI, including the highly conserved PI motif, is truncated in sei-1 proteins. Nevertheless, like the wild-type SEI protein, the sei-1 mutant protein is able to bind CArG-boxes and can form homodimers, heterodimers, and several higher order complexes with other MADS domain proteins. However, unlike the wild type, the mutant protein is not able to mediate higher order complexes consisting of specific B, C, and putative E class related proteins likely involved in specifying stamen identity. Within the PI motif, five highly conserved N-terminal amino acids are specifically required for this interaction. Several families lack this short conserved sequence, including the Brassicaceae, and we propose an evolutionary scenario to explain these functional differences.

  15. The seirena B Class Floral Homeotic Mutant of California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica) Reveals a Function of the Enigmatic PI Motif in the Formation of Specific Multimeric MADS Domain Protein Complexes[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Orashakova, Svetlana; Lange, Sabrina; Melzer, Rainer; Theißen, Günter; Smyth, David R.; Becker, Annette

    2013-01-01

    The products of B class floral homeotic genes specify petal and stamen identity, and loss of B function results in homeotic conversions of petals into sepals and stamens into carpels. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of seirena-1 (sei-1), a mutant from the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) that shows homeotic changes characteristic of floral homeotic B class mutants. SEI has been previously described as EScaGLO, one of four B class–related MADS box genes in California poppy. The C terminus of SEI, including the highly conserved PI motif, is truncated in sei-1 proteins. Nevertheless, like the wild-type SEI protein, the sei-1 mutant protein is able to bind CArG-boxes and can form homodimers, heterodimers, and several higher order complexes with other MADS domain proteins. However, unlike the wild type, the mutant protein is not able to mediate higher order complexes consisting of specific B, C, and putative E class related proteins likely involved in specifying stamen identity. Within the PI motif, five highly conserved N-terminal amino acids are specifically required for this interaction. Several families lack this short conserved sequence, including the Brassicaceae, and we propose an evolutionary scenario to explain these functional differences. PMID:23444328

  16. Evaluating the solid electrolyte interphase formed on silicon electrodes: A comparison of ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ neutron reflectometry

    DOE PAGES

    Doucet, Mathieu; Browning, Jim; Baldwin, J. K.; ...

    2016-04-15

    This work details the in situ characterization of the interface between a silicon electrode and an electrolyte using a linear fluorinated solvent molecule, 0.1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in deuterated dimethyl perfluoroglutarate (d6-PF5M2) (1.87 x 10-2 mS/cm-1). The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition and thickness determined via in situ neutron reflectometry (NR) and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were compared. The data show that SEI expansion and contraction (breathing) during electrochemical cycling was observed via both techniques; however, ex situ XPS suggests that the SEI thickness increases during Si lithiation and decreases during delithiation, while in situ NR suggestsmore » the opposite. The most likely cause of this discrepancy is the selective removal of SEI components (top 20 nm of the SEI) during the electrode rinse process, required to remove electrolyte residue prior to ex situ analysis, demonstrating the necessity of performing SEI characterizations in situ.« less

  17. Structure and ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte interphase layer on tin anodes in Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Liang-Yin; Moradabadi, Ashkan; Huang, Hsin-Fu; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Kaghazchi, Payam

    2017-02-01

    Structure, stability, and ionic conductivity of the SEI layer on Sn anodes in Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are studied using experimental and theoretical methods. Raman spectra show that the SEI layer consists of Na2O and Na2CO3, the latter becoming more dominant close to the discharged state (at 0.3 V). According to our theoretical phase diagrams, Na2O can be stable in the whole voltage range of charge/discharge (from 0.0 V to 1.90 V), but Na2CO3 can decompose under carbon and/or oxygen poor conditions, leading to the formation of Na2O. These findings are in agreement with our experimental cyclic voltammetry and Raman spectra as function of voltage. Both compounds of the SEI layer have very low ionic conductivity close to the discharge state (0.2-0.3 V), but the ionic conductivity of Na2O is much larger than that of Na2CO3 for a wide range of voltages from 0.4 V to the charge state (∼1.5 V). This work suggests that engineered artificial SEI with Na2O or naturally formed SEI in a carbon and/or oxygen poor environment can improve the conductivity of the SEI layer in NIBs.

  18. Degradation of the solid electrolyte interphase induced by the deposition of manganese ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hosop; Park, Jonghyun; Sastry, Ann Marie; Lu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The deposition of manganese ions dissolved from the cathode onto the interface between the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and graphite causes severe capacity fading in manganese oxide-based cells. The evolution of the SEI layer containing these Mn compounds and the corresponding instability of the layer are thoroughly investigated by artificially introducing soluble Mn ions into a 1 mol L-1 LiPF6 electrolyte solution. Deposition of dissolved Mn ions induces an oxygen-rich SEI layer that results from increased electrolyte decomposition, accelerating SEI growth. The spatial distribution of Mn shows that dissolved Mn ions diffuse through the porous layer and are deposited mostly at the inorganic layer/graphite interface. The Mn compound deposited on the anode, identified as MnF2, originates from a metathesis reaction between LiF and dissolved Mn ion. It is confirmed that ion-exchange reaction occurs in the inorganic layer, converting SEI species to Mn compounds. Some of the Mn is observed inside the graphite; this may cause surface structural disordering in the graphite, limiting lithium-ion intercalation. The continuous reaction that occurs at the inorganic layer/graphite interfacial regions and the modification of the original SEI layer in the presence of Mn ions are critically related to capacity fade and impedance rise currently plaguing Li-ion cells.

  19. Anion Dependent Potential Pre-Cycling Effects on Lithium Deposition/Dissolution Reaction Studied by Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    PubMed

    Smaran, Kumar Sai; Shibata, Sae; Omachi, Asami; Ohama, Ayano; Tomizawa, Eika; Kondo, Toshihiro

    2017-10-05

    The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance technique was employed to study the initial stage of the electrodeposition and dissolution of lithium utilizing three kinds of electrolyte solutions such as LiPF6, LiTFSI, or LiFSI in tetraglyme. The native-SEI (solid electrolyte interphase) formed by potential pre-scan before the lithium deposition/dissolution in all three solutions. Simultaneous additional SEI (add-SEI) deposition and its dissolution with lithium deposition and dissolution, respectively, were observed in LiPF6 and LiTFSI. Conversely, the add-SEI dissolution with lithium deposition and its deposition with lithium dissolution were observed in LiFSI. With the pre-SEI, only lithium deposition/dissolution were significantly observed in LiTFSI and LiFSI. Based on the potential dependences of the mass and resistance changes, the anion dependent effects of such a pre-SEI layer presence/absence on the lithium deposition/dissolution processes were discussed.

  20. Evaluating the solid electrolyte interphase formed on silicon electrodes: a comparison of ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ neutron reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Fears, T M; Doucet, M; Browning, J F; Baldwin, J K S; Winiarz, J G; Kaiser, H; Taub, H; Sacci, R L; Veith, G M

    2016-05-18

    This work details the in situ characterization of the interface between a silicon electrode and an electrolyte using a linear fluorinated solvent molecule, 0.1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in deuterated dimethyl perfluoroglutarate (d6-PF5M2) (1.87 × 10(-2) mS cm(-1)). The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition and thickness determined via in situ neutron reflectometry (NR) and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were compared. The data show that SEI expansion and contraction (breathing) during electrochemical cycling were observed via both techniques; however, ex situ XPS suggests that the SEI thickness increases during Si lithiation and decreases during delithiation, while in situ NR suggests the opposite. The most likely cause of this discrepancy is the selective removal of SEI components (top 20 nm of the SEI) during the electrode rinse process, which is required to remove the electrolyte residue prior to ex situ analysis, demonstrating the necessity of performing SEI characterization in situ.

  1. In Situ Potentiodynamic Analysis of the Electrolyte/Silicon Electrodes Interface Reactions - A Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Yonatan; Han, Hui-Ling; Ross, Philip N.; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2015-12-11

    The key factor in long-term use of batteries is the formation of an electrically insulating solid layer that allows lithium ion transport but stops further electrolyte redox reactions on the electrode surface, hence solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). In this paper, we have studied a common electrolyte, 1.0 M LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC)/diethyl carbonate (DEC), reduction products on crystalline silicon (Si) electrodes in a lithium (Li) half-cell system under reaction conditions. We employed in situ sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) with interface sensitivity in order to probe the molecular composition of the SEI surface species under various applied potentials where electrolyte reduction is expected. We found that, with a Si(100)-hydrogen terminated wafer, a Si-ethoxy (Si-OC2H5) surface intermediate forms due to DEC decomposition. Our results suggest that the SEI surface composition varies depending on the termination of Si surface, i.e., the acidity of the Si surface. We provide the evidence of specific chemical composition of the SEI on the anode surface under reaction conditions. This supports an electrochemical electrolyte reduction mechanism in which the reduction of the DEC molecule to an ethoxy moiety plays a key role. Finally, these findings shed new light on the formation mechanism of SEI on Si anodes in particular and on SEI formation in general.

  2. In Situ Potentiodynamic Analysis of the Electrolyte/Silicon Electrodes Interface Reactions - A Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study

    DOE PAGES

    Horowitz, Yonatan; Han, Hui-Ling; Ross, Philip N.; ...

    2015-12-11

    The key factor in long-term use of batteries is the formation of an electrically insulating solid layer that allows lithium ion transport but stops further electrolyte redox reactions on the electrode surface, hence solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). In this paper, we have studied a common electrolyte, 1.0 M LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC)/diethyl carbonate (DEC), reduction products on crystalline silicon (Si) electrodes in a lithium (Li) half-cell system under reaction conditions. We employed in situ sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) with interface sensitivity in order to probe the molecular composition of the SEI surface species under various applied potentials where electrolytemore » reduction is expected. We found that, with a Si(100)-hydrogen terminated wafer, a Si-ethoxy (Si-OC2H5) surface intermediate forms due to DEC decomposition. Our results suggest that the SEI surface composition varies depending on the termination of Si surface, i.e., the acidity of the Si surface. We provide the evidence of specific chemical composition of the SEI on the anode surface under reaction conditions. This supports an electrochemical electrolyte reduction mechanism in which the reduction of the DEC molecule to an ethoxy moiety plays a key role. Finally, these findings shed new light on the formation mechanism of SEI on Si anodes in particular and on SEI formation in general.« less

  3. Determination of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase Structure Grown on a Silicon Electrode Using a Fluoroethylene Carbonate Additive.

    PubMed

    Veith, Gabriel M; Doucet, Mathieu; Sacci, Robert L; Vacaliuc, Bogdan; Baldwin, J Kevin; Browning, James F

    2017-07-24

    In this work we explore how an electrolyte additive (fluorinated ethylene carbonate - FEC) mediates the thickness and composition of the solid electrolyte interphase formed over a silicon anode in situ as a function of state-of-charge and cycle. We show the FEC condenses on the surface at open circuit voltage then is reduced to C-O containing polymeric species around 0.9 V (vs. Li/Li(+)). The resulting film is about 50 Å thick. Upon lithiation the SEI thickens to 70 Å and becomes more organic-like. With delithiation the SEI thins by 13 Å and becomes more inorganic in nature, consistent with the formation of LiF. This thickening/thinning is reversible with cycling and shows the SEI is a dynamic structure. We compare the SEI chemistry and thickness to 280 Å thick SEI layers produced without FEC and provide a mechanism for SEI formation using FEC additives.

  4. [Comparative anatomic studies of the vomeronasal complex and the rostral palate of various mammals].

    PubMed

    Wöhrmann-Repenning, A

    1984-01-01

    The structures of the rostral palate in regard to the vomeronasal complex of different species of mammals were studied. In all cases, we find a very interesting system of furrows which preserves a connection between the nasopalatine ducts and the preoral surroundings. For rodents, lagomorphs, Solenodon, Setifer, and Echinops, we find a special situation in this part of the palate. Here the incisors are not separated by a diastema nor the oral openings of the nasopalatine ducts are overgrown by a bipartite caudal branch of the rhinarium. The results of the anatomic studies of the vomeronasal complex and the rostral palate of the mammals investigated are discussed: First of all, some elements of the vomeronasal complex needed to be analysed in regard to structure and nomenclature, specifically the cartilago paraseptalis with its outer bar, the cartilago ductus nasopalatini and the cartilago palatina. Because of 2 criterions, the vomeronasal complex could be classified as either primitive or progressive. We find a primitive one in Didelphis, Tupaia, Solenodon, Oryctolagus, and all rodents. In contrast, the other insectivores studied and all primates show progressive structures at their vomeronasal complex. Finally, conclusions in regard to the function of the organs of Jacobson are derived from these studies. The significance of the "flehmen" mechanism for the functioning of the organs is questioned.

  5. Computational Exploration of the Li-Electrode|Electrolyte Interface in the Presence of a Nanometer Thick Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Layer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunsong; Leung, Kevin; Qi, Yue

    2016-10-18

    A nanometer thick passivation layer will spontaneously form on Li-metal in battery applications due to electrolyte reduction reactions. This passivation layer in rechargeable batteries must have "selective" transport properties: blocking electrons from attacking the electrolytes, while allowing Li(+) ion to pass through so the electrochemical reactions can continue. The classical description of the electrochemical reaction, Li(+) + e → Li(0), occurring at the Li-metal|electrolyte interface is now complicated by the passivation layer and will reply on the coupling of electronic and ionic degrees of freedom in the layer. This passivation layer is called "solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)" and is considered as "the most important but the least understood in rechargeable Li-ion batteries," partly due to the lack of understanding of its structure-property relationship. Predictive modeling, starting from the ab initio level, becomes an important tool to understand the nanoscale processes and materials properties governing the interfacial charge transfer reaction at the Li-metal|SEI|electrolyte interface. Here, we demonstrate pristine Li-metal surfaces indeed dissolve in organic carbonate electrolytes without the SEI layer. Based on joint modeling and experimental results, we point out that the well-known two-layer structure of SEI also exhibits two different Li(+) ion transport mechanisms. The SEI has a porous (organic) outer layer permeable to both Li(+) and anions (dissolved in electrolyte), and a dense (inorganic) inner layer facilitate only Li(+) transport. This two-layer/two-mechanism diffusion model suggests only the dense inorganic layer is effective at protecting Li-metal in electrolytes. This model suggests a strategy to deconvolute the structure-property relationships of the SEI by analyzing an idealized SEI composed of major components, such as Li2CO3, LiF, Li2O, and their mixtures. After sorting out the Li(+) ion diffusion carriers and their diffusion

  6. Exploration Technology Program plans and directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrich, A.; Rosen, R.; Craig, M.; Mankins, J. C.

    During the first part of the next century, the United States will return to the Moon to create a permanent lunar base, and, before the year 2019, we will send a human mission to Mars. In addition to these human operations, the Space Exploration Initiative will integrally incorporate robotic lunar and Mars missions. In achieving these efforts to expand human presence and activity in space and also exerted and frontiers of human knowledge, the SEI will require an array of new technologies. Mission architecture definition is still underway, but previous studies indicate that the SEI will require developments in areas such as advanced engines for space transportation, in-space assembly and construction to support permanent basing of exploration systems in space, and advanced surface operations capabilities including adequate levels of power and surface roving vehicles, and technologies to support safely long-duration human operations in space. Plans are now being put into place to implement an Exploration Technology Program (ETP) which will develop the major technologies needed for SEI. In close coordination with other ongoing U.S. government research and development efforts, the ETP will provide in the near term clear demonstrations of potential exploration technologies, research results to support SEI architecture decisions, and a foundation of mature technology that is ready to be applied in the first round of SEI missions. In addition to the technology needed for the first round of SEI missions, the ETP will also put in place a foundation of research for longer-term technology needs—ultimately leading the human missions to Mars. The Space Exploration Initiative and the Exploration Technology Program will challenge the best and the brightest minds across government, industry and academia, inspiring students of all ages and making possible future terrestial applications of SEI technologies that may create whole new industries for the future.

  7. Understanding electrical conduction in lithium ion batteries through multi-scale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jie

    Silicon (Si) has been considered as a promising negative electrode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high theoretical capacity, low discharge voltage, and low cost. However, the utilization of Si electrode has been hampered by problems such as slow ionic transport, large stress/strain generation, and unstable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). These problems severely influence the performance and cycle life of Si electrodes. In general, ionic conduction determines the rate performance of the electrode, while electron leakage through the SEI causes electrolyte decomposition and, thus, causes capacity loss. The goal of this thesis research is to design Si electrodes with high current efficiency and durability through a fundamental understanding of the ionic and electronic conduction in Si and its SEI. Multi-scale physical and chemical processes occur in the electrode during charging and discharging. This thesis, thus, focuses on multi-scale modeling, including developing new methods, to help understand these coupled physical and chemical processes. For example, we developed a new method based on ab initio molecular dynamics to study the effects of stress/strain on Li ion transport in amorphous lithiated Si electrodes. This method not only quantitatively shows the effect of stress on ionic transport in amorphous materials, but also uncovers the underlying atomistic mechanisms. However, the origin of ionic conduction in the inorganic components in SEI is different from that in the amorphous Si electrode. To tackle this problem, we developed a model by separating the problem into two scales: 1) atomistic scale: defect physics and transport in individual SEI components with consideration of the environment, e.g., LiF in equilibrium with Si electrode; 2) mesoscopic scale: defect distribution near the heterogeneous interface based on a space charge model. In addition, to help design better artificial SEI, we further demonstrated a theoretical design

  8. The Effect of Fluoroethylene Carbonate as an Additive on the Solid Electrolyte Interphase on Silicon Lithium-Ion Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, Kjell; Li, Juchuan; Dudney, Nancy J.; Meng, Ying Shirley; Stevenson, Keith J.; Alvarado, Judith

    2015-08-03

    Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) has become a standard electrolyte additive for use with silicon negative electrodes, but how FEC affects solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation on the silicon anode’s surface is still not well understood. Herein, SEI formed from LiPF6-based carbonate electrolytes, with and without FEC, were investigated on 50 nm thick amorphous silicon thin film electrodes to understand the role of FEC on silicon electrode surface reactions. In contrast to previous work, anhydrous and anoxic techniques were used to prevent air and moisture contamination of prepared SEI films. This allowed for accurate characterization of the SEI structure and composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. These results show that FEC reduction leads to fluoride ion and LiF formation, consistent with previous computational and experimental results. Surprisingly, we also find that these species decrease lithium-ion solubility and increase the reactivity of the silicon surface. We conclude that the effectiveness of FEC at improving the Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention is due to fluoride ion formation from reduction of the electrolyte, which leads to the chemical attack of any silicon-oxide surface passivation layers and the formation of a kinetically stable SEI comprising predominately lithium fluoride and lithium oxide.

  9. The Effect of Fluoroethylene Carbonate as an Additive on the Solid Electrolyte Interphase on Silicon Lithium-Ion Electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Schroder, Kjell; Li, Juchuan; Dudney, Nancy J.; ...

    2015-08-03

    Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) has become a standard electrolyte additive for use with silicon negative electrodes, but how FEC affects solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation on the silicon anode’s surface is still not well understood. Herein, SEI formed from LiPF6-based carbonate electrolytes, with and without FEC, were investigated on 50 nm thick amorphous silicon thin film electrodes to understand the role of FEC on silicon electrode surface reactions. In contrast to previous work, anhydrous and anoxic techniques were used to prevent air and moisture contamination of prepared SEI films. This allowed for accurate characterization of the SEI structure and composition bymore » X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. These results show that FEC reduction leads to fluoride ion and LiF formation, consistent with previous computational and experimental results. Surprisingly, we also find that these species decrease lithium-ion solubility and increase the reactivity of the silicon surface. We conclude that the effectiveness of FEC at improving the Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention is due to fluoride ion formation from reduction of the electrolyte, which leads to the chemical attack of any silicon-oxide surface passivation layers and the formation of a kinetically stable SEI comprising predominately lithium fluoride and lithium oxide.« less

  10. Relationships Between Social-Emotional Intelligence and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lando-King, Elizabeth; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gower, Amy L.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Pettingell, Sandra; Sieving, Renee E.

    2015-01-01

    Social-emotional intelligence (SEI) has been linked with a number of health behaviors in adolescent populations. However, little is known about the influence of SEI on sexual behavior. This study examined associations between three indicators of SEI (intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, stress management skills) and adolescent girls’ sexual risk behaviors. Data come from a cross-sectional sample of sexually active adolescent girls (ages 13 to 17 years) at high risk for pregnancy (N = 253), recruited from health care clinics in a Midwest metropolitan area during 2007 and 2008. Results of multivariable regression models controlling for participants’ age and race/ethnicity indicated that each aspect of SEI was related to distinct sexual risk behaviors. Specifically, girls with greater intrapersonal skills had significantly fewer male sex partners in the past six months (b = −0.16). Participants with greater interpersonal skills reported earlier communication with their sexual partner about sexual risk (b = 0.14), and those with a better ability to manage stress reported more consistent condom use (b = 0.31). Study findings suggest that SEI may provide a protective buffer against sexual risk behaviors. Building adolescent girls’ social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their risk for early pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25621508

  11. In Situ Measurement of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Evolution on Silicon Anodes Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Insun; Abraham, Daniel P.; Lucht, Brett L.; Bower, Allan F.; Guduru, Pradeep R.

    2016-04-18

    In situ measurements of the growth of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on silicon and the lithiation-induced volume changes in silicon in lithium ion half-cells are reported. Thin film amorphous silicon electrodes are fabricated in a configuration that allows unambiguous separation of the total thickness change into contribution from SEI thickness and silicon volume change. Electrodes are assembled into a custom-designed electrochemical cell, which is integrated with an atomic force microscope. The electrodes are subjected to constant potential lithiation/delithiation at a sequence of potential values and the thickness measurements are made at each potential after equilibrium is reached. Experiments are carried out with two electrolytes—1.2 m lithium hexafluoro-phosphate (LiPF6) in ethylene carbonate (EC) and 1.2 m LiPF6 in propylene carbonate (PC)—to investigate the influence of electrolyte composition on SEI evolution. It is observed that SEI formation occurs predominantly during the first lithiation and the maximum SEI thickness is ≈17 and 10 nm respectively for EC and PC electrolytes. This study also presents the measured Si expansion ratio versus equilibrium potential and charge capacity versus equilibrium potential; both relationships display hysteresis, which is explained in terms of the stress–potential coupling in silicon.

  12. Artificial solid electrolyte interphase to address the electrochemical degradation of silicon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Juchuan; Dudney, Nancy J; Nanda, Jagjit; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-07-09

    Electrochemical degradation on silicon (Si) anodes prevents them from being successfully used in lithium (Li)-ion battery full cells. Unlike the case of graphite anodes, the natural solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films generated from carbonate electrolytes do not self-passivate on Si, causing continuous electrolyte decomposition and loss of Li ions. In this work, we aim at solving the issue of electrochemical degradation by fabricating artificial SEI films using a solid electrolyte material, lithium phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon), which conducts Li ions and blocks electrons. For Si anodes coated with Lipon of 50 nm or thicker, a significant effect is observed in suppressing electrolyte decomposition, while Lipon of thinner than 40 nm has a limited effect. Ionic and electronic conductivity measurements reveal that the artificial SEI is effective when it is a pure ionic conductor, but electrolyte decomposition is only partially suppressed when the artificial SEI is a mixed electronic-ionic conductor. The critical thickness for this transition in conducting behavior is found to be 40-50 nm. This work provides guidance for designing artificial SEI films for high-capacity Li-ion battery electrodes using solid electrolyte materials.

  13. Density Functional Theory Research into the Reduction Mechanism for the Solvent/Additive in a Sodium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Mu, Daobin; Wu, Borong; Wang, Lei; Gai, Liang; Wu, Feng

    2017-02-22

    The solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) film in a sodium-ion battery is closely related to capacity fading and cycling stability of the battery. However, there are few studies on the SEI film of sodium-ion batteries and the mechanism of SEI film formation is unclear. The mechanism for the reduction of ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), vinylene carbonate (VC), ethylene sulfite (ES), 1,3-propylene sulfite (PS), and fluorinated ethylene carbonate (FEC) is studied by DFT. The reaction activation energies, Gibbs free energies, enthalpies, and structures of the transition states are calculated. It is indicated that VC, ES, and PS additives in the electrolyte are all easier to form organic components in the anode SEI film by one-electron reduction. The priority of one-electron reduction to produce organic SEI components is in the order of VC>PC>EC; two-electron reduction to produce the inorganic Na2 CO3 component is different and follows the order of EC>PC>VC. Two-electron reduction for sulfites ES and PS to form inorganic Na2 SO3 is harder than that of carbonate ester reduction. It is also suggested that the one- and two-electron reductive decomposition pathway for FEC is more feasible to produce inorganic NaF components. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Tris(trimethylsilyl) Phosphite as an Efficient Electrolyte Additive To Improve the Surface Stability of Graphite Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yim, Taeeun; Han, Young-Kyu

    2017-09-27

    Tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite (TMSP) has received considerable attention as a functional additive for various cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries, but the effect of TMSP on the surface stability of a graphite anode has not been studied. Herein, we demonstrate that TMSP serves as an effective solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)-forming additive for graphite anodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). TMSP forms SEI layers by chemical reactions between TMSP and a reductively decomposed ethylene carbonate (EC) anion, which is strikingly different from the widely known mechanism of the SEI-forming additives. TMSP is stable under cathodic polarization, but it reacts chemically with radical anion intermediates derived from the electrochemical reduction of the carbonate solvents to generate a stable SEI layer. These TMSP-derived SEI layers improve the interfacial stability of the graphite anode, resulting in a retention of 96.8% and a high Coulombic efficiency of 95.2%. We suggest the use of TMSP as a functional additive that effectively stabilizes solid electrolyte interfaces of both the anode and cathode in lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase to Address the Electrochemical Degradation of Silicon Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, Nancy J; Nanda, Jagjit; Liang, Chengdu; Li, Juchuan

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation on Si anodes prevents them from being successfully used in lithium-ion full cells. Unlike the case of graphite anodes, natural solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films generated from carbonate electrolyte do not self-passivate on Si and causes continuous electrolyte decomposition. In this work we aim at solving the issue of electrochemical degradation by fabricating artificial SEI films using a solid electrolyte material, lithium phosphor oxynitride (Lipon), that conducts Li ions and blocks electrons. For Si anodes coated with Lipon of 50 nm or thicker, significant effect is observed in suppressing the electrolyte decomposition, while Lipon of thinner than 40 nm has little effect. Ionic and electronic conductivity measurement reveals that the artificial SEI is effective when it is a pure ionic conductor, and the electrolyte decomposition is not suppressed when the artificial SEI is a mixed electronic-ionic conductor. The critical thickness for this transition in conducting behavior is found to be 40~50 nm. This work provides guidance for designing artificial SEI for high capacity lithium-ion battery electrodes using solid electrolyte materials.

  16. Topical Tacrolimus for Corneal Subepithelial Infiltrates Secondary to Adenoviral Keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Prado, Silvia Berisa; Riestra Ayora, Ana C; Fernández, Carlos Lisa; Rodríguez, Manuel Chacón; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Alfonso Sánchez, José F

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus compounded in the Pharmacy Service for the treatment of subepithelial corneal infiltrates (SEIs) secondary to adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. This retrospective study included patients who had been dispensed topical tacrolimus for the treatment of SEIs during the previous year. Patients were treated with tacrolimus 0.03% eye drops twice daily or tacrolimus 0.02% ointment once daily. The following data were recorded: length of treatment, visual acuity before and after treatment, intraocular pressure before, during, and at the end of treatment, previous treatments, and the presence of SEIs after treatment. The subjective symptoms of the patients were also assessed. Fifty-five patients (85 eyes) were included, 54.5% with bilateral involvement. A total of 31 (36.5%) eyes were treated with tacrolimus ointment and 54 eyes (63.5%) with tacrolimus eye drops. The median length of treatment was 185 days (p25-75: 93.5-426), and the mean follow-up duration was 363 days (p25-75: 148-540). In 62.35% of the eyes, the SEIs were reduced in number and size, and in 31.76%, they were eliminated. The patients had better visual acuity after treatment with highly statistically significant differences. Tolerance was good overall, being better in the eye drops group. Topical tacrolimus, compounded in the pharmacy, seems to be an effective and safe alternative for the treatment of SEIs secondary to adenovirus keratoconjunctivitis.

  17. Analysis of survival in HIV-infected subjects according to socio-economic resources in the HAART era.

    PubMed

    Liotta, G; Caleo, G M; Mancinelli, S

    2008-01-01

    Availability of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) has modified the natural history of HIV infection, resulting in increase of seropositive subjects survival. The aim of the study was to assess patients' survival in relation to socio-economic status in HAART era using Functional Multidimensional Evaluation questionnaire. A three-level Socio-Economic Index (SEI) combining results from self-perception of unmet needs and objective data from the assessment of the two dimensions has been set up by the authors. Of the 382 subjects interviewed, 102 had been lost to follow-up. SEI showed that 66.4% of the sample faced unmet social or economic needs and 17.1% had unmet needs in both areas. There was a significant relationship between the self-sufficiency in performing Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Clinical Staging, CD4 cell count, SEI and risk of death. The lowest level of SEI was associated with a doubled risk of death compared to SEI upper level. Availability of social and economics support have a positive effect upon survival in patients with HIV infection, also in case of availability of HAART. The combination of subjective and objective assessment of socio-economic resources allows a better understanding of their impact on survival.

  18. Evaluating the Wind-Induced Mechanical Noise on the InSight Seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, Naomi; Mimoun, David; Garcia, Raphael F.; Rapin, William; Kawamura, Taichi; Lognonné, Philippe; Banfield, Don; Banerdt, W. Bruce

    2016-11-01

    The SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structures) instrument onboard the InSight mission to Mars is the critical instrument for determining the interior structure of Mars, the current level of tectonic activity and the meteorite flux. Meeting the performance requirements of the SEIS instrument is vital to successfully achieve these mission objectives. Here we analyse in-situ wind measurements from previous Mars space missions to understand the wind environment that we are likely to encounter on Mars, and then we use an elastic ground deformation model to evaluate the mechanical noise contributions on the SEIS instrument due to the interaction between the Martian winds and the InSight lander. Lander mechanical noise maps that will be used to select the best deployment site for SEIS once the InSight lander arrives on Mars are also presented. We find the lander mechanical noise may be a detectable signal on the InSight seismometers. However, for the baseline SEIS deployment position, the noise is expected to be below the total noise requirement >97 % of the time and is, therefore, not expected to endanger the InSight mission objectives.

  19. Direct Visualization of Nucleation and Growth Processes of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Film Using in Situ Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yang; Yan, Hui-Juan; Wen, Rui; Wan, Li-Jun

    2017-07-05

    An understanding of the formation mechanism of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film at the nanoscale is paramount because it is one of the key issues at interfaces in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we explored the nucleation, growth, and formation of SEI film on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate in ionic liquid-based electrolytes 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide ([BMP](+)[FSI](-)) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMP](+)[TFSI](-)) by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and found that the types of anions have significant influence on the structure of the formed SEI. In [BMP](+)[FSI](-) containing LiFSI, a compact and thin SEI film prefers to grow in the plane of HOPG substrate, while a rough and loose film tends to form in [BMP](+)[TFSI](-) containing LiTFSI. On the basis of in situ AFM observations, the relationship between the SEI structure and the electrochemical performance was clarified.

  20. Temperature effects on Li4Ti5O12 electrode/electrolyte interfaces at the first cycle: A X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Auger Microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieu, J.-B.; Courrèges, C.; El Ouatani, L.; Tessier, C.; Martinez, H.

    2016-06-01

    Li4Ti5O12-based negative electrodes for Lithium-ion batteries are of interest because of the high reversibility of Li+ insertion/extraction. In this study, the surface of cycled electrodes is analysed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) to investigate the effects of cycling temperature (room temperature, 60 °C and 85 °C) upon the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation, which plays a major role in batteries electrochemical performances. Half-cells, with a vinylene carbonate containing electrolyte, are galvanostatically cycled at different steps of the first cycle: the mid-plateau during the first discharge, the end of the first discharge at 1.2 V and the end of the first charge at 2.0 V. XPS analysis evidences that higher temperatures promote the formation of a thicker SEI, which can explain the increase of the irreversible capacity with temperature. SAM mappings (allowing high spatial resolution ∼10-100 nm) evidence that this SEI homogeneously covers the electrode surface, regardless of the cycling temperature. During charge, the SEI is partially dissolved at room temperature, more slightly at 60 °C whereas at 85 °C, no clear evidence of layer thinning is observed. The SEI chemical composition is also investigated and reveals a majority of organic species and an increasing proportion of LiF with the temperature.

  1. Electronic structure of lithium battery interphase compounds: Comparison between inelastic x-ray scattering measurements and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fister, Tim T.; Schmidt, Moritz; Fenter, Paul; Johnson, Chris S.; Slater, Michael D.; Chan, Maria K. Y.; Shirley, Eric L.

    2011-12-01

    In lithium ion batteries, decomposition of the electrolyte and its associated passivation of the electrode surface occurs at low potentials, resulting in an electronically insulating, but Li-ion conducting, solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The products of the SEI and their chemical constituents/properties play an important role in the long-term stability and performance of the battery. Reactivity and the sub-keV core binding energies of lithium, carbon, oxygen, and fluorine species in the SEI present technical challenges in the spectroscopy of these compounds. Using an alternative approach, nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering, we examine the near-edge spectra of bulk specimens of common SEI compounds, including LiF, Li2CO3, LiOH, LiOH.H2O, and Li2O. By working at hard x-ray energies, we also experimentally differentiate the s- and p-symmetry components of lithium's unoccupied states using the evolution of its K edge with momentum transfer. We find good agreement with theoretical spectra calculated using a Bethe-Salpeter approach in all cases. These results provide an analytical and diagnostic foundation for better understanding of the makeup of SEIs and the mechanism of their formation.

  2. Phosphorus Enrichment as a New Composition in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase of High-Voltage Cathodes and Its Effects on Battery Cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Kuppan, Saravanan; Li, Qiuyan; Lv, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Chen, Guoying; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-11-10

    Immersion of a solid into liquid often leads to the modification of both the structure and chemistry of surface of the solid, which subsequently affects the chemical and physical properties of the system. For the case of the rechargeable lithium ion battery, such a surface modification is termed as solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer, which has been perceived to play critical role for the stable operation of the batteries. However, the structure and chemical composition of SEI layer and its spatial distribution and dependence on the battery operating condition remain unclear. By using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with ultra-high sensitive energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, we probed the structure and chemistry of SEI layer on several high voltage cathodes. We show that layer-structured cathodes, when cycled at a high cut off voltage, can form a P-rich SEI layer on their surface, which is a direct evidence of Li-salt (LiPF6) decomposition. Our systematical investigations indicate such cathode/Li-salt side reaction shows strong dependence on structure of the cathode materials, operating voltage and temperature, indicating the feasibility of SEI engineering. These findings provide us valuable insights into the complex interface between the high-voltage cathode and the electrolyte.

  3. [External evaluation of gait and functional changes after a single-session multiple myofibrotenotomy in school-aged children with spastic diplegia].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Andrés, David; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Martín-Gonzalo, Juan Andrés; López-López, Javier; Martínez-Caballero, Ignacio; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Rausell, Estrella

    2014-03-16

    Introduccion. Unos 23.000 pacientes con espasticidad han optado voluntariamente por la miofibrotomia multiple (MFM), una tecnica alternativa consistente en seccionar tejidos blandos para liberar restricciones articulares. Iniciada por Ulzibat (Rusia), se realiza fuera de controles clinicos ortodoxos. Objetivo. Evaluar externamente los efectos de la MFM sobre la funcionalidad motora y la marcha. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional autocontrolado que evalua cambios en variables funcionales –Gross Motor Function Classification System, dimension E de la Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) y Functional Mobility Scale– y 32 parametros de marcha (medidos mediante analisis instrumental) en 22 escolares con diplejia espastica (edad mediana: 9 años y 6 meses; Q1-Q3: 7 años y 11 meses a 11 años y 6 meses) cuyos padres optaron por una MFM (mediana de observacion: 4 meses; rango: 3-7 meses). Resultados. El analisis de conglomerados jerarquicos utilizado para determinar patrones topograficos de cortes en los pacientes detecto que los cirujanos aplicaban a cada paciente uno de tres conjuntos de cortes. Analizados los tres grupos de pacientes, se observo que un grupo empeoro globalmente y una mejora significativa general en la dimension E del GMFM (diferencia de mediana: 4,86%; intervalo de confianza al 95% = 0-6,94%) tras la MFM. Algunos parametros de la marcha se normalizaron significativamente (izquierda: rango flexion-cadera, maxima dorsiflexion en apoyo; derecha: velocidad, rotacion pelvica media en apoyo y maxima dorsiflexion en apoyo). Conclusiones. Estos resultados no apoyan ni justifican el uso de la MFM como opcion para el tratamiento de la espasticidad. Insistimos en que esta tecnica debe evitarse fuera de protocolos de estudio. Sin embargo, los resultados asientan una base objetiva para justificar la realizacion de un ensayo clinico y estudios observacionales a largo plazo.

  4. Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

  5. An assessment of prospects for international cooperation on the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Lynn F. H.; Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the unique characteristics of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which will have to be taken into account if the Initiative is to become an international one; the technical capabilities offered by prospective international partners; the political and economic prospects for proceeding with the Initiative both in the United States and elsewhere; and the advantages and disadvantages of various possible approaches to international cooperation on SEI. SEI preparatory activities are likely to extend over a several-year period. Such an extended preparatory period should provide the time needed for coordinating studies, for identifing interests and potential contributions, and for resolving the numerous planning, budgeting, organizational and political issues which will have to be dealt with if such a complex undertaking is to be successfully internationalized.

  6. An integrated mission planning approach for the space exploration initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    A fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  7. An assessment of prospects for international cooperation on the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Lynn F. H.; Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the unique characteristics of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which will have to be taken into account if the Initiative is to become an international one; the technical capabilities offered by prospective international partners; the political and economic prospects for proceeding with the Initiative both in the United States and elsewhere; and the advantages and disadvantages of various possible approaches to international cooperation on SEI. SEI preparatory activities are likely to extend over a several-year period. Such an extended preparatory period should provide the time needed for coordinating studies, for identifing interests and potential contributions, and for resolving the numerous planning, budgeting, organizational and political issues which will have to be dealt with if such a complex undertaking is to be successfully internationalized.

  8. Baseline studies of health status in north Atlantic Baleen whale populations

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertsen, R.H. )

    1988-09-01

    This study investigated the health status of fin and sei whale populations of the central North Atlantic to establish a baseline for comparison with stranded whales in more heavily contaminated coastal zones. Systematic necropsy examinations were conducted on 150 fin whales and 42 sei whales caught by commercial whalers off the west coast of Iceland. Gas chromatographic measurements showed detectable tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides, but these levels were low, ranging from 0.2 ppb (gamma-BHC) to 1540 ppb (p,p{prime} DDE). Relevant to the comparative evaluation of contaminant effects was the finding that both the fin and sei whale, despite very similar life histories, suffered from a distinct complement of natural disease problems. From the high incidence and contaminative route of transmission of the major parasitic diseases found, it is predicted that population-level health effects, including increments in mortality rate potentially caused by environmental contamination, will increase with population density.

  9. Determination of selenium in natural waters by adsorptive differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ashournia, Mehdi; Aliakbar, Alireza

    2009-08-30

    In this work bovine albumin was used innovatively as a medium for adsorptive accumulation of Se-I(2) on thin mercury film electrode. Se-I(2) was formed by reaction between Se(IV) and iodide in HCl media. The adsorbed Se-I(2) was stripped in 0.05 M HCl by differential pulse cathodic potential scan. The proposed method was successfully applied to analysis of Se(IV) and Se(VI) in natural waters sampled from some lagoons south of Caspian Sea. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters and influence of cations and anions were studied. The detection limit was 0.37 ng mL(-1). The obtained results were compared with the results of DPCSV after electrochemical preconcentration, HG-AAS and ICP-AES.

  10. SQA on five dollars a day

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems; software use control assessment; Testing: Beyond theory; Software process improvement: Formalized unit testing; Software defect analysis for a nuclear weapons application; Function point analysis for estimation of software development schedules; SEI maturity in the Work for Other Program; SSEC SEI experiences; Planning for a Software Engineering Institute (SEI) assessment; Software process improvement, metrics; Software engineering technology plank: Building quality in; Software quality assurance at Y-12; Total quality and SQA at the Kansas City plant; The Software Technology Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Software engineering technology transfer in a scientific R&D laboratory; and Institutionalizing the information engineering environment: A practitioner`s perspective.

  11. Software maturity model applied to SDI. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Springsteen, B.

    1991-09-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) is undertaking initiatives to mitigate software risks and to stimulate the DoD contractor community to improve its software practices. To that end, IDA assessed the Software Engineering Institute's (SEI) software process maturity model and developed an implementation plan for its use within the SDI program. Under this plan, SDI element programs will use the SEI method to select software contractors with mature practices and to monitor contracts after they have been awarded. This document describes the SEI maturity model and the experience of contractors and government agencies. It also explains SDIO's plans to implement the model program-wide and the benefits and lessons learned from using the model on two contracts.

  12. In-situ TEM Characterization of Electrochemical Processess in Energy Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R; Adamczyk, Leslie A; Dudney, Nancy J; Alsem, D. H.; Salmon, Norman; More, Karren Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The accelerated development of materials for utilization in electrical energy storage systems will hinge critically upon our understanding of how interfaces (particularly electrode-electrolyte solid liquid interfaces) control the physical and electrochemical energy conversion processes in energy storage systems. A prime example is found in Lt ion-based battery systems, where a passive multiphase layer grows at the electrode/electrolyte interface due to the decomposition of the liquid electrolyte [ l]. Once formed, this solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) protects the active electrode materials from degradation and also regulates the transport and intercalation of Lt ions during battery charge/discharge cycling [2]. Due to the dynamically evolving nature of this nm-scaled interface, it has proven difficult to design experiments that will not only elucidate the fundamental mechanisms controlling SEI nucleation and growth, but will enable the SEI microstructural and chemical evolution as a function of charge/discharge cycling to be monitored in real time.

  13. Brief report: Associations between adolescent girls’ social emotional intelligence and violence perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Amy L.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Polan, Julie; McRee, Annie-Laurie; McMorris, Barbara J.; Pettingell, Sandra L.; Sieving, Renee E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations between social emotional intelligence (SEI) and two measures of violence perpetration (relational aggression and physical violence) in a cross-sectional sample of high-risk adolescent girls (N = 253). We evaluated three aspects of SEI: stress management, intrapersonal, and interpersonal skills. Results of a multiple linear regression model accounting for participants’ age, race/ethnicity, and experiences of relational aggression victimization indicated that girls with better stress management skills were less likely to perpetrate relational aggression. A parallel model for perpetration of physical violence showed a similar pattern of results. Study findings suggest that SEI, and stress management skills in particular, may protect adolescent girls – including those who have been victims of violence – from perpetrating relational aggression and physical violence. Interventions that build adolescent girls’ social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their perpetration of violence. PMID:24331306

  14. Telecommunications, navigation and information management concept overview for the Space Exploration Initiative program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jerome A.; Stephens, Elaine; Barton, Gregg

    1991-01-01

    An overview is provided of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts for telecommunications, information systems, and navigation (TISN), and engineering and architecture issues are discussed. The SEI program data system is reviewed to identify mission TISN interfaces, and reference TISN concepts are described for nominal, degraded, and mission-critical data services. The infrastructures reviewed include telecommunications for robotics support, autonomous navigation without earth-based support, and information networks for tracking and data acquisition. Four options for TISN support architectures are examined which relate to unique SEI exploration strategies. Detailed support estimates are given for: (1) a manned stay on Mars; (2) permanent lunar and Martian settlements; short-duration missions; and (4) systematic exploration of the moon and Mars.

  15. Technology needs of the Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Arnold; Rosen, Robert; Craig, Mark; Mankins, John C.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the U.S. Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is presented. The two primary objectives of the initiative are a return to the moon to create a permanent lunar base and a human mission to Mars. Even though mission architectural concepts are not yet defined, previous studies indicate that the SEI will require developments in numerous areas, including advanced engines for space transportation, in-space assembly and construction to support permanent basing of exploration systems in space, and advanced surface operations capabilities including satisfactory levels of power and surface roving vehicles, and technologies to safely support human space operations of long duration. The process of mission definition has begun and it is shown that it is possible to identify a family of fundamental functional building blocks from which all SEI mission architectures will be constructed.

  16. Solid electrolyte interphases at Li-ion battery graphitic anodes in propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes containing FEC, LiBOB, and LiDFOB as additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Mahesh Datt; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory is used to investigate the reactivity, reduction and effect of electrolyte additives such as fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium bis(oxalate) borate (LiBOB) and lithium difluoro(oxalato) borate (LiDFOB) in propylene carbonate (PC)-based Li-ion battery electrolytes. The structural, thermodynamical and calculated infra-red vibrational analyses indicate that FEC additives reduce prior to PC, providing stable SEI film formation near the graphite anode. The reduction and reaction mechanisms of LiBOB and LiDFOB influence the SEI film composition at the graphite surface. These additives contribute to stable SEI film formation without degradation of the anode structure by PC co-intercalation.

  17. Gassing behavior of lithium titanate based lithium ion batteries with different types of electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiali; Bian, Peiwen; Li, Jia; Ji, Wenjiao; Hao, Hao; Yu, Aishui

    2015-07-01

    Gassing behavior of LiMn2O4/Li4Ti5O12 full cell with different electrolytes that stored at elevated temperature of 70 °C is investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used to study the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formed in battery formation and storage processes. The results suggest that the SEI film is formed as a consequence of intrinsic reaction between Li4Ti5O12 electrode and electrolyte solvents. A smooth SEI layer is formed on Li4Ti5O12 electrode with full coverage in propylene carbonate (PC) based electrolyte during lithium intercalation process while gradually dissolved with lithium extraction. Moreover, the gas specificities generated in the different electrolyte solvents are also determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis and the reaction mechanisms of LTO electrode with electrolyte solvents are proposed.

  18. Telecommunications, navigation and information management concept overview for the Space Exploration Initiative program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jerome A.; Stephens, Elaine; Barton, Gregg

    1991-01-01

    An overview is provided of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts for telecommunications, information systems, and navigation (TISN), and engineering and architecture issues are discussed. The SEI program data system is reviewed to identify mission TISN interfaces, and reference TISN concepts are described for nominal, degraded, and mission-critical data services. The infrastructures reviewed include telecommunications for robotics support, autonomous navigation without earth-based support, and information networks for tracking and data acquisition. Four options for TISN support architectures are examined which relate to unique SEI exploration strategies. Detailed support estimates are given for: (1) a manned stay on Mars; (2) permanent lunar and Martian settlements; short-duration missions; and (4) systematic exploration of the moon and Mars.

  19. Implementing a social enterprise intervention with homeless, street-living youths in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M

    2007-04-01

    Homeless, street-dwelling youths are an at-risk population who often use survival behaviors to meet their basic needs. The traditional outreach approach brings services into the streets, yet does not adequately replace the youths' high-risk behaviors. Similarly, job training programs often fail to address the mental health issues that constitute barriers to their productive employment. Drawing on social development principles, the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) model is proposed as an alternative approach. The SEI seeks the tripartite effect of employment, service-related, and mental health outcomes for street youths. This article compares existing intervention models and suggests that through the SEI, homeless youths can acquire vocational and business skills, clinical mentorship, and linkages to services that otherwise would not be available to them, given their street-dwelling status.

  20. Systems engineering and integration processes involved with manned mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, Eugene F.; Kraft, Christopher C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss three mission operations functions that are illustrative of the key principles of operations SE&I and of the processes and products involved. The flight systems process was selected to illustrate the role of the systems product line in developing the depth and cross disciplinary skills needed for SE&I and providing the foundation for dialogue between participating elements. FDDD was selected to illustrate the need for a structured process to assure that SE&I provides complete and accurate results that consistently support program needs. The flight director's role in mission operations was selected to illustrate the complexity of the risk/gain tradeoffs involved in the development of the flight techniques and flight rules process as well as the absolute importance of the leadership role in developing the technical, operational, and political trades.

  1. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Noffsinger, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  2. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coomes, E. P.; Dagle, J. E.; Bamberger, J. A.; Noffsinger, K. E.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities.

  3. Survival enhancing indications for coronary artery bypass graft surgery in California

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongmin; Kravitz, Richard L; Marcin, James P; Romano, Patrick S; Rocke, David M; Denton, Timothy A; Brindis, Ralph G; Dai, Jian; Amsterdam, Ezra A

    2008-01-01

    Background Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is performed because of anticipated survival benefit, improvement in quality of life, or both. We performed this study to explore variations in clinical indications for CABG surgery among California hospitals and surgeons. Methods Using California CABG Outcomes Reporting Program data, we classified all isolated CABG cases in 2003–2004 as having "probable survival enhancing indications (SEIs)", "possible SEIs" or "non-SEIs." Patient and hospital characteristics associated with SEIs were examined. Results While 82.9% of CABG were performed for probable SEIs, the range extended from 68% to 96% among hospitals and 51% to 100% among surgeons. SEI rates were higher among patients aged ≥ 65 compared with those aged 18–64 (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] > 1.29 for age groups 65–69, 70–74 and ≥ 75; all p < 0.001), among Asians and Native Americans compared with Caucasians (AOR 1.22 and 1.15, p < 0.001); and among patients with hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease and congestive heart failure compared to patients without these conditions (AOR > 1.09, all p < 0.001). Variations in indications for surgery were more strongly related to patient mix than to surgeon or hospital effects (intraclass correlation [ICC] = 0.04 for hospital; ICC = 0.01 for surgeon). Conclusion California hospitals and surgeons vary in their distribution of indications for CABG surgery. Further research is required to identify the roles of market factors, referral patterns, patient preferences, and local clinical culture in producing the observed variations. PMID:19087305

  4. Issues in Tool Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Cafm-go Mellon wishes to include people Y6 thol refard to race erlc’ riat rlti ongin. sex. hrandcap, religion, Creed, anrecty beief. age. ve’warr...Figure 1-5 Full IPSE Model 21 IAccession For rFNTS -- ’RA& I D.TIC TAF ~ E Dist fcla CMU/SEI-91 -TR-8 i iv CMU/SEI-91 -TR-8 Issues in Tool Acquisition...available, the price for computing resources adequate for CASE tools declines. In addition, the de facto stan- dardization of the Xl 1 windowing system

  5. Enabling the Space Exploration Initiative - NASA's Exploration Technology Program in space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    Space power requirements for SEI are reviewed, including the results of a NASA 90-day study and reports by the National Research Council, AIAA, NASA, the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, and the Synthesis Group. The space power requirements for the SEI robotic missions, lunar spacecraft, Mars spacecraft, and human missions are summarized. Planning for the exploration technology is addressed, including: photovoltaic, chemical, and thermal energy conversion; power management; thermal management; space nuclear power; high-capacity power; power and thermal management for the surface, earth-orbiting platform, and spacecraft; laser power beaming; and mobile surface systems.

  6. A Controlled Experiment Measuring the Effect of Procedure Argument Type Checking on Programmer Productivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    capabilities of testing methods is a question that has attracted consid- erable interest [ Frankl and Weiss 1993]. The errors found by testing are...042 m 3 M.S. CS Ph.D. student CS 8 >30000  CMU/SEI-96-TR-014 39 40 "—■ ■ CMU/SEI-96-TR-014 References [Basili and Perricone 1984] Victor R... Frankl and Weiss 1993] Phyllis G. Frankl and Stewart N. Weiss. An experimental comparison of the effectiveness of branch testing and data flow

  7. Enabling the space exploration initiative: NASA's exploration technology program in space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    Space power requirements for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, including the results of a NASA 90-day study and reports by the National Research Council, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), NASA, the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, and the Synthesis Group. The space power requirements for the SEI robotic missions, lunar spacecraft, Mars spacecraft, and human missions are summarized. Planning for exploration technology is addressed, including photovoltaic, chemical and thermal energy conversion; high-capacity power; power and thermal management for the surface, Earth-orbiting platform and spacecraft; laser power beaming; and mobile surface systems.

  8. An Initial Comparative Analysis of the CMMI Version 1.2 Development Constellation and the ISO 9000 Family

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Comparison (CMMI-DEV, V1.2 to ISO 9001 ) 27 4.3.4 Mid-Level Coverage Comparison ( ISO 9001 to CMMI-DEV, V1.2) 29 4.3.5 Treatment of Customer...Figure 1: Supporting Infrastructure for CMMI 9 Figure 2: Supporting Infrastructure for ISO 9001 22 iv | CMU/SEI-2009-SR-005 SOFTWARE...SEI CMMI Authorization Credentials 11 Table 3: Summary Comparison of the Content Relationships Between the Major Clauses of ISO 9001 and the CMMI

  9. Application of multiple criteria decision methods in space exploration initiative design and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masud, Abu S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Fellowship activities were directed towards the identification of opportunities for application of the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques in the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) domain. I identified several application possibilities and proposed demonstration application in these three areas: evaluation and ranking of SEI architectures, space mission planning and selection, and space system design. Here, only the first problem is discussed. The most meaningful result of the analysis is the wide separation between the two top ranked architectures, indicating a significant preference difference between them. It must also be noted that the final ranking reflects, to some extent, the biases of the evaluators and their understanding of the architecture.

  10. ACEC and AES Merger Workshop Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    critical administrative and technical support. Special thanks also goes to Barbara Rhoads and Trudy Grube who patiently listened, recorded and...Northwood Dr. Merrimack, NH 03054 giccag@ajpo.sei.cmu.edu GRUBE, Trudy ORI (513) 299-4141 3578 Kettering Blvd. Dayton, OH 45439 LANGDON, Major Kim CECOM...523-2023 P.O. Box 7730, MS K80-13 Wichita, KS 67277-7730 tleavitt@ajpo.sei.cmu.edu MCKEE , Gary McKee Consulting (303) 795-7287 P.O. Box 3009 Littleton

  11. Structure of spontaneously formed solid-electrolyte interphase on lithiated graphite determined using small-angle neutron scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Sacci, Robert L.; Banuelos, Jose Leobardo; Veith, Gabriel M.; ...

    2015-03-25

    We report the first small-angle neutron scattering of a chemically formed solid-electrolyte interphase from LixC6 reacting with ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbon solvent. This provides a different and perhaps simpler view of SEI formation than the usual electrochemically-driven reaction. We show that an organic layer coats the graphite particles filling in micro-pores and is polymeric in nature being 1-3 nm thick. We used inelastic neutron scattering to probe the chemistry, and we found that the SEI showed similar inelastic scattering to polyethylene oxide.

  12. A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

    1990-01-01

    Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through Ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

  13. Data compression for full motion video transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Sayood, Khalid

    1991-01-01

    Clearly transmission of visual information will be a major, if not dominant, factor in determining the requirements for, and assessing the performance of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) communications systems. Projected image/video requirements which are currently anticipated for SEI mission scenarios are presented. Based on this information and projected link performance figures, the image/video data compression requirements which would allow link closure are identified. Finally several approaches which could satisfy some of the compression requirements are presented and possible future approaches which show promise for more substantial compression performance improvement are discussed.

  14. The MPD thruster program at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John; Goodfellow, Keith; Polk, James; Pivirotto, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The main topics covered include: (1) the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) context; (2) critical issues of MPD Thruster design; and (3) the Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) Thruster Program at JPL. Under the section on the SEI context the nuclear electric propulsion system and some electric thruster options are addressed. The critical issues of MPD Thruster development deal with the requirements, status, and approach taken. The following areas are covered with respect to the MPD Thruster Program at JPL: (1) the radiation-cooled MPD thruster; (2) the High-Current Cathode Test Facility; (3) thruster component thermal modeling; and (4) alkali metal propellant studies.

  15. The U.S. Antarctic Program's operational goals, strategies, and concepts - Correlations and lessons learned for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Corinne; Guerra, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    Results of an assessment of two programs, NASA SEI and the National Science Foundation's U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP) are presented. The assessment was aimed at determining the elements of USAP's operations which are relevant to living and working on the moon and Mars and at identifying operational concepts, procedures, and techniques which might be considered by NASA as it formulates the SEI concept. The assessment shows strong similarities in goals, related operational functions and accommodations, and fundamental strategies and policies for mission execution. Besides, both programs share logistical and operational constraints. There are differences in concepts for execution because of the unique aspects of accessing, living, and working in these environments.

  16. Dependable Software Technology Exchange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Special Report CMU/SEI-93-SR-04 S~Carnegie-Melion University Software Engineering Institute AD-A267 103 DTIC D•epWebleoftware JEL ECT3 E9 Technology ...16590 ___________ lull! !! l1111 U l111 I lil I --\\t• /" Special Report CMU/SEI-93-SR-04 June 1993 Dependable Software Technology Exchange Charles B...93-SR-4 Dependable Software Technology Exchange Abstract: On March 18 and 19, 1993, the Dependable Real-Time Software project hosted a Dependable

  17. SSA’s Journey to SW-CMM ML3 and Transition to CMMI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Patent & Trademark Office. SSA’s Journey to SW-CMM® ML3 and Transition to CMMI® Rick Barbour, SEI Jon Gross, SEI Rod Waltersdorff, Social Security...SSA’s Journey to SW-CMM ML3 and Transition to CMMI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...interfaces provided focus in SSA Office of Systems Electronic Services (OSES) and SW- CMM ML3 2004- December Gap analysis demonstrated SSA Office of

  18. Update of an Efficient Computer Code (NLTE) to Calculate Emission and Transmission of Radiation through Non-Equilibrium Atmospheres.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-20

    SQUARE OF ZERO FIXED BY 2-PT GAUSS-HERMITE QUADRATURE C U-U3 = SQUARES OF ZEROES FIXED BY 6-PT GAUSS-HERMITE QUADRATURE C PISQ = 2/SQRT(PI); SL = SQRT...3974252722665E-73, .7095717391818E-75, .1244665977389E-76/ C DATA SLP /.4697186393498/ DATA PISQ ,SL /1.128379167096, .8325546111577/ DATA Wl,W2,W3...FPR*T SER = SER + FNR*AN(N+1) SEI = SEI + FNI*AN(N+l) FPR = FNR 100 FPI = FNI VGT(K) = SLP*EXP(-S)*(COS(T)*(1.0- PISQ *SER) .SIN(T)* PISQ *Sz:) C C C

  19. Version Description and Installation Guide Kernel Version 3.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    approved for publication. FOR THE COMMANDER Karl H. Shingler SEI Joint Program Office This work is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense. Copyright...8217version’ * $ append/new-version tcl .lis,tc2. lise ,t3 .lis,tc4.lis - [dark -cm. dcc. vdiq]contents -of -’version’ $ delete tcl.lis;,tc2.lis;,tc3.lis...INOIVIOUAL 22b. TELEPHONE NUMBER 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL KARL H. SHINGLER (include A’a Code) 1, 412 268-7630 SEI JPO 00 FORM 1473.83 APR EITION OF JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. I i SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE

  20. Data compression for full motion video transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Sayood, Khalid

    1991-01-01

    Clearly transmission of visual information will be a major, if not dominant, factor in determining the requirements for, and assessing the performance of, the SEI communications systems. Projected image/video requirements which are currently anticipated for SEI mission scenarios are presented. Based on this information and projected link performance figures, the image/video data compression requirements which would allow link closure are identified. Finally several approaches which could satisfy some of the compression requirements are presented and possible future approaches which show promise for more substantial compression performance improvement are discussed.