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Sample records for paleolithic black pigments

  1. Discovery of Unusual Minerals in Paleolithic Black Pigments from Lascaux (France) and Ekain (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmin, E.; Farges, F.; Vignaud, C.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Brown, G.E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-12-13

    Analyses of archaeological materials aim to rediscover the know-how of Prehistoric people by determining the nature of the painting matter, its preparation mode, and the geographic origin of its raw materials. This study deals with identification of manganese oxides in black pigments by micro-XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) based on previous TEM (transmission electron microscopy) studies. Complex mixtures of the manganese oxides studied are present in some of mankind's oldest known paintings, namely those from the caves of Lascaux (Dordogne, France) and Ekain (Basque country, Spain). Scarce manganese oxide minerals, including groutite, hausmannite, and manganite, were found for the first time in Paleolithic art at these archaeological sites. Because there are no known deposits of such minerals in these areas, more distant origins and trade routes are inferred. The closest known Mn-rich geological province for Lascaux is the central Pyrenees, which is {approx} 250 km from the Dordogne area.

  2. Minerals discovered in paleolithic black pigments by transmission electron microscopy and micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Salomon, H.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.

    2006-05-01

    Analysis of archeological materials aims to rediscover the know-how of prehistoric men by determining the nature of the painting matter, its preparation mode, and the geographic origin of its raw materials. The preparation mode of the painting matter of the paleolithic rock art apparently consisted of mixing, grinding, and also heat-treatment. In this study, we focus on black pigments and more particularly manganese oxides. Using the combined approach of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Mn K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, we analyzed a variety of archeological black painted samples. The studied pigments arise from the caves of Ekain (Basque country, Spain), Labastide and Gargas (Hautes-Pyrénées, France). In addition, a black “crayon” (i.e., a “pen”) from the cave of Combe Saunière (Dordogne, France) was also investigated. From the analysis of these painting matters, several unusual minerals have been identified as black pigment, such as manganite, groutite, todorokite and birnessite. These conclusions enable us to estimate the technical level of paleolithic artists: they didn’t use heat-treatment to prepare black painting matter. Consequently, the unusual mineralogy found in some of these pigments suggests that some of the manganese ores are coming from geological settings that are sometimes relatively far away from the Dordogne and Basque region such as in Ariège (central-oriental Pyrénées).

  3. Discovery of Unusual Minerals in Paleolithic Black Pigments from Lascaux (France) and Ekain (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmin, E.; Farges, F.; Vignaud, C.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Brown, G. E.

    2007-02-01

    Analyses of archaeological materials aim to rediscover the know-how of Prehistoric people by determining the nature of the painting matter, its preparation mode, and the geographic origin of its raw materials. This study deals with identification of manganese oxides in black pigments by micro-XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) based on previous TEM (transmission electron microscopy) studies. Complex mixtures of the manganese oxides studied are present in some of mankind's oldest known paintings, namely those from the caves of Lascaux (Dordogne, France) and Ekain (Basque country, Spain). Scarce manganese oxide minerals, including groutite, hausmannite, and manganite, were found for the first time in Paleolithic art at these archaeological sites. Because there are no known deposits of such minerals in these areas, more distant origins and trade routes are inferred. The closest known Mn-rich geological province for Lascaux is the central Pyrénées, which is ≈ 250 km from the Dordogne area.

  4. [Synthesis of melanin pigments by Antarctic black yeast].

    PubMed

    Tashirev, A B; Romanovskaia, V A; Rokitko, P V; Matveeva, N A; Shilin, S O; Tashireva, A A

    2012-01-01

    Five strains of the black yeast similar to Exophiala nigra (Nadsoniela nigra), which we have isolated from the Antarctic biotopes, are studied. At cultivation in a periodic operation the maximum level of absolutely dry biomass in five tested strains constituted 3.2-7.8 g/l of medium, melanin pigment yield being 6-9% of absolutely dry mass of cells. Two highly productive strains have been selected. Pigments of the studied black yeast are water-insoluble, however dissolve in alkali and concentrated acids. The maximum absorption of the yeast pigments was in the range of 220 nm. The above-stated properties of pigments of the investigated yeast correspond to the description of melanin fractions of Nadsoniela nigra and some microscopic mushrooms. The water-soluble melanin-pigments have been obtained after the dialysis of alkaline solution of the pigment. UV-spectra and visible absorption spectra of water solution of melanin-pigments are almost identical to those of initial alkaline solutions. It is shown that the studied yeast are resistant to high concentrations of toxic metals (Hg2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Cr(VI) and Ni2+), and introduction of Co2+ into the cultivation medium leads to the increase of pigments synthesis.

  5. Characterization of ancient Chinese pottery decorated with a black pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, M.; Akiyoshi, K.; Nakamura, M.

    1999-04-01

    The Yangshao type pottery, made about 6000 yrs ago, was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and confirmed to be composed of quartz, feldspar, muscovite and calcite. A black pigment on it was assumed to be (Mn, Fe) 3O 4 from Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and XRD experiments. Firing temperature of the pottery was assumed to be less than 600°C from a heating experiment of the fragment of the pottery.

  6. Characterization of black pigment used in 30 BC fresco wall paint using instrumental methods and chemometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Several standard powdered black pigments were characterized by means of thermogravimetry TG-DTG and allied techniques. These pigments were used to make standard plaster frescoes at this purpose prepared. The latter ones were subjected to Raman and reflectance analysis. The results obtained, together with TG data, were chemometrically processed and used to identify an analogous standard fresco fabricated by an unknown commercial black pigment, obtaining excellent results. Results The same colorimetric and reflectometric techniques, coupled with suitable chemometric techniques, were then successfully used to identify the type of black pigment present in an ancient roman fresco of the Imperial Age (30 B.C.). Conclusion TG-DTG resulted useful techniques to autenticate powdered black pigments.Colorimetry and Raman, but also the only colorimetry, were useful to identify an ancient black pigment in situ. PMID:22594437

  7. Synthesis and characterization of black, red and yellow nanoparticles pigments from the iron sand

    SciTech Connect

    Mufti, Nandang Atma, T. Fuad, A.; Sutadji, E.

    2014-09-25

    The aim of this research is to synthesize nanoparticles of black pigment of Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), red pigment of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and yellow pigment of ghoetite (α-FeOOH) from the iron sand. The black pigment of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the yellow pigment α-FeOOH nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with variation of pH. Whereas, the red pigment Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was synthesized by sintering Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles at temperature between 400 °C and 700 7°C for 1 hour. All the pigments has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM. The XRD results shown that the particle size of the black pigmen Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, red pigment Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and yellow pigment α-FeOOH are around 12, 32, and 30 nm respectively. The particle size of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles increase by increasing sintering temperature from 32 nm at 400 °C to 39 nm at 700 °C. For yellow pigment of α-FeOOH, the particle size increase by increasing pH from 30,54 nm at pH 4 to 48,60 nm at pH 7. The SEM results shown that the morphologies of black, yellow and red pigments are aglomarated.

  8. The genetic control of aposematic black pigmentation in hemimetabolous insects: insights from Oncopeltus fasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Lemonds, Thomas R.; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Variations in body pigmentation, encompassing both the range of specific colors as well as the spatial arrangement of those colors, are among the most noticeable and lineage-specific insect features. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for generating this diversity are still limited to several model species that are primarily holometabolous insects. To address this lack of knowledge, we utilize Oncopeltus fasciatus, an aposematic hemimetabolous insect, as a new model to study insect pigmentation. First, to determine the genetic regulation of black pigment production in Oncopeltus, we perform an RNAi analysis on three core genes involved in the melanin pathway, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopa decarboxylase (DDC), and laccase 2 (lac2). The black pigmentation is affected in all instances, showing that the black pigments in this species are derived from the melanin pathway. The results of the DDC RNAi are particularly informative because they reveal that it is Dopamine melanin, not DOPA melanin, which is the predominant component of black pigments in Oncopeltus. Second, we test whether pigmentation follows a two-step model where the spatial pre-mapping of enzymatic activity is followed by vein-dependent transportation of melanin substances. We confirm the existence of the first step by observing that premature wings develop black pigmentation when exposed to melanin precursors. In addition, we provide evidence for the second step by showing that wing melanin patterning is disrupted when vein transportation is halted. These findings bring novel insights from a hemimetabolous species and establish a framework for subsequent studies on the mechanisms of pigment production and patterning responsible for variations in insect coloration. PMID:25124093

  9. The genetic control of aposematic black pigmentation in hemimetabolous insects: insights from Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Lemonds, Thomas R; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Variations in body pigmentation, encompassing both the range of specific colors as well as the spatial arrangement of those colors, are among the most noticeable and lineage-specific insect features. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for generating this diversity are still limited to several model species that are primarily holometabolous insects. To address this lack of knowledge, we utilize Oncopeltus fasciatus, an aposematic hemimetabolous insect, as a new model to study insect pigmentation. First, to determine the genetic regulation of black pigment production in Oncopeltus, we perform an RNAi analysis on three core genes involved in the melanin pathway, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopa decarboxylase (DDC), and laccase 2 (lac2). The black pigmentation is affected in all instances, showing that the black pigments in this species are derived from the melanin pathway. The results of the DDC RNAi are particularly informative because they reveal that it is Dopamine melanin, not DOPA melanin, which is the predominant component of black pigments in Oncopeltus. Second, we test whether pigmentation follows a two-step model where the spatial pre-mapping of enzymatic activity is followed by vein-dependent transportation of melanin substances. We confirm the existence of the first step by observing that premature wings develop black pigmentation when exposed to melanin precursors. In addition, we provide evidence for the second step by showing that wing melanin patterning is disrupted when vein transportation is halted. These findings bring novel insights from a hemimetabolous species and establish a framework for subsequent studies on the mechanisms of pigment production and patterning responsible for variations in insect coloration.

  10. Radiant solar energy and the function of black homeotherm pigmentation: an hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, W J; Heppner, F

    1967-01-13

    White zebra finches exposed to artificial sunlight used an average of 22.9 percent less energy after they were dyed black. The hypothesis that black homeotherm coloration functions primarily to maximize absorption of radiant solar energy is suggested. This hypothesis may explain the dark skin pigmentation of certain human populations.

  11. Evaluation of metal-ions containing sludges in the preparation of black inorganic pigments.

    PubMed

    Hajjaji, W; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2011-01-30

    Inorganic pigments were prepared from industrial wastes: galvanizing sludges resulting from Cr/Ni plating processes (S, G, and T) and a sludge generated from steel wiredraw process that is Fe-rich (F). These industrial wastes were characterized in order to determine the main compositional variations and discover their influence on the colour characteristics of pigments for glazes and ceramics. The toxic character was also investigated and established. Attempting to form the black spinel structure, several combinations of sludges were prepared and then calcined at 1000 °C. XRD and microscopy analysis confirmed the presence of nichromite for compositions with higher Ni amounts, while trevorite was detected in iron-rich formulations. The combination of S and F sludges (SF compositions) generates pigments with higher black colorimetric quality, which is similar to, and sometimes better than, a commercial black pigment. Pigments containing GF and TF sludges develop brown hues on glazes and on porcelain stoneware bodies, being this effect more evident upon industrial firing trials. The addition of minor amounts of cobalt or manganese enhances the black coloration, and might adjust some formulation deviations.

  12. The functional significance of black-pigmented leaves: photosynthesis, photoprotection and productivity in Ophiopogon planiscapus 'Nigrescens'.

    PubMed

    Hatier, Jean-Hugues B; Clearwater, Michael J; Gould, Kevin S

    2013-01-01

    Black pigmented leaves are common among horticultural cultivars, yet are extremely rare across natural plant populations. We hypothesised that black pigmentation would disadvantage a plant by reducing photosynthesis and therefore shoot productivity, but that this trait might also confer protective benefits by shielding chloroplasts against photo-oxidative stress. CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll a fluorescence, shoot biomass, and pigment concentrations were compared for near isogenic green- and black-leafed Ophiopogonplaniscapus 'Nigrescens'. The black leaves had lower maximum CO2 assimilation rates, higher light saturation points and higher quantum efficiencies of photosystem II (PSII) than green leaves. Under saturating light, PSII photochemistry was inactivated less and recovered more completely in the black leaves. In full sunlight, green plants branched more abundantly and accumulated shoot biomass quicker than the black plants; in the shade, productivities of the two morphs were comparable. The data indicate a light-screening, photoprotective role of foliar anthocyanins. However, limitations to photosynthetic carbon assimilation are relatively small, insufficient to explain the natural scarcity of black-leafed plants.

  13. Was skin cancer a selective force for black pigmentation in early hominin evolution?

    PubMed

    Greaves, Mel

    2014-04-22

    Melanin provides a crucial filter for solar UV radiation and its genetically determined variation influences both skin pigmentation and risk of cancer. Genetic evidence suggests that the acquisition of a highly stable melanocortin 1 receptor allele promoting black pigmentation arose around the time of savannah colonization by hominins at some 1-2 Ma. The adaptive significance of dark skin is generally believed to be protection from UV damage but the pathologies that might have had a deleterious impact on survival and/or reproductive fitness, though much debated, are uncertain. Here, I suggest that data on age-associated cancer incidence and lethality in albinos living at low latitudes in both Africa and Central America support the contention that skin cancer could have provided a potent selective force for the emergence of black skin in early hominins.

  14. Was skin cancer a selective force for black pigmentation in early hominin evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Mel

    2014-01-01

    Melanin provides a crucial filter for solar UV radiation and its genetically determined variation influences both skin pigmentation and risk of cancer. Genetic evidence suggests that the acquisition of a highly stable melanocortin 1 receptor allele promoting black pigmentation arose around the time of savannah colonization by hominins at some 1–2 Ma. The adaptive significance of dark skin is generally believed to be protection from UV damage but the pathologies that might have had a deleterious impact on survival and/or reproductive fitness, though much debated, are uncertain. Here, I suggest that data on age-associated cancer incidence and lethality in albinos living at low latitudes in both Africa and Central America support the contention that skin cancer could have provided a potent selective force for the emergence of black skin in early hominins. PMID:24573849

  15. Detection of a novel pigment network feature in reticulated black solar lentigo by high-resolution epiluminescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Haas, Norbert; Hermes, Barbara; Henz, Beate M

    2002-06-01

    Epiluminescence light microscopy (ELM) of pigmented skin lesions has led to a catalog of pigment network (PN) features. The objective of this study was to determine whether high-resolution ELM detects additional pigment structures not seen with conventional ELM. Epiluminescence light microscopy was performed by placing the lens of a standard light microscope directly on the skin surface, with resulting enhanced optical resolution compared with ELM systems currently in general use. Eight reticulated black solar lentigines were studied. All lesions were viewed and analyzed using dermatoscopic criteria for the PN. In addition, they were all photographed, excised, and examined histologically. Two subtypes of black solar lentigines could be distinguished using generally accepted dermatoscopic criteria for the PN. Furthermore, a new pigment structure was detected, namely, pigment spots of equal color, shape, and size, which were regularly superimposed on and juxtaposed to the PN. Clinicopathologic correlation showed these spots to represent individual hyperpigmented corneocytes. Because such cells result from physiologic excessive pigment translocation via the epidermal melanocytic unit, we called them pigmented corneocytes. Pigmented corneocytes were seen in seven of eight black solar lentigines. The ELM technique presented here allows for more detailed analysis and classification of the PN components. Pigmented corneocytes are proposed as an additional dermatoscopic criterion.

  16. Frequency of black pigment in livers and spleens of coal workers: correlation with pulmonary pathology and occupational information

    SciTech Connect

    LeFevre, M.E.; Green, F.H.Y.; Joel, D.D.; Laqueur, W.

    1982-01-01

    Histologic sections of liver and spleen from 99 retired coal workers and nine non-coal workers were obtained at autopsy and scored for black pigment. Pigment was minimal in the non-coal workers, with the exception of one person with silicosis. Moderate or heavy pigment was seen in 10.4 per cent of liver sections and 19.5 per cent of spleen sections from coal workers. The extrapulmonary pigment was not associated with any pathologic tissue response. Information on pulmonary pathology and occupational exposure to dust was available for most workers. Highly significant positive correlation was found between the severity of pnuemoconiosis and the black pigment score in both liver and spleen; the correlation between emphysema and pigment score was lower, but still significant for liver. Significant positive correlations were found between years spent underground, years of retirement, and age at death versus pigment scores. Significant negative correlation was found between smoking and pigment. The positive association of extrapulmonary pigment with age at death, years of underground mining, and severity of pneumoconiosis suggests that cumulative lifetime exposure to coal mine dust may be the most important factor in the release of dust into the general circulation.

  17. Frequency of black pigment in livers and spleens of coal workers: correlation with pulmonary pathology and occupational information

    SciTech Connect

    LeFevre, M.E.; Green, F.H.; Joel, D.D.; Laqueur, W.

    1982-12-01

    Histologic sections of liver and spleen from 99 retired coal workers and nine non-coal workers were obtained at autopsy and scored for black pigment. Pigment was minimal in the non-coal workers, with the exception of one person with silicosis. Moderate or heavy pigment was seen in 10.4 per cent of liver sections and 19.5 per cent of spleen sections from coal workers. The extrapulmonary pigment was not associated with any pathologic tissue response. Information on pulmonary pathology and occupational exposure to dust was available for most workers. Highly significant positive correlation was found between the severity of pneumoconiosis and the black pigment score in both liver and spleen; the correlation between emphysema and pigment score was lower, but still significant for liver. Significant positive correlations were found between years spent underground, years of retirement, and age at death versus pigment scores. Significant negative correlation was found between smoking and pigment. The positive association of extrapulmonary pigment with age at death, years of underground mining, and severity of pneumoconiosis suggests that cumulative lifetime exposure to coal mine dust may be the most important factor in the release of dust into the general circulation.

  18. Preparation of nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment by recycling of blast furnace flue dust.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lazhen; Qiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Yong; Tan, Junru

    2010-05-15

    Blast furnace (BF) flue dust is one of pollutants emitted by iron and steel plants. The recycling of BF flue dust can not only reduce pollution but also bring social and environmental benefits. In this study, leaching technique was employed to the treatment of BF flue dust at first. A mixed solution of ferrous and ferric sulfate was obtained and used as raw material to prepare nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment (Fe(3)O(4), magnetite) with NaOH as precipitant. The optimal technological conditions including total iron ion concentration, Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) mole ratio, precipitant concentration and reaction temperature were studied and discussed carefully. The spectral reflectance and oil absorption were used as major parameters to evaluate performance of pigment. Furthermore, Fe(3)O(4) particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under optimized conditions obtained pigment has low average spectral reflectance (<4%), good oil absorption ( approximately 23%), high black intensity, and narrow size distribution 60-70 nm.

  19. Multiple Pigment Cell Types Contribute to the Black, Blue, and Orange Ornaments of Male Guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Kottler, Verena A.; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation. PMID:24465632

  20. Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses of the gallbladder are associated with black pigment gallstone formation: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Cariati, Andrea; Cetta, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are the result of hyperplasia and herniation of epithelial cells through the fibromuscular layer of the gallbladder wall and are usually referred to as adenomyomatosis. The role of this study is to demonstrate that Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses of the gallbladder are a risk factor for the formation of black pigment gallstones. A total of 179 removed gallbladders, were hystologically examined. Sixty-four of the 179 consecutive cholecystomized patients had typical adenomyomatosis. Thirty-eight of the 64 patients with adenomyomatosis had black pigment gallstones, alone (n=22) or in association with single (n=12) or multiple (n=4) cholesterol gallstones in the same gallbladder. Twelve of these patients did not have the typical risk factors for black stones (hemolysis, cirrhoses, gastrectomy, etc). Gallstones were examined by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. In addition, in a subset of 14 patients, the gallstones and the gallbladder wall were examined by scanning electron microscopy. At least in the initial phases of formation, Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses were found close to small intraparietal vessels and sometimes they contained black pigment microstones. After the fourth to fifth decades of life, black gallstones can be found in the Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses and in the main gallbladder lumen. Black pigment gallstones can form in Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses of the gallbladder in absence of the typical risk factors for bilirubin suprasaturation of bile.

  1. Efficient Binding of Heavy Metals by Black Sesame Pigment: Toward Innovative Dietary Strategies To Prevent Bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Manini, Paola; Panzella, Lucia; Eidenberger, Thomas; Giarra, Antonella; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco; Trifuoggi, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra

    2016-02-03

    Black sesame pigment (BSP) was shown to bind lead, cadmium, and mercury at pH 7.0 and to a lower extent at pH 2.0. BSP at 0.05 mg/mL removed the metals at 15 μM to a significant extent (>65% for cadmium and >90% for mercury and lead), with no changes following simulated digestion. The maximum binding capacities at pH 7.0 were 626.0 mg/g (lead), 42.2 mg/g (cadmium), and 69.3 mg/g (mercury). In the presence of essential metals, such as iron, calcium, and zinc, BSP retained high selectivity toward heavy metals. Model pigments from caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coniferyl alcohol showed lower or comparable binding ability, suggesting that the marked properties of BSP may result from cooperativity of different sites likely carboxy groups and o-diphenol and guaiacyl functionalities. Direct evidence for the presence of such units was obtained by structural analysis of BSP by solid-state Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  2. Unlinked Mendelian inheritance of red and black pigmentation in snakes: Implications for Batesian mimicry.

    PubMed

    Davis Rabosky, Alison R; Cox, Christian L; Rabosky, Daniel L

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the genetic basis of mimetic signals is critical to understanding both the origin and dynamics of mimicry over time. For species not amenable to large laboratory breeding studies, widespread color polymorphism across natural populations offers a powerful way to assess the relative likelihood of different genetic systems given observed phenotypic frequencies. We classified color phenotype for 2175 ground snakes (Sonora semiannulata) across the continental United States to analyze morph ratios and test among competing hypotheses about the genetic architecture underlying red and black coloration in coral snake mimics. We found strong support for a two-locus model under simple Mendelian inheritance, with red and black pigmentation being controlled by separate loci. We found no evidence of either linkage disequilibrium between loci or sex linkage. In contrast to Batesian mimicry systems such as butterflies in which all color signal components are linked into a single "supergene," our results suggest that the mimetic signal in colubrid snakes can be disrupted through simple recombination and that color evolution is likely to involve discrete gains and losses of each signal component. Both outcomes are likely to contribute to the exponential increase in rates of color evolution seen in snake mimicry systems over insect systems.

  3. Pathophysiological preconditions promoting mixed "black" pigment plus cholesterol gallstones in a DeltaF508 mouse model of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Folke; Leonard, Monika R; Liu, Shou-An; Glickman, Jonathan N; Carey, Martin C

    2010-07-01

    Gallstones are frequent in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). These stones are generally "black" pigment (i.e., Ca bilirubinate) with an appreciable cholesterol admixture. The pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms for this "mixed" gallstone in CF are unknown. Here we investigate in a CF mouse model with no overt liver or gallbladder disease whether pathophysiological changes in the physical chemistry of gallbladder bile might predict the occurrence of "mixed" cholelithiasis. Employing a DeltaF508 mouse model with documented increased fecal bile acid loss and induced enterohepatic cycling of bilirubin (Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 294: G1411-G1420, 2008), we assessed gallbladder bile chemistry, morphology, and microscopy in CF and wild-type mice, with focus on the concentrations and compositions of the common biliary lipids, bilirubins, Ca(2+), and pH. Our results demonstrate that gallbladder bile of CF mice contains significantly higher levels of all bilirubin conjugates and unconjugated bilirubin with lower gallbladder bile pH values. Significant elevations in Ca bilirubinate ion products in bile of CF mice increase the likelihood of supersaturating bile and forming black pigment gallstones. The risk of potential pigment cholelithogenesis is coupled with higher cholesterol saturations and bile salt hydrophobicity indexes, consistent with a proclivity to cholesterol phase separation during pigment gallstone formation. This is an initial step toward unraveling the molecular basis of CF gallstone disease and constitutes a framework for investigating animal models of CF with more severe biliary disease, as well as the human disease.

  4. Natural occurrence of black-pigmented Bacteroides species in the gingival crevice of the squirrel monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, W B; Magnusson, I; Abee, C; Collins, B; Beem, J E; McArthur, W P

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the squirrel monkey (Saimiri scuireus) is indigenously colonized with black-pigmented bacteroides (BPB) resembling human Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides intermedius (suspected periodontal pathogens) and to determine the usefulness of the squirrel monkey as an in vivo model for studying colonization by putative pathogens. We assayed the subgingival plaques of 138 monkeys of various ages and in four different colonies for the presence of anaerobic BPB microorganisms. We also tested half the animals for the presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Clinical indices and levels of serum antibody to B. gingivalis were recorded. We detected BPB in 50% of the animals and A. actinomycetemcomitans in 69% of the animals. The presence of BPB was generally associated with increased age, increased gingival index, presence of calculus, and increased levels of serum antibody. These data indicate that the squirrel monkey may be a good model for studying the parameters of natural infection of the gingival crevice with suspected periodontopathogenic BPB microorganisms. PMID:3410543

  5. Possible Calendrical Inscriptions on Paleolithic Artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglück, Michael A.

    During the Upper Paleolithic (40-12 ka BP) people used observation-based and early kinds of rule-based astronomical systems of time reckoning. Paleolithic versions of almanacs and calendars based on lunar, solar, lunisolar, and sidereal time reckoning are recorded on mobile objects and cave walls. Typical are combinations and synchronizations of astronomical periods with biological cycles of certain animals and the human female.

  6. Effects and mechanism of action of naphthalene, a petroleum-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, on black pigment dispersion in the salt marsh fiddler crab, UCA pugilator

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    At a concentration of approximately 8 ppm, naphthalene inhibited circadian black pigment dispersion in the integumentary chromatophores of the fiddler crab no matter what the initial state of the black pigment. The inhibition was concentration dependent. Naphthalene was not toxic to fiddler crabs under these conditions at any concentration up to 16.69 ppm. No chemically induced phase shift in the circadian rhythm of naphthalene exposed crabs occurs. In addition there is no difference in the mean black chromatophore index at midnight between control and naphthalene exposed crabs, indicating that the release of black pigment concentrating hormone (BPCH) is not being influenced by naphthalene. The only possibility remaining is that naphthalene must interfere with some aspect of the control of BPDH release by NE. Exposure to naphthalene does not inhibit black pigment dispersion when crabs are placed on a black background or kept on a black background throughout the experiment. This argues against naphthalene acting to inhibit the synthesis of NE, or to promote its metabolism, since NE is involved in adaptation to a black background. Naphthalene, therefore, must act to prevent the release of BPDH by interfering with some aspect of the presynaptic control of BPDH release by NE.

  7. Not just black and white: pigment pattern development and evolution in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Margaret G.; Patterson, Larissa B.

    2009-01-01

    Animals display diverse colors and patterns that vary within and between species. Similar phenotypes appear in both closely related and widely divergent taxa. Pigment patterns thus provide an opportunity to explore how development is altered to produce differences in form and whether similar phenotypes share a common genetic basis. Understanding the development and evolution of pigment patterns requires knowledge of the cellular interactions and signaling pathways that produce those patterns. These complex traits provide unparalleled opportunities for integrating studies from ecology and behavior to molecular biology and biophysics. PMID:19073271

  8. Impaired cholecystokinin-induced gallbladder emptying incriminated in spontaneous "black" pigment gallstone formation in germfree Swiss Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Woods, Stephanie E; Leonard, Monika R; Hayden, Joshua A; Brophy, Megan Brunjes; Bernert, Kara R; Lavoie, Brigitte; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Whary, Mark T; Mawe, Gary M; Nolan, Elizabeth M; Carey, Martin C; Fox, James G

    2015-02-15

    "Black" pigment gallstones form in sterile gallbladder bile in the presence of excess bilirubin conjugates ("hyperbilirubinbilia") from ineffective erythropoiesis, hemolysis, or induced enterohepatic cycling (EHC) of unconjugated bilirubin. Impaired gallbladder motility is a less well-studied risk factor. We evaluated the spontaneous occurrence of gallstones in adult germfree (GF) and conventionally housed specific pathogen-free (SPF) Swiss Webster (SW) mice. GF SW mice were more likely to have gallstones than SPF SW mice, with 75% and 23% prevalence, respectively. In GF SW mice, gallstones were observed predominately in heavier, older females. Gallbladders of GF SW mice were markedly enlarged, contained sterile black gallstones composed of calcium bilirubinate and <1% cholesterol, and had low-grade inflammation, edema, and epithelial hyperplasia. Hemograms were normal, but serum cholesterol was elevated in GF compared with SPF SW mice, and serum glucose levels were positively related to increasing age. Aged GF and SPF SW mice had deficits in gallbladder smooth muscle activity. In response to cholecystokinin (CCK), gallbladders of fasted GF SW mice showed impaired emptying (females: 29%; males: 1% emptying), whereas SPF SW females and males emptied 89% and 53% of volume, respectively. Bilirubin secretion rates of GF SW mice were not greater than SPF SW mice, repudiating an induced EHC. Gallstones likely developed in GF SW mice because of gallbladder hypomotility, enabled by features of GF physiology, including decreased intestinal CCK concentration and delayed intestinal transit, as well as an apparent genetic predisposition of the SW stock. GF SW mice may provide a valuable model to study gallbladder stasis as a cause of black pigment gallstones.

  9. Black-pigmented material in airway macrophages from healthy children: association with lung function and modeled PM10.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Jonathan; Kulkarni, Neeta; Pierse, Nevil; Rushton, Lesley; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Rutman, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies in children suggest that chronic inhalation of carbonaceous particulate matter < or = 10 pm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) attenuates the normal growth of lung function. However, the relation between markers of PM10 exposure and the quantity of particles entering the pediatric airway is unclear. Experimental studies have shown that particles entering the lower airway remain visible in the cytoplasm of airway macrophages (AMs) for several months. We hypothesized that particle loading of AMs, detected as black-pigmented material, reflects individual exposure of healthy children to PM10. In this study, we aimed to establish the relation between the median area of black material in AMs (measured as the two-dimensional area of black material ["black area"] per AM per child) and (1) lung function, and (2) level of primary PM10 at the child's home address as estimated by dispersion modeling (referred to as "modeled primary PM10"). We also performed a series of exploratory analyses assessing the association between the median black area in AMs and (1) variables that could modify individual exposure, and (2) airway inflammation. To achieve these aims, AMs were sampled using induced sputum from children in Leicestershire, United Kingdom, and lung function was determined by spirometry. Data from 64 of 116 children who provided adequate induced sputum samples were analyzed. The area of the black material in AMs was determined by an analysis of digitized light-microscopic images of 100 randomly chosen AMs per child. There was a significant inverse association between size of black area in AMs and lung function: each 1.0-microm2 increase in the area of the black material in AMs was associated with a 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6 to 28.4) reduction in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), a 12.9% (95% CI, 0.9 to 24.8) reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC), and a 34.7% (95% CI, 11.3 to 58.1) reduction in forced expiratory flow between

  10. Can the type of gallstones be predicted with known possible risk factors?: a comparison between mixed cholesterol and black pigment stones

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathogenesis of gallstones (GS) is multifactorial and multiple genetic and environmental factors have been identified in different populations for different types of GS with varying prevalence. However the role of the each aetiological factor on the formation of mixed cholesterol and black pigment GS has not being addressed adequately. Hence in this study we attempted to compare known possible risk factors for mixed cholesterol and black pigment GS among two groups of patients with two types of GS. Methods The study was done on a cohort of patients with symptomatic GS admitted to the Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka over a period of 18 months. Clinical and epidemiological data and physical parameters of the patients were recorded and surgically removed GS were analyzed chemically and physically to identify the type of GS. In addition lipid profile was done in all the patients with normal serum bilirubin levels. Results A total of 86 patients were included in the study. Mixed cholesterol GS was significantly common among females than males (χ2 test, p = 0.029). Mixed cholesterol GS was commonly seen among patients belonging to Moor ethnicity (χ2 test, p = 0.009). Majority of patients with mixed cholesterol GS had body mass index above 25 kg/m2 (χ2 test, p = 0.018). Black pigment GS were significantly common among patients with type II diabetes mellitus (Fisher’s exact test, p = 0.035). Further all the patients with chronic haemolytic anaemia and alcoholic cirrhosis had black pigment GS. Age, family history, Fasting Blood Glucose, dyslipidaemia, lipid profile, parity and use of oral contraceptive pills in females, smoking and alcohol intake in males did not differ significantly among patients in the two groups. Conclusion Gender, ethnicity and body mass index can be used to predict the formation of mixed cholesterol GS and black pigment GS. PMID:24884475

  11. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.

  12. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  13. The early upper Paleolithic of eastern Europe reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Hoffecker, John F

    2011-01-01

    Artifacts of Paleolithic age were first recognized in eastern Europe during the 1870s. Archeologists have struggled ever since to integrate them into the better known record of western Europe, where the interpretive framework of Paleolithic archeology was originally developed. The essential elements of both the Middle and Upper Paleolithic were recognized quickly in eastern Europe, and a close connection with a major middle Upper Paleolithic industry of central Europe (Gravettian) was established many years ago. The early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) has remained a major challenge, however; it is represented primarily by a bewildering array of local archeological cultures that exhibit limited similarity to contemporaneous industries of western and central Europe.6-9.

  14. Black tattoo inks induce reactive oxygen species production correlating with aggregation of pigment nanoparticles and product brand but not with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content.

    PubMed

    Høgsberg, Trine; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Clausen, Per Axel; Serup, Jørgen

    2013-07-01

    Black tattoo inks are composed of carbon nanoparticles, additives and water and may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We aimed to clarify whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by black inks in vitro is related to pigment chemistry, physico-chemical properties of the ink particles and the content of chemical additives and contaminants including PAHs. The study included nine brands of tattoo inks of six colours each (black, red, yellow, blue, green and white) and two additional black inks of different brands (n = 56). The ROS formation potential was determined by the dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) assay. A semiquantitative method was developed for screening extractable organic compounds in tattoo ink based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Two black inks produced high amounts of ROS. Peroxyl radicals accounted for up to 72% of the free radicals generated, whereas hydroxyl radicals and H₂O₂ accounted for <14% and 16%, respectively. The same two inks aggregated strongly in water in contrast to the other black inks. They did not exhibit any shared pattern in PAHs and other organic substances. Aggregation was exclusively shared by all ink colours belonging to the same two brands. Ten of 11 black inks had PAH concentrations exceeding the European Council's recommended level, and all 11 exceeded the recommended level for benzo(a)pyrene. It is a new finding that aggregation of tattoo pigment particles correlates with ROS production and brand, independently of chemical composition including PAHs. ROS is hypothesized to be implicated in minor clinical symptoms.

  15. Identification of plant cells in black pigments of prehistoric Spanish Levantine rock art by means of a multi-analytical approach. A new method for social identity materialization using chaîne opératoire.

    PubMed

    López-Montalvo, Esther; Roldán, Clodoaldo; Badal, Ernestina; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Villaverde, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    We present a new multi-analytical approach to the characterization of black pigments in Spanish Levantine rock art. This new protocol seeks to identify the raw materials that were used, as well as reconstruct the different technical gestures and decision-making processes involved in the obtaining of these black pigments. For the first of these goals, the pictorial matter of the black figurative motifs documented at the Les Dogues rock art shelter (Ares del Maestre, Castellón, Spain) was characterized through the combination of physicochemical and archeobotanical analyses. During the first stage of our research protocol, in situ and non-destructive analyses were carried out by means of portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF); during the second stage, samples were analyzed by Optical Microscopy (OM), Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Two major conclusions have been drawn from these analyses: first, charred plant matter has been identified as a main component of these prehistoric black pigments; and second, angiosperm and conifer charcoal was a primary raw material for pigment production, identified by means of the archaeobotanical study of plant cells. For the second goal, black charcoal pigments were replicated in the laboratory by using different raw materials and binders and by reproducing two main chaînes opératoires. The comparative study of the structure and preservation of plant tissues of both prehistoric and experimental pigments by means of SEM-EDX underlines both a complex preparation process and the use of likely pigment recipes, mixing raw material with fatty or oily binders. Finally, the formal and stylistic analysis of the motifs portrayed at Les Dogues allowed us to explore the relationship between identified stylistic phases and black charcoal pigment use, raising new archaeological questions concerning the acquisition of know-how and the

  16. Identification of plant cells in black pigments of prehistoric Spanish Levantine rock art by means of a multi-analytical approach. A new method for social identity materialization using chaîne opératoire

    PubMed Central

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Badal, Ernestina; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Villaverde, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    We present a new multi-analytical approach to the characterization of black pigments in Spanish Levantine rock art. This new protocol seeks to identify the raw materials that were used, as well as reconstruct the different technical gestures and decision-making processes involved in the obtaining of these black pigments. For the first of these goals, the pictorial matter of the black figurative motifs documented at the Les Dogues rock art shelter (Ares del Maestre, Castellón, Spain) was characterized through the combination of physicochemical and archeobotanical analyses. During the first stage of our research protocol, in situ and non-destructive analyses were carried out by means of portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF); during the second stage, samples were analyzed by Optical Microscopy (OM), Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Two major conclusions have been drawn from these analyses: first, charred plant matter has been identified as a main component of these prehistoric black pigments; and second, angiosperm and conifer charcoal was a primary raw material for pigment production, identified by means of the archaeobotanical study of plant cells. For the second goal, black charcoal pigments were replicated in the laboratory by using different raw materials and binders and by reproducing two main chaînes opératoires. The comparative study of the structure and preservation of plant tissues of both prehistoric and experimental pigments by means of SEM-EDX underlines both a complex preparation process and the use of likely pigment recipes, mixing raw material with fatty or oily binders. Finally, the formal and stylistic analysis of the motifs portrayed at Les Dogues allowed us to explore the relationship between identified stylistic phases and black charcoal pigment use, raising new archaeological questions concerning the acquisition of know-how and the

  17. Pigmentation in Black-boned sheep (Ovis aries): association with polymorphism of the MC1R gene.

    PubMed

    Deng, W D; Shu, W; Yang, S L; Shi, X W; Mao, H M

    2009-03-01

    Variations in vertebrate skin and hair color are due to varied amounts of eumelanin (brown/black) and phaeomelanin (red/yellow) produced by the melanocytes. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a regulator of eumelanin and phaeomelanin production in the melanocytes, and MC1R mutations causing coat color changes are known in many vertebrates. We have sequenced the entire coding region of the MC1R gene in Black-boned, Nanping indigenous and Romney Marsh sheep populations and found two silent mutation sites of A12G and G144C, respectively. PCR-RFLP of G144C showed that frequency of allele G in Black-boned, Nanping indigenous and Romney Marsh sheep was 0.818, 0.894 and 0, respectively. Sheep with GG genotype had significantly higher (P < 0.05) tyrosinase activity than sheep with CC genotype in the all investigated samples. Moreover, there was significant effect of MC1R genotype on coat color, suggesting that MC1R gene could affect coat color but not black traits. There would be merit in further studies using molecular techniques to elucidate the cause of black traits in these Black-boned sheep.

  18. Possible Astronomical Depictions in Franco-Cantabrian Paleolithic Rock Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglück, Michael A.

    In some cases there is evidence for astronomical depictions among the rock art of the Franco-Cantabrian Upper Paleolithic (40-12 ka BP). Phenological almanacs, some kind of lunar time reckoning, certain asterisms, and manifestations of cosmovisions are probably present.

  19. [Evaluation of biological and clinical potential of paleolithic diet].

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Lukasz M; Bujko, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidences suggest that foods that were regularly consumed during the human primates and evolution, in particular during the Paleolithic era (2.6-0.01 x 10(6) years ago), may be optimal for the prevention and treatment of some chronic diseases. It has been postulated that fundamental changes in the diet and other lifestyle conditions that occurred after the Neolithic Revolution, and more recently with the beginning of the Industrial Revolution are too recent taking into account the evolutionary time scale for the human genome to have completely adjust. In contemporary Western populations at least 70% of daily energy intake is provided by foods that were rarely or never consumed by Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, including grains, dairy products as well as refined sugars and highly processed fats. Additionally, compared with Western diets, Paleolithic diets, based on recently published estimates of macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet, contained more proteins and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and less linoleic acid. Observational studies of hunter-gatherers and other non-western populations lend support to the notion that a Paleolithic type diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cancer, acne vulgaris and myopia. Moreover, preliminary intervention studies using contemporary diet based on Paleolithic food groups (meat, fish, shellfish, fresh fruits and vegetables, roots, tubers, eggs, and nuts), revealed promising results including favorable changes in risk factors, such as weight, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, glycated haemoglobin (HbAlc), blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles. Low calcium intake, which is often considered as a potential disadvantage of the Paleolithic diet model, should be weighed against the low content of phytates and the low content of sodium chloride, as well as the high

  20. Single amino acid radiocarbon dating of Upper Paleolithic modern humans.

    PubMed

    Marom, Anat; McCullagh, James S O; Higham, Thomas F G; Sinitsyn, Andrey A; Hedges, Robert E M

    2012-05-01

    Archaeological bones are usually dated by radiocarbon measurement of extracted collagen. However, low collagen content, contamination from the burial environment, or museum conservation work, such as addition of glues, preservatives, and fumigants to "protect" archaeological materials, have previously led to inaccurate dates. These inaccuracies in turn frustrate the development of archaeological chronologies and, in the Paleolithic, blur the dating of such key events as the dispersal of anatomically modern humans. Here we describe a method to date hydroxyproline found in collagen (~10% of collagen carbon) as a bone-specific biomarker that removes impurities, thereby improving dating accuracy and confidence. This method is applied to two important sites in Russia and allows us to report the earliest direct ages for the presence of anatomically modern humans on the Russian Plain. These dates contribute considerably to our understanding of the emergence of the Mid-Upper Paleolithic and the complex suite of burial behaviors that begin to appear during this period.

  1. Complete genome sequence and lifestyle of black-pigmented Corynebacterium aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (formerly C. nigricans CN-1) isolated from a vaginal swab of a woman with spontaneous abortion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium aurimucosum is a slightly yellowish, non-lipophilic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Corynebacterium and predominantly isolated from human clinical specimens. Unusual black-pigmented variants of C. aurimucosum (originally named as C. nigricans) continue to be recovered from the female urogenital tract and they are associated with complications during pregnancy. C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (C. nigricans CN-1) was originally isolated from a vaginal swab of a 34-year-old woman who experienced a spontaneous abortion during month six of pregnancy. For a better understanding of the physiology and lifestyle of this potential urogenital pathogen, the complete genome sequence of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 was determined. Results Sequencing and assembly of the C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 genome yielded a circular chromosome of 2,790,189 bp in size and the 29,037-bp plasmid pET44827. Specific gene sets associated with the central metabolism of C. aurimucosum apparently provide enhanced metabolic flexibility and adaptability in aerobic, anaerobic and low-pH environments, including gene clusters for the uptake and degradation of aromatic amines, L-histidine and L-tartrate as well as a gene region for the formation of selenocysteine and its incorporation into formate dehydrogenase. Plasmid pET44827 codes for a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase that plays the pivotal role in the synthesis of the characteristic black pigment of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975. Conclusions The data obtained by the genome project suggest that C. aurimucosum could be both a resident of the human gut and possibly a pathogen in the female genital tract causing complications during pregnancy. Since hitherto all black-pigmented C. aurimucosum strains have been recovered from female genital source, biosynthesis of the pigment is apparently required for colonization by protecting the bacterial cells against the high hydrogen peroxide concentration in the vaginal environment

  2. Symbolic use of marine shells and mineral pigments by Iberian Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Zilhão, João; Angelucci, Diego E; Badal-García, Ernestina; d'Errico, Francesco; Daniel, Floréal; Dayet, Laure; Douka, Katerina; Higham, Thomas F G; Martínez-Sánchez, María José; Montes-Bernárdez, Ricardo; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roldán-García, Clodoaldo; Vanhaeren, Marian; Villaverde, Valentín; Wood, Rachel; Zapata, Josefina

    2010-01-19

    Two sites of the Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic of Iberia, dated to as early as approximately 50,000 years ago, yielded perforated and pigment-stained marine shells. At Cueva de los Aviones, three umbo-perforated valves of Acanthocardia and Glycymeris were found alongside lumps of yellow and red colorants, and residues preserved inside a Spondylus shell consist of a red lepidocrocite base mixed with ground, dark red-to-black fragments of hematite and pyrite. A perforated Pecten shell, painted on its external, white side with an orange mix of goethite and hematite, was abandoned after breakage at Cueva Antón, 60 km inland. Comparable early modern human-associated material from Africa and the Near East is widely accepted as evidence for body ornamentation, implying behavioral modernity. The Iberian finds show that European Neandertals were no different from coeval Africans in this regard, countering genetic/cognitive explanations for the emergence of symbolism and strengthening demographic/social ones.

  3. Symbolic use of marine shells and mineral pigments by Iberian Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Zilhão, João; Angelucci, Diego E.; Badal-García, Ernestina; d’Errico, Francesco; Daniel, Floréal; Dayet, Laure; Douka, Katerina; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Martínez-Sánchez, María José; Montes-Bernárdez, Ricardo; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roldán-García, Clodoaldo; Vanhaeren, Marian; Villaverde, Valentín; Wood, Rachel; Zapata, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    Two sites of the Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic of Iberia, dated to as early as approximately 50,000 years ago, yielded perforated and pigment-stained marine shells. At Cueva de los Aviones, three umbo-perforated valves of Acanthocardia and Glycymeris were found alongside lumps of yellow and red colorants, and residues preserved inside a Spondylus shell consist of a red lepidocrocite base mixed with ground, dark red-to-black fragments of hematite and pyrite. A perforated Pecten shell, painted on its external, white side with an orange mix of goethite and hematite, was abandoned after breakage at Cueva Antón, 60 km inland. Comparable early modern human-associated material from Africa and the Near East is widely accepted as evidence for body ornamentation, implying behavioral modernity. The Iberian finds show that European Neandertals were no different from coeval Africans in this regard, countering genetic/cognitive explanations for the emergence of symbolism and strengthening demographic/social ones. PMID:20080653

  4. Timing of the Lower to Middle Paleolithic boundary: new dates from the Levant.

    PubMed

    Porat, Naomi; Chazan, Michael; Schwarcz, Henry; Horwitz, Liora Kolska

    2002-07-01

    This paper reviews the numerical dates available for the late Lower Paleolithic and early Middle Paleolithic in the Levant. We also present here new electron spin resonance dates for the late Lower Paleolithic sites of Holon, Yabrud I and Oumm Qatafa. Irrespective of dating techniques used, the ages of these sites converge on oxygen isotope stage 7 at roughly 215+/-30 ka. Similarly, dates for early Middle Paleolithic sites in the region, with the exception of Tabun, fall within oxygen isotope stage 7, suggesting a relatively rapid transition from Lower to Middle Paleolithic. In the light of these findings, the "early chronology" for the region, based on the TL dates on burned flint from Tabun, is discussed.

  5. Single amino acid radiocarbon dating of Upper Paleolithic modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Anat; McCullagh, James S. O.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Sinitsyn, Andrey A.; Hedges, Robert E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Archaeological bones are usually dated by radiocarbon measurement of extracted collagen. However, low collagen content, contamination from the burial environment, or museum conservation work, such as addition of glues, preservatives, and fumigants to “protect” archaeological materials, have previously led to inaccurate dates. These inaccuracies in turn frustrate the development of archaeological chronologies and, in the Paleolithic, blur the dating of such key events as the dispersal of anatomically modern humans. Here we describe a method to date hydroxyproline found in collagen (∼10% of collagen carbon) as a bone-specific biomarker that removes impurities, thereby improving dating accuracy and confidence. This method is applied to two important sites in Russia and allows us to report the earliest direct ages for the presence of anatomically modern humans on the Russian Plain. These dates contribute considerably to our understanding of the emergence of the Mid-Upper Paleolithic and the complex suite of burial behaviors that begin to appear during this period. PMID:22517758

  6. Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art

    PubMed Central

    Pruvost, Melanie; Bellone, Rebecca; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Cieslak, Michael; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; O'Connor, Terry; Reissmann, Monika; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings “The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle,” depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back ∼25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as “leopard” in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed. PMID:22065780

  7. Buried paleosols of the Upper Paleolithic multilayered site Kostenki-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparin, B. F.; Platonova, N. I.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Dudin, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The morphology and chemical and physicochemical properties of paleosols buried at the Upper Paleolithic multilayered site Kostenki-1 in Kostenki-Borshchevo district of Voronezh oblast were studied. Four in situ paleosols formed 20-40(45) ka ago were separated in the archaeological excavation. Together with the surface soils, they characterized two different epochs of pedogenesis—the interstadial and interglacial (Holocene) epochs—and three shorter cycles of pedogenesis. The traces of human occupation in the studied hollow in the Late Paleolithic were found in the layers corresponding to the interstadial epoch. The buried paleosols had a simple horizonation: A(W)-C. A shallow thickness of the soil profiles could be due to relatively short periods of pedogenesis and to the shallow embedding by the carbonate geochemical barrier. The degree of the organic matter humification in the paleosols varied from 0.6 to 1.5, which corresponded to the mean duration of the period of biological activity of 60 to 150 days per year characterizing the climatic conditions of the tundra, taiga, forest-steppe, and steppe natural zones. In the excavation Kostenki-1 (2004-2005), soil-sediment sequences composed of five series of lithological layers with soil layers on top of them were found. Their deposition proceeded in two phases—the water phase and the aerial phase—that predetermined the morphology and composition of the soil-sediment sequences. The history of sediment accumulation in the studied hollow consisted of five stages. Similar morphologies and compositions of the soil-sediment sequences corresponding to these stages attest to the cyclic pattern of their development. The stages of sedimentation and soil formation corresponded to cyclic climate fluctuations with changes in the temperature and moisture conditions. A comparative analysis of the morphology and properties of the paleosols and soil-sediment sequences made it possible to characterize the environmental

  8. Stone tool function at the paleolithic sites of Starosele and Buran Kaya III, Crimea: behavioral implications.

    PubMed

    Hardy, B L; Kay, M; Marks, A E; Monigal, K

    2001-09-11

    Stone tools are often the most abundant type of cultural remains at Paleolithic sites, yet their function is often poorly understood. Investigations of stone tool function, including microscopic use-wear and residue analyses, were performed on a sample of artifacts from the Paleolithic sites of Starosele (40,000-80,000 years BP) and Buran Kaya III (32,000-37,000 years BP). The Middle Paleolithic levels at Starosele exhibit a typical variant of the local Micoquian Industry. The artifacts from Buran Kaya III most closely resemble an Early Streletskayan Industry associated with the early Upper Paleolithic. The results of the functional analyses suggest that hominids at both sites were exploiting woody and starchy plant material as well as birds and mammals. Both sites show evidence of hafting of a wide variety of tools and the possible use of projectile or thrusting spears. These analyses were performed by using two different techniques conducted by independent researchers. Combined residue and use-wear analyses suggest that both the Upper Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic hominids at these sites were broad-based foragers capable of exploiting a wide range of resources.

  9. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Adults.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Kristine A; Judd, Suzanne; McCullough, Marjorie L; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Bostick, Roberd M

    2017-04-01

    Background: Poor diet quality is associated with a higher risk of many chronic diseases that are among the leading causes of death in the United States. It has been hypothesized that evolutionary discordance may account for some of the higher incidence and mortality from these diseases.Objective: We investigated associations of 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study, a longitudinal cohort of black and white men and women ≥45 y of age.Methods: Participants completed questionnaires, including a Block food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), at baseline and were contacted every 6 mo to determine their health status. Of the analytic cohort (n = 21,423), a total of 2513 participants died during a median follow-up of 6.25 y. We created diet scores from FFQ responses and assessed their associations with mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for major risk factors.Results: For those in the highest relative to the lowest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores, the multivariable adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were, respectively, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.89; P-trend < 0.01) and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.73; P-trend < 0.01). The corresponding HRs for all-cancer mortality were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.95; P-trend = 0.03) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.84; P-trend = 0.01), and for all-cardiovascular disease mortality they were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.00; P-trend = 0.06) and HR: 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.88; P-trend = 0.01).Conclusions: Findings from this biracial prospective study suggest that diets closer to Paleolithic or Mediterranean diet patterns may be inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

  10. Natural pigments and sacred art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  11. Bone and ivory points in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic of Europe.

    PubMed

    Villa, P; d'Errico, F

    2001-08-01

    The existence of shaped bone and ivory points, to be used as awls or with wooden hafts, has been suggested for the Lower Paleolithic sites of Torralba and Ambrona and for several Middle Paleolithic sites, such as Vaufrey, Combe Grenal, Pech de l'Azé I and Camiac. The use of hafted bone and ivory points would imply a spear armature technology similar to that well documented in the Upper Paleolithic, often considered an innovation introduced to Europe by anatomically modern humans. The controversial ivory points from the two Spanish sites, whose fracture morphology is considered natural by G. Haynes (1991), have been reanalyzed, checking for putative traces of human manufacture and utilization as described by Howell & Freeman (1983), i.e., polish, flaking of stem, ground edges, striations from manufacture and contact with a haft or binding. We have been able to study 19 new proboscidean tusk tips from the ongoing Ambrona excavations by a Spanish team. For these and nine other Middle Paleolithic bone and antler points we use optical and SEM microscope analysis, taphonomic analysis, comparative observations of Upper Paleolithic bone points, experimental observations of manufacturing traces, modern tusk samples, and data on several bone and antler pseudo-points from carnivore accumulations. We show that none of the objects we have studied can be interpreted as an intentionally shaped point. The absence of hafted bone points in the Middle Paleolithic of Europe is contrasted with evidence of the use of hafted stone points since OIS 5 or earlier in Eurasia and Africa. We suggest that the absence of organic spear armatures in the Middle Paleolithic is not due to a deficiency in the technology of Neandertals but may be tied to the organizational strategies of the hunters and to patterns of game choice and capture.

  12. The Manipulative Complexity of Lower Paleolithic Stone Toolmaking

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Aldo; Stout, Dietrich; Apel, Jan; Bradley, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background Early stone tools provide direct evidence of human cognitive and behavioral evolution that is otherwise unavailable. Proper interpretation of these data requires a robust interpretive framework linking archaeological evidence to specific behavioral and cognitive actions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we employ a data glove to record manual joint angles in a modern experimental toolmaker (the 4th author) replicating ancient tool forms in order to characterize and compare the manipulative complexity of two major Lower Paleolithic technologies (Oldowan and Acheulean). To this end we used a principled and general measure of behavioral complexity based on the statistics of joint movements. Conclusions/Significance This allowed us to confirm that previously observed differences in brain activation associated with Oldowan versus Acheulean technologies reflect higher-level behavior organization rather than lower-level differences in manipulative complexity. This conclusion is consistent with a scenario in which the earliest stages of human technological evolution depended on novel perceptual-motor capacities (such as the control of joint stiffness) whereas later developments increasingly relied on enhanced mechanisms for cognitive control. This further suggests possible links between toolmaking and language evolution. PMID:21072164

  13. Predetermined Flake Production at the Lower/Middle Paleolithic Boundary: Yabrudian Scraper-Blank Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shimelmitz, Ron; Kuhn, Steven L.; Ronen, Avraham; Weinstein-Evron, Mina

    2014-01-01

    While predetermined débitage technologies are recognized beginning with the middle Acheulian, the Middle Paleolithic is usually associated with a sharp increase in their use. A study of scraper-blank technology from three Yabrudian assemblages retrieved from the early part of the Acheulo-Yabrudian complex of Tabun Cave (ca. 415–320 kyr) demonstrates a calculated and preplanned production, even if it does not show the same complexity and elaboration as in the Levallois technology. These scraper dominated assemblages show an organization of production based on an intensive use of predetermination blank technology already in place at the end of the Lower Paleolithic of the Levant. These results provide a novel perspective on the differences and similarities between the Lower and Middle Paleolithic industries. We suggest that there was a change in the paradigm in the way hominins exploited stone tools: in many Middle Paleolithic assemblages the potential of the stone tools for hafting was a central feature, in the Lower Paleolithic ergonometric considerations of manual prehension were central to the design of blanks and tools. PMID:25192429

  14. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-03-16

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

  15. Shanidar 3 Neandertal rib puncture wound and paleolithic weaponry.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Franciscus, Robert G; McKean-Peraza, Hilary A; Daniel, Julie A; Warren, Brittany R

    2009-08-01

    Since its discovery and initial description in the 1960s, the penetrating lesion to the left ninth rib of the Shanidar 3 Neandertal has been a focus for discussion about interpersonal violence and weapon technology in the Middle Paleolithic. Recent experimental studies using lithic points on animal targets suggest that aspects of weapon system dynamics can be inferred from the form of the bony lesions they produce. Thus, to better understand the circumstances surrounding the traumatic injury suffered by Shanidar 3, we conducted controlled stabbing experiments with replicas of Mousterian and Levallois points directed against the thoraces of pig carcasses. Stabs were conducted under both high and low kinetic energy conditions, in an effort to replicate the usual impact forces associated with thrusting spear vs. long-range projectile weapon systems, respectively. Analysis of the lesions produced in the pig ribs, along with examination of goat ribs subjected primarily to high kinetic energy stabs from an independent experiment, revealed consistent differences in damage patterns between the two conditions. In the case of Shanidar 3, the lack of major involvement of more than one rib, the lack of fracturing of the affected and adjacent ribs, and the lack of bony defects associated with the lesion (such as wastage, hinging, and radiating fracture lines) suggests that the weapon that wounded him was carrying relatively low kinetic energy. While accidental injury or attack with a thrusting spear or knife cannot absolutely be ruled out, the position, angulation, and morphology of the lesion is most consistent with injury by a low-mass, low-kinetic energy projectile weapon. Given the potential temporal overlap of Shanidar 3 with early modern humans in western Asia, and the possibility that the latter were armed with projectile weapon systems, this case carries more than simple paleoforensic interest.

  16. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  17. [Evolution of the diet from the paleolithic to today: progress or regress?].

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Philippe; Fouque, Denis; Combe, Christian; Aparicio, Michel

    2013-07-01

    The changes in eating habits and decreased physical activity have been responsible for part of the high prevalence of chronic diseases such as hypertension or diabetes, currently observed in the so-called civilized societies. These diseases are less prevalent in previous civilizations and several decades of nutrition research have enabled better understanding of the eating habits of our ancestors, and have demonstrated the value of diet called "Mediterranean or Paleolithic". This review provides an update on the latest research. What dietary changes since the Paleolithic period, and finally how can we adapt our current diet? Several animal studies or human clinical demonstrate the value of historical research and nutrition.

  18. Characterization of a novel anthocyanin profile in wild black raspberry mutants: an opportunity for studying the genetic control of pigment and color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type and amount of anthocyanins in raspberries, and other small fruits, has recently received increased attention. Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), in particular, has long been recognized as a rich source of anthocyanins and has been the focus of many recent studies examining their poten...

  19. Challenges of identifying eczema in darkly pigmented skin.

    PubMed

    Myers, Joan

    2015-07-01

    There is a paucity of information about the difference in the presentation of eczema in darkly pigmented skin compared to children with fair or white skin. This article describes the possible challenges of diagnosing eczema in children with darkly pigmented skin. The physiological difference in darkly pigmented skin compared with fair or white skin is explored, and how eczema may be manifested and identified in darkly pigmented skin. The author uses the term darkly pigmented skin to describe children of black Caribbean, African or Asian descent.

  20. Monascus pigments.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanli; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-12-01

    Monascus pigments (MPs) as natural food colorants have been widely utilized in food industries in the world, especially in China and Japan. Moreover, MPs possess a range of biological activities, such as anti-mutagenic and anticancer properties, antimicrobial activities, potential anti-obesity activities, and so on. So, in the past two decades, more and more attention has been paid to MPs. Up to now, more than 50 MPs have been identified and studied. However, there have been some reviews about red fermented rice and the secondary metabolites produced by Monascus, but no monograph or review of MPs has been published. This review covers the categories and structures, biosynthetic pathway, production, properties, detection methods, functions, and molecular biology of MPs.

  1. Comprehensive Bibliography of Pakistan Archaeology: Paleolithic to Historic Times. South Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Denise E.

    The comprehensive bibliography is a compilation of twentieth century documents about Pakistan prehistory from Paleolithic times to the arrival of the Greeks in approximately 330 B.C., also includes some of the major archaeological studies in adjacent countries which have a bearing on the interpretation and comparative analysis of Pakistan…

  2. Tall guys and fat ladies: Grimaldi's Upper Paleolithic burials and figurines in an historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Formicola, Vincenzo; Holt, Brigitte

    2015-07-20

    The importance of the Grimaldi complex of caves and rock shelters is twofold: scientific and historical. Scientifically, it is one of the major Upper Paleolithic sites, considering the variety of mobiliary and parietal art, the number of single and multiple burials and associated grave goods, and the abundant lithic and fauna remains. Historically, the documentation of activity that took place in this site starting from the second half of the 19 th century and the studies carried out on the materials that have been recovered in the decades between 1870s-1910s, provide instructive examples of methods and goals of Paleolithic archeology and anthropology of the epoch. This paper combines the scientific and the historic interest of the site through a chronicle of the events that took place during the period of the most sensational discoveries, i.e. beginning with the identification in 1872 of the first Upper Paleolithic burial and ending with the results of the excavations carried out in 1901 at Grotte des Enfants published in four volumes a few years later. The paper discusses early interpretations and modern views on the different findings and documents changes in perspectives and goals of paleoanthropological research in over a century, raising some of the major issues of contemporary Upper Paleolithic studies.

  3. Characterization of Sorolla's gouache pigments by means of spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Juanes, David; Ferrazza, Livio; Carballo, Jorgelina

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the Joaquín Sorolla's gouache sketches for the oil on canvas series "Vision of Spain" commissioned by A. M. Huntington to decorate the library of the Hispanic Society of America in New York. The analyses were focused on the identification of the elemental composition of the gouache pigments by means of portable EDXRF spectrometry in a non-destructive mode. Additionally, SEM-EDX and FTIR analyses of a selected set of micro-samples were carried out to identify completely the pigments, the paint technique and the binding media. The obtained results have confirmed the identification of lead and zinc white, vermillion, earth pigments, ochre, zinc yellow, chrome yellow, ultramarine, Prussian blue, chromium based and copper-arsenic based green pigments, bone black and carbon based black pigments, and the use of gum arabic as binding media in the gouache pigments.

  4. Oral pigmented lesions: Clinicopathologic features and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    da Silva-Jorge, Rogério; Jorge, Jacks; Lopes, Márcio A.; Vargas, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of pigmented lesions of the oral cavity and perioral tissues is challenging. Even though epidemiology may be of some help in orientating the clinician and even though some lesions may confidently be diagnosed on clinical grounds alone, the definitive diagnosis usually requires histopathologic evaluation. Oral pigmentation can be physiological or pathological, and exogenous or endogenous. Color, location, distribution, and duration as well as drugs use, family history, and change in pattern are important for the differential diagnosis. Dark or black pigmented lesions can be focal, multifocal or diffuse macules, including entities such as racial pigmentation, melanotic macule, melanocytic nevus, blue nevus, smoker’s melanosis, oral melanoacanthoma, pigmentation by foreign bodies or induced by drugs, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Addison´s disease and oral melanoma. The aim of this review is to present the main oral black lesions contributing to better approach of the patients. Key words:Pigmentation, melanin, oral, diagnosis, management. PMID:22549672

  5. The Acheulian and Early Middle Paleolithic in Latium (Italy): Stability and Innovation.

    PubMed

    Villa, Paola; Soriano, Sylvain; Grün, Rainer; Marra, Fabrizio; Nomade, Sebastien; Pereira, Alison; Boschian, Giovanni; Pollarolo, Luca; Fang, Fang; Bahain, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We present here the results of a technological and typological analysis of the Acheulian and early Middle Paleolithic assemblages from Torre in Pietra (Latium, Italy) together with comparisons with the Acheulian small tools of Castel di Guido. The assemblages were never chronometrically dated before. We have now 40Ar/39Ar dates and ESR-U-series dates, within a geomorphological framework, which support correlations to marine isotope stages. The Acheulian (previously correlated to MIS 9) is now dated to MIS 10 while the Middle Paleolithic is dated to MIS 7. Lithic analyses are preceded by taphonomic evaluations. The Levallois method of the Middle Paleolithic assemblage is an innovation characterized by the production of thin flake blanks without cortex. In contrast, the small tool blanks of the Acheulian were either pebbles or thick flakes with some cortex. They provided a relatively easy manual prehension. The choice of Levallois thin flake blanks in the Middle Paleolithic assemblage suggest that the new technology is most likely related to the emergence of hafting. Accordingly, the oldest direct evidence of hafting technology is from the site of Campitello Quarry in Tuscany (Central Italy) where birch-bark tar, found on the proximal part of two flint flakes, is dated to the end of MIS 7. Nevertheless, a peculiar feature of the Middle Paleolithic at Torre in Pietra is the continuous presence of small tool blanks on pebbles and cores and on thick flake albeit at a much lower frequency than in the older Acheulian industries. The adoption of the new technology is thus characterized by innovation combined with a degree of stability. The persistence of these habits in spite of the introduction of an innovative technique underlies the importance of cultural transmission and conformity in the behavior of Neandertals.

  6. The Acheulian and Early Middle Paleolithic in Latium (Italy): Stability and Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Sylvain; Grün, Rainer; Marra, Fabrizio; Nomade, Sebastien; Pereira, Alison; Boschian, Giovanni; Pollarolo, Luca; Fang, Fang; Bahain, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We present here the results of a technological and typological analysis of the Acheulian and early Middle Paleolithic assemblages from Torre in Pietra (Latium, Italy) together with comparisons with the Acheulian small tools of Castel di Guido. The assemblages were never chronometrically dated before. We have now 40Ar/39Ar dates and ESR-U-series dates, within a geomorphological framework, which support correlations to marine isotope stages. The Acheulian (previously correlated to MIS 9) is now dated to MIS 10 while the Middle Paleolithic is dated to MIS 7. Lithic analyses are preceded by taphonomic evaluations. The Levallois method of the Middle Paleolithic assemblage is an innovation characterized by the production of thin flake blanks without cortex. In contrast, the small tool blanks of the Acheulian were either pebbles or thick flakes with some cortex. They provided a relatively easy manual prehension. The choice of Levallois thin flake blanks in the Middle Paleolithic assemblage suggest that the new technology is most likely related to the emergence of hafting. Accordingly, the oldest direct evidence of hafting technology is from the site of Campitello Quarry in Tuscany (Central Italy) where birch-bark tar, found on the proximal part of two flint flakes, is dated to the end of MIS 7. Nevertheless, a peculiar feature of the Middle Paleolithic at Torre in Pietra is the continuous presence of small tool blanks on pebbles and cores and on thick flake albeit at a much lower frequency than in the older Acheulian industries. The adoption of the new technology is thus characterized by innovation combined with a degree of stability. The persistence of these habits in spite of the introduction of an innovative technique underlies the importance of cultural transmission and conformity in the behavior of Neandertals. PMID:27525705

  7. Hunters of the Ice Age: The biology of Upper Paleolithic people.

    PubMed

    Holt, Brigitte M; Formicola, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    The Upper Paleolithic represents both the phase during which anatomically modern humans appeared and the climax of hunter-gatherer cultures. Demographic expansion into new areas that took place during this period and the diffusion of burial practices resulted in an unprecedented number of well-preserved human remains. This skeletal record, dovetailed with archeological, environmental, and chronological contexts, allows testing of hypotheses regarding biological processes at the population level. In this article, we review key studies about the biology of Upper Paleolithic populations based primarily on European samples, but integrating information from other areas of the Old World whenever possible. Data about cranial morphology, skeletal robusticity, stature, body proportions, health status, diet, physical activity, and genetics are evaluated in Late Pleistocene climatic and cultural contexts. Various lines of evidence delineate the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a critical phase in the biological and cultural evolution of Upper Paleolithic populations. The LGM, a long phase of climatic deterioration culminating around 20,000 BP, had a profound impact on the environment, lifestyle, and behavior of human groups. Some of these effects are recorded in aspects of skeletal biology of these populations. Groups living before and after the LGM, Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) and Late Upper Paleolithic (LUP), respectively, differ significantly in craniofacial dimensions, stature, robusticity, and body proportions. While paleopathological and stable isotope data suggest good health status throughout the Upper Paleolithic, some stress indicators point to a slight decline in quality of life in LUP populations. The intriguing and unexpected incidence of individuals affected by congenital disorders probably indicates selective burial practices for these abnormal individuals. While some of the changes observed can be explained through models of biocultural or environmental

  8. Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis12

    PubMed Central

    Manheimer, Eric W; van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Pijl, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paleolithic nutrition, which has attracted substantial public attention lately because of its putative health benefits, differs radically from dietary patterns currently recommended in guidelines, particularly in terms of its recommendation to exclude grains, dairy, and nutritional products of industry. Objective: We evaluated whether a Paleolithic nutritional pattern improves risk factors for chronic disease more than do other dietary interventions. Design: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the Paleolithic nutritional pattern with any other dietary pattern in participants with one or more of the 5 components of metabolic syndrome. Two reviewers independently extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. Outcome data were extracted from the first measurement time point (≤6 mo). A random-effects model was used to estimate the average intervention effect. The quality of the evidence was rated with the use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Results: Four RCTs that involved 159 participants were included. The 4 control diets were based on distinct national nutrition guidelines but were broadly similar. Paleolithic nutrition resulted in greater short-term improvements than did the control diets (random-effects model) for waist circumference (mean difference: −2.38 cm; 95% CI: −4.73, −0.04 cm), triglycerides (−0.40 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.76, −0.04 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure (−3.64 mm Hg; 95% CI: −7.36, 0.08 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (−2.48 mm Hg; 95% CI: −4.98, 0.02 mm Hg), HDL cholesterol (0.12 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.03, 0.28 mmol/L), and fasting blood sugar (−0.16 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.44, 0.11 mmol/L). The quality of the evidence for each of the 5 metabolic components was moderate. The home-delivery (n = 1) and dietary recommendation (n = 3) RCTs showed similar effects with the exception of greater improvements in

  9. Dental maturational sequence and dental tissue proportions in the early Upper Paleolithic child from Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Bayle, Priscilla; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Trinkaus, Erik; Duarte, Cidália; Mazurier, Arnaud; Zilhão, João

    2010-01-01

    Neandertals differ from recent and terminal Pleistocene human populations in their patterns of dental development, endostructural (internal structure) organization, and relative tissue proportions. Although significant changes in craniofacial and postcranial morphology have been found between the Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic modern humans of western Eurasia and the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene inhabitants of the same region, most studies of dental maturation and structural morphology have compared Neandertals only to later Holocene humans. To assess whether earlier modern humans contrasted with later modern populations and possibly approached the Neandertal pattern, we used high-resolution microtomography to analyze the remarkably complete mixed dentition of the early Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian) child from Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, and compared it to a Neandertal sample, the late Upper Paleolithic (Magdalenian) child of La Madeleine, and a worldwide extant human sample. Some aspects of the dental maturational pattern and tooth endostructural organization of Lagar Velho 1 are absent from extant populations and the Magdalenian specimen and are currently documented only among Neandertals. Therefore, a simple Neandertal versus modern human dichotomy is inadequate to accommodate the morphostructural and developmental variation represented by Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic populations. These data reinforce the complex nature of Neandertal-modern human similarities and differences, and document ongoing human evolution after the global establishment of modern human morphology. PMID:20080622

  10. BACILLUS PYOCYANEUS AND ITS PIGMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Edwin O.

    1899-01-01

    The principal conclusions that seem to me justified are as follows: 1. The fluorescent pigment formed by some varieties of B. pyocyaneus is produced under conditions identical with those governing the production of the pigment by other "fluorescent bacteria." 2. The production of pyocyanin is not dependent upon the presence of either phosphate or sulfate in the culture medium. It is formed in non-proteid as well as in proteid media, but is not a necessary accompaniment of the metabolic activities of the organism (e. g. tartrate solution). 3. The power of producing pyocyanin under conditions of artificial cultivation is lost sooner than the fluorescigenic power. 4. There are greater natural and acquired differences in pyocyanigenic power than in fluorescigenic. 5. The fluorescent pigment may be oxidized slowly by the action of light and air as well as by reagents into a yellow pigment, and pyocyanin may be similarly oxidized into a black pigment. 6. A convenient separation of B. pyocyaneus into four varieties would be the following: var. α, pyocyanigenic and fluorescigenic (most common); var. β, pyocyanigenic only (rare); var. γ, fluorescigenic only (not uncommon, closely related to "B. fluorescens liquefaciens"); var. δ, non-chromogenic. 7. Except for the occasional loss of one or another function the different varieties are not so plastic as sometimes assumed, and cannot be readily converted into one another by subjection to varying conditions of life. 8. The signification and correlation of the almost countless physiological variations among the members of this group in respect to growth in gelatin, behavior to temperature, indol production, etc., remain to be determined. It is not yet clear that the variations in chromogenic power can be in any way correlated with the presence or absence of other physiological functions. PMID:19866929

  11. Melanin pigmented solar absorbing surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gallas, J.M.; Eisner, M.

    1980-01-01

    Selectivity enhancement is shown to result for melanin, a black biopolymer pigment, for sufficiently low sample density. The effect is proposed to follow from a consideration of the evanescent waves associated with the total internal reflection phenomenon. A relationship is discussed among powder density, pH and the paramagnetic properties of melanin; this relationship is shown to be consistent with, and offer support to an amino-acid side group proposed earlier as part of the melanin structure. A brief discussion is also presented on the optical properties of melanin and the relative importance of quinhydrone, a change transfer complex believed to exist in the polymeric structure of melanin.

  12. 3D Digital Surveying and Modelling of Cave Geometry: Application to Paleolithic Rock Art.

    PubMed

    González-Aguilera, Diego; Muñoz-Nieto, Angel; Gómez-Lahoz, Javier; Herrero-Pascual, Jesus; Gutierrez-Alonso, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    3D digital surveying and modelling of cave geometry represents a relevant approach for research, management and preservation of our cultural and geological legacy. In this paper, a multi-sensor approach based on a terrestrial laser scanner, a high-resolution digital camera and a total station is presented. Two emblematic caves of Paleolithic human occupation and situated in northern Spain, "Las Caldas" and "Peña de Candamo", have been chosen to put in practise this approach. As a result, an integral and multi-scalable 3D model is generated which may allow other scientists, pre-historians, geologists…, to work on two different levels, integrating different Paleolithic Art datasets: (1) a basic level based on the accurate and metric support provided by the laser scanner; and (2) a advanced level using the range and image-based modelling.

  13. ESR dating of the Majuangou and Banshan Paleolithic sites in the Nihewan Basin, North China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Ru; Yin, Gong-Ming; Deng, Cheng-Long; Han, Fei; Song, Wei-Juan

    2014-08-01

    The fluvio-lacustrine sequences in the Nihewan Basin, northern China provide an important source of Paleolithic settlements and therefore early human occupation in the eastern Old World. Here we present electron spin resonance (ESR) chronology for the Majuangou (MJG-III, MJG-II and MJG-I) and Banshan (BS) Paleolithic sites in this basin by the quartz Ti-Li center ESR dating. Results show that the ages of MJG-III and MJG-II could be estimated to be ∼1.70 Ma (millions of years ago); of MJG-I, ∼1.40 Ma; and BS, ∼1.35 Ma. This ESR chronology is consistent with the previous magnetochronology, thus providing strong support for the earliest human presence at the high northern latitudes of Northeast Asia.

  14. Stable isotope evidence for increasing dietary breadth in the European mid-Upper Paleolithic

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Michael P.; Pettitt, Paul B.; Stiner, Mary C.; Trinkaus, Erik

    2001-01-01

    New carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values for human remains dating to the mid-Upper Paleolithic in Europe indicate significant amounts of aquatic (fish, mollusks, and/or birds) foods in some of their diets. Most of this evidence points to exploitation of inland freshwater aquatic resources in particular. By contrast, European Neandertal collagen carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values do not indicate significant use of inland aquatic foods but instead show that they obtained the majority of their protein from terrestrial herbivores. In agreement with recent zooarcheological analyses, the isotope results indicate shifts toward a more broad-spectrum subsistence economy in inland Europe by the mid-Upper Paleolithic period, probably associated with significant population increases. PMID:11371652

  15. 3D Digital Surveying and Modelling of Cave Geometry: Application to Paleolithic Rock Art

    PubMed Central

    González-Aguilera, Diego; Muñoz-Nieto, Angel; Gómez-Lahoz, Javier; Herrero-Pascual, Jesus; Gutierrez-Alonso, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    3D digital surveying and modelling of cave geometry represents a relevant approach for research, management and preservation of our cultural and geological legacy. In this paper, a multi-sensor approach based on a terrestrial laser scanner, a high-resolution digital camera and a total station is presented. Two emblematic caves of Paleolithic human occupation and situated in northern Spain, “Las Caldas” and “Peña de Candamo”, have been chosen to put in practise this approach. As a result, an integral and multi-scalable 3D model is generated which may allow other scientists, pre-historians, geologists…, to work on two different levels, integrating different Paleolithic Art datasets: (1) a basic level based on the accurate and metric support provided by the laser scanner; and (2) a advanced level using the range and image-based modelling. PMID:22399958

  16. Analytical Investigation Of Pigments, Ground Layer And Media Of Cartonnage Fragments From Greek Roman Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi, Hala. A. M.

    Some cartonnage fragments from Hawara, Fayoum Excavation were examined to identify pigments, media and grounds. It belonged to the Greek-Roman period. They were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDS) equipped with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These techniques were used to identify the composition and morphology of grounds, nature of pigments and media used in cartonnage fragments. The coarse ground layer was composed of calcite and traces of quartz. The fine ground layer used under the pigments directly was composed of calcite only. Carbon black was used as black pigment while lead oxide as red pigment, showing the influence of Roman and Greek pigments on Egyptian art in these later periods. Blue colorant was identified as cuprorivaite and yellow pigment was goethite. Animal glue was used in the four pigments as medium colored.

  17. Radiocarbon dating the late Middle Paleolithic and the Aurignacian of the Swabian Jura.

    PubMed

    Conard, Nicholas J; Bolus, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Many lines of evidence point to the period between roughly 40 and 30 ka BP as the period in which modern humans arrived in Europe and displaced the indigenous Neandertal populations. At the same time, many innovations associated with the Upper Paleolithic--including new stone and organic technologies, use of personal ornaments, figurative art, and musical instruments--are first documented in the European archaeological record. Dating the events of this period is challenging for several reasons. In the period about six to seven radiocarbon half-lives ago, variable preservation, pre-treatment, and sample preparation can easily lead to a lack of reproducibility between samples and laboratories. A range of biological, cultural, and geological processes can lead to mixing of archaeological strata and their contents. Additionally, some data sets point to this period as a time of significant spikes in levels of atmospheric radiocarbon. This paper assesses these questions in the context of the well-excavated and intensively studied caves of Geissenklösterle and Hohle Fels in the Swabian Jura of southwestern Germany. We conclude that variable atmospheric radiocarbon production contributes to the problems of dating the late Middle Paleolithic and the early Upper Paleolithic. To help establish a reliable chronology for the Swabian Aurignacian, we are beginning to focus our dating program on short-lived, stratigraphically secure features to see if they yield reproducible results. This approach may help to test competing explanations for the noisy and often non-reproducible results that arise when trying to date the transition from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic.

  18. Overview of plant pigments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  19. Ancient astronomical culture in Ukraine. 1: Finds relating to the Paleolithic era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilova, Irina B.; Artemenko, Tetyana G.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we describe some archaeological finds in the territory of modern Ukraine which are thought to provide evidence of the ancient astronomical culture of our ancestors. These finds date to Upper and Middle Paleolithic times (i.e. 100,000-12,000 BCE). Among the finds unearthed at the Gontsy and Kiev-Kirillovskaya archaeological sites are mammoth tusk fragments which feature engraved patterns that have been interpreted as tables of lunar phase observations. More remarkable are two mammoth ivory bracelets from the site of Mezin which contain elaborate engraved ornamentation that also has been connected with a lunar calendar. In this paper we also mention astronomical finds at Paleolithic sites on the Crimean peninsula, including the famous solar petroglyph at Chokcurcha-1 and a possible 'star map' engraved on a mammoth shoulder bone that was found at Chokurcha-2. After briefly discussing the problems associated with trying to assign astronomical meaning to these types of archaeological finds, we conclude that a complicated lunar mythology was indeed developed in Paleolithic times.

  20. Beyond the Paleolithic prescription: incorporating diversity and flexibility in the study of human diet evolution.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bethany L; Thompson, Amanda L

    2013-08-01

    Evolutionary paradigms of human health and nutrition center on the evolutionary discordance or "mismatch" model in which human bodies, reflecting adaptations established in the Paleolithic era, are ill-suited to modern industrialized diets, resulting in rapidly increasing rates of chronic metabolic disease. Though this model remains useful, its utility in explaining the evolution of human dietary tendencies is limited. The assumption that human diets are mismatched to the evolved biology of humans implies that the human diet is instinctual or genetically determined and rooted in the Paleolithic era. This review looks at current research indicating that human eating habits are learned primarily through behavioral, social, and physiological mechanisms that start in utero and extend throughout the life course. Adaptations that appear to be strongly genetic likely reflect Neolithic, rather than Paleolithic, adaptations and are significantly influenced by human niche-constructing behavior. Several examples are used to conclude that incorporating a broader understanding of both the evolved mechanisms by which humans learn and imprint eating habits and the reciprocal effects of those habits on physiology would provide useful tools for structuring more lasting nutrition interventions.

  1. Looking at the Camp: Paleolithic Depiction of a Hunter-Gatherer Campsite

    PubMed Central

    García-Diez, Marcos; Vaquero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Landscapes and features of the everyday world were scarcely represented in Paleolithic art, especially those features associated with the human landscape (huts and campsites). On the contrary, other figurative motifs (especially animals) and signs, traditionally linked to the magic or religious conceptions of these hunter-gatherer societies, are the predominant themes of Upper Paleolithic art. This paper seeks to present an engraved schist slab recently found in the Molí del Salt site (North-eastern Iberia) and dated at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, ca. 13,800 years ago. This slab displays seven semicircular motifs that may be interpreted as the representation of dome-shaped huts. The analysis of individual motifs and the composition, as well as the ethnographic and archeological contextualization, suggests that this engraving is a naturalistic depiction of a hunter-gatherer campsite. Campsites can be considered the first human landscape, the first area of land whose visible features were entirely constructed by humans. Given the social meaning of campsites in hunter-gatherer life-styles, this engraving may be considered one of the first representations of the domestic and social space of a human group. PMID:26629824

  2. Looking at the Camp: Paleolithic Depiction of a Hunter-Gatherer Campsite.

    PubMed

    García-Diez, Marcos; Vaquero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Landscapes and features of the everyday world were scarcely represented in Paleolithic art, especially those features associated with the human landscape (huts and campsites). On the contrary, other figurative motifs (especially animals) and signs, traditionally linked to the magic or religious conceptions of these hunter-gatherer societies, are the predominant themes of Upper Paleolithic art. This paper seeks to present an engraved schist slab recently found in the Molí del Salt site (North-eastern Iberia) and dated at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, ca. 13,800 years ago. This slab displays seven semicircular motifs that may be interpreted as the representation of dome-shaped huts. The analysis of individual motifs and the composition, as well as the ethnographic and archeological contextualization, suggests that this engraving is a naturalistic depiction of a hunter-gatherer campsite. Campsites can be considered the first human landscape, the first area of land whose visible features were entirely constructed by humans. Given the social meaning of campsites in hunter-gatherer life-styles, this engraving may be considered one of the first representations of the domestic and social space of a human group.

  3. Multi-method chronological investigation of a Middle Paleolithic stratigraphic context in Eastern Transylvania, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Daniel; Cosac, Marian; Muratoreanu, George; Niţǎ, Loredana; Schmidt, Christoph; Hambach, Ulrich; Hubay, Katalin; Alexandru, Radu; Cuculici, Roxana; Lucian Buzea, Dan; Dumitraşcu, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition is one of the crucial periods of change in the prehistory of Europe due to the full emergence, continent-wide, of modern human technologies, detrimental of Neanderthal survival. Knowledge about the transition is vast, however, the evidence for cultural and technological developments in the Carpathian - Lower Danube area is still rather sparse. Here we discuss latest results arising from an archaeological-chronological investigation of a Middle Paleolithic context within the Varghis karst, eastern Transylvania, Romania. Combining our results with these of previous excavations, we can distinguish several stages of habitation in the area comprising a rock shelter connected to a newly discovered filled-in cave entrance. Reanalysis of the deeper stratigraphy previously unexcavated shows that at least two main habitation levels have been preserved. In both levels, the bone assemblages (Bos/Bison, Capra, Canis lupus, Ursus spaeleus) directly associated with lithics point to human-accumulation of material. In order to augment the typological cultural considerations, we applied direct radiocarbon dating on bones from within the occupation layers and on scattered charcoal, for the latter following a two-step combustion protocol (1). Radiocarbon dating on bones suggests the lowermost occupation layer is >43.4 radiocarbon kyr BP old, whereas the preliminary infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) ages on the lowermost productive layer and above it indicate surprisingly old ages of ca. 120 kyr and respectively, ca. 70 kyr. Multiple-protocol dating of charcoal found within the two habitation layers produced ages >38 radiocarbon kyr BP, suggesting that the lowermost habitation layer unequivocally pertains to the Middle Paleolithic industries. For the upper productive layer, radiocarbon dating of charcoal found 20 cm above it produced a surprisingly young age of 17.4 radiocarbon kyr BP. However, as the carbon content of this sample was

  4. Effect of cadmium chloride on the distal retinal pigment cells of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, P.S.; Fingerman, M.; Nguyen, L.K.; Obih, P.

    1997-03-01

    Crustaceans have two sets of pigmentary effectors, chromatophores and retinal pigment cells. Retinal pigments control the amount of light striking the rhabdom, the photosensitive portion of each ommatidium, screening the rhabdom in bright light and uncovering it in darkness or dim light. Migration of the distal pigment in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilalor, is regulated by a light-adapting hormone and a dark-adapting hormone. The black chromatophores of this crab are also controlled by a pair of hormones. Both pigmentary effectors exhibit circadian rhythms. The effects of some organic and inorganic pollutants on the ability of Uca pugilator to change color have been described. Exposure of this crab to naphthalene or cadmium results in decreased ability to disperse the pigment in their black chromatophores, the exposed crabs becoming paler than the unexposed crabs. Norepinephrine triggers release of both the black pigment-dispersing hormone and the light-adapting hormone. In view of the facts that (a) these hormones which regulate the black chromatophores and distal pigment are synthesized in and released from the eyestalk neuroendocrine complex, (b) the black pigment-dispersing hormone and the light-adapting hormone may actually be the same hormone. having two different activities and (c) release of both the black pigment-dispersing hormone and the light-adapting hormone is triggered by norepinephrine, the present investigation was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium on distal pigment migration in Uca pugilator. More specifically, for comparison with the previously reported effect of cadmium on pigment migration in the black chromatophores, we wished to determine whether the distal pigment of fiddler crabs exposed to cadmium chloride is capable of as wide a range of movement as in unexposed crabs, and if not what might be the explanation. This is the first report of the effect of a pollutant on a retinal pigment of any crustacean. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Dermoscopic Features of Pigmented Bowen's Disease in a Japanese Female Mimicking Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Ken; Sawada, Mizuki; Ishizaki, Sumiko; Ito, Haruo; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Tanaka, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    Various structures have been reported for dermoscopic features of pigmented Bowen's disease (BD), which could be a mimic of various pigmented skin lesions. A 79-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 3-year history of brown-black macule on her right upper arm without symptom. Dermoscopic examination demonstrated irregular flossy streaks, irregular brown dots/globules, blue-whitish regression structures, and overlaying whitish scaly areas. We suspected pigmented skin lesions including seborrheic keratosis, pigmented eccrine poroma, and malignant melanoma and excised completely with a 5 mm margin. Histopathological features were consistent with a diagnosis of pigmented BD. Although similar dermoscopic features might be revealed in pigmented skin lesions and it may occasionally be difficult to distinguish between pigmented BD and other pigmented skin lesions, dermoscopy would be useful in speculating pathologic features of pigmented BD. PMID:20811602

  6. Dating the Lower to Middle Paleolithic transition in the Levant: a view from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel.

    PubMed

    Valladas, Hélène; Mercier, Norbert; Hershkovitz, Israel; Zaidner, Yossi; Tsatskin, Alexander; Yeshurun, Reuven; Vialettes, Laurence; Joron, Jean-Louis; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Weinstein-Evron, Mina

    2013-11-01

    The transition from the Lower to the Middle Paleolithic in the Levant is a crucial event in human evolution, since it may involve the arrival of a new human population. In the current study, we present thermoluminescence (TL) dates obtained from 32 burnt flints retrieved from the late Lower Paleolithic (Acheulo-Yabrudian) and Early Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) layers of Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel. Early Middle Paleolithic industries rich in Levallois and laminar products were assigned mean ages ranging from ~250 to ~160 ka (thousands of years ago), suggesting a production of this industry during MIS 7 and the early part of MIS 6. The mean ages obtained for the samples associated with the Acheulo-Yabrudian (strengthened by an isochron analysis) indicate a production of this cultural complex ~250 ka ago, at the end of MIS 8. According to the Misliya TL dates, the transition from the Lower to the Middle Paleolithic in the site took place at the limit MIS 8/7 or during the early part of MIS 7. The dates, together with the pronounced differences in lithic technology strongly suggest the arrival of a new population during this period.

  7. Taphonomic analysis of the hominin remains from Swabian Jura and their implications for the mortuary practices during the Upper Paleolithic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Nohemi; Conard, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    The symbolic behavior of human beings usually is manifested in different ways such as figurative art, musical traditions, spoken language or complex funerary behavior. The Paleolithic sites of the Swabian Jura contain a rich archaeological record including the oldest evidence of musical instruments and figurative art which indicates complex cognitive abilities of the Paleolithic Homo sapiens that colonized Europe. Nevertheless, there is no evidence for burials in the Swabian caves during the Paleolithic. This raises questions regarding the kind of mortuary practices that existed in this region during the Paleolithic. In this paper, we address these questions from a taphonomic perspective by analyzing the hominin remains recovered in caves of the Swabian Jura. Whatever the funerary behavior was during the Early and Middle Upper Paleolithic, we have no evidence to document these practices. The Magdalenian hominin remains from Brillenhöhle, however, display anthropic modifications that have been hotly debated in the past. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the assemblage displays traces of butchery similar to those recorded in the faunal remains. In addition to the cut marks, we have documented intentional breakage and human tooth marks, suggesting that the consumption of human corpses took place during the Magdalenian at Brillenhöhle. Similar anthropic modifications have also been documented in Magdalenian horizon at Hohle Fels. This suggests that the cannibalism practices during the Magdalenian were more common than previously expected during the Magdalenian in the Swabian Jura.

  8. Early Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe and implications for the dispersal of modern humans.

    PubMed

    Anikovich, M V; Sinitsyn, A A; Hoffecker, John F; Holliday, Vance T; Popov, V V; Lisitsyn, S N; Forman, Steven L; Levkovskaya, G M; Pospelova, G A; Kuz'mina, I E; Burova, N D; Goldberg, Paul; Macphail, Richard I; Giaccio, Biagio; Praslov, N D

    2007-01-12

    Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating and magnetic stratigraphy indicate Upper Paleolithic occupation-probably representing modern humans-at archaeological sites on the Don River in Russia 45,000 to 42,000 years ago. The oldest levels at Kostenki underlie a volcanic ash horizon identified as the Campanian Ignimbrite Y5 tephra that is dated elsewhere to about 40,000 years ago. The occupation layers contain bone and ivory artifacts, including possible figurative art, and fossil shells imported more than 500 kilometers. Thus, modern humans appeared on the central plain of Eastern Europe as early as anywhere else in northern Eurasia.

  9. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Maki, Julia; Zilhão, João

    2007-10-01

    Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to approximately 39 ka 14C BP ( approximately 43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing.

  10. The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective.

    PubMed

    Semino, O; Passarino, G; Oefner, P J; Lin, A A; Arbuzova, S; Beckman, L E; De Benedictis, G; Francalacci, P; Kouvatsi, A; Limborska, S; Marcikiae, M; Mika, A; Mika, B; Primorac, D; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A S; Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Underhill, P A

    2000-11-10

    A genetic perspective of human history in Europe was derived from 22 binary markers of the nonrecombining Y chromosome (NRY). Ten lineages account for >95% of the 1007 European Y chromosomes studied. Geographic distribution and age estimates of alleles are compatible with two Paleolithic and one Neolithic migratory episode that have contributed to the modern European gene pool. A significant correlation between the NRY haplotype data and principal components based on 95 protein markers was observed, indicating the effectiveness of NRY binary polymorphisms in the characterization of human population composition and history.

  11. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  12. Pigments in avocado tissue and oil.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Ofelia B O; Wong, Marie; McGhie, Tony K; Vather, Rosheila; Wang, Yan; Requejo-Jackman, Cecilia; Ramankutty, Padmaja; Woolf, Allan B

    2006-12-27

    Pigments are important contributors to the appearance and healthful properties of both avocado fruits and the oils extracted from these fruits. This study determined carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment concentrations in the skin and three sections of the flesh (outer dark green, middle pale green, and inner yellow flesh-nearest the seed) and anthocyanin concentrations in the skin of Hass avocado during ripening at 20 degrees C. Pigments were extracted from frozen tissue with acetone and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pigments were also measured in the oil extracted from freeze-dried tissue sections by an accelerated solvent extraction system using hexane. Carotenoids and chlorophylls identified in the skin, flesh, and oil were lutein, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, chlorophylls a and b, and pheophytins a and b with the highest concentrations of all pigments in the skin. Chlorophyllides a and b were identified in the skin and flesh tissues only. As the fruit ripened and softened, the skin changed from green to purple/black, corresponding to changes in skin hue angle, and a concomitant increase in cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and the loss of chlorophyllide a. In flesh tissue, chroma and lightness values decreased with ripening, with no changes in hue angle. The levels of carotenoids and chlorophylls did not change significantly during ripening. As fruit ripened, the total chlorophyll level in the oil from the flesh sections remained constant but declined in the oil extracted from the skin.

  13. Blackberry pigment (whitlockite) gallstones in uremic patient.

    PubMed

    Cariati, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Black pigment gallstones represent nearly the 15% of all gallstones and are usually related with the typical "hyperbilirubinbilia" factors as hemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis, pathologic enterohepatic cycling of unconjugated bilirubin, cirrhosis and with gallbladder mucosa (parietal) factors as adenomyomatosis. During a prospective study on 179 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for gallstone disease a 69-year-old female with predialysis chronic kidney disease was operated for symptomatic gallstone. The removed gallstones were black pigment gallstones, with an irregular (as small blackberry) surface. Analysis of the stones revealed a great amount of whitlockite (Ca Mg)3 (PO4)2. Recent studies on chronic renal failure patients found that chronic uremia is associated with an increased risk of gallstones formation (22%) as it seems in women affected by primary hyperparathyroidism (30%). The presence of calcium phosphate gallstones in these patients have been never described. In conclusion, further studies could be necessary to establish the role of chronic renal failure and of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism in gallstones formation and, in particular, if dialysis and predialysis patients have an higher risk to develop cholesterol and black pigment gallstones in particular of the "blackberry" (whitlockite) subtype.

  14. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  15. Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Tom; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Karavanić, Ivor; Smith, Fred H.; Trinkaus, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The 1998/1999 direct dating of two Neandertal specimens from level G1 of Vindija Cave in Croatia to ≈28,000 and ≈29,000 radiocarbon (14C) years ago has led to interpretations concerning the late survival of Neandertals in south-central Europe, patterns of interaction between Neandertals and in-dispersing early modern humans in Europe, and complex biocultural scenarios for the earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic. Given improvements, particularly in sample pretreatment techniques for bone radiocarbon samples, especially ultrafiltration of collagen samples, these Vindija G1 Neandertal fossils are redated to ≈32,000–33,000 14C years ago and possibly earlier. These results and the recent redating of a number of purportedly old modern human skeletal remains in Europe to younger time periods highlight the importance of fine chronological control when studying this biocultural time period and the tenuous nature of monolithic scenarios for the establishment of modern humans and earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe. PMID:16407102

  16. Fine Dissection of Human Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup HV Lineages Reveals Paleolithic Signatures from European Glacial Refugia

    PubMed Central

    Sarno, Stefania; Sevini, Federica; Vianello, Dario; Tamm, Erika; Metspalu, Ene; van Oven, Mannis; Hübner, Alexander; Sazzini, Marco; Franceschi, Claudio; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Genetic signatures from the Paleolithic inhabitants of Eurasia can be traced from the early divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages still present in contemporary human populations. Previous studies already suggested a pre-Neolithic diffusion of mitochondrial haplogroup HV*(xH,V) lineages, a relatively rare class of mtDNA types that includes parallel branches mainly distributed across Europe and West Asia with a certain degree of structure. Up till now, variation within haplogroup HV was addressed mainly by analyzing sequence data from the mtDNA control region, except for specific sub-branches, such as HV4 or the widely distributed haplogroups H and V. In this study, we present a revised HV topology based on full mtDNA genome data, and we include a comprehensive dataset consisting of 316 complete mtDNA sequences including 60 new samples from the Italian peninsula, a previously underrepresented geographic area. We highlight points of instability in the particular topology of this haplogroup, reconstructed with BEAST-generated trees and networks. We also confirm a major lineage expansion that probably followed the Late Glacial Maximum and preceded Neolithic population movements. We finally observe that Italy harbors a reservoir of mtDNA diversity, with deep-rooting HV lineages often related to sequences present in the Caucasus and the Middle East. The resulting hypothesis of a glacial refugium in Southern Italy has implications for the understanding of late Paleolithic population movements and is discussed within the archaeological cultural shifts occurred over the entire continent. PMID:26640946

  17. Integration of the response to a dietary potassium load: a paleolithic perspective.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Kamel S; Schreiber, Martin; Halperin, Mitchell L

    2014-05-01

    Our purpose is to integrate new insights in potassium (K(+)) physiology to understand K(+) homeostasis and illustrate some of their clinical implications. Since control mechanisms that are essential for survival were likely developed in Paleolithic times, we think the physiology of K(+) homeostasis can be better revealed when viewed from what was required to avoid threats and achieve balance in Paleolithic times. Three issues will be highlighted. First, we shall consider the integrative physiology of the gastrointestinal tract and the role of lactic acid released from enterocytes following absorption of sugars (fruit and berries) to cause a shift of this K(+) load into the liver. Second, we shall discuss the integrative physiology of WNK kinases and modulation of delivery of bicarbonate to the distal nephron to switch the aldosterone response from sodium chloride retention to K(+) secretion when faced with a K(+) load. Third, we shall emphasize the role of intra-renal recycling of urea in achieving K(+) homeostasis when the diet contains protein and K(+).

  18. Paleolithic human exploitation of plant foods during the last glacial maximum in North China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Bestel, Sheahan; Shi, Jinming; Song, Yanhua; Chen, Xingcan

    2013-04-02

    Three grinding stones from Shizitan Locality 14 (ca. 23,000-19,500 calendar years before present) in the middle Yellow River region were subjected to usewear and residue analyses to investigate human adaptation during the last glacial maximum (LGM) period, when resources were generally scarce and plant foods may have become increasingly important in the human diet. The results show that these tools were used to process various plants, including Triticeae and Paniceae grasses, Vigna beans, Dioscorea opposita yam, and Trichosanthes kirilowii snakegourd roots. Tubers were important food resources for Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, and Paniceae grasses were exploited about 12,000 y before their domestication. The long tradition of intensive exploitation of certain types of flora helped Paleolithic people understand the properties of these plants, including their medicinal uses, and eventually led to the plants' domestication. This study sheds light on the deep history of the broad spectrum subsistence strategy characteristic of late Pleistocene north China before the origins of agriculture in this region.

  19. Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Higham, Tom; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Karavanić, Ivor; Smith, Fred H; Trinkaus, Erik

    2006-01-17

    The 1998/1999 direct dating of two Neandertal specimens from level G(1) of Vindija Cave in Croatia to approximately 28,000 and approximately 29,000 radiocarbon ((14)C) years ago has led to interpretations concerning the late survival of Neandertals in south-central Europe, patterns of interaction between Neandertals and in-dispersing early modern humans in Europe, and complex biocultural scenarios for the earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic. Given improvements, particularly in sample pretreatment techniques for bone radiocarbon samples, especially ultrafiltration of collagen samples, these Vindija G(1) Neandertal fossils are redated to approximately 32,000-33,000 (14)C years ago and possibly earlier. These results and the recent redating of a number of purportedly old modern human skeletal remains in Europe to younger time periods highlight the importance of fine chronological control when studying this biocultural time period and the tenuous nature of monolithic scenarios for the establishment of modern humans and earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe.

  20. The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition: dating, stratigraphy, and isochronous markers.

    PubMed

    Blockley, S P E; Ramsey, C Bronk; Higham, T F G

    2008-11-01

    Accurate and precise dating is vital to our understanding of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. There are, however, a number of uncertainties in the chronologies currently available for this period. We attempt to examine these uncertainties by utilizing a number of recent developments in the field. These include: the precise dating of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) tephra by 40Ar/39Ar; the tracing of this tephra to a number of deposits that are radiocarbon dated; the publication of revised radiocarbon calibration data for the period, showing a much better convergence with other available data than during the recent IntCal comparison; and a layer-counted ice-core chronology extending beyond 40,000cal BP. Our data comparisons suggest that a reasonable overall convergence between calibrated radiocarbon ages and calendar dates is possible using the new curves. Additionally, we suggest that charcoal-based radiocarbon ages, as well as bone-based radiocarbon determinations, require cautious interpretation in this period. Potentially, these issues extend far beyond the sites in this study and should be of serious concern to archaeologists studying the Middle to Upper Paleolithic. We conclude by outlining a strategy for moving the science forward by a closer integration of archaeology, chronology, and stratigraphy.

  1. Paleolithic human exploitation of plant foods during the last glacial maximum in North China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Bestel, Sheahan; Shi, Jinming; Song, Yanhua; Chen, Xingcan

    2013-01-01

    Three grinding stones from Shizitan Locality 14 (ca. 23,000–19,500 calendar years before present) in the middle Yellow River region were subjected to usewear and residue analyses to investigate human adaptation during the last glacial maximum (LGM) period, when resources were generally scarce and plant foods may have become increasingly important in the human diet. The results show that these tools were used to process various plants, including Triticeae and Paniceae grasses, Vigna beans, Dioscorea opposita yam, and Trichosanthes kirilowii snakegourd roots. Tubers were important food resources for Paleolithic hunter–gatherers, and Paniceae grasses were exploited about 12,000 y before their domestication. The long tradition of intensive exploitation of certain types of flora helped Paleolithic people understand the properties of these plants, including their medicinal uses, and eventually led to the plants' domestication. This study sheds light on the deep history of the broad spectrum subsistence strategy characteristic of late Pleistocene north China before the origins of agriculture in this region. PMID:23509257

  2. The Persistence of Mode 1 Technology in the Korean Late Paleolithic

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong Woo

    2013-01-01

    Ssangjungri (SJ), an open-air site with several Paleolithic horizons, was recently discovered in South Korea. Most of the identified artifacts are simple core and flake tools that indicate an expedient knapping strategy. Bifacially worked core tools, which might be considered non-classic bifaces, also have been found. The prolific horizons at the site were dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to about 30 kya. Another newly discovered Paleolithic open-air site, Jeungsan (JS), shows a homogeneous lithic pattern during this period. The dominated artifact types and usage of raw materials are similar in character to those from SJ, although JS yielded a larger number of simple core and flake tools with non-classic bifaces. Chronometric analysis by AMS and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) indicate that the prime stratigraphic levels at JS also date to approximately 30 kya, and the numerous conjoining pieces indicate that the layers were not seriously affected by post-depositional processes. Thus, it can be confirmed that simple core and flake tools were produced at temporally and culturally independent sites until after 30 kya, supporting the hypothesis of a wide and persistent use of simple technology into the Late Pleistocene. PMID:23724113

  3. Ion transport in pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Oancea, Elena V.

    2014-01-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system,, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis. PMID:25034214

  4. Ion transport in pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Oancea, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis.

  5. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P < .001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P < .001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

  6. Site formation and chronology of the new Paleolithic site Sima de Las Palomas de Teba, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehl, Martin; Burow, Christoph; Cantalejo, Pedro; Domínguez-Bella, Salvador; Durán, Juan José; Henselowsky, Felix; Klasen, Nicole; Linstädter, Jörg; Medianero, Javier; Pastoors, Andreas; Ramos, José; Reicherter, Klaus; Schmidt, Christoph; Weniger, Gerd-Christian

    2016-03-01

    The newly identified Paleolithic site Sima de Las Palomas de Teba hosts an almost seven-m-thick sediment profile investigated here to elucidate the rock shelter's chronostratigraphy and formation processes. At its base, the sediment sequence contains rich archeological deposits recording intensive occupation by Neanderthals. Luminescence provides a terminus ante quem of 39.4 ± 2.6 ka or 44.9 ± 4.1 ka (OSL) and 51.4 ± 8.4 ka (TL). This occupation ended with a rockfall event followed by accumulation of archeologically sterile sediments. These were covered by sediments containing few Middle Paleolithic artifacts, which either indicate ephemeral occupation by Neanderthals or reworking as suggested by micromorphological features. Above this unit, scattered lithic artifacts of undiagnostic character may represent undefined Paleolithic occupations. Sediment burial ages between about 23.0 ± 1.5 ka (OSL) and 40.5 ± 3.4 ka (pIRIR) provide an Upper Paleolithic chronology for sediments deposited above the rockfall. Finally, a dung-bearing Holocene layer in the uppermost part of the sequence contains a fragment of a human mandible dated to 4032 ± 39 14C yr BP. Overall, the sequence represents an important new site for studying the end of Neanderthal occupation in southern Spain.

  7. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Spiewak, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review recent studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns. PMID:25421288

  8. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution.

    PubMed

    Parichy, David M; Spiewak, Jessica E

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage, and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve-associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns.

  9. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  10. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-16

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  11. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta Da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Willman, John C; Maki, Julia; Bayle, Priscilla; Trinkaus, Erik; Zilhão, João

    2012-09-01

    Additional Middle Paleolithic human remains from layers 17, 18, and 22 of the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal consist of a proximal manual phalanx 2 (Oliveira 5), a partial postcanine tooth (Oliveira 6), a humeral diaphysis (Oliveira 7), a distal mandibular molar (Oliveira 8), and a mandibular premolar (P(3) ) (Oliveira 9). Oliveira 5, 6, and 8 are unremarkable for Late Pleistocene humans. The Oliveira 7 right humerus is moderately robust or the individual had the stocky body proportions of other European (including Iberian) Neandertals. The Oliveira 9 P(3) has a large and symmetrical crown and lacks a distal accessory ridge and accessory lingual cusps, overlapping both Neandertal and recent human ranges of variation. It contrasts with at least recent human P(3) s in having relatively thin enamel. These join the Oliveira 1 to 4 remains in further documenting early MIS 3 Neandertal morphology in western Iberia.

  12. U-series dating of Paleolithic art in 11 caves in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pike, A W G; Hoffmann, D L; García-Diez, M; Pettitt, P B; Alcolea, J; De Balbín, R; González-Sainz, C; de las Heras, C; Lasheras, J A; Montes, R; Zilhão, J

    2012-06-15

    Paleolithic cave art is an exceptional archive of early human symbolic behavior, but because obtaining reliable dates has been difficult, its chronology is still poorly understood after more than a century of study. We present uranium-series disequilibrium dates of calcite deposits overlying or underlying art found in 11 caves, including the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage sites of Altamira, El Castillo, and Tito Bustillo, Spain. The results demonstrate that the tradition of decorating caves extends back at least to the Early Aurignacian period, with minimum ages of 40.8 thousand years for a red disk, 37.3 thousand years for a hand stencil, and 35.6 thousand years for a claviform-like symbol. These minimum ages reveal either that cave art was a part of the cultural repertoire of the first anatomically modern humans in Europe or that perhaps Neandertals also engaged in painting caves.

  13. Early Levallois technology and the Lower to Middle Paleolithic transition in the Southern Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Adler, D S; Wilkinson, K N; Blockley, S; Mark, D F; Pinhasi, R; Schmidt-Magee, B A; Nahapetyan, S; Mallol, C; Berna, F; Glauberman, P J; Raczynski-Henk, Y; Wales, N; Frahm, E; Jöris, O; MacLeod, A; Smith, V C; Cullen, V L; Gasparian, B

    2014-09-26

    The Lower to Middle Paleolithic transition (~400,000 to 200,000 years ago) is marked by technical, behavioral, and anatomical changes among hominin populations throughout Africa and Eurasia. The replacement of bifacial stone tools, such as handaxes, by tools made on flakes detached from Levallois cores documents the most important conceptual shift in stone tool production strategies since the advent of bifacial technology more than one million years earlier and has been argued to result from the expansion of archaic Homo sapiens out of Africa. Our data from Nor Geghi 1, Armenia, record the earliest synchronic use of bifacial and Levallois technology outside Africa and are consistent with the hypothesis that this transition occurred independently within geographically dispersed, technologically precocious hominin populations with a shared technological ancestry.

  14. Tephra studies and the reconstruction of Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic cultural trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Errico, Francesco; Banks, William E.

    2015-06-01

    This study describes an approach which combines tephra records with archaeological and contextual data in order to propose best fit scenarios for past cultural changes and population events. With this goal in mind, we critically examine the environmental, archaeological, anthropological, and chronometric records of the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic (MUP) Transition (45-35 ka) in Europe and identify a number of shortcomings that make it difficult to correlate and interpret current evidence with respect to historical processes. The utility and limitations of tephra records are highlighted and an heuristic strategy, designed to merge evidence from tephra and other proxies, is described. Such a strategy is used to explore the stratigraphic and chronological relationship between the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption and the cultural changes that occurred during the MUP Transition in Southern Europe. Uncertainties pertaining to the timing of this volcanic event are discussed before summarizing the stratigraphic and cultural sequences of the eleven archaeological sites (Haua Fteah, Kozarnica, Franchthi Cave, Klissoura, Golema Pesht, Cavallo, Serino, Castelcivita, Tabula Traiana, Temnata, Kostenki 14) where the CI tephra has been reliably identified, along with three sites (Uluzzo, Uluzzo C, Bernardini) where such an identification remains tentative. We conclude that if one discards as inconclusive the recent attribution of the Uluzzian to modern humans, the best fit historical scenario that stems from a critical reading of the evidence identifies the Uluzzian as the result of in-situ cultural evolution of late Mousterian populations in this region of Southern Europe. Such evolution, which entails the independent development of cultural innovations typically found in subsequent cultures of the Upper Paleolithic, would have been truncated, before the CI event, by the arrival of modern or Neanderthal-modern hybrid populations bearing the Proto-Aurignacian material culture.

  15. Genetic evidence of paleolithic colonization and neolithic expansion of modern humans on the tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xuebin; Cui, Chaoying; Peng, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Hui; Xiang, Kun; Cao, Xiangyu; Wang, Yi; Ouzhuluobu; Basang; Ciwangsangbu; Bianba; Gonggalanzi; Wu, Tianyi; Chen, Hua; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

    2013-08-01

    Tibetans live on the highest plateau in the world, their current population size is approximately 5 million, and most of them live at an altitude exceeding 3,500 m. Therefore, the Tibetan Plateau is a remarkable area for cultural and biological studies of human population history. However, the chronological profile of the Tibetan Plateau's colonization remains an unsolved question of human prehistory. To reconstruct the prehistoric colonization and demographic history of modern humans on the Tibetan Plateau, we systematically sampled 6,109 Tibetan individuals from 41 geographic populations across the entire region of the Tibetan Plateau and analyzed the phylogeographic patterns of both paternal (n = 2,354) and maternal (n = 6,109) lineages as well as genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers (n = 50) in Tibetan populations. We found that there have been two distinct, major prehistoric migrations of modern humans into the Tibetan Plateau. The first migration was marked by ancient Tibetan genetic signatures dated to approximately 30,000 years ago, indicating that the initial peopling of the Tibetan Plateau by modern humans occurred during the Upper Paleolithic rather than Neolithic. We also found evidences for relatively young (only 7-10 thousand years old) shared Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes between Tibetans and Han Chinese, suggesting a second wave of migration during the early Neolithic. Collectively, the genetic data indicate that Tibetans have been adapted to a high altitude environment since initial colonization of the Tibetan Plateau in the early Upper Paleolithic, before the last glacial maximum, followed by a rapid population expansion that coincided with the establishment of farming and yak pastoralism on the Plateau in the early Neolithic.

  16. Laser-generated acoustic wave studies on tattoo pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Lorna M.; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.

    1996-01-01

    A Q-switched alexandrite laser (180 ns at 755 nm) was used to irradiate samples of agar embedded with red, black and green tattoo dyes. The acoustic waves generated in the samples were detected using a PVDF membrane hydrophone and compared to theoretical expectations. The laser pulses were found to generate acoustic waves in the black and green samples but not in the red pigment. Pressures of up to 1.4 MPa were produced with irradiances of up to 96 MWcm-2 which is comparable to the irradiances used to clear pigment embedded in skin. The pressure gradient generated across pigment particles was approximately 1.09 X 1010 Pam-1 giving a pressure difference of 1.09 +/- 0.17 MPa over a particle with mean diameter 100 micrometers . This is not sufficient to permanently damage skin which has a tensile strength of 7.4 MPa.

  17. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  18. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  19. Pigmented central neurocytoma.

    PubMed

    Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kalkanis, Steven N; Louis, David N

    2004-06-01

    Central neurocytoma is a low-grade neuronal neoplasm that occurs most often within the lateral ventricles. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with gait problems, headache and memory loss. Preoperative evaluation demonstrated a heterogeneous, hypervascular and partially cystic mass in the left lateral ventricle. Histopathological examination revealed characteristic features of central neurocytoma, including immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, as well as the unusual feature of abundant pigment in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Special stains revealed iron, consistent with hemosiderin, but found no evidence of melanin or melanosomes. Previous reports of pigmented central neurocytoma have described the presence of lipofuscin or neuromelanin. To our knowledge, the present case represents the first example of pigmented central neurocytoma secondary to hemosiderin deposition.

  20. Biology of pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, F.

    1981-01-01

    The many factors involved in the normal pigmentation of human skin are highly complex involving anatomic, biochemical, and genetic aspects of melanocytes in the skin and the influence of UV light and various hormones on the melanocytes. It is probably more than just coincidence that the melanocytes, which are of neurogenic origin, are so responsive to several trophic hormones produced in the brain. Understanding of the various factors involved in the normal pigmentary process is crucial to explaining the many alterations and anomalies in human pigmentation.

  1. Paleolithic hominin remains from Eshkaft-e Gavi (southern Zagros Mountains, Iran): description, affinities, and evidence for butchery.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeremiah E; Marean, Curtis W

    2009-09-01

    Eshkaft-e Gavi is a cave located in the southern Zagros Mountains of Iran and is one of the few archaeological sites in the region to preserve both Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic occupations. Excavation of the site in the 1970s yielded an assemblage of lithic and faunal remains, including ten hominin specimens: a mandibular molar, four cranial fragments, a clavicular diaphysis, the proximal half of a metacarpal, a fragment of os coxa, the proximal diaphysis of a juvenile femur, and a patella. The bones derive from a minimum of four individuals, including two juveniles. Although many of these remains could be Epi-Paleolithic in age, one of the juvenile specimens-the mandibular molar-occurs at the base of the cave's Upper Paleolithic sequence. The remains are very fragmentary, but those that preserve diagnostic morphology indicate that they represent modern humans. The molar is taxonomically diagnostic, thus confirming the association of the Aurignacian-like Baradostian Industry with modern humans. Four of the specimens-a piece of frontal bone, the clavicle, the juvenile femur, and the patella-display clear evidence for intentional butchery in the form of stone-tool cutmarks. These cutmarked specimens, along with a fragment of parietal bone, are also burned. Although this evidence is consistent with cannibalism, the small sample makes it difficult to say whether or not the individuals represented by the hominin remains were butchered and cooked for consumption. Nevertheless, the cutmarked Eshkaft-e Gavi specimens add to a growing sample of hominin remains extending back into the Plio-Pleistocene that display evidence of intentional defleshing.

  2. Characterizing the Lower Paleolithic bone industry from Schöningen 12 II: A multi-proxy study.

    PubMed

    Julien, Marie-Anne; Hardy, Bruce; Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Urban, Brigitte; Serangeli, Jordi; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    Although preservation of Paleolithic faunal assemblages from open-air settings is often poor, the Lower Paleolithic sites of Schöningen provide exceptionally well-preserved mammalian faunal material for investigating hominin/animal relationships. Pleistocene fossil assemblages, however, usually reflect a complex taphonomic history in which natural and anthropogenic processes are often superimposed. A number of examples of osseous finds that resemble tools were recently discovered in the MIS 9 deposits of Schöningen 12 II. Non-anthropogenic agents are known to produce surface modifications mimicking human artifacts and the identification of osseous remains used and/or deliberately modified by ancient hominins is often controversial in such old contexts. Multiple lines of evidence are thus useful for distinguishing between osseous artifacts and "eco-facts". In this paper, the recognition of the use of bone for different technological purposes by late Middle Pleistocene hominins is addressed through a multi-proxy study combining geoarcheology, bone taphonomy, zooarcheology, and use-wear analysis. This allowed the identification of the processes and agents responsible for the formation and modification of the different bone assemblages of Schöningen 12 II. Our analysis points to different types of bones having been likely used as tools. These results expand the diversity of the organic technological repertoire of the Middle Pleistocene hominins, making Schöningen 12 II a remarkable new source of information on osseous technology long before the Upper Paleolithic, the period traditionally viewed as the start of the systematic use of bone tools. Together with other observations of bone tools documented during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic, the results from Schöningen show that archeologists may have underestimated the diversity and importance of osseous technology among archaic hominins.

  3. 3D morphometric analysis of fossil canid skulls contradicts the suggested domestication of dogs during the late Paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Drake, Abby Grace; Coquerelle, Michael; Colombeau, Guillaume

    2015-02-05

    Whether dogs were domesticated during the Pleistocene, when humans were hunter-gatherers, or during the Neolithic, when humans began to form permanent settlements and engage in agriculture, remains controversial. Recently discovered Paleolithic fossil skulls, Goyet dated 31,680 +/- 250 YBP and Eliseevichi MAE 447/5298 dated 13,905 +/- 55 YBP, were previously identified as dogs. However, new genetic studies contradict the identification of these specimens as dogs, questioning the validity of traditional measurements used to morphologically identify canid fossil skulls. We employ 3D geometric morphometric analyses to compare the cranial morphology of Goyet and Eliseevichi MAE to that of ancient and modern dogs and wolves. We demonstrate that these Paleolithic canids are definitively wolves and not dogs. Compared to mesaticephalic (wolf-like breeds) dog skulls, Goyet and Eliseevichi MAE, do not have cranial flexion and the dorsal surface of their muzzles has no concavity near the orbits. Morphologically, these early fossil canids resemble wolves, and thus no longer support the establishment of dog domestication in the Paleolithic.

  4. Novel Application of the Masson-Fontana Stain for Demonstrating Malassezia Species Melanin-Like Pigment Production In Vitro and in Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Gaitanis, George; Chasapi, Vassiliki; Velegraki, Aristea

    2005-01-01

    Melanin-like pigment produced in vitro and in vivo by Malassezia yeasts has not been described before. Masson-Fontana staining confirmed accumulation of black pigment on the cell walls of l-dihydroxyphenylalaline (l-DOPA)-cultured Malassezia species. Black pigment was also observed in cells and hyphae from hyperpigmented patient lesions with culture-confirmed pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:16081962

  5. Genetics of pigmentation in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Kaelin, Christopher B; Barsh, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Color variation in companion animals has long been of interest to the breeding and scientific communities. Simple traits, like black versus brown or yellow versus black, have helped to explain principles of transmission genetics and continue to serve as models for studying gene action and interaction. We present a molecular genetic review of pigmentary variation in dogs and cats using a nomenclature and logical framework established by early leaders in the field. For most loci in which molecular variants have been identified (nine in dogs and seven in cats), homologous mutations exist in laboratory mice and/or humans. Exceptions include the K locus in dogs and the Tabby locus in cats, which give rise to alternating stripes or marks of different color, and which illustrate the continued potential of coat color genetics to provide insight into areas that transcend pigment cell biology.

  6. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (−1.99 kg, 95% CI −2.9, −1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (−14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI −19.5, −9.7), sodium (−1055 mg/day, 95% CI −1593, −518), calcium (−292 mg/day 95% CI −486.0, −99.0) and iodine (−47.9 μg/day, 95% CI −79.2, −16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  7. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-05-23

    (1) BACKGROUND: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) METHODS: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) RESULTS: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (-1.99 kg, 95% CI -2.9, -1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (-14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI -19.5, -9.7), sodium (-1055 mg/day, 95% CI -1593, -518), calcium (-292 mg/day 95% CI -486.0, -99.0) and iodine (-47.9 μg/day, 95% CI -79.2, -16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations.

  8. Determination of pigments in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Schoefs, Benoît

    2004-10-29

    Plant pigments are responsible for the shining color of plant tissues. They are also found in animal tissues and, eventually in transformed food products as additives. These pigments have an important impact on the commercial value of products, because the colors establish the first contact with the consumer. In addition plant pigments may have an influence on the health of the consumers. Pigments are labile: they can be easily altered, and even destroyed. Analytical processes have been developed to determine pigment composition. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of these methods.

  9. Terahertz Analysis of Quinacridone Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, A. D.; Kelly, M.; Lewis, R. A.

    2017-03-01

    We present terahertz spectroscopy and analysis of two commercially available quinacridone pigments in the 0.5-4.5 THz range. Our results show a clear distinction between quinacridone red and magenta pigments. We reveal four definite absorptions in the terahertz regime common to both pigments, but offset between the pigments by ˜0.2 THz. The lowest-energy line in each pigment is observed to increase in frequency by ˜0.1 THz as the temperature is reduced from 300 to 12 K.

  10. A spontaneous eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) color mutant conditions anthocyanin-free fruit pigmentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced or spontaneously occuring color mutants in plants provide valuable tools for elucidating the genetic and developmental regulation of genes that influence pigmentation. We identified a single plant of the eggplant (Solanum melongena) cultivar Black Beauty bearing green fruit. Black Beauty no...

  11. Treatment of gingival pigmentation: a case series.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Prasad; Sunil, S; Mishra, R; Sheshadri

    2005-01-01

    A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of 'black gums' are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile). For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision) cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  12. Dating the Lower Paleolithic Open-Air Site of Holon, Israel by Luminescence and ESR Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porat, Naomi; Zhou, Li Ping; Chazan, Michael; Noy, Tamar; Horwitz, Liora Kolska

    1999-05-01

    The open-air Acheulian site in Holon, Israel, was dated by the luminescence methods and by electron spin resonance (ESR). Situated in the coastal plain Quaternary Kurkar Group, the Holon site was first excavated in the late 1960s, when typical lower Paleolithic lithics and middle Pleistocene fauna were found. In order to date the site, new test pits were dug adjacent to the earlier excavations and the archaeological bed was exposed in a section comprising a series of paleosols and aeolianites. Alkali feldspars separated from the sediments were dated using the infrared stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence signals, and quartz was dated using the optically stimulated luminescence signal. The age of the archaeological bed is constrained by two samples to 198,000 ± 22,000-201,000 ± 17,000 yr. The age of the base of the section is 240,000 ± 29,000 yr, and the age of the top is 81,000 ± 8000 yr. Two teeth from the archaeological bed, recovered from the original excavation collection, yielded an average ESR age of 204,000 ± 16,000 yr, calculated using the linear uptake model, which is in a very good agreement with the luminescence ages. These dates place Holon within the range of other late Acheulian and Acheulo-Yabrudian sites in this region such as Tabun E (younger chronology), Yabrud I (archaeological level 18), and Berekhat Ram.

  13. New insights on the wooden weapons from the Paleolithic site of Schöningen.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Werner H; Bigga, Gerlinde; Böhner, Utz; Richter, Pascale; Terberger, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The Paleolithic site of Schöningen is famous for the earliest known, completely preserved wooden weapons. Here we present recent results of an ongoing analysis of the nine spears, one lance, a double pointed stick, and a burnt stick dating to the Holsteinian, c. 300 kyr. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses, as well as studies of thin sections, contribute to a better understanding of the manufacture of the wooden weapons. They were deposited in organic sediments at a former lakeshore among numerous bones of butchered horses. In general, the spears are extremely well-preserved and show no or little sign of taphonomic alteration, although some of the weapons are broken and parts were slightly moved, probably by water action. The excellent preservation conditions provide considerable information on the operational sequence of production. The hunters selected thin trunks of spruce or pine and initially stripped off the bark. Traces of cutting, scraping, and smoothing can be observed on the spear surfaces in detail. In the case of spear X, repeated use of the weapon is implied by re-sharpening of the tip. Analyses of wood anatomy provide information on climatic conditions and contribute to the better understanding of the development of the site.

  14. Modeling effects of local extinctions on culture change and diversity in the paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Premo, L S; Kuhn, Steven L

    2010-12-17

    The persistence of early stone tool technologies has puzzled archaeologists for decades. Cognitively based explanations, which presume either lack of ability to innovate or extreme conformism, do not account for the totality of the empirical patterns. Following recent research, this study explores the effects of demographic factors on rates of culture change and diversification. We investigate whether the appearance of stability in early Paleolithic technologies could result from frequent extinctions of local subpopulations within a persistent metapopulation. A spatially explicit agent-based model was constructed to test the influence of local extinction rate on three general cultural patterns that archaeologists might observe in the material record: total diversity, differentiation among spatially defined groups, and the rate of cumulative change. The model shows that diversity, differentiation, and the rate of cumulative cultural change would be strongly affected by local extinction rates, in some cases mimicking the results of conformist cultural transmission. The results have implications for understanding spatial and temporal patterning in ancient material culture.

  15. mtDNA analysis reveals a major late Paleolithic population expansion from southwestern to northeastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Torroni, A; Bandelt, H J; D'Urbano, L; Lahermo, P; Moral, P; Sellitto, D; Rengo, C; Forster, P; Savontaus, M L; Bonné-Tamir, B; Scozzari, R

    1998-01-01

    mtDNA sequence variation was studied in 419 individuals from nine Eurasian populations, by high-resolution RFLP analysis, and it was followed by sequencing of the control region of a subset of these mtDNAs and a detailed survey of previously published data from numerous other European populations. This analysis revealed that a major Paleolithic population expansion from the "Atlantic zone" (southwestern Europe) occurred 10,000-15,000 years ago, after the Last Glacial Maximum. As an mtDNA marker for this expansion we identified haplogroup V, an autochthonous European haplogroup, which most likely originated in the northern Iberian peninsula or southwestern France at about the time of the Younger Dryas. Its sister haplogroup, H, which is distributed throughout the entire range of Caucasoid populations and which originated in the Near East approximately 25,000-30,000 years ago, also took part in this expansion, thus rendering it by far the most frequent (40%-60%) haplogroup in western Europe. Subsequent migrations after the Younger Dryas eventually carried those "Atlantic" mtDNAs into central and northern Europe. This scenario, already implied by archaeological records, is given overwhelming support from both the distribution of the autochthonous European Y chromosome type 15, as detected by the probes 49a/f, and the synthetic maps of nuclear data. PMID:9545392

  16. Possible paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic effects on hominin migration and occupation of the Levantine Middle Paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Amos; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Schwarcz, Henry P

    2011-04-01

    This paper explores the impact of major glacial/interglacial paleohydrologic variations in the Middle-Paleolithic Levant on hominin migration and occupation. The climatic reconstruction is based primarily on the most straight-forward paleohydrologic records recently published. These terrestrial proxies convey direct paleoenvironmental signals of effective precipitation and aquifer recharge. The two main proxies are temporal changes of terminal lake levels in the Dead Sea basin and periods of deposition or non-deposition of speleothems. Other records, such as stable isotopes, if interpreted correctly, correspond well with these two direct proxies. All the records consistently indicate that the last two glacial periods in the central Levant were generally wet and cool, while the last two interglacials were dry and warm, so more water was available for the ecosystem and thus hominins during glacial periods than during interglacials. Some proxies indicate that the higher precipitation/evaporation ratio during glacial periods involved higher precipitation rather than only reduced evaporation. Beyond the general mean glacial/interglacial climate suggested here, variations occurred at all temporal scales throughout glacial or interglacial periods. In the Sahara-Negev arid barrier, moister conditions occurred during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6a-5e, when Anatomically Modern Humans apparently migrated out of Africa. We suggest that this migration, as well as the later Neanderthal expansion from Southeast Europe or the Anatolian plateau into the Levant during early MIS 4, could be facilitated by the observed major climatic variations.

  17. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site.

    PubMed

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni

    2013-06-01

    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene.

  18. Anthocyanin content of wild black raspberry germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of its intense anthocyanin pigments, black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) has a long history of use as a natural colorant and dye. Recent studies showing black raspberries to be a rich source of anthocyanins and other dietary phytochemicals have led to renewed interest in breeding better ...

  19. Tryptophan in human hair: correlation with pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bertazzo, A; Biasiolo, M; Costa, C V; Cardin de Stefani, E; Allegri, G

    2000-08-01

    The distribution of tryptophan content in human hair of various colours was evaluated, in order to study the accumulation of this amino acid, precursor of serotonin, melatonin and niacin, in hair and the influence on hair pigmentation. Pigmentation is an important factor in determining drug incorporation into hair. Results from 1211 samples of hair from healthy subjects (577 men and 634 women) show that tryptophan levels are significantly higher in males (37.83 +/- 3.45 microg/g dry hair) than in females (26.62 +/- 2.40 microg/g hair). Besides sex, age also influences the distribution of tryptophan in human hair, the highest levels being found in both sexes in the first few years of life, probably due to the influence of milk, and in aging subjects in the groups of 61-80 and > 80 years. In order to investigate the influence of hair colour, hair samples were subdivided according to colour into blond, dark blond, red, light brown, brown, black, grey and white. The hair contents of tryptophan in both sexes was higher in brown and black hair than in blond hair, but in grey and white hair concentrations were the highest, demonstrating that tryptophan accumulates among hair fibres with age. Grouping subjects by age in relation to hair colour, we observed that at ages 1-5 and 6-12 years, colour did not influence tryptophan contents, but at ages 13-19 and 20-40 years tryptophan content increased significantly from blond to brown at 13-19 years and from blond to black at 20-40 years in both sexes. Therefore, variations in tryptophan levels of human hair appear to be correlated with differences in hair colour in both sexes. Tryptophan also accumulates in hair during keratinization, as shown by the presence of high levels of this amino acid in grey and white hair.

  20. Oral postinflammatory pigmentation: an analysis of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Mergoni, Giovanni; Ergun, Sertan; Vescovi, Paolo; Mete, Özgür; Tanyeri, Hakkı; Meleti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Oral postinflammatory pigmentation (OPP) is a discoloration of the oral mucosa caused by an excess of melanin production and deposition within the basal layer of the epithelium and connective tissue of areas affected by chronic inflammation. Therefore, it is mandatory to demonstrate the association with a previous or concomitant inflammatory process in the same area of oral mucosa. Clinically OPP appears as a localized or diffuse, black to brown pigmentation. OPP may persist for many years even though the disappearing of the pigmentation after the resolution of the inflammatory state has been reported. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records and, when performed, biopsy examinations of 7 cases of OPP. Four cases were associated with oral lichen planus, two cases with lichenoid lesions and one case with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. Despite a possible high prevalence of OPP, only a few reports concerning diagnosis, etiopathogenesis and clinical manifestation have been published so far.

  1. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  2. Circulation of whale-bone artifacts in the northern Pyrenees during the late Upper Paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Pétillon, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-01

    The importance of coastal resources in the late Upper Paleolithic of western Europe has been reevaluated in recent years thanks to a growing body of new archeological evidence, including the identification of more than 50 implements made of whale bone in the Magdalenian level of the Isturitz cave (western Pyrenees). In the present study, the assemblages of osseous industry from 23 Magdalenian sites and site clusters in the northern Pyrenees were investigated, systematically searching for whale-bone implements. The objective of this research was to determine if, and how, tools and weapons of coastal origin were circulated beyond Isturitz into the inland, and if similar implements existed on the eastern, Mediterranean side of the Pyrenees. A total of 109 whale-bone artifacts, mostly projectile heads of large dimensions, were identified in 11 sites. Their geographic distribution shows that whale bone in the Pyrenean Magdalenian is exclusively of Atlantic origin, and that objects made of this material were transported along the Pyrenees up to the central part of the range at travel distances of at least 350 km from the seashore. This phenomenon seems to have taken place during the second half of the Middle Magdalenian and the first half of the Late Magdalenian, ca. 17,500-15,000 cal BP (calibrated years before present). The existence of a durable, extended coastal-inland interaction network including the circulation of regular tools is thus demonstrated. Additionally, differences between the whale-bone projectile heads of the Middle Magdalenian and those of the Late Magdalenian document an evolutionary process in the design of hunting weapons.

  3. Double child burial from Sunghir (Russia): pathology and inferences for upper paleolithic funerary practices.

    PubMed

    Formicola, Vincenzo; Buzhilova, Alexandra P

    2004-07-01

    relationship between physical abnormality and extraordinary Upper Paleolithic funerary behavior.

  4. Colloidal assembly in Leidenfrost drops for noniridescent structural color pigments.

    PubMed

    Lim, Che Ho; Kang, Hyelim; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2014-07-22

    Noniridescent structural color pigments have great potential as alternatives to conventional chemical color pigments in many coloration applications due to their nonbleaching and color-tunable properties. In this work, we report a novel method to create photonic microgranules composed of glassy packing of silica particles and small fraction of carbon black nanoparticles, which show pronounced structural colors with low angle-dependency. To prepare isotropic random packing in each microgranule, a Leidenfrost drop, which is a drop levitated by its own vapor on a hot surface, is employed as a template for fast consolidation of silica particles. The drop randomly migrates over the hot surface and rapidly shrinks, while maintaining its spherical shape, thereby consolidating silica particles to granular structures. Carbon black nanoparticles incorporated in the microgranules suppress incoherent multiple scattering, thereby providing improved color contrast. Therefore, photonic microgranules in a full visible range can be prepared by adjusting the size of silica particles with insignificant whitening.

  5. Correlation between tryptophan and hair pigmentation in human hair.

    PubMed

    Biasiolo, M; Bertazzo, A; Costa, C V; Allegri, G

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of tryptophan in human hair of various colours is determined in order to study their correlation with hair pigmentation. The mean levels of this amino acid in hair samples are higher in men than in women. Therefore, sex influences the content of tryptophan in human hair. In addition, age influences the distribution, the highest levels are observed in the 1-5 year age-group and in ageing subjects in the groups up to 61-80 years in both sexes. The hair samples subdivided, according the colour, into blond, dark blond, red, light brown, brown, black, grey, and white demonstrate that in both sexes the concentrations of tryptophan are higher in brown and black hair than in blond hair. However, the tryptophan levels are highest in grey and white hair, showing that tryptophan accumulates among hair fibres with age. Therefore, there is a correlation between tryptophan content and hair pigmentation.

  6. Colloidal photonic crystal pigments with low angle dependence.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Carlos I; Reguera, Edilso; Stein, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based colloidal photonic crystals have an incomplete photonic band gap (PBG) and typically appear iridescent in the visible range. As powders, synthetic PMMA opals are white, but when infiltrated with carbon black nanoparticles, they exhibit a well-defined color that shows little dependence on the viewing angle. The quantity of black pigment determines the lightness of the color by controlling scattering. The combined effects of internal order within each particle and random orientation among the particles in the powder are responsible for this behavior. These pigments were employed as paints, using a mixture of polyvinyl acetate as a binder and deionized water as the solvent, and were applied to wood and paper surfaces for color analysis.

  7. Role of thiol compounds in mammalian melanin pigmentation: Part I. Reduced and oxidized glutathione.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, J P; Ortonne, J P; Voulot, C; Khatchadourian, C; Prota, G; Thivolet, J

    1981-11-01

    Evidence for the postulated role of glutathione reductase in melanin pigmentation has been obtained by determinations of the glutathione concentrations in Tortoiseshell guinea pig skin of different colors (black, yellow, red, and white). As expected, the lowest levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were found associated with eumelanin type pigmentation, whereas the highest ones were found in the skin with phaeomelanin producing melanocytes. On the other hand, white skin of guinea pig having no active melanocytes showed GSH levels which were intermediate between those of the black and yellow areas. These results are consistent with the view that the activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase, though not primarily related to pigmentation, plays an important role in the regulation and control of the biosynthetic activity of melanocytes leading to various types of melanin pigments.

  8. Micro-Raman analysis of the pigments on painted pottery figurines from two tombs of the Northern Wei Dynasty in Luoyang.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaojun; Han, Yunxia; Han, Ligang; Cheng, Yongjian; Ma, Yiqiang; Fang, Li

    2013-05-15

    The pigments on the painted pottery figurines from two tombs of Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534) in Luoyang were analyzed by Raman microscopy. All the pigments were identified compared with the Raman spectra of standard pigments. The red pigments were identified as haematite, the blue pigment as lapis lazuli, the green pigment as malachite, the black pigment as carbon black and the white pigment as calcite. Similar pigments were used in the two tombs despite the pottery figurines were very different in artistic style. The use of lapis lazuli as blue pigment on Chinese painted pottery figurines was found for the first time. This pigment and the painted pottery figurine of Sogdians are of great archaeological significance because it demonstrated that the trade and cultural exchanges via the Silk Road had extended to Luoyang city in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The result also confirms that micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method for the identification of pigments on ancient artworks.

  9. Micro-Raman analysis of the pigments on painted pottery figurines from two tombs of the Northern Wei Dynasty in Luoyang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaojun; Han, Yunxia; Han, Ligang; Cheng, Yongjian; Ma, Yiqiang; Fang, Li

    2013-05-01

    The pigments on the painted pottery figurines from two tombs of Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534) in Luoyang were analyzed by Raman microscopy. All the pigments were identified compared with the Raman spectra of standard pigments. The red pigments were identified as haematite, the blue pigment as lapis lazuli, the green pigment as malachite, the black pigment as carbon black and the white pigment as calcite. Similar pigments were used in the two tombs despite the pottery figurines were very different in artistic style. The use of lapis lazuli as blue pigment on Chinese painted pottery figurines was found for the first time. This pigment and the painted pottery figurine of Sogdians are of great archaeological significance because it demonstrated that the trade and cultural exchanges via the Silk Road had extended to Luoyang city in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The result also confirms that micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method for the identification of pigments on ancient artworks.

  10. Study of a melanic pigment of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Agodi, A; Stefani, S; Corsaro, C; Campanile, F; Gribaldo, S; Sichel, G

    1996-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether the pigment produced by Proteus mirabilis from the L-forms of various aromatic amino acids under aerobic conditions is melanic in nature. It is a black-brown pigment which behaves like a melanin in many respects, namely solubility features, bleaching by oxidizing agents and positive response to the Fontana-Masson assay. In the present study, for the first time, it was shown by electron spin resonance analysis that a bacterial melanin is able to act as a free radical trap, as was previously demonstrated for other melanins. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed a specific organized structure of the pigment as rounded aggregates of spherical bodies. DNA hybridization data did not reveal, in the P. mirabilis genome, any nucleotide sequence related to Shewanella colwelliana mel A, one of the two melanogenesis systems already defined at the molecular level in bacteria. Results obtained from experiments on pigment production inhibition suggest a possible role of tyrosinase in P. mirabilis melanogenesis. In conclusion, from the bulk of our results, it appears that the pigment produced by P. mirabilis is melanic in nature.

  11. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with papillomatosis: Report of nine cases.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Nine patients, seven males and two females aged 6-14 years, presented with extensive, asymptomatic, brown-black macules and mildly elevated, pigmented lesions of a few months' duration. The sites affected were the face, trunk and proximal extremities. The skin lesions were discrete and individual lesions were less than 2 cm in size. The clinical diagnoses rendered by the referring physicians were lichen planus pigmentosus, urticaria pigmentosa, erythema dyschromicum perstans and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Histology in all nine cases showed papillomatosis of the dermis with prominent pigmentation of the basal layer (pigmented papillomatosis) without any significant dermal inflammation. Two cases had spores of Pityrosporum ovale in the thickened horny layer, one of which also had, in addition, bacterial colonies in the stratum corneum. The pigmentation resolved on its own over several months. This presentation is similar to the previously described idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with the additional histological finding of papillomatosis that is being described for the first time and may be nosologically related to acanthosis nigricans and confluent and reticulate papillomatosis.

  12. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data. Key Words: Biosignatures—Exoplanets—Halophiles—Pigmentation—Reflectance spectroscopy—Spectral models. Astrobiology 15, 341–361. PMID:25941875

  13. Energy Conserving Coating - Pigment Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    indicated above, changes from yellow to orange. Thermochromic CVL Mixtures Thermochromic dye mixtures were made by reacting specific leuco (colorless...2 Photochromic Pigments and Dyes ................................. 3 Thermochromic Inorganic Pigments...describing the state of the art in color changing materials, from liquid crystals to thermochromic metal complexes to photochromic spiran dyes . The re- search

  14. Nonphotosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures.

    PubMed

    Schwieterman, Edward W; Cockell, Charles S; Meadows, Victoria S

    2015-05-01

    Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data.

  15. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, Edward W.; Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-05-01

    Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data.

  16. Comparative chromatography of chloroplast pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Sherma, J.; Strain, H. H.

    1969-01-01

    Methods for isolation of low concentration pigments of the cocklebur species are described. The methods entail two step chromatography so that the different sorption properties of the various pigments in varying column parameters can be utilized. Columnar and thin layer methods are compared. Many conditions influence separability of the chloroplasts.

  17. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  18. Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave

    PubMed Central

    Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Stafford, Thomas; Bégouën, Robert; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA. However, a 19,000-year-old rib collected on a rock apart the pathway delineated for modern visitors was devoid of such contaminants and reproducibly yielded Bison priscus DNA. High-throughput shotgun sequencing combined with conventional PCR analysis of the rib DNA extract enabled to reconstruct a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 16,318 bp for the extinct steppe bison with a 10.4-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses robustly established the position of the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome as basal to the clade delineated by the genomes of the modern American Bison bison. The extinct steppe bison sequence, which exhibits 93 specific polymorphisms as compared to the published Bison bison mitochondrial genomes, provides an additional resource for the study of Bovinae specimens. Moreover this study of ancient DNA delineates a new research pathway for the analysis of the Magdalenian Trois-Frères cave. PMID:26083419

  19. Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave.

    PubMed

    Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Stafford, Thomas; Bégouën, Robert; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA. However, a 19,000-year-old rib collected on a rock apart the pathway delineated for modern visitors was devoid of such contaminants and reproducibly yielded Bison priscus DNA. High-throughput shotgun sequencing combined with conventional PCR analysis of the rib DNA extract enabled to reconstruct a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 16,318 bp for the extinct steppe bison with a 10.4-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses robustly established the position of the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome as basal to the clade delineated by the genomes of the modern American Bison bison. The extinct steppe bison sequence, which exhibits 93 specific polymorphisms as compared to the published Bison bison mitochondrial genomes, provides an additional resource for the study of Bovinae specimens. Moreover this study of ancient DNA delineates a new research pathway for the analysis of the Magdalenian Trois-Frères cave.

  20. Dancing to the rhythms of the Pleistocene? Early Middle Paleolithic population dynamics in NW Iberia (Duero Basin and Cantabrian Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Yustos, Policarpo; Diez Martín, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The Northwest of Iberia has yielded one of the most complete European Middle Paleolithic records. Despite this wealth of information, very little is known about population dynamics during this period. For that reason, the main concern of this paper is to provide socio-environmental models that may help explain Early Middle Paleolithic (EMP) population dynamics in NW Iberia, assessing to what extent they were shaped by climate forces. The archaeological record is analyzed on the basis of the heuristics of ecological models, already employed in the European Pleistocene record but never at a regional scale, in order to detect long-term changes in the composition of EMP populations, and the environmental, biological and sociocultural process influencing those changes. According to the models proposed, we have detected a long-term population dynamic between MIS 11 and MIS 6, characterized by low environmental stress, high biological productivity, interaction among populations and sociocultural complexity. Eventually, this population dynamic was broken due to an extreme climate phase in late MIS 6 that had a profound impact on populations and sociocultural structures. As a result, the Upper Pleistocene population of NW Iberia was concentrated in the Cantabrian region. This area became an isolated Neanderthal glacial refugium that hosted a population with different origins and fragile long-term demographic stability.

  1. Iris phenotypes and pigment dispersion caused by genes influencing pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael G; Hawes, Norman L; Trantow, Colleen M; Chang, Bo; John, Simon W M

    2008-10-01

    Spontaneous mutations altering mouse coat colors have been a classic resource for discovery of numerous molecular pathways. Although often overlooked, the mouse iris is also densely pigmented and easily observed, thus representing a similarly powerful opportunity for studying pigment cell biology. Here, we present an analysis of iris phenotypes among 16 mouse strains with mutations influencing melanosomes. Many of these strains exhibit biologically and medically relevant phenotypes, including pigment dispersion, a common feature of several human ocular diseases. Pigment dispersion was identified in several strains with mutant alleles known to influence melanosomes, including beige, light, and vitiligo. Pigment dispersion was also detected in the recently arising spontaneous coat color variant, nm2798. We have identified the nm2798 mutation as a missense mutation in the Dct gene, an identical re-occurrence of the slaty light mutation. These results suggest that dysregulated events of melanosomes can be potent contributors to the pigment dispersion phenotype. Combined, these findings illustrate the utility of studying iris phenotypes as a means of discovering new pathways, and re-linking old ones, to processes of pigmented cells in health and disease.

  2. [INHERITANCE OF EPIDERMIS PIGMENTATION IN SUNFLOWER ACHENES].

    PubMed

    Gorohivets, N A; Vedmedeva, E V

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance of epidermis pigmentation in the pericarp of sunflower seeds was studied. Inheritance of pigmentation was confirmed by three alleles Ew (epidermis devoid of pigmentation), Estr (epidermal pigmentation in strips), Edg (solid pigmentation). Dominance of the lack of epidermis pigmentation over striped epidermis and striped epidermis over solid pigmentation was established. It was shown that the striped epidermis pigmentation and the presence of testa layer are controlled by two genes, expression of which is independent from each other. Yellowish hypodermis was discovered in the sample I2K2218, which is inherited monogenically dominantly.

  3. Chemical characterization of pigment gallstones using /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, W.R.; Grant, D.M.; Straight, R.C.; Englert, E. Jr.

    1982-07-30

    The unique ability of Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis with cross polarization/magic angle spinning techniques to investigate chemical structures of solids is used to probe the chemical characteristics of several gallstone types. New pulse program techniques are used to distinguish various carbon atoms in studying the polymeric nature of the black bilirubinoid pigment of pigment gallstones. Evidence for the involvement of the carboxyl group and noninvolvement of vinyl groups of bilirubinoids in the polymeric bond formation is presented. Conjugated bilirubin structures are found to be present in some solid residues from pigment stones extracted with acidic methanol/chloroform.

  4. Pigment Identification on "The Ecstasy of St. Theresa" Painting by Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marano, D.; Marmontelli, M.; De Benedetto, G. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Vona, F.

    A study of the pigments of "The Ecstasy of St. Theresa," a seventeenth century oil painting on canvas, was performed by Raman microscopy. Lazurite was identified in both Jesus Christ's and St. Theresa's mantles as the pigment responsible for the blue coloration. Litharge was identified inside the black bitumen layer. Usually the bitumen needed a lot of time to dry in the air when mixed with drying oil. Litharge was used by the artist to decrease the oil drying time. A complementary study, using micro-Raman and SEM, allowed us to identify red ochre as the pigment responsible for the red coloration in the altar on the left side of the painting.

  5. Modulation of yellow expression contributes to thermal plasticity of female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Gibert, Jean-Michel; Mouchel-Vielh, Emmanuèle; Peronnet, Frédérique

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity describes the ability of a given genotype to produce distinct phenotypes in different environments. We use the temperature sensitivity of abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster females as a model to analyse the effect of the environment on development. We reported previously that thermal plasticity of abdominal pigmentation in females involves the pigmentation gene tan (t). However, the expression of the pigmentation gene yellow (y) was also modulated by temperature in the abdominal epidermis of pharate females. We investigate here the contribution of y to female abdominal pigmentation plasticity. First, we show that y is required for the production of black Dopamine-melanin. Then, using in situ hybridization, we show that the expression of y is strongly modulated by temperature in the abdominal epidermis of pharate females but not in bristles. Interestingly, these two expression patterns are known to be controlled by distinct enhancers. However, the activity of the y-wing-body epidermal enhancer only partially mediates the effect of temperature suggesting that additional regulatory sequences are involved. In addition, we show that y and t co-expression is needed to induce strong black pigmentation indicating that y contributes to female abdominal pigmentation plasticity. PMID:28230190

  6. Loess deposition and Paleolithic human activity in late Pleistocene in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.

    2013-12-01

    Loess is one of the best geological records in the world for reconstruction of paleoenvironment. Loess deposited widely in North China in Quaternary, composing the famous Chinese Loess Plateau where loess sections could be as thick as 200 m. In these thick loess profiles, various archaeological remains including human fossils are found across the Chinese Loess Plateau, which indicates the aeolian loess deposition provides a good preservation environment for archaeological remains or the environment when loess is deposited in North China is favorable for human subsistence. Therefore, well developed loess studies using conventional methods such as grain size, magnetism, carbonate contents, TOC and biological or chemical methods like pollen, phytolith, stable isotopes, could provide important information for archaeologists about site formation process, human subsistence environment and human adaptation behaviors. This study focuses on late Pleistocene environment change and human adaptation in Chinese Western Loess Plateau. Over fifty Paleolithic sites were found buried in loess sections in two small rive catchments about 400 km2 in Chinese Western Loess Plateau in this study. Based on the well loess study in this region, the ages of most of the sites could be easily assumed in the field, which were usually confirmed by later radiocarbon or OSL dating results. Paleoenvironment of human subsistence is reconstructed using pollen, grain size, magnetism studies on the loess profiles producing archaeological remains. The chronological framework built with absolute dating results and loess-paleosol sequence comparison shows that humans first appear in the study area during warm and humid MIS5, may have abandoned the area in cold MIS4, reappeared in cool but humid MIS3 and continued thereafter, even extremely cold and dry LGM. A comprehensive study of 3727 pieces of stone artifacts shows that small-flake-tool industry is dominant through most of the late Pleistocene and

  7. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-08-06

    (1) BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) SUBJECTS/METHODS: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) RESULTS: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility.

  8. The beginning of the Upper Paleolithic in the Iranian Zagros. A taphonomic approach and techno-economic comparison of Early Baradostian assemblages from Warwasi and Yafteh (Iran).

    PubMed

    Tsanova, Tsenka

    2013-07-01

    Southwest Asia is a key region in current debates surrounding the appearance of the first cultures attributed to anatomically modern humans, particularly the Aurignacian and preceding cultural units of the Iranian Zagros, Levant, and the Balkans (Baradostian, Ahmarien, Kozarnikien, etc.). The Zagros mountain range encompasses an immense territory that remains understudied with regard to the Upper Paleolithic as well as the first bladelet industries traditionally presumed to be the work of anatomically modern humans. Concerning the emergence of the Aurignacian, the sites of Warwasi rockshelter and Yafteh cave in the central Zagros are considered to show evidence of in situ evolution of the Upper Paleolithic from the local Mousterian. This hypothesis is tested by way of a taphonomic, techno-typological and economic approach applied to the Upper Paleolithic levels of Warwasi (spits LL-AA) and Yafteh (the series from the lower part of the sequence). A comparison of the techno-economic features of both assemblages demonstrates a conceptual bond with contemporaneous techno-complexes from Levant and Europe (Ahmarian, Protoaurignacian, etc.). The techno-typological Middle Paleolithic character of the Warwasi lithic assemblage permits a discussion of a possible in situ dependence/continuum from the Mousterian or perhaps particular activities linked to the type of the occupation of the site. However, bladelet technology cannot be considered as rooted in the Zagros Mousterian. Consequently the origin of the Aurignacian sensu stricto has to be reconsidered.

  9. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background/Objectives: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) Subjects/Methods: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) Results: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  10. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Tommy; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Ahrén, Bo; Branell, Ulla-Carin; Pålsson, Gunvor; Hansson, Anita; Söderström, Margareta; Lindeberg, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    Background Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age') diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3 women and 10 men, were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; and a Diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines during two consecutive 3-month periods. Outcome variables included changes in weight, waist circumference, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and areas under the curve for plasma glucose and plasma insulin in the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary intake was evaluated by use of 4-day weighed food records. Results Study participants had on average a diabetes duration of 9 years, a mean HbA1c of 6,6% units by Mono-S standard and were usually treated with metformin alone (3 subjects) or metformin in combination with a sulfonylurea (3 subjects) or a thiazolidinedione (3 subjects). Mean average dose of metformin was 1031 mg per day. Compared to the diabetes diet, the Paleolithic diet resulted in lower mean values of HbA1c (-0.4% units, p = 0.01), triacylglycerol (-0.4 mmol/L, p = 0.003), diastolic blood pressure (-4 mmHg, p = 0.03), weight (-3 kg, p = 0.01), BMI (-1 kg/m2, p = 0.04) and waist circumference (-4 cm, p = 0.02), and higher mean values of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.03). The Paleolithic diet was mainly lower in cereals and dairy products, and higher in fruits, vegetables, meat and eggs, as compared with the Diabetes diet. Further, the Paleolithic diet was lower in total energy, energy density, carbohydrate, dietary glycemic load, saturated fatty acids and calcium, and higher in unsaturated fatty acids, dietary cholesterol and several vitamins. Dietary GI was slightly

  11. Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Soyer, H P; Argenziano, G; Chimenti, S; Ruocco, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the basic concepts of dermoscopy, the various dermoscopic equipments and the standard criteria for diagnosing pigmented skin lesions. In assessing dermoscopic images, both global and local features can be recognized. These features will be systematically described and illustrated in Part I of this article. First, we will focus on 8 morphologically rather distinctive global features that allow a quick, preliminary categorization of a given pigmented skin lesion. Second, we will describe various local features representing the letters of the dermoscopic alphabet. The local features permit a more detailed assessment of pigmented skin lesions.

  12. New pathophysiological concepts underlying pathogenesis of pigment gallstones.

    PubMed

    Vítek, Libor; Carey, Martin C

    2012-04-01

    Pigment gallstones, which are much less frequent than cholesterol stones, are classified descriptively as "black" or "brown". They are composed mostly of calcium hydrogen bilirubinate, Ca(HUCB)(2), which is polymerized and oxidized in "black" stones but remains unpolymerized in "brown" stones. Black stones form in sterile gallbladder bile but brown stones form secondary to stasis and anaerobic bacterial infection in any part of the biliary tree, including the gallbladder. Other calcium salts coprecipitate in both stone types; crystalline calcium phosphate and/or carbonate in the case of "black" stones and amorphous calcium salts of long chain saturated fatty acids ("soaps") in the case of "brown" stones. Cholesterol is present in variable proportions in "brown" more than "black" stones and in the latter, the bile sterol may be totally absent. The "scaffolding" of both stone types is a mixed mucin glycoprotein matrix secreted by epithelial cells lining the biliary tree. The critical pathophysiological prerequisite for "black" stone formation is "hyperbilirubinbilia" (biliary hypersecretion of bilirubin conjugates). It is due principally to hemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis, or pathologic enterohepatic cycling of unconjugated bilirubin. Endogenous biliary β-glucuronidase hydrolysis of bilirubin conjugates in gallbladder bile provides HUCB(-) molecules that precipitate as insoluble salts with ionized Ca. Putatively, reactive oxygen species secreted by an inflamed gallbladder mucosa are responsible for transforming the initial soft yellow precipitates into hard black [Ca(HUCB)(2)](n) polymers. Despite "brown" gallstones being soft and amenable to mechanical removal, chronic anaerobic infection of the biliary tree is often markedly resistant to eradication.

  13. Photosynthetic pigments: perplexing persistent prevalence of 'superfluous' pigment production.

    PubMed

    Beale, Samuel I

    2008-04-22

    Phycobilins function as light-harvesting pigments in most cyanobacteria and red algae. Although green cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorococcus express genes encoding enzymes that direct the synthesis of phycobilins, these pigments do not appear to play a role in light harvesting in Prochlorococcus. Now, it is shown that cyanophages infecting Prochlorococcus also contain genes for phycobilin-synthesizing enzymes, and these are expressed in Prochlorococcus, raising further questions as to the role of phycobilins in the host and the virus.

  14. [Nondestructive analysis and identification of pigments on colored relics by fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-qin; Dang, Gao-chao; Zhao, Jing

    2008-08-01

    Identifying pigments on colored relics is an important part of relic analysis and protection. In order to meet the special demands of protecting relics, taking into account the situation in China, we have refitted a domestic instrument to a fiber optics reflectance spectrophotometer with low price and good function to identify pigments without any damage. It consists of a tungsten lamp, a monochromator, an optical fiber, a shielding chamber, a photomultiplier tube, a reading meter, and a high voltage supply source. Through analysis of a great variety of Chinese ancient pigments, we have deduced three reflectance spectrum shapes of pigments, bell-shaped, s-shaped and oblique line-shaped. The blue or green pigments with bell-shaped spectra can be identified by the characteristic reflectance peak. The pigments with s-shaped spectra are usually red, yellow or brown. Although there are no characteristic reflectance peaks on the plots of the reflectance-wavelength, there is a peak in the first derivative (D) here. Then, the related pigments of this sort can be analyzed and identified with their derivative peaks. For the pigments with oblique line-shaped spectra, their reflectance and first derivative spectra are nearly linear and there are no peaks. The related pigments are usually white, black or gray. With our self-made fiber optics reflectance spectrophotometer, we analyzed the composition of pigments on colored pottery figurines and frescoes of Tang dynasty tombs in Xi'an by comparing their reflectance spectroscopic curves and characteristic reflectance peaks or first derivative peaks with those of standard pigments. The deep red pigment in sample 1#, the green pigment in sample 2#, and the orange and deep red pigments in sample 3# have been identified to be hematite with high purity, malachite and the mixtures of cinnabar/red lead and a little hematite, respectively. It has been indicated that the analytical results of relic pigments from this method are accurate

  15. Pleistocene magnetochronology of the Shangshazui Paleolithic site in the Nihewan Basin and implications for early human evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, H.; Dekkers, M. J.; Wei, Q.

    2011-12-01

    The Nihewan Basin of North China is a key archaeological area, in which most of the Early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites in China were found. Recent magnetostratigraphic dating of several Paleolithic sites in this basin have notably increased our understanding of early human colonization of high northern latitudes in East Asia. The Shangshazui (SSZ) locality is the first Paleolithic site found in the Nihewan Basin. Up to now, however, its reliable age is still not available. Here we contribute to this topic with detailed magnetostratigraphic and mineral-magnetic analyses on the 54-m thick SSZ section. Results indicate that magnetite and hematite have a primary sedimentary magnetic fabric and are reliable carriers of characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). Magnetostratigraphic results suggest that SSZ section recorded the Brunhes and upper Matuyama chrons, including the Jaramillo and the Olduvai subchrons. The SSZ artifact layer occurs just below the Jaramillo Olduvai, with an estimated age of ca. 2.1 Ma. This finding represents the age of the earliest documented stone tools in Asia, a bit latter than the presence of stone tools in Africa. The early Pleistocene stone tools in Africa were generally thought to be made and used by Home erectus. However, our present age estimate indicates that the occurrence of stone tools in the Nihewan Basin is prior to the currently documented first appearance of H. erectus in Africa. This implies two possible scenarios. (1) The lithic technique in the Nihewan Basin was ascribe to H. erectus, in which case the H. erectus in the Nihewan Basin could be the oldest H. erectus. Thus the latter H. erectus in West Asia and Africa was possibly migrated from East Asia. (2) The lithic technique corresponded to the technique of prior-H. erectus hominin in Africa. This indicates that some early humans prior to H. erectus have started to immigrate from Africa to East Asia and were able to survive the more complex, hostile and unstable

  16. A new room temperature gas sensor based on pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film for amines determination.

    PubMed

    Yanxiao, Li; Xiao-bo, Zou; Xiao-wei, Huang; Ji-yong, Shi; Jie-wen, Zhao; Holmes, Mel; Hao, Limin

    2015-05-15

    A new room temperature gas sensor was fabricated with pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film as the sensing layer. Four natural pigments were extracted from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), red radish (Raphanus sativus L), winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), and black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) by ethanol. Natural pigment-sensitized TiO2 sensor was prepared by immersing porous TiO2 films in an ethanol solution containing a natural pigment for 24h. The hybrid organic-inorganic formed films here were firstly exposed to atmospheres containing methylamine vapours with concentrations over the range 2-10 ppm at room temperature. The films sensitized by the pigments from black-rice showed an excellent gas-sensitivity to methylamine among the four natural pigments sensitized films due to the anthocyanins. The relative change resistance, S, of the films increased almost linearly with increasing concentrations of methylamine (r=0.931). At last, the black rice pigment sensitized TiO2 thin film was used to determine the biogenic amines generated by pork during storage. The developed films had good sensitivity to analogous gases such as putrscine, and cadaverine that will increase during storage.

  17. Characterizations of Shell and Mantle Edge Pigmentation of a Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kang, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Jung-Mee; An, Chel-Min; Kim, Sung-Youn; Lee, Yun-Mi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate color patterns of shell and mantle edge pigmentation of a Pacific oyster, C. gigas, and to estimate variance components of the two colors. A sample of 240 F0 oysters was collected from six aquaculture farms in Tongyeong, Korea to measure shell color and mantle edge pigmentation. Among the F0s, male and female individuals with black (white) shell and black (white) mantle edge were selected and mated to generate three F1 full-sib black (white) cross families (N = 265). Two and four F2 cross families (N = 286) were also produced from black and white F1 selected individuals, respectively. Variance component estimates due to residuals and families within color were obtained using SAS PROC VARCOMP procedures to estimate heritability of shell and mantle edge pigmentation. In the F0 generation, about 29% (11%) had black (white) color for both shell and mantle edge. However, in the F1 and F2 black (white) cross families, 75% (67%) and 100% (100%) of oysters had black (white) shell colors, and 59% (23%) and 79% (55%) had black (white) mantle edge, respectively. Spearman correlation coefficients between shell and mantle edge color were 0.25, 0.74, and 0.92 in F0, F1, and F2 generations, respectively, indicating that, with generations of selection process, an individual with black (white) shell color is more likely to have black (white) mantle edge pigmentation. This suggests that shell color could be a good indicator trait for mantle edge pigmentation if selection of both the colors is implemented for a couple of generations. Estimates of heritability were 0.41 and 0.77 for shell color and 0.27 and 0.08 for mantle edge pigmentation in the F1 and F2 generations, respectively, indicating that, in general, significant proportions of phenotypic variations for the shell and mantle edge colors are explained by genetic variations between individuals. These results suggest that the two color traits are inheritable and correlated

  18. Effect of wavelength on cutaneous pigment using pulsed irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, K.A.; Murray, S.; Kurban, A.K.; Tan, O.T.

    1989-05-01

    Several reports have been published over the last two decades describing the successful removal of benign cutaneous pigmented lesions such as lentigines, cafe au lait macules' nevi, nevus of Ota, and lentigo maligna by a variety of lasers such as the excimer (351 nm), argon (488,514 nm), ruby (694 nm), Nd:YAG (1060 nm), and CO/sub 2/ (10,600 nm). Laser treatment has been applied to lesions with a range of pigment depths from superficial lentigines in the epidermis to the nevus of Ota in the reticular dermis. Widely divergent laser parameters of wavelength, pulse duration, energy density, and spotsizes have been used, but the laser parameters used to treat this range of lesions have been arbitrary, with little effort focused on defining optimal laser parameters for removal of each type. In this study, miniature black pig skin was exposed to five wavelengths (504, 590, 694, 720, and 750 nm) covering the absorption spectrum of melanin. At each wavelength, a range of energy densities was examined. Skin biopsies taken from laser-exposed sites were examined histologically in an attempt to establish whether optimal laser parameters exist for destroying pigment cells in skin. Of the five wavelengths examined, 504 nm produced the most pigment specific injury; this specificity being maintained even at the highest energy density of 7.0 J/cm2. Thus, for the destruction of melanin-containing cells in the epidermal compartment, 504 nm wavelength appears optimal.

  19. Cisplatin in children: hearing loss correlates with iris and skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Todd, N W; Alvarado, C S; Brewer, D B

    1995-10-01

    Pigmentation is reported to affect cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in adult humans. The hearing loss is worse in people with brown irises, than in those with blue irises. We assessed the hypothesis that cisplatin-treated children with dark irises suffer more deterioration in auditory thresholds than do those with less pigmentation. For the 19 children whose data met the requirements of this observational retrospective study, we found a weak correlation (Spearman's r = 0.50; p < 0.05) of high frequency hearing loss (at 4000 Hz) and pigmentation. Blue or hazel-eyed children averaged 2.9 dB worsening at 4000 Hz, in contrast to 14.2 dB worsening for brown or black-eyed children. Pigmentation may account for some of the individual susceptibility to cisplatin ototoxicity. We suggest that iris colour be included in future reports of cisplatin-related hearing loss.

  20. Absorption and scattering of light by pigment particles in solar-absorbing paints.

    PubMed

    Gunde, M K; Orel, Z C

    2000-02-01

    The optical properties of black-pigmented solar absorbing paint were analyzed phenomenologically by use of the Kubelka-Munk theory, including correction for reflection on front and rear surfaces. The effective absorption and scattering coefficients and the efficiency curves for absorption and scattering were calculated for coatings with different pigment-to-volume concentration ratios. The dependence of absorption and scattering efficiency on the pigment-to-volume concentration ratio was analyzed by reference to theoretical data in the literature. It was concluded that, during drying and curing of coatings, spherical primary pigment particles most likely collect in elongated groups oriented perpendicularly to the coating surface. Formation of such groups helps in understanding the independent measurements of solar absorptance.

  1. [Radiolucent pigment gallstones (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wosiewitz, U; Wolpers, C; Quint, P

    1978-12-01

    Pigment gallstones may be subdivided into three different types: radiolucent and radioopaque stones in the gallbladder and radiolucent stones in the common bile duct. 35 of our patients had radiolucent pigment stones in the gallbladder; 21 of these were followed for years by repeated X-ray examination. There is only little enlargement of these stones as time passes by, however the number of these stones increases continuously. Chemical analysis could be done on such stones in 24 cases. The stones were composed of granular calcium bilirubinate and of asphalt-like products derived from abnormal bilirubin degradation. 5 patients had pigment stones in the common bile duct. These stones contained little cholesterol and exhibited a spongy microstructure characterized by small tubules with a diameter of 1 micrometer. They contained more lipids and bilirubin than the stones collected from the gallbladder and on extraction with organic solvents no asphalt-like residues could be obtained.

  2. Microprobe analysis of chlorpromazine pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Benning, T.L.; McCormack, K.M.; Ingram, P.; Kaplan, D.L.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    We describe the histochemical, ultrastructural, and microanalytical features of a skin biopsy specimen obtained from a patient with chlorpromazine pigmentation. Golden-brown pigment granules were present in the dermis, predominantly in a perivascular arrangement. The granules stained positively with the Fontana-Masson stain for silver-reducing substances and negatively with Perl's stain for iron. Electron microscopy revealed dense inclusion bodies in dermal histiocytes, pericytes, endothelial cells, and Schwann cells, as well as lying free in the extracellular matrix. These ''chlorpromazine bodies'' were quite dense even in unosmicated, unstained ultrathin sections, indicating that the pigmentation is related, at least in part, to the inclusions. Microprobe analysis of the chlorpromazine bodies revealed a striking peak for sulfur, which strongly suggests the presence of the drug or its metabolite within these inclusions.

  3. Case Report of a Large Pigmented Epithelioid Melanocytoma With Suspected Lymph Node Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Akita, Rie; Morita, Daiki; Numajiri, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma was proposed by Zembowicz et al in 2004 including lesions previously diagnosed as human animal-type melanoma and epithelioid blue nevus. Tumors are composed of epithelioid and spindled melanocytes with heavy pigmentation. Methods: We report a case of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma in 47-year-old Asian woman. The tumor sized 10 × 6 × 2 cm on the anterior aspect of right lower leg. On resecting surgery, we also found black pigmented lymph nodes in the groin area on harvesting skin graft. Results: Histological examination showed a typical figure for pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma. In groin area, melanocytes were observed only in the lymph node capsule. Thus, we conclude that melanocytes in the capsule of this case could not be associated with metastasis. The patient is doing well 2 years after the surgery, with no evidence of recurrence or distant metastases. Conclusions: Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma is a rare, heavily pigmented, borderline, melanocytic tumor with infiltrative borders. It has potential for frequent metastases but shows an indolent clinical course. PMID:28066518

  4. Pigments, Parasites and Personalitiy: Towards a Unifying Role for Steroid Hormones?

    PubMed Central

    Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida Beitnes; Braastad, Bjarne Olai; Øverli, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    A surging interest in the evolution of consistent trait correlations has inspired research on pigment patterns as a correlate of behavioural syndromes, or “animal personalities”. Associations between pigmentation, physiology and health status are less investigated as potentially conserved trait clusters. In the current study, lice counts performed on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar naturally infected with ectoparasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis showed that individual fish with high incidence of black melanin-based skin spots harboured fewer female sea lice carrying egg sacs, compared to less pigmented fish. There was no significant association between pigmentation and lice at other developmental stages, suggesting that host factors associated with melanin-based pigmentation may modify ectoparasite development to a larger degree than settlement. In a subsequent laboratory experiment a strong negative correlation between skin spots and post-stress cortisol levels was revealed, with less pigmented individuals showing a more pronounced cortisol response to acute stress. The observation that lice prevalence was strongly increased on a fraction of sexually mature male salmon which occurred among the farmed fish further supports a role for steroid hormones as mediators of reduced parasite resistance. The data presented here propose steroid hormones as a proximate cause for the association between melanin-based pigmentation and parasites. Possible fundamental and applied implications are discussed. PMID:22493685

  5. AMS 14C chronology of woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) remains from the Shestakovo upper paleolithic site, western Siberia: Timing of human-mammoth interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenin, V. N.; van der Plicht, J.; Orlova, L. A.; Kuzmin, Y. V.

    2000-10-01

    We present a series of AMS 14C dates from the upper paleolithic site of Shestakovo, southwestern Siberia. The 14C ages range between 21 and 26 ka BP, corresponding to the so-called Sartan Glacial and Karginian Interglacial in Siberia. The majority of dates are from woolly mammoth bones, obtained from several discrete cultural layers, and range from ca. 25,700 to 21,600 BP. One charcoal date, ca. 23,300 BP, pinpoints the timing of at least one phase of site occupation by humans. The overlap of this date with the mammoth bone dates shows clearly that paleolithic people scavenged bones from natural death accumulations near the site. Mammoth hunting was most probably of limited scale. Conventional 14C dates from Shestakovo are also discussed.

  6. Temporal-spatial distribution of archaeological sites in the Nihewan-Huliu Basin during the Paleolithic-Neolithic and Iron Age in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Yang, R. X.; Li, X. Z.; Zhang, W.

    2016-11-01

    The Nihewan-Huliu Basin is one of the great regions of human evolution, located in geographical transition zone. This study reveals the temporal-spatial distribution of archaeological sites based on the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, and analyses the changes for four periods (Paleolithic-Neolithic transition, Neolithic Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age). These sites expanded from the Sanggan River to the Huliu River and from the central and lower Huliu River to its upper reaches. The population and cultural development in the Nihewan Basin gradually lagged behind the Huliu River Baisin after the Paleolithic-Neolithic transition Age, because of the environmental impacts. The results may aid the understanding and study of the cultural heritage and civilization evolution in northern China.

  7. Inland human settlement in southern Arabia 55,000 years ago. New evidence from the Wadi Surdud Middle Paleolithic site complex, western Yemen.

    PubMed

    Delagnes, Anne; Tribolo, Chantal; Bertran, Pascal; Brenet, Michel; Crassard, Rémy; Jaubert, Jacques; Khalidi, Lamya; Mercier, Norbert; Nomade, Sébastien; Peigné, Stéphane; Sitzia, Luca; Tournepiche, Jean-François; Al-Halibi, Mohammad; Al-Mosabi, Ahmad; Macchiarelli, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    The recovery at Shi'bat Dihya 1 (SD1) of a dense Middle Paleolithic human occupation dated to 55 ka BP sheds new light on the role of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of the alleged expansion of modern humans out of Africa. SD1 is part of a complex of Middle Paleolithic sites cut by the Wadi Surdud and interstratified within an alluvial sedimentary basin in the foothills that connect the Yemeni highlands with the Tihama coastal plain. A number of environmental proxies indicate arid conditions throughout a sequence that extends between 63 and 42 ka BP. The lithic industry is geared toward the production of a variety of end products: blades, pointed blades, pointed flakes and Levallois-like flakes with long unmodified cutting edges, made from locally available rhyolite. The occasional exploitation of other local raw materials, that fulfill distinct complementary needs, highlights the multi-functional nature of the occupation. The slightly younger Shi'bat Dihya 2 (SD2) site is characterized by a less elaborate production of flakes, together with some elements (blades and pointed flakes) similar to those found at SD1, and may indicate a cultural continuity between the two sites. The technological behaviors of the SD1 toolmakers present similarities with those documented from a number of nearly contemporaneous assemblages from southern Arabia, the Levant, the Horn of Africa and North Africa. However, they do not directly conform to any of the techno-complexes typical of the late Middle Paleolithic or late Middle Stone Age from these regions. This period would have witnessed the development of local Middle Paleolithic traditions in the Arabian Peninsula, which suggests more complex settlement dynamics and possible population interactions than commonly inferred by the current models of modern human expansion out of Africa.

  8. Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European.

    PubMed

    Olalde, Iñigo; Allentoft, Morten E; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Santpere, Gabriel; Chiang, Charleston W K; DeGiorgio, Michael; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Rasmussen, Simon; Quilez, Javier; Ramírez, Oscar; Marigorta, Urko M; Fernández-Callejo, Marcos; Prada, María Encina; Encinas, Julio Manuel Vidal; Nielsen, Rasmus; Netea, Mihai G; Novembre, John; Sturm, Richard A; Sabeti, Pardis; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Navarro, Arcadi; Willerslev, Eske; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2014-03-13

    Ancient genomic sequences have started to reveal the origin and the demographic impact of farmers from the Neolithic period spreading into Europe. The adoption of farming, stock breeding and sedentary societies during the Neolithic may have resulted in adaptive changes in genes associated with immunity and diet. However, the limited data available from earlier hunter-gatherers preclude an understanding of the selective processes associated with this crucial transition to agriculture in recent human evolution. Here we sequence an approximately 7,000-year-old Mesolithic skeleton discovered at the La Braña-Arintero site in León, Spain, to retrieve a complete pre-agricultural European human genome. Analysis of this genome in the context of other ancient samples suggests the existence of a common ancient genomic signature across western and central Eurasia from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic. The La Braña individual carries ancestral alleles in several skin pigmentation genes, suggesting that the light skin of modern Europeans was not yet ubiquitous in Mesolithic times. Moreover, we provide evidence that a significant number of derived, putatively adaptive variants associated with pathogen resistance in modern Europeans were already present in this hunter-gatherer.

  9. From the Bay of Naples to the River Don: the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption and the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Hoffecker, John F; Holliday, Vance T; Anikovich, M V; Sinitsyn, A A; Popov, V V; Lisitsyn, S N; Levkovskaya, G M; Pospelova, G A; Forman, Steven L; Giaccio, Biagio

    2008-11-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption, dated by 40Ar/39Ar and various stratigraphic methods to ca. 39,000 cal BP, generated a massive ash plume from its source in southern Italy across Southeastern and Eastern Europe. At the Kostenki-Borshchevo open-air sites on the Middle Don River in Russia, Upper Paleolithic artifact assemblages are buried below, within, and above the CI tephra (which is redeposited by slope action at most sites) on the second terrace. Luminescence and radiocarbon dating, paleomagnetism, and soil and pollen stratigraphy provide further basis for correlation with the Greenland and North Atlantic climate stratigraphy. The oldest Upper Paleolithic occupation layers at Kostenki-Borshchevo may be broadly correlated with warm intervals that preceded the CI event and Heinrich Event 4 (HE4; Greenland Interstadial: GI 12-GI 9) dating to ca. 45,000-41,000 cal BP. These layers contain an industry not currently recognized in other parts of Europe. Early Upper Paleolithic layers above the CI tephra are correlated with HE4 and warm intervals that occurred during 38,000-30,000 cal BP (GI 8-GI 5), and include an assemblage that is assigned to the Aurigancian industry, associated with skeletal remains of modern humans.

  10. High-resolution record of geomagnetic excursions in the Matuyama chron constrains the ages of the Feiliang and Lanpo Paleolithic sites in the Nihewan Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hong; An, Zhisheng; Dekkers, Mark J.; Wei, Qi; Pei, Shuwen; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Hongli; Xiao, Guoqiao; Qiang, Xiaoke; Wu, Dacheng; Chang, Hong

    2012-08-01

    The Nihewan Basin (40°N) in North China is a rich source of Early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites and thus a key area for studying early human evolution in high-latitude (from an early human perspective) East Asia. Here a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic investigation is carried out on a fluvio-lacustrine section in the northeastern Nihewan Basin, which contains the Feiliang and Lanpo Paleolithic sites. Paleomagnetic results suggest that this section records the lower portion of the Brunhes polarity chron and the upper Matuyama polarity chron. Furthermore, the Jaramillo polarity subchron and seven of the nine validated geomagnetic excursions within the Matuyama polarity chron are identified, including the Kamikatsura, Santa Rosa, Intra-Jaramillo, Cobb Mountain, Bjorn, Gardar and Gilsa excursions. The Feiliang artifact layer is located just at the bottom of the Cobb Mountain excursion, thus its age is estimated to be ˜1.2 Ma. The Lanpo artifact layer appears to be coeval with the Gilsa excursion, yielding an estimated age of ˜1.6 Ma. This study provides new evidence for the presence of early humans in North China before 1.5 Ma and documents the powerful role of geomagnetic excursions: they provide valuable age control points for ongoing efforts to date the early Paleolithic sites.

  11. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  12. Black holes.

    PubMed

    Brügmann, B; Ghez, A M; Greiner, J

    2001-09-11

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  13. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-07-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy.

  14. A case of pigmented Bowen's disease*

    PubMed Central

    Vivan, Márcia Maria; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique; do Nascimento, Liliane Santos; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva

    2017-01-01

    Pigmented Bowen's disease is a rare subtype of Bowen's disease. Clinically it presents as a slow-growing, well-defined, hyperpigmented plaque, and should be included as a differential diagnosis of other pigmented lesions. The authors describe a challenging case of pigmented Bowen's disease with non-diagnostic dermscopy findings. PMID:28225972

  15. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  18. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  20. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact materials....

  2. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  3. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  4. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  5. Views to the past: Faunal and geophysical analysis of the open-air Upper Paleolithic site of Verberie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jason Randall

    AN ABSTRACT This dissertation builds upon previous Magdalenian research to reframe a logistical subsistence posture as an active risk-mitigation structure premised upon ensuring predictable surplus economic production at the French Upper Paleolithic site of Verberie le Buisson Campin (hereinafter VBC). Using a detailed faunal and statistical analysis of two faunal datasets to assess taphonomically the role of bone density-mediated vs. anthropogenic taphonomic agencies, this research also correlates bone survivorship with both limb element marrow cavity volume and the meat drying index. A limited program of bone refits attempted to provide evidence for the distribution of meat at the site. Age profiles generated from dental crown height measurements provide strong evidence that younger, perhaps more nutritious and valuable, carcasses were treated quite differently than were geriatric carcasses. There also appears to be a spatial component to the differential age-mediated treatment of reindeer carcasses at VBC. In essence, it appears that seasonal reindeer hunts at VBC were concerned with two eventualities: 1) the attainment of predictable and adequate nutrition for provisioning over winter, and 2) seeking to balance adequate nutrition with future reindeer herd viability. It appears that Magdalenian hunters essentially held young/prime prey targets as an independent variable, and treated the presence of geriatric, elder reindeer herd members as a dependent variable in meeting subsistence needs. Perhaps lower numbers of more nutritious (i.e., containing more and better quality fat reserves in meat and marrow) young/prime animals resulted in taking greater numbers of elderly reindeer to offset potential shortfall; in more abundant times, so long as herd viability could be maintained, greater numbers of more valuable young/prime would be taken along with lower numbers of geriatric reindeer. The fulcrum point of this subsistence balance appears to have been a very active

  6. Landscapes, depositional environments and human occupation at Middle Paleolithic open-air sites in the southern Levant, with new insights from Nesher Ramla, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidner, Yossi; Frumkin, Amos; Friesem, David; Tsatskin, Alexander; Shahack-Gross, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Middle Paleolithic human occupation in the Levant (250-50 ka ago) has been recorded in roofed (cave and rockshelter) and open-air sites. Research at these different types of sites yielded different perspectives on the Middle Paleolithic human behavior and evolution. Until recently, open-air Middle Paleolithic sites in the Levant were found in three major sedimentary environments: fluvial, lake-margin and spring. Here we describe a unique depositional environment and formation processes at the recently discovered open-air site of Nesher Ramla (Israel) and discuss their contribution to understanding site formation processes in open-air sites in the Levant. The site is 8-m-thick Middle Paleolithic sequence (OSL dated to 170-80 ka) that is located in a karst sinkhole formed by gravitational deformation and sagging into underground voids. The sedimentary sequence was shaped by gravitational collapse, cyclic colluviation of soil and gravel into the depression, waterlogging, in situ pedogenesis and human occupation. Original bedding and combustion features are well-preserved in the Lower archaeological sequence, a rare occurrence in comparison to other open-air archaeological sites. This phenomenon coincides with episodes of fast sedimentation/burial, which also allowed better preservation of microscopic remains such as ash. The Upper archaeological sequence does not exhibit bedding or preservation of ash, despite presence of heat-affected lithic artifacts, which makes it similar to other open-air sites in the Levant. We suggest that rate of burial is the major factor that caused the difference between the Upper and Lower sequences. The differences in the burial rate may be connected to environmental and vegetation changes at the end of MIS 6. We also identified an interplay between sediment in-wash and density of human activity remains, i.e. during episodes of low natural sediment input the density of artifacts is higher relative to episodes with high rate of sediment in

  7. Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov., a black pigment producing strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two isolates of a Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium were identified during a survey of the Bacillus diversity of the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil and have a phenotype of producing a da...

  8. Mesopelagic cephalopods switch between transparency and pigmentation to optimize camouflage in the deep.

    PubMed

    Zylinski, Sarah; Johnsen, Sönke

    2011-11-22

    Animals in the lower mesopelagic zone (600-1,000 m depth) of the oceans have converged on two major strategies for camouflage: transparency and red or black pigmentation [1]. Transparency conveys excellent camouflage under ambient light conditions, greatly reducing the conspicuousness of the animal's silhouette [1, 2]. Transparent tissues are seldom perfectly so, resulting in unavoidable internal light scattering [2]. Under directed light, such as that emitted from photophores thought to function as searchlights [3-8], the scattered light returning to a viewer will be brighter than the background, rendering the animal conspicuous [2, 4]. At depths where bioluminescence becomes the dominant source of light, most animals are pigmented red or black, thereby reflecting little light at wavelengths generally associated with photophore emissions and visual sensitivities [3, 9-14]. However, pigmented animals are susceptible to being detected via their silhouettes [5, 9-11]. Here we show evidence for rapid switching between transparency and pigmentation under changing optical conditions in two mesopelagic cephalopods, Japetella heathi and Onychoteuthis banksii. Reflectance measurements of Japetella show that transparent tissue reflects twice as much light as pigmented tissue under direct light. This is consistent with a dynamic strategy to optimize camouflage under ambient and searchlight conditions.

  9. Black bone disease in a healing fracture.

    PubMed

    Thiam, Desmond; Teo, Tse Yean; Malhotra, Rishi; Tan, Kong Bing; Chee, Yu Han

    2016-01-28

    Black bone disease refers to the hyperpigmentation of bone secondary to prolonged usage of minocycline. We present a report of a 34-year-old man who underwent femoral shaft fracture fixation complicated by deep infection requiring debridement. The implants were removed 10 months later after long-term treatment with minocycline and fracture union. A refracture of the femoral shaft occurred 2 days after implant removal and repeat fixation was required. Intraoperatively, abundant heavily pigmented and dark brown bone callus was noted over the old fracture site. There was no evidence of other bony pathology and the appearance was consistent with minocycline-associated pigmentation. As far as we are aware, this is the first case of black bone disease affecting callus within the interval period of bone healing. We also discuss the relevant literature on black bone disease to bring light on this rare entity that is an unwelcomed surprise to operating orthopaedic surgeons.

  10. Deciphering the complete mitochondrial genome and phylogeny of the extinct cave bear in the Paleolithic painted cave of Chauvet.

    PubMed

    Bon, Céline; Caudy, Nicolas; de Dieuleveult, Maud; Fosse, Philippe; Philippe, Michel; Maksud, Frédéric; Beraud-Colomb, Eliane; Bouzaid, Eric; Kefi, Rym; Laugier, Christelle; Rousseau, Bernard; Casane, Didier; van der Plicht, Johannes; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2008-11-11

    Retrieving a large amount of genetic information from extinct species was demonstrated feasible, but complete mitochondrial genome sequences have only been deciphered for the moa, a bird that became extinct a few hundred years ago, and for Pleistocene species, such as the woolly mammoth and the mastodon, both of which could be studied from animals embedded in permafrost. To enlarge the diversity of mitochondrial genomes available for Pleistocene species, we turned to the cave bear (Ursus spelaeus), whose only remains consist of skeletal elements. We collected bone samples from the Paleolithic painted cave of Chauvet-Pont d'Arc (France), which displays the earliest known human drawings, and contains thousands of bear remains. We selected a cave bear sternebra, radiocarbon dated to 32,000 years before present, from which we generated overlapping DNA fragments assembling into a 16,810-base pair mitochondrial genome. Together with the first mitochondrial genome for the brown bear western lineage, this study provides a statistically secured molecular phylogeny assessing the cave bear as a sister taxon to the brown bear and polar bear clade, with a divergence inferred to 1.6 million years ago. With the first mitochondrial genome for a Pleistocene carnivore to be delivered, our study establishes the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave as a new reservoir for Paleogenetic studies. These molecular data enable establishing the chronology of bear speciation, and provide a helpful resource to rescue for genetic analysis archeological samples initially diagnosed as devoid of amplifiable DNA.

  11. The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia.

    PubMed

    Duarte, C; Maurício, J; Pettitt, P B; Souto, P; Trinkaus, E; van der Plicht, H; Zilhão, J

    1999-06-22

    The discovery of an early Upper Paleolithic human burial at the Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, has provided evidence of early modern humans from southern Iberia. The remains, the largely complete skeleton of a approximately 4-year-old child buried with pierced shell and red ochre, is dated to ca. 24,500 years B.P. The cranium, mandible, dentition, and postcrania present a mosaic of European early modern human and Neandertal features. The temporal bone has an intermediate-sized juxtamastoid eminence. The mandibular mentum osseum and the dental size and proportions, supported by mandibular ramal features, radial tuberosity orientation, and diaphyseal curvature, as well as the pubic proportions align the skeleton with early modern humans. Body proportions, reflected in femorotibial lengths and diaphyseal robusticity plus tibial condylar displacement, as well as mandibular symphyseal retreat and thoracohumeral muscle insertions, align the skeleton with the Neandertals. This morphological mosaic indicates admixture between regional Neandertals and early modern humans dispersing into southern Iberia. It establishes the complexities of the Late Pleistocene emergence of modern humans and refutes strict replacement models of modern human origins.

  12. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-02

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons.

  13. Extraction and identification of fillers and pigments from pyrolyzed rubber and tire samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhukhan, P.; Zimmerman, J.B.

    1996-12-31

    Rubber stocks, specially tires, are composed of natural rubber and synthetic polymers and also of several compounding ingredients, such as carbon black, silica, zinc oxide etc. These are generally mixed and vulcanized with additional curing agents, mainly organic in nature, to achieve certain {open_quotes}designing properties{close_quotes} including wear, traction, rolling resistance and handling of tires. Considerable importance is, therefore, attached both by the manufacturers and their competitors to be able to extract, identify and characterize various types of fillers and pigments. Several analytical procedures have been in use to extract, preferentially, these fillers and pigments and subsequently identify and characterize them under a transmission electron microscope.

  14. Pigment characterization of important golden age panel paintings of the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pięta, Ewa; Proniewicz, Edyta; Szmelter-Fausek, Bożena; Olszewska-Świetlik, Justyna; Proniewicz, Leonard M.

    2015-02-01

    Samples were obtained from two world-famous 17th century panel paintings of the Gdańsk school of panting: 'Seven Acts of Charity' (1607, in St. Mary's Church in Gdańsk, Poland) by Anton Möller and 'Angelic Concert' (1611, in Diocesan Museum in Pelplin, Poland) by Hermann Han. Micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS), optical microscopy (OM), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy studies of the samples were performed to characterize the pigments present in the individual painting layers (a rich palette of white, black, blue, red, and yellow pigments) and the pictorial techniques used by the artists.

  15. Pigmented oral compound nevus of retromolar area - A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Gombra, Virender; Kaur, Mandeep; Sircar, Keya; Popli, Deepika Bablani

    2016-12-01

    Solitary pigmented melanocytic intraoral lesions of the oral cavity are rare. Oral nevus is a congenital or acquired benign neoplasm. Oral compound nevus constitutes 5.9%-16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. The oral compound nevus is commonly seen on hard palate and buccal mucosa and rarely on other intraoral sites. The objective of this article is to present a rare case report of oral compound nevus in the retromolar pad region along with a review of literature. A 22 year old female reported with a solitary black pigmented papule at retromolar pad region which was surgically removed and microscopic investigation confirmed the diagnosis of oral compound nevus.

  16. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  17. Raman spectroscopy for the identification of pigments and color measurement in Dugès watercolors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frausto-Reyes, C.; Ortiz-Morales, M.; Bujdud-Pérez, J. M.; Magaña-Cota, G. E.; Mejía-Falcón, R.

    2009-12-01

    Spectroscopic and colorimetric analysis of a representative set of Dugès watercolor paintings was performed. These paintings were the result of scientific studies carried out by the zoologist Alfredo Dugès, who recorded the fauna of the Mexican Republic between 1853 and 1910. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, with an excitation wavelength of 830 nm, and colorimetric techniques were employed in order to understand if different colors with the same hue were reproduced using the same pigments. The color coordinates of the measured areas were obtained in the CIE L* a* b* color space. Raman analysis showed that, in some cases, to reproduce colors with the same hue the pigment employed was not the same. Pigments identified in the watercolors were vermilion, carbon-based black, lead white, gamboge and chrome yellow, Prussian and ultramarine blue. Some of these pigments have been used since ancient times, others as Prussian blue, chrome yellow and synthetic ultramarine blue arrived to the market at the beginning of the 18th and 19th centuries, respectively. Furthermore, regarding the white color, instead of left the paper unpainted, lead white was detected in the eye of a bird. The green color was obtained by mixing Prussian blue with chrome yellow. The results of this work show the suitability of using Raman spectroscopy for watercolor pigment analysis and colorimetric techniques to measure the color of small areas (246 μm × 246 μm) that was the case for the lead white pigment.

  18. Raman spectroscopy for the identification of pigments and color measurement in Dugès watercolors.

    PubMed

    Frausto-Reyes, C; Ortiz-Morales, M; Bujdud-Pérez, J M; Magaña-Cota, G E; Mejía-Falcón, R

    2009-12-01

    Spectroscopic and colorimetric analysis of a representative set of Dugès watercolor paintings was performed. These paintings were the result of scientific studies carried out by the zoologist Alfredo Dugès, who recorded the fauna of the Mexican Republic between 1853 and 1910. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, with an excitation wavelength of 830 nm, and colorimetric techniques were employed in order to understand if different colors with the same hue were reproduced using the same pigments. The color coordinates of the measured areas were obtained in the CIEL*a*b* color space. Raman analysis showed that, in some cases, to reproduce colors with the same hue the pigment employed was not the same. Pigments identified in the watercolors were vermilion, carbon-based black, lead white, gamboge and chrome yellow, Prussian and ultramarine blue. Some of these pigments have been used since ancient times, others as Prussian blue, chrome yellow and synthetic ultramarine blue arrived to the market at the beginning of the 18th and 19th centuries, respectively. Furthermore, regarding the white color, instead of left the paper unpainted, lead white was detected in the eye of a bird. The green color was obtained by mixing Prussian blue with chrome yellow. The results of this work show the suitability of using Raman spectroscopy for watercolor pigment analysis and colorimetric techniques to measure the color of small areas (246 microm x 246 microm) that was the case for the lead white pigment.

  19. Pigment production by Bacteroides species with reference to sub-classification.

    PubMed

    Duerden, B I

    1975-02-01

    All six reference strains of Bacteroides species, 36 laboratory isolates conforming to this group, and individual strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhimurium and Clostridum welchii produced a dense black pigment, identified as ferrus sulphide, when grown in cooked-meat media containing cystine and ferrous sulphate. This was an indicator effect resulting from the production of H2S by the bacteria in the presence of ferrous ions and was unrelated to the characteristic pigment produced by strains of B. melaninogenicus when grown on blood agar. A pigment was extracted by ultrasonic disintegration of washed cells of three reference strains of B. melanino-genicus grown for 1 week in horse-blood broth and on human-blood agar. It was intracellular or cell-associated, soluble in water and had the spectrophotometric characteristics of a derivative of haemoglobin. No such pigment was extracted from strains of B. fragilis or B. necrophorus by similar procedures. Pigment production is a stable characteristic of those strains of Bacteroides called B. melaninogenicus and it is a significant property in the classification of the Bacteroides group. However, the pigment-producing strains are not a homogenous species, and there were considerable differences between the results of biochemical tests and antibograms obtained with the three strains of B. melaninogenicus.

  20. Black thyroid: clinical manifestations, ultrastructural findings, and possible mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.B.; Herrera, G.A.; Jaffe, K.; Yu, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of three black thyroid glands showed lysosomal accumulations of lipofuscin-like pigment and granular electron-dense material in association with 1) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with normal thyroid function; 2) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with a significant inflammatory component, fibrosis, and primary hypothyroidism; and 3) a black thyroid gland with no exposure to minocycline. The deposition of the pigments in the three cases resulted in macroscopically recognizable black thyroid glands. It is speculated that an imbalance in lysosomal function accounts for this abnormality. The glandular hypofunction documented in case 2 is unique and confirms the need to monitor function carefully in patients who are receiving minocycline. In one case electrondense deposits were identified in the thyroid gland interstitium.

  1. Visual Pigments of Goldfish Cones

    PubMed Central

    Hárosi, Ferenc I.; MacNichol, Edward F.

    1974-01-01

    Freshly isolated retinal photoreceptors of goldfish were studied microspectrophotometrically. Absolute absorptance spectra obtained from dark-adapted cone outer segments reaffirm the existence of three spectrally distinct cone types with absorption maxima at 455 ± 3,530 ± 3, and 625 ± 5 nm. These types were found often recognizable by gross cellular morphology. Side-illuminated cone outer segments were dichroic. The measured dichroic ratio for the main absorption band of each type was 2–3:1. Rapidly bleached cells revealed spectral and dichroic transitions in regions near 400–410, 435–455, and 350–360 nm. These photoproducts decay about fivefold as fast as the intermediates in frog rods. The spectral maxima of photoproducts, combined with other evidence, indicate that retinene2 is the chromophore of all three cone pigments. The average specific optical density for goldfish cone outer segments was found to be 0.0124 ± 0.0015/µm. The spectra of the blue-, and green-absorbing cones appeared to match porphyropsin standards with half-band width Δν = 4,832 ± 100 cm–1. The red-absorbing spectrum was found narrower, having Δν = 3,625 ± 100 cm–1. The results are consistent with the notion that visual pigment concentration within the outer segments is about the same for frog rods and goldfish cones, but that the blue-, and green-absorbing pigments possess molar extinctions of 30,000 liter/mol cm. The red-absorbing pigment was found to have extinction of 40,000 liter/mol cm, assuming invariance of oscillator strength among the three cone spectra. PMID:4817352

  2. Nanoscience of an ancient pigment.

    PubMed

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Barrett, Christopher A; Sharafi, Asma; Salguero, Tina T

    2013-02-06

    We describe monolayer nanosheets of calcium copper tetrasilicate, CaCuSi(4)O(10), which have strong near-IR luminescence and are amenable to solution processing methods. The facile exfoliation of bulk CaCuSi(4)O(10) into nanosheets is especially surprising in view of the long history of this material as the colored component of Egyptian blue, a well-known pigment from ancient times.

  3. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…

  4. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  5. Identification of Shell Colour Pigments in Marine Snails Clanculus pharaonius and C. margaritarius (Trochoidea; Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Williams, S T; Ito, S; Wakamatsu, K; Goral, T; Edwards, N P; Wogelius, R A; Henkel, T; de Oliveira, L F C; Maia, L F; Strekopytov, S; Jeffries, T; Speiser, D I; Marsden, J T

    2016-01-01

    Colour and pattern are key traits with important roles in camouflage, warning and attraction. Ideally, in order to begin to understand the evolution and ecology of colour in nature, it is important to identify and, where possible, fully characterise pigments using biochemical methods. The phylum Mollusca includes some of the most beautiful exemplars of biological pigmentation, with the vivid colours of sea shells particularly prized by collectors and scientists alike. Biochemical studies of molluscan shell colour were fairly common in the last century, but few of these studies have been confirmed using modern methods and very few shell pigments have been fully characterised. Here, we use modern chemical and multi-modal spectroscopic techniques to identify two porphyrin pigments and eumelanin in the shell of marine snails Clanculus pharaonius and C margaritarius. The same porphyrins were also identified in coloured foot tissue of both species. We use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to show definitively that these porphyrins are uroporphyrin I and uroporphyrin III. Evidence from confocal microscopy analyses shows that the distribution of porphyrin pigments corresponds to the striking pink-red of C. pharaonius shells, as well as pink-red dots and lines on the early whorls of C. margaritarius and yellow-brown colour of later whorls. Additional HPLC results suggest that eumelanin is likely responsible for black spots. We refer to the two differently coloured porphyrin pigments as trochopuniceus (pink-red) and trochoxouthos (yellow-brown) in order to distinguish between them. Trochopuniceus and trochoxouthos were not found in the shell of a third species of the same superfamily, Calliostoma zizyphinum, despite its superficially similar colouration, suggesting that this species has different shell pigments. These findings have important implications for the study of colour and pattern in molluscs specifically, but in other taxa more generally, since this

  6. Identification of Shell Colour Pigments in Marine Snails Clanculus pharaonius and C. margaritarius (Trochoidea; Gastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Ito, S.; Wakamatsu, K.; Goral, T.; Edwards, N. P.; Wogelius, R. A.; Henkel, T.; de Oliveira, L. F. C.; Maia, L. F.; Strekopytov, S.; Speiser, D. I.; Marsden, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Colour and pattern are key traits with important roles in camouflage, warning and attraction. Ideally, in order to begin to understand the evolution and ecology of colour in nature, it is important to identify and, where possible, fully characterise pigments using biochemical methods. The phylum Mollusca includes some of the most beautiful exemplars of biological pigmentation, with the vivid colours of sea shells particularly prized by collectors and scientists alike. Biochemical studies of molluscan shell colour were fairly common in the last century, but few of these studies have been confirmed using modern methods and very few shell pigments have been fully characterised. Here, we use modern chemical and multi-modal spectroscopic techniques to identify two porphyrin pigments and eumelanin in the shell of marine snails Clanculus pharaonius and C margaritarius. The same porphyrins were also identified in coloured foot tissue of both species. We use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to show definitively that these porphyrins are uroporphyrin I and uroporphyrin III. Evidence from confocal microscopy analyses shows that the distribution of porphyrin pigments corresponds to the striking pink-red of C. pharaonius shells, as well as pink-red dots and lines on the early whorls of C. margaritarius and yellow-brown colour of later whorls. Additional HPLC results suggest that eumelanin is likely responsible for black spots. We refer to the two differently coloured porphyrin pigments as trochopuniceus (pink-red) and trochoxouthos (yellow-brown) in order to distinguish between them. Trochopuniceus and trochoxouthos were not found in the shell of a third species of the same superfamily, Calliostoma zizyphinum, despite its superficially similar colouration, suggesting that this species has different shell pigments. These findings have important implications for the study of colour and pattern in molluscs specifically, but in other taxa more generally, since this

  7. Black Molecular Adsorber Coatings for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Hasegawa, Mark Makoto; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  8. Quaternary fluvial and eolian deposits on the Belan river, India: paleoclimatic setting of Paleolithic to Neolithic archeological sites over the past 85,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibling, M. R.; Sinha, R.; Roy, N. G.; Tandon, S. K.; Jain, M.

    2008-02-01

    Archeological sites in the bedrock Belan Valley at the southern margin of the Ganga Plains of India have unearthed Paleolithic to Neolithic artifacts and the first known evidence for rice cultivation. We present a sedimentological and paleoclimatic analysis for Belan sections, incorporating new luminescence and radiocarbon dates and a compilation of previous research. Some 20 m of strata are exposed in fluvial terraces, commencing with pedogenic and channel calcretes linked to groundwater ponding on the underlying bedrock. Overlying alluvium deposited from mixed-load meandering rivers yields dates between 85±11 and 72±8 kyr before present (BP), implying sustained fluvial activity during Marine Isotope Stage 5 and later; these strata contain Middle Paleolithic artifacts. Thin reworked gravels with Upper Paleolithic artifacts are dated at ˜21-31 kyr BP, and may represent declining alluviation and floodplain gully erosion during reduced monsoonal activity around the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Younger channel fills contain shell-rich eolian sand, and mounds of shelly sand lie inland from the river. Five OSL dates from the sands span 14 to 7 kyr BP, corresponding to a period of climatic instability that includes the Younger Dryas as the monsoon intensified following the LGM. Although suggesting more arid phases, the source-bordering eolian material has a small volume and the grains are partially bleached, indicating local wind action. Overlying floodplain muds reflect renewed alluviation, after which the river incised during peak monsoon flow. The Mesolithic settlement of Chopani-Mando spans a period of reduced monsoon activity and climatic instability following the LGM. Subsequent Neolithic settlements were probably established under stronger monsoon conditions suitable for the development of agriculture. Mesolithic habitation may have ended when a nearby bedrock channel was abandoned as the reinvigorated Belan cut a new course, along which Neolithic settlements

  9. Macro-Process of Past Plant Subsistence from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China: A Quantitative Analysis of Multi-Archaeobotanical Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Can; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; He, Keyang; Huan, Xiujia

    2016-01-01

    Detailed studies of the long-term development of plant use strategies indicate that plant subsistence patterns have noticeably changed since the Upper Paleolithic, when humans underwent a transitional process from foraging to agriculture. This transition was best recorded in west Asia; however, information about how plant subsistence changed during this transition remains limited in China. This lack of information is mainly due to a limited availability of sufficiently large, quantified archaeobotanical datasets and a paucity of related synthetic analyses. Here, we present a compilation of extensive archaeobotanical data derived from interdisciplinary approaches, and use quantitative analysis methods to reconstruct past plant use from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China. Our results show that intentional exploitation for certain targeted plants, particularly grass seeds, may be traced back to about 30,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic. Subsequently, the gathering of wild plants dominated the subsistence system; however, this practice gradually diminished in dominance until about 6~5 ka cal BP during the Middle Neolithic. At this point, farming based on the domestication of cereals became the major subsistence practice. Interestingly, differences in plant use strategies were detected between north and south China, with respect to (1) the proportion of certain plant taxa in assemblages, (2) the domestication rate of cereals, and (3) the type of plant subsistence practiced after the establishment of full farming. In conclusion, the transition from foraging to rice and millet agriculture in China was a slow and long-term process spanning 10s of 1000s of years, which may be analogous to the developmental paths of wheat and barley farming in west Asia. PMID:26840560

  10. Revised age of late Neanderthal occupation and the end of the Middle Paleolithic in the northern Caucasus

    PubMed Central

    Pinhasi, Ron; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Golovanova, Liubov V.; Doronichev, Vladimir B.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in direct radiocarbon dating of Neanderthal and anatomically modern human (AMH) fossils and the development of archaeostratigraphic chronologies now allow refined regional models for Neanderthal–AMH coexistence. In addition, they allow us to explore the issue of late Neanderthal survival in regions of Western Eurasia located within early routes of AMH expansion such as the Caucasus. Here we report the direct radiocarbon (14C) dating of a late Neanderthal specimen from a Late Middle Paleolithic (LMP) layer in Mezmaiskaya Cave, northern Caucasus. Additionally, we provide a more accurate chronology for the timing of Neanderthal extinction in the region through a robust series of 16 ultrafiltered bone collagen radiocarbon dates from LMP layers and using Bayesian modeling to produce a boundary probability distribution function corresponding to the end of the LMP at Mezmaiskaya. The direct date of the fossil (39,700 ± 1,100 14C BP) is in good agreement with the probability distribution function, indicating at a high level of probability that Neanderthals did not survive at Mezmaiskaya Cave after 39 ka cal BP ("calendrical" age in kiloannum before present, based on IntCal09 calibration curve). This challenges previous claims for late Neanderthal survival in the northern Caucasus. We see striking and largely synchronous chronometric similarities between the Bayesian age modeling for the end of the LMP at Mezmaiskaya and chronometric data from Ortvale Klde for the end of the LMP in the southern Caucasus. Our results confirm the lack of reliably dated Neanderthal fossils younger than ∼40 ka cal BP in any other region of Western Eurasia, including the Caucasus. PMID:21555570

  11. Phytochemistry: structure of the blue cornflower pigment.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Masaaki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Takeda, Kosaku

    2005-08-11

    The same anthocyanin pigment makes roses red but cornflowers blue, a phenomenon that has so far not been entirely explained. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure of the cornflower pigment, which reveals that its blue colour arises from a complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions. We believe that this tetrametal complex may represent a previously undiscovered type of supermolecular pigment.

  12. Non-photosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, E. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthetic organisms on Earth produce potentially detectable surface reflectance biosignatures due in part to the spectral location and strength of pigment absorption. However, life on Earth uses pigments for a multitude of purposes other than photosynthesis, including coping with extreme environments. Macroscopic environments exist on Earth where the surface reflectance is significantly altered by a nonphotosynthetic pigment, such as the case of hypersaline lakes and ponds (Oren et al. 1992). Here we explore the nature and potential detectability of non-photosynthetic pigments in disk-averaged planetary observations using a combination of laboratory measurements and archival reflectance spectra, along with simulated broadband photometry and spectra. The in vivo visible reflectance spectra of a cross section of pigmented microorganisms are presented to illustrate the spectral diversity of biologically produced pigments. Synthetic broadband colors are generated to show a significant spread in color space. A 1D radiative transfer model (Meadows & Crisp 1996; Crisp 1997) is used to approximate the spectra of scenarios where pigmented organisms are widespread on planets with Earth-like atmospheres. Broadband colors are revisited to show that colors due to surface reflectivity are not robust to the addition of scattering and absorption effects from the atmosphere. We consider a èbest case' plausible scenario for the detection of nonphotosynthetic pigments by using the Virtual Planetary Laboratory's 3D spectral Earth model (Robinson et al. 2011) to explore the detectability of the surface biosignature produced by pigmented halophiles that are widespread on an Earth-analog planet.

  13. [Experimental study of the red-bed pigment with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lian-Ting; Chen, Guo-Neng; Peng, Zhuo-Lun

    2013-10-01

    Red pigment of continental red-bed is known originating from the fine-particle hematite in the rocks. Advance of researches on the origin of continental red-bed demonstrates that the red pigment of red-bed originated from its diagenetic but not depositional process. The high diagenetic temperature causes the dehydration of iron hydrate to form hematite, generating the red pigment. For examining the above hypothesis, the authors of this paper designed an experiment to approach the reddening process, i.e. formation of the red pigment of continental red-bed. Black ooze sampled from the Holocene sediments of the Pearl River Delta was heated in different ways. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) of those heated ooze samples were detected with Perkin-Elmer Lamdba 950 ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared spectrophotometer, and moreover, red-values of the samples were calculated for determining their coloring levels. Iron in black ooze sediment is predominantly in the form of goethite. Experimental results verified that initial dehydration-temperature of goethite is about 150 degrees C, either enhancing temperature or prolonging heating time is accompanied with decreasing goethite and increasing hematite, and a positive relationship exists between red-value of samples and peak-height of hematite. The experimental results strongly support the idea of thermal origin of continental red-bed.

  14. Relationship between metal and pigment concentrations in the Fe-hyperaccumulator moss Scopelophila ligulata.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Itoh, Kiminori

    2017-01-01

    Scopelophila ligulata is known to be a Fe-hyperaccumulator moss; however, its mechanism of accumulation and the effects of Fe on pigments remain unclear. To clarify the effects, we measured its metal and pigment concentrations. The Fe concentration in S. ligulata was 10-61 times higher than that in normal mosses, confirming that the moss is a Fe-hyperaccumulator. The black samples of S. ligulata had the highest Fe concentration (2.9 wt%) and the second in the order of decreasing Fe concentration (2.2 wt%), which explains their color and indicates that the excess amount of Fe is distributed through the plant body. Moreover, we observed that the concentration of Ca is negatively correlated with the concentrations of pigments and, conversely, that the concentration of K is positively correlated with the concentrations of pigments. This inverse relationship between Ca and K can be explained by the reduced uptake of K in S. ligulata in response to Ca stress, which is supported by the fact that the concentration of Ca is negatively correlated with that of K. These findings provide a better understanding of the relationships between metals and pigments in the Fe-hyperaccumulator moss S. ligulata.

  15. Early Upper Paleolithic chronology in the Levant: new ABOx-SC accelerator mass spectrometry results from the Mughr el-Hamamah Site, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Aaron Jonas; Shea, John J; Rech, Jason A; Pigati, Jeffrey S; Wilson, Jim; Belmaker, Miriam; Albert, Rosa Maria; Arpin, Trina; Cabanes, Dan; Clark, Jamie L; Hartman, Gideon; Hourani, Fuad; White, Chantel E; Nilsson Stutz, Liv

    2015-08-01

    Methodological developments and new paleoanthropological data remain jointly central to clarifying the timing and systemic interrelationships between the Middle-Upper Paleolithic (MP-UP) archaeological transition and the broadly contemporaneous anatomically modern human-archaic biological turnover. In the recently discovered cave site of Mughr el-Hamamah, Jordan, in situ flint artifacts comprise a diagnostic early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) assemblage. Unusually well-preserved charcoal from hearths and other anthropogenic features associated with the lithic material were subjected to acid-base-wet oxidation-stepped combustion (ABOx-SC) pretreatment. This article presents the ABOx-SC accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates on nine charcoal specimens from a single palimpsest occupation layer. Date calibration was carried out using the INTCAL13 radiocarbon calibration dataset. With the bulk of the material dating to 45-39 ka cal BP (thousands of years calibrated before present), the Mughr el-Hamamah lithic artifacts reveal important differences from penecontemporaneous sites in the region, documenting greater technological variability than previously known for this time frame in the Levant. The radiocarbon data from this EUP archaeological context highlight remaining challenges for increasing chronological precision in documenting the MP-UP transition.

  16. Dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Emiroglu, Nazan; Su, Ozlem; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Bahali, Anil Gulsel; Yildiz, Pelin; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Onsun, Nahide

    2016-01-01

    Background Pigmented purpuric dermatosis is a chronic skin disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by symmetrical petechial and pigmented macules, often confined to the lower limbs. The aetiology of pigmented purpuric dermatosis is unknown. Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that allows the visualisation of morphological features invisible to the naked eye; it combines a method that renders the corneal layer of the skin translucent with an optical system that magnifies the image projected onto the retina. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. Methods This study enrolled patients diagnosed histopathologically with pigmented purpuric dermatosis who had dermatoscopic records. We reviewed the dermatoscopic images of PPD patients who attended the outpatient clinic in the Istanbul Dermatovenereology Department at the Bezmialem Vakıf University Medical Faculty. Results Dermatoscopy showed: coppery-red pigmentation (97%, n = 31) in the background, a brown network (34%, n = 11), linear vessels (22%, n = 7), round to oval red dots, globules, and patches (69%, n = 22; 75%, n = 24; 34%, n = 11; respectively), brown globules (26%, n = 8) and dots (53%, n = 17), linear brown lines (22%, n = 7), and follicular openings (13%, n = 4). Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the dermatoscopy of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. In our opinion, dermatoscopy can be useful in the diagnosis of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. PMID:27828629

  17. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  18. Black hairy tongue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient’s re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  19. Bilateral pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Samir H.; Porrino, Jack A.; Green, John R.; Chew, Felix S.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation. PMID:26649121

  20. Developing fungal pigments for "painting" vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sara C

    2012-02-01

    The use of fungal pigments as color additives to wood as a method to increase forest revenue is a relatively new, but quickly developing field. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is currently the primary utilized hardwood for spalting and appears to be the best suited North American hardwood for such purposes. The combination of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta has been identified in several instances as a strong fungal pairing for zone line production; however, Xylaria polymorpha is capable of creating zone lines without the antagonism of a secondary fungus. Few fungal pigments have been developed for reliable use; Scytalidium cuboideum is capable of producing a penetrating pink/red stain, as well as a blue pigment after extended incubation, and Chlorociboria sp. produces a blue/green pigment if grown on aspen (Populus tremuloides). Several opportunities exist for stimulation of fungal pigments including the use of copper sulfate and changes in wood pH.

  1. Organic pigments in plastics can cause allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L; Estlander, T

    1987-01-01

    A short review on organic pigments in plastics as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis is presented. Previously, organic pigments have been reported as provoking allergic pigmented contact dermatitis when used in cosmetics. Here we present the case of a patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis from an organic pigment (Irgalite Orange F2G) in a plastic glove. This shows that organic pigments in plastics can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. The potential sensitizing capacity of organic pigments should be noted.

  2. Variation in Anthocyanin Content of Wild Black Raspberry for Breeding Improved Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of its intense anthocyanin pigments, black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) has a long history of use as a natural colorant and dye. Recent studies showing black raspberries to be a rich source of anthocyanins and other dietary phytochemicals has led to renewed interest in breeding new, bet...

  3. Characterization of total antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of differently pigmented rice varieties and their changes during domestic cooking.

    PubMed

    Zaupa, Maria; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Brighenti, Furio; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-11-15

    In the recent years, the pigmented rice varieties are becoming more popular due to their antioxidant properties and phenolic content. In this study, we characterized the antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the phenolic profile in white, red and black rice varieties, and evaluated the effect of two cooking methods (i.e. "risotto" and boiling) on these compounds. Before the cooking, all the varieties contained several phenolic acids, whereas anthocyanins and flavonols were peculiar of black rice and flavan-3-ols of red rice. Among the rice varieties, the black had the highest TAC value. The content of (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC decreased after cooking in all three varieties, but to a lesser extent after the risotto method. As a consequence, the risotto cooking, which allows a complete absorption of water, would be a good cooking method to retain (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC in pigmented and non-pigmented whole-meal rice.

  4. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of…

  5. Assessment of present day geomorphological dynamics to decipher landscape evolution around the Paleolithic sites of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerker, Michael; Schillaci, Calogero; Melis, Rita; Mussi, Margherita

    2014-05-01

    The area of Melka Kunture (central Ethiopia) is one of the most important clusters of Paleolithic sites in Eastern Africa. The archaeological record spans from c. 1.7 Ma onwards, with a number of stratified occurrences of Oldowan, Acheulean, Middle Stone Age and Late Stone Age industries, together with faunal remains and human fossils. However, the archaeological sites are endangered by flooding and soil erosion. The main excavation area lies close to the convergence of the Awash river with the Atabella river, one of the main tributaries of the upper Awash catchment. In the semi-arid Ethiopian highlands, gully networks develop especially in the vicinity of the active and inactive river meanders. Various erosion processes are linked to specific driving factors such as the rainfall regime, the land use/cover changes and vertic soils with a specific hydrological behaviour. It was documented in the field and by previous research that the origin of most of the man made erosion channels is due to animal pathways and car tracks. However, paleolandscape features increase the general erosion risk. Former wetland areas and deposition zones are particularly affected by soil erosion processes. Hence, the spatial distribution and characteristics of present day geomorphic processes also reveal information on the paleolandscape. In order to assess landscape evolution and present day geomorphologic dynamics, we mapped the geomorphology describing in detail the present-day slope processes at a 10.000 scale. We performed a detailed terrain analysis based on high resolution DEMs such as SRTM-X with 25m resolution and ALOS/PRISM with 10m resolution to characterize the main erosion processes and surface runoff dynamics. The latter ones are simulated using a Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method. Landuse was delineated for a larger area using ASTER 25m multispectral data. Finally, using calibrated topographic indices and a simple hydrological model we were able to detect and

  6. Anthocyanins. Plant pigments and beyond.

    PubMed

    Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Victor

    2014-07-23

    Anthocyanins are plant pigments widespread in nature. They play relevant roles in plant propagation and ecophysiology and plant defense mechanisms and are responsible for the color of fruits and vegetables. A large number of novel anthocyanin structures have been identified, including new families such as pyranoanthocyanins or anthocyanin oligomers; their biosynthesis pathways have been elucidated, and new plants with "a la carte" colors have been created by genetic engineering. Furthermore, evidence about their benefits in human health has accumulated, and processes of anthocyanin absorption and biotransformation in the human organism have started to be ascertained. These advances in anthocyanin research were revised in the Seventh International Workshop on Anthocyanins that took place in Porto (Portugal) on September 9-11, 2013. Some selected papers are collected in this special issue, where aspects such as anthocyanin accumulation in plants, relationship with color expression, stability in plants and food, and bioavailability or biological activity are revised.

  7. Structure of plant bile pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenleber, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Selective peptide cleavage has provided a general procedure for the study of the structure, including stereochemistry, of plant bile pigments. The information derived from the synthesis and spectral analysis of a series of 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins allows the determination of the trans relative stereochemistry for ring A of the ..beta../sub 1/-phycocyanobilin from C-phycocyanin as well as for ring A of phytochrome. A complete structure proof of the five phycoerythrobilins attached to the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of B-phycoerythrin is described. One of these tetrapyrroles is doubly-peptide linked to a single peptide chain through two thioethers at the C-3' and C-18' positions. The four remaining phycoerythrobilins are singly-linked to the protein through thioethers at the C-3' position and all possess the probable stereochemistry C-2(R), C-3(R), C-3'(R), and C-16(R).

  8. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mierlo, Camille Van; Pinto, Luis Abegão

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Iatrogenic pigment dispersion syndrome generally originates from a repetitive, mechanical trauma to the pigmented posterior epithelium of the iris. This trauma can arise after intraocular surgery, most commonly due to an abnormal contact between the intraocular lens (IOL) and the iris. Whether surgical removal of this primary insult can lead to a successful intraocular pressure (IOP) control remains unclear. Methods: Case-series. Patients with IOP elevation and clinical signs of pigment dispersion were screened for a diagnosis of iatrogenic IOL-related pigment dispersion. Results: Three patients in which the IOL or the IOL-bag complex caused a pigment dispersion through a repetitive iris chafing were selected. In two cases, replacement of a sulcus-based single-piece IOL (patient 1) or a sub-luxated in-the-bag IOL (patient 2) by an anterior-chamber (AC) iris-fixed IOL led to a sustained decrease in IOP. In the third case, extensive iris atrophy and poor anatomical AC parameters for IOL implantation precluded further surgical intervention. Conclusion: IOL-exchange appears to be a useful tool in the management of iatrogenic pigment dispersion glaucoma due to inappropriate IOL implantation. This cause-oriented approach seems to be effective in controlling IOP, but should be offered only if safety criteria are met. How to cite this article: Van Mierlo C, Abegao Pinto L, Stalmans I. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):28-32. PMID:26997830

  9. Raman analysis of ancient pigments on a tile from the Citadel of Algiers.

    PubMed

    Kock, L D; De Waal, D

    2008-12-15

    A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of a multi-coloured (yellow, blue, white, redish-brown and brown-black) tile shard from the Citadel of Algiers was undertaken. XRD and EDX were used as complementary techniques. The study shows that the heterogeneous three-shade yellow pigment on the tile is composed largely of the ancient ternary (Pb-Sn-Sb) pyrochlore oxide with a dominant Pb-O vibration at 127 cm(-1) consistent with the Pb2SnSbO6.5 structure as verified by XRD. The literature assignment of this band at 132 cm(-1) probably comes from a mixture of pigments. The redish-brown and the brown-black pigments are found to be Naples yellow (Pb2Sb2O7) and lead(II) stannate (Pb2SnO4), respectively, while cobalt blue (CoAl2O4) gives the blue colour and cassiterite (SnO2) is the origin of the white colour. The bulk of the tile body is composed mainly of hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4) and Quartz (alpha-SiO2) with traces of calcite (CaCO3) and amorphous carbon. Micro-Raman spectroscopy proved to be very useful in the characterization of pigments as well as the tile body. These results further establish Raman spectroscopy as a technique of choice for the analysis of pigments on archaeological artifacts. The results obtained here could be used in the restoration and preservation programme of the Citadel itself which stands today as a symbol of pre-colonial Algerian heritage.

  10. Exosomes released by keratinocytes modulate melanocyte pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, Alessandra Lo; Delevoye, Cédric; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Guéré, Christelle; André, Nathalie; Vié, Katell; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2015-01-01

    Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, which transfer proteins, lipids and RNAs to regulate recipient cell functions. Skin pigmentation relies on a tight dialogue between keratinocytes and melanocytes in the epidermis. Here we report that exosomes secreted by keratinocytes enhance melanin synthesis by increasing both the expression and activity of melanosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that the function of keratinocyte-derived exosomes is phototype-dependent and is modulated by ultraviolet B. In sum, this study uncovers an important physiological function for exosomes in human pigmentation and opens new avenues in our understanding of how pigmentation is regulated by intercellular communication in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:26103923

  11. Exosomes released by keratinocytes modulate melanocyte pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Lo Cicero, Alessandra; Delevoye, Cédric; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Guéré, Christelle; André, Nathalie; Vié, Katell; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2015-06-24

    Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, which transfer proteins, lipids and RNAs to regulate recipient cell functions. Skin pigmentation relies on a tight dialogue between keratinocytes and melanocytes in the epidermis. Here we report that exosomes secreted by keratinocytes enhance melanin synthesis by increasing both the expression and activity of melanosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that the function of keratinocyte-derived exosomes is phototype-dependent and is modulated by ultraviolet B. In sum, this study uncovers an important physiological function for exosomes in human pigmentation and opens new avenues in our understanding of how pigmentation is regulated by intercellular communication in both healthy and diseased states.

  12. Black Spot, a Novel Gastric Finding Potentially Induced by Proton Pump Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Yu; Haruma, Ken; Ayaki, Maki; Kamada, Tomoari; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Murao, Takahisa; Manabe, Noriaki; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Shiotani, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective We have recently discovered new gastric lesions with black spots. There have been no reports about black spots and their clinicopathological features. We therefore report the clinicopathological features of black spots and assess their causes and mechanisms. Methods Sixty-four patients with black spots among 26,620 Japanese patients that underwent endoscopy between May 2012 and October 2014 were enrolled. Endoscopic findings of black spots were defined as black pigmentations in the gastric mucosa by conventional endoscopy. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, including gender, age, underlying diseases and medications, endoscopic and pathologic findings of patients with black spots. Results The prevalence of patients with black spots was 0.24%. Of sixty-four cases, 44 (68.8%) were taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Eight (12.5%) were taking corticosteroids. There were 10 cases (15.6%) with decreased renal function. All black spots were identified only in the fundic gland region. Forty-one (64.1%) patients had multiple (more than ten) black spots. There were two different types: black spots on the flat mucosa and black spots on fundic gland polyps. Pathologically, parietal cell protrusions, fundic gland cysts and brownish pigmentation in fundic gland cysts were seen in 26 (76.5%), 23 (67.6%) and 6 (17.6%) patients, respectively. Conclusion We herein describe gastric black spots as a new gastric mucosal finding that arises only in the fundic gland region. The black spots are pathologically brownish pigmentations in fundic gland cysts. Adverse events of PPIs and parietal cell protrusion caused by PPI use are strongly considered to be one of the etiologies of black spots. PMID:27803398

  13. Diagnosis and management of facial pigmented macules.

    PubMed

    Lallas, Aimilios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Moscarella, Elvira; Longo, Caterina; Simonetti, Vito; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of pigmented macules on the mottled chronic sun-damaged skin of the face is challenging and includes lentigo maligna (LM), pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, solar lentigo, and lichen-planus-like keratosis. Although dermatoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of the unaided eye, the accurate diagnosis and management of pigmented facial macules remains one of the most challenging scenarios in daily practice. This is related to the fact that pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, lichen-planus-like keratosis, and LM may reveal overlapping criteria, making their differential diagnosis clinically difficult. For this reason, practical rules have been introduced, which should help to minimize the risk for inappropriate diagnosis and management of LM.

  14. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    PubMed

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics.

  15. Color characterization of coatings with diffraction pigments.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, A; Bernad, B; Campos, J; Perales, E; Velázquez, J L; Martínez-Verdú, F M

    2016-10-01

    Coatings with diffraction pigments present high iridescence, which needs to be characterized in order to describe their appearance. The spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of six coatings with SpectraFlair diffraction pigments were measured using the robot-arm-based goniospectrophotometer GEFE, designed and developed at CSIC. Principal component analysis has been applied to study the coatings of BRDF data. From data evaluation and based on theoretical considerations, we propose a relevant geometric factor to study the spectral reflectance and color gamut variation of coatings with diffraction pigments. At fixed values of this geometric factor, the spectral BRDF component due to diffraction is almost constant. Commercially available portable goniospectrophotometers, extensively used in several industries (automotive and others), should be provided with more aspecular measurement angles to characterize the complex reflectance of goniochromatic coatings based on diffraction pigments, but they would not require either more than one irradiation angle or additional out-of-plane geometries.

  16. Induction of Yellow Pigmentation in Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Trias, Joaquim; Viñas, Miquel; Guinea, Jesús; Lorén, José G.

    1988-01-01

    The appearance of yellow pigmentation in nonpigmented strains of Serratia sp. has been demonstrated to be due to the production of a muconic acid, 2-hydroxy-5-carboxymethylmuconic acid semialdehyde. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-dioxygenase responsible for the synthesis of this muconic acid was induced in all strains tested. Another muconic acid, the β-cis-cis-carboxymuconic acid, could also be synthesized from 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, but this product was not colored. Mutants that were unable to grow on tyrosine and produced yellow pigment were isolated from nonpigmented strains. These mutants had properties similar to those of the yellow-pigmented strains. The ability to produce pigment may be more widespread among Serratia marcescens strains than is currently known. PMID:16347803

  17. Pigmented Soybean (Glycine max) Seed Coats Accumulate Proanthocyanidins during Development.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, J. J.; Vodkin, L. O.

    1993-01-01

    The dominant I gene inhibits accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in the epidermal layer of soybean (Glycine max) seed coats. Seed-coat color is also influenced by the R locus and by the pubescence color alleles (T, tawny; t, gray). Protein and RNA from cultivars with black (i,R,T) and brown (i,r,T) seed coats are difficult to extract. To determine the nature of the interfering plant products, we examined seed-coat extracts from Clark isogenic lines for flavonoids, anthocyanins, and possible proanthocyanidins by thin-layer chromatography. We show that yellow seed-coat varieties (I) do not accumulate anthocyanins (anthocyanidin glycosides) or proanthocyanidins (polymeric anthocyanidins). Mature, black (i,R,T) and imperfect-black (i,R,t) seed coats contained anthocyanins, whereas mature, brown (i,r,T) and buff (i,r,t) seed coats did not contain anthocyanins. In contrast, all colored (i) genotypes tested positive for the presence of proanthocyanidins by butanol/ HCl and 0.5% vanillin assays. Immature, black (i,R,T) and brown (i,r,T) seed coats contained significant amounts of procyanidin, a 3[prime],4[prime]-hydroxylated proanthocyanidin. Immature, black (i,R,T) or brown (i,r,T) seed-coat extracts also tested positive for the ability to precipitate proteins in a radial diffusion assay and to bind RNA in vitro. Imperfect-black (i,R,t) or buff (i,r,t) seed coats contained lesser amounts of propelargonidin, a 4[prime]-hydroxylated proanthocyanidin. Seed-coat extracts from these genotypes did not have the ability to precipitate protein or bind to RNA. In summary, the dominant I gene controls inhibition of not only anthocyanins but also proanthocyanidins in soybean seed coats. In homozygous recessive i genotypes, the T-t gene pair determines the types of proanthocyanidins present, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the T locus encodes a microsomal 3[prime]-flavonoid hydroxylase. PMID:12231856

  18. New Directions in Phthalocyanine Pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) investigation of the synthesis of new phthalocyanines; (2) characterization of the new phthalocyanines synthesized; (3) investigate the properties of the newly synthesized phthalocyanines with emphasis on UV protection of plastics and coatings; and (4) utilize quantum mechanics to evaluate the structural relationships with possible properties and synthetic approaches. The proposed research targeted the synthesis of phthalocyanines containing an aromatic bridge between two phthalocyanine rings. The goal was to synthesize pigments which would protect plastics when exposed to the photodegradation effects of the sun in space. The stability and extended conjugation of the phthalocyanines offer a unique opportunity for energy absorption and numerous radiative and non-radiative energy loss mechanisms. Although the original targeted phthalocyanines were changed early in the project, several new and unique phthalocyanine compounds were prepared. The basic goals of this work were met and some unique and unexpected outcomes of the work were the result of the integral use of quantum mechanics and molecular modeling with the synthetic effort.

  19. Pigmented squamous cell carcinoma of the cheek skin probably arising from solar keratosis.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi; Yamagami, Jun; Fugimoto, Atsushi; Tanaka, Kyoko; Sugiura, Makoto

    2003-07-01

    We report a rare case of pigmented squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cheek skin probably arising from solar keratosis. An 80-year-old man was referred to our clinic because of a black skin nodule in the right cheek. The nodular lesion was 1 cm in diameter, dome-shaped, hard, sharply demarcated, partially erosive and telangiectatic at the border. The lesion was completely excised under the clinical diagnosis of probable seborrheic keratosis. Microscopically, cutaneous horn and mildly atypical squamous epithelia suggestive of previous solar keratosis were present in the surface of the lesion. The lesion consisted of atypical squamous cells with keratinization and intercellular bridges, and it was regarded as SCC. The SCC cells were seen to invade lightly into the upper dermis, where lymphocytic infiltrations and melanophages were noted. Characteristically, heavy deposition of melanin pigment was recognized in the SCC cells as well as in proliferated dendritic and pigment blockade melanocytes that were scattered or colonized within the SCC cell nests. Masson-Fontana stain revealed numerous melanin granules in the SCC cells, as well as in dendritic and pigment blockade melanocytes. Immunohistochemically, the SCC cells were positive for cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen, and negative for S-100 protein and HMB45 antigen. Dendritic and pigment blockade melanocytes were negative for cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, and HMB45 antigen, but positive for S-100 protein. The present case suggests that SCC cells of the skin may induce proliferation of melanocytes. The differential diagnosis and the histogenesis of pigmented SCC of the skin are discussed.

  20. A Molecular Approach to the Sexing of the Triple Burial at the Upper Paleolithic Site of Dolní Věstonice

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Jiří; Krause, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades ancient DNA research has brought numerous insights to archaeological research where traditional approaches were limited. The determination of sex in human skeletal remains is often challenging for physical anthropologists when dealing with incomplete, juvenile or pathological specimens. Molecular approaches allow sexing on the basis of sex-specific markers or by calculating the ratio of DNA derived from different chromosomes. Here we propose a novel approach that relies on the ratio of X chromosome-derived shotgun sequencing data to the autosomal coverage, thus establishing the probability of an XX or XY karyotype. Applying this approach to the individuals of the Upper Paleolithic triple burial of Dolní Věstonice reveals that all three skeletons, including the individual DV 15, whose sex has long been debated due to a pathological condition, were male. PMID:27706187

  1. Genetics of pigmentation and melanoma predisposition.

    PubMed

    Pho, L N; Leachman, S A

    2010-02-01

    About 5-10% of human cutaneous malignant melanoma is hereditary and known to involve rare germline mutations in highly penetrant, autosomal dominant genes. These genes are important in cell cycle control but are not responsible for all familial cases of melanoma. Epidemiologic studies have linked specific phenotypic traits including fair skin, light-colored eyes, and poor tanning ability to melanoma risks. The ability to visually discern and define pigmentary phenotypes in humans and in animal models has permitted elucidation of many genes involved in pigmentation and melanin biosynthesis. Additional genetic epidemiological studies have recently identified a subset of these pigmentation genes that are associated with risk for melanoma and other cutaneous malignancies as well as photosensitivity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have unveiled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or genetic variants in MC1R, TPCN2, ASIP, KITLG, NCKX5, TYR, IRF4, OCA2, and TYRP1 pigmentation genes. These findings emphasize the contribution of pigmentation pathways to melanoma predisposition and tumorigenesis through gene-environment interactions. Since pigmentation genes in the melanin synthesis pathway also confer risk for cutaneous malignancy, a better understanding of the operative molecular mechanisms involved in this relationship has the potential to impact individual risk assessment for cutaneous malignant melanoma in the future. This paper is an overview of our current understanding of pigmentation gene modifications that have been associated with melanoma risk and how these genes can enrich clinical management, prevention, and early detection of malignant melanoma.

  2. Macular pigment and lutein supplementation in choroideremia.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Jacque L; Aleman, Tomas S; Gardner, Leigh M; De Castro, Elaine; Marks, Daniel A; Emmons, Jessica M; Bieber, Michelle L; Steinberg, Janet D; Bennett, Jean; Stone, Edwin M; MacDonald, Ian M; Cideciyan, Artur V; Maguire, Maureen G; Jacobson, Samuel G

    2002-03-01

    Choroideremia is an incurable X-linked retinal degeneration caused by mutations in the gene encoding Rab escort protein-1. A group of clinically defined and genotyped patients were studied to determine: (1) the degree of rod and cone dysfunction and structural abnormality in the central retina and the level of macular pigment; and (2) the response of macular pigment and foveal vision to a 6 month trial of supplementation with oral lutein (at 20 mg per day). Rod and cone-mediated function was measured with dark-adapted static perimetry; in vivo retinal structure was determined with optical coherence tomography; and macular pigment optical density was measured with heterochromatic flicker photometry. In this cohort of patients (ages 15-65 years), both rod- and cone-mediated central function declined with age as did central retinal thickness. Macular pigment levels did not differ between patients and male control subjects. Supplementation of oral lutein in a subset of patients led to an increase in serum lutein and macular pigment levels; absolute foveal sensitivity did not change. It is concluded that macular pigment density can be augmented by oral intake of lutein in patients with choroideremia. There was no short-term change in the central vision of the patients on the supplement, but long-term influences of lutein supplementation on disease natural history warrant further study.

  3. Microspectrophotometry of Arthropod Visual Screening Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Strother, G. K.; Casella, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Absorption spectra of visual screening pigments obtained in vitro with a microspectrophotometer using frozen sections are given for the insects Musca domestica, Phormia regina, Libellula luctuosa, Apis mellifera (worker honeybee only), Drosophila melanogaster (wild type only) and the arachnids Lycosa baltimoriana and Lycosa miami. The spectral range covered is 260–700 nm for Lycosa and Drosophila and 310–700 nm for the remainder of the arthropods. A complete description of the instrumentation is given. For the flies, Phormia and Musca, light absorption by the yellow and red pigments is high from 310 to about 610 nm. This implies that for these insects there should be no wavelength shift in electroretinogram (ERG) results due to light leakage among neighboring ommatidia for this wavelength range. The same comment applies to Calliphora erythrocephala, which is known to have similar screening pigments. For some of the insects studied a close correspondence is noted between screening pigment absorption spectra and spectral sensitivity curves for individual photoreceptors, available in the literature. In some cases the screening pigment absorption spectra can be related to chemical extraction results, with the general observation that some of the in vitro absorption peaks are shifted to the red. The Lycosa, Apis, and Libellula dark red pigments absorb strongly over a wide spectral range and therefore prevent chemical identification. PMID:4623852

  4. Evidence for habitual use of fire at the end of the Lower Paleolithic: site-formation processes at Qesem Cave, Israel.

    PubMed

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Shahack-Gross, Ruth; Ayalon, Avner; Bar-Matthews, Mira; Barkai, Ran; Frumkin, Amos; Gopher, Avi; Stiner, Mary C

    2007-08-01

    The Amudian (late Lower Paleolithic) site of Qesem Cave in Israel represents one of the earliest examples of habitual use of fire by middle Pleistocene hominids. The Paleolithic layers in this cave were studied using a suite of mineralogical and chemical techniques and a contextual sedimentological analysis (i.e., micromorphology). We show that the lower ca. 3m of the stratigraphic sequence are dominated by clastic sediments deposited within a closed karstic environment. The deposits were formed by small-scale, concentrated mud slurries (infiltrated terra rosa soil) and debris flows. A few intervening lenses of mostly in situ burnt remains were also identified. The main part of the upper ca. 4.5 m consists of anthropogenic sediment with only moderate amounts of clastic geogenic inputs. The deposits are strongly cemented with calcite that precipitated from dripping water. The anthropogenic component is characterized by completely combusted, mostly reworked wood ash with only rare remnants of charred material. Micromorphological and isotopic evidence indicates recrystallization of the wood ash. Large quantities of burnt bone, defined by a combination of microscopic and macroscopic criteria, and moderately heated soil lumps are closely associated with the wood-ash remains. The frequent presence of microscopic calcified rootlets indicates that the upper sequence formed in the vicinity of the former cave entrance. Burnt remains in the sediments are associated with systematic blade production and faunas that are dominated by the remains of fallow deer. Use-wear damage on blades and blade tools in conjunction with numerous cut marks on bones indicate an emphasis on butchering and prey-defleshing activities in the vicinity of fireplaces.

  5. Culture-based identification of pigmented Porphyromonas and Prevotella species in primary endodontic infections

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Anuradha; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S.; Somannavar, Pradeep D.; Ingalagi, Preeti; Bhat, Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Background. The most common species isolated from primary endodontic infections are black-pigmented bacteria. These species are implicated in apical abscess formation due to their proteolytic activity and are fastidious in nature. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the presence and identification of various pigmented Porphyromonas and Prevotella species in the infected root canal through culture-based techniques. Methods. Thirty-one patients with primary endodontic infections were selected. Using sterile paper points, samples were collected from the root canals after access opening and prior to obturation, which were cultured using blood and kanamycin blood agar. Subsequently, biochemical test was used to identify the species and the results were analyzed using percentage comparison analysis, McNemar and chi-squared tests, Wilcoxon match pair test and paired t-test. Results. Out of 31 samples 26 were positive for black-pigmented organisms; the predominantly isolated species were Prevotella followed by Porphyromonas. In Porphyromonas only P. gingivalis was isolated. One of the interesting features was isolation of P. gingivalis through culture, which is otherwise very difficult to isolate through culture. Conclusion. The presence of Prevotella and Porphyromonas species suggests that a significant role is played by these organisms in the pathogenesis of endodontic infections. PMID:27651878

  6. Microchemical Study of Pigments and Binders in Polychrome Relics from Maiji Mountain Grottoes in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Luyao; Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bingjian; Ma, Qian

    2016-08-01

    In this study, an integrated analytical method was developed to investigate the composition of both the inorganic pigments and organic binders of polychrome relics in Maiji Mountain Grottoes in northwestern China. Cross-sections of each sample were prepared at the beginning of the study, and all experiments were carried out on these cross-sections. Polychromic structures were revealed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy-backscattered electron imaging. Inorganic materials were determined by using SEM coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer and μ-Raman spectrometer, whereas organic materials were identified by staining techniques and highly sensitive and specific immunofluorescence microscopy. Data showed that the red colors are attributed to one or two pigments of red ochre, cinnabar, and minium; the blue pigment is natural lazurite; the green pigment is ascribed to atacamite; the white color is attributed to potassium feldspar; and the black surface is formed by the discoloration of minium to plattnerite under the influence of environmental factors. Regarding organic binders used in painting and preparation layers, mammalian animal glue and chicken egg white were both found alone or in mixture. Finally, the conclusion is made that the Secco technique is employed in polychrome relics from Maiji Mountain Grottoes.

  7. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of β-alanine and N-β-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of β-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  8. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-06-16

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of β-alanine and N-β-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of β-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera.

  9. The etiology and molecular genetics of human pigmentation disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Laura L.; Pavan, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation, defined as the placement of pigment in skin, hair, and eyes for coloration, is distinctive because the location, amount, and type of pigmentation provides a visual manifestation of genetic heterogeneity in pathways regulating the pigment-producing cells, melanocytes. The scope of this genetic heterogeneity in humans ranges from normal to pathological pigmentation phenotypes. Clinically normal human pigmentation encompasses a variety of skin and hair color as well as with punctate pigmentation such as melanocytic nevi (moles) or ephelides (freckles), while clinically abnormal human pigmentation exhibits markedly reduced or increased pigment levels, known as hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation, respectively. Elucidation of the molecular genetics underlying pigmentation has revealed genes important for melanocyte development and function. Furthermore, many pigmentation disorders show additional defects in cells other than melanocytes, and identification of the genetic insults in these disorders has revealed pleiotropic genes, where a single gene is required for various functions, often in different cell types. Thus unravelling the genetics of easily visualized pigmentation disorders has identified molecular similarities between melanocytes and less visible cell types/tissues, revealing a common cellular origin and/or common genetic regulatory pathways. Herein we discuss notable human pigmentation disorders and their associated genetic alterations, focusing on the fact that the developmental genetics of pigmentation abnormalities is instructive for understanding normal pathways governing development and function of melanocytes. PMID:23799582

  10. The contribution of the melanin pathway to overall body pigmentation during ontogenesis of Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Lemonds, Thomas R; Liu, Jin; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2016-08-01

    The most prominent colors observed in insects are black or brown, whose production is attributed to the melanin pathway. At present, though, the contribution of this pathway to overall body pigmentation throughout ontogenesis is still lacking. To address this question we examined the roles of 2 key melanin genes (TH and DDC), in embryonic and postembryonic development of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Our results show that the melanin pathway does not contribute to the light brown coloration observed in the first nymphs. However, the dark brown coloration in mid nymphs and adults is produced solely from the melanin pathway. In addition, the DDC RNAi results reveal that it is dopamine melanin, not DOPA melanin, acts as the main contributor in this process. Overall, present study provides a new insight into insect pigmentation suggesting that genetic mechanisms of coloration can change during ontogenesis. Future studies of additional basal insect lineages will be required to assess in more details the generality of this phenomenon.

  11. Pigmented eccrine poroma: dermoscopic and confocal features

    PubMed Central

    Bombonato, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Moscarella, Elvira; Lallas, Aimillios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine poroma is a rare benign adnexal tumor of epithelial cells originating from the terminal ductal portion of the sweat glands that is typically located on palms and soles, although other cutaneous sites can be affected [1]. It is usually nonpigmented even if there is a pigmented variant that corresponds to 17% of cases and it is usually underdiagnosed, since it is mistakenly confused with other pigmented tumors [2,3]. Dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may assist in the correct diagnosis of this tumor. Herein, we report one case of pigmented eccrine poroma (PEP) that simulated clinically a cutaneous melanoma or a basal cell carcinoma. Dermoscopy and RCM excluded the possibilities of those two diagnoses; the overall confocal findings were suggestive for a benign epithelial tumor. Histology was fundamental to diagnose this lesion as a pigmented eccrine poroma. Even if the diagnosis of eccrine poroma remains histopathological still, as in this case report, noninvasive tools such as dermoscopy and RCM examinations can be of help to rule out the diagnosis of melanoma. Larger studies on this rare pigmented variant of eccrine poroma could shed new light on the identification of specific diagnostic dermoscopic and confocal features. PMID:27648386

  12. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Shabnam; Prendiville, Kevin John; Martinez, Eladio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia. Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam. Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2–3 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months. Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia. PMID:27625966

  13. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  14. Investigations of biomimetic light energy harvesting pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Van Patten, P.G.; Donohoe, R.J.; Lindsey, J.S.; Bocian, D.F.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nature uses chlorophyll and other porphyrinic pigments to capture and transfer light energy as a preliminary step in photosynthesis. The design of synthetic assemblies of light harvesting and energy directing pigments has been explored through synthesis and characterization of porphyrin oligomers. In this project, pigment electronic and vibrational structures have been explored by electrochemistry and dynamic and static optical measurements. Transient absorption data reveal energy transfer between pigments with lifetimes on the order of 20--200 picoseconds, while Raman data reveal that the basic porphyrin core structure is unperturbed relative to the individual monomer units. These two findings, along with an extensive series of experiments on the oxidized oligomers, reveal that coupling between the pigments is fundamentally weak, but sufficient to allow facile energy transfer as the predominant excited state process. Modeling of the expected quantum yields for energy transfer within a variety of arrays was accomplished, thereby providing a tool to guide synthetic goals.

  15. Recreating a functional ancestral archosaur visual pigment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Belinda S W; Jönsson, Karolina; Kazmi, Manija A; Donoghue, Michael J; Sakmar, Thomas P

    2002-09-01

    The ancestors of the archosaurs, a major branch of the diapsid reptiles, originated more than 240 MYA near the dawn of the Triassic Period. We used maximum likelihood phylogenetic ancestral reconstruction methods and explored different models of evolution for inferring the amino acid sequence of a putative ancestral archosaur visual pigment. Three different types of maximum likelihood models were used: nucleotide-based, amino acid-based, and codon-based models. Where possible, within each type of model, likelihood ratio tests were used to determine which model best fit the data. Ancestral reconstructions of the ancestral archosaur node using the best-fitting models of each type were found to be in agreement, except for three amino acid residues at which one reconstruction differed from the other two. To determine if these ancestral pigments would be functionally active, the corresponding genes were chemically synthesized and then expressed in a mammalian cell line in tissue culture. The expressed artificial genes were all found to bind to 11-cis-retinal to yield stable photoactive pigments with lambda(max) values of about 508 nm, which is slightly redshifted relative to that of extant vertebrate pigments. The ancestral archosaur pigments also activated the retinal G protein transducin, as measured in a fluorescence assay. Our results show that ancestral genes from ancient organisms can be reconstructed de novo and tested for function using a combination of phylogenetic and biochemical methods.

  16. Counseling Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  17. Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This paper, presented as part of a military lecture series given by the Division of Continuing Education and Community Service Speakers' Bureau of the University of Hawaii to military personnel at Schofield Barracks and Fort Shafter, investigates the origins and present status of Black English. A discussion of early studies in the Gullah dialect…

  18. Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered by particular interest in the study of black Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within these subject areas: I. African…

  19. Pigment analyses of a portrait and paint box of Turkish artist Feyhaman Duran (1886-1970): The EDXRF, FT-IR and micro Raman spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, Sevim; Akyuz, Tanil; Emre, Gulder; Gulec, Ahmet; Basaran, Sait

    2012-04-01

    The samples obtained from nine different places of Ataturk portrait (oil on canvas, 86 cm × 136 cm) by Feyhaman Duran (1886-1970), one of the famous Turkish painters of the 20th century, together with five pigment samples (two different white, two different yellow and blue), obtained as powders from artist's paint box, were analysed by EDXRF, FT-IR and micro-Raman spectroscopic methods, in order to characterise the pigments used by the artist. Informative Raman signals were not obtained from most of the samples of the portrait, due to huge fluorescence caused by the presence of impurities and organic materials in the samples, however the Raman spectrum of the sample from skin coloured part of the portrait and the pigment samples obtained from the paint box of the artist were found to be very informative to shed light on the determination of the pigments used. Analysis revealed the presences of chrome yellow (PbCrO4), strontium yellow (SrCrO4) and Cadmium yellow (CdS) as yellow, chromium oxides (Cr2O3 and Cr2O3·2H2O) as green, natural red ochre as red, brown ochre as brown and ivory black or bone black (C + Ca3(PO4)2) and manganese oxides (Mn2O3 and MnO2) as black pigments, in the composition of the Ataturk portrait. Lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2), calcite (CaCO3), barite (BaSO4), zinc white (ZnO) and titanium white (TiO2) were used as extenders to lighten the colours and/or as for ground level painting. Powder pigment samples, obtained from the paint box of artist, were found to be mixed pigments rather than pure ones.

  20. Pigment analyses of a portrait and paint box of Turkish artist Feyhaman Duran (1886-1970): the EDXRF, FT-IR and micro Raman spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Sevim; Akyuz, Tanil; Emre, Gulder; Gulec, Ahmet; Basaran, Sait

    2012-04-01

    The samples obtained from nine different places of Ataturk portrait (oil on canvas, 86 cm×136 cm) by Feyhaman Duran (1886-1970), one of the famous Turkish painters of the 20th century, together with five pigment samples (two different white, two different yellow and blue), obtained as powders from artist's paint box, were analysed by EDXRF, FT-IR and micro-Raman spectroscopic methods, in order to characterise the pigments used by the artist. Informative Raman signals were not obtained from most of the samples of the portrait, due to huge fluorescence caused by the presence of impurities and organic materials in the samples, however the Raman spectrum of the sample from skin coloured part of the portrait and the pigment samples obtained from the paint box of the artist were found to be very informative to shed light on the determination of the pigments used. Analysis revealed the presences of chrome yellow (PbCrO4), strontium yellow (SrCrO4) and Cadmium yellow (CdS) as yellow, chromium oxides (Cr2O3 and Cr2O3·2H2O) as green, natural red ochre as red, brown ochre as brown and ivory black or bone black (C+Ca3(PO4)2) and manganese oxides (Mn2O3 and MnO2) as black pigments, in the composition of the Ataturk portrait. Lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2), calcite (CaCO3), barite (BaSO4), zinc white (ZnO) and titanium white (TiO2) were used as extenders to lighten the colours and/or as for ground level painting. Powder pigment samples, obtained from the paint box of artist, were found to be mixed pigments rather than pure ones.

  1. Byzantine wall paintings from Kastoria, northern Greece: Spectroscopic study of pigments and efflorescing salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanidis, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Strati, Aggeliki; Gkimourtzina, Amalia; Papoulidou, Androniki

    2011-02-01

    This study concerns the investigation of pigments and efflorescence phenomena on the wall paintings of Kastoria, a rural, non-metropolitan Byzantine town. A large number of representative samples were collected from the murals of three churches, dated to post-Byzantine era (14th-17th c. AD). The identified pigments for the red colour were hematite (Fe 2O 3), cinnabar (HgS) and minium (Pb 3O 4), while brown and yellow colours were attributed to mixtures of ochres (Fe-oxides and hydroxides) and lime. The utilization of admixtures of iron, lead and mercury compounds was also attested in order to render specific tones on the painted surfaces. Black and dark blue hues were prepared using black carbon and Mn in some cases. Grey colours were assigned to a mixture of black carbon and lime. Green colour is rather attributed to admixtures of Fe-rich minerals and lime and not to the commonly used green earths. Baryte (BaSO 4) was also evidenced as a filler or extender. Phosphorous was detected and connected to proteinaceous material and Mo and Sb were traced which are probably affiliated to Fe-oxides. Regarding efflorescing salts, the determined compounds are: calcite, dolomite, gypsum, halite, nitratine, natron and mirabilite, all of which are related to temperature and humidity changes and moisture fluctuations inside the wall paintings.

  2. Pretreatment of pigments to prepare liquids for enteric coating.

    PubMed

    Bölcskei, E; Bajdik, J; Müller, J; Knop, K; Kleinebudde, P; Pintye-Hódi, K

    2008-07-01

    Film coating fluids commonly contain different pigments. The objective of this work was a study of the distribution of these particles in the coating film. Different pretreatment forms (pigment suspension, pigment paste and untreated pigments) were applied. They were incorporated into a Eudragit L 30 D-55 dispersion. The surface roughness and the mechanical properties of the free films indicated, that the most homogeneous film was obtained with the pigment paste. The homogeneity of the film was investigated by mechanical testing. The protective effect of the coating did not vary with the application of pigments in different forms, but the appearance of the coated tablets underwent a considerable change.

  3. Detection of Pigment Networks in Dermoscopy Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltayef, Khalid; Li, Yongmin; Liu, Xiaohui

    2017-02-01

    One of the most important structures in dermoscopy images is the pigment network, which is also one of the most challenging and fundamental task for dermatologists in early detection of melanoma. This paper presents an automatic system to detect pigment network from dermoscopy images. The design of the proposed algorithm consists of four stages. First, a pre-processing algorithm is carried out in order to remove the noise and improve the quality of the image. Second, a bank of directional filters and morphological connected component analysis are applied to detect the pigment networks. Third, features are extracted from the detected image, which can be used in the subsequent stage. Fourth, the classification process is performed by applying feed-forward neural network, in order to classify the region as either normal or abnormal skin. The method was tested on a dataset of 200 dermoscopy images from Hospital Pedro Hispano (Matosinhos), and better results were produced compared to previous studies.

  4. Predicting Phenotype from Genotype: Normal Pigmentation*

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Robert K.; Henderson, Miquia S.; Walsh, Monica H.; Garrison, Nanibaa’A.; Kelch, Jessica T.; Cohen-Barak, Orit; Erickson, Drew T.; Meaney, F. John; Walsh, J. Bruce; Cheng, Keith C.; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Frudakis, Tony; Thomas, Matthew; Brilliant, Murray H.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic information in forensic studies is largely limited to CODIS data and the ability to match samples and assign them to an individual. However, there are circumstances, in which a given DNA sample does not match anyone in the CODIS database, and no other information about the donor is available. In this study, we determined 75 SNPs in 24 genes (previously implicated in human or animal pigmentation studies) for the analysis of single- and multi-locus associations with hair, skin, and eye color in 789 individuals of various ethnic backgrounds. Using multiple linear regression modeling, five SNPs in five genes were found to account for large proportions of pigmentation variation in hair, skin, and eyes in our across-population analyses. Thus, these models may be of predictive value to determine an individual’s pigmentation type from a forensic sample, independent of ethnic origin. PMID:20158590

  5. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  6. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  7. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-12-16

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation.

  8. Green pigments of the Pompeian artists' palette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Mantovan, Silvia; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Ospitali, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    Green colored samples on wall paintings and green powder from a pigment pot found in Pompeii area are investigated by micro-Raman, FT-IR and, for one sample, SEM-EDX. To obtain the green color, green earths and malachite were used, together with mixture of Egyptian blue and yellow ochre. The mineralogical identification of the green earths has been attempted through the comparison of the vibrational features, discriminating between celadonite and glauconite spectra. Traces of a modern synthetic pigment containing copper phthalocyanine were found in a fresco fragment.

  9. The focal differentiation of pigment cells.

    PubMed

    Whimster, I W

    1979-05-01

    A study has been made of the normal development and of the regeneration after excision of the groups of large pigment cells which form the spotted skin pattern of the gecko Eublepharis macularius, together with the effects of neonatal graft transplantation on this pattern. The results all indicate strongly that such groups of specialized pigment cells are not clones but the product of an induction process. This is then compared with the neural reflex mechanism by which the skin pattern of Chamaeoleo dilepis is formed.

  10. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE DYE AND PIGMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This risk assessment calculates the maximum loadings of constituents found in dyes and pigment industries waste streams which can be disposed in different types of waste management units without causing health benchmarks to be exceeded at plausible receptor locations. The assessment focuses on potential risks from volatilization and leaching to groundwater of constituents disposed in surface impoundments and landfills with either clay liners or composite liners. This product will be used by EPA decision makers to assist in determining whether certain waste streams generated by the dyes and pigments industries should be designated as hazardous.

  11. Melanocyte pigmentation inversely correlates with MCP-1 production and angiogenesis-inducing potential

    PubMed Central

    Adini, Irit; Adini, Avner; Bazinet, Lauren; Watnick, Randolph S.; Bielenberg, Diane R.; D’Amato, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of certain angiogenesis-dependent diseases is higher in Caucasians than in African Americans. Angiogenesis is amplified in wound healing and cornea models in albino C57 mice compared with black C57 mice. Moreover, mouse and human melanocytes with low pigmentation stimulate endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration in vitro more than melanocytes with high pigmentation. This effect is due, in part, to the secretion of an angiogenic protein called fibromodulin (FMOD) from lowly pigmented melanocytes. Herein, we expand upon the mechanism contributing to increased angiogenesis in lighter skin and report that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is secreted by nonpigmented mouse melanocytes by 5- to 10-fold more than pigmented melanocytes. MCP-1 protein stimulates EC proliferation and migration in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. Mechanistic studies determine that FMOD is upstream of MCP-1 and promotes its secretion from both melanocytes and activated ECs via stimulation of NF-κB activity. Mice injected with FMOD-neutralizing antibodies show 2.3-fold decreased levels of circulating MCP-1. Human studies confirmed that, on average, Caucasians have 2-fold higher serum levels of MCP-1 than African Americans. Taken together, this study implicates the FMOD/MCP-1 pathway in the regulation of angiogenesis by local melanocytes and suggests that melanogenic activity may protect against aberrant angiogenic diseases.—Adini, I., Adini, A., Bazinet, L., Watnick, R. S., Bielenberg, D. R., and D’Amato, R. J. Melanocyte pigmentation inversely correlates with MCP-1 production and angiogenesis-inducing potential. PMID:25406462

  12. Black Talk and Black Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Demonstrates the need for cultural relativity in avoiding stereotyped reactions to the language of the lower-class black child. Appears in "The Florida FL Reporter special anthology issue, "Linguistic-Cultural Differences and American Education. The central portion of this essay is part of the opening argument of the author's forthcoming book…

  13. Variations on Black Themes: English, Black Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Gloria D.

    Variations on Black Themes, an introductory course in the study of black literature, permits students to make cursory examination of representative works of many black writers for the purpose of identifying major writers and recurring themes. The course content includes: introduction to some works of major Black American authors; identification of…

  14. The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling

    2010-11-01

    The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

  15. Locally differentiated cryptic pigmentation in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus.

    PubMed

    Hargeby, A; Stoltz, J; Johansson, J

    2005-05-01

    A repeated pattern of background colour matching in animals is an indication that pigmentation may be cryptic. Here, we examine the relationship between pigmentation of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus and background darkness in 29 lakes, wetlands and ponds in Southern Sweden. The results show that Asellus pigmentation was correlated with substrate darkness across all localities. In seven localities, in which two contrasting substrate types were noted, Asellus populations were differentiated with respect to pigmentation. These findings thus provide phenomenological support for cryptic pigmentation in Asellus. Pigmentation generally increased with body size, but the relationship between pigmentation and size differed among localities, possibly as a result of differences in correlational selection on pigmentation and size. Selection thus appears to have resulted in local differentiation over a small spatial scale, even within lakes and wetlands. This differentiation is a likely cause behind elevated phenotype variation noted in localities with two substrate types, suggesting that habitat heterogeneity promotes genetic diversity.

  16. Separation of Chloroplast Pigments Using Reverse Phase Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Neil

    1997-01-01

    Presents a protocol that uses reverse phase chromatography for the separation of chloroplast pigments. Provides a simple and relatively safe procedure for use in teaching laboratories. Discusses pigment extraction, chromatography, results, and advantages of the process. (JRH)

  17. Pigmented poroma with unusual location and dermatoscopic features

    PubMed Central

    Kassuga, Luiza E. B. P.; Jeunon, Thiago; Sousa, Maria Auxiliadora Jeunon; Campos-do-Carmo, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Poroma is a benign adnexal neoplasm with atn “poroid”/ductal differentiation that mimics benign and malignant skin tumors. Histopathology shows circumscribed proliferation of poroid cells intermingled with a variable number of cuticular cells. We report a case of pigmented poroma located on the face that simulated clinically and dermatoscopically a pigmented basal cell carcinoma. The features of pigmented and non-pigmented poromas were revisited in order to assist in the diagnosis. PMID:23785609

  18. The Use of HPLC for the Characterization of Phytoplankton Pigments.

    PubMed

    Garrido, José L; Roy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    HPLC is still the technique of choice for the analysis and characterization of phytoplankton pigments. In this chapter we describe procedures for sample preparation and pigment extraction, and the use of octyl silica columns and pyridine-containing mobile phases to separate chlorophylls and carotenoids. The identification of pigments on the basis of their retention times and visible spectra, the preparation of pigment standards, and the quantitative analysis by either external or internal standard procedures are also described.

  19. Prostaglandin-induced iridial pigmentation in primates.

    PubMed

    Selén, G; Stjernschantz, J; Resul, B

    1997-02-01

    Latanoprost, a new ocular hypotensive prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue prodrug, was found to induce increased pigmentation of monkey irides in chronic toxicity studies. This prompted us to investigate the effect of naturally occurring prostaglandins on the monkey iris to determine whether this pigmentary effect is unique for latanoprost or whether it is a class effect of prostaglandins. PGF2 alpha-isopropyl ester (IE), PGE2-IE and latanoprost were applied topically to cynomolgus monkey eyes for 18-44 weeks. One eye of each animal was treated, while the other served as control. In addition, latanoprost was applied to sympathectomized monkey eyes. PGF2 alpha-IE, PGE2-IE, as well as latanoprost, induced increased pigmentation in the monkey eye. The first signs of this effect were seen after about two months of treatment. Latanoprost also induced increased pigmentation in sympathectomized eyes. It is concluded that both naturally occurring prostaglandins and their synthetic analogues can induce increased iridial pigmentation in cynomolgus monkeys, and that the effect does not require the presence of sympathetic nerves.

  20. Human pigmentation genes under environmental selection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and comparative genomics have established major loci and specific polymorphisms affecting human skin, hair and eye color. Environmental changes have had an impact on selected pigmentation genes as populations have expanded into different regions of the globe. PMID:23110848

  1. Pigment Deposition in the Rat Retina.

    PubMed

    Hojman, Anne S; Otzen, Louise W D; Schrøder-Hansen, Lise Maj; Wegener, Karen M

    2015-08-01

    Incidental findings in the rat eye are not uncommon in acute and long-term toxicological studies. These findings can be associated with a number of causes unrelated to treatment with the test article, including congenital malformation, trauma, infection, metabolic disease, genetic predisposition, and age-related changes. The occurrence of pigment deposition in the retina of Wistar Hannover (Crl:WI (Han)) rats in a 4-week toxicity study is reported in this communication. The microscopic examination of the eyes in the 4-week toxicity study revealed focal yellow-brown pigment deposits in the retina, mainly located in the ganglion cell layer. The retinal pigment deposits were randomly distributed in the control and treated groups and were considered incidental. The deposits were clearly positive for ferric iron in the Perls' stain but not for lipofuscin by the Schmorl's and Long Ziehl-Neelsen methods. The iron-containing pigment is likely to represent hemosiderin accumulation after retinal micro-hemorrhage or could be indicative of the normal intraretinal iron transport and turnover.

  2. Retinal pigment epithelial hamartoma--unusual manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, P. R.; Walsh, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium is an uncommon tumour of young adults. We have seen 2 patients with this clinical diagnosis, both with unusual manifestations. In one patient growth of the tumour was observed over a 5-year period. In the second patient arterial-arterial anastomoses were detected at a site distal to the tumour. Images PMID:6722077

  3. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Picosecond spectroscopy of pyrrol pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippitsch, M. E.; Leitner, A.; Riegler, M.; Aussenegg, F. R.

    1982-05-01

    Picosecond fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy methods were used to study pyrromethenone, pyrromethene, and biliverdin. These methods made it possible to determine some details of the kinetics of various relaxation mechanisms. The results obtained provided a better understanding of the biological action of pyrrol pigments.

  4. The 503nm pigment of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kamitakahara, Joyce R.; Polglase, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    The yield of cell protein was one-third less for streptomycin-dependent Escherichia coli B than for the wild-type parent strain when both were grown aerobically on a medium with limiting glucose, but anaerobically the yield of protein was similar for both strains. The transient pigment absorbing at 503nm that is known to be present in E. coli and other organisms was not detectable in streptomycin-dependent mutants nor in a non-dependent (energy-deficient) revertant. When wild-type E. coli B was grown on limiting glucose–salts medium containing 2,4 dinitrophenol, the yield of cell protein was decreased and formation of the 503nm pigment was inhibited. Fumarase, aconitase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were de-repressed in E. coli B cells grown with excess of glucose in a medium containing 2,4-dinitrophenol. In air-oxidized, wild-type E. coli B cells, the 503nm pigment appeared before reduced cytochromes when gluconate was the substrate but failed to appear when succinate was the substrate. The results provide evidence for a role of the 503nm pigment in aerobic energy metabolism, possibly as an electron acceptor from NADPH. PMID:4395501

  5. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  6. Pigment patterns in adult fish result from superimposition of two largely independent pigmentation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ceinos, Rosa M; Guillot, Raúl; Kelsh, Robert N; Cerdá-Reverter, José M; Rotllant, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Dorso-ventral pigment pattern differences are the most widespread pigmentary adaptations in vertebrates. In mammals, this pattern is controlled by regulating melanin chemistry in melanocytes using a protein, agouti-signalling peptide (ASIP). In fish, studies of pigment patterning have focused on stripe formation, identifying a core striping mechanism dependent upon interactions between different pigment cell types. In contrast, mechanisms driving the dorso-ventral countershading pattern have been overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that, in fact, zebrafish utilize two distinct adult pigment patterning mechanisms - an ancient dorso-ventral patterning mechanism, and a more recent striping mechanism based on cell-cell interactions; remarkably, the dorso-ventral patterning mechanism also utilizes ASIP. These two mechanisms function largely independently, with resultant patterns superimposed to give the full pattern.

  7. Rethinking the History of Artists' Pigments Through Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrie, Barbara H.

    2012-07-01

    Following a brief overview of the history of analysis of artists' pigments, I discuss the illustrative example of lead-tin yellow. Recent advances in our knowledge of artists' use of red lakes, glassy pigments, and metallic pigments in works of cultural heritage, particularly European paintings, as determined from chemical analyses are described.

  8. The determination and optimization of (rutile) pigment particle size distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A light scattering particle size test which can be used with materials having a broad particle size distribution is described. This test is useful for pigments. The relation between the particle size distribution of a rutile pigment and its optical performance in a gray tint test at low pigment concentration is calculated and compared with experimental data.

  9. Origin of adult-type pigment cells forming the asymmetric pigment pattern, in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; Okauchi, Masanori; Araki, Kazuo

    2010-12-01

    The flatfish-specific asymmetric pigment pattern depends on the asymmetric appearance of adult-type pigment cells after the late metamorphic stages. To understand the mechanism enabling the formation of this asymmetric pattern, we investigated the behavior of pigment cell latent precursors in postembryonic Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, by analysis of the expression patterns of pigment lineage markers (colony stimulating factor 1 receptor, dopachrome tautomerase, kit) and the DiI (DiO) labeling test for latent precursors. We found that, throughout the larval stages, pigment cell latent precursors were predominantly localized along the dorsal and ventral margins of the flank symmetrically and migrated continuously from these regions to the lateral sides symmetrically, and after late metamorphic stages these precursors differentiated into adult-type pigment cells on the lateral side asymmetrically. We conclude that adult-type pigment cells that form the asymmetric pigment pattern are continuously derived from the dorsal and ventral margins of the flank during larval development.

  10. Dimerization of visual pigments in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Cao, Li-Hui; Kumar, Sandeep; Enemchukwu, Nduka O.; Zhang, Ning; Lambert, Alyssia; Zhao, Xuchen; Jones, Alex; Wang, Shixian; Dennis, Emily M.; Fnu, Amrita; Ham, Sam; Rainier, Jon; Yau, King-Wai; Fu, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    It is a deeply engrained notion that the visual pigment rhodopsin signals light as a monomer, even though many G protein-coupled receptors are now known to exist and function as dimers. Nonetheless, recent studies (albeit all in vitro) have suggested that rhodopsin and its chromophore-free apoprotein, R-opsin, may indeed exist as a homodimer in rod disk membranes. Given the overwhelmingly strong historical context, the crucial remaining question, therefore, is whether pigment dimerization truly exists naturally and what function this dimerization may serve. We addressed this question in vivo with a unique mouse line (S-opsin+Lrat−/−) expressing, transgenically, short-wavelength–sensitive cone opsin (S-opsin) in rods and also lacking chromophore to exploit the fact that cone opsins, but not R-opsin, require chromophore for proper folding and trafficking to the photoreceptor’s outer segment. In R-opsin’s absence, S-opsin in these transgenic rods without chromophore was mislocalized; in R-opsin’s presence, however, S-opsin trafficked normally to the rod outer segment and produced functional S-pigment upon subsequent chromophore restoration. Introducing a competing R-opsin transmembrane helix H1 or helix H8 peptide, but not helix H4 or helix H5 peptide, into these transgenic rods caused mislocalization of R-opsin and S-opsin to the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum. Importantly, a similar peptide-competition effect was observed even in WT rods. Our work provides convincing evidence for visual pigment dimerization in vivo under physiological conditions and for its role in pigment maturation and targeting. Our work raises new questions regarding a potential mechanistic role of dimerization in rhodopsin signaling. PMID:27462111

  11. Melanocytes: the new Black.

    PubMed

    Goding, Colin R

    2007-01-01

    Melanocytes, pigment-producing cells residing primarily in the hair follicle, epidermis and eye, are responsible for skin hair and eye pigmentation. Pigmentation is achieved by the highly regulated manufacture of the pigment melanin in specialised organelles, melanosomes that are transported along dendritic processes before being transferred to growing hair, or keratinocytes where melanin protects from UV-induced DNA damage. Because loss of melanocytes gives a clear pigmentation phenotype yet is non-lethal, over 130 genes implicated in the development or function of this cell type have been identified to date, and in humans the loss of melanocytes or their ability to produce pigment, or transport or transfer melanosomes is associated with several diseases such as vitiligo, albinism and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Importantly, the effective combination of genetics, cell and molecular biology possible with this cell type is attracting an increasing number of researchers focussed on understanding how cells coordinate survival, proliferation, differentiation and stem cell maintenance.

  12. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger's from the posterior chamber.

  13. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  14. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  15. Effect of Co and Pr doping on the properties of solar-reflective ZnFe2O4 dark pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwan, M.; Sangwong, N.; Supothina, S.

    2017-03-01

    High NIR-reflective Co-doped ZnFe2O4 black pigments were synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction of ZnO and Fe2O3 in the presence of 3 to 30 wt.% Co3O4 at 1000 and 1100 °C. A series of black pigments with low L* values in a range of 25.5-26.5 and NIR reflectance of 39.5-48.7% were obtained at 1000 °C while the pigments with comparable L* values and slightly lower NIR reflectance were obtained at 1100 °C. A change of the pigment property could be attributed to substitution of Co2+ for Zn2+ as revealed by XRD analysis as well as reflectance spectra. Calcination of ZnO and Fe2O3 in the presence of 3 to 30 wt.% Pr6O11 at 1100 °C resulted in dark brown composite pigments consisting of ZnFe2O4, PrFe2O3 and unreacted Fe2O3 with L* value around 40 ±1 and NIR reflectance in a range of 48-50%.

  16. Cuticular microstructures turn specular black into matt black in a stick insect.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Doris L; Kohl, Tobias; Gebhardt, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    The stick insect Peruphasma schultei stands out from other insects by its deep matt black cuticle. We tested whether the appearance of P. schultei is due to microstructures of the cuticle, a phenomenon that has recently been described for the velvet black scales of the Gaboon viper. The shiny black stick insect Anisomorpha paromalus served as a control. We found that the P. schultei cuticle is characterised by two different types of microstructures, tall elevations with a maximum size of 18 μm and small structures with a height of 4 μm. Other than in the snake, P. schultei microstructures do not bear nanostructures. The microstructures scatter light independently of the viewing angle. This causes the matt appearance of the cuticle, whereas pigments are responsible for the black colouration, resulting in a maximum reflectance of 2.8% percent. The microstructures also cause the hydrophobic properties of the cuticle with contact angles near 130°. Resin replicas and bleaching of the cuticle strongly support these results. Moreover, the matt black cuticle has a higher heat absorption compared to the control. We discuss the selective benefit of the matt black appearance of P. schultei in the context of behaviour, ecology and phylogeny.

  17. A high-precision chronological model for the decorated Upper Paleolithic cave of Chauvet-Pont d'Arc, Ardèche, France.

    PubMed

    Quiles, Anita; Valladas, Hélène; Bocherens, Hervé; Delqué-Količ, Emmanuelle; Kaltnecker, Evelyne; van der Plicht, Johannes; Delannoy, Jean-Jacques; Feruglio, Valérie; Fritz, Carole; Monney, Julien; Philippe, Michel; Tosello, Gilles; Clottes, Jean; Geneste, Jean-Michel

    2016-04-26

    Radiocarbon dates for the ancient drawings in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave revealed ages much older than expected. These early ages and nature of this Paleolithic art make this United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) site indisputably unique. A large, multidisciplinary dating program has recently mapped the anthropological evolution associated with the cave. More than 350 dates (by (14)C, U-Th, TL and (36)Cl) were obtained over the last 15 y. They include 259 radiocarbon dates, mainly related to the rock art and human activity in the cave. We present here more than 80 previously unpublished dates. All of the dates were integrated into a high-precision Bayesian model based on archaeological evidence to securely reconstruct the complete history of the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave on an absolute timescale. It shows that there were two distinct periods of human activity in the cave, one from 37 to 33,500 y ago, and the other from 31 to 28,000 y ago. Cave bears also took refuge in the cave until 33,000 y ago.

  18. Development of a magnetic method for reconstructing the paleoclimate of the rock formation time: A case study of the Paleolithic Kostenki-12 site section (the Voronezh region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelova, G. A.; Anikovich, M. V.; Hoffecker, J. F.; Kadzialko-Hofmokl, M.

    2007-12-01

    A magnetic method is proposed for reconstructing the paleoclimate existing at the formation time of rocks of the Paleolithic Kostenki-12 site section. Results obtained from an experimental study of scalar magnetic characteristics (SMCs) of the rocks (magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanent magnetization, and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) are presented. These results indicate complex along-section SMC behavior distinguished by alternating larger and smaller values of the parameters. The magnetic minerals of the section are mainly represented by pseudo-single-domain magnetite grains. The size of the magnetite grains in the pseudo-single-domain range varies along the section, increasing in its lower half. The SMCs values plotted on different scales for the upper and lower halves of the section clearly revealed 12 magnetic zones (MZs). Comparison of the MZs with palynological zones obtained in a parallel section showed, on the whole, a convergence of data: MZs with larger (smaller) SMC values correlate with thermomers (cryomers). Comparison of along-section SMC variations with the GRIP (Greenland Ice Core Project) curve of the time dependence of paleotemperatures confirmed or refined the ages of lithologic horizons. As a result, it is established that constraints on paleoclimatic changes in the rock formation time can be gained from SMC variations if the main carriers of magnetization in rocks are pseudo-single-domain magnetite grains even with magnetic grain size varying along the section.

  19. Divergence in the evolution of Paleolithic symbolic and technological systems: The shining bull and engraved tablets of Rocher de l'Impératrice.

    PubMed

    Naudinot, Nicolas; Bourdier, Camille; Laforge, Marine; Paris, Céline; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; Beyries, Sylvie; Thery-Parisot, Isabelle; Le Goffic, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The development of the Azilian in Western Europe 14,000 years ago is considered a "revolution" in Upper Paleolithic Archaeology. One of the main elements of this rapid social restructuring is the abandonment of naturalistic figurative art on portable pieces or on cave walls in the Magdalenian in favor of abstract expression on small pebbles. Recent work shows that the transformation of human societies between the Magdalenian and the Azilian was more gradual. The discovery of a new Early Azilian site with decorated stones in France supports this hypothesis. While major changes in stone tool technology between the Magdalenian and Azilian clearly mark important adaptive changes, the discovery of 45 engraved schist tablets from archaeological layers at Le Rocher de l'Impératrice attests to iconographic continuity together with special valorization of aurochs as shown by a "shining" bull depiction. This evidence suggests that some cultural features such as iconography may lag far behind technological changes. We also argue that eventual change in symbolic expression, which includes the later disappearance of figurative art, provides new insight into the probable restructuring of the societies.

  20. A high-precision chronological model for the decorated Upper Paleolithic cave of Chauvet-Pont d’Arc, Ardèche, France

    PubMed Central

    Quiles, Anita; Valladas, Hélène; Bocherens, Hervé; Delqué-Količ, Emmanuelle; Kaltnecker, Evelyne; van der Plicht, Johannes; Delannoy, Jean-Jacques; Feruglio, Valérie; Fritz, Carole; Monney, Julien; Philippe, Michel; Tosello, Gilles; Clottes, Jean; Geneste, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Radiocarbon dates for the ancient drawings in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc Cave revealed ages much older than expected. These early ages and nature of this Paleolithic art make this United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) site indisputably unique. A large, multidisciplinary dating program has recently mapped the anthropological evolution associated with the cave. More than 350 dates (by 14C, U-Th, TL and 36Cl) were obtained over the last 15 y. They include 259 radiocarbon dates, mainly related to the rock art and human activity in the cave. We present here more than 80 previously unpublished dates. All of the dates were integrated into a high-precision Bayesian model based on archaeological evidence to securely reconstruct the complete history of the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc Cave on an absolute timescale. It shows that there were two distinct periods of human activity in the cave, one from 37 to 33,500 y ago, and the other from 31 to 28,000 y ago. Cave bears also took refuge in the cave until 33,000 y ago. PMID:27071106

  1. Divergence in the evolution of Paleolithic symbolic and technological systems: The shining bull and engraved tablets of Rocher de l'Impératrice

    PubMed Central

    Naudinot, Nicolas; Bourdier, Camille; Laforge, Marine; Paris, Céline; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; Beyries, Sylvie; Thery-Parisot, Isabelle; Le Goffic, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The development of the Azilian in Western Europe 14,000 years ago is considered a “revolution” in Upper Paleolithic Archaeology. One of the main elements of this rapid social restructuring is the abandonment of naturalistic figurative art on portable pieces or on cave walls in the Magdalenian in favor of abstract expression on small pebbles. Recent work shows that the transformation of human societies between the Magdalenian and the Azilian was more gradual. The discovery of a new Early Azilian site with decorated stones in France supports this hypothesis. While major changes in stone tool technology between the Magdalenian and Azilian clearly mark important adaptive changes, the discovery of 45 engraved schist tablets from archaeological layers at Le Rocher de l’Impératrice attests to iconographic continuity together with special valorization of aurochs as shown by a “shining” bull depiction. This evidence suggests that some cultural features such as iconography may lag far behind technological changes. We also argue that eventual change in symbolic expression, which includes the later disappearance of figurative art, provides new insight into the probable restructuring of the societies. PMID:28257445

  2. Melanin photosensitizes ultraviolet light (UVC) DNA damage in pigmented cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huselton, C.A.; Hill, H.Z. )

    1990-01-01

    Melanins, pigments of photoprotection and camouflage, are very photoreactive and can both absorb and emit active oxygen species. Nevertheless, black skinned individuals rarely develop skin cancer and melanin is assumed to act as a solar screen. Since DNA is the target for solar carcinogenesis, the effect of melanin on Ultraviolet (UV)-induced thymine lesions was examined in mouse melanoma and carcinoma cells that varied in melanin content. Cells prelabeled with 14C-dThd were irradiated with UVC; DNA was isolated, purified, degraded to bases by acid hydrolysis and analyzed by HPLC. Thymine dimers were detected in all of the extracts of irradiated cells. Melanotic and hypomelanotic but not mammary carcinoma cell DNA from irradiated cells contained hydrophilic thymine derivatives. The quantity of these damaged bases was a function of both the UVC dose and the cellular melanin content. One such derivative was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy as thymine glycol. The other appears to be derived from thymine glycol by further oxidation during acid hydrolysis of the DNA. The finding of oxidative DNA damage in melanin-containing cells suggests that melanin may be implicated in the etiology of caucasian skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Furthermore, the projected decrease in stratospheric ozone could impact in an unanticipated deleterious manner on dark-skinned individuals.

  3. Melanin photosensitizes ultraviolet light (UVC) DNA damage in pigmented cells.

    PubMed

    Huselton, C A; Hill, H Z

    1990-01-01

    Melanins, pigments of photoprotection and camouflage, are very photoreactive and can both absorb and emit active oxygen species. Nevertheless, black skinned individuals rarely develop skin cancer and melanin is assumed to act as a solar screen. Since DNA is the target for solar carcinogenesis, the effect of melanin on Ultraviolet (UV)-induced thymine lesions was examined in mouse melanoma and carcinoma cells that varied in melanin content. Cells prelabeled with 14C-dThd were irradiated with UVC; DNA was isolated, purified, degraded to bases by acid hydrolysis and analyzed by HPLC. Thymine dimers were detected in all of the extracts of irradiated cells. Melanotic and hypomelanotic but not mammary carcinoma cell DNA from irradiated cells contained hydrophilic thymine derivatives. The quantity of these damaged bases was a function of both the UVC dose and the cellular melanin content. One such derivative was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy as thymine glycol. The other appears to be derived from thymine glycol by further oxidation during acid hydrolysis of the DNA. The finding of oxidative DNA damage in melanin-containing cells suggests that melanin may be implicated in the etiology of caucasian skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Furthermore, the projected decrease in stratospheric ozone could impact in an unanticipated deleterious manner on dark-skinned individuals.

  4. Phototrophic pigment diversity and picophytoplankton in permafrost thaw lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przytulska, A.; Comte, J.; Crevecoeur, S.; Lovejoy, C.; Laurion, I.; Vincent, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost thaw lakes (thermokarst lakes) are widely distributed across the northern landscape, and are known to be biogeochemically active sites that emit large amounts of carbon to the atmosphere as CH4 and CO2. However, the abundance and composition of the photosynthetic communities that fix CO2 have been little explored in this ecosystem type. In order to identify the major groups of phototrophic organisms and their controlling variables, we sampled 12 permafrost thaw lakes along a permafrost degradation gradient in northern Québec, Canada. Additional samples were taken from five rock-basin reference lakes in the region to determine if the thaw lakes differed in limnological properties and phototrophs. Phytoplankton community structure was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of their photoprotective and photosynthetic pigments, and autotrophic picoplankton concentrations were assessed by flow cytometry. One of the black-colored lakes located in a landscape of rapidly degrading palsas (permafrost mounds) was selected for high-throughput 18S rRNA sequencing to complement conclusions based on the pigment and cytometry analyses. The results showed that the limnological properties of the thaw lakes differed significantly from the reference lakes, and were more highly stratified. However, both waterbody types contained similarly diverse phytoplankton groups, with dominance of the pigment assemblages by fucoxanthin-containing taxa, as well as chlorophytes, cryptophytes and cyanobacteria. Chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl a) were correlated with total phosphorus (TP), and both were significantly higher in the thaw lakes (overall means of 3.3 µg Chl a L-1 and 34 µg TP L-1) relative to the reference lakes (2.0 µg Chl a L-1 and 8.2 µg TP L-1). Stepwise multiple regression of Chl a against the other algal pigments showed that it was largely a function of alloxanthin, fucoxanthin and Chl b (R2 = 0.85). The bottom waters of two of the thaw

  5. Mapping of Photosynthetic Pigments in Spanish Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Martinez, R.; Domínguez-Gómez, J.-A.; de Hoyos, C.; Ruiz-Verdú, A.

    2004-05-01

    We present the preliminary results of the first stage of the project AO-594, which comprises the development and calibration of algorithms for photosynthetic pigment mapping in Spanish reservoirs. In the years 2001-2002, an extensive field campaign was made in 36 reservoirs and lakes in order to obtain a database of Rrs spectra (400-1000 nm), photosynthetic pigments concentration and phytoplankton composition. The sampled water bodies cover a wide range of environmental conditions, trophic levels and phytoplankton communities. As a first approach in algorithm development, we have explored the relationships between ratios of MERIS bands and pigment concentrations through simple linear regression analysis. The bands have been selected based on the spectral properties of each pigment and a peak analysis of the Rrs spectra. For chlorophyll a, we have found a very good linear relationship (R2 =0.919) using the ratio between bands 9 and 7. Similar results are found using band 8 instead of 7. In any case, the model derived for the whole range of concentrations (0-500 mg m3 ) fails for low values (<15 mg m-3 ). Possible solutions include the use of - non-linear models or the use of two different models depending on the ratio values. For cyanobacteria detection, the ratio between bands 9 and 6 (the later centred at 620 nm) shows a good correlation (R2 =0.723) with phycocyanin concentration measured fluorometrically, and better (R2 =0.945) with zeaxanthin measured using HPLC. The correlation of other indicator pigments with MERIS band ratios is less strong, but is still possible to develop algorithms accurate enough for bloom monitoring. We also discuss the problems found with the L2 MERIS reflectance imagery that we have tried to use for model calibration. We present the results of the study carried on six reservoirs in northeastern Spain. In a date coincident with a MERIS image (June 19th, 2003) we have collected pigment concentration and reflectance data measured from a

  6. Renal pigmentation due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A.L.; Blaine, E.T.; Lewis, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Renal pigmentation due to the administration of exogenous compounds is an uncommon finding in most species. This report describes renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions of the proximal convoluted tubules due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque. An 11 year old Indian-origin rhesus macaque with a medical history of chronic intermittent vomiting had been treated with bismuth subsalicylate (BSS), famotidine, and omeprazole singly or in combination over the course of 8 years. At necropsy, the renal cortices were diffusely dark green to black. Light and electron microscopy revealed intranuclear inclusions within the majority of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. These inclusions appeared magenta to brown when stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and were negative by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain. Elemental analysis performed on frozen kidney measured bismuth levels to be markedly elevated at 110.6 ppm, approximately 500-1000 times acceptable limits. To our knowledge this is the first report of renal bismuth deposition in a rhesus macaque resulting in renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions. PMID:24990482

  7. Biology and genetics of oculocutaneous albinism and vitiligo - common pigmentation disorders in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Manga, Prashiela; Kerr, Robyn; Ramsay, Michèle; Kromberg, Jennifer G R

    2013-07-29

    Pigmentation disorders span the genetic spectrum from single-gene autosomal recessive disorders such as oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), the autosomal dominant disorder piebaldism to X-linked ocular albinism and multifactorial vitiligo. OCA connotes a group of disorders that result in hypopigmented skin due to decreased melanin production in melanocytes and loss of visual acuity. There are four non-syndromic forms, OCA1-4, which are classified based on the gene that is mutated (tyrosinase, OCA2, tyrosinase-related protein 1 and SLC45A2, respectively). Despite the fact that multiple genes account for the various forms of OCA, the phenotypes of all four forms result from disruption in the maturation and trafficking of the enzyme tyrosinase. OCA2 is the most prevalent autosomal recessive disorder among southern African blacks, affecting 1/3 900 individuals; while OCA3, although rare, is most prevalent in southern Africa. Another common pigmentation disorder in southern Africa is vitiligo, which affects 1 - 2% of people worldwide. Vitiligo is a complex, acquired disorder in which melanocytes are destroyed due to an autoimmune response. The aetiology underlying this disorder is poorly understood, although recent genetic association studies have begun to shed light on the contributing factors. Pigmentation disorders have significant psychosocial implications and co-morbidities, yet therapies are still lacking. Recent progress in our understanding of the pathobiology of both albinism and vitiligo may herald novel treatment strategies for these disorders. 

  8. Murine and human b locus pigmentation genes encode a glycoprotein (gp75) with catalase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Halaban, R.; Moellmann, G. )

    1990-06-01

    Melanogenesis is regulated in large part by tyrosinase, and defective tyrosinase leads to albinism. The mechanisms for other pigmentation determinants (e.g., those operative in tyrosinase-positive albinism and in murine coat-color mutants) are not yet known. One murine pigmentation gene, the brown (b) locus, when mutated leads to a brown (b/b) or hypopigmentated (B{sup lt}/B{sup lt}) coat versus the wild-type black (B/B). The authors show that the b locus codes for a glycoprotein with the activity of a catalase (catalase B). Only the c locus protein is a tyrosinase. Because peroxides may be by-products of melanogenic activity and hydrogen peroxide in particular is known to destroy melanin precursors and melanin, they conclude that pigmentation is controlled not only by tyrosinase but also by a hydroperoxidase. The studies indicate that catalase B is identical with gp75, a known human melanosomal glycoprotein; that the b mutation is in a heme-associated domain; and that the B{sup lt} mutation renders the protein susceptible to rapid proteolytic degradation.

  9. Renal pigmentation due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; Blaine, E T; Lewis, A D

    2015-05-01

    Renal pigmentation due to the administration of exogenous compounds is an uncommon finding in most species. This report describes renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions of the proximal convoluted tubules due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque. An 11-year-old Indian-origin rhesus macaque with a medical history of chronic intermittent vomiting had been treated with bismuth subsalicylate, famotidine, and omeprazole singly or in combination over the course of 8 years. At necropsy, the renal cortices were diffusely dark green to black. Light and electron microscopy revealed intranuclear inclusions within the majority of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. These inclusions appeared magenta to brown when stained with hematoxylin and eosin and were negative by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain. Elemental analysis performed on frozen kidney measured bismuth levels to be markedly elevated at 110.6 ppm, approximately 500 to 1000 times acceptable limits. To our knowledge, this is the first report of renal bismuth deposition in a rhesus macaque resulting in renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions.

  10. Pigment cell mechanisms underlying dorsal color-pattern polymorphism in the Japanese four-lined snake.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Takeo; Misawa, Hanae; Miyaji, Kazuyuki; Sugimoto, Masazumi; Hasegawa, Masami

    2013-12-01

    To provide histological foundation for studying the genetic mechanisms of color-pattern polymorphisms, we examined light reflectance profiles and cellular architectures of pigment cells that produced striped, nonstriped, and melanistic color patterns in the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. Both, striped and nonstriped morphs, possessed the same set of epidermal melanophores and three types of dermal pigment cells (yellow xanthophores, iridescent iridophores, and black melanophores), but spatial variations in the densities of epidermal and dermal melanophores produced individual variations in stripe vividness. The densities of epidermal and dermal melanophores were two or three times higher in the dark-brown-stripe region than in the yellow background in the striped morph. However, the densities of epidermal and dermal melanophores between the striped and background regions were similar in the nonstriped morph. The melanistic morph had only epidermal and dermal melanophores and neither xanthophores nor iridophores were detected. Ghost stripes in the shed skin of some melanistic morphs suggested that stripe pattern formation and melanism were controlled independently. We proposed complete- and incomplete-dominance heredity models for the stripe-melanistic variation and striped, pale-striped, and nonstriped polymorphisms, respectively, according to the differences in pigment-cell composition and its spatial architecture.

  11. Black widow spider

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider has a shiny black body with a red ...

  12. Phytoplankton bloom in the Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Brightly colored waters in the Black Sea give evidence of the growth of tiny marine plants called phytoplankton, which contain chlorophyll and other pigments that reflect light different ways, producing the colorful displays. The very bright blue waters could be an organism called a coccolithophores, which has a highly reflective calcium carbonate coating that appears bright blue (or sometimes white) in true-color (visible) imagery. However, other organisms, such as cyanobacteria can also appear that color, and so often scientists will compare the ratios of reflectance at one wavelength of light to another to decide what organisms might be present. This series of images shows a bloom occurring in the Black Sea from May 11, 2002, to May 18.

  13. Pigmented Pindborg tumor of the maxilla: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Subashchandrabose; Madanagopaal, Lakshmikanth Ramiah; Sarada, Venkaterwaran

    2016-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as the Pindborg tumor, is a benign locally invasive neoplasm. Common variants of CEOT include noncalcifying, Langerhans cell, bone and cementum forming and clear cell, which have a prognostic significance. Pigmented variants are known to occur in other odontogenic tumors. However, a definitive pigmented variant of CEOT has not been reported in literature so far. Here, we report the first case of pigmented Pindborg tumor arising from the maxilla in a young female. The pigment was demonstrated as melanin by staining and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The pigmented variant of CEOT did not recur within 18 months postsurgery. Our report indicates that it is essential to recognize the pigmented variant. We discuss the common variants of CEOT and potential histogenesis of the pigmented variant. Further studies are required to reveal the histogenesis of melanocytes and their pathological significance in the odontogenic tumors. PMID:27721633

  14. miR-488 determines coat pigmentation by down-regulating the pigment-producing gene pro-opiomelanocortin.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Ma, S; Xue, L; Li, Y; Wang, J; He, X; Zhu, Z; Dong, C

    2016-10-31

    Coat color is a key economic trait in wool- and fur-producing animals. Coat color is controlled by complex mechanisms. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a gene involved in pigment formation. Previous studies suggested that miR-488 might target the POMC mRNA. This study aimed to determine whether miR-488 could affect coat color by regulating POMC and to explore the regulatory roles of miR-488 on coat color in mammals. A dual fluorescence report vector containing the 3'-UTR of POMC was built to determine whether miR-488 could post-transcriptionally regulate POMC expression. Then, a eukaryotic vector expressing miR-488 was built and transfected into mouse keratinocytes to confirm the regulatory mechanism in vitro. Compared with gray mice, the expression of POMC mRNA was 3.36-fold higher in black mice and 1.29-fold higher in brown mice. The results showed that miR-488 could control mice coat color by combining with the 3'-UTR seed sequence of POMC mRNA to achieve the degradation of POMC mRNA, therefore playing a role in POMC expression. This study revealed the roles of miR-488 in animal coat color and enriches our knowledge about the determination of coat color in mammals.

  15. Cone visual pigments of monotremes: filling the phylogenetic gap.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Matthew J; Anderson, Mark; Chang, Ellen; Wei, Ke-Jun; Kaul, Rajinder; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Grützner, Frank; Deeb, Samir S

    2008-01-01

    We have determined the sequence and genomic organization of the genes encoding the cone visual pigment of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), and inferred their spectral properties and evolutionary pathways. We prepared platypus and echidna retinal RNA and used primers of the middle-wave-sensitive (MWS), long-wave-sensitive (LWS), and short-wave sensitive (SWS1) pigments corresponding to coding sequences that are highly conserved among mammals; to PCR amplify the corresponding pigment sequences. Amplification from the retinal RNA revealed the expression of LWS pigment mRNA that is homologous in sequence and spectral properties to the primate LWS visual pigments. However, we were unable to amplify the mammalian SWS1 pigment from these two species, indicating this gene was lost prior to the echidna-platypus divergence (21 MYA). Subsequently, when the platypus genome sequence became available, we found an LWS pigment gene in a conserved genomic arrangement that resembles the primate pigment, but, surprisingly we found an adjacent (20 kb) SWS2 pigment gene within this conserved genomic arrangement. We obtained the same result after sequencing the echidna genes. The encoded SWS2 pigment is predicted to have a wavelength of maximal absorption of about 440 nm, and is paralogous to SWS pigments typically found in reptiles, birds, and fish but not in mammals. This study suggests the locus control region (LCR) has played an important role in the conservation of photo receptor gene arrays and the control of their spatial and temporal expression in the retina in all mammals. In conclusion, a duplication event of an ancestral cone visual pigment gene, followed by sequence divergence and selection gave rise to the LWS and SWS2 visual pigments. So far, the echidna and platypus are the only mammals that share the gene structure of the LWS-SWS2 pigment gene complex with reptiles, birds and fishes.

  16. Animal pigment bilirubin discovered in plants.

    PubMed

    Pirone, Cary; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David W

    2009-03-04

    The bile pigment bilirubin-IXalpha is the degradative product of heme, distributed among mammals and some other vertebrates. It can be recognized as the pigment responsible for the yellow color of jaundice and healing bruises. In this paper we present the first example of the isolation of bilirubin in plants. The compound was isolated from the brilliant orange-colored arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the white bird of paradise tree, and characterized by HPLC-ESMS, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as comparison with an authentic standard. This discovery indicates that plant cyclic tetrapyrroles may undergo degradation by a previously unknown pathway. Preliminary analyses of related plants, including S. reginae, the bird of paradise, also revealed bilirubin in the arils and flowers, indicating that the occurrence of bilirubin is not limited to a single species or tissue type.

  17. Why Black-on-Black Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)

  18. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PIGMENTS AS INDICATORS.

    PubMed

    Pratt, O B; Swartout, H O

    1930-05-09

    (1) Solutions of many fruit pigments act as indicators. (2) These solutions are easily prepared and stable, and the pH range of their color changes is in most cases conveniently near the neutral point (3) As liquid indicators they can be used in titrating acids, but not bases (4)Their greatest usefulness depends upon the fact that very satisfactory test papers can be made with them in a simple and inexpensive way.

  19. Optical tomography of pigmented human skin biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemann, Iris; Fischer, Peter; Kaatz, Martin; Fischer, Tobias W.; Elsner, Peter; Dimitrov, Enrico; Reif, Annette; Konig, Karsten

    2004-07-01

    The novel femtosecond NIR (near infrared) laser based high resolution imaging system DermaInspect was used for non-invasive diagnostics of pigmented skin. The system provides fluorescence and SHG images of high spatial submicron resolution (3D) and 250 ps temporal resolution (4D) based on time resolved single photon counting (TCSPC). Pigmented tissue biopsies from patients with nevi and melanoma have been investigated using the tunable 80 MHz femtosecond laser MaiTai with laser wavelengths in the range of 750 - 850 nm. The autofluorescence patterns of different intratissue cell types and structures were determined. The non-linear induced autofluorescence originates from naturally endogenous fluorophores and protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, elastin, collagen, phorphyrins and melanin. In addition to autofluorescence, SHG (second harmonic generation) was used to detect dermal collagen structures. Interestingly, pigmented cells showed intense luminescence signals. Further characterization of tissue components was performed via 4D measurements of the fluorescence lifetime (x, y, z, τ). The novel multiphoton technique offers the possibility of a painless high resolution non invasive diagnostic method (optical biopsy), in particular for the early detection of skin cancer.

  20. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tücks, A.; Beck, H. P.

    2005-04-01

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO 4 pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry Δ E ab*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and Δ E ab*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO 4 at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  1. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tuecks, A.; Beck, H.P. . E-mail: hp.beck@mx.uni-saarland.de

    2005-04-15

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO{sub 4} pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry {delta}E{sub ab}*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and {delta}E{sub ab}*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO{sub 4} at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  2. A single gene causes an interspecific difference in pigmentation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ahmed-Braimah, Yasir H; Sweigart, Andrea L

    2015-05-01

    The genetic basis of species differences remains understudied. Studies in insects have contributed significantly to our understanding of morphological evolution. Pigmentation traits in particular have received a great deal of attention and several genes in the insect pigmentation pathway have been implicated in inter- and intraspecific differences. Nonetheless, much remains unknown about many of the genes in this pathway and their potential role in understudied taxa. Here we genetically analyze the puparium color difference between members of the virilis group of Drosophila. The puparium of Drosophila virilis is black, while those of D. americana, D. novamexicana, and D. lummei are brown. We used a series of backcross hybrid populations between D. americana and D. virilis to map the genomic interval responsible for the difference between this species pair. First, we show that the pupal case color difference is caused by a single Mendelizing factor, which we ultimately map to an ∼11-kb region on chromosome 5. The mapped interval includes only the first exon and regulatory region(s) of the dopamine N-acetyltransferase gene (Dat). This gene encodes an enzyme that is known to play a part in the insect pigmentation pathway. Second, we show that this gene is highly expressed at the onset of pupation in light brown taxa (D. americana and D. novamexicana) relative to D. virilis, but not in the dark brown D. lummei. Finally, we examine the role of Dat in adult pigmentation between D. americana (heavily melanized) and D. novamexicana (lightly melanized) and find no discernible effect of this gene in adults. Our results demonstrate that a single gene is entirely or almost entirely responsible for a morphological difference between species.

  3. High-contrast enzymatic immunohistochemistry of pigmented tissues

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Sara M.; Seigel, Gail M.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, standard enzyme immunohistochemistry has been accomplished with brown (DAB, diaminobenzidine) substrate. This can become problematic in pigmented tissues, such as the retina, where brown pigment of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells can be easily confounded with brown substrate. Although immunofluorescence detection methods can overcome this challenge, fluorescence may fade over a period of weeks, while enzyme substrates allow for more long-lasting, archival results. In this report, we will describe a high-contrast enzyme immunohistochemistry method ideal for pigmented tissues that utilizes purple (VIP) substrate. We compared brown (DAB) and purple (VIP) substrates in enzyme immunohistochemistry experiments using human retina (paraffin sections) and monkey retinal pigmented epithelial cells (frozen sections), both containing brown pigmented cells. We compared substrates using several primary antibodies against markers that can be detected in the retina, including GFAP, VEGF, CD147 (EMMPRIN), RHO (rhodopsin) and PAX6. Methyl green was used as a counterstain for paraffin sections. A side-by-side comparison between DAB and VIP immunohistochemistry showed excellent contrast between pigmented cells and the purple VIP substrate in both human retinal tissue and monkey pigmented epithelial cells for all of the markers tested. This was a marked improvement over DAB staining in pigmented cells and tissues. For both paraffin sections and frozen sections of pigmented tissues, purple VIP substrate is an excellent alternative to brown DAB substrate and non-permanent immunofluorescence methods. PMID:27660801

  4. GREEN FLUORESCENT PIGMENT ACCUMULATED BY A MUTANT OF CELLVIBRIO GILVUS.

    PubMed

    LOVE, S H; HULCHER, F H

    1964-01-01

    Love, Samuel H. (Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, N.C.), and Frank H. Hulcher. Green fluorescent pigment accumulated by a mutant of Cellvibrio gilvus. J. Bacteriol. 87:39-45. 1964.-A mutant of Cellvibrio gilvus, designated strain 139A, liberated a green, fluorescent pigment into the surrounding culture medium. A study of the factors which affected the accumulation of this pigment led to the development of a chemically defined medium which supported maximal pigment accumulation in aerated, liquid cultures. d-Glucose, glycine or l-serine, l-phenylalanine, l-proline, and l-lysine comprised the organic components of this medium. The visible absorption spectrum of the pigment showed a maximal band at 400 mmu (pH 7.0). A difference spectrum between reduced and oxidized pigment showed loss of the band at 400 mmu upon oxidation. However, a methanol-extractable, flavinelike compound occurred in the wild strain but not in the mutant. Ferric ions added to the defined medium stimulated growth, with a concomitant reduction of pigment accumulation. Pigment was formed at a maximal rate during the stationary growth phase, and the highest yield was obtained by 18 hr. Organic solvents did not extract the pigment from water solutions. One and sometimes two, compounds absorbing at 400 mmu could be eluted by ion-exchange chromatography on Cellex-P (H(+)), which was used to separate the pigment from other components in the culture supernatants so that the radioactivity of the pigment could be measured. The mutant synthesized C(14)-labeled pigment from d-glucose-U-C(14) and from each of four amino acids (glycine-1-C(14), l-phenylalanine-U-C(14), l-proline-U-C(14), and l-lysine-U-C(14). Delta-Amino-levulenic acid-4-C(14) did not contribute C(14) to the pigment.

  5. Study on the autofluorescence profiles of iris pigment epithelium and retinal pigment epithetlium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gaixia; Qu, Junle; Chen, Danni; Sun, Yiwen; Zhao, Lingling; Lin, Ziyang; Ding, Zhihua; Niu, Hanben

    2007-05-01

    Transplantation technique of retinal pigment epithelium has been noticeable in recent years and gradually put into clinical practice in treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. Generally, immunological, histochemical, and physical methods are used to study the iris pigment epithelium (IPE) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, which need complex sample preparation. In this paper, we provided a simple autofluorescence microscopy to investigate the fresh porcine IPE and RPE cells without any pretreatment. The results showed that the morphology and size of both were similar, round and about 15 μm. The main flourophore in both cells was similar, i.e. lipofuscin. In additional, the autofluorescence spectrum of RPE shifted blue after light-induced damage by laser illuminating. Because it was easier for IPE to be damaged by laser than for RPE, and the power of one scanning operation to get a full image was strong enough to damage IPE sample, we hadn't get any satisfied autofluorescence spectrum of IPE.

  6. Raman analysis of complex pigment mixtures in 20th century metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Clara Bratt; Sanyova, Jana; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-11-05

    The pigment composition of six painted metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant dating from the second half of the 20th century belonging to the Danish royal collection were studied using Raman microscopy. By focusing a 785 nm laser with a 50× objective on particles in paint cross sections, it was possible to identify the following 20 compounds: hematite, goethite, chrome red/orange, chrome yellow, zinc chrome yellow, carbon black, toluidine red PR3, chlorinated para red PR4, dinitroaniline orange PO5, phthalocyanine blue PB15, indanthrone blue PB60, ultramarine, Prussian blue, lead white, anatase, rutile, calcium carbonate, barium sulphate, gypsum and dolomite. The components were frequently present in complex pigment mixtures. Additional information was obtained by elemental analysis with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) to identify cobalt blue, zinc white and cadmium red, as well as to indicate the presence of zinc white in some pigment mixtures. The study allowed a comparison between the industrially applied preparation layers and the artistic paint layers applied by the heraldic painter. Differences in the choice of paint and pigment types were observed on the earliest knight shields, demonstrating a general delay of industrial materials into artist paints.

  7. Achieving better esthetics by gingival de-pigmentation: report of three cases with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Parwani, Simran; Parwani, Rajkuman

    2013-02-01

    A smile expresses a feeling of joy and success and also reveals self-confidence and kindness in an individual. A holistic smile is dictated not only by the shape, position and color of the teeth but also by the health of the gingival tissues. Gingival appearance is an important component of an attractive smile. Melonin, carotene and hemoglobin are the most common natural pigments contributing to the normal color of gingiva. Although physiologic and ethnic melanin pigmentation is not a medical problem, complaints about "black gums" are common. For de-pigmentation of gingiva, different treatment modalities have been reported such as bur abrasion, scraping with scalpel, partial thickness flap, gingivectomy, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, lasers, free gingival autografting, sub-epithelial connective tissue graft and combination techniques. In the present case reports, scalpel surgery and electrosurgery were performed for gingival de-pigmentation, which are simple and effective. The esthetic results were pleasing and healing was uneventful. Patients were satisfied with the outcome at three month follow-up as evidenced from their feedback.

  8. Genetic basis of stage-specific melanism: a putative role for a cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase in insect pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Saenko, S V; Jerónimo, M A; Beldade, P

    2012-06-01

    Melanism, the overall darkening of the body, is a widespread form of animal adaptation to particular environments, and includes bookcase examples of evolution by natural selection, such as industrial melanism in the peppered moth. The major components of the melanin biosynthesis pathway have been characterized in model insects, but little is known about the genetic basis of life-stage specific melanism such as cases described in some lepidopteran species. Here, we investigate two melanic mutations of Bicyclus anynana butterflies, called Chocolate and melanine, that exclusively affect pigmentation of the larval and adult stages, respectively. Our analysis of Mendelian segregation patterns reveals that the larval and adult melanic phenotypes are due to alleles at different, independently segregating loci. Our linkage mapping analysis excludes the pigmentation candidate gene black as the melanine locus, and implicates a gene encoding a putative pyridoxal phosphate-dependant cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase as the Chocolate locus. We show variation in coding sequence and in expression levels for this candidate larval melanism locus. This is the first study that suggests a biological function for this gene in insects. Our findings open up exciting opportunities to study the role of this locus in the evolution of adaptive variation in pigmentation, and the uncoupling of regulation of pigment biosynthesis across developmental stages with different ecologies and pressures on body coloration.

  9. Genetic basis of stage-specific melanism: a putative role for a cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase in insect pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Saenko, S V; Jerónimo, M A; Beldade, P

    2012-01-01

    Melanism, the overall darkening of the body, is a widespread form of animal adaptation to particular environments, and includes bookcase examples of evolution by natural selection, such as industrial melanism in the peppered moth. The major components of the melanin biosynthesis pathway have been characterized in model insects, but little is known about the genetic basis of life-stage specific melanism such as cases described in some lepidopteran species. Here, we investigate two melanic mutations of Bicyclus anynana butterflies, called Chocolate and melanine, that exclusively affect pigmentation of the larval and adult stages, respectively. Our analysis of Mendelian segregation patterns reveals that the larval and adult melanic phenotypes are due to alleles at different, independently segregating loci. Our linkage mapping analysis excludes the pigmentation candidate gene black as the melanine locus, and implicates a gene encoding a putative pyridoxal phosphate-dependant cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase as the Chocolate locus. We show variation in coding sequence and in expression levels for this candidate larval melanism locus. This is the first study that suggests a biological function for this gene in insects. Our findings open up exciting opportunities to study the role of this locus in the evolution of adaptive variation in pigmentation, and the uncoupling of regulation of pigment biosynthesis across developmental stages with different ecologies and pressures on body coloration. PMID:22234245

  10. Eye pigments in wild-type and eye-color mutant strains of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Beard, C B; Benedict, M Q; Primus, J P; Finnerty, V; Collins, F H

    1995-01-01

    Chromatographic analysis of pigments extracted from wild-type eyes of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae reveals the presence of the ommatin precursor 3-hydroxykynurenine, its transamination derivative xanthurenic acid, and a dark, red-brown pigment spot that probably is composed of two or more low mobility xanthommatins. No colored or fluorescent pteridines are evident. Mosquitoes homozygous for an autosomal recessive mutation at the red-eye (r) locus have a brick-red eye color in larvae, pupae, and young adults, in contrast to the almost black color of the wild eye. Mosquitoes homozygous for this mutant allele have levels of ommochrome precursors that are indistinguishable from the wild-type, but the low-mobility xanthommatin spot is ochre-brown in color rather than red-brown as in the wild-type. Mosquitoes with two different mutant alleles at the X-linked pink-eye locus (p, which confers a pink eye color, and pw, which confers a white eye phenotype in homozygotes or hemizygous males) have normal levels of ommochrome precursors but no detectable xanthommatins. Mosquitoes homozygous for both the r and p mutant alleles have apricot-colored eyes and show no detectable xanthommatins. Both the pink-eye and red-eye mutations appear to involve defects in the transport into or assembly of pigments in the membrane-bound pigment granules rather then defects in ommochrome synthesis.

  11. An mtDNA analysis in ancient Basque populations: implications for haplogroup V as a marker for a major paleolithic expansion from southwestern europe.

    PubMed Central

    Izagirre, N; de la Rúa, C

    1999-01-01

    mtDNA sequence variation was studied in 121 dental samples from four Basque prehistoric sites, by high-resolution RFLP analysis. The results of this study are corroborated by (1) parallel analysis of 92 bone samples, (2) the use of controls during extraction and amplification, and (3) typing by both positive and negative restriction of the linked sites that characterize each haplogroup. The absence of haplogroup V in the prehistoric samples analyzed conflicts with the hypothesis proposed by Torroni et al., in which haplogroup V is considered as an mtDNA marker for a major Paleolithic population expansion from southwestern Europe, occurring approximately 10,000-15,000 years before the present (YBP). Our samples from the Basque Country provide a valuable tool for checking the previous hypothesis, which is based on genetic data from present-day populations. In light of the available data, the most realistic scenario to explain the origin and distribution of haplogroup V suggests that the mutation defining that haplogroup (4577 NlaIII) appeared at a time when the effective population size was small enough to allow genetic drift to act-and that such drift is responsible for the heterogeneity observed in Basques, with regard to the frequency of haplogroup V (0%-20%). This is compatible with the attributed date for the origin of that mutation (10,000-15, 000 YBP), because during the postglacial period (the Mesolithic, approximately 11,000 YBP) there was a major demographic change in the Basque Country, which minimized the effect of genetic drift. This interpretation does not rely on migratory movements to explain the distribution of haplogroup V in present-day Indo-European populations. PMID:10364533

  12. Analysis of HLA genes and haplotypes in Ainu (from Hokkaido, northern Japan) supports the premise that they descent from Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bannai, M; Ohashi, J; Harihara, S; Takahashi, Y; Juji, T; Omoto, K; Tokunaga, K

    2000-02-01

    The Ainu people are assumed to be the descendants of pre-agricultural native populations of northern Japan, while the majority of population of present-day Japan (Hondo-Japanese) is considered to have descended mainly from post-neolithic migrants. Sequence-level polymorphisms of the HLA-class I (HLA-A and HLA-B) genes were investigated in DNA samples of 50 Ainu living in Hidaka district, Hokkaido. HLA-A*2402, A*0201, A*0206, A*2601, A*3101, B*1501, B*5101, B*3901, and B*3501 were observed at frequencies of more than 10% and most of these have previously been found in populations of not only Asians but also North and South American Indians. A*68012, which has not so far been detected in Hondo-Japanese, was found in the Ainu (3%). On the other hand, several alleles common in Hondo-Japanese, including HLA-A*3303, A*1101, B*4403, B*5201, B*5401, B*4601, and B*0702 were infrequent in Ainu (0-1%). Correspondence and neighbor-joining analyses of various populations based on HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 gene frequencies enabled distinction between Asian, Native South American, European, and African populations. The Ainu, as well as Tlingit (Na-Dene), were placed midway between other East Asians, including Hondo Japanese, and Native South Americans (Amerindians) in the correspondence analysis. Furthermore, several HLA-A-B and HLA-B-DR-DQ haplotypes common in the Ainu, are shared with some Native American populations. These observations strongly suggest a unique place for the Ainu as descendants of some Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia, from whom some Native Americans may have descended.

  13. An mtDNA analysis in ancient Basque populations: implications for haplogroup V as a marker for a major paleolithic expansion from southwestern europe.

    PubMed

    Izagirre, N; de la Rúa, C

    1999-07-01

    mtDNA sequence variation was studied in 121 dental samples from four Basque prehistoric sites, by high-resolution RFLP analysis. The results of this study are corroborated by (1) parallel analysis of 92 bone samples, (2) the use of controls during extraction and amplification, and (3) typing by both positive and negative restriction of the linked sites that characterize each haplogroup. The absence of haplogroup V in the prehistoric samples analyzed conflicts with the hypothesis proposed by Torroni et al., in which haplogroup V is considered as an mtDNA marker for a major Paleolithic population expansion from southwestern Europe, occurring approximately 10,000-15,000 years before the present (YBP). Our samples from the Basque Country provide a valuable tool for checking the previous hypothesis, which is based on genetic data from present-day populations. In light of the available data, the most realistic scenario to explain the origin and distribution of haplogroup V suggests that the mutation defining that haplogroup (4577 NlaIII) appeared at a time when the effective population size was small enough to allow genetic drift to act-and that such drift is responsible for the heterogeneity observed in Basques, with regard to the frequency of haplogroup V (0%-20%). This is compatible with the attributed date for the origin of that mutation (10,000-15, 000 YBP), because during the postglacial period (the Mesolithic, approximately 11,000 YBP) there was a major demographic change in the Basque Country, which minimized the effect of genetic drift. This interpretation does not rely on migratory movements to explain the distribution of haplogroup V in present-day Indo-European populations.

  14. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings.

  15. Mapping pigment distribution in mud samples through hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrübeoglu, Mehrube; Nicula, Cosmina; Trombley, Christopher; Smith, Shane W.; Smith, Dustin K.; Shanks, Elizabeth S.; Zimba, Paul V.

    2015-09-01

    Mud samples collected from bodies of water reveal information about the distribution of microorganisms in the local sediments. Hyperspectral imaging has been investigated as a technology to identify phototropic organisms living on sediments collected from the Texas Coastal Bend area based on their spectral pigment profiles and spatial arrangement. The top pigment profiles identified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been correlated with spectral signatures extracted from the hyperspectral data of mud using fast Fourier transform (FFT). Spatial distributions have also been investigated using 2D hyperspectral image processing. 2D pigment distribution maps have been created based on the correlation with pigment profiles in the FFT domain. Among the tested pigments, the results show match among four out of five pigment distribution trends between HPLC and hyperspectral data analysis. Differences are attributed mainly to the difference between area and volume of scale between the HPLC analysis and area covered by hyperspectral imaging.

  16. Improvements in the wallpaper industry during the second half of the 19th century: micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of pigmented wallpapers.

    PubMed

    Castro, K; Vandenabeele, P; Rodríguez-Laso, M D; Moens, L; Madariaga, J M

    2005-08-01

    Scientific studies of the pigments used in the manufacturing process of some pigmented wallpapers are presented in this work. Non-destructive micro-Raman spectroscopy was selected for this purpose, and provides important information about how the 19th century wallpaper industry incorporated new materials in their works and designs. At the same time, analysis can help to date the samples of uncatalogued wallpapers. Chrome yellow, burnt Sienna, Prussian blue, ultramarine blue, red lead, carbon black, calcium carbonate, red iron oxide and a red organic pigment were identified. According to the palette used, as well as to the manufacturing process, the wallpapers in this study can be dated to the second half of the 19th century.

  17. Improvements in the wallpaper industry during the second half of the 19th century: Micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of pigmented wallpapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, K.; Vandenabeele, P.; Rodríguez-Laso, M. D.; Moens, L.; Madariaga, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    Scientific studies of the pigments used in the manufacturing process of some pigmented wallpapers are presented in this work. Non-destructive micro-Raman spectroscopy was selected for this purpose, and provides important information about how the 19th century wallpaper industry incorporated new materials in their works and designs. At the same time, analysis can help to date the samples of uncatalogued wallpapers. Chrome yellow, burnt Sienna, Prussian blue, ultramarine blue, red lead, carbon black, calcium carbonate, red iron oxide and a red organic pigment were identified. According to the palette used, as well as to the manufacturing process, the wallpapers in this study can be dated to the second half of the 19th century.

  18. Chlorpromazine-induced skin pigmentation with corneal and lens opacities.

    PubMed

    Huff, Laura S; Prado, Renata; Pederson, Jon F; Dunnick, Cory A; Lucas, Lisa M

    2014-05-01

    Chlorpromazine is known to cause abnormal oculocutaneous pigmentation in sun-exposed areas. We present the case of a psychiatric patient who developed blue-gray pigmentation of the skin as well as corneal and lens opacities following 7 years of chlorpromazine treatment. Ten months after discontinuation of chlorpromazine, the skin discoloration and anterior lens deposits showed partial improvement, but the corneal deposits remained unchanged. A review of the literature on the reversibility of chlorpromazine-induced abnormal oculocutaneous pigmentation also is provided.

  19. BASIS FOR ENHANCED BARRIER FUNCTION OF PIGMENTED SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Lin, Tzu-Kai; Santiago, Juan Luis; Celli, Anna; Zhong, Lily; Huang, Zhi-Ming; Roelandt, Truus; Hupe, Melanie; Sundberg, John P.; Silva, Kathleen A.; Crumrine, Debra; Martin-Ezquerra, Gemma; Trullas, Carles; Sun, Richard; Wakefield, Joan S.; Wei, Maria L.; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans with darkly-pigmented skin display superior permeability barrier function in comparison to humans with lightly-pigmented skin. The reduced pH of the stratum corneum (SC) of darkly-pigmented skin could account for enhanced function, because acidifying lightly-pigmented human SC resets barrier function to darkly-pigmented levels. In SKH1 (non-pigmented) vs. SKH2/J (pigmented) hairless mice, we evaluated how a pigment-dependent reduction in pH could influence epidermal barrier function. Permeability barrier homeostasis is enhanced in SKH2/J vs. SKH1 mice, correlating with a reduced pH in the lower SC that co-localizes with the extrusion of melanin granules. Darkly-pigmented human epidermis also shows substantial melanin extrusion in the outer epidermis. Both acute barrier disruption and topical basic pH challenges accelerate re-acidification of SKH2/J (but not SKH1) SC, while inducing melanin extrusion. SKH2/J mice also display enhanced expression of the SC acidifying enzyme, secretory phospholipase A2f (sPLA2f). Enhanced barrier function of SKH2/J mice could be attributed to enhanced activity of two acidic pH-dependent, ceramide-generating enzymes, β-glucocerebrosidase and acidic sphingomyelinase, leading to accelerated maturation of SC lamellar bilayers. Finally, organotypic cultures of darkly-pigmented-bearing human keratinocytes display enhanced barrier function in comparison to lightly-pigmented cultures. Together, these results suggest that the superior barrier function of pigmented epidermis can be largely attributed to the pH-lowering impact of melanin persistence/extrusion and enhanced sPLA2f expression. PMID:24732399

  20. Production of luteoskyrin, a hepatotoxic pigment, by Penicillium islandicum Sopp.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Y; Ishikawa, I

    1969-09-01

    Various factors affecting the yields of luteoskyrin, a hepatotoxic mycotoxin, and related pigments in the liquid medium were studied. Maximal yields of luteoskyrin (0.13% by isolation) and of other pigments were attained in the late phase of the cultivation. The yield of the pigment was increased by supplying malt extract, malonic acid, glutamic acid, or asparagine. A useful material for preparation of (14)C-labeled luteoskyrin was 2-(14)C-malonate.

  1. Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy with which relevant atmospheric parameters must be estimated to derive photoplankton pigment concentrations of a given accuracy, from measurements of the ocean's apparent spectral radiance at satellite altitudes, is examined. A phytoplankton pigment algorithm is developed which relates the pigment concentration (c) to the three ratios of upwelling radiance just beneath the sea surface which can be formed from wavelengths (lambda) 440, 520 and 550 nm.

  2. FRACTIONATION OF THE EYE PIGMENTS OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER.

    PubMed

    Wald, G; Allen, G

    1946-09-20

    Eye pigments of normal and mutant types of D. melanogaster have been extracted with water and fractionated by chromatographic adsorption on powdered talc. Spectra of all the fractions obtainable in solution have been measured and the general chemical behavior of the pigments is described. Two chemically distinct groups of pigments are found, to be identified with the earlier designated red and brown components. The red component in the wild-type eye contains three well defined pigments, two of them capable of further subdivision so that the total number of fractions obtained is five. There is also present a brown component pigment which could not be treated quantitatively by the methods employed. All members of the wild-type red component are found in cinnabar eyes, unaccompanied by the brown component. Conversely, brown eyes contain a pigment indistinguishable from the wild-type brown component, virtually alone. In sepia eyes, one red component and two brown component pigments can be distinguished, all three pigments differing from those of wild-type eyes. Pigments apparently identical with those found in wild-type melanogaster eyes have also been found in D. virilis.

  3. Dichroism measurements in forensic fibre examination: part 5-pigmented fibres.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L

    2012-09-01

    A number of pigmented fibre samples were examined with plane polarized light on their dichroic behaviour by optical light microscopy (OLM) and microspectrophotometry with plane polarized light (MSP-PPL). It was found that about half of the samples show a strong dichroic effect and another 20% have a weak dichroism. Both regular (80%) and inversed dichroic effects (20%) occur. The dichroic characteristics of pigmented fibres can be compared to these of sheet polarizers. It is suggested that the dichroic behaviour of pigmented fibres depends strongly on the crystal structure (shape of the pigment grains) and the draw ratio (orientation of the polymer chains).

  4. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Sarah; Heath, Rebecca; Shah, Mamta

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options. PMID:23162241

  5. Neodymium-YAG transscleral cyclophotocoagulation. The role of pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, L.B.; Nichols, D.A.; Katz, L.J.; Moster, M.R.; Poryzees, E.; Shields, J.A.; Spaeth, G.L. )

    1989-08-01

    Using a rabbit model we investigated the role of pigmentation of the ciliary body in obtaining ciliodestruction by neodymium-YAG transscleral cyclophotocoagulation. There was marked destruction of the ciliary body in pigmented rabbit eyes, but no histologic effect was observed in albino rabbit eyes. These findings suggest that pigmentation of the ciliary body is important for obtaining the desired response from neodymium-YAG transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbit eyes by our technique. Further study is necessary to define the role of pigmentation in human eyes in this treatment modality.

  6. Early Diagenesis of Plant Pigments in Hudson River Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Dibb, Jack E.; Findlay, Stuart

    1993-06-01

    Plant pigment concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography in Hudson River sediments. Sedimentation rates and mixing characteristics were determined from depth profiles of the naturally occurring radionuclides 7Be, 210Pb. Previous estimates of the mean-lives (1/λ) of plant pigments (chlorophylls a and b, fucoxanthin) from laboratory experiments, indicate a range of c. 20-40 days. However, in the field, we observed that these pigments decreased less rapidly with depth and penetrated deeper than 7Be (mean-life 77 days) in Hudson sediments 95% of the time. Assuming similar mixing processes for particles carrying 7Be and pigments, this indicates that pigment decay rates in the field are slower than the 0·013 day -1 decay rate of 7Be, hence, more than 2-fold slower than the derived laboratory rates. We believe that high inputs of vascular plant detritus in the Hudson may increase the complexation of humic substances with pigments resulting in slower decay rates. While most pigments showed an exponential decrease with sediment depth, lutein concentrations generally increased with depth. This pattern of decay resistance is in agreement with laboratory experiments which show that lutein is the most decay resistant among dominant pigments. These data along with other studies demonstrate that the carotenoids lacking the 5,6-epoxide group (i.e., lutein) are more decay resistant than pigments that contain it (i.e., fucoxanthin).

  7. Reflective color display using thermochromic pigments.

    PubMed

    Heo, Kyong Chan; Sohn, Youngku; Yi, Jonghoon; Kwon, Jin Hyuk; Son, Phil Kook; Gwag, Jin Seog

    2012-06-20

    A reflective thermochromic display fabricated by a very simple method using three kinds of thermochromic pigments is produced and its thermo-optical characteristics are investigated. The display exhibits maximum red, green, and blue reflectances of 38%, 30%, and 35%, respectively. The reflective display cell shows continuous gray color with changing temperature, which is crucial for multicolor displays. It also shows an excellent viewing angle above 80° without any of the additional optical components that are required in liquid crystal displays. We expect that this display technology will be used for outdoor billboard information display applications.

  8. LOCALIZED PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Carvalho Godoy, Fabiola Andrea de; Faustino, Carlos Alberto Cury; Meneses, Cláudio Santos; Nishi, Sergio Tadao; Góes, César Eduardo Giancoli; Canto, Abaeté Leite do

    2011-01-01

    This case concerned a female patient with a complaint of pain in the anterior region of her left knee during and after sports activities, followed by joint blockage three months ago. From imaging examinations, simple radiography of the knee was normal and magnetic resonance showed a solid expansive mass, possibly corresponding to soft-tissue chondroma or focal nodular synovitis. Arthroscopic resection of the lesion was performed, and the diagnosis of diffuse giant cell tumor resembling localized pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) was made from the result of the anatomopathological examination. The patient presented good clinical evolution, with disappearance of symptoms and return to physical activities.

  9. LOCALIZED PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Godoy, Fabiola Andrea de; Faustino, Carlos Alberto Cury; Meneses, Cláudio Santos; Nishi, Sergio Tadao; Góes, César Eduardo Giancoli; Canto, Abaeté Leite do

    2015-01-01

    This case concerned a female patient with a complaint of pain in the anterior region of her left knee during and after sports activities, followed by joint blockage three months ago. From imaging examinations, simple radiography of the knee was normal and magnetic resonance showed a solid expansive mass, possibly corresponding to soft-tissue chondroma or focal nodular synovitis. Arthroscopic resection of the lesion was performed, and the diagnosis of diffuse giant cell tumor resembling localized pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) was made from the result of the anatomopathological examination. The patient presented good clinical evolution, with disappearance of symptoms and return to physical activities. PMID:27027040

  10. Characterization of Brevibacterium linens pigmentation using spectrocolorimetry.

    PubMed

    Guyomarc'h, F; Binet, A; Dufossé, L

    2000-06-15

    Spectrocolorimetry was used for the evaluation of Brevibacterium linens pigmentation. A total of 23 strains of Brevibacterium linens, from various sources, were plated onto solid agar media and their color coordinates were measured and expressed by the L*a*b* colorimetric system. All the strains were located along a straight line with a hue of 66 degrees (orange color). The effect of light exposure versus storage in the dark was also investigated using this approach. Three groups with distinct behaviors were demonstrated for the 23 B. linens strains.

  11. Corrosion-Indicating Pigment And Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed hydrogen-sensitive paint for metal structures changes color at onset of corrosion, involving emission of hydrogen as result of electrochemical reactions. Pigment of suitable paint includes rhodium compound RhCl(PPh3)3, known as Wilkinson's catalyst. As coating on critical parts of such structures as bridges and aircraft, paint gives early warning of corrosion, and parts thus repaired or replaced before failing catastrophically. Reveals corrosion before it becomes visible to eye. Inspection for changes in color not ordinarily necessitate removal of structure from service, and costs less than inspection by x-ray or thermal neutron radiography, ultrasonic, eddy-current, or acoustic-emission techniques.

  12. Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

  13. Utilization of calcium carbonate particles from eggshell waste as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sukjoon; Hsieh, Jeffery S; Zou, Peter; Kokoszka, John

    2009-12-01

    The effective treatment and utilization of biowaste have been emphasized in our society for environmental and economic concerns. Recently, the eggshell waste in the poultry industry has been highlighted because of its reclamation potential. This study presents an economical treatment process to recover useful bioproducts from eggshell waste and their utilization in commercial products. We developed the dissolved air floatation (DAF) separation unit, which successfully recovered 96% of eggshell membrane and 99% of eggshell calcium carbonate (ECC) particles from eggshell waste within 2 h of operation. The recovered ECC particles were utilized as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper and their impact on the ink density and paper gloss were investigated. The addition of the ECC particles as coating pigments enhances the optical density of cyan, magenta and yellow inks while decreasing the black ink density and the gloss of the coated paper.

  14. Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity

    PubMed Central

    Saksens, Nicole T.M.; Krebs, Mark P.; Schoenmaker-Koller, Frederieke E.; Hicks, Wanda; Yu, Minzhong; Shi, Lanying; Rowe, Lucy; Collin, Gayle B.; Charette, Jeremy R.; Letteboer, Stef J.; Neveling, Kornelia; van Moorsel, Tamara W.; Abu-Ltaif, Sleiman; De Baere, Elfride; Walraedt, Sophie; Banfi, Sandro; Simonelli, Francesca; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Boon, Camiel J.F.; Roepman, Ronald; Leroy, Bart P.; Peachey, Neal S.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Nishina, Patsy M.; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy is an eye disease characterized by lesions in the macula that can resemble the wings of a butterfly. Here, we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the α-catenin 1 (CTNNA1) gene in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy. In addition, we identified a Ctnna1 missense mutation in a chemically induced mouse mutant, tvrm5. Parallel clinical phenotypes were observed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of individuals with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and in tvrm5 mice, including pigmentary abnormalities, focal thickening and elevated lesions, and decreased light-activated responses. Morphological studies in tvrm5 mice revealed increased cell shedding and large multinucleated RPE cells, suggesting defects in intercellular adhesion and cytokinesis. This study identifies CTNNA1 gene variants as a cause of macular dystrophy, suggests that CTNNA1 is involved in maintaining RPE integrity, and suggests that other components that participate in intercellular adhesion may be implicated in macular disease. PMID:26691986

  15. 'Shadow sign' in congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium of young myopic pigmented patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, M Y; McBeath, J B; McCannel, C A; McCannel, T A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) may simulate choroidal melanoma in certain cases. We report unique clinical features we have observed in cases of CHRPE in young myopic pigmented patients.METHODS Patients who were referred for evaluation of a suspicious choroidal lesion and found to have a CHRPE lesion with the clinical appearance of lesion elevation and a subretinal fluid-like 'shadow sign' were included. Patient and lesion characteristics were tabulated. Available images, including fundus photography, ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fluorescein angiography (FA) were reviewed.ResultsSix patients were included. The 'shadow sign' was anterior to the CHRPE lesion in all cases. The mean age of the patients was 27.3 years. The ethnicities of the patients were Chinese (n=1), Hispanic (n=3), or African-American (n=2). Five of six patients were myopic.CONCLUSIONS Although most CHRPE lesions appear flat on ophthalmoscopy, lesions in young myopic patients of pigmented ethnicities may appear elevated with a 'shadow sign' due to 'dark without pressure.' This new finding may be related to the vitreoretinal interface in young myopic pigmented patients and must be distinguished from true subretinal fluid and lesion thickness, which are often observed in choroidal melanoma.

  16. Carbon black nanoparticles and other problematic constituents of black ink and their potential to harm tattooed humans.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Clausen, Per Axel

    2015-01-01

    Black is the most common tattoo color, but only a few studies have shed light on the multitude of functional and contaminating chemicals present in black inks. These studies have generally shown that black inks are a diverse group, containing anything from 5 to 50+ organic components. Little is known about the possible effects on humans of internalizing these chemicals. Analysis has shown that the production of the main component, carbon black, can lead to the formation of pigments with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents that range from very high to almost completely absent. Similar variations in PAH concentrations are observed in black inks. PAHs are known carcinogens and thus, low recommended levels have been suggested by the Council of Europe. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have recently been a topic in scientific literature related to tattoo ink. Again, it has been shown that some inks produce deleterious ROS (e.g. singlet oxygen or peroxyl radicals), presumably via either adhered organic compounds or particle surface defects. It has been shown that black tattoo inks may contain a multitude of chemicals, including carcinogens and allergens, and some have unknown toxicologies. However, it has additionally been demonstrated that some black inks already on the market do not produce ROS and also contain PAHs at levels that are below those recommended by the Council of Europe and very few additional contaminants.

  17. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  18. A Dancing Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  19. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S.; Busheva, Mira C.; Stoitchkova, Katerina V.; Tzonova, Iren K.

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ß-carotene (ß-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ß-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  20. Enamel ultrastructure in pigmented hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Wright, J T; Lord, V; Robinson, C; Shore, R

    1992-10-01

    Hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary condition of enamel that is presumed to result from defects during the maturation stage of enamel development. This study characterized the enamel ultrastructure and enamel crystallite morphology, as well as the distribution of organic material in enamel affected with pigmented hypomaturation AI. Enamel exhibiting autosomal recessive pigmented hypomaturation AI was sectioned or fractured and examined using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Enamel samples were treated with 30% NaOCl or 8 M urea to remove organic components and determine the effect of deproteinization on crystallite morphology. These were compared with untreated normal enamel samples. The enamel crystallites in hypomaturation AI exhibited considerable variability in size and morphology. Examination of deproteinized tissue indicated that the AI crystallites had a thick coating, presumably of organic or partially mineralized material, which was not visible in normal enamel. The results of this investigation provide further evidence that hypomaturation AI is associated with the retention of organic material that is most probably enamel protein. Enamel protein retention is likely to be involved in the inhibition of normal crystallite growth resulting in the morphological crystallite abnormalities associated with this disorder.

  1. Construction of artificial pigment-protein antennae

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbald, JeNell

    1997-01-10

    Photosynthesis is a complex process which results in the conversion of solar radiation into chemical energy. This chemical energy is then used as the free energy source for all living organisms. In its basic form, photosynthesis can be described as the light-activated synthesis of carbohydrates from the simple molecules of water and carbon dioxide: 6H2O + 6 CO2 light C6H12O6 + 6 O2 This basic mechanism actually requires numerous reaction steps. The two primary steps being: the capture of light by pigment molecules in light-harvesting antenna complexes and the transfer of this captured energy to the so-called photochemical reaction center. While the preferred pathway for energy absorbed by the chromophores in the antenna complexes is transfer to the reaction center, energy can be lost to competing processes such as internal conversion or radiative decay. Therefore, the energy transfer must be rapid, typically on the order of picoseconds, to successfully compete. The focus of the present work is on the construction of light-harvesting antenna complexes incorporating modular pigment-proteins.

  2. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of prochloron (prochlorophyta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerl, H. W.; Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient-elution technique was utilized to separate and quantify chlorophylls a and b as well as major carotenoid pigments present in freeze-dried preprations of prochloron-didemnid associations and in Prochloron cells separated from host colonies. Results confirm earlier spectrophotometric evidence for both chlorophylls a and b in this prokaryote. Chlorophyll a:b ratios range from 4.14 to 19.71; generally good agreement was found between ratios determined in isolated cell preprations and in symbiotic colonies (in hospite). These values are 1.5 to 5-fold higher than ratios determined in a variety of eukaryotic green plants. The carotenoids in Prochloron are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those found in various freshwater and marine blue-green algae (cyanopbytes) from high-light environments. However, Prochloron differs from cyanophytes by the absence of myxoxanthophyll and related glycosidic carotenoids. It pigment characteristics are considered sufficiently different from those of cyanophytes to justify its assignment to a separate algal division.

  3. Human skin pigmentation, migration and disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Nina G.; Chaplin, George

    2012-01-01

    Human skin pigmentation evolved as a compromise between the conflicting physiological demands of protection against the deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthesis of UVB-dependent vitamin D3. Living under high UVR near the equator, ancestral Homo sapiens had skin rich in protective eumelanin. Dispersals outside of the tropics were associated with positive selection for depigmentation to maximize cutaneous biosynthesis of pre-vitamin D3 under low and highly seasonal UVB conditions. In recent centuries, migrations and high-speed transportation have brought many people into UVR regimes different from those experienced by their ancestors and, accordingly, exposed them to new disease risks. These have been increased by urbanization and changes in diet and lifestyle. Three examples—nutritional rickets, multiple sclerosis (MS) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM)—are chosen to illustrate the serious health effects of mismatches between skin pigmentation and UVR. The aetiology of MS in particular provides insight into complex and contingent interactions of genetic and environmental factors necessary to trigger lethal disease states. Low UVB levels and vitamin D deficiencies produced by changes in location and lifestyle pose some of the most serious disease risks of the twenty-first century. PMID:22312045

  4. Bile pigments in pulmonary and vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ryter, Stefan W

    2012-01-01

    The bile pigments, biliverdin, and bilirubin, are endogenously derived substances generated during enzymatic heme degradation. These compounds have been shown to act as chemical antioxidants in vitro. Bilirubin formed in tissues circulates in the serum, prior to undergoing hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion. The excess production of bilirubin has been associated with neurotoxicity, in particular to the newborn. Nevertheless, clinical evidence suggests that mild states of hyperbilirubinemia may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease in adults. Pharmacological application of either bilirubin and/or its biological precursor biliverdin, can provide therapeutic benefit in several animal models of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Furthermore, biliverdin and bilirubin can confer protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and graft rejection secondary to organ transplantation in animal models. Several possible mechanisms for these effects have been proposed, including direct antioxidant and scavenging effects, and modulation of signaling pathways regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and immune responses. The practicality and therapeutic-effectiveness of bile pigment application to humans remains unclear.

  5. Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2002-10-09

    Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. costaricensis, H. sp. 487 (all red-flesh species and hybrids made among them), and the white- or red-flesh species H. undatus. Hybrids included hybrid 1 (H. undatus white-flesh clone and H. sp. 487), hybrid 35 (H. sp. 487 and H. polyrhizus), and the reciprocal hybrid hybrid 95 (H. polyrhizus and H. sp. 487). Fruits of H. polyrhizus exhibited the highest relative concentration (expressed as percentage of the total HPLC peak area) of hylocerenin, a recently discovered pigment, and a high relative concentration of phyllocactin. Hylocerenin and isohylocerenin, present in fruits at relative concentrations of 11.7 and 5.8%, respectively, are probably responsible for the fluorescent color of the fruit pulp. H. costaricensis fruits have a much higher content of phyllocactin (63.9%), which is almost 4 times higher than the betanin content. These differences in pigment concentrations might explain the differences in red hues of the flesh of these fruits.

  6. Gene expression analysis identifies new candidate genes associated with the development of black skin spots in Corriedale sheep.

    PubMed

    Peñagaricano, Francisco; Zorrilla, Pilar; Naya, Hugo; Robello, Carlos; Urioste, Jorge I

    2012-02-01

    The white coat colour of sheep is an important economic trait. For unknown reasons, some animals are born with, and others develop with time, black skin spots that can also produce pigmented fibres. The presence of pigmented fibres in the white wool significantly decreases the fibre quality. The aim of this work was to study gene expression in black spots (with and without pigmented fibres) and white skin by microarray techniques, in order to identify the possible genes involved in the development of this trait. Five unrelated Corriedale sheep were used and, for each animal, the three possible comparisons (three different hybridisations) between the three samples of interest were performed. Differential gene expression patterns were analysed using different t-test approaches. Most of the major genes with well-known roles in skin pigmentation, e.g. ASIP, MC1R and C-KIT, showed no significant difference in the gene expression between white skin and black spots. On the other hand, many of the differentially expressed genes (raw P-value < 0.005) detected in this study, e.g. C-FOS, KLF4 and UFC1, fulfil biological functions that are plausible to be involved in the formation of black spots. The gene expression of C-FOS and KLF4, transcription factors involved in the cellular response to external factors such as ultraviolet light, was validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This exploratory study provides a list of candidate genes that could be associated with the development of black skin spots that should be studied in more detail. Characterisation of these genes will enable us to discern the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of this feature and, hence, increase our understanding of melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation. In sheep, understanding this phenomenon is a first step towards developing molecular tools to assist in the selection against the presence of pigmented fibres in white wool.

  7. Black, Hairy Tongue

    MedlinePlus

    ... content of the mouth following antibiotic use Poor oral hygiene Dry mouth (xerostomia) Medications containing bismuth, such as ... as: Normal variations in tongue color (pigment) Poor oral hygiene Foods or medications that have stained the tongue ...

  8. Real-time PCR detection of Ochroconis lascauxensis involved in the formation of black stains in the Lascaux Cave, France.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanchez, Pedro M; Bastian, Fabiola; Alabouvette, Claude; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-01-15

    A real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect and quantify Ochroconis lascauxensis in the Lascaux Cave in France. This fungus is the principal causal agent of the black stains threatening the Paleolithic paintings of this UNESCO World Heritage Site. The black stains outbreak could not be stopped in spite of using intensive biocide treatments. A sensitive and time-saving protocol is needed for determining the extent of the colonization. Sets of primers that target the ITS and RPB2 regions were designed and evaluated for specificity against O. lascauxensis. Genomic DNA extracted from five species of Ochroconis and 13 other fungal species frequently isolated from caves were used to test the specificity of each primer set. The specific and sensitive real-time PCR assay using the primers 347F/493R targeting a 147-bp fragment from the RPB2 gene was useful for quantifying the presence of O. lascauxensis in the stains on the walls, sediments and air of the cavity. The results confirmed the association of this fungus with the black stains and its wide dissemination in all cave compartments. The suitability of this method for monitoring fungal outbreaks in cave environments is discussed.

  9. "The black bronchoscopy": a case of airway soot deposition.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carla; Guimarães, Miguel; Antunes, Ana; Oliveira, Ana; Neves, Sofia; Almeida, José; Moura E Sá, João

    2013-07-01

    The term "black bronchoscopy" is used to describe the black pigmentation of the airways. It is a rare condition with multiple etiologies. We describe a case of a "black bronchoscopy" due to severe soot deposition as a result of smoke inhalation during a household fire in a 71-year-old woman. Early flexible bronchoscopy allowed for a precise diagnosis of severe inhalation injury, and bronchial lavage was carried out to remove soot casts to reduce complications. Any patient suspected of having smoke inhalation injury should undergo early bronchoscopy to allow for a precise diagnosis, staging, and more aggressive treatment measures as the mortality among patients exposed to smoke with inhalation airway injury is high.

  10. A genome-wide association study identifies novel single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with dermal shank pigmentation in chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangqi; Li, Dongfeng; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang; Hou, Zhuocheng; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Chen, Sirui

    2014-12-01

    Shank color of domestic chickens varies from black to blue, green, yellow, or white, which is controlled by the combination of melanin and xanthophylls in dermis and epidermis. Dermal shank pigmentation of chickens is determined by sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin (Id), which is located on the distal end of the long arm of Z chromosome, through controlling dermal melanin pigmentation. Although previous studies have focused on the identification of Id and the linear relationship with barring and recessive white skin, no causal mutations have yet been identified in relation to the mutant dermal pigment inhibiting allele at the Id locus. In this study, we first used the 600K Affymetrix Axiom HD genotyping array, which includes ~580,961 SNP of which 26,642 SNP were on the Z chromosome to perform a genome-wide association study on pure lines of 19 Tibetan hens with dermal pigmentation shank and 21 Tibetan hens with yellow shank to refine the Id location. Association analysis was conducted by the PLINK software using the standard chi-squared test, and then Bonferroni correction was used to adjust multiple testing. The genome-wide study revealed that 3 SNP located at 78.5 to 79.2 Mb on the Z chromosome in the current assembly of chicken genome (galGal4) were significantly associated with dermal shank pigmentation of chickens, but none of them were located in known genes. The interval we refined was partly converged with previous results, suggesting that the Id gene is in or near our refined genome region. However, the genomic context of this region was complex. There were only 15 SNP markers developed by the genotyping array within the interval region, in which only 1 SNP marker passed quality control. Additionally, there were about 5.8-Mb gaps on both sides of the refined interval. The follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNP.

  11. Differential accumulation of polyphenolics in black bean genotypes grown in four environments.

    PubMed

    Marles, M A Susan; Balasubramanian, Parthiba; Bett, Kirstin E

    2010-06-09

    Environmental effects on polyphenolic composition of pigmented seed coat tissue were examined in four black bean genotypes, grown in four locations in Canada. Genotype was the most significant determinant in the phenotypic expression of flavonoid traits across four locations (p < 0.0001). The genotype x environment interaction was not significantly different for anthocyanin or extractable condensed tannin (syn. proanthocyanidin) but was significant for the bound anthocyanidin concentration (p < 0.05). One trace metabolite, (-)-epicatechin, was identified, but no flavonols were detected in the seed coats. Sequestration of anthocyanin in the seed coat was genotype-dependent and predominantly consisted of delphinidin with lesser amounts of petunidin and malvidin. Pigment sequestration in the two integument layers of the seed coat appeared to be mutually exclusive across all genotypes in terms of the pigment chemical character. Tissue-specific accumulation of extractable and bound anthocyanin in the outer integument was observed. The inner integument was devoid of anthocyanin, and the pigment consisted solely of condensed tannin inclusions. The occurrence of condensed tannin together with anthocyanin pigments, whether extractable or bound either by oxidation or by cross-linking, influenced the visual uniformity of seeds of bean cultivars. The co-occurrence of these compounds could have an effect on postharvest appearance during storage, on canning quality, and on the dietary effects of the putative functional food profile in the black bean market class.

  12. Blue foot: a second case of "tattoo blow-out" pigment spread successfully treated with the QS-Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Khetarpal, Shilpi; Molenda, Matthew; Seiger, Eric; Pui, John; Obagi, Suzan

    2010-11-01

    The "tattoo blow-out" phenomenon occurs when tattoo pigments spread outside the border of a tattoo. It is thought to occur when ink is injected too deeply. A healthy 36-year-old female presented to a dermatologist with diffuse spread of tattoo pigment outside the original tattoo that occurred within one day of the placement of a professional tattoo on the dorsum of her foot. The patient was seeking treatment six weeks after the tattoo was placed because she thought the discoloration would improve or resolve on its own, but it worsened. Two punch biopsies were obtained for histology. The biopsy results confirmed granular black pigment consistent with a tattoo in the dermis and subcutaneous fat. The location of pigment was deeper than expected. Due to the success of the QS-Nd:YAG laser in a prior patient, the same treatment was recommended for this patient. The patient received nine laser sessions using the Q-switched laser at 1064 nm, 4 mm, 10 Hz, with gradually increasing energy from 4.5 to 6.0 J/cm2. The pigment outside of the original tattoo borders faded and is barely perceptible. It is important that physicians be made aware of tattoo complications so they can advise patients in regards to the associated risks.

  13. Skin as a living coloring book: how epithelial cells create patterns of pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Lorin; Fu, Wenyu; Chirico, William J; Brissette, Janice L

    2014-11-01

    The pigmentation of mammalian skin and hair develops through the interaction of two basic cell types - pigment donors and recipients. The pigment donors are melanocytes, which produce and distribute melanin through specialized structures. The pigment recipients are epithelial cells, which acquire melanin and put it to use, collectively yielding the pigmentation visible to the eye. This review will focus on the pigment recipients, the historically less understood cell type. These end-users of pigment are now known to exert a specialized control over the patterning of pigmentation, as they identify themselves as melanocyte targets, recruit pigment donors, and stimulate the transfer of melanin. As such, this review will discuss the evidence that the skin is like a coloring book: the pigment recipients create a 'picture,' a blueprint for pigmentation, which is colorless initially but outlines where pigment should be placed. Melanocytes then melanize the recipients and 'color in' the picture.

  14. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation.

  15. Pigment Production by Streptococcus agalactiae in Quasi-Defined Media

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Sampedro, Antonio; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; García-Peña, Maria Luisa; Ruiz-Bravo, Alfonso; Haïdour, Ali

    2001-01-01

    A quasi-defined medium that supports the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae as pigmented colonies has been developed. The medium contains starch, a peptic digest of albumin, amino acids, nucleosides, vitamins, and salts. The presence of free cysteine, which could be replaced with other sulphur-containing compounds and to a lesser degree by reducing agents, was required for pigment formation. PMID:11133484

  16. A green process to prepare chromic oxide green pigment.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Xu, Hong-Bin; Zheng, Shi-Li; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zuo-Hu; Bai, Yu-Lan

    2008-10-01

    A hydrogen reduction and activated sintering process was proposed to prepare chromic oxide green pigment. Through ICP, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV, and CIE-L*a*b* colorimetric analysis, key factors and mechanism that influenced preparation of chromic oxide green pigment were studied. The results revealed that lower hydrogen reduction temperature, suitable addition of Al and Ba, were beneficial to obtaining the high quality chromic oxide green pigment. Typically, when the hydrogen reduction temperature was kept at 450-500 degrees C, physicochemical properties and color performance of the prepared chromic oxide green pigment doped with about 0.1-0.2 wt % Al and 0.2-0.5 wt % Ba conformed to commercial pigment standards. Additionally, characteristics of the green process were discussed. About 90 wt % KOH was reused directly and about 90 wt % Cr(VI) was conversed to Cr(III) directly from potassium chromate to chromic oxide green pigment. Integrating the proprietary green metallurgical process from chromite ore to potassium chromate of this laboratory, more than 99 wt % Cr(VI) could be conversed to Cr(III) compounds and about 99 wt % KOH could be recycled to use. The whole green process, ranging from chromite ore to chromic oxide green pigment, eventually not only provided the possibility for producing the high quality chromic oxide green pigment, but could reach comprehensive utilization of resources, inner recycle of KOH, and zero emission of Cr(VI).

  17. Pigmented mammary paget disease misdiagnosed as malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Soo-Chan; Kim, You Chan; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2014-12-01

    Pigmented mammary Paget disease is a very rare clinicopathologic variant of mammary Paget disease. Diagnosis is often difficult because its clinical and histological features are very similar to those of malignant melanoma. Herein, we report a case of pigmented mammary Paget disease misdiagnosed as malignant melanoma.

  18. Passivation of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Morrison, S. R.; Farley, E. P.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of a matrix of 48 samples consisting of pigments and pigmented paints is described. The results obtained from testing these samples by electron spin resonance and by in situ spectral reflectance measurements in space simulation tests are presented. Conclusions and recommendations for further research are given.

  19. Stabilized pigment and method for producing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Stanley Roy (Inventor); Freund, Thomas (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A chemical species, present in two oxidation states which differ from one another by one equivalent, is added to pigment materials to serve as a recombination center for alternately capturing electrons and holes produced by the pigment materials when they are subjected to ultraviolet light exposure.

  20. Passivation of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Morrison, S. R.; Farley, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Various redox couple surface additives are studied which increase the photostability of coprecipitated zinc orthotitanate pigment. The electron spin resonance technique was used to examine the characteristic photodamage centers. Results indicate that cerium surface redox additive completely passivates the pigment at the surface concentrations studied. Less passivation occurs with the iridium chloride and the iron cyanide redox couples.

  1. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming; Pan, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0-21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L (∗), a (∗), b (∗)) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380-780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L (∗) and a (∗), did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001) with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity.

  2. Optimization and design of pigments for heat-insulating coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhang, Yue

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports that heat insulating property of infrared reflective coatings is obtained through the use of pigments which diffuse near-infrared thermal radiation. Suitable structure and size distribution of pigments would attain maximum diffuse infrared radiation and reduce the pigment volume concentration required. The optimum structure and size range of pigments for reflective infrared coatings are studied by using Kubelka—Munk theory, Mie model and independent scattering approximation. Taking titania particle as the pigment embedded in an inorganic coating, the computational results show that core-shell particles present excellent scattering ability, more so than solid and hollow spherical particles. The optimum radius range of core-shell particles is around 0.3 ~ 1.6 μm. Furthermore, the influence of shell thickness on optical parameters of the coating is also obvious and the optimal thickness of shell is 100-300 nm.

  3. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  4. A melanosomal two-pore sodium channel regulates pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Escobar, Iliana E.; Oancea, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular organelles mediate complex cellular functions that often require ion transport across their membranes. Melanosomes are organelles responsible for the synthesis of the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanin synthesis result in pigmentation defects, visual deficits, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Although genes encoding putative melanosomal ion transporters have been identified as key regulators of melanin synthesis, melanosome ion transport and its contribution to pigmentation remain poorly understood. Here we identify two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) as the first reported melanosomal cation conductance by directly patch-clamping skin and eye melanosomes. TPC2 has been implicated in human pigmentation and melanoma, but the molecular mechanism mediating this function was entirely unknown. We demonstrate that the vesicular signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate PI(3,5)P2 modulates TPC2 activity to control melanosomal membrane potential, pH, and regulate pigmentation. PMID:27231233

  5. Structural and functional characterization of enamel pigmentation in shrews.

    PubMed

    Dumont, M; Tütken, T; Kostka, A; Duarte, M J; Borodin, S

    2014-04-01

    Pigmented tooth enamel occurs in several vertebrate clades, ranging from mammals to fish. Although an iron compound is associated with this orange to red colored pigmentation, its chemical and structural organization within the enamel is unknown. To determine the nature of the iron compound, we investigated heavily pigmented teeth of the northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda using combined characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We found that the pigmentation of the enamel with an iron content of around 8wt% results from a close to amorphous magnetite phase deposited around the nm-sized enamel crystals. Furthermore, the influence of the pigmentation on the enamel hardness was determined by nanoindentation measurements. Finally, the biomechanical function and biological context are discussed in light of the obtained results.

  6. NASA Now: Black Holes

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...

  7. Black hole hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  8. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... Found Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves. Symptoms ...

  9. Efficient degradation of tannic acid by black Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Van Diepeningen, Anne D; Debets, Alfons J M; Varga, Janos; van der Gaag, Marijn; Swart, Klaas; Hoekstra, Rolf F

    2004-08-01

    A set of aspergillus strains from culture collections and wild-type black aspergilli isolated on non-selective media were used to validate the use of media with 20% tannic acid for exclusive and complete selection of the black aspergilli. The 20% tannic acid medium proved useful for both quantitative and qualitative selection of all different black aspergilli, including all recognized species: A. carbonarius, A. japonicus, A. aculeatus, A foetidus, A. heteromorphus, A. niger, A. tubingensis and A. brasiliensis haplotypes. Even higher concentrations of tannic acid can be utilized by the black aspergilli suggesting a very efficient tannic acid-degrading system. Colour mutants show that the characteristic ability to grow on high tannic acid concentrations is not causally linked to the other typical feature of these aspergilli, i.e. the formation of brown-black pigments. Sequence analysis of the A. niger genome using the A. oryzae tannase gene yielded eleven tannase-like genes, far more than in related species. Therefore, a unique ecological niche in the degradation of tannic acid and connected nitrogen release seems to be reserved for these black-spored cosmopolitans.

  10. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  11. Relation Between Changes in Pigments' Spectral Properties and Structural Distortions of Pigment Protein Complexes (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoitchkova, Katerina; Andreeva, Atanaska; Busheva, Mira

    2009-04-01

    Scientists continue to investigate photosynthesis-nature's process to efficiently regulate and store energy. To explore the mechanisms of regulation we used fluorescence, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and biochemical preparative methods. For detailed analysis we applied decomposition of the low temperature steady-state fluorescence spectra. This allowed us to estimate the emission of distinct pigment protein complexes (PPC) and evaluate the fluorescence of various aggregation forms of the main light harvesting complex (LHCII), which plays a major role in the studied mechanisms. Resonance Raman spectroscopy revealed with precision the relation between changes in pigments' spectral properties and structural distortions of PPC. It was shown that aggregation of LHCII led to out-of-plane distortion, not only of neoxanthin, but also of lutein molecules. This was enhanced when the complex was embedded in thylakoid membranes (TM). It was suggested that lutein molecules are more closely related to the process of aggregation of LHCII in TM than neoxanthin.

  12. The other pigment cell: specification and development of the pigmented epithelium of the vertebrate eye

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Kapil; Nguyen, Minh-Thanh T.; Skuntz, Susan; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Arnheiter, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    Summary Vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are derived from the multipotent optic neuroepithelium, develop in close proximity to the retina, and are indispensible for eye organogenesis and vision. Recent advances in our understanding of RPE development provide evidence for how critical signaling factors operating in dorso-ventral and distal-proximal gradients interact with key transcription factors to specify three distinct domains in the budding optic neuroepithelium: the distal future retina, the proximal future optic stalk/optic nerve, and the dorsal future RPE. Concomitantly with domain specification, the eye primordium progresses from a vesicle to a cup, RPE pigmentation extends towards the ventral side, and the future ciliary body and iris form from the margin zone between RPE and retina. While much has been learned about the molecular networks controlling RPE cell specification, key questions concerning the cell proliferative parameters in RPE and the subsequent morphogenetic events still need to be addressed in greater detail. PMID:16965267

  13. Accelerating black diholes and static black dirings

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, Edward

    2006-01-15

    We show how a recently discovered black-ring solution with a rotating 2-sphere can be turned into two new solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The first is a four-dimensional solution describing a pair of oppositely charged, extremal black holes--known as a black dihole--undergoing uniform acceleration. The second is a five-dimensional solution describing a pair of concentric, static extremal black rings carrying opposite dipole charges--a so-called black diring. The properties of both solutions, which turn out to be formally very similar, are analyzed in detail. We also present, in an appendix, an accelerating version of the Zipoy-Voorhees solution in four-dimensional Einstein gravity.

  14. Preferential interactions in pigmented, polymer blends - C.I. Pigment Blue 15:4 and C.I. Pigment Red 122 - as used in a poly(carbonate)-poly(butylene terephthalate) polymer blend.

    PubMed

    Fagelman, K E; Guthrie, J T

    2005-11-18

    Some important characteristics of selected pigments have been evaluated, using the inverse gas chromatography (IGC) technique, that indicate the occurrence of preferential interactions in pigmented polymer blends. Attention has been given to copper phthalocyanine pigments and to quinacridone pigments incorporated in polycarbonate-poly(butylene terephthalate) blends. Selected supporting techniques were used to provide supplementary information concerning the pigments of interest, C.I. Pigment Blue 15:4 and C.I. Pigment Red 122. For C.I. Pigment Red 122 and for C.I. Pigment Blue, the dispersive component of the surface free energy decreases as the temperature increases, indicating the relative ease with which the molecules can be removed from the surface.

  15. The influence of abdominal pigmentation on desiccation and ultraviolet resistance in two species of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Matute, Daniel R; Harris, Alexandra

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea are sister species that differ in their levels of abdominal pigmentation; D. yakuba shows heavily pigmented posterior abdominal segments in both sexes, whereas D. santomea lacks dark pigment anywhere on its body. Using naturally collected lines, we demonstrate the existence of altitudinal variation in abdominal pigmentation in D. yakuba but not in D. santomea. We use the variation in pigmentation within D. yakuba and two body-color mutants in D. yakuba to elucidate selective advantage of differences in pigmentation. Our results indicate that although differences in abdominal pigmentation have no effect on desiccation resistance, lighter pigmentation confers ultraviolet radiation resistance in this pair of species.

  16. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shikha; Thakur, Binod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of an otherwise healthy 10-year-old girl who presented with asymptomatic brown macules over the trunk and proximal extremities, of three months’ duration. The cutaneous examination revealed multiple, dark brown, discrete, round to oval macules and a few mildly elevated lesions over the trunk and proximal limbs. The individual lesion was 1-3 cm in diameter and a few showed velvety appearance over the surface. Darier's sign was negative. The histopathological study from the velvety lesion showed acanthosis, papillomatosis and increased melanin in the basal layer. The upper dermis showed sparse perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes without any dermal melanophages. It fulfilled the criteria for idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with additional histological finding of papillomatosis. PMID:23130237

  17. Radiative Cooling With Pigmented Polyethylene Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Eriksson, Tord S.

    1989-03-01

    Polyethylene foils containing a nonabsorbing pigment can be suitable for radiative cooling because of their high reflectance of solar radiation combined with a high transmittance in the atmospheric window region in the thermal infrared. We have studied the optical properties in the wavelength range 0.3-50 μm of extruded polyethylene foils containing various amounts of 0.23 μm diameter Ti02 particles. It appears that the foils can prevent heating of an underlying material, even when directly illuminated by the sun. The total transmittance and reflectance of the Ti02-polyethylene foils were compared with multiple scattering calculations. Lorenz-Mie theory was used to model the scattering and absorption of a single TiO2 sphere. The single scattering parameters were then introduced into the four flux theory, by which the transmittance and reflectance were calculated. We find a satisfactory agreement between theory and experiments in most cases.

  18. Snake velvet black: Hierarchical micro- and nanostructure enhances dark colouration in Bitis rhinoceros

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, Marlene; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Westhoff, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The West African Gaboon viper (Bitis rhinoceros) is a master of camouflage due to its colouration pattern. Its skin is geometrically patterned and features black spots that purport an exceptional spatial depth due to their velvety surface texture. Our study shades light on micromorphology, optical characteristics and principles behind such a velvet black appearance. We revealed a unique hierarchical pattern of leaf-like microstructures striated with nanoridges on the snake scales that coincides with the distribution of black colouration. Velvet black sites demonstrate four times lower reflectance and higher absorbance than other scales in the UV – near IR spectral range. The combination of surface structures impeding reflectance and absorbing dark pigments, deposited in the skin material, provides reflecting less than 11% of the light reflected by a polytetrafluoroethylene diffuse reflectance standard in any direction. A view-angle independent black structural colour in snakes is reported here for the first time. PMID:23677278

  19. Snake velvet black: Hierarchical micro- and nanostructure enhances dark colouration in Bitis rhinoceros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinner, Marlene; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Westhoff, Guido

    2013-05-01

    The West African Gaboon viper (Bitis rhinoceros) is a master of camouflage due to its colouration pattern. Its skin is geometrically patterned and features black spots that purport an exceptional spatial depth due to their velvety surface texture. Our study shades light on micromorphology, optical characteristics and principles behind such a velvet black appearance. We revealed a unique hierarchical pattern of leaf-like microstructures striated with nanoridges on the snake scales that coincides with the distribution of black colouration. Velvet black sites demonstrate four times lower reflectance and higher absorbance than other scales in the UV - near IR spectral range. The combination of surface structures impeding reflectance and absorbing dark pigments, deposited in the skin material, provides reflecting less than 11% of the light reflected by a polytetrafluoroethylene diffuse reflectance standard in any direction. A view-angle independent black structural colour in snakes is reported here for the first time.

  20. Clinicoepidemiological study of pigmented purpuric dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Lata; Gupta, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD) are a group of vascular disorders with varied manifestations which cause concern and are resistant to treatment. The literature is still lacking in clinicoepidemiological studies. Aim: To study the epidemiology, etiological, host and environmental factors, clinical manifestations, its variations, and the type prevalent in this part of the world. Materials and Methods: All cases of PPD were selected for the study from Skin and Venereal Disease, Out Patient Department between January 2008 and June 2009. Their history, examination, hematological investigations, and, in a few, histopathology findings were also recorded and data obtained were evaluated statistically. Results: There were 100 cases of PPD of total 55 323 patients (0.18%). There were 79 males and 21 females between 11 and 66 years. They were working as police men, security guards, barber, chemist, teachers, students, farmers, businessmen, and housewives. In a majority, there was a history of prolonged standing in day-to-day work. Purpuric, brownish pigmented, lichenoid or atrophic lesions were seen depending upon the type of PPD on lower parts of one or both lower limbs. Blood investigations were normal. Schamberg's disease was seen in ninety five, Lichen aureus in three, lichenoid dermatosis and Majocchi's disease in one case each. Discussion: Three clinical types of PPD were diagnosed which may represent different features of the same disease. Cell-mediated immunity, immune complexes, capillary fragility, gravitational forces, venous hypertension, focal infection, clothing, contact allergy to dyes, and drug intake have been incriminating factors in the past. Patient's occupation and environmental factors may also be considered contributory in precipitating the disease. Conclusions: The study revealed the problem of PPD in this geographical area, its magnitude, clinical presentation, the type prevalent, and possible aggravating factors to be kept in mind

  1. High biological variability of plastids, photosynthetic pigments and pigment forms of leaf primordia in buds.

    PubMed

    Solymosi, Katalin; Morandi, Dominique; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla; Schoefs, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    To study the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus in nature, the carotenoid and chlorophyllous pigment compositions of differently developed leaf primordia in closed and opening buds of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as well as in closed buds of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima P. Mill.) were analyzed with HPLC. The native organization of the chlorophyllous pigments was studied using 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy, and plastid ultrastructure was investigated with electron microscopy. Complete etiolation, i.e., accumulation of protochlorophyllide, and absence of chlorophylls occurred in the innermost leaf primordia of common ash buds. The other leaf primordia were partially etiolated in the buds and contained protochlorophyllide (0.5-1 μg g(-1) fresh mass), chlorophyllides (0.2-27 μg g(-1) fresh mass) and chlorophylls (0.9-643 μg g(-1) fresh mass). Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies and either regular or only low grana were found in leaves having high or low amounts of chlorophyll a and b, respectively. After bud break, etioplast-chloroplast conversion proceeded and the pigment contents increased in the leaves, similarly to the greening processes observed in illuminated etiolated seedlings under laboratory conditions. The pigment contents and the ratio of the different spectral forms had a high biological variability that could be attributed to (i) various light conditions due to light filtering in the buds resulting in differently etiolated leaf primordia, (ii) to differences in the light-exposed and inner regions of the same primordia in opening buds due to various leaf folding, and (iii) to tissue-specific slight variations of plastid ultrastructure.

  2. Black Veterans Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, James; Pearson, Michael

    1970-01-01

    This is a survey study of black veterans' attitudes toward white authorities, the "law and order controversy, racial separatism, violence, and black identification. Results of the survey are held to suggest that alienation will move a substantial proportion of these veterans into the black radical movement. (KG)

  3. Black Studies Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Russell L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the proposition that the black studies movement is but a continuing aspect of our general battle for survival and liberation in a fluctuatingly hostile environment, and that a part of what is seen today in the black studies movement is but a fluctuation in a fight and an expression of black collective awareness dating back to the…

  4. The Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Juanita M.

    The Black woman has been the transmitter of culture in the black community. Two of the important roles of African women were perpetuated during slavery and continue until today. They are her role in economic endeavor and her close bond with her children. The woman in African society was additionally politically significant. The black woman has…

  5. Asymmetric Black Diholes

    SciTech Connect

    Manko, V. S.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J.; Ruiz, E.

    2009-05-01

    In the present paper we enlarge the list of black dihole spacetimes by introducing the notion of asymmetric black diholes which describe configurations composed of two static charged black holes endowed with unequal masses and equal but opposite charges. The asymmetric dihole solutions are considered both in the Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories.

  6. Goniochromatic and sparkle properties of effect pigmented samples in multidimensional configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höpe, Andreas; Hauer, Kai-Olaf; Teichert, Sven; Hünerhoff, Dirk; Strothkämper, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The effects of goniochromatism and sparkle are gaining more and more interest for surface refinement applications driven by demanding requirements from such different branches as automotive, cosmetics, printing and packaging industry. The common background and intention in all of these implementations is improvement of the visual appearance of the related commercial products. Goniochromatic materials show strong angular-dependent reflection characteristics and hence a color impression depending on the effective spatial arrangement of illumination and observation relative to the surface of the artifact. Sparkle is a texture related effect giving a surface which is irradiated directionally, like direct sun light, a bright glittering effect, similar to twinkling stars at the night sky. The prototype for this new effect is the Xirallic® pigment of MERCK KGaA, Germany. The same pigment shows in diffuse irradiation, like on a cloudy day, a different visual effect called graininess (coarseness) which appears as a granular structure of the surface. Both effects were studied on especially manufactured samples of a dilution series in pigment concentration and a tonality series with carbon black. The experiments were carried out with the robot-based gonioreflectometer and integrating sphere facilities at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in multidimensional configurations of directional and diffuse irradiation. The research is part of the European Metrology Research Program (EMRP), which is a metrology-focused program of coordinated Research & Development (R&D) funded by the European Commission and participating countries within the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET). More information and updated news concerning the project can be found on the xD-Reflect website http://www.xdreflect.eu/.

  7. Lasers in tattoo and pigmentation control: role of the PicoSure® laser system

    PubMed Central

    Torbeck, Richard; Bankowski, Richard; Henize, Sarah; Saedi, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives The use of picosecond lasers to remove tattoos has greatly improved due to the long-standing outcomes of nanosecond lasers, both clinically and histologically. The first aesthetic picosecond laser available for this use was the PicoSure® laser system (755/532 nm). Now that a vast amount of research on its use has been conducted, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature to validate the continued application of the PicoSure® laser system for tattoo removal. Study design and methods A PubMed search was conducted using the term “picosecond” combined with “laser”, “dermatology”, and “laser tattoo removal”. Results A total of 13 articles were identified, and ten of these met the inclusion criteria for this review. The majority of studies showed that picosecond lasers are an effective and safe treatment mode for the removal of tattoo pigments. Several studies also indicated potential novel applications of picosecond lasers in the removal of various tattoo pigments (eg, black, red, and yellow). Adverse effects were generally mild, such as transient hypopigmentation or blister formation, and were rarely more serious, such as scarring and/or textural change. Conclusion Advancements in laser technologies and their application in cutaneous medicine have revolutionized the field of laser surgery. Computational modeling provides evidence that the optimal pulse durations for tattoo ink removal are in the picosecond domain. It is recommended that the PicoSure® laser system continue to be used for safe and effective tattoo removal, including for red and yellow pigments. PMID:27194919

  8. Raman spectroscopic monitoring of the growth of pigmented and non-pigmented mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Stephan; Stanca, Andrei Sebastian; Helbig, Jonathan; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    Raman microspectroscopy has increased in popularity in the field of microbiology because it allows a spectral fingerprinting of bacterial pathogens at an unrivaled speed, which is important for the early treatment of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. An indispensable prerequisite for the success of this method is a profound knowledge, how the spectral profiles depend on the age of the bacteria. We therefore followed the growth of two rapidly growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis relatives, the pigmented Mycobacterium aurum, and the non-pigmented Mycobacterium smegmatis, by means of Raman microspectroscopy. Both species showed remarkable temporal changes in the single-bacteria Raman spectra: In the signatures of M. aurum, pigment-associated Raman signals could be detected not until 72 h of growth and also remained highly variable thereafter. The Raman spectra of M. smegmatis exhibited lipid signals presumably arising from mycolic acids, which are a hallmark feature of mycobacteria, but only after the bacteria reached the late stationary growth phase (>48 h). A principal component analysis thus classified the Raman spectra according to the cultivation age. In summary, these findings have to be reckoned with in future studies dealing with the identification of mycobacteria via Raman microspectroscopy. Graphical abstract Changes in the chemical composition of bacterial cells over growth time may influence the results of Raman spectroscopic studies of bacteria.

  9. Determination of pork spoilage by colorimetric gas sensor array based on natural pigments.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-wei; Zou, Xiao-bo; Shi, Ji-yong; Guo, Yanin; Zhao, Jie-wen; Zhang, Jianchun; Hao, Limin

    2014-02-15

    A new colorimetric gas-sensor array based on four natural pigments, that were extracted from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), red radish (Raphanus sativus L.), winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), and black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), was developed for pork freshness evaluation. A colour change profile for each sample was obtained by differentiating the images of the sensor array before and after exposure to the odour of sample. The total viable count (TVC) per gram of pork was obtained by classical microbiological plating methods, and the biogenic amines were measured by HPLC. Biogenic amine index (BAI) for the determination of meat freshness was developed from the sum of putrescine and cadaverine. The colour change profiles were analysed using principal component analysis and correlated with conventional methods (BAI, TVC). A partial least squares (PLS) prediction model was obtained with r=0.854 and 0.933 for BAI and TVC, respectively.

  10. Deafness prevalence and pigmentation and gender associations in dog breeds at risk.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M

    2004-01-01

    Hearing function was tested in dogs from breeds at risk for pigment-associated congenital sensorineural deafness - Dalmatian, English setter (ES), English cocker spaniel (ECS), bull terrier (BT), Australian cattle dog (ACD), whippet, Catahoula leopard dog, and Jack Russell terrier. Deafness prevalence was highest in Dalmatians and lowest in ECS. Phenotype correlation studies were performed in breeds with >100 brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) tested subjects. No gender differences were observed. No differences were seen between black- and liver-spotted Dalmatians, among the ES roan colour varieties, among the ECS parti varieties, or among the ACD colour varieties. Blue eyes were positively associated and patches were negatively associated with deafness in the Dalmatian. Blue eyes were also associated with deafness in the ES and ECS. White BT were more likely than coloured BT to be deaf. Having one or more parent's ear deaf was positively associated with deafness in Dalmatians, ES, and ECS.

  11. Comparative short-term inhalation toxicity of five organic diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments and two inorganic iron-oxide-based pigments

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Thomas; Ma-Hock, Lan; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Rey Moreno, Maria; Neubauer, Nicole; Wohlleben, Wendel; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; Veith, Ulrich; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPP) are a relatively new class of organic high-performance pigments. The present inhalation and particle characterization studies were performed to compare the effects of five DPP-based pigments (coarse and fine Pigment Red 254, coarse and fine meta-chloro DPP isomer and one form of mixed chlorinated DPP isomers) and compare it to coarse and fine inorganic Pigment Red 101. Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 h/day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 30 mg/m3 as high dose for all compounds and selected based occupational exposure limits for respirable nuisance dust. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after 3-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers and coarse meta-chloro DPP isomer caused marginal changes in BALF, consisting of slight increases of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and in case of coarse meta-chloro DPP increased MCP-1 and osteopontin levels. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers, Pigment Red 254, and meta-chloro DPP caused pigment deposits and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, slight hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the bronchioles and alveolar ducts, but without evidence of inflammation. In contrast, only pigment deposition and pigment phagocytosis were observed after exposure to Pigment Red 101. All pigments were tolerated well and caused only marginal effects in BALF or no effects at all. Only minor effects were seen on the lung by microscopic examination. There was no evidence of systemic inflammation based on acute-phase protein levels in blood. PMID:27387137

  12. Rapamycin treatment causes developmental delay, pigmentation defects, and gastrointestinal malformation on Xenopus embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, Yuki; Ohata, Yoshihisa; Mori, Shoko; Matsukawa, Shinya; Michiue, Tatsuo; Asashima, Makoto; Kuroda, Hiroki

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Does famous anti-aging drug rapamycin work from the beginning of life? The answer is yes. {yields} This study shows that developmental speed of frog embryo was dose-dependently decreased by rapamycin treatment. {yields} In additions, morphogenetic effects such as less pigmentations and gut malformation are occurred by rapamycin. -- Abstract: Rapamycin is a drug working as an inhibitor of the TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and influences various life phenomena such as cell growth, proliferation, and life span extension in eukaryote. However, the extent to which rapamycin controls early developmental events of amphibians remains to be understood. Here we report an examination of rapamycin effects during Xenopus early development, followed by a confirmation of suppression of TOR downstream kinase S6K by rapamycin treatment. First, we found that developmental speed was declined in dose-dependent manner of rapamycin. Second, black pigment spots located at dorsal and lateral skin in tadpoles were reduced by rapamycin treatment. Moreover, in tadpole stages severe gastrointestinal malformations were observed in rapamycin-treated embryos. Taken together with these results, we conclude that treatment of the drug rapamycin causes enormous influences on early developmental period.

  13. Ancient origins and multiple appearances of carotenoid-pigmented feathers in birds.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; McGraw, Kevin J; Butler, Michael W; Carrano, Matthew T; Madden, Odile; James, Helen F

    2014-08-07

    The broad palette of feather colours displayed by birds serves diverse biological functions, including communication and camouflage. Fossil feathers provide evidence that some avian colours, like black and brown melanins, have existed for at least 160 million years (Myr), but no traces of bright carotenoid pigments in ancient feathers have been reported. Insight into the evolutionary history of plumage carotenoids may instead be gained from living species. We visually surveyed modern birds for carotenoid-consistent plumage colours (present in 2956 of 9993 species). We then used high-performance liquid chromatography and Raman spectroscopy to chemically assess the family-level distribution of plumage carotenoids, confirming their presence in 95 of 236 extant bird families (only 36 family-level occurrences had been confirmed previously). Using our data for all modern birds, we modelled the evolutionary history of carotenoid-consistent plumage colours on recent supertrees. Results support multiple independent origins of carotenoid plumage pigmentation in 13 orders, including six orders without previous reports of plumage carotenoids. Based on time calibrations from the supertree, the number of avian families displaying plumage carotenoids increased throughout the Cenozoic, and most plumage carotenoid originations occurred after the Miocene Epoch (23 Myr). The earliest origination of plumage carotenoids was reconstructed within Passeriformes, during the Palaeocene Epoch (66-56 Myr), and not at the base of crown-lineage birds.

  14. Ancient origins and multiple appearances of carotenoid-pigmented feathers in birds

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Daniel B.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Butler, Michael W.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Madden, Odile; James, Helen F.

    2014-01-01

    The broad palette of feather colours displayed by birds serves diverse biological functions, including communication and camouflage. Fossil feathers provide evidence that some avian colours, like black and brown melanins, have existed for at least 160 million years (Myr), but no traces of bright carotenoid pigments in ancient feathers have been reported. Insight into the evolutionary history of plumage carotenoids may instead be gained from living species. We visually surveyed modern birds for carotenoid-consistent plumage colours (present in 2956 of 9993 species). We then used high-performance liquid chromatography and Raman spectroscopy to chemically assess the family-level distribution of plumage carotenoids, confirming their presence in 95 of 236 extant bird families (only 36 family-level occurrences had been confirmed previously). Using our data for all modern birds, we modelled the evolutionary history of carotenoid-consistent plumage colours on recent supertrees. Results support multiple independent origins of carotenoid plumage pigmentation in 13 orders, including six orders without previous reports of plumage carotenoids. Based on time calibrations from the supertree, the number of avian families displaying plumage carotenoids increased throughout the Cenozoic, and most plumage carotenoid originations occurred after the Miocene Epoch (23 Myr). The earliest origination of plumage carotenoids was reconstructed within Passeriformes, during the Palaeocene Epoch (66–56 Myr), and not at the base of crown-lineage birds. PMID:24966316

  15. X-ray microfluorescence with synchrotron radiation applied in the analysis of pigments from ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calza, C.; Anjos, M. J.; Mendonça de Souza, S. M. F.; Brancaglion, A., Jr.; Lopes, R. T.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, X-ray microfluorescence with the synchrotron radiation technique was applied in the analysis of pigments found in decorative paintings in the sarcophagus of an Egyptian mummy. This female mummy, from the Roman Period, which was embalmed with the arms and legs swathed separately is considered one of the most important pieces of the Egyptian Collection from the National Museum (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The measurements were performed at the XRF beamline D09B of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), using the white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV at 5.9 keV. The possible pigments found in the samples were: Egyptian blue, Egyptian green frit, green earth, verdigris, malachite, ochre, realgar, chalk, gypsum, bone white, ivory black and magnetite. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the results in order to verify if the samples belong to the same period of a linen wrapping fragment, whose provenance was well established.

  16. Black Hole Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  17. LIBS identification of pigments from Aula Leopoldina vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, R.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Marczak, J.; Sarzynski, A.

    2009-07-01

    Aula Leopoldina is the most representative, baroque hall in Wroclaw University. In 2008, LIBS measurements of paintings layers of Aula vault were done. LIBS spectra permitted identification of mineral pigments used for specific colors of painting layers. This identification could not be unambiguous in each case since simultaneous occurrence of elements that could be components of different pigments of the same color was observed in some samples. For example, in some red samples the presence of aluminum and iron was stated, and hence red ochre or Mars red could be used as a pigment. In other samples the cinnabar can be additionally responsible for red color. Similar problems were observed in case of blue pigments, where existence of copper may show that azurite was used, but the presence of aluminum, sodium, silicon and iron can point to application of ultramarine, Egyptian or Prussian blues. The greatest difficulties occurred during identification of white pigments. Because of presence of barium, zinc, lead and titanium, the potential pigments might be lithopone, barite, zinc white, lead white or titanium white. Final choice of the pigment is determined by the time of last renovation and this points out that the zinc white was used.

  18. Antimycobacterial activity in vitro of pigments isolated from Antarctic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mojib, Nazia; Philpott, Rachel; Huang, Jonathan P; Niederweis, Michael; Bej, Asim K

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we describe the antimycobacterial activity of two pigments, violacein, a purple violet pigment from Janthinobacterium sp. Ant5-2 (J-PVP), and flexirubin, a yellow-orange pigment from Flavobacterium sp. Ant342 (F-YOP). These pigments were isolated from bacterial strains found in the land-locked freshwater lakes of Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these pigments for avirulent and virulent mycobacteria were determined by the microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) and Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA). Results indicated that the MICs of J-PVP and F-YOP were 8.6 and 3.6 μg/ml for avirulent Mycobacterium smegmatis mc²155; 5 and 2.6 μg/ml for avirulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis mc²6230; and 34.4 and 10.8 μg/ml for virulent M. tuberculosis H₃₇Rv, respectively. J-PVP exhibited a ~15 times lower MIC for Mycobacterium sp. than previously reported for violacein pigment from Chromobacterium violaceum, while the antimycobacterial effect of F-YOP remains undocumented. Our results indicate these pigments isolated from Antarctic bacteria might be valuable lead compounds for new antimycobacterial drugs used for chemotherapy of tuberculosis.

  19. Heart pigmentation in the gray bichir, Polypterus senegalus (Actinopterygii: Polypteriformes).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Moya, I; Torres-Prioris, A; Sans-Coma, V; Fernández, B; Durán, A C

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of pigment cells in the heart is well documented in amphibians, birds and mammals. By contrast, information on heart pigmentation in fish is extremely sparse. The aim is to report the presence of pigment cells over the entire surface of the heart in the gray bichir, Polypterus senegalus. The sample consisted of 12 hearts, which, after gross anatomical examination, were studied using histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques for light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The pigment cells were located in the subepicardium, showing a regular distribution pattern across the whole heart, except for the anterior end of the outflow tract, where the pigmentation was much more intense. The cells contained dark, ovoid-shaped organelles which was consistent with a melanosome cell identity. As in other vertebrates, the physiological role of the pigment cells in the heart of the gray bichir is unknown. The absence of such cells in hearts of other polypteriforms suggests that cells containing melanin are not essential for normal fish heart function. Basing on literature data concerning tetrapods, it can be inferred that the pigment cells of the heart of the gray bichir derive from the neural crest. If this were true, our findings would provide the first evidence for the presence of neural crest-derived cells in the subepicardium of adult hearts of early actinopterygians.

  20. Networks and pathways in pigmentation, health, and disease.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Laura L; Loftus, Stacie K; Pavan, William J

    2009-01-01

    Extensive studies of the biology of the pigment-producing cell (melanocyte) have resulted in a wealth of knowledge regarding the genetics and developmental mechanisms governing skin and hair pigmentation. The ease of identification of altered pigment phenotypes, particularly in mouse coat color mutants, facilitated early use of the pigmentary system in mammalian genetics and development. In addition to the large collection of developmental genetics data, melanocytes are of interest because their malignancy results in melanoma, a highly aggressive and frequently fatal cancer that is increasing in Caucasian populations worldwide. The genetic programs regulating melanocyte development, function, and malignancy are highly complex and only partially understood. Current research in melanocyte development and pigmentation is revealing new genes important in these processes and additional functions for previously known individual components. A detailed understanding of all the components involved in melanocyte development and function, including interactions with neighboring cells and response to environmental stimuli, will be necessary to fully comprehend this complex system. The inherent characteristics of pigmentation biology as well as the resources available to researchers in the pigment cell community make melanocytes an ideal cell type for analysis using systems biology approaches. In this review, the study of melanocyte development and pigmentation is considered as a candidate for systems biology-based analyses.

  1. Genetic analyses of visual pigments of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, S; Blow, N S; Yokoyama, S

    1999-01-01

    We isolated five classes of retinal opsin genes rh1(Cl), rh2(Cl), sws1(Cl), sws2(Cl), and lws(Cl) from the pigeon; these encode RH1(Cl), RH2(Cl), SWS1(Cl), SWS2(Cl), and LWS(Cl) opsins, respectively. Upon binding to 11-cis-retinal, these opsins regenerate the corresponding photosensitive molecules, visual pigments. The absorbance spectra of visual pigments have a broad bell shape with the peak, being called lambdamax. Previously, the SWS1(Cl) opsin cDNA was isolated from the pigeon retinal RNA, expressed in cultured COS1 cells, reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal, and the lambdamax of the resulting SWS1(Cl) pigment was shown to be 393 nm. In this article, using the same methods, the lambdamax values of RH1(Cl), RH2(Cl), SWS2(Cl), and LWS(Cl) pigments were determined to be 502, 503, 448, and 559 nm, respectively. The pigeon is also known for its UV vision, detecting light at 320-380 nm. Being the only pigments that absorb light below 400 nm, the SWS1(Cl) pigments must mediate its UV vision. We also determined that a nonretinal P(Cl) pigment in the pineal gland of the pigeon has a lambdamax value at 481 nm. PMID:10581289

  2. IMAGES OF BLACK AMERICANS

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.; Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Russell, Ann Marie; Williams, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    Images of Black Americans are becoming remarkably diverse, enabling Barack Obama to defy simple-minded stereotypes and succeed. Understood through the Stereotype Content Model’s demonstrably fundamental trait dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, images of Black Americans show three relevant patterns. Stereotyping by omission allows non-Blacks to accentuate the positive, excluding any lingering negativity but implying it by its absence; specifically, describing Black Americans as gregarious and passionate suggests warmth but ignores competence and implies its lack. Obama’s credentials prevented him from being cast as incompetent, though the experience debate continued. His legendary calm and passionate charisma saved him on the warmth dimension. Social class subtypes for Black Americans differentiate dramatically between low-income Blacks and Black professionals, among both non-Black and Black samples. Obama clearly fit the moderately warm, highly competent Black-professional subtype. Finally, the campaign’s events (and nonevents) allowed voter habituation to overcome non-Blacks’ automatic emotional vigilance to Black Americans. PMID:24235974

  3. Characterizing pigments with hyperspectral imaging variable false-color composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayem-Ghez, Anita; Ravaud, Elisabeth; Boust, Clotilde; Bastian, Gilles; Menu, Michel; Brodie-Linder, Nancy

    2015-11-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has been used for pigment characterization on paintings for the last 10 years. It is a noninvasive technique, which mixes the power of spectrophotometry and that of imaging technologies. We have access to a visible and near-infrared hyperspectral camera, ranging from 400 to 1000 nm in 80-160 spectral bands. In order to treat the large amount of data that this imaging technique generates, one can use statistical tools such as principal component analysis (PCA). To conduct the characterization of pigments, researchers mostly use PCA, convex geometry algorithms and the comparison of resulting clusters to database spectra with a specific tolerance (like the Spectral Angle Mapper tool on the dedicated software ENVI). Our approach originates from false-color photography and aims at providing a simple tool to identify pigments thanks to imaging spectroscopy. It can be considered as a quick first analysis to see the principal pigments of a painting, before using a more complete multivariate statistical tool. We study pigment spectra, for each kind of hue (blue, green, red and yellow) to identify the wavelength maximizing spectral differences. The case of red pigments is most interesting because our methodology can discriminate the red pigments very well—even red lakes, which are always difficult to identify. As for the yellow and blue categories, it represents a good progress of IRFC photography for pigment discrimination. We apply our methodology to study the pigments on a painting by Eustache Le Sueur, a French painter of the seventeenth century. We compare the results to other noninvasive analysis like X-ray fluorescence and optical microscopy. Finally, we draw conclusions about the advantages and limits of the variable false-color image method using hyperspectral imaging.

  4. Kinetics of thermal activation of an ultraviolet cone pigment.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Victoria; Sekharan, Sivakumar; Liu, Jian; Guo, Ying; Batista, Victor S; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2015-01-14

    Visual pigments can be thermally activated via isomerization of the retinyl chromophore and hydrolysis of the Schiff base (SB) through which the retinyl chromophore is bound to the opsin protein. Here, we present the first combined experimental and theoretical study of the thermal activation of a Siberian hamster ultraviolet (SHUV) pigment. We measured the rates of thermal isomerization and hydrolysis in the SHUV pigment and bovine rhodopsin. We found that these rates were significantly faster in the UV pigment than in rhodopsin due to the difference in the structural and electrostatic effects surrounding the unprotonated Schiff base (USB) retinyl chromophore in the UV pigment. Theoretical (DFT-QM/MM) calculations of the cis-trans thermal isomerization revealed a barrier of ∼23 kcal/mol for the USB retinyl chromophore in SHUV compared to ∼40 kcal/mol for protonated Schiff base (PSB) chromophore in rhodopsin. The lower barrier for thermal isomerization in the SHUV pigment is attributed to the (i) lessening of the steric restraints near the β-ionone ring and SB ends of the chromophore, (ii) displacement of the transmembrane helix 6 (TM6) away from the binding pocket toward TM5 due to absence of the salt bridge between the USB and the protonated E113 residue, and (iii) change in orientation of the hydrogen-bonding networks (HBNs) in the extracellular loop 2 (EII). The results in comparing thermal stability of UV cone pigment and rhodopsin provide insight into molecular evolution of vertebrate visual pigments in achieving low discrete dark noise and high photosensitivity in rod pigments for dim-light vision.

  5. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  6. The extraction of pigments from fresh Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liqun; Li, Pengcheng; Fan, Shoujin

    2008-05-01

    The pigments in Laminaria japonica was extracted with six organic solvents and analyzed in spectroscopy analysis. The extractions conditions were screened by an orthogonal test and the quantity of extracted pigments was determined spectroscopically. The results show that: (1) among the six organic solvents, acetone was the most effective one for the extraction; (2) the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of S/M (solvent volume/ material weight) was 30 ml/g; fresh seaweed was extracted 2 times in 2 h; (3) the average total content of pigments was 1.85 mg/g (calculated with dry L. japonica).

  7. Mineral resource of the month: iron oxide pigments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses iron oxide pigments, which have been used as colorants since human began painting as they resist color change due to sunlight exposure, have good chemical resistance and are stable under normal ambient conditions. Cyprus, Italy and Spain are among the countries that are known for the production of iron oxide pigments. Granular forms of iron oxides and nano-sized materials are cited as developments in the synthetic iron oxide pigment industry which are being used in computer disk drives and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yueling; Gu, Zhaohui; Hao, Lina; Du, Juan; Yang, Qian; Li, Suping; Wang, Liying; Gong, Shilei

    2014-07-15

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite.

  9. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yueling; Gu, Zhaohui; Hao, Lina; Du, Juan; Yang, Qian; Li, Suping; Wang, Liying; Gong, Shilei

    2014-01-01

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite. PMID:25221599

  10. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  11. Passivation of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, E. P.; Sancier, K. M.; Morrison, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    Five powders were received for plasma calcining during this report period. The particle size using a fluid energy mill, and obtained pigments that could be plasma calcined. Optimum results are obtained in the plasma calcining of zinc orthotitanate when finely dispersed particles are subjected to a calculated plasma temperature of 1670 C. Increasing the plasma calcining time by using multiple passes through the plasma stabilized the pigment to vacuum UV irradiation was evidenced by the resulting ESR spectra but slightly decreased the whiteness of the pigment. The observed darkening is apparently associated with the formation of Ti(+3) color centers.

  12. Porphyromonas gingivalis and related bacteria: from colonial pigmentation to the type IX secretion system and gliding motility

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, K

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative, non-motile, anaerobic bacterium implicated as a major pathogen in periodontal disease. P. gingivalis grows as black-pigmented colonies on blood agar, and many bacteriologists have shown interest in this property. Studies of colonial pigmentation have revealed a number of important findings, including an association with the highly active extracellular and surface proteinases called gingipains that are found in P. gingivalis. The Por secretion system, a novel type IX secretion system (T9SS), has been implicated in gingipain secretion in studies using non-pigmented mutants. In addition, many potent virulence proteins, including the metallocarboxypeptidase CPG70, 35 kDa hemin-binding protein HBP35, peptidylarginine deiminase PAD and Lys-specific serine endopeptidase PepK, are secreted through the T9SS. These findings have not been limited to P. gingivalis but have been extended to other bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Many Bacteroidetes species possess the T9SS, which is associated with gliding motility for some of these bacteria. PMID:25546073

  13. Porphyromonas gingivalis and related bacteria: from colonial pigmentation to the type IX secretion system and gliding motility.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, K

    2015-02-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative, non-motile, anaerobic bacterium implicated as a major pathogen in periodontal disease. P. gingivalis grows as black-pigmented colonies on blood agar, and many bacteriologists have shown interest in this property. Studies of colonial pigmentation have revealed a number of important findings, including an association with the highly active extracellular and surface proteinases called gingipains that are found in P. gingivalis. The Por secretion system, a novel type IX secretion system (T9SS), has been implicated in gingipain secretion in studies using non-pigmented mutants. In addition, many potent virulence proteins, including the metallocarboxypeptidase CPG70, 35 kDa hemin-binding protein HBP35, peptidylarginine deiminase PAD and Lys-specific serine endopeptidase PepK, are secreted through the T9SS. These findings have not been limited to P. gingivalis but have been extended to other bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Many Bacteroidetes species possess the T9SS, which is associated with gliding motility for some of these bacteria.

  14. Black Holes (With 16 figures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Igor

    Astrophysics of Black Holes Introduction The Origin of Stellar Black Holes A Nonrotating Black Hole Introduction Schwarzschild Gravitational Field Motion of Photons Along the Radial Direction Radial Motion of Nonrelativistic Particles The Puzzle of the Gravitational Radius R and T Regions Two Types of T-Regions Gravitational Collapse and White Holes Eternal Black Hole? Black Hole Celestial Mechanics Circular Motion Around a Black Hole Gravitational Capture of Particles by a Black Hole Corrections for Gravitational Radiation A Rotating Black Hole Introduction Gravitational Field of a Rotating Black Hole Specific Reference Frames General Properties of the Spacetime of a Rotating Black Hole; - Spacetime Inside the Horizon Celestial Mechanics of a Rotating Black Hole Motion of Particle in the Equatorial Plane Motion of Particles off the Equatorial Plane Peculiarities of the Gravitational Capture of Bodies by a Rotating - Black Hole Electromagnetic Fields Near a Black Hole Introduction Maxwell's Equations in the Neighborhood of a Rotating Black Hole Stationary Electrodynamics Boundary Conditions at the Event Horizon Electromagnetic Fields in Vacuum Magnetosphere of a Black Hole Some Aspects of Physics of Black Holes, Wormholes, and Time Machines Observational Appearence of the Black Holes in the Universe Black Holes in the Interstellar Medium Disk Accretion Black Holes in Stellar Binary Systems Black Holes in Galactic Centers Dynamical Evidence for Black Holes in Galaxy Nuclei Primordial Black Holes Acknowledgements References

  15. The penetration depth and lateral distribution of pigment related to the pigment grain size and the calendering of paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bülow, K.; Kristiansson, P.; Schüler, B.; Tullander, E.; Östling, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A.

    2002-04-01

    The interaction of ink and newspaper has been investigated and the specific question of penetration of ink into the paper has been addressed with a nuclear microprobe using particle induced X-ray emission. The penetration depth of the newsprint is a critical factor in terms of increasing the quality of newsprint and minimising the amount of ink used. The objective of the experiment was to relate the penetration depth of pigment with the calendering of the paper. The dependence of the penetration depth on the pigment grain size was also studied. To study the penetration depth of pigment in paper, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer of the coloured pigment was used. For the study of the penetration depth dependence of pigment size, specially grounded Japanese ink with well-defined pigment grain size was used. This was compared to Swedish ink with pigment grains with normal size-distribution. The results show that the calendering of the paper considerably affects the penetration depth of ink.

  16. The Byzantine Church of '40 Holy Martyrs' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Angelova, S.

    2010-01-21

    The 'St. 40 Martyrs' church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (mus-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  17. The Byzantine Church of ``40 Holy Martyrs'' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Angelova, S.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    The "St. 40 Martyrs" church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (μs-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  18. Infrared spectra of U.S. automobile original finishes (1998-2000). IX. identification of bismuth oxychloride and silver/white mica pearlescent pigments using extended range FT-IR spectroscopy, XRF spectrometry, and SEM/EDS analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Edward M

    2014-09-01

    Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) was the first viable synthetic pearl pigment developed 50 years ago. It was only used for a limited time period in automotive paint (model years 1998-2000), serving to produce luster for a single Chrysler black metallic color. Identification of this pigment in an unknown automotive paint can thus facilitate determination of the vehicle of origin. Bismuth oxychloride imparts effects similar to those produced by silver/white mica pearlescent pigments, and such a pigment was used together with bismuth oxychloride in at least one original equipment manufacturer (OEM) basecoat. Silver/white micas are now used primarily in white pearl tricoat systems. This article describes the identification of bismuth oxychloride and silver/white mica pearlescent pigments in automotive finishes using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry, and SEM/EDS analysis. Data for some cadmium pigments, which were used in automotive paint several decades ago, are also presented as they produce infrared absorptions similar to that of bismuth oxychloride.

  19. 75 FR 14468 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... COMMISSION Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India AGENCY: United States International Trade... carbazole violet pigment 23 from India and the antidumping duty orders on carbazole violet pigment 23 from... whether revocation of the countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India and...

  20. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pigments. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive is formed by depositing titanium or iron salts from a basic solution onto mica, followed by calcination to produce titanium dioxide or...

  1. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez del Río, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhée, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-10-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  2. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pigments. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive is formed by depositing titanium or iron salts from a basic solution onto mica, followed by calcination to produce titanium dioxide or...

  3. Nematicidal activity of microbial pigment from Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Rahul, Suryawanshi; Chandrashekhar, Patil; Hemant, Borase; Chandrakant, Narkhede; Laxmikant, Shinde; Satish, Patil

    2014-01-01

    Ineffectiveness of available nematicides and the high damage caused by plant-parasitic nematodes result in the urgent need to find some natural remedy for their control. Bioactivity of the pigment extracted from Serratia marcescens was screened for controlling nematodes at their juvenile stage. Test pigment was found effective against juvenile stages of Radopholus similis and Meloidogyne javanica at low concentrations (LC50 values, 83 and 79 μg/mL, respectively) as compared with positive control of copper sulphate (LC50 values, 380 and 280 μg/mL, respectively). The pigment also exhibited inhibition on nematode egg-hatching ability. Characterisation of extracted pigment with TLC, FTIR, HPLC, HPTLC and spectroscopic analysis confirmed the presence of prodigiosin as a bioactive metabolite. Considering the sensory mechanism of pathogen recognition by nematodes, the use of microbial secondary metabolites can be effective for nematode control rather than using whole organism.

  4. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-01-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, “why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?” This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment. PMID:25792777

  5. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-05-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, "why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?" This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment.

  6. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pigments. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive is formed by depositing titanium or iron salts from a basic solution onto mica, followed by calcination to produce titanium dioxide or...

  7. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    PubMed

    Mapari, Sameer A S; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S

    2010-06-01

    The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply of raw materials, thus minimizing batch-to-batch variations. Here, we review the potential of polyketide pigments produced from chemotaxonomically selected non-toxigenic fungal strains (e.g. Penicillium and Epicoccum spp.) to serve as food colorants. We argue that the production of polyketide azaphilone pigments from such potentially safe hosts is advantageous over traditional processes that involve Monascus spp., which risks co-production of the mycotoxin citrinin. Thus, there is tremendous potential for the development of robust fungal production systems for polyketide pigments, both to tailor functionality and to expand the color palette of contemporary natural food colorants.

  8. Multi-analytical study of historical semiconductor pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capogrosso, V.

    2015-03-01

    This work is focused on the study of semiconductor-based pigments, which substituted traditional pigments in the second half of the 19th century. Synthetic semiconductor pigments may be chemically unstable due to the presence of many impurities unintentionally introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work is to provide an insight on the application of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) for the analysis of these painting materials, including both Cd- and Zn-based pigments. Three different approaches have been followed: the semi-quantitative analysis of samples with similar elemental composition, the complementary use of XRF and Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of elemental and molecular composition and the synchrotron-based XRF and XANES for the detection of impurities. The synergetic combination of different techniques provides information useful for the definition of specific markers for future analysis of paint-samples with implications for the conservation and treatment of late 19th and early 20th century paintings.

  9. Resonant imaging of carotenoid pigments in the human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Emakov, Igor V.; McClane, Robert W.

    2002-06-01

    We have generated high spatial resolution images showing the distribution of carotenoid macular pigments in the human retina using Raman spectroscopy. A low level of macular pigments is associated with an increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Using excised human eyecups and resonant excitation of the pigment molecules with narrow bandwidth blue light from a mercury arc lamp, we record Raman images originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of lutein and zeaxanthin, the carotenoids comprising human macular pigments. Our Raman images reveal significant differences among subjects, both in regard to absolute levels as well as spatial distribution within the macula. Since the light levels used to obtain these images are well below established safety limits, this technique holds promise for developing a rapid screening diagnostic in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration.

  10. PIGMENT DEPOSITION IN VISCERA ASSOCIATED WITH PROLONGED CHLORPROMAZINE THERAPY.

    PubMed

    GREINER, A C; NICOLSON, G A

    1964-09-19

    Twelve physically healthy young adult mental hospital patients died unexpectedly while on prolonged chlorpromazine therapy. Five of them had clinically obvious pigmentation of the exposed skin. Two of these had impairment of vision as well. Autopsies were performed on all 12 patients. Extensive deposits of pigment (exhibiting the physical and histochemical properties of melanin) were present in macrophages in the dermis and throughout the reticuloendothelial system, and in the parenchymal cells of internal organs. The dopa tyrosinase reaction indicated increased melanocyte activity in the epidermis.The possible mechanism of production of this pigment is discussed, and the belief is expressed that the increased melanin production is due, at least partly, to the effect of chlorpromazine on the autonomic nervous system, blocking the production of pigment-lightening factors, of which melatonin is the most important. A short outline of contemplated further investigation is given.

  11. Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

    2006-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress.

  12. UV ADAPTATION; pigmentation and protection against overexposure.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, Frank R

    2017-03-07

    The skin is known to adapt to UV exposures, i.e., become less sensitive to sunburn. Reported decreases in sensitivity vary widely from well over 10 fold down to a negligible 10%. This appears to depend importantly on the UV irradiation spectrum to which the skin adapts and on the UV irradiation spectrum that is used to test the sensitivity. The sensitivity is conventionally and generally assessed by the reciprocal of the minimal erythema dose (MED): the UV dose causing a just perceptible reddening of the skin after 8 - 24 h. However, MED is much too subtle for everyday life: people will not notice a minimal reddening and commonly consider themselves sunburnt at considerably higher UV doses causing an intense reddening. Levels of adaptation of a well-tanned skin may be substantially higher at these more intense levels of reddening than MED levels. This expectation is based on the fact that people with a constitutively coloured skin may show moderate differences in MED with fair skinned people but far less steep increases in reddening with overexposures to solar simulated radiation (SSR). UVA exposure is known to enhance pigmentation and may thus be important in protection against overexposure to SSR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Cuticle formation and pigmentation in beetles.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Adult beetles (Coleoptera) are covered primarily by a hard exoskeleton or cuticle. For example, the beetle elytron is a cuticle-rich highly modified forewing structure that shields the underlying hindwing and dorsal body surface from a variety of harmful environmental factors by acting as an armor plate. The elytron comes in a variety of colors and shapes depending on the coleopteran species. As in many other insect species, the cuticular tanning pathway begins with tyrosine and is responsible for production of a variety of melanin-like and other types of pigments. Tanning metabolism involves quinones and quinone methides, which also act as protein cross-linking agents for cuticle sclerotization. Electron microscopic analyses of rigid cuticles of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, have revealed not only numerous horizontal chitin-protein laminae but also vertically oriented columnar structures called pore canal fibers. This structural architecture together with tyrosine metabolism for cuticle tanning is likely to contribute to the rigidity and coloration of the beetle exoskeleton.

  14. Polyketides, toxins and pigments in Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Tam, Emily W T; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-10-30

    Penicillium marneffei (synonym: Talaromyces marneffei) is the most important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus in China and Southeastern Asia. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in China and other Southeast Asian countries, has led to the emergence of P. marneffei infection as an important AIDS-defining condition. Recently, we published the genome sequence of P. marneffei. In the P. marneffei genome, 23 polyketide synthase genes and two polyketide synthase-non-ribosomal peptide synthase hybrid genes were identified. This number is much higher than those of Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum, important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungi in the Western world. Phylogenetically, these polyketide synthase genes were distributed evenly with their counterparts found in Aspergillus species and other fungi, suggesting that polyketide synthases in P. marneffei did not diverge from lineage-specific gene duplication through a recent expansion. Gene knockdown experiments and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that at least four of the polyketide synthase genes were involved in the biosynthesis of various pigments in P. marneffei, including melanin, mitorubrinic acid, mitorubrinol, monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, citrinin and ankaflavin, some of which were mycotoxins and virulence factors of the fungus.

  15. Multifocal pigmented villonodular synovitis in a child

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Kaiyu; Hua, Yimin; Li, Yifei; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, benign proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane that typically presents in adults and affects a single joint. Multifocal PVNS is very rare, particularly in childhood. We reported a rare case of multifocal PVNS affecting over 20 joints in a child. Clinical procedure: A 7-year-old female patient had a 6-month history of multifocal joints swelling with mild pain. She was diagnosed as polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis at a local hospital. Naproxen, methotrexate, infliximab, and pavlin were used to treat the patient for 2 months. However, the treatment had no effect, the joints swelling remained. The patient was then transferred to our hospital. Physical examination revealed multiple joints swelling, especially in the shoulders joints. Puncture fluid from a shoulder joint was bloody. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed synovial thickening and hemosiderin deposition. Biopsy of joint synovium found villous nodules, the invasion of foam cells, and hemosiderin deposition. By collecting all of the evidence, the diagnosis of PVNS was confirmed. Conclusions: PVNS was easily misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis and the formal treatment was usually delayed. This case described here is the first case of PVNS involving such a large numbers of joints that has been reported in the literature. PMID:27537585

  16. Macular pigment assessment by motion photometry.

    PubMed

    Moreland, J D

    2004-10-15

    A Moreland anomaloscope was modified to measure macular pigment optical density (MPOD) profiles by motion photometry. A grating (spatial frequency 0.38 c deg(-1)), whose alternate bars were filled, respectively, with 460 nm (maximum MP absorption) and 580 nm (zero MP absorption) lights, drifted steadily at 37 degrees s(-1). The subject adjusted the 580 nm radiance to minimise perceived motion (equiluminance between 460 and 580 nm). Five or more settings were made for two foveal fields (0.9 degrees and 2.2 degrees diameter) and 11 extrafoveal annular fields (0.8 degrees -7.5 degrees eccentricity). Twenty subjects made measurements for both eyes: some with replications. MPOD profiles varied in scale (0.18-0.75 for the 0.9 degrees foveal field) and in shape. A mean profile was derived. Foveal data were optimally aligned with annular data in that profile when plotted at 0.71 of the foveal field radius. Factors that limit precision were identified, such as fixation errors foveally and Troxler's effect parafoveally.

  17. Fluorescent pigments in corals are photoprotective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Anya; Larkum, Anthony; Cox, Guy; Kühl, Michael; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2000-12-01

    All reef-forming corals depend on the photosynthesis performed by their algal symbiont, and such corals are therefore restricted to the photic zone. The intensity of light in this zone declines over several orders of magnitude-from high and damaging levels at the surface to extreme shade conditions at the lower limit. The ability of corals to tolerate this range implies effective mechanisms for light acclimation and adaptation. Here we show that the fluorescent pigments (FPs) of corals provide a photobiological system for regulating the light environment of coral host tissue. Previous studies have suggested that under low light, FPs may enhance light availability. We now report that in excessive sunlight FPs are photoprotective; they achieve this by dissipating excess energy at wavelengths of low photosynthetic activity, as well as by reflecting of visible and infrared light by FP-containing chromatophores. We also show that FPs enhance the resistance to mass bleaching of corals during periods of heat stress, which has implications for the effect of environmental stress on the diversity of reef-building corals, such as enhanced survival of a broad range of corals allowing maintenance of habitat diversity.

  18. Macular pigment Raman detector for clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Ermakov, Igor; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical studies of carotenoid macular pigments (MP) have been limited by the lack of noninvasive, objective instruments. We introduce a novel noninvasive optical instrument, an MP Raman detector, for assessment of the carotenoid status of the human retina in vivo. The instrument uses resonant excitation of carotenoid molecules in the visible wavelength range, and quantitatively measures the highly specific Raman signals that originate from the single- and double-bond stretch vibrations of the π-conjugated carotenoid molecule’s carbon backbone. The instrument is a robust, compact device and suitable for routine measurements of MP concentrations in a clinical setting. We characterized and tested the instrument in clinical studies of human subjects to validate its function and to begin to establish its role as a possible screening test for macular pathologies. We also show that the MP Raman spectroscopy technology has potential as a novel, highly specific method for rapid screening of carotenoid antioxidant levels in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness of the elderly in the developed world. PMID:14715066

  19. Polyketides, Toxins and Pigments in Penicillium marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W. T.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei (synonym: Talaromyces marneffei) is the most important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus in China and Southeastern Asia. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in China and other Southeast Asian countries, has led to the emergence of P. marneffei infection as an important AIDS-defining condition. Recently, we published the genome sequence of P. marneffei. In the P. marneffei genome, 23 polyketide synthase genes and two polyketide synthase-non-ribosomal peptide synthase hybrid genes were identified. This number is much higher than those of Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum, important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungi in the Western world. Phylogenetically, these polyketide synthase genes were distributed evenly with their counterparts found in Aspergillus species and other fungi, suggesting that polyketide synthases in P. marneffei did not diverge from lineage-specific gene duplication through a recent expansion. Gene knockdown experiments and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that at least four of the polyketide synthase genes were involved in the biosynthesis of various pigments in P. marneffei, including melanin, mitorubrinic acid, mitorubrinol, monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, citrinin and ankaflavin, some of which were mycotoxins and virulence factors of the fungus. PMID:26529013

  20. Fumed metallic oxides and conventional pigments for glossy inkjet paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunkook

    Product development activity in the area of inkjet printing papers has accelerated greatly to meet the rapidly growing market for inkjet papers. Advancements in inkjet printing technology have also placed new demands on the paper substrate due to faster printing rates, greater resolution through increased drop volumes, and colorants added to the ink. To meet these requirements, papermakers are turning to pigmented size press formulations or pigmented coating systems. For inkjet coating applications, both the internal porosity of the pigment particles as well as the packing porosity of the coating affect print quality and dry time. Pores between the pigment particles allow for rapid diffusion of ink fluids into the coating structure, while also providing capacity for ink fluid uptake. Past research has shown the presence of coating cracks to increase the microroughness of the papers, consequently reducing the gloss of the silica/polyvinyl alcohol based coating colors. Coating cracks were not observed, at the same level of magnification, in the scanning electron microscopy images of alumina/polyvinyl alcohol coated papers. Studies are therefore needed to understand the influence of coating cracking on the microroughening of silica/polyvinyl alcohol based coatings and consequences to coating and ink gloss. Since micro roughening is known to be linked to shrinkage of the coating layer, studies are needed to determine if composite pigments can be formulated, which would enable the coating solids of the formulations to be increased to minimize the shrinkage of coating layer during drying. Coating solids greater than 55% solids are needed to reduce the difference between application solids and the coating's immobilization solids point in order to reduce shrinkage. The aim of this research was to address the above mentioned needed studies. Studies were performed to understand the influence of particle packing on gloss and ink jet print quality. Composite pigment structures

  1. Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster reaches its maximum in Ethiopia and correlates most strongly with ultra-violet radiation in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pigmentation has a long history of investigation in evolutionary biology. In Drosophila melanogaster, latitudinal and altitudinal clines have been found but their underlying causes remain unclear. Moreover, most studies were conducted on cosmopolitan populations which have a relatively low level of genetic structure and diversity compared to sub-Saharan African populations. We investigated: 1) the correlation between pigmentation traits within and between the thorax and the fourth abdominal segment, and 2) their associations with different geographical and ecological variables, using 710 lines belonging to 30 sub-Saharan and cosmopolitan populations. Results Pigmentation clines substantially differed between sub-Saharan and cosmopolitan populations. While positive correlations with latitude have previously been described in Europe, India and Australia, in agreement with Bogert's rule or the thermal melanism hypothesis, we found a significant negative correlation in Africa. This correlation persisted even after correction for altitude, which in its turn showed a positive correlation with pigmentation independently from latitude. More importantly, we found that thoracic pigmentation reaches its maximal values in this species in high-altitude populations of Ethiopia (1,600-3,100 m). Ethiopian flies have a diffuse wide thoracic trident making the mesonotum and the head almost black, a phenotype that is absent from all other sub-Saharan or cosmopolitan populations including high-altitude flies from Peru (~3,400 m). Ecological analyses indicated that the variable most predictive of pigmentation in Africa, especially for the thorax, was ultra-violet (UV) intensity, consistent with the so-called Gloger's rule invoking a role of melanin in UV protection. Conclusion Our data suggest that different environmental factors may shape clinal variation in tropical and temperate regions, and may lead to the evolution of different degrees of melanism in different high

  2. Color stability of thermochromic pigment in maxillofacial silicone

    PubMed Central

    Lassila, Lippo V.J.; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Valittu, Pekka K.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Maxillofacial silicone elastomer is usually colored intrinsically with color pigments to match skin colors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the color stability of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer, colored with a thermochromic, color changing pigment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disc-shaped maxillofacial silicone specimens were prepared and divided into 3 groups: a conventionally colored control group, one group additionally colored with 0.2 wt% thermochromic pigment , and one group with 0.6 wt% thermochromic pigment. Half of the surface of each specimen was covered with an aluminium foil. All of the specimens were exposed to UV radiation in 6 hour cycles over 46 days. In between the UV exposures, half of the specimens were stored in darkness, at room temperature, and the other half was stored in an incubator, at a humidity of 97% and a temperature of +37℃. Color measurements were made with a spectrophotometer and registered according to the CIELAB L*a*b* color model system. The changes in L*, a* and b* values during artificial aging were statistically analyzed by using paired samples t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. P-values <.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULTS The UV exposure resulted in visually noticeable and statistically significant color changes in the L*, a* and b* values in both of the test groups containing thermochromic pigment. Storage in the incubator lead to statistically significant color changes in the a* and b* values of the specimens containing thermochromic pigment, compared to those stored at room temperature. CONCLUSION The specimens containing thermochromic pigment were very sensitive to UV radiation, and the thermochromic pigment is not suitable, as such, to be used in maxillofacial prostheses. PMID:23755330

  3. Detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium at the posterior pole.

    PubMed

    Noble, K G; Levitzky, M J; Carr, R E

    1976-08-01

    Multiple vitelliform cysts of the retina, a disorder of unknown cause in which there are multiple detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium at the posterior pole, occurred in five patients. In four patients all lesions were located outside the parafoveal area while one patient showed bilateral foveal elevations associated with more eccentric detachments. Several patients showed slow resolution of some of the detachments with mild disturbances of the pigment epithelium.

  4. Transition dipole moments of the Qy band in photosynthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, M Belén; Sánchez, Cristián G

    2011-11-10

    From studying the time evolution of the single electron density matrix within a density functional tight-binding formalism we calculate the Q(y) transition dipole moments vector direction and strength for a series of important photosynthetic pigments. We obtain good agreement with first-principles and experimental results and provide insights into the detailed nature of these excitations from the time evolving populations of molecular orbitals involved as well as correlations between pigment chemistry and dipole strength.

  5. Pigmented choroidal nevus in a child with oculocutaneous albinism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priya; Kaliki, Swathi; Peña, Maria Soledad; Shields, Carol L

    2013-04-01

    We report the case of an 8-year-old white girl with albinism and a flat pigmented choroidal lesion in the left eye measuring 0.5 mm in diameter. There was no subretinal fluid, lipofuscin, or drusen. The patient later displayed 10 lightly-pigmented cutaneous nevi on her upper chest, left arm, and right leg at 8 months' follow-up. The choroidal nevus showed minimal change over 2 years.

  6. MALARIAL PIGMENT (SO-CALLED MELANIN): ITS NATURE AND MODE OF PRODUCTION.

    PubMed

    Brown, W H

    1911-02-01

    1. Two important methods for the study of malarial pigment are described. (a) A method for obtaining a solution of malarial pigment from fixed tissues without the removal of a trace of hemoglobin from the red blood corpuscles. (b) A method for obtaining an iron reaction in malarial pigment. 2. By comparing the bleach reactions and solubility of melanins and malarial pigment, the dissimilarity of the two classes of pigments has been demonstrated. 3. The spectroscopic examination of a solution of malarial pigment proves conclusively that the pigment is hematin. 4. It is suggested that the action of a proteolytic enzyme of the malarial parasite upon the hemoglobin of the red blood corpuscle is the most probable mode of elaboration of malarial pigment. 5. The difficulty with which the human organism disposes of malarial pigment indicates that the production of hematin cannot be considered as a normal intermediate process in the formation of bile pigments from hemoglobin.

  7. Uniformly accelerated black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    2001-09-01

    The static and stationary C metric are examined in a generic framework and their interpretations studied in some detail, especially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We find that (i) the spacetime of an accelerated static black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or a lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon, (ii) by using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have a higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature of the accelerated frame, and (iii) the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/27) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated rotating black holes with no significant changes.

  8. Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Abraham

    2007-04-01

    Recent data indicates that almost all galaxies possess a supermassive black hole at their center. When gas accretes onto the black hole it heats-up and shines, resulting in the appearance of a bright quasar. The earliest quasars are found to exist only a billion years after the big-bang. I will describe recent observations of both the nearest and the most distant supermassive black holes in the universe. The formation and evolution of the black hole population can be described in the context of popular models for galaxy formation. I will describe the key questions that drive current research on supermassive black holes and present theoretical work on the radiative and hydrodynamic effects that quasars have on their cosmic habitat. Within the coming decade it would be possible to test general relativity by monitoring over time, and possibly even imaging, the polarized emission from hot spots around the black hole in the center of our Galaxy (SgrA*).

  9. A general method for the quantitative assessment of mineral pigments.

    PubMed

    Ares, M C Zurita; Fernández, J M

    2016-01-01

    A general method for the estimation of mineral pigment contents in different bases has been proposed using a sole set of calibration curves, (one for each pigment), calculated for a white standard base, thus elaborating patterns for each utilized base is not necessary. The method can be used in different bases and its validity had ev en been proved in strongly tinted bases. The method consists of a novel procedure that combines diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, second derivatives and the Kubelka-Munk function. This technique has proved to be at least one order of magnitude more sensitive than X-Ray diffraction for colored compounds, since it allowed the determination of the pigment amount in colored samples containing 0.5 wt% of pigment that was not detected by X-Ray Diffraction. The method can be used to estimate the concentration of mineral pigments in a wide variety of either natural or artificial materials, since it does not requiere the calculation of each pigment pattern in every base. This fact could have important industrial consequences, as the proposed method would be more convenient, faster and cheaper.

  10. Laser therapy of pigmented lesions: pro and contra.

    PubMed

    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Ceović, Romana; Stulhofer Buzina, Daška; Kostović, Krešimir

    2010-01-01

    Although frequently performed, laser removal of pigmented lesions still contains certain controversial issues. Epidermal pigmented lesions include solar lentigines, ephelides, café au lait macules and seborrheic keratoses. Dermal lesions include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi, drug induced hyperpigmentation and nevus of Ota and Ito. Some lesions exhibit both an epidermal and dermal component like Becker's nevus, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, melasma and nevus spilus. Due to the wide absorption spectrum of melanin (500-1100 nm), several laser systems are effective in removal of pigmented lesions. These lasers include the pigmented lesion pulsed dye laser (510 nm), the Q-switched ruby laser (694 nm), the Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm) and the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), which can be frequency-doubled to produce visible green light with a wavelength of 532 nm. The results of laser therapy are usually successful. However, there are still many controversies regarding the use of lasers in treating certain pigmented lesions. Actually, the essential question in removing pigmented lesions with lasers is whether the lesion has atypical features or has a malignant potential. Dermoscopy, used as a routine first-level diagnostic technique, is helpful in most cases. If there is any doubt whether the lesion is benign, then a biopsy for histologic evaluation is obligatory.

  11. Analysis of Minoan white pigments used on pottery from Palaikastro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, Charles P.; Ferrence, Susan; Betancourt, Phlip P.

    2000-03-01

    Previous analyses of Early Minoan (ca. 2200-2000 BC) and Middle Minoan (ca. 2000-1700 BC) white pigments from Crete have revealed a complex situation in which several different substances were used for the ornament on pottery. The technological situation and the nature of these pigments is still not fully understood. A high-magnesium paint has been tentatively identified as talc, and a high-calcium paint has been tentatively identified as calcium silicate, but the distribution of these pigments is still not known. A new program of analysis by PIXE at the Bartol Research Institute of the University of Delaware has examined several white pigments from Palaikastro, a site in Eastern Crete, with interesting results. Three different materials or mixtures of materials can be identified. None of the pigments is rich in magnesium. All of the paints tested contain substantial amounts of aluminum and silica, with a variable calcium content. One class is high in calcium, and the second is substantially lower in calcium, but both contain appreciable amounts of iron. The third substance is an iron free white pigment. The materials can be tentatively identified as mixtures of calcium silicates and aluminosilicates, probably with admixed quartz.

  12. The use of microspectrofluorimetry for the characterization of lake pigments.

    PubMed

    Claro, Ana; Melo, Maria J; Schäfer, Stephan; de Melo, J Sérgio Seixas; Pina, Fernando; van den Berg, Klaas Jan; Burnstock, Aviva

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, the potential of confocal microfluorescence spectroscopy is explored for the characterization of selected red lake pigments and paints based on alizarin, purpurin and eosin (weak, medium and strong emitters). The anthraquinone pigments have been used since ancient times by artists, and eosin lakes were used by impressionist painters. Reconstructions of artists paints based on 19th century recipes are examined. The paints were made using the lake pigments bound in a range of binding media including gum arabic, collagen, a vinyl emulsion and linseed oil. The acquisition of the spectra is rapid, with high spatial resolution and the data reliable and reproducible. Together with full emission spectra, it was possible to acquire well-resolved excitation spectra for purpurin, alizarin and eosin based colors. The present investigation suggests that micro-emission fluorescence can also be used as a semi-quantitative method for madder lake pigments, enabling the determination of purpurin lake ratio in a mixture of purpurin and alizarin, which is important for provenance studies. The data obtained with microfluorescence emission with those acquired with fiber-optic fluorimetry are compared. The spatial resolution used, 8microm, is appropriate for the analysis of individual pigments particles or aggregates in a paint film. Micro-emission molecular fluorescence proved to be a promising analytical tool to identify the presence of selected red lake pigments combined with a range of binding media.

  13. [Synthesis and characterization of mixed metal oxide pigments].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Yue, Shi-juan; Liu, Cui-ge; Wei, Yong-ju; Meng, Tao; Jiang, Han-jie; Shi, Yong-zheng; Xu, Yi-zhuang; Yu, Jiang; Wu, Jin-guang

    2012-03-01

    In the present work, aluminum chloride and various soluble salts of doping ions were dissolved in water. In addition, urea and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were also dissolved in the above aqueous solution under supersonic treatments. Then the solutions were heated to induce the hydrolysis of urea so that soluble aluminum and doping ions convert into insoluble hydroxide or carbonate gels. After calcinations, the obtained gels change to mixed metal oxide pigments whose color is related to type and concentrations of the doping ions. XRD characterization demonstrates that the diffraction patterns of the products are the same as that of alpha-alumina. Diffuse reflectance spectra of samples of the samples in UV-Vis regions show that the absorption bands for d-d transitions of the doping ions undergo considerable change as the coordinate environments change. In addition, L*, a* and b* values of the pigments were measured by using UV-Vis densitometer. SEM results indicate that the size of the pigment powders is in the range 200-300 nm. The pigments are quite stable since no evidence of dissolution was observed after the synthesized pigment is soaked for 24 hours. ICP test shows that very little amount of doped metal occurs in the corresponding filtrate. The above results suggest that these new kinds of mixed metal oxide pigments are stable, non-toxic, environmental friendly and they may be applicable in molten spinning process and provide a new chance for non-aqueous printing and dyeing industry.

  14. [Photoreceptors and visual pigments in three species of newts].

    PubMed

    Koremiak, D A; Govardovskiĭ, V I

    2013-01-01

    Photoreceptor complement and retinal visual pigments in three newt (Caudata, Salamandridae, Pleurodelinae) species (Pleurodeles waltl, Lissotriton (Triturus) vulgaris and Cynops orientalis) were studied by light mucroscopy and microspectrophotometry. Retinas of all three species contain "red" (rhodopsin/porphyropsin) rods, large and small single cones, and double cones. Large single cones and both components of double cones contain red-sensitive (presumably LWS) visual pigment whose absorbance spectrum peaks between 593 and 611 nm. Small single cones are either blue- (SWS2, maximum absorbance between 470 and 489 nm) or UV-sensitive (SWS1, maximum absorbance between 340 and 359 nm). Chromophore composition of visual pigments (A1 vs. A2) was assessed both from template fitting of absorption spectra and by the method of selective bleaching. All pigments contained a mixture of A1 (11-cis retinal) and A2 (11-cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) chromophore in the proportion depending on the species and cell type. In all cases, A2 was dominant. However, in C. orientalis rods the fraction of A1 could reach 45%, while in P. waltl and L. vulgaris cones it did not exceed 5%. Remarkably, the absorbance of the newt blue-sensitive visual pigment was shifted by up to 45 nm toward the longer wavelength, as compared with all other amphibian SWS2-pigments. We found no "green" rods typical of retinas of Anura and some Caudata (ambystomas) in the three newt species studied.

  15. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dembeck, Lauren M.; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M.; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster. PMID:25933381

  16. Production and chemical characterization of pigments in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Souza, Patrícia Nirlane da Costa; Grigoletto, Tahuana Luiza Bim; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Abreu, Lucas M; Guimarães, Luís Henrique Souza; Santos, Cledir; Galvão, Luciano Ribeiro; Cardoso, Patrícia Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Production of pigments by filamentous fungi is gaining interest owing to their use as food colourants, in cosmetics and textiles, and because of the important biological activities of these compounds. In this context, the objectives of this study were to select pigment-producing fungi, identify these fungi based on internal transcribed spacer sequences, evaluate the growth and pigment production of the selected strains on four different media, and characterize the major coloured metabolites in their extracts. Of the selected fungal strains, eight were identified as Aspergillus sydowii (CML2967), Aspergillus aureolatus (CML2964), Aspergillus keveii (CML2968), Penicillium flavigenum (CML2965), Penicillium chermesinum (CML2966), Epicoccum nigrum (CML2971), Lecanicillium aphanocladii (CML2970) and Fusarium sp. (CML2969). Fungal pigment production was influenced by medium composition. Complex media, such as potato dextrose and malt extract, favoured increased pigment production. The coloured compounds oosporein, orevactaene and dihydrotrichodimerol were identified in extracts of L. aphanocladii (CML2970), E. nigrum (CML2971), and P. flavigenum (CML2965), respectively. These results indicate that the selected fungal strains can serve as novel sources of pigments that have important industrial applications.

  17. The anti-mutagenic properties of bile pigments.

    PubMed

    Bulmer, A C; Ried, K; Blanchfield, J T; Wagner, K-H

    2008-01-01

    Bile pigments, including bilirubin and biliverdin, are endogenous compounds belonging to the porphyrin family of molecules. In the past, bile pigments and bilirubin in particular were thought of as useless by-products of heme catabolism that can be toxic if they accumulate. However, in the past 20 years, research probing the physiological relevance of bile pigments has been mounting, with evidence to suggest bile pigments possess significant antioxidant and anti-mutagenic properties. More specifically, bile pigments are potent peroxyl radical scavengers and inhibit the mutagenic effects of a number of classes of mutagens (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines, oxidants). Coincidentally, persons with elevated circulating bilirubin concentrations have a reduced prevalence of cancer and cardio-vascular disease. Despite the encouraging in vitro anti-mutagenic effects of bile pigments, relatively little research has been conducted on their inhibitory capacity in bacterial and cultured cell assays of mutation, which might link the existing in vitro and in vivo observations. This is the first review to summarise the published data and it is our hope it will stimulate further research on these potentially preventative compounds.

  18. Distribution of unique red feather pigments in parrots

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Kevin J; Nogare, Mary C

    2005-01-01

    In many birds, red, orange and yellow feathers are coloured by carotenoid pigments, but parrots are an exception. For over a century, biochemists have known that parrots use an unusual set of pigments to produce their rainbow of plumage colours, but their biochemical identity has remained elusive until recently. Here, we use high-performance liquid chromatography to survey the pigments present in the red feathers of 44 species of parrots representing each of the three psittaciform families. We found that all species used the same suite of five polyenal lipochromes (or psittacofulvins) to colour their plumage red, indicating that this unique system of pigmentation is remarkably conserved evolutionarily in parrots. Species with redder feathers had higher concentrations of psittacofulvins in their plumage, but neither feather colouration nor historical relatedness predicted the ratios in which the different pigments appeared. These polyenes were absent from blood at the time when birds were replacing their colourful feathers, suggesting that parrots do not acquire red plumage pigments from the diet, but instead manufacture them endogenously at growing feathers. PMID:17148123

  19. Production of diagnostic pigment by phenoloxidase activity of cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C E; Kapica, L

    1972-11-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans produces brown pigmented colonies when grown on agar media made from an extract of potatoes and carrots, broad beans (Vicia faba), or Guizotia abyssinica seeds. Since other yeasts do not produce the pigment, these media are useful as differential isolation media for C. neoformans. Similar specific pigment was produced by C. neoformans on chemically defined agar media which contained six different substrates of phenoloxidase (o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.10.3.1) an enzyme which catalyses the oxidation of o-diphenols to melanin. Substrates were incorporated singly into the media and included L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechol, norepinephrine, and 3-hydroxytyramine hydrochloride (dopamine). No pigment was produced on media without substrate. Phenoloxidase activity in (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitates of C. neoformans cell-free extract was assayed by measuring increases in absorbance at 480 nm produced in solutions of L-DOPA. This reaction showed oxygen uptake and was effectively inhibited by copper chelators, but not by catalase. The enzyme also oxidized the five other substrates which induced pigment formation. Electron micrographs of cells incubated in L-DOPA showed deposition of the pigment in the cell wall.

  20. Carotenoid binding to proteins: Modeling pigment transport to lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Reszczynska, Emilia; Welc, Renata; Grudzinski, Wojciech; Trebacz, Kazimierz; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2015-10-15

    Carotenoid pigments play numerous important physiological functions in human organism. Very special is a role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the retina of an eye and in particular in its central part, the macula lutea. In the retina, carotenoids can be directly present in the lipid phase of the membranes or remain bound to the protein-pigment complexes. In this work we address a problem of binding of carotenoids to proteins and possible role of such structures in pigment transport to lipid membranes. Interaction of three carotenoids, beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin with two proteins: bovine serum albumin and glutathione S-transferase (GST) was investigated with application of molecular spectroscopy techniques: UV-Vis absorption, circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Interaction of pigment-protein complexes with model lipid bilayers formed with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine was investigated with application of FTIR, Raman imaging of liposomes and electrophysiological technique, in the planar lipid bilayer models. The results show that in all the cases of protein and pigment studied, carotenoids bind to protein and that the complexes formed can interact with membranes. This means that protein-carotenoid complexes are capable of playing physiological role in pigment transport to biomembranes.