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  1. Palestinian nurses' lived experiences working in the occupied West Bank.

    PubMed

    Taha, A A; Westlake, C

    2017-03-01

    Since the construction of the separation wall between Israel and the West Bank, Palestinians living in occupied West Bank have endured intense conflict, and severe restrictions on people's movement, trade and healthcare access, all of which resulted in spiralling poverty. These issues have created challenges for nurses that, to date, have not been explored. To explore the lived experience of Palestinian nurses working in the occupied West Bank. Qualitative phenomenological study using interviews with Palestinian nurses working in public hospitals in the West Bank. Seventeen nurses were interviewed. Despite ongoing experiences of trauma and humiliation, personal/professional role conflicts, political workplace bias and blurred role boundaries, these nurses persevered because of their commitment to caring and sense of moral duty to 'the people of this land'. Nurses in conflict areas are subject to layers of trauma. Palestinian nurses in the West Bank not only experience ongoing personal trauma, loss and humiliation of living in a conflict zone but they also experience additional professional trauma. The findings provide first-person reports of the unique challenges of nurses working in the occupied West Bank. Understanding the experiences of nurses working in occupied territories provides authentic information for local authorities and the global healthcare community. Practice improvements must be addressed and implemented. Local and global organizations that mobilize support, invest in human capital, and protect human rights in areas of conflict may benefit from understanding the experiences of nurses in this study. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  2. Cancer mortality in the West Bank, Occupied Palestinian Territory.

    PubMed

    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca; Bruni, Antonella; Mitwali, Suzan; Portaluri, Maurizio; Bitar, Jawad; Hamad, Mutaem; Giacaman, Rita; Vigotti, Maria Angela

    2016-01-26

    The burden of cancer is difficult to study in the context of the occupied Palestinian territory because of the limited data available. This study aims to evaluate the quality of mortality data and to investigate cancer mortality patterns in the occupied Palestinian territory's West Bank governorates from 1999 to 2009. Death certificates collected by the Palestinian Ministry of Health for Palestinians living in the West Bank were used. Direct and indirect age-standardised mortality rates were computed and used to compare different governorates according to total and specific cancer mortality. Furthermore, standardised proportional mortality ratios were calculated to compare mortality by urban, rural and camp locales. The most common cause of death out of all cancer types was lung cancer among males (22.8 %) and breast cancer among females (21.5 %) followed by prostate cancer for males (9.5 %) and by colon cancer for females (11.4 %). Regional variations in cancer-specific causes of death were observed. The central- West Bank governorates had the lowest mortality for most cancer types among men and women. Mortality for lung cancer was highest in the north among men (SMR 109.6; 95%CI 99.5-120.4). For prostate cancer, mortality was highest in the north (SMR 103.6; 95%CI 88.5-120.5) and in the south (SMR 118.6; 95%CI 98.9-141.0). Breast cancer mortality was highest in the south (SMR 119.3; 95%CI 103.9-136.2). Similar mortality rate patterns were found in urban, rural and camp locales. The quality of the Palestinian mortality registry has improved over time. Results in the West Bank governorates present different mortality patterns. The differences might be explained by personal, contextual and environmental factors that need future in-depth investigations.

  3. Epidemiology of scabies in the West Bank, Palestinian Territories (Occupied).

    PubMed

    Amro, Ahmad; Hamarsheh, Omar

    2012-02-01

    Scabies is a disease that is considered a public health problem in the Palestinian Territories and in other countries around the world. Scabies causes skin lesions leading to substantial morbidity, and is also associated with social stigma. In this study we describe the epidemiology of scabies in the West Bank, Palestine during the years 2005-2010. We examined the records and profiles of a total of 1734 patients who were admitted to the dermatology clinics of the Palestinian Ministry of Health in 2005-2010. The disease was found to be prevalent in all governorates. The average annual incidence of scabies in the West Bank for 2005-2010 was 17/100,000 population. The average number of scabies patients per year in the West Bank was 26.3 per governorate, with a significant increase in the years 2009 and 2010 (p<0.001). Disease occurrence was significantly higher among children aged ≤ 10 years than in the other age groups, in adult females in the age groups of 31-40 and 41-50 years compared to males in these age groups, and in males in the age group of 11-20 years compared to females in that age group. Scabies was found in all governorates of the Palestinian West Bank. Individuals under 20 years of age are particularly at risk. Compulsory reporting of scabies to the Palestinian Ministry of Health would be expected to increase awareness of the disease, which is crucial for the prevention and control of scabies in the Palestinian Territories. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mortality patterns in the West Bank, Palestinian Territories, 1999-2003.

    PubMed

    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Husseini, Abdullatif; Abu-Arqoub, Omar; Hamad, Mutasem; Giacaman, Rita

    2008-10-01

    The West Bank in the Palestinian Territories is undergoing an epidemiologic transition. We provide a general description of mortality from all causes, focusing on chronic disease mortality in adults. Mortality data analyzed for our study were obtained from the Palestinian Ministry of Health in the West Bank for 1999 through 2003. Individual information was obtained from death notification forms. A total of 27,065 deaths were reported for 1999 through 2003 in the West Bank, Palestinian Territories. Circulatory diseases were the main cause of death (45%), followed by cancer (10%) and unintentional injuries (7%). Among men, the highest age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were due to diseases of the circulatory system, cancer, and unintentional injuries. Among women, the highest ASMRs were due to circulatory disease, cancer, and diabetes mellitus. Of the circulatory diseases, the highest ASMRs for men were due to acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease. ASMRs attributable to circulatory system diseases were similar for women. Lung cancer was the largest cause of cancer mortality for men; breast cancer was the largest cause for women. Because of the high mortality rates, the risk factors associated with chronic diseases in the Palestinian Territories must be ascertained. Medical and public health policies and interventions need to be reassessed, giving due attention to this rise in modern-day diseases in this area.

  5. Solid health care waste management status at health care centers in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khatib, Issam A. Sato, Chikashi

    2009-08-15

    Health care waste is considered a major public health hazard. The objective of this study was to assess health care waste management (HCWM) practices currently employed at health care centers (HCCs) in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory. Survey data on solid health care waste (SHCW) were analyzed for generated quantities, collection, separation, treatment, transportation, and final disposal. Estimated 4720.7 m{sup 3} (288.1 tons) of SHCW are generated monthly by the HCCs in the West Bank. This study concluded that: (i) current HCWM practices do not meet HCWM standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) or adapted by developed countries, and (ii) immediate attention should be directed towards improvement of HCWM facilities and development of effective legislation. To improve the HCWM in the West Bank, a national policy should be implemented, comprising a comprehensive plan of action and providing environmentally sound and reliable technological measures.

  6. Deaths among young, single women in 2000-2001 in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories.

    PubMed

    Al-Adili, Nadim; Shaheen, Mohammad; Bergström, Staffan; Johansson, Annika

    2008-05-01

    A study in 2000-2001 of causes of death of women of reproductive age (15-49) in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories, found that 154 of the 411 deceased women aged 15-49 with known marital status were single. Death notification forms for reported deaths were analysed and verbal autopsies carried out, where possible, with relatives of the deceased women. We found important differences in the age at death and causes of death among the single and married women, which can be attributed to the disadvantaged social status of single women in Palestinian society, exacerbated by the current unstable political situation. 41% of the deceased single women were under 25 years of age at death compared to 8% of the married women. The proportion of violent deaths and suicides among the single women was almost twice as high as among the married women, mainly in those below age 25. The single women were also more likely to die from medical conditions which indicated that they faced barriers to accessing health care. The fieldwork was conducted at the height of the Intifada and the Israeli military response, with heavy restrictions on mobility, limiting the possibility of probing deeper into the circumstances surrounding sensitive deaths. More research into the socio-cultural context of single women in Palestine society is needed as a basis for intervention.

  7. Perceptions of sexual risk behavior among Palestinian youth in the West Bank: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Massad, Salwa G; Karam, Rita; Brown, Ryan; Glick, Peter; Shaheen, Mohammed; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Khammash, Umaiyeh

    2014-11-24

    Young people in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are profoundly affected by violence, high unemployment, and economic hardship. Experiences of community-level violence and personal trauma increase the likelihood that young people will engage in risky behaviors that include smoking, drug use, and unsafe sex. Little is known about the sexual behavior of young people in the region, particularly in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). Our aim in this study was to gain an insight into the perceived prevalence and patterns of sexual behavior among Palestinian youth. The study was based on ten focus groups and 17 in-depth interviews with young people aged 16-24 years as part of the formative phase of a cross-sectional representative study of risk behaviors in the West Bank, including Jerusalem, in 2012. The sample was selected using a combination of purposive and convenience sampling. Qualitative analysis was used to code detailed notes of focus groups and interviews. Based on participants' reports, different types of sexual activity outside marriage were not uncommon, even in conservative communities. The most reported sexual activity was non-penetrative sex: oral and anal intercourse, and virtual sex. Some young people had sexual intercourse with sex workers; they went to brothels in Israel and to brothels operating clandestinely in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. Most respondents were of the opinion that young people did not usually use protection during sexual intercourse. Many reported that youth engage in different types of sexual activity outside marriage for several reasons: to challenge the culture, financial constraints and inability to marry, basic human need, personal pleasure, suppression, to kill boredom, and to prove manhood. In contrast with the conservative social context of the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), the findings suggest that sexual activities outside marriage may be more common than is currently assumed. Sexual

  8. Elite formation under occupation: the internal stratification of palestinian elites in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

    PubMed

    Mazawi, A E; Yogev, A

    1999-09-01

    This paper examines the internal stratification of Palestinian elites in the West Bank and Gaza Strip under Israeli occupation. Our general aim is to clarify the extent to which social and political subordination to outside rule influences the development of indigenous elites in stateless societies. In contrast to nation-state societies, such elites may be horizontally stratified into a wider range of institutional settings, and vertically stratified by anti-occupation activism alongside the attainment of occupational prestige. In addition, context-specific determinants of their stratification patterns, such as refugee status, regionality, and country in which educational credentials were acquired, should be considered. A secondary content analysis of interviews conducted by the Palestinian Panorama centre with 249 elite members reveals, that the vertical stratification of Palestinian elites along occupational attainment and anti-occupation activism constitutes two quite independent status dimensions. A multinomial logit regression shows that, horizontally, elite groups are embedded in four distinct types of institutional activity, further demonstrating the multi-faceted formation of Palestinian elites. Contextual resources, such as refugee versus non-refugee status, regionality, and the acquiring of Western credentials, have differential effects on the vertical and horizontal stratification of Palestinian elites. The implications of these findings for further research on elite formation in the post-Oslo Palestinian society and in other stateless societies are discussed in conclusion.

  9. Quality assessment of roof-harvested rainwater in the West Bank, Palestinian Authority.

    PubMed

    Daoud, A K; Swaileh, K M; Hussein, R M; Matani, M

    2011-09-01

    Rain harvesting is becoming more common in the Palestinian Territories as a result of drinking water scarcity. Although it might pose serious human health risk, this water is being consumed without treatment in many areas of the West Bank. The present study evaluates the physicochemical and microbial quality of harvested rainwater that is used as potable water in the West Bank. Samples from roof-harvested rainwater storage tanks (n = 42) were collected in summer (SS) 2006/winter (WS) 2007. Physicochemical parameters measured were: temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, salinity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, copper and lead. With few exceptions, all these parameters were within WHO guideline values. All samples (100%) were found to contain coliforms and to be heavily contaminated with heterotrophic bacteria. About 67% of all samples were contaminated with fecal coliforms. Specific PCR technique confirmed the presence of five pathogenic microorganisms that can be ordered according to their prevalence as: Citrobacter (83%) > Acinetobacter (78%) > Aeromonas (52%) > Pseudomonas and Campylobacter (7%). Prevalence of microorganisms in SS was higher than in WS. Although the physicochemical quality of most harvested rainwater samples was in accordance with WHO guidelines for drinking water, stored rainwater was significantly contaminated with bacteria resulting in significant human health risk from infectious diseases.

  10. Substance use among Palestinian youth in the West Bank, Palestine: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Massad, Salwa G; Shaheen, Mohammed; Karam, Rita; Brown, Ryan; Glick, Peter; Linnemay, Sebastian; Khammash, Umaiyeh

    2016-08-17

    Youth health risk behaviors, including substance use (psychoactive substances including alcohol and illicit drugs), have been the subject of relatively limited study to date in Middle Eastern countries. This study provides insights into the perceived prevalence and patterns of alcohol and drug use among Palestinian youth. The study was based on ten focus groups and 17 individual interviews with youth aged 16-24 years (n = 83), collected as part of the formative phase of a cross-sectional, population representative study of risk taking behaviors among Palestinian youth in the West Bank in 2012. Qualitative analysis was used to code detailed notes of focus groups and interviews. Most participants reported that substance use exists, even in socially conservative communities. Almost all participants agreed that alcohol consumption is common and that alcohol is easily available. The top alcoholic drinks referred to by the study participants were vodka, whisky, beer, and wine. Most participants claimed that they drink alcohol to cope with stress, for fun, out of curiosity, to challenge society, and due to the influence of the media. Participants were familiar with illicit drugs and knew of youth who engaged in drug use: marijuana, cocaine, and heroin were mentioned most frequently. Study participants believed that youth use drugs as a result of stress, the Israeli occupation, inadequate parental control, lack of awareness, unhappiness, curiosity, and for entertainment. Many participants were unaware of any local institutions to support youth with substance use problems. Others expressed their distrust of any such institution as they assumed them to be inefficient, profit-driven, and posing the risk of potential breaches of confidentiality. Although this study uses a purposive sample, the results suggest that substance use exists among Palestinian youth. Risk behaviors are a concern given inadequate youth-friendly counseling services and the strong cultural

  11. Political violence, health, and coping among Palestinian women in the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cindy A

    2013-10-01

    Political violence poses a considerable threat to the health of individuals. Protective factors, however, may help people to build resilience in the face of political violence. This study examined the influence of lifetime and past 30-day experiences of political violence on the mental and physical health of adult Palestinian women from the West Bank (N = 122). Two hypotheses were examined: (a) Reports of political violence exposure would be related to reports of poorer physical and mental health and (b) several coping variables (proactive coping; self-reliance; reliance on political, family, and religious support; and political or civic engagement) would function as moderators of the effects of political violence, buffering or weakening its effects on physical and mental health outcomes. Both lifetime and past 30-day measures of political violence were positively correlated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Proactive coping, reliance on self, and political or civic engagement significantly interacted with political violence to affect health in a counterintuitive direction; those with higher scores on these more internalized and individualistic coping strategies demonstrated worse health as political violence increased. Reliance on religious support, and, in particular, support from and participation in activities of religious institutions, emerged as a significant protective factor. Results underscore the importance of looking not only at whether political violence affects health, but also at how the relationships between political violence and health might occur, including the potential protective influence of resources within people's social environments.

  12. Solid health care waste management status at health care centers in the West Bank--Palestinian Territory.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Sato, Chikashi

    2009-08-01

    Health care waste is considered a major public health hazard. The objective of this study was to assess health care waste management (HCWM) practices currently employed at health care centers (HCCs) in the West Bank--Palestinian Territory. Survey data on solid health care waste (SHCW) were analyzed for generated quantities, collection, separation, treatment, transportation, and final disposal. Estimated 4720.7 m(3) (288.1 tons) of SHCW are generated monthly by the HCCs in the West Bank. This study concluded that: (i) current HCWM practices do not meet HCWM standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) or adapted by developed countries, and (ii) immediate attention should be directed towards improvement of HCWM facilities and development of effective legislation. To improve the HCWM in the West Bank, a national policy should be implemented, comprising a comprehensive plan of action and providing environmentally sound and reliable technological measures.

  13. Psycho-social reactions of Palestinian families in Israel and the West Bank following war-related losses.

    PubMed

    Abu-Baker, Khwala

    2012-01-01

    to identify psycho-social reactions of Palestinian families to personal losses during the Second Intifada in the West Bank and the Second Lebanese war in Israel. Narratives were collected from support group participants in the west Bank and in individual and family therapy in Israel. the narratives were qualitatively analyzed to identify themes relating to psycho-social reactions to war losses. themes emerging from the west Bank support groups' narratives mostly mirrored those gathered in the therapy sessions in Israel. In both sites, bereaved families exhibited similar psycho-social reactions to war-related losses. Both groups coped with loss collectively and in congruence with their common ethno-cultural background. Also, religious beliefs provided explanations. the loss experiences were ongoing and accumulative for participants in the west Bank, while in Israel it was mostly a single event. Both studies referred solely to war-related losses. the relationships of each population group with the State of Israel shaped their political, national and personal reactions to the loss. Families of "shahids/martyrs" in the west Bank gained socio-political respect, while in Israel, Arab citizens suffering war-related losses did not receive the same political respect from Israeli society, but were awarded sympathy by their communities. In Israel the situation is further complicated since the State is both the enemy and provider of material support, comfort and rescue.

  14. Molecular Detection and Identification of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from the West Bank, Palestinian Territories

    PubMed Central

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Azmi, Kifaya; Harrus, Shimon; Mumcuoglu, Kosta; Apanaskevich, Dimtry; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Background Tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. Although Spotted Fever is prevalent in the Middle East, no reports for the presence of tick-borne pathogens are available or any studies on the epidemiology of this disease in the West Bank. We aimed to identify the circulating hard tick vectors and genetically characterize SFG Rickettsia species in ixodid ticks from the West Bank-Palestinian territories. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1,123 ixodid ticks belonging to eight species (Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis adleri, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma impeltatum) were collected from goats, sheep, camels, dogs, a wolf, a horse and a tortoise in different localities throughout the West Bank during the period of January-April, 2014. A total of 867 ticks were screened for the presence of rickettsiae by PCR targeting a partial sequence of the ompA gene followed by sequence analysis. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and 16SrRNA were also targeted for further characterization of the detected Rickettsia species. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 148 out of the 867 (17%) tested ticks. The infection rates in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, H. adleri, H. parva, H. dromedarii, and H. impeltatum ticks were 41.7, 11.6, 16.7, 16.2, 11.8 and 20%, respectively. None of the ticks, belonging to the species Rh. bursa and H. aegyptium, were infected. Four SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia africae, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae and Candidatus Rickettsia goldwasserii. Significance The results of this study demonstrate the geographic distribution of SFG rickettsiae and clearly indicate the presence of at least four of them in collected ticks. Palestinian clinicians should be aware of emerging tick-borne diseases in the West Bank, particularly infections due to R

  15. Molecular Detection and Identification of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from the West Bank, Palestinian Territories.

    PubMed

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Azmi, Kifaya; Harrus, Shimon; Mumcuoglu, Kosta; Apanaskevich, Dimtry; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. Although Spotted Fever is prevalent in the Middle East, no reports for the presence of tick-borne pathogens are available or any studies on the epidemiology of this disease in the West Bank. We aimed to identify the circulating hard tick vectors and genetically characterize SFG Rickettsia species in ixodid ticks from the West Bank-Palestinian territories. A total of 1,123 ixodid ticks belonging to eight species (Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis adleri, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma impeltatum) were collected from goats, sheep, camels, dogs, a wolf, a horse and a tortoise in different localities throughout the West Bank during the period of January-April, 2014. A total of 867 ticks were screened for the presence of rickettsiae by PCR targeting a partial sequence of the ompA gene followed by sequence analysis. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and 16SrRNA were also targeted for further characterization of the detected Rickettsia species. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 148 out of the 867 (17%) tested ticks. The infection rates in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, H. adleri, H. parva, H. dromedarii, and H. impeltatum ticks were 41.7, 11.6, 16.7, 16.2, 11.8 and 20%, respectively. None of the ticks, belonging to the species Rh. bursa and H. aegyptium, were infected. Four SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia africae, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae and Candidatus Rickettsia goldwasserii. The results of this study demonstrate the geographic distribution of SFG rickettsiae and clearly indicate the presence of at least four of them in collected ticks. Palestinian clinicians should be aware of emerging tick-borne diseases in the West Bank, particularly infections due to R. massiliae and R. africae.

  16. Using geographical information systems to analyse accessibility to health services in the West Bank, occupied Palestinian territory.

    PubMed

    Eklund, L; Mårtensson, U

    2012-08-01

    Accessibility to adequate health services is a basic human right. Israeli road blocks and checkpoints inhibit access to health care for the Palestinian population. While other studies have dealt with the impact of the barriers, few are based on actual measurements of transport times between locations. Geographical information systems (GIS) and network analysis were used to generate different estimations of accessibility based on the existing road network and transport barriers. The population negatively affected were mainly people living outside urban centres and in governorates with no general hospital. Quantitative measurements using GIS can be used to confirm qualitative studies based on interviews and questionnaires and improve the understanding of the results. Working with a spatial analysis tool also helps to pinpoint weaknesses in the current infrastructure, thus improving the efficiency of future investments to improve health care in the West Bank.

  17. Attitudes toward Wife Beating among Palestinian Women of Reproductive Age from Three Cities in West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhaher, Enas A.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Maxwell, Annette E.; Kramer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    A total of 450 women were interviewed in Mother and Child Health Care Centers in three cities in West Bank, Palestine, to assess attitudes toward wife beating. Overall, women perceived wife beating to be justified if a wife insults her husband (59%), if she disobeys her husband (49%), if she neglects her children (37%), if she goes out without…

  18. Attitudes toward Wife Beating among Palestinian Women of Reproductive Age from Three Cities in West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhaher, Enas A.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Maxwell, Annette E.; Kramer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    A total of 450 women were interviewed in Mother and Child Health Care Centers in three cities in West Bank, Palestine, to assess attitudes toward wife beating. Overall, women perceived wife beating to be justified if a wife insults her husband (59%), if she disobeys her husband (49%), if she neglects her children (37%), if she goes out without…

  19. Traditional Arabic Palestinian ethnoveterinary practices in animal health care: A field survey in the West Bank (Palestine).

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Jamous, Rania M

    2016-04-22

    In Palestine, medicinal plants have continued to play a vital role in fulfilling animal healthcare needs of rural communities. However, these valuable resources are being depleted mainly due to over-harvesting, inappropriate agricultural practices (e.g., over use of herbicides), agricultural expansion, and over-grazing. Therefore, immediate action is required to conserve these resources and document the associated knowledge. The purpose of this study was, thus, to document and analyze information associated with medicinal plants that are used in managing animal health problems in the West Bank, Palestine. Ethnobotanical data were collected from Apr 2012 to Feb 2014 mainly using semi-structured interviews with informants sampled using purposive sampling technique and through field observations. The study revealed the use of 138 medicinal plant species in the West Bank for the treatment of several livestock diseases, of these 75 species representing 70 genera and 33 families were reported by 3 independent informants or above. Classification of the ethnoveterinary plant species cited by three informants or above used in a rank-order priority (ROP) based on their claimed relative healing potential has demonstrated that the following are the plants with the highest efficacy: Camellia sinenses, Teucrium capitatum, and Salvia fruticosa with ROPs of 97.1, 93.2, and 91.4, respectively, are used primarily to relieve gastric disorders. Gastrointestinal disorders is the disease group in the study area that scored the highest Informant consensus factor (ICF) value (0.90), followed by urinary, and reproductive disorders (0.89). Our study provided evidence that medicinal plants are still playing important role in the management of livestock diseases, and showed that ethnoveterinary plants used in animal health care in Palestine have been also recorded in human Traditional Arabic Palestinian Herbal Medicine (TAPHM), and demonstrated a strong link between human and veterinary

  20. Reproductive decisions in the lives of West Bank Palestinian women: Dimensions and contradictions.

    PubMed

    Pell, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    Palestinian women have one of the highest fertility rates in the world, averaging 4.38 births per woman. However, Palestinian fertility patterns are distinct from those of other developing nations, in that high fertility rates coexist alongside high levels of education and low levels of infant mortality - both of which have been established elsewhere as predictors of low total fertility rates. This study explores the dimensions and context of the contradictions between fertility predictors and rates, isolating main factors that shape Palestinian reproductive behaviour. Furthermore, while this study addresses factors that influence the high fertility in the Palestinian Territories, it also addresses factors that contribute to the steady decline of this trend. In-depth interviews were conducted with Palestinian women in urban refugee communities and key informant interviews with experts on Palestinian reproductive health. The findings indicate that five factors shape women's reproductive behaviour: (1) the fear of losing one's children in the ongoing conflict; (2) socio-economic factors including poverty and density of space; (3) the marital relationship; (4) religious values; and (5) generational differences. These results highlight the influence of socio-political conditions on reproductive behaviour and the significance of women's agency in manoeuvring their fertility outcomes.

  1. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  2. Knowledge and Adherence to Medications among Palestinian Geriatrics Living with Chronic Diseases in the West Bank and East Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Anas; Amro, Yazan; Kitaneh, Islam; Abu-Sharar, Salam; Sawalha, Maryam; Jamous, Abrar; Qiq, Muhannad; Makharzeh, Enas; Subb Laban, Bayan; Amro, Wafa; Amro, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Adequate patient knowledge about medications is essential for appropriate drug taking behavior and patient adherence. This study aims to assess and quantify the level of knowledge and adherence to medications among Palestinian geriatrics living with chronic diseases and to investigate possible associated socio-demographic characteristics. We conducted a cross-sectional study during June 2013 and January 2014 among Palestinian geriatrics ≥ 60 years old living with chronic disease in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. A stratified random sample was selected and a questionnaire-assisted interview was applied for data collection. T-test was applied for bivariate analyzing and one-way ANOVA test was applied for multivariate analyses. A total of 1192 Palestinian geriatrics were studied. The average age was 70.3 (SD = 8.58) years and ranged from 60-110 years. The sample comprised 659 (55.3%) females and 533 (44.7%) males. The global knowledge and global adherence scores were (67.57%) and (89.29%), respectively. Adequate levels of knowledge were 71.4%, and of adherence 75%, which were recorded for 705 (59.1%) and 1088 (91.3%) participants, respectively. Significant higher levels of global knowledge and global adherence were recorded for males, and for participants who hold a Bachelor's degree, those who live on their own, and did physical activity for more than 40 hours/week (p-value < 0.05). Furthermore, workers, participants with a higher monthly income, and non-smokers have a higher knowledge level with (p-value < 0.05). We found positive correlation between participants' global adherence and global knowledge (r = 0.487 and p-value < 0.001). Negative correlation was found between participants' global knowledge and adherence with age (r = -0.236, p-value < 0.001 and r = -0.211 and p-value < 0.001, respectively. Negative correlation between global knowledge and the number of drugs taken (r = -0.130, p-value < 0.001) was predicted. We concluded that patients with a higher

  3. Knowledge and Adherence to Medications among Palestinian Geriatrics Living with Chronic Diseases in the West Bank and East Jerusalem

    PubMed Central

    Najjar, Anas; Amro, Yazan; Kitaneh, Islam; Abu-Sharar, Salam; Sawalha, Maryam; Jamous, Abrar; Qiq, Muhannad; Makharzeh, Enas; Subb Laban, Bayan; Amro, Wafa; Amro, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate patient knowledge about medications is essential for appropriate drug taking behavior and patient adherence. This study aims to assess and quantify the level of knowledge and adherence to medications among Palestinian geriatrics living with chronic diseases and to investigate possible associated socio-demographic characteristics. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study during June 2013 and January 2014 among Palestinian geriatrics ≥60 years old living with chronic disease in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. A stratified random sample was selected and a questionnaire-assisted interview was applied for data collection. T-test was applied for bivariate analyzing and one-way ANOVA test was applied for multivariate analyses. Results A total of 1192 Palestinian geriatrics were studied. The average age was 70.3 (SD=8.58) years and ranged from 60-110 years. The sample comprised 659 (55.3%) females and 533 (44.7%) males. The global knowledge and global adherence scores were (67.57%) and (89.29%), respectively. Adequate levels of knowledge were 71.4%, and of adherence 75%, which were recorded for 705 (59.1%) and 1088 (91.3%) participants, respectively. Significant higher levels of global knowledge and global adherence were recorded for males, and for participants who hold a Bachelor’s degree, those who live on their own, and did physical activity for more than 40 hours/week (p-value <0.05). Furthermore, workers, participants with a higher monthly income, and non-smokers have a higher knowledge level with (p-value <0.05). We found positive correlation between participants’ global adherence and global knowledge (r=0.487 and p-value <0.001). Negative correlation was found between participants’ global knowledge and adherence with age (r= -0.236, p-value <0.001 and r= -0.211 and p-value <0.001, respectively. Negative correlation between global knowledge and the number of drugs taken (r= -0.130, p-value <0.001) was predicted

  4. Hand washing among Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: attitudes and practices.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abusara, Lara W; Odeh, Yazan M; Sbeih, Sbeih A; Massoud, May A

    2015-01-01

    Regular and proper hand washing is a low-cost and effective intervention to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The authors' study aimed to assess the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics associated with attitudes and practices of hand washing before eating in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. It also assessed parents' participation in the personal hygiene of their children. Results revealed that almost all participants believed that it is always necessary to wash one's hands before eating. Females had higher rates than males for washing hands before eating as well as for helping with child hygiene. Not surprisingly, a positive relationship existed between educational level and attitudes and practice of washing hands before eating. The authors recommend that governments, ministries, and different nongovernmental organizations have an active role in developing and implementing programs in order to improve the health of their communities. Such programs should be conducted in all localities and at all levels including homes, schools, and public domains.

  5. mHealth for mental health in the Middle East: Need, technology use, and readiness among Palestinians in the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fathy, Cherie; Jonathan, Geneva; Abuharb, Batoul; Brian, Rachel M; Kesbeh, Lana; Abdelkader, Samer

    2017-06-01

    Palestinians in the West Bank are at heightened risk for mental health problems. Limited availability of clinicians and a host of geopolitical, topographical, and infrastructural challenges create significant regional barriers to clinic-based care. The objective of this study was to examine whether mHealth approaches that leverage mobile phones for remote mental health treatment may be viable alternatives. We surveyed 272 Palestinian adults in urban, rural, and refugee camp settings. Most participants (93.4%) reported owning mobile phones. The penetration of mobile devices was high across all study sites. Males and females did not differ in their access to this resource. Among mobile phone owners, 79.9% had smartphones, 32.2% had basic mobile phones, and 12.2% owned both. Respondents reported having reliable access to electricity (99.6%) and Wi-Fi (80.9%). Almost all mobile phone owners (99.6%) reported using social media such as Facebook, WhatsApp, or Twitter. When asked to estimate the prevalence of mental health problems in the region, 61.4% of participants reported that over half of the people in their communities struggled with depression, posttraumatic stress, or auditory hallucinations. Most participants indicated that they would personally be interested in mHealth for Mental Health options such as bi-directional texting with clinicians (68.8%), smartphone applications (66.5%), unidirectional support texts (64.7%), or web-based interventions (64.0%). Given the Palestinian populations' broad access to technology and technological infrastructure, need for care, and openness to engage in mobile interventions, mHealth should be considered a promising strategy for mental health services in the West Bank. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Occurrence and fate of endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewater treatment plants in Israel and the Palestinian West Bank.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Pniela; Godinger, Tal; Odeh, Wad; Groisman, Ludmila; Al-Khateeb, Nader; Rabbo, Alfred Abed; Tal, Alon; Arnon, Shai

    2016-07-01

    Israel and its Palestinian neighbors constitute a unique venue for evaluating the treatment efficiency and potential environmental risks of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), because of their physical proximity yet contrasting societal dynamics. Israel primarily relies on advanced tertiary sewage treatment and recycles over 85% of its treated wastewater, while in the Palestinian Authority (PA), there is only secondary treatment levels at WWTPs and reuse is minimal (<1%). To evaluate the extent of EDC occurrence and treatment efficiency, we conducted four sampling campaigns over two consecutive years, and measured the concentrations of selected EDCs in raw wastewater (WW), treated WW and sludge in six WWTPs in Israel, as well as in two Palestinian plants. Low concentrations of bisphenol A, octylphenol and triclosan measured in the raw WW in the Palestinian WWTPs reflected the relatively modest industrial activity and consumption habits as compared to the westernized consumer patterns in Israel. On the other hand, hormone concentrations in raw WW were higher in the Palestinian WWTPs than those in the Israeli WWTPs, presumably because of a dilution effect associated with a higher water per capita consumption among Israelis. Despite these differences in raw WW concentrations, the removal efficiency in all advanced WWTPs was relatively high when compared to averages reported internationally.

  7. First-Time Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Livestock Tissues and Milk in the West Bank, Palestinian Territories

    PubMed Central

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Levine, Hagai; Azmi, Kifaya; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Greenblatt, Charles L.; Abdeen, Ziad; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis, bTB, is classified by the WHO as one of the seven neglected zoonontic diseases that cause animal health problems and has high potential to infect humans. In the West Bank, bTB was not studied among animals and the prevalence of human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of bTB among cattle and goats and identify the molecular characteristics of bTB in our area. Methodology/principal findings A total of 208 tissue samples, representing 104 animals, and 150 raw milk samples, obtained from cows and goats were examined for the presence of mycobacteria. The tissue samples were collected during routine meat inspection from the Jericho abattoir. DNA was extracted from all samples, milk and tissue biopsies (n = 358), and screened for presence of TB DNA by amplifying a 123-bp segment of the insertion sequence IS6110. Eight out of 254 animals (3.1%) were found to be TB positive based on the IS6110-PCR. Identification of M. bovis among the positive TB samples was carried out via real time PCR followed by high resolution melt curve analysis, targeting the A/G transition along the oxyR gene. Spoligotyping analysis revealed a new genotype of M. bovis that was revealed from one tissue sample. Significance Detection of M. bovis in tissue and milk of livestock suggests that apparently healthy cattle and goats are a potential source of infection of bTB and may pose a risk to public health. Hence, appropriate measures including meat inspection at abattoirs in the region are required together with promotion of a health campaign emphasizing the importance of drinking pasteurized milk. In addition, further studies are essential at the farm level to determine the exact prevalence of bTB in goats and cattle herds in the West Bank and Israel. PMID:24069475

  8. Endocrine disrupting compounds in streams in Israel and the Palestinian West Bank: Implications for transboundary basin management.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Pniela; Yeshayahu, Maayan; Odeh, Wa'd; Gordon-Kirsch, Nina; Groisman, Ludmila; Al-Khateeb, Nader; Abed Rabbo, Alfred; Tal, Alon; Arnon, Shai

    2017-09-12

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) frequently enter surface waters via discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as well as from industrial and agricultural activities, creating environmental and health concerns. In this study, selected EDCs were measured in water and sediments along two transboundary streams flowing from the Palestinian Authority (PA) into Israel (the Zomar-Alexander and Hebron-Beer Sheva Streams). We assessed how the complicated conflict situation between Israel and the PA and the absence of a coordinated strategy and joint stream management commission influence effective EDC control. Both streams receive raw Palestinian wastewater in their headwaters, which flows through rural areas and is treated via sediment settling facilities after crossing the 1949 Armistice Agreement Line. Four sampling campaigns were conducted over two years, with concentrations of selected EDCs measured in both the water and the sediments. Results show asymmetrical pollution profiles due to socio-economic differences and contrasting treatment capacities. No in-stream attenuation was observed along the stream and in the sediments within the Palestinian region. After sediment settling in treatment facilities at the Israeli border, however, significant reductions in the EDC concentrations were measured both in the sediments and in the water. Differences in sedimentation technologies had a substantial effect on EDC removal at the treatment location, positively affecting the streams' ability to further remove EDCs downstream. The prevailing approach to addressing the Israeli-Palestinian transboundary wastewater contamination reveals a narrow perspective among water managers who on occasion only take local interests into consideration, with interventions focused solely on improving stream water quality in isolated segments. Application of the "proximity principle" through the establishment of WWTPs at contamination sources constitutes a preferable strategy for

  9. Can people remain engaged and vigorous in the face of trauma? Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza.

    PubMed

    Hobfoll, Stevan E; Johnson, Robert J; Canetti, Daphna; Palmieri, Patrick A; Hall, Brian J; Lavi, Iris; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate how actively engaged and vigorous people remain in their life tasks in the midst of chronic exposure to significant traumatic events. We sought to identify risk and protective factors for engagement within the context of ongoing exposure to political violence and social upheaval. We randomly identified and interviewed 1,196 adult residents of the West Bank and Gaza during a period of violent conflict on 3 occasions: (1) September-October 2007, (2) April-May 2008, and (3) October-November 2008. Participants were asked about their exposure to political violence, symptoms of depression, and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, their level of social support, psychosocial resource loss, and positive engagement in life tasks. Path modeling revealed that trauma exposure indirectly affected engagement through its impact on resource loss and PTS and depression symptoms. PTS symptoms at Wave 2 were modestly related to greater engagement at Wave 3, and depression symptoms did not independently predict engagement at Wave 3. Psychosocial resource loss at Wave 1 and Wave 2 was the best overall predictor of engagement at Wave 3, through its direct and indirect effects via PTS symptoms. Greater engagement was also predicted by greater social support, being more educated, being younger, and being more religious. The relative independence of psychological distress and engagement was noted as a critical finding supporting a key tenet of positive psychology. The relationship of resource loss and social support with engagement suggests that bolstering psychosocial resources may offer a route for primary and secondary prevention amidst chronic traumatic conditions. © 2012 Guilford Publications, Inc.

  10. Can People Remain Engaged and Vigorous in the Face of Trauma? Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza

    PubMed Central

    Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Johnson, Robert J.; Canetti, Daphna; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Hall, Brian J.; Lavi, Iris; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study of the relationship between being exposed to traumatic conditions and, yet, remaining engaged in life tasks and vigorous. A national random sample of adult residents (n= 1,196) of the Palestinian Authority were interviewed in person in a three-wave longitudinal study: (1) September–October 2007, (2) April–May 2008, and (3) October–November 2008. Using path modeling, we found that those who reported greater trauma exposure at time 1 reported modestly reduced engagement at time 3, mediated by their greater psychosocial resource loss at time 1 and greater depressive symptoms at time 2. At the same time, trauma exposure had a modest direct positive effect on engagement at time 3, suggesting that trauma exposure may also activate engagement. Loss of psychosocial resources as assessed at time 2 was the best predictor of lower engagement at time 3. Greater engagement was also predicted by greater social support, being male, being more educated, being younger, and being more religious. PTS symptoms at time 2 did not independently predict engagement when controlled for all variables in the model. The relative independence of psychological distress and engagement was noted as a critical finding supporting a key tenet of positive psychology. PMID:22397542

  11. Learning Under Siege on the West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith

    1975-01-01

    Birzeit College, the only secular institution of higher education in the Israeli-occupied territories, continues to operate with 500 Palestinians attending classes on the West Bank of the Jordan River Valley even though its president, expelled for alleged subversive activities, continues to run the college from Beirut. (JT)

  12. Palestinian Children Crafting National Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habashi, Janette

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the formulation of national identity in Palestinian children by exploring their understanding of its paradoxes. Twelve Palestinian children were interviewed from cities, villages and refugee camps in the West Bank. The children express the multiple dimensions of national identity in terms of "self" and…

  13. Intermarriages between Western Women and Palestinian Men: Multidirectional Adaptation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roer-Strier, Dorit; Ezra, Dina Ben

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses cultural adaptation of Western-Palestinian intermarried couples. Using in-depth interviews, information was gathered from 16 participants, 7 Western women and 9 Palestinian men, living in Palestinian cities in the West Bank. Adaptation strategies are typified by the extent to which each spouse embraces the partner's culture.…

  14. Palestinian labour mobility.

    PubMed

    Shaban, R A

    1993-01-01

    "Following an overview of demographic and migratory trends since the late 1960s, the article examines labour force participation and analyses the distribution of Palestinian workers between the three labour markets in which they participate: the domestic market of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the Israeli market and the Arab market, consisting chiefly of Jordan and the oil-rich Arab states. Since 1982 there has been a contraction of employment opportunities for Palestinians in the latter two labour markets. Domestic job creation is one of the main tasks confronting the Palestinian administration to be set up under the 1993 Israel/PLO agreement."

  15. West Bank barrier decreases access to schools and health services.

    PubMed

    Qato, Dima; Doocy, Shannon; Tsuchida, Deborah; Greenough, P Gregg; Burnham, Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the Israeli government announced the construction of the West Bank barrier. The stated purpose of construction to prevent attacks by Palestinians on Israeli citizens. In a subsequent advisory opinion, the International Court of Justice decided the wall would block access to health care and education, and was "contrary to international law". The Barrier, with its limited number of gates, has been criticized by humanitarian agencies for limiting access of Palestinians to employment, health care, and education, but was defended by the Israeli government as an important security measure. A survey of key informants was conducted in May 2004 at 78 health facilities and 121 schools in the northern West Bank districts ofJenin, Qalqilya, and Tulkarem, in order to assess the impact of the Barrier on access and use of health and educational services. The Barrier negatively affected access to education and health care, in terms of statistically significant increases in distance and travel time to schools and health facilities. In several areas, service utilization, assessed by weekly visits to health facilities and student enrollment, was affected by barrier construction, although these findings were not statistically significant. A significant decrease in staff attendance was observed at health facilities and schools. The Barrier may have long-term effects on access and utilization of health and educational services among Palestinians in the northern West Bank.

  16. An EMIS for Palestine: The Education Management Information System in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Ronald G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the introduction of an Education Management and Information System in the West Bank and Gaza Strip (led by the Palestinian Ministry of Education) in terms of educational goals targeted, usefulness of this system for rational organization and management of an educational system, and the impact of the availability and sound use of data on…

  17. "On the Sidelines": Access to Autism-Related Services in the West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dababnah, Sarah; Bulson, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    We examined access to autism-related services among Palestinians (N = 24) raising children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the West Bank. Using qualitative methods, we identified five primary interview themes. Poor screening, diagnostic, and psychoeducational practices were prevalent, as parents reported service providers minimized parental…

  18. "On the Sidelines": Access to Autism-Related Services in the West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dababnah, Sarah; Bulson, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    We examined access to autism-related services among Palestinians (N = 24) raising children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the West Bank. Using qualitative methods, we identified five primary interview themes. Poor screening, diagnostic, and psychoeducational practices were prevalent, as parents reported service providers minimized parental…

  19. The Current Palestinian Uprising: Al-Aqsa Intifadah

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    of the Israeli-Palestinian Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Confrontation in Jerusalem ...custodianship over al-Haram ash-Sharif/Temple Mount (see below) and administrative autonomy for Palestinian neighborhoods in East Jerusalem , (2) the return of...between 88-94% of the West Bank. On his part, Arafat reportedly agreed to (1) recognize Israeli sovereignty over parts of East Jerusalem , including the

  20. Eye disease in the West Bank and Gaza strip.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, I M; Chumbley, L C

    1984-01-01

    A random sample of 9548 Palestinian Arabs living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip was identified, and 9054 (95.7%) were examined. Particular attention was directed to reduced visual acuity (VA) and its cause and to trachoma. Low visual acuity was defined as less than 6/18 in both eyes and binocular blindness as a VA less than 3/60 in both eyes. The overall incidence of low VA was 6.8% and of binocular blindness 1.7%. The three principal causes of blindness in order of frequency were cataract, trachoma, and corneal leucoma. These three conditions accounted for 66.7% of binocular blindness. Trachoma was present in 2568 (28.4%) of the 9054 people examined. PMID:6743630

  1. Justification, Perception of Severity and Harm, and Criminalization of Wife Abuse in the Palestinian Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Wilson, Rula M.; Naqvi, Syed Agha M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Palestinian adults toward different dimensions of wife abuse. A cross-sectional survey, using a combination of self-administered questionnaires and interviews, was conducted among a systematic random sample of 624 adult Palestinian men and women from the West Bank and Gaza Strip (18 years…

  2. Teaching Clinical Social Work under Occupation: Listening to the Voices of Palestinian Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokaliari, Efrosini; Berzoff, Joan; Byers, David S.; Fareed, Anan; Berzoff-Cohen, Jake; Hreish, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    The authors were invited to teach clinical social work in the Palestinian West Bank. In order to teach, we designed a study exploring how 65 Palestinian social work students described the psychological and social effects of working under occupation. Students described social stressors of poverty, unemployment, lack of infrastructure, violence,…

  3. Teaching Clinical Social Work under Occupation: Listening to the Voices of Palestinian Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokaliari, Efrosini; Berzoff, Joan; Byers, David S.; Fareed, Anan; Berzoff-Cohen, Jake; Hreish, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    The authors were invited to teach clinical social work in the Palestinian West Bank. In order to teach, we designed a study exploring how 65 Palestinian social work students described the psychological and social effects of working under occupation. Students described social stressors of poverty, unemployment, lack of infrastructure, violence,…

  4. Justification, Perception of Severity and Harm, and Criminalization of Wife Abuse in the Palestinian Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Wilson, Rula M.; Naqvi, Syed Agha M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Palestinian adults toward different dimensions of wife abuse. A cross-sectional survey, using a combination of self-administered questionnaires and interviews, was conducted among a systematic random sample of 624 adult Palestinian men and women from the West Bank and Gaza Strip (18 years…

  5. The West Bank: An Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-20

    third -... ’ . nU . .UI iI ~ I I ~ II E u u ~ ~ Y g . - - . ’- . . -. .... . . . . . working it. In other cases, they simply neglected to register...34 ( Y . Porath, The Emergence of the Palestinian-Arab National Movement 1918-1929, Frank Cass, 1974, p. 87). When the Arab Executive was set up, the leader...contributed to output and employment. 42 • { , ..-- ,h...i . .... *i. .... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . " w" . i -" .’ " .-. U. y ’ * y . y .. -g I

  6. "On the Sidelines": Access to Autism-Related Services in the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Dababnah, Sarah; Bulson, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    We examined access to autism-related services among Palestinians (N = 24) raising children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the West Bank. Using qualitative methods, we identified five primary interview themes. Poor screening, diagnostic, and psychoeducational practices were prevalent, as parents reported service providers minimized parental concerns and communicated ineffectively with the caregivers regarding treatment options. Geographic barriers and financial burdens prevented many families from seeking or maintaining services. Limited service availability was a dominant barrier: parents reported limited or denied access to education, community-based services, and ASD-specific interventions. Consequently, several families noted their children did not receive any services whatsoever. Research, practices and policies to address the shortage of services for children with ASD are urgently needed in the West Bank.

  7. Overview from west bank of Schuykill River. Philadelphia & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview from west bank of Schuykill River. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Bridge at West Falls, Spanning Schuylkill River, southeast of Roosevelt Boulevard Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Mental health needs and services in the West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Marie, Mohammad; Hannigan, Ben; Jones, Aled

    2016-01-01

    Palestine is a low income country with scarce resources, which is seeking independence. This paper discusses the high levels of mental health need found amongst Palestinian people, and examines services, education and research in this area with particular attention paid to the West Bank. CINAHL, PubMed, and Science Direct were used to search for materials. Evidence from this review is that there is a necessity to increase the availability and quality of mental health care. Mental health policy and services in Palestine need development in order to better meet the needs of service users and professionals. It is essential to raise awareness of mental health and increase the integration of mental health services with other areas of health care. Civilians need their basic human needs met, including having freedom of movement and seeing an end to the occupation. There is a need to enhance the resilience and capacity of community mental health teams. There is a need to increase resources and offer more support, up-to-date training and supervision to mental health teams.

  9. Life under occupation: citizenship and other factors influencing the well-being of university students living in the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Asi, Yara M; Unruh, Lynn; Liu, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that individuals affected by conflict suffer poor physical and mental outcomes, particularly in indicators of well-being. This study assesses the health-related quality of life (HRQoL), perceived stress and insecurity of Palestinian young adults in the West Bank. We surveyed 398 university students from Nablus (mean age = 20.1) using the SF-36 to measure HRQoL, the PSS-4 to assess stress and a context-specific insecurity instrument. A third of participants reported Israeli citizenship, and the results indicated better outcomes in these individuals in several outcomes, with the noteworthy exception of insecurity. This study is one of the first to assess citizenship of West Bank Palestinians as a potential covariate to predict measures of well-being. Because citizenship is such a meaningful issue for Palestinians and is related to individual freedom and access to resources, this study suggests that there are complex dynamics outside of typical demographic variables that contribute to well-being.

  10. General view of structure taken from west bank of willamette, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of structure taken from west bank of willamette, south side structure - Hawthorne Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at Hawthorne Boulevard & Madison Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 17. OVERVIEW FROM WEST BANK OF SCHUYLKILL RIVER, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. OVERVIEW FROM WEST BANK OF SCHUYLKILL RIVER, LOOKING EAST - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Schuylkill River Viaduct, Spanning Schuylkill River, southeast of Roosevelt Boulevard Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 11. OVERVIEW FROM WEST BANK OF SCHUYLKILL RIVER, LOOKING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OVERVIEW FROM WEST BANK OF SCHUYLKILL RIVER, LOOKING EAST. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Schuylkill River Viaduct, Spanning Schuylkill River, southeast of Roosevelt Boulevard Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING SWITCHING LEVER CONTROL PANEL. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  14. Workers' safety in the construction industry in the southern West Bank of Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al-Sari, M I; Al-Khatib, I A

    2012-10-01

    There are few data about safety in the construction industry in Palestine. The main aim of the study was to assess worker's experiences and perceptions of safety at construction sites in Hebron and Bethlehem governorates of the West Bank. A structured questionnaire was completed through direct interviews with 349 construction workers. Of the respondents, 34.6% had experienced work-related accidents, 13.0% and 65.6% indicated that their workplace did not have a first-aid kit or trained first-aid specialist respectively, 35.8% reported that their work sites did not have safety tools and 83.7% had not received safety training. Workers perceived that awareness and training were the most frequent factor affecting workers' safety, with the foreman position having the greatest impact on the workers' safety. Greater enforcement of the current Palestinian safety laws is needed.

  15. Challenges for nurses who work in community mental health centres in the West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Marie, Mohammad; Hannigan, Ben; Jones, Aled

    2017-01-01

    Nurses in Palestine (occupied Palestinian territory) work in a significantly challenging environment. The mental health care system is underdeveloped and under-resourced. For example, the total number of nurses who work in community mental health centres in the West Bank is seventeen, clearly insufficient in a total population of approximately three million. This research explored daily challenges that Palestinian community mental health nurses (CMHNs) face within and outside their demanding workplaces. An interpretive qualitative design was chosen. Face-to-face interviews were completed with fifteen participants. Thirty-two hours of observations of the day-to-day working environment and workplace routines were conducted in two communities' mental health centres. Written documents relating to practical job-related policies were also collected from various workplaces. Thematic analysis was used across all data sources resulting in four main themes, which describe the challenges faced by CMHNs. These themes consist of the context of unrest, stigma, lack of resources, and organisational or mental health system challenges. The study concludes with a better understanding of challenges in nursing which draws on wider cultural contexts and resilience. The outcomes from this study can be used to decrease the challenges for health professionals and enhance the mental health care system in Palestine.

  16. Anxiety and Its Influence on the Political Views of Palestinian Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanoun, Rasmiyah Abd El-Kader

    This study attempted to determine whether Palestinian children living in the West Bank experienced anxiety as a result of the Israeli occupation. It also attempted to assess whether their anxiety influenced their political views. Children ages 9-12, living in villages and refugee camps, participated in the study. Observations and interviews were…

  17. Education, Revolution and Evolution: The Palestinian Universities as Initiators of National Struggle 1972-1995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelkovitz, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Since the concept of nationalism first emerged on the world stage, universities have played a key role in its collective formation and dissemination to the masses. Established under challenging circumstances and subjected to the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the wake of the 1967 war, Palestinian institutions of higher…

  18. Career Decision-Making Difficulties among Israeli and Palestinian Arab High-School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hijazi, Yahya; Tatar, Moshe; Gati, Itamar

    2004-01-01

    Making a career decision becomes a major priority for adolescents during the last year of high school. The present study examined the taxonomy of career decision-making difficulties among 1,613 Arab 12th-grade students attending schools in East Jerusalem, areas in the West Bank under the Palestinian National Authority, and Israel. No significant…

  19. Education, Revolution and Evolution: The Palestinian Universities as Initiators of National Struggle 1972-1995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelkovitz, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Since the concept of nationalism first emerged on the world stage, universities have played a key role in its collective formation and dissemination to the masses. Established under challenging circumstances and subjected to the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the wake of the 1967 war, Palestinian institutions of higher…

  20. Career Decision-Making Difficulties among Israeli and Palestinian Arab High-School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hijazi, Yahya; Tatar, Moshe; Gati, Itamar

    2004-01-01

    Making a career decision becomes a major priority for adolescents during the last year of high school. The present study examined the taxonomy of career decision-making difficulties among 1,613 Arab 12th-grade students attending schools in East Jerusalem, areas in the West Bank under the Palestinian National Authority, and Israel. No significant…

  1. Serological and molecular survey of Leishmania parasites in apparently healthy dogs in the West Bank, Palestine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by Leishmania infantum in all Mediterranean countries. The Leishmania parasite is transmitted by the bite of a corresponding sand fly vector and primarily maintained in nature by wild and domestic reservoirs, including dogs, foxes and jackals. Infected dogs are the primary reservoir host in endemic regions and are the most significant risk disposing humans to infection. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of infection with Leishmania and identification of Leishmania infantum in domestic dogs in the West Bank, Palestine. Methods The infection rate among domestic dogs collected from seven districts in the Palestinian West Bank was investigated by examination of parasites in culture from the buffy coat using serological and molecular methods; based on ELISA, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and cysteine protease (CPB) PCR. Results Out of 215 dogs examined for Leishmania, 36 (16.7%) were positive in at least one method. Twenty three animals (11.5%) were positive for Leishmania DNA, whereas, ELISA and culture revealed 16 (7.5%), and 4 (1.5%) respectively. CPB-PCR on one of three culture-positive isolates revealed Leishmania infantum as the causative agent for Leishmania infection in dogs. Conclusions Our study showed that canine leishmania infection is prevalent with varying degrees in all the seven studied districts in Palestine despite the absence of human VL cases in 4 of these districts. The causative agent was confirmed to be Leishmania infantum. PMID:22937916

  2. Incidence and causes of home accidents in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, I A

    2014-01-09

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence and causes of home accidents in the West Bank and Gaza Strip of Palestine. Quantitative data were collected through a field survey of a random sample of 1882 people from the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and qualitative data through 15 focus groups discussions with men and women from diverse sectors of Palestinian society, which contributed to the interpretation of some of the results more deeply. The most important result from the study was that more women's were exposed to home accidents (40.0%) than men (25.1%). The most common type of accident for both women and men was from a blunt or sharp object casing blunt trauma or puncture wound. Economic situation of the family, family size, presence of children and place of residence were significantly associated with exposure to domestic accidents. There is a need to educate the people of Palestine on the causes of home accidents and methods of prevention, to reduce it incidence.

  3. 1. LONG VIEW OF NORTH FACE FROM WEST BANK. OLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LONG VIEW OF NORTH FACE FROM WEST BANK. OLD HAPPY ISLES BRIDGE (CA-110) IS VISIBLE UNDER ARCH IN DISTANCE. - Happy Isles Bridge, Spanning Merced River on Service road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  4. 1. A LONG VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE WEST BANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A LONG VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE WEST BANK OF LITTLE WALNUT CREEK TOWARD THE SOUTH (DOWNSTREAM) SIDE OF THE BRIDGE - Putnam County Bridge No. 111, Spanning Little Walnut Creek on County Road 50, Greencastle, Putnam County, IN

  5. 11. GENERAL VIEW FROM WEST BANK LOOKING NORTHEAST (negative reversed) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL VIEW FROM WEST BANK LOOKING NORTHEAST (negative reversed) - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  6. 7. ISLAND PLANT AND HORSESHOE DAM FROM WEST BANK (negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ISLAND PLANT AND HORSESHOE DAM FROM WEST BANK (negative reversed) - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  7. 3. Mispillion Lighthouse, West Elevation Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Mispillion Lighthouse, West Elevation - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  8. 1. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH FROM WEST BANK OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH FROM WEST BANK OF THE DELAWARE RIVER. - Northampton Street Bridge, Spanning Delaware River at Northampton Street (U.S. Route 22 Alternate), Easton, Northampton County, PA

  9. Overview of north elevation, looking SE from west bank of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of north elevation, looking SE from west bank of Beaver River, with train on bridge. - Pittsburgh, Youngstown & Ashtabula Railroad, Bridge No. 13, Spanning Beaver River, South of State Route 288 Bridge, Wampum, Lawrence County, PA

  10. Overview of north elevation, looking SE from west bank of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of north elevation, looking SE from west bank of Beaver River. - Pittsburgh, Youngstown & Ashtabula Railroad, Bridge No. 13, Spanning Beaver River, South of State Route 288 Bridge, Wampum, Lawrence County, PA

  11. Anchor Casting and Portal Strut at West Bank Abutment, Endpost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Anchor Casting and Portal Strut at West Bank Abutment, Endpost Base and Granite Plinth - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Bollman Bridge, Spanning Potomac River at Harpers Ferry, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  12. 7. STATION 'L' FROM THE WEST BANK OF THE WILLAMETTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. STATION 'L' FROM THE WEST BANK OF THE WILLAMETTE RIVER LOOKING EAST, SCREEN HOUSES AND TURBINE BUILDINGS IN FOREGROUND - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  13. 5. VIEW OF STATION 'L' FROM WEST BANK OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF STATION 'L' FROM WEST BANK OF THE WILLAMETTE RIVER, SCREEN HOUSES AND TURBINE BUILDINGS IN FOREGROUND - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  14. 1. A LONG VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM THE SOUTHEAST BANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A LONG VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM THE SOUTHEAST BANK OF ROCK CREEK DITCH SHOWING THE EAST SIDE OF THE BRIDGE. - Wells County Bridge No. 74, Spanning Rock Creek Ditch at County Road 400, Bluffton, Wells County, IN

  15. Disaster Mitigation Towards Sustainable Development in the Occupied Palestinian Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Atrash, Ahmad A.; Salem, Hilmi S.; Isaac, Jad E.

    2008-07-01

    Due to political, economical and social conditions dominating the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT; consisting of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip), the Palestinian people and government in the OPT face a multitude of challenges, in relation to governance, development, sustainability, and natural disasters. In this paper, several interventions that form the basis of some present and future Palestinian developmental and planning dilemmas are tackled. Among the challenges the Palestinian people facing are natural disasters. Such disasters have caused enormous losses and have set back economic progress in developed and undeveloped countries alike. On the Palestinian arena, the water shortages, the environmental degradation, and the land and natural resources' depletion, which all go hand in hand with the political conflict in the Middle East, are perceived to be the most significant anthropogenic disasters currently affecting the Palestinian people in the OPT. In addition, natural disasters are significantly considered a potential threat to the OPT's population. Earthquakes in the region are considered a major hazard, with low probability but high adverse impacts. Adding to this, the proposed Red Sea-Dead Sea Conveyance that will bring about two billion cubic meter of saline water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea will be potentially, if constructed, a huge source of induced earthquakes. Moreover, the future looks not so promising; due to the rapid population growth and the way the cities are developing in the OPT, as more than 50% of the Palestinian population lives in what is defined as "hazard-prone" areas. These areas are particularly vulnerable, because of their dependence on complex infrastructures. Moreover, the lack of knowledgeable professionals and technical capabilities in the OPT, in regard to disaster-sound management, is another reason for the current chaotic situation.

  16. Disaster Mitigation Towards Sustainable Development in the Occupied Palestinian Territories

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atrash, Ahmad A.; Salem, Hilmi S.; Isaac, Jad E.

    2008-07-08

    Due to political, economical and social conditions dominating the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT; consisting of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip), the Palestinian people and government in the OPT face a multitude of challenges, in relation to governance, development, sustainability, and natural disasters. In this paper, several interventions that form the basis of some present and future Palestinian developmental and planning dilemmas are tackled. Among the challenges the Palestinian people facing are natural disasters. Such disasters have caused enormous losses and have set back economic progress in developed and undeveloped countries alike. On the Palestinian arena, the water shortages, the environmental degradation, and the land and natural resources' depletion, which all go hand in hand with the political conflict in the Middle East, are perceived to be the most significant anthropogenic disasters currently affecting the Palestinian people in the OPT. In addition, natural disasters are significantly considered a potential threat to the OPT's population. Earthquakes in the region are considered a major hazard, with low probability but high adverse impacts. Adding to this, the proposed Red Sea-Dead Sea Conveyance that will bring about two billion cubic meter of saline water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea will be potentially, if constructed, a huge source of induced earthquakes. Moreover, the future looks not so promising; due to the rapid population growth and the way the cities are developing in the OPT, as more than 50% of the Palestinian population lives in what is defined as 'hazard-prone' areas. These areas are particularly vulnerable, because of their dependence on complex infrastructures. Moreover, the lack of knowledgeable professionals and technical capabilities in the OPT, in regard to disaster-sound management, is another reason for the current chaotic situation.

  17. VIEW OF THE WEST BANK OF THE SCHUYLKILL RIVER LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE WEST BANK OF THE SCHUYLKILL RIVER LOOKING WEST FROM THE EAST BANK. NOTE THE LOCATION OF THE DOCK AND ITS RAMP. PA-1-50, PA-1-51, AND PA-1-52 FORM A PANORAMA OF THE GROUNDS EXTENDING FROM THE RAILROAD BRIDGE SOUTH TO THE ROCK OUTCROPPING. - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. VIEW OF WEST BANK OF SCHUYLKILL RIVER LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST BANK OF SCHUYLKILL RIVER LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE EAST BANK. PA-1-50, PA-1-51, AND PA-1-52 FORM A PANORAMA OF THE GROUNDS EXTENDING FROM THE RAILROAD BRIDGE SOUTH TO THE ROCK OUTCROPPING - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Al-Shafie', Jehan H; Elgharabah, Wafa' A; Kherfan, Fatemah A; Qarariah, Kifayeh H; Khdair, Isra' S; Soos, Israa M; Musleh, Aseel A; Isa, Buthainah A; Herzallah, Hanan M; Khlaif, Rasha B; Aiash, Samiah M; Swaiti, Ghadah M; Abuzahra, Muna A; Haj-Ali, Maha M; Saifi, Nehaya A; Azem, Hebah K; Nasrallah, Hanadi A

    2008-01-01

    Background A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank), six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Methods Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. Results and discussion The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI), were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca) in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit) were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Conclusion Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26 % (26/100) of the

  20. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Al-Shafie', Jehan H; Elgharabah, Wafa' A; Kherfan, Fatemah A; Qarariah, Kifayeh H; Khdair, Isra' S; Soos, Israa M; Musleh, Aseel A; Isa, Buthainah A; Herzallah, Hanan M; Khlaif, Rasha B; Aiash, Samiah M; Swaiti, Ghadah M; Abuzahra, Muna A; Haj-Ali, Maha M; Saifi, Nehaya A; Azem, Hebah K; Nasrallah, Hanadi A

    2008-05-12

    A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank), six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI), were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca) in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit) were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26 % (26/100) of the recorded wild botanicals including the most quoted and with

  1. Currents and water characteristics around the West Flower Garden Bank. [West Flower Garden Bank, coral reef, Texas continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The West Flower Garden Bank is a coral reef on the Texas Continental shelf. The corals on the bank are vulnerable to sediment contamination and to excess turbidity in the overlying water column. Concern for the environmental impact on this and other banks in the region exposed to nearby hydrocarbon production prompted the Bureau of Land Management to fund a data collection effort on the Texas/Louisiana shelf which provided the data analyzed here. Data analyzed includes profiles of velocity, temperature and salinity taken around the Bank in Oct., 1980 and March, 1981. Fixed current meter moorings and a dye experiment conducted in the bottom boundary layer provided additional input. The data reveals a very complicated flow regime around the bank, with some intensification of flow around and over the bank but no movement of water from the bottom of the surrounding shelf up onto the bank.

  2. The Association Between Political Violence and the Connection Between Bullying and Suicidality Among Palestinian Youth.

    PubMed

    Abdeen, Ziad; Brunstein-Klomek, Anat; Nakash, Ora; Shibli, Nabil; Nagar, Maayan; Agha, Hazem; Hallaq, Sameh; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Juerges, Hendrik; Levav, Itzhak; Qasrawi, Radwan

    2017-03-27

    We examined the association between protracted political violence and the connection between bullying and suicidality among Palestinian adolescents. Data were collected from a representative sample of Palestinian students (N = 5,713) from 100 schools in the West Bank and East Jerusalem who completed an in-class survey. Students who were victims of bullying or bully victims who were exposed to political violence were at higher risk for suicide attempts compared to students who were victims of bullying or bully victims but not exposed to political violence. Political violence moderated the association between bullying and suicide attempts after controlling for socio demographic and other mental health variables.

  3. VIEW OF WEST BANK OF THE SCHUYLKILL RIVER LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST BANK OF THE SCHUYLKILL RIVER LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM THE EAST BANK THE STRUCTURE RIGHT OF CENTER BEHIND THE MEADOW IS THE BARN AT BARTRAM'S GARDEN. PA-1-50, PA-1-51, AND PA-1-52 FORM A PANORAMA OF THE GROUNDS EXTENDING FROM THE RAILROAD BRIDGE SOUTH TO THE ROCK OUTCROPPING. - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to the authority contained in section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision...

  5. Volatile Investments and Unruly Youth in a West Bank Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Hadas

    2010-01-01

    Building on fieldwork conducted in the West Bank settlement Beit-El, this article analyses the generational divide between first- and second-generation settlers in terms of their values and practices, against the backdrop of the new realities created by economic restructuring in Israel. It argues that the investments that settler parents made in…

  6. 14. LOW OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION, FROM OPPOSITE BANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. LOW OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION, FROM OPPOSITE BANK OF BUTTE CREEK Historic photograph no. 136, no date, held at Media Arts and Services Department, Pacific Gas & Electric Co., San Francisco, CA. - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  7. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW, LOOKING NE FROM WEST BANK OF SUSQUEHANNA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW, LOOKING NE FROM WEST BANK OF SUSQUEHANNA RIVER. PIERS FROM SOUTH PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD AT LEFT, PHILADELPHIA & READING RAILROAD BRIDGE AT RIGHT. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Susquehanna River Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River, North of I-83 Bridge, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  8. 6. VIEW FROM WEST BANK LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM WEST BANK LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIGHWAY BRIDGE PIER AND LANDED ARCHES OF RAILROAD BRIDGE. Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HAER-PS13-2000-702. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Schuylkill River Viaduct, Spanning Schuylkill River, southeast of Roosevelt Boulevard Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 2. LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM THE WEST BANK OF HAW CREEK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM THE WEST BANK OF HAW CREEK. A CLOSE-UP PHOTO OF THE NORTH SIDE OF THE BRIDGE, ITS PARAPETS AND THE UTILITY PIPES SUSPENDED FROM ITS OVERHANG. - Seventh Street Bridge, Spanning Haw Creek at Seventh Street, Columbus, Bartholomew County, IN

  10. 15. A DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM THE SOUTHEAST BANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. A DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM THE SOUTHEAST BANK OF THE DITCH, SHOWING THE EAST SIDE OF ONE OF THE ABUTMENTS. MOST JOINTS LOOK DRY, BUT WERE ORIGINALLY FILLED WITH MORTAR. - Wells County Bridge No. 74, Spanning Rock Creek Ditch at County Road 400, Bluffton, Wells County, IN

  11. Perspectives on induced abortion among Palestinian women: religion, culture and access in the occupied Palestinian territories.

    PubMed

    Shahawy, Sarrah; Diamond, Megan B

    2017-07-19

    Induced abortion is an important public health issue in the occupied Palestinian territories (OPT), where it is illegal in most cases. This study was designed to elicit the views of Palestinian women on induced abortion given the unique religious, ethical and social challenges in the OPT. Sixty Palestinian women were interviewed on their perceptions of the religious implications, social consequences and accessibility of induced abortions in the OPT at Al-Makassed Islamic Charitable Hospital in East Jerusalem. Themes arising from the interviews included: the centrality of religion in affecting women's choices and views on abortion; the importance of community norms in regulating perspectives on elective abortion; and the impact of the unique medico-legal situation of the OPT on access to abortion under occupation. Limitations to safe abortion access included: legal restrictions; significant social consequences from the discovery of an abortion by one's community or family; and different levels of access to abortion depending on whether a woman lived in East Jerusalem, the West Bank, or Gaza. This knowledge should be incorporated to work towards a legal and medical framework in Palestine that would allow for safe abortions for women in need.

  12. Libraries in the West Bank and Gaza: Obstacles and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergan, Erling

    This paper provides an overview of Palestinian libraries. The following topics are addressed: historical and political background on Palestine; the Ansari Public Library in East Jerusalem; the Khalidi Family Library in the Old City of Jerusalem; mosque libraries; the Nablus Public Library; the Palestinian Library and Information Association; other…

  13. Flying bullets and speeding cars: analysis of child injury deaths in the Palestinian Territory.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, A; Edwards, P

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that children account for over half the Palestinian population, little attention has been paid to the problem of child injuries. We examined the types of injury mortality in children aged 0-19 years in the West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestinian Territory) and compared these with similar data for children in Israel and England and Wales. We used data from death certificates covering 2001-2003. Death rates per 100 000 children per year were estimated. The leading cause of injury mortality in Palestinian children was accidents caused by firearms missiles (9.6). In comparison, transport accidents were the leading cause of death in children in both Israel (5.0) and England and Wales (3.5).

  14. Traumatic dental injuries and related factors among sixth grade schoolchildren in four Palestinian towns.

    PubMed

    Livny, Alon; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Junadi, Samer; Marcenes, Wagner

    2010-10-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) are recognized as an important dental public health issue among children. The West Bank, a part of the Palestinian Authority, is in immediate neighborhood to Israel. There are inadequate epidemiologic data among the Palestinian people, on dental health issues. To determine the occurrence of TDI to permanent teeth among sixth grade Palestinian schoolchildren living in four large towns of the West Bank and to investigate associations with anatomic and demographic factors. Eight hundred and four children were sampled and examined in Ramallah, Bethlehem, Hebron and Jericho. Data collection included clinical examinations in schools and questionnaires for demographic and socio-economic background. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries was 17.7%. Enamel fractures and injuries involving dentine accounted for 41% and 42.5% of all injuries, respectively. The most affected teeth (89%) were upper central incisors. Only 5% of the injured teeth were treated. Results of multiple logistic regression confirmed that TDI were significantly (P < 0.001) more prevalent among boys, children presenting incisal overjet larger than 5 mm, and incompetent lip coverage. The relative high prevalence and very low levels of treated TDI identified in this study suggested that both prevention and treatment of TDI in the West Bank were inadequate. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. 59. Photocopied August 1978. POWER HOUSE FROM WEST BANK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Photocopied August 1978. POWER HOUSE FROM WEST BANK OF FOREBAY, SEPTEMBER 11, 1901. AT THIS POINT MOST OF THE PENSTOCK STEELWORK WAS WAS COMPLETED. THE PENSTOCK WALLS ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE PHOTO HAVE BEEN COMPLETED. THE DUMP TRAIN IS PILING CLAY AGAINST THE FOREBAY WALL IN PREPARATION FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE FOREBAY APRON. A SMALL PILE DRIVER IS DRIVING PILES FOR THIS STRUCTURE. (179) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  16. 57. VIEW OF PLANT'S LOWER DOCK ON THE WEST BANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. VIEW OF PLANT'S LOWER DOCK ON THE WEST BANK OF THE CUYAHOGA RIVER, WHERE THREE HULETTS UNLOAD IRON ORE BROUGHT BY GREAT LAKES CARRIERS. ORE IN THE FORM OF TACONITE PELLETS COMES FROM MINNESOTA AND MICHIGAN AND IN ITS NATURAL STATE FROM THE MESABI RANGE IN MINNESOTA AND THE LABRADOR REGION OF CANADA. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. Survival, family conditions and nutritional status of motherless orphans in the West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al-Adili, Nadim; Shaheen, Mohammad; Bergstrom, Staffan; Johansson, Annika

    2008-05-01

    This study describes survival, family care and growth of the orphans of women dying at reproductive age (15-49 years) in the West Bank, Palestine, in 2000 and 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven children who were below 5 years of age at the time of the mother's death were identified. Three had died soon after birth. The family situation for the remaining 164 children was recorded. A planned baseline study could not be done at that time, due to the escalating political violence in the study area. In 2004, an average of 3 years after the mother's death, all orphan families were contacted. Of the 164 orphans, six had left the country with their fathers, and six could not be reached, due to restricted mobility. Home interviews were conducted with the 148 orphans' custodians/care-takers. Family situation and orphans' health status as judged by the interviewees were investigated, and are presented in descriptive statistics. Orphan weight and height were measured, and rates of wasting and stunting were calculated and analysed by gender. The most striking finding is the high survival rate among the orphans. With the exception of the three neonatal deaths, all orphans who could be reached were alive. Almost all lived with their fathers, most of whom had remarried shortly after the death of their wives, and a stepmother had joined the family in 85% of the cases. Of the orphans under 5 years of age at the time of the interview, 8.8% and 17.6%, respectively, suffered from wasting and stunting, all of whom were girls. These rates were higher than those in the national data from 2003 for Palestinian children. Early family reconstruction is suggested to be a contributing factor to the high survival rate. Close monitoring of motherless orphans' health and nutritional status, with a special emphasis on orphan girls, should be ensured.

  18. Musicking in a West Bank Conservatory: Toward a Sociological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frierson-Campbell, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the evolution of a sociological framework to investigate the experience of teaching and learning music in relation to the Edward Said National Conservatory of Music in the occupied Palestinian territories. The primary foundation of the framework is Christopher Small's (1998) theory of musicking, supported by…

  19. The West Bank of Israel - Point of No Return

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Palestinians with Israeli citizenship who live in Israel proper and in fact enjoy most rights of citizenship have clearly demonstrated broad support for...subjugation rather than settle for a lesser deal that denies them what they feel is their birthright and the symbol of their very being. There is very little

  20. Musicking in a West Bank Conservatory: Toward a Sociological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frierson-Campbell, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the evolution of a sociological framework to investigate the experience of teaching and learning music in relation to the Edward Said National Conservatory of Music in the occupied Palestinian territories. The primary foundation of the framework is Christopher Small's (1998) theory of musicking, supported by…

  1. Political violence and mental health of Bedouin children in the West Bank, Palestine: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Massad, Salwa; Khammash, Umaiyeh; Shute, Rosalyn

    2017-09-06

    The Bedouin population is among the most vulnerable in Palestine, subject to forced relocation and lacking basic necessities, including water and electricity. To our knowledge, there are no studies on the mental health of Palestinian Bedouin children. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted examining exposures to traumatic events and mental health among 455 refugee children between the ages of 5-16 years old, and randomly selected from 18 Bedouin communities throughout the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. Mental health status was measured using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Based on reports by mothers, teachers and children, 44% of the participants in the study had a probable psychiatric disorder. Exposure to traumatic events, fair/poor maternal self-rated mental health, and younger age were positively associated with child mental health problems. The findings highlight the importance of maternal mental health as a contributing factor affecting children's vulnerability. Bedouin mothers and their children need immediate psychosocial intervention, as well as the protection of their basic human rights.

  2. Outdoor radiofrequency radiation levels in the West Bank-Palestine.

    PubMed

    Lahham, Adnan; Hammash, Alaa

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the results of exposure levels to radio frequency (RF) emission from different sources in the environment of the West Bank-Palestine. These RF emitters include FM and TV broadcasting stations and mobile phone base stations. Power densities were measured at 65 locations distributed over the West Bank area. These locations include mainly centres of the major cities. Also a 24 h activity level was investigated for a mobile phone base station to determine the maximum activity level for this kind of RF emitters. All measurements were conducted at a height of 1.7 m above ground level using hand held Narda SRM 3000 spectrum analyzer with isotropic antenna capable of collecting RF signals in the frequency band from 75 MHz to 3 GHz. The average value of power density resulted from FM radio broadcasting in all investigated locations was 0.148 μW cm(-2), from TV broadcasting was 0.007 μW cm(-2) and from mobile phone base station was 0.089 μW cm(-2). The maximum total exposure evaluated at any location was 3.86 μW cm(-2). The corresponding exposure quotient calculated for this site was 0.02. This value is well below unity indicating compliance with the International Commission on non-ionising Radiation protection guidelines. Contributions from all relevant RF sources to the total exposure were evaluated and found to be ~62 % from FM radio, 3 % for TV broadcasting and 35 % from mobile phone base stations. The average total exposure from all investigated RF sources was 0.37 μW cm(-2).

  3. Israeli and Palestinian families in the peace process: sources of stress and response patterns.

    PubMed

    Lavee, Y; Ben-David, A; Azaiza, F

    1997-09-01

    The Israeli-Palestinian peace process is characterized by its unknown outcomes and consequences for the families involved. The purpose of this study was to identify family processes under conditions of prolonged uncertainty. Data were collected from both Israeli and Palestinian families in the West Bank by means of semi-structured interviews. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed cross-cultural differences in the perception of the situation; different kinds of concerns and sources of stress; different coping responses; and differences in dyadic interaction patterns and intrafamily processes. The findings are discussed in social-contextual terms, particularly the ways in which political and cultural contexts shape the perception of the situation and family processes under prolonged stressful conditions.

  4. Psychosocial Outcomes Related to Subjective Threat from Armed Conflict Events (STACE): Findings from the Israeli-Palestinian Cross-Cultural HBSC Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Radwan, Qasrowi; Walsh, Sophie D.; Laufer, Avital; Amitai, Gabriel; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya; Abdeen, Ziad

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the relationship between exposure to armed conflict and terror events, and an array of mental and behavioral outcomes within a large cross-cultural scientifically representative sample of 24,935 Palestinian (7,430 West Bank and 7,217 Gaza) and Israeli (5,255 Jewish and 6,033 Arab) 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old school…

  5. Psychosocial Outcomes Related to Subjective Threat from Armed Conflict Events (STACE): Findings from the Israeli-Palestinian Cross-Cultural HBSC Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Radwan, Qasrowi; Walsh, Sophie D.; Laufer, Avital; Amitai, Gabriel; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya; Abdeen, Ziad

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the relationship between exposure to armed conflict and terror events, and an array of mental and behavioral outcomes within a large cross-cultural scientifically representative sample of 24,935 Palestinian (7,430 West Bank and 7,217 Gaza) and Israeli (5,255 Jewish and 6,033 Arab) 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old school…

  6. 17. WEST SIDE OF SECOND BANK OF U.S., LOOKING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. WEST SIDE OF SECOND BANK OF U.S., LOOKING EAST. CHESTNUT ST. IS ON LEFT. DELAWARE RIVER IS IN THE BACKGROUND AT UPPER RIGHT - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Ethnopharmacological survey about medicinal plants utilized by herbalists and traditional practitioner healers for treatments of diarrhea in the West Bank/Palestine.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Ayesh, Ola Ibrahim; Anderson, Cynthia

    2016-04-22

    Folk herbal medicine knowledge and its utilization by aboriginal cultures are not only useful for conservation of cultural traditions and biodiversity, but also useful for community healthcare and drug discovery in the present and in the future. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, an ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea in the West Bank/Palestine was investigated. Information about fifty medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea, including the names of plants, parts used, mode and methods of preparation was obtained from 100 traditional healers and herbalists. This research is the first scientific work in the Middle East to collect data about plants used by traditional healers for treatments of diarrhea and their evidence based effects against this disease. The fidelity levels were 97% for Salvia fruticosa, Teucrium polium and Musa paradisiaca, 95% for Camellia sinensis and Aegle marmelos, 79% for Oryza sativa and Solanum tuberosum, 77% for Quercus boissieri, 66% for Psidium guajava, 56% for Anthemis palestina, 54% for Solanum nigrum and 52% for Juglans regia while the highest use and choice values were for S. fruticosa, T. polium and M. paradisiaca as well as the factor of informant's consensus for medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea was 0.505.The leaves were the most commonly used parts, followed by fruits, roots and rhizomes, while decoctions and infusions are the preferred methods of preparation. The Palestinian traditional medicine is rich with herbal remedies for treatment of diarrhea in comparison with other countries, but most of these herbal remedies lack standard in-vitro and in-vivo evaluations to establish their antidiarrheal effects. Therefore, the information obtained can serve as a basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies to determine their efficacy and safety which might contribute to a better integration of Palestinian traditional medicine into the national health

  8. Palestinian Arabic Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormick, James

    The vowel system of the educated rural sedentary dialect of the West Bank (Palestine) is analyzed from a generative phonological point of view and in relation to three phonological processes: monophthongization, centralization, and pharyngealization. The results of the analysis are compared with Mark Cowell's broader 1964 analysis of Syrian…

  9. Lifestyle physical activity among urban Palestinians and Israelis: a cross-sectional comparison in the Palestinian-Israeli Jerusalem risk factor study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urban Palestinians have a high incidence of coronary heart disease, and alarming prevalences of obesity (particularly among women) and diabetes. An active lifestyle can help prevent these conditions. Little is known about the physical activity (PA) behavior of Palestinians. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of insufficient PA and its socio-demographic correlates among urban Palestinians in comparison with Israelis. Methods An age-sex stratified random sample of Palestinians and Israelis aged 25-74 years living in east and west Jerusalem was drawn from the Israel National Population Registry: 970 Palestinians and 712 Israelis participated. PA in a typical week was assessed by the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) questionnaire. Energy expenditure (EE), calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs), was compared between groups for moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and for domain-specific prevalence rates of meeting public health guidelines and all-domain insufficient PA. Correlates of insufficient PA were assessed by multivariable logistic modeling. Results Palestinian men had the highest median of MVPA (4740 METs-min*wk-1) compared to Israeli men (2,205 METs-min*wk-1 p < 0.0001), or to Palestinian and Israeli women, who had similar medians (2776 METs-min*wk-1). Two thirds (65%) of the total MVPA reported by Palestinian women were derived from domestic chores compared to 36% in Israeli women and 25% among Palestinian and Israeli men. A high proportion (63%) of Palestinian men met the PA recommendations by occupation/domestic activity, compared to 39% of Palestinian women and 37% of the Israelis. No leisure time PA was reported by 42% and 39% of Palestinian and Israeli men (p = 0.337) and 53% and 28% of Palestinian and Israeli women (p < 0.0001). Palestinian women reported the lowest level of walking. Considering all domains, 26% of Palestinian women were classified as

  10. Palliative care situation in Palestinian Authority.

    PubMed

    Shawawra, Mousa; Khleif, Amal Dweib

    2011-04-01

    Palliative care is a very new concept in Palestine. In fact, it is still not applicable or provided within the Palestinian health care system. However, Al-Sadeel Society had organized a one day workshop in Bethlehem on November 2008 for the health professionals from the governmental and non-governmental sectors to initiate and introduce the idea of palliative care for the first time in Palestine. The general population of Palestine is approximately 2.4 millions (2007), with a life expectancy of 74.3 years of age, the death rate is 3.7 per 1000 population, having 8,910 deaths a year. Deaths due to cancer were 2,305 in five years (1999-2003), where 5,542 new cases were newly diagnosed in the same period. Health services available for cancer patients are hospital units either in patient or day care units. According to the ministry of health (MOH) statistics there are 75 beds in oncology departments in MOH hospitals; represent 2.7% of the total number of beds available, and 60 beds in daily care departments with an occupancy rate at 231.8%. There is no hospice or bereavement follow up care available for patients or their families. Despite the fact that the Palestinian culture is one of the cultures that respect and care for the elderly, but at the end of life, when the load of symptoms is high, most of the patient are care for at hospitals, and usually dye there, because the families are not able to care for their patients, and as there is no system for home care available for the Palestinian patients, and if it is available it is available in limited places and on private bases that are expensive and not affordable to the majority of patients, gross domestic product (GPD) per capita= 1,100 as 2007 estimates). We conducted a needs assessment survey within the only four facilities that provide care for the oncology patients in the West Bank and were filled by the direct health care providers. The results were expressing the fact that there is no palliative care service

  11. Levels and trends in the fertility and mortality of Palestinians in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Hill, A G

    1982-01-01

    Comparison of fertility and mortality levels among Palestinians in the Middle East is not easy because of the variety of demographic indices, direct and indirect, used in the different data sets. Standardization of the measures is difficult because some of the populations (i.e., in refugee camps) are partial populations, due to migration, naturalization, and definitional problems. Mortality figures show that the only reliable series for crude death rate is for the Muslims of Palestine and Israel; falling from the high 20s before 1930 to less than 6/1000 after 1970. Childhood mortality estimates are the measure of mortality used for comparison. The decline in child mortality among Palestinian Muslims is clearcut. Since 1948 the speed of the decline has slackened and in the late 1970s was still approximately 20 points above the rate for Jews. Elsewhere the decline started later, but the speed of the decline seems extraordinarily rapid after 1960. Steep declines in the infant mortality in camp populations seem unreasonably rapid. Despite the generally low socioeconomic status of camp dwellers, it seems that the health services and care offered to refugees by the UN Relief and Works Agency for the Refugees of Palestine (UNRWA) are effective in controlling infant and childhood mortality. Best data for crude birthrates and total fertility rates are also for Muslims of Palestine and Israel. These show a slow upward trend in total fertility from 1925-48, with a much steeper rise until the mid-1960s. Thereafter fertility seems to have fallen. After some minor fluctuations in fertility in the West Bank and Gaza during 1967-73, the trend appears to be downward thereafter. The Palestinian community in Kuwait had high fertility in terms of the crude birthrate in 1970, but when expressed as a total fertility rate the values are close to the total fertility rates for Gaza and the West Bank at the same time. Palestinian fertility is showing signs of a recent fall among younger

  12. Palestinian-Israeli Conflict: Department of Defense Role in a Two-State Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Palestinian territories were partitioned yet again. The State of Israel acquired additional territory, as did Jordan and Egypt. Palestinian Arabs within...Israel acquiesced to Israeli government or were forced to become refugees.12 Western Palestine became part of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan . Lands...east of the Jordan River were incorporated into Transjordan and Palestinian Arabs were granted Jordanian citizenship. Lands west of the Jordan River

  13. Reflexive Positioning in a Politically Sensitive Situation: Dealing with the Threats of Researching the West Bank Settler Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Possick, Chaya

    2009-01-01

    For the past 7 years, the author has conducted qualitative research projects revolving around the experiences of West Bank settlers. The political situation in Israel in general, and the West Bank in particular, has undergone rapid and dramatic political, military, and social changes during this period. In highly politically sensitive situations…

  14. Reflexive Positioning in a Politically Sensitive Situation: Dealing with the Threats of Researching the West Bank Settler Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Possick, Chaya

    2009-01-01

    For the past 7 years, the author has conducted qualitative research projects revolving around the experiences of West Bank settlers. The political situation in Israel in general, and the West Bank in particular, has undergone rapid and dramatic political, military, and social changes during this period. In highly politically sensitive situations…

  15. The Impact of Parental Detention on the Psychological Wellbeing of Palestinian Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 1967, the Palestinian Occupied Territories are marked by a political conflict between Palestinians and Israel. During this conflict, about one fifth of the Palestinian population has been detained; about one quarter of these are parents. Although we know that father’s incarceration might impact their children’s psychological wellbeing, little is known about the impact of father’s imprisonment on young children (under 11 years old), and when the incarceration is framed in contexts of political conflict. Therefore, this study aimed at gaining insight into the impact of parental detention on young children’s psychological wellbeing, and the impact of witnessing the detention process itself. Methods Based on the list of imprisoned Palestinian men with children living in the West Bank, a group of 79 (3- to 10-years old) children was randomly composed. Above, through schools and health centers, a comparison sample of 99 children who didn’t experience imprisonment of a family member was selected. Mothers of these children completed two cross-culturally validated questionnaires on their children’s psychological wellbeing, the UCLA-PTSD-Index and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results Results showed higher levels of PTSD and general mental health problems associated with father’s capturing. Above, when the children watched the arrest process of their fathers, scores still increased further. Younger children tended to show higher SDQ scores, and children living in villages reported higher posttraumatic stress scores compared to children living in urban areas or refugee camps. Little gender differences were found. Conclusion This study shows the important impact of parental detention on the psychological wellbeing for young children and urges for more psychological care and support for family members – in particular children – of detainees. PMID:26186687

  16. Well-being and associated factors among adults in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt).

    PubMed

    Harsha, Nouh; Ziq, Luay; Ghandour, Rula; Giacaman, Rita

    2016-08-30

    The World Health Organization (WHO) incorporated well-being into its definition of health in 1948. The significance given to this concept is due to its role in the assessment of people's quality of life and health. Using the WHO Well-being Index, we estimated well-being among adults and identified selected associated factors in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) using data obtained from the National Time Use Survey conducted by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) 2012-2013 on a representative sample of persons living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted among participants 18 years old and above. Multivariate analysis (Regression) was performed with factors found significant in cross-tabulations, using SPSS® version 20. Overall, 33.8 % (2395) of respondents reported low levels of well-being (ill-being). Neither age, nor sex, nor region were found significant in regression analysis. People who were married, working 15 h or more, with a higher standard of living, who reported participating in community, cultural, and social events, or in religious activities reported high levels of well-being. Those who reported regularly following the mass media, or living in Palestinian refugee camps reported low levels of wellbeing. Overall, about one-third of adult Palestinians reported low levels of well-being (ill-being), a finding which in itself requires attention. Marriage, employment, high living standards, community participation, and religious activities were found to be protective against ill-being. Further investigations are required to determine additional causes of ill-being in the oPt, taking into consideration the possible effects of chronic exposure to political violence on subjective well-being.

  17. Children of the Stones: Art Therapy Interventions in the West Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Julia Gentleman

    1996-01-01

    Reports interventions with individuals experiencing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder syndrome due to military conflicts in the West Bank and Gaza. Describes art therapy in six mental health clinics and its effect on the community. Follow-up plans to promote empathic dialog among mental health workers in the different cultures are described. (LSR)

  18. Childhood Trauma Training in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: A Field Visit Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobayed, Mamoun

    2004-01-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder is the psychological reaction to various traumas. It is common among children living in war zones or conflict regions. This paper describes a field visit to train mental health professionals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip on how to help traumatised children.

  19. 4. OPPOSITE VIEW OF PHOTO CA2163 SHOWING ORIGINAL WEST BANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OPPOSITE VIEW OF PHOTO CA-216-3 SHOWING ORIGINAL WEST BANK FLUME PIER AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER AND NEW HIGHWAY 190 BRIDGE ABOVE FLUME. VIEW IS A 1998 DUPLICATION OF HISTORIC VIEW SHOWN IN PHOTO CA-216-11. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Tule River Hydroelectric Project, Water Conveyance System, Middle Fork Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  20. 5. 3/4 VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM THE WEST BANK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 3/4 VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM THE WEST BANK OF THE IOWA RIVER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. PIERS FROM THE OLD BENTON STREET BRIDGE CAN BE SEEN IN THE WATER TO THE LEFT OF THE BRIDGE Harms - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  1. VIEW OF WEST BANK OF “SAFETY ROD PACKAGE,” INCLUDING SAFETY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST BANK OF “SAFETY ROD PACKAGE,” INCLUDING SAFETY ROD MOTOR DRIVES (B AND C), DRUMS, AND CLUTCHES, IN A THREE-TIERED RACK IN THE PDP ROOM AT LEVEL +27’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  2. Childhood Trauma Training in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: A Field Visit Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobayed, Mamoun

    2004-01-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder is the psychological reaction to various traumas. It is common among children living in war zones or conflict regions. This paper describes a field visit to train mental health professionals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip on how to help traumatised children.

  3. Political Graffiti on the West Bank Wall in Israel/Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olberg, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    Great strife has plagued the Middle East for decades. Israel and the Occupied Territories of the West Bank of Palestine' have been battling over the land they both claim as holy. Regional threats of war loom and increasingly violent rhetoric has been exchanged regarding the claims to holy sites, land, olives, water, and other natural resources in…

  4. Political Graffiti on the West Bank Wall in Israel/Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olberg, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    Great strife has plagued the Middle East for decades. Israel and the Occupied Territories of the West Bank of Palestine' have been battling over the land they both claim as holy. Regional threats of war loom and increasingly violent rhetoric has been exchanged regarding the claims to holy sites, land, olives, water, and other natural resources in…

  5. Persistence of coral assemblages at East and West Flower Garden Banks, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Michelle A.; Embesi, John A.; Eckert, Ryan J.; Nuttall, Marissa F.; Hickerson, Emma L.; Schmahl, George P.

    2016-09-01

    Since 1989 a federally supported long-term coral reef monitoring program has focused on two study sites atop East and West Flower Garden Banks in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. We examined 25 yr of benthic cover data to provide a multi-decadal baseline and trend analysis of the community structure for this coral reef system. Despite global coral reef decline in recent decades, mean coral cover at East and West Flower Garden Banks was above 50% for the combined 25 yr of continuous monitoring, and represented a stable coral community. However, mean macroalgal cover increased significantly between 1998 and 1999, rising from approximately 3 to 20%, and reaching a maximum above 30% in 2012. In contrast to many other shallow water reefs in the Caribbean region, increases in mean macroalgal cover have not been concomitant with coral cover decline at the Flower Garden Banks.

  6. Death obsession in Palestinians.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Al-Arja, Nahida S; Abdalla, Taysir

    2006-04-01

    The authors explored death obsession level and correlates among a sample (N = 601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The Death Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha reliability was .92, denoting high internal consistency. Among women, it yielded 1 factor, (General Death Obsession), whereas among men it yielded 3 factors: Death Rumination, Death Dominance, and Death Idea Repetition. Palestinian men and women attained significantly lower DOS mean scores than participants from 4 Arab countries: Egypt, Kuwait, Syria, and Lebanon in 7 out of 8 comparisons. However, Palestinian women had significantly higher DOS mean score than their Spanish, American and British counterparts, whereas Palestinian men had significantly higher mean DOS score than Spanish peers. The low DOS scores of Palestinians, in proportion to other Arab samples, may reflect their adaptation to strife and violence.

  7. Death Obsession in Palestinians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Al-Arja, Nahida S.; Abdalla, Taysir

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored death obsession level and correlates among a sample (N=601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The Death Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha…

  8. Death Obsession in Palestinians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Al-Arja, Nahida S.; Abdalla, Taysir

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored death obsession level and correlates among a sample (N=601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The Death Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha…

  9. Medication dispensing errors in Palestinian community pharmacy practice: a formal consensus using the Delphi technique.

    PubMed

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Haddad, Aseel; Khawaja, Baraa; Raie, Rand; Zaneen, Sireen; Edais, Tasneem

    2016-10-01

    Background Medication dispensing errors (MDEs) are frequent in community pharmacy practice. A definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice were not previously approached using formal consensus techniques. Objective This study was conducted to achieve consensus on a definition of MDEs and a wide range of scenarios that should or should not be considered as MDEs in Palestinian community pharmacy practice by a panel of community pharmacists. Setting Community pharmacy practice in Palestine. Method This was a descriptive study using the Delphi technique. A panel of fifty community pharmacists was recruited from different geographical locations of the West Bank of Palestine. A three round Delphi technique was followed to achieve consensus on a proposed definition of MDEs and 83 different scenarios representing potential MDEs using a nine-point scale. Main outcome measure Agreement or disagreement of a panel of community pharmacists on a proposed definition of MDEs and a series of scenarios representing potential MDEs. Results In the first Delphi round, views of key contact community pharmacists on MDEs were explored and situations representing potential MDEs were collected. In the second Delphi round, consensus was achieved to accept the proposed definition and to include 49 (59 %) of the 83 proposed scenarios as MDEs. In the third Delphi round, consensus was achieved to include further 13 (15.7 %) scenarios as MDEs, exclude 9 (10.8 %) scenarios and the rest of 12 (14.5 %) scenarios were considered equivocal based on the opinions of the panelists. Conclusion Consensus on a definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice was achieved using a formal consensus technique. The use of consensual definitions and scenarios representing MDE situations in community pharmacy practice might minimize methodological variations and their significant effects on the

  10. The impact of occupation on child health in a Palestinian refugee camp.

    PubMed

    Basak, Polly

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on child health in the Palestinian refugee camp of Dheisheh in the West Bank region of the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Thirty in-depth interviews were carried out with parents to determine their perceptions of their children's health. The questions related to physical, mental and social well-being, access to health facilities, factors that were likely to hinder health and measures that could be implemented to improve child health. The study was carried out prior to and during the Gaza War in December 2008 that resulted in the deaths of 1380 Palestinians including 431 children and 112 women [1]. The effects of occupation, conflict and being a refugee had a detrimental impact on perceptions of health. Interviewees revealed that their perceptions of their children's health were determined by the camp's conditions, the current economic climate, past and current political conflict and financial and social restrictions. The understanding of being healthy incorporated physical and mental health as well as social well-being. As a result, 70% of interviewees deemed that their children were not in good health. This finding accelerated to 100% after the Gaza War, showing the negative effect war has on health perceptions. Findings showed that perceptions of physical health are very much interlinked with mental well-being and parents' perceptions of their children's health, and are closely related to their state of mental health. Consequently, a clear correlation can be discerned between the ongoing occupation and its detrimental effects on mental health. Therapeutic and preventive health programmes such as child therapy and stress management that have already been implemented by the Gaza Community Mental Health Programme would be highly beneficial to both children and adults in Dheisheh refugee camp.

  11. Dental Caries Prevalence among 12–15 Year Old Palestinian Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahfouz, Maen; Abu Esaid, Albina

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To measure the distribution of dental caries in a group of Palestinian adolescents. Material and Methods. A sample of 677 individuals of both sexes (411 were females and 266 were males) their ages ranged from 12 to 15 year old randomly selected from schools in northern west bank in Palestine. Clinical examination was performed on all the subjects focusing on the index DMFT, representing the number of teeth that were either decayed, missing or with extraction indicated, or restored. Results. The prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition was 54.35% and was the highest in 15 age 75.75% in comparison to the other ages (12, 13, and 14) (40.57%, 41.76%, and 60.47%), respectively. The mean DMFT for the sample was 5.39 ± 2.85525 while the mean DMFT for different age groups (12–15) was 5.52 ± 2.766, 5.58 ± 2.745, 5.23 ± 3.304, and 5.23 ± 2.606, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was higher in females with DMFT 5.39 ± 2.854 than males with DMFT 5.26 ± 2.891. Conclusion. High prevalent dental caries was found among Palestinian adolescents and higher in females than males. Strict preventive programs should be implemented. Further research with large samples required to include all adolescents from Palestine. PMID:27437445

  12. Justification, perception of severity and harm, and criminalization of wife abuse in the Palestinian society.

    PubMed

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Wilson, Rula M; Naqvi, Syed Agha M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of Palestinian adults toward different dimensions of wife abuse. A cross-sectional survey, using a combination of self-administered questionnaires and interviews, was conducted among a systematic random sample of 624 adult Palestinian men and women from the West Bank and Gaza Strip (18 years or older). Study results indicated a strong tendency to justify wife beating in different situations, such as when the wife is perceived as having an affair with another man or as physically attacking her husband. Participants considered the following acts of husband's violence against wife as most severe: using a weapon (86%), having sex with the wife against her will (67%), and hitting her with his fist (57%). The majority of participants thought that wife beating should be considered a crime (82.3%). Traditional marital role expectations was the main significant predictor for all of the study criterion variables. Gender, place of residence, age, and marital status were significant predictors of some of the criterion variables.

  13. Exposure to prolonged socio-political conflict and the risk of PTSD and depression among Palestinians.

    PubMed

    Canetti, Daphna; Galea, Sandro; Hall, Brian J; Johnson, Robert J; Palmieri, Patrick A; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of traumatic experiences and stressful life conditions on people in low-income countries who live in conditions of ongoing political violence. In order to determine the prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) among Palestinians subjected to chronic political violence and upheaval, we used a stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling strategy to interview a representative sample of 1,200 Palestinian adults living in Gaza, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem. Prevalence of PTSD/MD for men living in the West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem was 25.4%/29.9%, 22.6%/27.6%, and 16.1%/16.1%, respectively. For women, the prevalence of PTSD/MD was 23.8%/29.0%, 23.9%/28.9%, and 19.7%/27.6%. Among men, PTSD was significantly positively associated with age group, two or more incidences of political violence (compared to none), greater intrapersonal resource loss, and loss of faith in government. MD was positively associated with experiencing exposure to one, or two or more, incidences of political violence (compared to none), and greater interpersonal and intrapersonal resource loss. Among women, PTSD was positively associated with greater interpersonal and intrapersonal resource loss, and MD was positively associated with death of a loved one, two or more socio-political stressors (compared to none) previous to the past year, one or more socio-political stressors (compared to none) in the past year, and greater interpersonal and intrapersonal resource loss. Interpersonal and intrapersonal resource losses were consistently associated with PTSD and MD, suggesting potential targets for intervention and prevention efforts and thus provide important keys to treatment in areas of ongoing conflict.

  14. Prevalence of Toxocara canis in Dogs, North West Bank of Palestine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of Toxocara canis in local districts in North West Bank of Palestine. Fecal samples from 132 dogs were collected in Nablus, Tulkarm, and Jenin cities from September 2008 to April 2009 and examined for T. canis eggs with the floating technique. The overall infection rate of toxocariasis in dogs was 36.4%. The dogs less than 6 months old showed higher infection rates than those older than 12 months (P=0.04). Vigorous interventions are necessary, such as routine coprological examinations of dogs and prescription of anthelmintics to infected dogs. PMID:21738276

  15. Potential glacial origin of the seabed geomorphology of the Porcupine Bank, west of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébaudeau, Benjamin; McCarron, Stephen; Monteys, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Porcupine Bank lies west of Ireland between 51-54N and 11-15 W, located approximately between 150 km and 250 km from the Irish western coastline. The topography of the bank is gently sloping from the Porcupine Ridge contained within the 200m depth contour to the edge at the 500m depth contour. From then on, sharp escarpments occur to the north and west while the slope is gentler toward the Porcupine Seabight to the southeast. The Bank is linked to the Irish western shelf through a low ridge roughly 100km wide to the northeast. This region's geomorphology and shallow stratigraphy is still widely unexplored although it is located critically for our understanding of the last glaciation inception and termination of the British Irish Ice Sheet. The north-eastern Atlantic shelf region West of Ireland contains a relatively pristine record of glacial ice extension from Ireland and Scotland onto the shelf, probably during the last cold period (Late Midlandian glaciation in Ireland). Furthermore, national economic interest in the region is rising with long term investment being put forward for the Irish Marine Economy. Using multibeam and subbottom data collected more than a decade ago, the seabed surface of the region has been interpreted and mapped. Bedrock outcrop, sand ridges, erosional channels, iceberg scours and ridges of various forms have been recognised. These features show some clear influence of the proximal ice sheets as illustrated by the extensive coverage of iceberg scours. Similarly, the northern edge of the Porcupine Bank and the Porcupine Ridge in particular is characterised by large elongated ridges for which the origin is obscure. These appear roughly parallel to a W-E direction with some displaying a levelling effect on one of their sides. This paper will introduce the results of the mapping effort and argue for the interpretation of the above mentioned ridges as glacial in origin. Various scenarios of the consequences of that statement will then be

  16. Constraining formation of the Eggvin Bank (West of Jan Mayen, N. Atlantic) from OBS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Breivik, A. J.; Mjelde, R.; Azuma, R.

    2015-12-01

    The anomalously high magma flux in the Eggvin Bank area has triggered new research efforts to better understand the crustal development in this area. The Eggvin Bank is located between the Jan Mayen Island and the west coast of Greenland. Some proposed origins of the Eggvin Bank are: a distinct plume located beneath Jan Mayen; an extension of the Iceland plume; minor spreading or leakage along West Jan Mayen Fracture Zone (WJMFZ); intruded continental crust extending from Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMMC); and rifted Greenland sub-continental lithospheric mantle. In this first modern refraction seismic study of the Eggvin Bank, we present a 2D velocity model based on OBS data. The OBSs were deployed approx. N-S over the Eggvin Bank with good data quality constrained by 4 OBSs. The air-gun array used during OBS shooting produced good quality reflection data. Three distinct seamounts are observed along the profile: the northern seamount (water depth 730m), has a flat top with a thin sedimentary veneer on top, which indicates it has been eroded at sea surface; while the southern two seamounts, one (water depth 550m) is less flat with around 100m thick sedimentary units on top, another one is rounded with tiny sedimentary veneer on top having the shallowest water depth (460m). This could suggest that the southern seamounts are younger, since they are shallower but without obvious signs that they were subaerially exposed. However, increased cooling of the lithosphere across the WJMFZ in the north may also contribute to depth differences. A normal fault offsetting sedimentary strata (~300 m) in the Greenland Basin indicates recent tectonic activity north of the Eggvin Bank. The velocity modeling shows crustal thickness with large variations, ranging from 8 km to 14 km, where crustal thickness changes of 4-5 km are associated with 20-30 km wide segments with thick crust under the seamounts. The crust consists of three oceanic crustal layers: upper crust (2.8km/s-4.8km

  17. Artful Teaching and Learning: The Bank Street Developmental-Interaction Approach at Midtown West School. Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intrator, Sam; Park, Soyoung; Lit, Ira

    2015-01-01

    This case study is one of five publications from the larger study, "Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education." Established in 1989, Midtown West is a New York City public elementary school serving approximately 350 students from kindergarten through grade five. With the support of Tony Alvarado,…

  18. The Seabed and Shallow Geology Mapping of the Porcupine Bank, West of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébaudeau, B.; Monteys, X.; McCarron, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    The "Porcupine Bank" is a bathymetric high of over 40,000 km2 linked to the western shelf of Ireland which lies between 51-54° N and 11-15° W approximately 100 km west of Ireland. Water depths are as shallow as 145 m over the "Porcupine Ridge". The Bank's location on the north eastern fringe of the Atlantic Ocean, in a critical position between the shelf edge and the main land and along the line of the Polar Front, means it may contain significant indications of glacial/interglacial changes in northern hemisphere climate and in North Atlantic Ocean circulation. But it also means that it consists of strategically important marine environments with very likely future developmental pressures. Peer-reviewed publications on the geology of the Bank are very limited and this current state of knowledge will hamper any marine ecosystem research and protection. This paper will describe the first results of a research project aiming at filling the gap of our understanding of the region's shallow geology and subseabed resources and characteristics. As a first step, seabed geomorphology mapping using high resolution MBES and sub bottom data have highlighted a wealth of glacially derived features such as iceberg scours and elongated ridges whose formation could be directly influenced by the presence of ice on or nearby the bank. Other features interpreted as sand waves could help understand relict or modern currents. In addition to these surface features, this paper introduces recent geological mapping of the shallow stratigraphy of the bank using 2D seismic and sub bottom profiler data collected at a high density correlated with recently collected vibro-cores. The seismic units and corresponding lithofacies (some with radiocarbon dates) are consistently described and a regional correlation built.

  19. Estimation of main greenhouse gases emission from household energy consumption in the West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Abu-Madi, Maher; Abu Rayyan, Ma'moun

    2013-08-01

    The main GHGs (CO₂, NO(x), and SO₂) have been quantified based on national energy and population statistics. The results show that the contribution of households' energy consumption in the West Bank to global CO₂ emission is about 0.016%, while contribution of total energy consumption by all sectors is about 0.041%. The results show that wood is the most polluting energy source in terms of CO₂ and NO(x) emission, while electricity is the most polluting source in terms of SO₂. Other sources like diesel, kerosene, and LPG that contribute to the GHGs emission are also quantified. The total amounts of CO₂, NO(x), and SO₂ by households in the West Bank are 4.7 million tonne per year, 3.02 thousand tonne per year, and 2.23 thousand tonne per year respectively. This study presents a set of measures that might help in reducing the level of GHGs emission and protect the environment.

  20. Compliance with the guidelines of prescription writing in a central hospital in the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Tayem, Y I; Ibrahim, M A; Qubaja, M M; Shraim, R K; Taha, O B; Abu Shkhedem, E

    2013-09-01

    This retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the quality of 2208 outpatient prescriptions in a central hospital in the West Bank, Palestine. The physicians' handwriting was poorly readable or illegible in one-third of the prescriptions. The prescriber's name and signature and patient's name were mentioned in almost all orders whereas the patient's age was stated in 54.9%. The vast majority of physicians (95.5%) prescribed drugs using their trade (brand) names. Drug strength, quantity and dose/frequency were stated in 61.1%, 76% and 73.8% of prescriptions respectively. Only 33 prescriptions (1.5%) contained full directions for use for all drugs. Correlation analysis revealed that the presence of certain prescription elements was statistically significantly associated with the clinic of origin and the number of drugs prescribed. The overall poor legibility and incompleteness of the prescriptions is of concern.

  1. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine.

    PubMed

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Jaradat, Nidal Amin

    2017-01-03

    Psoriasis is a frequent skin inflammatory disorder that inflicts millions of patients around the globe. To meet their healthcare needs, patients with psoriasis often seek treatment outside the allopathic paradigm. Use of medicinal plants has emerged as one of the most common and preferred modalities of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this study was to investigate the use of medicinal plants by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine. The current study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional descriptive study on the use of medicinal plants by psoriasis patients in the West Bank of Palestine. A sample of 149 patients with psoriasis who were visiting outpatient clinics responded to the questionnaire in face to face interviews. Medicinal plants were used by 81 (54.4%) patients with psoriasis. Patients used 33 medicinal plants belonging to 26 families. Plants belonging to Lamiaceae and Leguminosae were the most commonly used by the study patients. Aloe vera, Trigonella arabica, Catharanthus roseus and Anthemis cotula were the most frequently used medicinal plants to treat psoriasis. Leaves and fruits were the most commonly used parts by the study patients. Paste was the most commonly used form of preparation. The use of medicinal plants was significantly associated with age and monthly household income of the patients. Enhancement of immunity, improving conventional therapy and reduction of side effects were the most commonly self-reported reasons for using medicinal plants. Patients with psoriasis in Palestine seem to use medicinal plants as a CAM modality to manage their psoriasis. Many medicinal plants were commonly used by patients with psoriasis. More randomized clinical trials are needed to demonstrate safety and efficacy for the majority of these medicinal plants reported to be used by patients with psoriasis in Palestine.

  2. Herbal remedies use by breast cancer patients in the West Bank of Palestine.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Shawahna, Ramzi; Eid, Ahmad Mustafa; Al-Ramahi, Rowa; Asma, Maes Kasem; Zaid, Abdel Naser

    2016-02-03

    Recent ethnopharmacological surveys showed that herbal remedies are the most preferred modality of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In Palestine as in many other countries, herbal remedies are widely used in the treatment of many diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of herbal remedies by women living with breast cancer in the West Bank of Palestine. This study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional descriptive study on the use of herbal remedies by breast cancer patients in the West Bank. A questionnaire was distributed to 115 patients at outpatient cancer clinics in face to face interviews. The study had a response rate of 89.6%. Of all respondents, 68% were herbal remedies users. Women with breast cancer used 46 plant species belonging to 32 families. Of these, Brassicaceae and Lamiaceae were the most prevalent. Ephedra alata was the most commonly used plant species in the treatment of breast cancer. Leaves and seeds were the most commonly used parts and decoction was the most commonly used method of preparation. Herbal remedies users were more likely to use herbal remedies instead of chemotherapy. The most commonly stated reason for using herbal remedies was the belief in boosting the patient's immune system to fight cancer. The use of herbal remedies is prevalent in breast cancer patients in Palestine. The use of herbal remedies was associated with educational level, time since diagnosis, type of surgery use, and use of endocrine therapy. It was apparent that the majority of users were satisfied with herbal remedies use. Clinical trials and pharmacological tests are required to be established for the presence of side effects, toxicity and efficacy for these herbal remedies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The ’Irreversibility’ of Israel’s Annexation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip: A Critical Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    necessary to maintain Israeli settlements along the Trans- Samarian highway, in the heart of the densely Arab populated northern bulge of the West Bank...of the Trans- Samarian highway is explicitly mentioned.[134] Finally, and of particular interest, is Shalev’s proposal that Israel facilitate an

  4. Learning Outcome Testing Program: Standardized Classroom Testing in West Virginia through Item Banking, Test Generation, and Curricular Management Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, John A.

    1990-01-01

    The Learning Outcome Testing Program of the West Virginia Department of Education is designed to provide public school teachers/administrators with test questions matching learning outcomes. The approach, software selection, results of pilot tests with teachers in 13 sites, and development of test items for item banks are described. (SLD)

  5. Israel’s Settlements in the West Bank: Should the United States Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    settler movement, called Gush Emunim (Bloc of the Faithful). Although the Labor Party Prime Ministers of this period publicly opposed the building of...settlements in densely populated Palestinian areas, Gush Emunim was able to gain wide public acceptance of its efforts to “create facts on the ground” (Ibid...declared that “those who believe that Israel’s control of Judea and Samaria is temporary should stop teaching the Bible” (Eban, 1978, p.494). Gush Emunim

  6. Feedback between societal change and hydrological response in Wadi Natuf, a karstic mountainous watershed in the occupied Palestinian Westbank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerschmid, C.

    2014-09-01

    Runoff observations with high spatial and temporal resolution before, during and since the Intifada in the occupied Palestinian West Bank, allow for new insights into the feedback between changing social systems and hydrological response under changing land forms. The lack of land control and infrastructure, movement restrictions and tight closure regimes, intensive settlement expansion and mushrooming unregulated solid waste dump-sites impact on runoff generation, groundwater recharge, flow patterns and rising water quality concerns. Long-term monitoring results from a 105 km2 Mediterranean climate catchment are presented. More research will strengthen these linkages. Changing socio-hydrological context of land sovereignty and equitable water rights remain paramount for addressing the chronic water crisis, establishing more symmetrical access and sustainable management of the shared water resources.

  7. Loss of social resources predicts incident posttraumatic stress disorder during ongoing political violence within the Palestinian Authority.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian J; Murray, Sarah M; Galea, Sandro; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to ongoing political violence and stressful conditions increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low-resource contexts. However, much of our understanding of the determinants of PTSD in these contexts comes from cross-sectional data. Longitudinal studies that examine factors associated with incident PTSD may be useful to the development of effective prevention interventions and the identification of those who may be most at-risk for the disorder. A 3-stage cluster random stratified sampling methodology was used to obtain a representative sample of 1,196 Palestinian adults living in Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at two time points 6-months apart. Logistic regression analyses were conducted on a restricted sample of 643 people who did not have PTSD at baseline and who completed both interviews. The incidence of PTSD was 15.0 % over a 6-month period. Results of adjusted logistic regression models demonstrated that talking to friends and family about political circumstances (aOR = 0.78, p = 0.01) was protective, and female sex (aOR = 1.76, p = 0.025), threat perception of future violence (aOR = 1.50, p = 0.002), poor general health (aOR = 1.39, p = 0.005), exposure to media (aOR = 1.37, p = 0.002), and loss of social resources (aOR = 1.71, p = 0.006) were predictive of incident cases of PTSD. A high incidence of PTSD was documented during a 6-month follow-up period among Palestinian residents of Gaza, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem. Interventions that promote health and increase and forestall loss to social resources could potentially reduce the onset of PTSD in communities affected by violence.

  8. Loss of social resources predict incident posttraumatic stress disorder during ongoing political violence within the Palestinian Authority

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Brian J.; Murray, Sarah M.; Galea, Sandro; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to ongoing political violence and stressful conditions increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low resource contexts. However, much of our understanding of the determinants of PTSD in these contexts comes from cross-sectional data. Longitudinal studies that examine factors associated with incident PTSD may be useful to the development of effective prevention interventions and the identification of those who may be most at-risk for the disorder. Methods A 3-stage cluster random stratified sampling methodology was used to obtain a representative sample of 1196 Palestinian adults living in Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Face-to-face interviews were at two time points conducted 6-months apart. Logistic regression analyses were conducted on a restricted sample of 643 people who did not have PTSD at baseline and who completed both interviews. Results The incidence of PTSD was 15.0% over a 6-month period. Results of adjusted logistic regression models demonstrated that talking to friends and family about political circumstances (aOR=0.78, p=.01) was protective, and female sex (aOR=1.76, p=.025), threat perception of future violence (aOR=1.50, p=.002), poor general health (aOR=1.39, p=.005), exposure to media (aOR=1.37, p=.002), and loss of social resources (aOR=1.71, p=.006) were predictive of incident cases of PTSD. Conclusions A high incidence of PTSD was documented during a 6-month follow-up period among Palestinian residents of Gaza, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem. Interventions that promote health and increase and forestall loss to social resources could potentially reduce the onset of PTSD in communities affected by violence. PMID:25398199

  9. New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    A new book published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) tells the story of the founding and early years of the Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. But it was Fun: the first forty years of radio astronomy at Green Bank, is not a formal history, but rather a scrapbook of early memos, recollections, anecdotes and reports. But it was Fun... is liberally illustrated with archival photographs. It includes historical and scientific papers from symposia held in 1987 and 1995 to celebrate the birthdays of two of the radio telescopes at the Observatory. Book cover The National Radio Astronomy Observatory was formed in 1956 after the National Science Foundation decided to establish an observatory in the eastern United States for the study of faint radio signals from distant objects in the Universe. But it was Fun... reprints early memos from the group of scientists who searched the mountains for a suitable site -- an area free from radio transmitters and other sources of radio interference -- "in a valley surrounded by as many ranges of high mountains in as many directions as possible," which was "at least 50 miles distant from any city or other concentration of people." The committee settled on Green Bank, a small village in West Virginia, and the book documents the struggles that followed to create a world-class scientific facility in an isolated area more accustomed to cows than computers. Groundbreaking at the Observatory, then a patchwork of farms and fields, took place in October 1957, only a few days after the launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union. A year later, Green Bank's first telescope was dedicated, and the book contains a transcription of speeches given at that ceremony, when the Cold War, the space race and America's scientific stature were issues of the hour. The centerpiece of the new Observatory was to be a highly-precise radio telescope 140 feet in diameter, but it was expected that it would soon be surpassed by dishes of much greater

  10. Radioactivity concentration in soil samples in the southern part of the West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Dabayneh, K M; Mashal, L A; Hasan, F I

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials such as (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were measured for 38 soil samples collected from diverse zones in the southern area of West Bank, Palestine using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The measured activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were found to range from 32.9 to 104.7, 14.5 to 76.6 and 297 to 962 Bq kg(-1) with averages value of 68.7, 48.0 and 630 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The obtained values of activity concentrations are higher than the world average of 35, 30 and 500 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The measured (137)Cs activity concentration was found to range from 1.8 to 36.1 Bq kg(-1) with an average value of 8.5 Bq kg(-1). The detected activities were attributed to the fallout of (137)Cs, which is the only man-made radionuclide. The calculated average of the total gamma-radiation dose rate of natural radionuclides, (137)Cs and cosmic radiation is 121.4 nGy h(-1). The radium equivalent activity (R(aeq)), dose rate (D(r)), external hazard index (H(ex)) and radioactivity level index (I(gamma)) in all samples are presented. Some values were found to be in the range of worldwide values, whereas others were above the worldwide values.

  11. Blood zinc levels in nursing women from different regions of the West Bank of Palestine.

    PubMed

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Zyoud, Ahed; Jallad, Donia; Hadwan, Labebah; Ihssan, Neeran; Hilal, Hikmat

    2017-07-06

    Pregnant and nursing women are at higher risk of zinc deficiency which can have detrimental consequences on health. We assessed blood zinc levels in 72 nursing women from the West Bank of Palestine and investigated the association between sociodemographic variables and blood zinc levels. Blood samples were analyzed for their zinc contents using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Blood and data collection were performed between July and December 2016. The median blood zinc level was 4.53 mg/L (interquartile range of 0.38 mg/L). In unadjusted analyses, blood zinc levels were higher in nursing women who lived in cities (p-value <.001), had higher household income (p-value <.001), whose husbands had a white collar job (p-value <.05), were nonsmokers (p-value <.05), did not use hair dyes (p-value <.05), and consumed energy beverages (p-value <.001). Multiple linear analysis showed that living in cities and consuming energy beverages remained significantly associated with higher blood zinc levels (p-value <.05). Blood zinc levels were in the range previously reported for similar non-malnourished populations. Nursing women living in cities and those consuming energy beverages tended to have higher blood zinc levels. Urbanized lifestyle might have enhanced blood zinc levels in nursing women.

  12. Diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia in West-Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Dalal, Salah A; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Al-Ali, Iyad

    2013-03-01

    The main aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with schizophrenia, to compare it with those published in the general population, and to assess significant associations with dysglycemia defined as having either pre-DM or DM. A cross-sectional study carried out in 4 governmental primary psychiatric healthcare centers in Northern West-Bank, Palestine. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for defining pre-DM and DM were used. Dysglycemia was defined as FBG >110mg/dl. Based on WHO criteria, 27 patients (10.8%) had diabetes and 34 (13.6%) had pre-diabetes. The prevalence of DM in patients with schizophrenia was not significantly higher than that reported in the general population of Palestine. However, the prevalence of pre-DM was significantly higher than that reported in the general population of Palestine. Regression analysis showed that advancing age and abnormal waist circumference were significant predictors of dysglycemia in patients with schizophrenia. This study confirmed the high prevalence of dysglycemia in patients with schizophrenia, supporting the need for monitoring of blood glucose in this category of patients. The presence of primary risk factors is more important in the development of dysglycemia in patients with schizophrenia than exposure to antipsychotic drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Public Exposure from Indoor Radiofrequency Radiation in the City of Hebron, West Bank-Palestine.

    PubMed

    Lahham, Adnan; Sharabati, Afefeh; ALMasri, Hussien

    2015-08-01

    This work presents the results of measured indoor exposure levels to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitting sources in one of the major cities in the West Bank-the city of Hebron. Investigated RF emitters include FM, TV broadcasting stations, mobile telephony base stations, cordless phones [Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT)], and wireless local area networks (WLAN). Measurements of power density were conducted in 343 locations representing different site categories in the city. The maximum total power density found at any location was about 2.3 × 10 W m with a corresponding exposure quotient of about 0.01. This value is well below unity, indicating compliance with the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The average total exposure from all RF sources was 0.08 × 10 W m. The relative contributions from different sources to the total exposure in terms of exposure quotient were evaluated and found to be 46% from FM radio, 26% from GSM900, 15% from DECT phones, 9% from WLAN, 3% from unknown sources, and 1% from TV broadcasting. RF sources located outdoors contribute about 73% to the population exposure indoors.

  14. Quality of death notification forms in North West Bank/Palestine: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Qaddumi, Jamal A S; Nazzal, Zaher; Yacoup, Allam R S; Mansour, Mahmoud

    2017-04-11

    The death notification forms (DNFs) are important documents. Thus, inability to fill it properly by physicians will affect the national mortality report and, consequently, the evidence-based decision making. The errors in filling DNFs are common all over the world and are different in types and causes. We aimed to evaluate the quality of DNFs in terms of completeness and types of errors in the cause of death section. A descriptive study was conducted to review 2707 DNFs in North West Bank/Palestine during the year 2012 using data abstraction sheets. SPSS 17.0 was used to show the frequency of major and minor errors committed in filling the DNFs. Surprisingly, only 1% of the examined DNFs had their cause of death section filled completely correct. The immediate cause of death was correctly identified in 5.9% of all DNFs and the underlying cause of death was correctly reported in 55.4% of them. The sequence was incorrect in 41.5% of the DNFs. The most frequently documented minor error was "Not writing Time intervals" error (97.0%). Almost all DNFs contained at least one minor or major error. This high percentage of errors may affect the mortality and morbidity statistics, public health research and the process of providing evidence for health policy. Training workshops on DNF completion for newly recruited employees and at the beginning of the residency program are recommended on a regular basis. As well, we recommend reviewing the national DNFs to simplify it and make it consistent with updated evidence-based guidelines and recommendation.

  15. Breast Milk Lead Levels in 3 Major Regions of the West Bank of Palestine.

    PubMed

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Zyoud, Ahed; Dwikat, Jamela; El-Helo, Maram; Yacoub, Bayan; Hilal, Hikmat

    2016-08-01

    Lead is a neurotoxic pollutant that is ubiquitously spread in our environment. Breast milk contaminated with lead poses a potential risk of exposing a recipient infant to lead. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the breast milk lead levels (BMLLs) in breastfeeding mothers in 3 major regions of the West Bank of Palestine and to investigate the effects of some sociodemographic variables on the BMLLs. Breast milk samples were collected from 89 breastfeeding mothers from the Nablus, Ramallah, and Jerusalem regions and analyzed for their BMLLs using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Breastfeeding mothers were interviewed and responded to a sociodemographic questionnaire. The median BMLL was 4.0 µg/L, ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 µg/L. Breast milk lead levels in 19.1% of the samples analyzed were higher than the World Health Organization's safety limits of 2.0 to 5.0 µg/L for an occupationally unexposed population. Breast milk lead levels were significantly higher in breast milk of mothers who lived in cities and refugee camps (P < .01), had lower monthly household income levels (P < .05), lived close to paint shops (P < .05), lived in houses with peeling or chipping paint (P < .05), used eye kohl (P < .01), and worked in agriculture for a duration longer than 3 years (P < .01). Breast milk lead levels were higher than the safety limits for occupationally unexposed populations. Authorities need to implement measures to eliminate or reduce lead exposure, especially in refugee camps and cities. Marketed eye kohl preparations should be tested for their lead contents. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC EXPOSURE FORM WLANS IN THE WEST BANK-PALESTINE.

    PubMed

    Lahham, Adnan; Sharabati, Afifeh; ALMasri, Hussein

    2017-03-03

    A total of 271 measurements were conducted at 69 different sites including homes, hospitals, educational institutions and other public places to assess the exposure to radiofrequency emission from wireless local area networks (WLANs). Measurements were conducted at different distances from 40 to 10 m from the access points (APs) in real life conditions using Narda SRM-3000 selective radiation meter. Three measurements modes were considered at 1 m distance from the AP which are transmit mode, idle mode, and from the client card (laptop computer). All measurements were conducted indoor in the West Bank environment. Power density levels from WLAN systems were found to vary from 0.001 to ~1.9 μW cm-2 with an average of 0.12 μW cm-2. Maximum value found was in university environment, while the minimum was found in schools. For one measurement case where the AP was 20 cm far while transmitting large files, the measured power density reached a value of ~4.5 μW cm-2. This value is however 221 times below the general public exposure limit recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, which was not exceeded in any case. Measurements of power density at 1 m around the laptop resulted in less exposure than the AP in both transmit and idle modes as well. Specific absorption rate for the head of the laptop user was estimated and found to vary from 0.1 to 2 mW/kg. The frequency distribution of measured power densities follows a log-normal distribution which is generally typical in the assessment of exposure resulting from sources of radiofrequency emissions.

  17. beta(S)-Globin gene cluster haplotypes in the West Bank of Palestine.

    PubMed

    Samarah, Fekri; Ayesh, Suhail; Athanasiou, Miranda; Christakis, John; Vavatsi, Norma

    2009-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder of the beta-globin chain. In Palestine it is accompanied by a low level of Hb F (mean 5.14%) and a severe clinical presentation. In this study, 59 Palestinian patients, homozygotes for Hb S were studied for their haplotype background. Eight polymorphic sites in the beta-globin gene cluster were examined. The Benin haplotype was predominant with a frequency of 88.1%, followed by a frequency of 5.1% for the Bantu haplotype. One chromosome was found to carry the Cameroon haplotype (0.85%). Three atypical haplotypes were also found (5.95%). Heterogeneity was observed in Hb F production, ranging between 1.5 and 17.0%, whereas the (G)gamma ratio was homogeneous among all haplotypes with a normal amount of about 41%. Our results are in agreement with previous reports of the Benin haplotype origin in the Mediterranean.

  18. Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khatib, Issam A.; Arafat, Hassan A. Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2009-01-15

    Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe.

  19. Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Arafat, Hassan A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2009-01-01

    Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe.

  20. Farmers' attitude toward treated sludge use in the villages of West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Md M; Kattou'a, Mary G; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Sato, Chikashi

    2017-07-01

    An application of treated sewage sludge on agricultural land has been widely accepted, as this method is simple and economical for disposal of wastewater residues. When applied properly on an agricultural land, sludge can replenish organic matter and nutrients in soil. Although sewage sludge has been used in agriculture in many parts of the world, its acceptability varies with different cultures and beliefs among farmers. Farmers' concerns on sludge use are primarily due to its anthropogenic origin, pollutants that it carries, a general perception of sewage being dirty, and its offensive odor. This paper aims to investigate farmers' perceptions on land application of treated sewage sludge on their farm. This study targeted two farming communities, namely, Anza and Beit Dajan villages, located in Jenin and Nablus districts in the West Bank, Palestine. In this study, a sample of 106 farmers were randomly selected and surveyed through a mixture of structured and open-ended questions. Results indicated that, overall, farmers have positive perceptions on land application of sludge. A majority of the farmers are in favor of the concept of sludge use when a planned wastewater treatment plant is constructed and it becomes operational. Results also indicate that a majority of the farmers are in favor of using sludge for fertilizing fruit trees, rather than growing vegetables and other plants in a greenhouse, and that many of them have knowledge of sludge properties and advantages and disadvantages of sludge use in agriculture. Despite the positive perceptions by the majority of farmers, a small fraction of the farmers are in disfavor of the use of sludge for the following reasons: psychological and social concerns, potential health risks, and their religious beliefs. Results further suggest that the land application of treated sewage sludge can be accepted by more farmers if the consumers are willing to buy agricultural products fertilized by sludge, sludge meets the public

  1. Measuring and decomposing socioeconomic inequality in healthcare delivery: A microsimulation approach with application to the Palestinian conflict-affected fragile setting.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad; Mataria, Awad; Moatti, Jean-Paul; Ventelou, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Socioeconomic-related inequalities in healthcare delivery have been extensively studied in developed countries, using standard linear models of decomposition. This paper seeks to assess equity in healthcare delivery in the particular context of the occupied Palestinian territory: the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, using a new method of decomposition based on microsimulations. Besides avoiding the 'unavoidable price' of linearity restriction that is imposed by the standard methods of decomposition, the microsimulation-based decomposition enables to circumvent the potentially contentious role of heterogeneity in behaviours and to better disentangle the various sources driving inequality in healthcare utilisation. Results suggest that the worse-off do have a disproportinately greater need for all levels of care. However with the exception of primary-level, utilisation of all levels of care appears to be significantly higher for the better-off. The microsimulation method has made it possible to identify the contributions of factors driving such pro-rich patterns. While much of the inequality in utilisation appears to be caused by the prevailing socioeconomic inequalities, detailed analysis attributes a non-trivial part (circa 30% of inequalities) to heterogeneity in healthcare-seeking behaviours across socioeconomic groups of the population. Several policy recommendations for improving equity in healthcare delivery in the occupied Palestinian territory are proposed.

  2. Israel's Bir Zeit University: A Center for Palestinian Nationalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Staughton

    1981-01-01

    Located in Israel's West Bank area, BirZeit University has always been and remains the central incubator of West Bank intellectual radicalism in Israel. The majority of law-abiding, serious students are actually afraid, or intimidated, of speaking out against the PLO or its campus supporters. (MLW)

  3. Recent Trends in Palestinian Terrorism,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    PALESTINIAN CONNECTION ASALA has long enjoyed a close working relationship with the PLO. In 1975, the Armenian nationals who went on to form ASALA ...trained under Fatah’s auspices in Lebanon. Over time, however, ASALA drifted away from the comparatively "moderate" Fatah to more radical, ideologically...oriented Marxist-Leninist groups like the PFLP and PFLP-GC.2 When Hapog Hagopian, the reputed leader of ASALA , was asked during an interview in

  4. The rates and characteristics of the exposure of Palestinian youth to community violence.

    PubMed

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Leshem, Becky; Guterman, Neil B

    2013-07-01

    The article presents the results of a study that explored the rates and characteristics of exposure to community violence (CV) and its relevance to several sociodemographic factors among a sample of 1,930 Palestinian youth (1,018 girls and 912 boys), aged 12 to 19 years residing in diverse residential areas in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. The frequency of boys' exposure to CV during the previous 12 months was significantly higher than among girls. The frequency of witnessing CV during that period was higher than the frequency of personally experiencing CV, and exposure to mild CV incidents during that period was higher than the frequency of exposure to severe CV incidents during the same period, with no significant relationship to sociodemographic factors. Participants reported higher rates of witnessing most CV incidents outside of the neighborhood. Nonetheless, they reported higher rates of experiencing most incidents of CV inside the participants' neighborhood. The implications of the results for theory development and future research are discussed.

  5. Adherence to medications and associated factors: A cross-sectional study among Palestinian hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Ramahi, Rowa'

    2015-06-01

    To assess adherence of Palestinian hypertensive patients to therapy and to investigate the effect of a range of demographic and psychosocial variables on medication adherence. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken at a group of outpatient clinics of the Ministry of Health, in addition to a group of private clinics and pharmacies in the West Bank. Social and demographic variables and self-reported drug adherence (Morisky scale) were determined for each patient. Low adherence with medications was present in 244 (54.2%) of the patients. The multivariate logistic regression showed that younger age (<45 years), living in a village compared with a city, evaluating health status as very good, good or poor compared with excellent, forgetfulness, fear of getting used to medication, adverse effect, and dissatisfaction with treatment had a statistically significant association with lower levels of medication adherence (P<0.05). Poor adherence to medications was very common. The findings of this study may be used to identify the subset of population at risk of poor adherence who should be targeted for interventions to achieve better blood pressure control and hence prevent complications. This study should encourage the health policy makers in Palestine to implement strategies to reduce non-compliance, and thus contribute toward reducing national health care expenditures. Better patient education and communication with healthcare professionals could improve some factors that decrease adherence such as forgetfulness and dissatisfaction with treatment. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Limits of Resilience: Distress Following Chronic Political Violence among Palestinians

    PubMed Central

    Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Mancini, Anthony D.; Hall, Brian J.; Canetti, Daphna; Bonanno, George A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptom trajectories during ongoing exposure to political violence, seeking to identify psychologically resilient individuals and the factors that predict resilience. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a random sample of 1196 Palestinian adult residents of the West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem across three occasions, six months apart (September, 2007–November,2008). Latent growth mixture modeling identified PTSD, and depression symptom trajectories. Results identified three PTSD trajectories: moderate-improving (73% moderate symptoms at baseline, improving over time), severe-chronic (23.2% severe and elevated symptoms over the entire year); and severe-improving (3.5% severe symptoms at baseline and marked improvement over time). Depression trajectories were moderate-improving (61.5%); severe-chronic (24.4%); severe-improving (14.4%). Predictors of relatively less severe initial symptom severity, and improvement over time for PTSD were less political violence exposure and less resource loss; and for depression were younger age, less political violence exposure, lower resource loss, and greater social support. Loss of psychosocial and material resources was associated with the level of distress experienced by participants at each time period, suggesting that resource-based interventions that target personal, social and financial resources could benefit people exposed to chronic trauma. PMID:21440348

  7. Political violence, psychological distress, and perceived health: A longitudinal investigation in the Palestinian Authority

    PubMed Central

    Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Hall, Brian J.; Canetti, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    One thousand one hundred and ninety six Palestinian adults living in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem were interviewed beginning in September 2007 and again at 6- and 12-month intervals. Using structural equation modeling, we focused on the effects of exposure to political violence, psychosocial and economic resource loss, and social support, on psychological distress, and the association of each of these variables on subjective health. Our proposed mediation model was partially supported. Exposure to political violence, psychosocial resource loss, and social support were related to subjective health, fully mediated by their relationship with psychological distress. Female sex and being older were also directly related to poorer subjective health and partially mediated via psychological distress. Greater economic resource loss, lower income, and poorer education were directly related to poor subjective health. An alternative model exploring subjective health as a mediator of psychological distress revealed that subjective health partially mediated the relationship between resource loss and psychological distress. The associate between female sex, education, income, and age on psychological distress were fully mediated by subjective health. Social support and exposure to political violence were directly related to psychological distress. These results were discussed in terms of the importance of resource loss on both mental and physical health in regions of chronic political violence and potential intervention strategies. PMID:22328960

  8. The limits of resilience: distress following chronic political violence among Palestinians.

    PubMed

    Hobfoll, Stevan E; Mancini, Anthony D; Hall, Brian J; Canetti, Daphna; Bonanno, George A

    2011-04-01

    We examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptom trajectories during ongoing exposure to political violence, seeking to identify psychologically resilient individuals and the factors that predict resilience. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a random sample of 1196 Palestinian adult residents of the West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem across three occasions, six months apart (September 2007-November 2008). Latent growth mixture modeling identified PTSD, and depression symptom trajectories. Results identified three PTSD trajectories: moderate-improving (73% moderate symptoms at baseline, improving over time), severe-chronic (23.2% severe and elevated symptoms over the entire year); and severe-improving (3.5% severe symptoms at baseline and marked improvement over time). Depression trajectories were moderate-improving (61.5%); severe-chronic (24.4%); severe-improving (14.4%). Predictors of relatively less severe initial symptom severity, and improvement over time for PTSD were less political violence exposure and less resource loss; and for depression were younger age, less political violence exposure, lower resource loss, and greater social support. Loss of psychosocial and material resources was associated with the level of distress experienced by participants at each time period, suggesting that resource-based interventions that target personal, social, and financial resources could benefit people exposed to chronic trauma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Political violence, psychological distress, and perceived health: A longitudinal investigation in the Palestinian Authority.

    PubMed

    Hobfoll, Stevan E; Hall, Brian J; Canetti, Daphna

    2012-01-01

    One thousand one hundred and ninety six Palestinian adults living in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem were interviewed beginning in September 2007 and again at 6- and 12-month intervals. Using structural equation modeling, we focused on the effects of exposure to political violence, psychosocial and economic resource loss, and social support, on psychological distress, and the association of each of these variables on subjective health. Our proposed mediation model was partially supported. Exposure to political violence, psychosocial resource loss, and social support were related to subjective health, fully mediated by their relationship with psychological distress. Female sex and being older were also directly related to poorer subjective health and partially mediated via psychological distress. Greater economic resource loss, lower income, and poorer education were directly related to poor subjective health. An alternative model exploring subjective health as a mediator of psychological distress revealed that subjective health partially mediated the relationship between resource loss and psychological distress. The associate between female sex, education, income, and age on psychological distress were fully mediated by subjective health. Social support and exposure to political violence were directly related to psychological distress. These results were discussed in terms of the importance of resource loss on both mental and physical health in regions of chronic political violence and potential intervention strategies.

  10. Multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among Israeli and Palestinian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2012-07-01

    Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior.

  11. Palestinian women's sexual and reproductive health rights in a longstanding humanitarian crisis.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Marleen; Nasser, Dina; Khammash, Umaiyeh; Claeys, Patricia; Temmerman, Marleen

    2008-05-01

    This paper results from a study conducted in the Occupied Palestinian Territory in September 2002 to test the usefulness of a guide for a comprehensive approach to sexual and reproductive health rights and needs of refugee women. In-depth interviews with key informants from 19 organisations and two focus group discussions were carried out in the West Bank and Gaza. Three refugee camps were visited as well as five health facilities. The findings revealed that severe restrictions on mobility had reduced access to health facilities for both staff and patients in a significant way. For pregnant women, this had resulted in decreased access to antenatal and post-natal care and an increasing number of home deliveries, induced deliveries and deliveries at military checkpoints. Lack of donor interest and withdrawal of donor support were mentioned as hampering the implementation of the National Reproductive Health Guidelines, and the sustainability and quality of existing sexual and reproductive health services. Family planning had become a politically sensitive issue, and there were indications of increased gender-based violence. Lack of access to reproductive health services was the most visible aspect of the impact of the conflict on women's sexual and reproductive health. Little attention is paid to the less visible evidence that women's reproductive rights have been subordinated to the political situation.

  12. Teaching Hebrew to Palestinian Pupils in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amara, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    Hebrew as a second language is not only taught to Israeli Palestinians, but also to adult immigrants and their young children. However, in the case of immigrants the purpose is to replace their immigrant language with Hebrew, while among Israeli Palestinians it is acknowledged as additive. Hebrew is a compulsory language for Israeli Palestinian…

  13. The ridges of the northern Porcupine Bank, west of Ireland: discussion on their structure, sedimentology and potential subglacial origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébaudeau, Benjamin; McCarron, Stephen; Monteys, Xavier; Renken, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Recent publications have highlighted the over-consolidation of diamicts found in shallow sediment cores on or near seabed ridges from the north east of the Porcupine Bank, a bathymetric high >150km west of central Ireland in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. These observations have led to the interpretation of ridges there as potential end or lateral moraines constraining a maximum advance of the British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) dated to between 24,720 and 19,182 Cal. BP. Other cores further east on the western outer Irish shelf are dominated by muds interpreted as proglacial which would indicate a deglaciation from a potential maximum advance by 22,800 Cal. BP. While these conclusions are not incompatible, they do suggest a very rapid advance of a westward tongue of ice of about 150km length with little evidence for regressive moraines on the Porcupine Bank. This paper will present the results of analysis of a further 8 cores from the North and North East Porcupine Bank correlated with sub-bottom and sparker seismic data. Their sedimentology indicates two distinct diamicts that are contained within some of the seabed ridges of the area. Hypothesis for the formation of these features will be presented in light of new foraminiferal data and dates from these cores. Potential scenarios to account for the presence of grounded ice in the region will then be discussed.

  14. Subgenotypes and Mutations in the S and Polymerase Genes of Hepatitis B Virus Carriers in the West Bank, Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Abdelnabi, Zakeih; Saleh, Niveen; Baraghithi, Sabri; Glebe, Dieter; Azzeh, Maysa

    2014-01-01

    The mutation rate and genetic variability of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are crucial factors for efficient treatment and successful vaccination against HBV. Until today, genetic properties of this virus among the Palestinian population remain unknown. Therefore, we performed genetic analysis of the overlapping S and polymerase genes of HBV, isolated from 40 Palestinian patients' sera. All patients were HBsAg positive and presented with a viral load above 105 HBV genome copies/ml. The genotyping results of the S gene demonstrated that HBV D1 was detected in 90% of the samples representing the most prominent subgenotype among Palestinians carrying HBV. Various mutations existed within the S gene; in five patients four known escape mutations including the common G145R and D144E were found. Furthermore, a ratio of 4.25 of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations in the S gene indicated a strong selection pressure on the HBs antigen loops of HBV strains circulating in those Palestinian patients. Although all patients were treatment-naïve, with the exception of one, several mutations were found in the HBV polymerase gene, but none pointed to drug resistance. The study presented here is the first report to address subgenotypes and mutation analyses of HBV S and polymerase genes in Palestine. PMID:25503289

  15. Determination of trace heavy metals in harvested rainwater used for drinking in Hebron (south West Bank, Palestine) by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Malassa, Husam; Al-Rimawi, Fuad; Al-Khatib, Mahmoud; Al-Qutob, Mutaz

    2014-10-01

    Rainwater samples harvested for drinking from the west part of Hebron (south of West Bank in Palestine), the largest city in the West Bank, were analyzed for the content of different trace heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Bi, and Pb) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This study was conducted to determine the water quality of harvested rainwater used for drinking of south West Bank (case study, Hebron area). A total of 44 water samples were collected in November 2012 from 44 house cisterns used to collect rainwater from the roofs of houses. The samples were analyzed for their pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, and different heavy metal contents. The pH of all water samples was within the US Environmental Protection Agency limits (6.5-8.5), while some water samples were found to exceed the allowed WHO limit for total dissolved solids (TDSs) in drinking water. Results showed that concentrations of the heavy metals vary significantly between the 44 samples. Results also showed that the concentration of five heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Ag, and Pb) is higher than the WHO limits for these heavy metals in drinking water. Overall, our findings revealed that harvested rainwater used for drinking of this part of south West Bank is contaminated with heavy metals that might affect human health.

  16. Physicians' perceptions, attitudes and expectations regarding the role of hospital-based pharmacists in the West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Khdour, Maher R; Alayasa, Kawther S; Alshahed, Qusai N; Hawwa, Ahmed F

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the perceptions, expectations and experiences of physicians with regard to hospital-based pharmacists in the West Bank, Palestine. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 250 physicians practising in four general hospitals in the West Bank, Palestine. The main sections of the questionnaire comprised a series of statements pertaining to physicians' perceptions, expectations and experiences with pharmacists. One hundred and fifty seven questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate, 62.8%). The majority of respondents were most comfortable with pharmacists detecting and preventing prescription errors (76.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 69.5-81.2%) and patient education (57.9%; CI 51.2-63.4%) but they were not comfortable with pharmacists suggesting the use of prescription medications to patients (56.7%; CI 49.8-62.4%). Most physicians (62.4%; CI 56.8-69.1%) expected the pharmacist to educate their patients about the safe and appropriate use of their medication. However, approximately one-third (31.7%; CI 26.0-39.6%) did not expect pharmacists to be available for consultation during rounds. Physicians' experiences with pharmacists were less favourable; whereas 77% (CI 70.2-81.5%) of the physicians agreed that pharmacists were always a reliable source of information, only 11.5% (CI 6.2-16.4%) agreed that pharmacists appeared to be willing to take responsibility for solving any drug-related problems. The present study showed that hospital physicians are more likely to accept traditional pharmacy services than newer clinical services for hospital-based pharmacists in the West Bank, Palestine. Pharmacists should therefore interact more positively and more frequently with physicians. This will close the gap between the physicians' commonly held perceptions of what they expect pharmacists to do and what pharmacists can actually do, and gain support for an extended role of hospital-based pharmacists in future patient therapy management.

  17. Crustal structure and origin of the Eggvin Bank west of Jan Mayen, NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Pingchuan; Breivik, Asbjørn Johan; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Mjelde, Rolf; Azuma, Ryosuke; Eide, Sigurd

    2017-01-01

    The Eggvin Bank, located between the Jan Mayen Island and Greenland, is an unusually shallow area containing several submarine volcanic peaks, confined by two transforms on the Northern Kolbeinsey Ridge (NKR). We represent P and S wave velocity models for the Eggvin Bank based on an Ocean Bottom Seismometer profile collected in 2011, showing igneous crustal thickness variations from 8 km to 13 km. A 2-5 km increase is associated with two separate 20-30 km wide segments under the main seamounts. The oceanic crust has three layers: upper crust (L2A: 2.8-4.8 km/s), middle crust (L2B: 5.5-6.5 km/s), and lower crust (L3: 6.7-7.35 km/s). Both the thick layer 2(A/B) and the high ratio of layer 2(A/B) thickness to total crustal thickness indicate that secondary, intraplate magmatism built the seamounts of the Eggvin Bank. The seamount in the north where the crust is thickest has a flat top indicating subaerial exposure but is deeper than those with rounded tops in the south and is therefore probably older. Comparing lower crustal seismic velocity with crustal thickness also indicates that the degree of mantle melting may be higher in the north than in the south. An enriched mantle source presently feeds the NKR magmatism and probably influenced the Eggvin Bank development also at earlier times. To what extent the Eggvin Bank has been influenced by the Iceland plume is uncertain, both an enriched mantle component and elevated mantle temperature may have played a role at different times and locations.

  18. The Arc: A Formal Structure for a Palestinian State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Monica,CA,90401-3208 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER RAND/MG-327-1-GG 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Captain James ...new people should be confined to the West Bank. The West Bank comprises slightly less than 2,200 square miles. Though much larger than Gaza, this is...more accessible, lower, less steep slopes. The Atlas of Palestine identifies a family of 11 principal cities in the West Bank. They are, from north

  19. A successful, preventive-oriented village health worker program in Hebron, the West Bank, 1985-1996.

    PubMed

    Tulchinsky, T; al Zeer, A M; Abu Mounshar, J; Subeih, T; Schoenbaum, M; Roth, M; Gamulka, B; Abenueze, M; Acker, C

    1997-07-01

    Village health rooms (VHRs) were established in villages with no on-site health facilities in the Hebron District of the West Bank, beginning in 1985. By 1991, the program served a total population of 40,000 in 49 VHRs and by the end of 1996 covered 69 villages in Hebron and 20 in other districts that were previously served by visiting vaccination teams and nearby clinics. The VHRs provide close contact with the population of mothers for well child and pregnancy care, health education and provide visiting doctor/nurse teams for backup services and supervision. Data on coverage, utilization, costs, and outcome measures are presented. The program is accepted and grows despite adverse social and political conditions.

  20. National Radio Astronomy Observatory: The early history and development of the observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia, are reviewed.

    PubMed

    Emberson, R M

    1959-11-13

    The existence of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and the researches already accomplished there are the result of the foresight and wisdom of United States scientists, the National Science Board, and the Congress, who joined forces to make possible this new national asset. Continued effort will be needed td insure that the observatory will always have the finest possible research instruments and that the site will be a haven of radio quiet. Visiting scientists in some instances may wish to bring equipment with them for studying special problems. Within its means, the observatory will provide supporting facilities, including receivers and other electronic devices, computers, laboratories and shops, and housing. Scientists interested in more details concerning arrangements for visitors should direct their inquiries to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P. O. Box 2, Green Bank, West Virginia.

  1. House-to-house survey of disabilities in rural communities in the north of the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, M; Al-Akhras, N

    2009-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of disability and characteristics, conditions and needs of those with disabilities in rural communities in the north of the West Bank, 10 147 families were screened in a cross-sectional survey. Prevalence was 1.7% (806 persons with disabilities). Physical (34.0%), mental (15.9%) and speech (11.4%) disabilities were the commonest. The major cause as perceived by the families was heredity (30.5%): parental consanguinity was 50.8%. Economic conditions were the major problem for 41.1%, and the main barrier to receiving care: only 49.3% were receiving some kind of care. Integration in educational, work and social activities was low. Pressing needs included medical care, support equipment, and educational, physiotherapy and rehabilitation services.

  2. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry of East and West Flower Gardens and Stetson Banks, Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, J.V.; Mayer, L.A.; Hughes, Clarke J.E.; Kleiner, A.

    1998-01-01

    The 1990s have seen rapid advances in seafloor mapping technology. Multibeam sonars are now capable of mapping a wide range of water depths with beams as narrow as 1??, and provide up to a 150?? swath. When these multibeam sonars are coupled with an extremely accurate vehicle motion sensor and very precise navigation, they are capable of producing unprecedented images of the seafloor. This technology was used in December 1997 to map the East and West Flower Gardens and Stetson Banks, Gulf of Mexico. The results from this survey provide the most accurate maps of these areas yet produced and reveal features at submeter resolution never mapped in these areas before. The digital data provide a database that should become the fundamental base maps for all subsequent work in this recently established National Marine Sanctuary.

  3. Both sides retaliate in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

    PubMed

    Haushofer, Johannes; Biletzki, Anat; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2010-10-19

    Ending violent international conflicts requires understanding the causal factors that perpetuate them. In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Israelis and Palestinians each tend to see themselves as victims, engaging in violence only in response to attacks initiated by a fundamentally and implacably violent foe bent on their destruction. Econometric techniques allow us to empirically test the degree to which violence on each side occurs in response to aggression by the other side. Prior studies using these methods have argued that Israel reacts strongly to attacks by Palestinians, whereas Palestinian violence is random (i.e., not predicted by prior Israeli attacks). Here we replicate prior findings that Israeli killings of Palestinians increase after Palestinian killings of Israelis, but crucially show further that when nonlethal forms of violence are considered, and when a larger dataset is used, Palestinian violence also reveals a pattern of retaliation: (i) the firing of Palestinian rockets increases sharply after Israelis kill Palestinians, and (ii) the probability (although not the number) of killings of Israelis by Palestinians increases after killings of Palestinians by Israel. These findings suggest that Israeli military actions against Palestinians lead to escalation rather than incapacitation. Further, they refute the view that Palestinians are uncontingently violent, showing instead that a significant proportion of Palestinian violence occurs in response to Israeli behavior. Well-established cognitive biases may lead participants on each side of the conflict to underappreciate the degree to which the other side's violence is retaliatory, and hence to systematically underestimate their own role in perpetuating the conflict.

  4. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics prescription trends at a central west bank hospital.

    PubMed

    Tayem, Yasin I; Qubaja, Marwan M; Shraim, Riyad K; Taha, Omar B; Abu Shkheidem, Imadeddin A; Ibrahim, Murad A

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to reliably describe the pattern of outpatient prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics (ATBs) at a central hospital in the West Bank, Palestine. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study investigating a cohort of 2,208 prescriptions ordered by outpatient clinics and the emergency room over one year in Beit Jala Hospital in Bethlehem, West Bank. The orders were analysed for the rate and types of NSAIDs and ATBs utilised, and the appropriateness of these drugs to the diagnosis. Of the total prescriptions, 410 contained NSAIDs (18.6%), including diclofenac (40.2%), low dose aspirin (23.9%), ibuprofen (17.8%) and indomethacin (15.1%). A minority of these prescriptions contained a combination of these agents (2.5%). Only one prescription contained cyclooxyeganse-2 inhibitors (0.2%). The appropriateness of NSAID use to the diagnosis was as follows: appropriate (58.3%), inappropriate (14.4%) and difficult to tell (27.3%). The rate of ATB use was 30.3% (669 prescriptions). The ATBs prescribed were amoxicillin (23.3%), augmentin (14.3%), quinolones (12.7%), first and second generation cephalosporins (9.4% and 12.7%, respectively) and macrolides (7.2%). ATB combinations were identified in 9.4%, with the most common being second-generation cephalopsorins and metronidazole (4.3%). Regarding the appropriateness of prescribing ATBs according to the diagnosis, it was appropriate in 44.8%, inappropriate in 20.6% and difficult to tell in 34.6% of the prescriptions. These findings revealed a relatively large number and inappropriate utilisation of ATBs and NSAIDs. An interventional programme needs to be adopted to reinforce physicians' knowledge of the rational prescription of these agents.

  5. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Antibiotics Prescription Trends at a Central West Bank Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tayem, Yasin I.; Qubaja, Marwan M.; Shraim, Riyad K.; Taha, Omar B.; Abu Shkheidem, Imadeddin A.; Ibrahim, Murad A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to reliably describe the pattern of outpatient prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics (ATBs) at a central hospital in the West Bank, Palestine. Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study investigating a cohort of 2,208 prescriptions ordered by outpatient clinics and the emergency room over one year in Beit Jala Hospital in Bethlehem, West Bank. The orders were analysed for the rate and types of NSAIDs and ATBs utilised, and the appropriateness of these drugs to the diagnosis. Results: Of the total prescriptions, 410 contained NSAIDs (18.6%), including diclofenac (40.2%), low dose aspirin (23.9%), ibuprofen (17.8%) and indomethacin (15.1%). A minority of these prescriptions contained a combination of these agents (2.5%). Only one prescription contained cyclooxyeganse-2 inhibitors (0.2%). The appropriateness of NSAID use to the diagnosis was as follows: appropriate (58.3%), inappropriate (14.4%) and difficult to tell (27.3%). The rate of ATB use was 30.3% (669 prescriptions). The ATBs prescribed were amoxicillin (23.3%), augmentin (14.3%), quinolones (12.7%), first and second generation cephalosporins (9.4% and 12.7%, respectively) and macrolides (7.2%). ATB combinations were identified in 9.4%, with the most common being second-generation cephalopsorins and metronidazole (4.3%). Regarding the appropriateness of prescribing ATBs according to the diagnosis, it was appropriate in 44.8%, inappropriate in 20.6% and difficult to tell in 34.6% of the prescriptions. Conclusion: These findings revealed a relatively large number and inappropriate utilisation of ATBs and NSAIDs. An interventional programme needs to be adopted to reinforce physicians’ knowledge of the rational prescription of these agents. PMID:24273668

  6. Cancer registration and healthcare access in West Bank, Palestine: a GIS analysis of childhood cancer, 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Bailony, M Rami; Hararah, Mohammad K; Salhab, Abdel Razzaq; Ghannam, Ibrahim; Abdeen, Ziad; Ghannam, Jess

    2011-09-01

    In low and middle income countries (LMIC), high-quality disease registration is difficult to achieve in the setting of inadequate healthcare infrastructure and political or economical instability. In this article, we explore the potential of geographic information systems (GIS) to add value to the understanding of childhood cancer patterns in the West Bank, despite a variety of obstacles to disease registration. All incidence cases of childhood cancers (under the age 15) from 1998 to 2007 were collected from the West Bank Cancer Registry. Temporal, spatial and space-time analyses were performed using the SatScan software developed by Martin Kulldorff and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The analyses were categorized into the following groups: all childhood cancer, leukemias, acute lymphocytic leukemia, lymphomas, brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers and remaining cancers (excluding leukemia, lymphoma and CNS tumors). The temporal analysis revealed that cancer registration was more complete from 1998 to 2000 (p=0.0162), and that leukemia registration was severely deficient from 2003 to 2005 (p=0.0012). The spatial analysis showed a concentration of cancer in metropolitan districts where referral hospitals are based. Under registration was detected in the northern districts of Jenin and Tulkarm (RR=0.59, p=0.0059), more prominent from 2002 to 2005 (RR=0.33, p=0.0006). The analysis for high rates found a cluster of lymphoma in town of Dura and its surrounding agricultural villages (RR=4.10, p=0.0023). Our study reveals that the application of GIS tools to registry data in LMIC can help to identify geographical patterns in cancer registration and healthcare accessibility, generating priorities for future health research and policy in resource-limited areas. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  7. A West Virginia case study: does erosion differ between streambanks clustered by the bank assessment of nonpoint source consequences of sediment (BANCS) model parameters?

    Treesearch

    Abby L. McQueen; Nicolas P. Zegre; Danny L. Welsch

    2013-01-01

    The integration of factors and processes responsible for streambank erosion is complex. To explore the influence of physical variables on streambank erosion, parameters for the bank assessment of nonpoint source consequences of sediment (BANCS) model were collected on a 1-km reach of Horseshoe Run in Tucker County, West Virginia. Cluster analysis was used to establish...

  8. Tribunal on the policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, West Berlin, September 26-29, 1988: verdict. Permanent Peoples' Tribunal.

    PubMed

    1990-01-01

    At the request of the American Association of Jurists, the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal was called upon to consider violations of international law of the self-determination of peoples by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, as well as to make proposals for change. The Tribunal declared the request to be admissible, in accordance with Article 3 of the Statutes; therefore, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank were informed, in application of the provisions of Articles 14 and 15. The Tribunal convened in West Berlin, September 26-29, 1988. Presented here is the report of the Tribunal, including its verdict and proposals for action.

  9. Palestinian Youth of the Intifada: PTSD and Future Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavi, Tamar; Solomon, Zahava

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the nature of chronic exposure to terror and its psychological and cognitive toll on Palestinian youths, as is reflected in posttraumatic symptoms, future orientation, and attitudes toward peace. Method: In the summer of 2001, 245 Palestinian and 300 Israeli-Palestinian adolescents in the sixth to ninth grades were assessed…

  10. Palestinian Physicians' Misconceptions about and Approval of Wife Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study that examined Palestinian physicians' misconceptions about abused wives and abusive husbands and the extent to which Palestinian physicians approve of wife abuse. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 396 physicians. The results revealed that between 10% and 49% of the Palestinian physicians…

  11. Palestinian Youth of the Intifada: PTSD and Future Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavi, Tamar; Solomon, Zahava

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the nature of chronic exposure to terror and its psychological and cognitive toll on Palestinian youths, as is reflected in posttraumatic symptoms, future orientation, and attitudes toward peace. Method: In the summer of 2001, 245 Palestinian and 300 Israeli-Palestinian adolescents in the sixth to ninth grades were assessed…

  12. Natural disaster and crisis: lessons learned about cleft and craniofacial care from Hurricane Katrina and the West Bank.

    PubMed

    van Aalst, John A; Strauss, Ronald P; Fox, Lynn; Cassell, Cynthia H; Stein, Margot; Moses, Michael; Alexander, Mary Ellen

    2011-11-01

    Cleft care is generally characterized by staged, carefully timed surgeries and long-term, team-centered follow-up. Acute and chronic crises can wreak havoc on the comprehensive team care required by children with craniofacial anomalies. In addition, there is evidence that crises, including natural disasters and chronic disruptions, such as political turmoil and poverty, can lead to an increased incidence of craniofacial anomalies. The purpose of this article is to delineate the impact of acute and chronic crises on cleft care. Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2005, resulted in an acute crisis that temporarily disrupted the infrastructure necessary to deliver cleft care; chronic turmoil in the West Bank/Palestine has resulted in an absence of infrastructure to deliver cleft care. Through these central examples, this article will illustrate-through the prism of cleft care-the need for (1) disaster preparedness for acute crises, (2) changing needs following acute crises that may lead to persistent chronic disruption, and (3) baseline and long-term monitoring of population changes after a disaster has disrupted a health care delivery system.

  13. A study on the attitudes and behavioural influence of construction waste management in occupied Palestinian territory.

    PubMed

    Al-Sari, Majed I; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Avraamides, Marios; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2012-02-01

    As a step towards comprehending what drives the management of construction waste in the occupied Palestinian territory, this paper quantifies construction waste generation and examines how the local contractors' waste management attitudes and behaviour are influenced. Collection of data was based on a survey, carried out in the southern part of the West Bank between April and May 2010. The survey targeted contractors who specialized in the construction of buildings. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the relationship between various attributes and the attitudes and behaviour that the local contractors demonstrate towards waste management. The results showed that during the construction of buildings, 17 to 81 kg of construction waste are generated per square metre of building floor. Although the area of a building is the key factor determining 74.8% of the variation of construction waste generation, the employment of labour-intensive techniques in the study area means that human factors such as the contractor's attitude and behaviour towards waste management, exert a key influence on waste generation. Attitudes towards the 3Rs of waste minimization and behaviour towards waste disposal are generally positive with smaller contractors exhibiting more positive attitudes and more satisfactory behaviour towards waste management. Overall, while contractors' behaviour towards waste sorting and disposal tends to be more satisfactory among contractors who are more conscious about the potential environmental impacts of construction waste, it was generally observed that in the absence of a regulatory framework, the voluntary attitudes and behaviour among the local contractors are mostly driven by direct economic considerations.

  14. Quality of life of Palestinian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Thweib, Nasser

    2011-04-01

    Cancer is known to be one of the worst diseases on the planet; it highly affects Palestinians; it is the third leading cause of death in Palestine. The main purpose of the research is to highlight the concept of Quality of Life (QOL) for Palestinian cancer patients through providing an understanding about influences of cancer and chemotherapy on QOL of cancer patient. QOL was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) which founded to be valid and reliable in diverse cultures, including, the United Arab Emirates, Iran, Turkey, Japan, India, China, Korea, and Nigeria. Results about QOL were low in all aspects; most of them were less than the half of full function, and, more intense symptoms and negative effects were found to be in Palestinian cancer patients.

  15. 78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank West Chester, IL; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application... Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank...

  16. Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater in Jericho area in the Jordan Valley, West Bank, Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da'as, Ammar; Walraevens, Kristine

    2013-06-01

    Water resources in the Middle East, particularly in Palestine, are extremely scarce and costly. The Jordan Valley is a fertile productive region, described as the food basket of Palestine. Groundwater originating from the Quaternary Aquifer System forms the main water resource in the Jordan Valley. However, the quality of this groundwater is threatened mainly by the high chloride concentration. The most representative area of the Jordan Valley is Jericho area, which was chosen to be the study area. The study area (65 km2) is almost a flat area with a gentle decline towards the east. It is the lowest land on earth with ground levels reaching 400 meters below sea level (mbsl) near the Dead Sea shores. The Quaternary Aquifer System in the study area could be divided into an upper alluvial layer with thickness varying from 40 to 150 m and a lower low-permeable Lisan layer, which crops out in the eastern part of the study area with thickness over 200 m. Hydrogeochemical investigation reveals that the water is generally earth alkaline with higher content of earth alkalis and prevailing chloride. According to Stuyfzand (1986) and Piper's (1944) classification systems, water type in the Alluvial Aquifer varies from fresh hard CaMgHCO3 or MgCaHCO3 water in the west and northwest to brackish very-hard MgNaCl or NaMgCl in the middle. In the east, the water becomes brackish-salt extremely-hard MgNaCl or NaCl. Groundwater quality is deteriorating (increase in salinity) spatially towards the east and vertically with increasing depth (when nearing the Lisan Formation). As an indication of groundwater salinity, total dissolved solids show some variability with time over the last 21 years (1983-2004). In short-time scale, there are high seasonal and yearly fluctuations with regard to salinity, specifically in Cl- and SO42- contents. Spring water from the Upper Cenomanian Aquifer (CaHCO3) represents the fresh end member, while Rift Valley Brines (RVB-CaNaCl) and Dead Sea Brines (DSB

  17. Both sides retaliate in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict

    PubMed Central

    Haushofer, Johannes; Biletzki, Anat; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Ending violent international conflicts requires understanding the causal factors that perpetuate them. In the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Israelis and Palestinians each tend to see themselves as victims, engaging in violence only in response to attacks initiated by a fundamentally and implacably violent foe bent on their destruction. Econometric techniques allow us to empirically test the degree to which violence on each side occurs in response to aggression by the other side. Prior studies using these methods have argued that Israel reacts strongly to attacks by Palestinians, whereas Palestinian violence is random (i.e., not predicted by prior Israeli attacks). Here we replicate prior findings that Israeli killings of Palestinians increase after Palestinian killings of Israelis, but crucially show further that when nonlethal forms of violence are considered, and when a larger dataset is used, Palestinian violence also reveals a pattern of retaliation: (i) the firing of Palestinian rockets increases sharply after Israelis kill Palestinians, and (ii) the probability (although not the number) of killings of Israelis by Palestinians increases after killings of Palestinians by Israel. These findings suggest that Israeli military actions against Palestinians lead to escalation rather than incapacitation. Further, they refute the view that Palestinians are uncontingently violent, showing instead that a significant proportion of Palestinian violence occurs in response to Israeli behavior. Well-established cognitive biases may lead participants on each side of the conflict to underappreciate the degree to which the other side's violence is retaliatory, and hence to systematically underestimate their own role in perpetuating the conflict. PMID:20921415

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and hypertension among students at a central university in the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Tayem, Yasin I; Yaseen, Nagham A; Khader, Wiam T; Abu Rajab, Lama O; Ramahi, Ahmad B; Saleh, Mohammad H

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of obesity and hypertension (HTN) among students at a central university in the West Bank. This cross-sectional study targeted a cohort of 553 students (59.5% males, 40.5% females) aged 17-26 years (median = 21) from Al-Quds University. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Participants completed a questionnaire on physical activity, sedentary behavior, dietary factors, smoking and family history of obesity, HTN, and coronary artery disease. The magnitude of correlation was assessed by Spearman's rho (r(s)) and Chi-square tests. The prevalence of overweight was 25% (31.1% males, 15.6% females) and obesity 7.2% (9.4% males, 4% females). Obesity and overweight were associated with family history of obesity in both genders (p<0.001) and physical activity in males (r(s)= - 0.162, p<0.005). No correlation was demonstrated between participants' BMI and sedentary lifestyle or consumption of fast food. Pre-HTN was detected in 27.1% (38% males, 11.2% females) and HTN in 2.2% (3.3% males, 0.4% females). Pre-HTN and HTN were associated with obesity (r(s)=0.252, p<0.001) and smoking (p<0.05). No relationship was detected between students' BP and sedentary behavior, family history of HTN/CAD, or consumption of fast food. The prevalence of increased BMI and BP among males was significantly higher than females (p<0.001). We detected a high prevalence of elevated BP and excess weight gain among students at Al-Quds University. An interventional program is urgently needed to control these cardiovascular risk factors in this community.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and hypertension among students at a central university in the West Bank

    PubMed Central

    Tayem, Yasin I.; Yaseen, Nagham A.; Khader, Wiam T.; Abu Rajab, Lama O.; Ramahi, Ahmad B.; Saleh, Mohammad H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of obesity and hypertension (HTN) among students at a central university in the West Bank. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study targeted a cohort of 553 students (59.5% males, 40.5% females) aged 17–26 years (median = 21) from Al-Quds University. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Participants completed a questionnaire on physical activity, sedentary behavior, dietary factors, smoking and family history of obesity, HTN, and coronary artery disease. The magnitude of correlation was assessed by Spearman's rho (r s) and Chi-square tests. Results The prevalence of overweight was 25% (31.1% males, 15.6% females) and obesity 7.2% (9.4% males, 4% females). Obesity and overweight were associated with family history of obesity in both genders (p<0.001) and physical activity in males (rs= − 0.162, p<0.005). No correlation was demonstrated between participants’ BMI and sedentary lifestyle or consumption of fast food. Pre-HTN was detected in 27.1% (38% males, 11.2% females) and HTN in 2.2% (3.3% males, 0.4% females). Pre-HTN and HTN were associated with obesity (rs=0.252, p<0.001) and smoking (p<0.05). No relationship was detected between students’ BP and sedentary behavior, family history of HTN/CAD, or consumption of fast food. The prevalence of increased BMI and BP among males was significantly higher than females (p<0.001). Conclusions We detected a high prevalence of elevated BP and excess weight gain among students at Al-Quds University. An interventional program is urgently needed to control these cardiovascular risk factors in this community. PMID:23077467

  20. A mixed-methods study of personality conceptions in the Levant: Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Zeinoun, Pia; Daouk-Öyry, Lina; Choueiri, Lina; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2017-09-01

    Personality taxonomies are investigated using either etic-style studies that test whether Western-developed models fit in a new culture, or emic-style studies that derive personality dimensions from a local culture, using a psycholexical approach. Recent studies have incorporated strengths from both approaches. We combine the 2 approaches in the first study of personality descriptors in spoken Arabic. In Study 1, we collected 17,283 responses from a sample of adults in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank (N = 545). Qualitative analysis revealed 9 personality dimensions: Soft-Heartedness, Positive Social Relatedness, Integrity, Humility versus Dominance, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Intellect, and Openness. In Study 2, we converted the qualitative model into an indigenous personality inventory and obtained self-ratings of a sample of adults in the same region (N = 395). We also simultaneously obtained self-ratings on an adapted etic inventory that measures the lexical Big Five (N = 325). Psychometric and conceptual considerations yielded a robust 7-factor indigenous model: Agreeableness/Soft Heartedness, Honesty/Integrity, Unconventionality, Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, Extraversion/Positive Social Relatedness, and Intellect. Initial validation evidence shows that 5 of the 7 factors overlapped with the Big Five, whereas Honesty/Integrity and Unconventionality did not overlap. Also, scores on the indigenous tools were better predicted by relevant demographic variables than scores on the etic tool. Our study demonstrated the viability of combining etic and emic approaches as key to the understanding of personality in its cultural context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Life Behind the Wall: Palestinian Students Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Doug

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an online youth magazine that his Palestinian students developed. In April of 2006, they launched the inaugural edition of their teen e-zine, "Behind the Wall." With the help of his brother-in-law, students, along with a computer programmer, the "Behind the Wall" website was constructed.…

  2. Constructivist Learning Environment among Palestinian Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidan, Afif

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the constructivist learning environment among Palestinian science students. The study also aimed to investigate the effects of gender and learning level of these students on their perceptions of the constructivist learning environment. Data were collected from 125 male and 101 female students from the…

  3. Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-03

    this as a welcome departure from “traditional” Arab pedagogy, which stresses rote memorization and authoritarianism. For others, the PA curriculum...available online at [http://www.gei.de/english/ projekte /israel.shtml]. 18 Nathan J. Brown, Palestinian Politics After the Oslo Accords, 2003. ! The

  4. Online Argument between Israeli Jews and Palestinians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Donald G.; Maoz, Ifat

    2007-01-01

    Previous research with face-to-face groups found that majority-minority theory was a better predictor of argument patterns between Israelis and Palestinians than cultural codes theory (D. G. Ellis & I. Maoz, 2002; I. Maoz & D. G. Ellis, 2001). But, because of the difficulties of organizing face-to-face contacts between Israelis and Palestinians…

  5. Constructivist Learning Environment among Palestinian Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidan, Afif

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the constructivist learning environment among Palestinian science students. The study also aimed to investigate the effects of gender and learning level of these students on their perceptions of the constructivist learning environment. Data were collected from 125 male and 101 female students from the…

  6. Correlation between the Palaeozoic structures from West Iberian and Grand Banks margins using inversion of magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Elsa A.; Miranda, J. M.; Luis, J. F.; Galdeano, A.

    2000-05-01

    The Ibero-Armorican Arc (IAA) is a huge geological structure of Pre-Cambrian origin, tightened during hercynian times and deeply affected by the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Biscay. Its remnants now lie in Iberia, north-western France and the Canadian Grand Banks margins. The qualitative correlation between these three blocks has been attempted by several authors (e.g. Lefort, J.P., 1980. Un 'Fit' structural de l'Atlantique Nord: arguments geologiques pour correler les marqueurs geophysiques reconnus sur les deux marges. Mar. Geol. 37, 355-369; Lefort, J.P., 1983. A new geophysical criterion to correlate the Acadian and Hercynian orogenies of Western Europe and Eastern America. Mem. Geol. Soc. Am. 158, 3-18; Galdeano, A., Miranda, J.M., Matte, P., Mouge, P., Rossignol, C., 1990. Aeromagnetic data: A tool for studying the Variscan arc of Western Europe and its correlation with transatlantic structures. Tectonophysics 177, 293-305) using magnetic anomalies, mainly because they seem to preserve the hercynian zonation, in spite of the strong thermal and mechanical processes that took place during rifting and ocean spreading. In this paper, we present a new contribution to the study of the IAA structure based on the processing of a compilation of magnetic data from Iberia and Grand Banks margins. To interpret the magnetic signature, a Fourier-domain-based inversion technique was applied, considering a layer with a constant thickness of 10 km, and taking into account only the induced field. The digital terrain model was derived from ETOPO5 (ETOPO5, 1986. Relief map of the earth's surface. EOS 67, 121) and TerrainBase (TerrainBase, 1995. In: Row III, L.W., Hastings, D.A., Dunbar, P.K. (Eds.), Worldwide Digital Terrain Data, Documentation Manual, CD-ROM Release 1.0. GEODAS-NGDC Key to Geophysical Records. Documentation N. 30, April) databases. The pseudo-susceptibility distribution obtained was repositioned for the 156.5 Ma epoch, using the Srivastava and

  7. Medication dosing errors and associated factors in hospitalized pediatric patients from the South Area of the West Bank - Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al-Ramahi, Rowa'; Hmedat, Bayan; Alnjajrah, Eman; Manasrah, Israa; Radwan, Iqbal; Alkhatib, Maram

    2017-09-01

    Medication dosing errors are a significant global concern and can cause serious medical consequences for patients. Pediatric patients are at increased risk of dosing errors due to differences in medication pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The aims of this study were to find the rate of medication dosing errors in hospitalized pediatric patients and possible associated factors. The study was an observational cohort study including pediatric inpatients less than 16 years from three governmental hospitals from the West Bank/Palestine during one month in 2014, and sample size was 400 pediatric inpatients from these three hospitals. Pediatric patients' medical records were reviewed. Patients' weight, age, medical conditions, all prescribed medications, their doses and frequency were documented. Then the doses of medications were evaluated. Among 400 patients, the medications prescribed were 949 medications, 213 of them (22.4%) were out of the recommended range, and 160 patients (40.0%) were prescribed one or more potentially inappropriate doses. The most common cause of hospital admission was sepsis which presented 14.3% of cases, followed by fever (13.5%) and meningitis (10.0%). The most commonly used medications were ampicillin in 194 cases (20.4%), ceftriaxone in 182 cases (19.2%), and cefotaxime in 144 cases (12.0%). No significant association was found between potentially inappropriate doses and gender or hospital (chi-square test p-value > 0.05).The results showed that patients with lower body weight, who had a higher number of medications and stayed in hospital for a longer time, were more likely to have inappropriate doses. Potential medication dosing errors were high among pediatric hospitalized patients in Palestine. Younger patients, patients with lower body weight, who were prescribed higher number of medications and stayed in hospital for a longer time were more likely to have inappropriate doses, so these populations require special care. Many

  8. Adherence to guidelines of antibiotic prophylactic use in surgery: a prospective cohort study in North West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Musmar, Samar M J; Ba'ba, Hiba; Owais, Ala'

    2014-09-09

    Surgical site infection is a major contributor to increased mortality and health care costs globally which can be reduced by appropriate antibiotic prophylactic use. In Palestine, there is no published data about preoperative antibiotic use. This study aims to find the pattern of antimicrobial prophylaxis use by evaluating time of the first dose, antibiotic selection and duration after surgery in three governmental hospitals in North West Bank/ Palestine during 2011. After approval of Institutional Review Board, a prospective cohort study included a total of 400 abdominal, orthopedic, and gynecological operations which were performed during study period. Trained clinical pharmacists observed selected 301 operations and followed the patient's files for the three intended study parameters. Compliance of prophylactic antibiotic administration was evaluated according to published guidelines of the American Society for Hospital Pharmacist. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 applying descriptive methods. Relationship between guideline compliance and selected operation factors such as type of surgery, patient care unit, and hospital shift, in addition to provider's age, gender, experience, and specialization were examined applying chi square test. The statistically significant factors with p < 0.01 were further analyzed using logistic regression model. Overall compliance for the studied parameters was very low (2%); only 59.8% received their first dose in appropriate time, 18.5% had appropriate antibiotic selection, and 31.8% of patients received antibiotic in appropriate duration. The OBGYN department had much better compliance regarding timing and duration of antibiotic use (P < 0.001), however the proper antibiotic selection was best adhered to for the abdominal surgeries (OR = 3.64, P = 0.002). Male providers were statistically significantly much less adherent to the timing of antibiotic dose (OR = 0.28, p < 0.001), but better adherent in antibiotic selection

  9. Adherence to guidelines of antibiotic prophylactic use in surgery: a prospective cohort study in North West Bank, Palestine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgical site infection is a major contributor to increased mortality and health care costs globally which can be reduced by appropriate antibiotic prophylactic use. In Palestine, there is no published data about preoperative antibiotic use. This study aims to find the pattern of antimicrobial prophylaxis use by evaluating time of the first dose, antibiotic selection and duration after surgery in three governmental hospitals in North West Bank/ Palestine during 2011. Methods After approval of Institutional Review Board, a prospective cohort study included a total of 400 abdominal, orthopedic, and gynecological operations which were performed during study period. Trained clinical pharmacists observed selected 301 operations and followed the patient’s files for the three intended study parameters. Compliance of prophylactic antibiotic administration was evaluated according to published guidelines of the American Society for Hospital Pharmacist. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 applying descriptive methods. Relationship between guideline compliance and selected operation factors such as type of surgery, patient care unit, and hospital shift, in addition to provider’s age, gender, experience, and specialization were examined applying chi square test. The statistically significant factors with p < 0.01 were further analyzed using logistic regression model. Results Overall compliance for the studied parameters was very low (2%); only 59.8% received their first dose in appropriate time, 18.5% had appropriate antibiotic selection, and 31.8% of patients received antibiotic in appropriate duration. The OBGYN department had much better compliance regarding timing and duration of antibiotic use (P < 0.001), however the proper antibiotic selection was best adhered to for the abdominal surgeries (OR = 3.64, P = 0.002). Male providers were statistically significantly much less adherent to the timing of antibiotic dose (OR = 0.28, p < 0.001), but better

  10. Measurement of (222)Rn concentration levels in drinking water and the associated health effects in the Southern part of West Bank - Palestine.

    PubMed

    Thabayneh, Khalil M

    2015-09-01

    Radon concentration and annual effective doses were measured in drinking water in the Southern Part of West Bank - Palestine, by using both passive and active techniques. 184 samples were collected from various sources i.e. tap water, groundwater, rain waters and mineral waters. It is found that the annual effective dose resulting from inhalation and ingestion of radon emanated from all types of drinking water is negligible compared to the total annual effective dose from indoor radon in the region. Results reveal that there is no significant public health risk from radon ingested and inhalation with drinking water in the study region. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Health as human security in the occupied Palestinian territory.

    PubMed

    Batniji, Rajaie; Rabaia, Yoke; Nguyen-Gillham, Viet; Giacaman, Rita; Sarraj, Eyad; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Saab, Hana; Boyce, Will

    2009-03-28

    We describe the threats to survival, development, and wellbeing in the occupied Palestinian territory using human security as a framework. Palestinian security has deteriorated rapidly since 2000. More than 6000 Palestinians have been killed by the Israeli military, with more than 1300 killed in the Gaza Strip during 22 days of aerial and ground attacks ending in January, 2009. Israeli destruction and control of infrastructure has severely restricted fuel supplies and access to water and sanitation. Palestinians are tortured in prisons and humiliated at Israeli checkpoints. The separation wall and the checkpoints prevent access to work, family, sites of worship, and health-care facilities. Poverty rates have risen sharply, and almost half of Palestinians are dependent on food aid. Social cohesion, which has kept Palestinian society intact, including the health-care system, is now strained. More than US$9 billion in international aid have not promoted development because Palestinians do not have basic security. International efforts focused on prevention of modifiable causes of insecurity, reinvigoration of international norms, support of Palestinian social resilience and institutions that protect them from threats, and a political solution are needed to improve human security in the occupied Palestinian territory.

  12. Simulation of Demographic Change in Palestinian Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumour, M. A.; El-Astal, A. H.; Shabat, M. M.; Radwan, M. A.

    Mortality, birth rates and retirement play a major role in demographic changes. In most cases, mortality rates decreased in the past century without noticeable decrease in fertility rates, leading to a significant increase in population growth. In many poor countries like Palestinian Territories the number of births has fallen and the life expectancy increased. In this paper we concentrate on measuring, analyzing and extrapolating the age structure in Palestine a few decades ago into the future. A Fortran program has been designed and used for the simulation and analysis of our statistical data. This study of demographic change in Palestine has shown that Palestinians will have in future problems as the strongest age cohorts are the above-60-year olds. We therefore recommend the increase of both the retirement age and female employment.

  13. Enucleation and Evisceration in the Palestinian Territories

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Tiarnan D. L.; Sargent, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the demographics and indications in patients undergoing eye removal at St. John Eye Hospital (SJEH) in Jerusalem, the largest single provider of ophthalmic care in the Palestinian Territories. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, medical records were reviewed for patients undergoing enucleation or evisceration at SJEH from November 2004 to March 2007. Calculation of percentage, mean and median was performed for the demographics, and indications for enucleation and evisceration. Results: Thirty-three eyes of 32 patients were removed during the period under study. Twelve enucleations and 21 eviscerations were performed. Mean age was 39 years, and 19 patients were male. Indications included severe trauma (8 eyes), painful blind eye with (5 eyes) or without (9 eyes) infection, and ophthalmic neoplasm (3 eyes). Conclusion: The incidence of surgical eye removal at SJEH from 2004 to 2007 was around one patient per month for a population over three million. This rate appears far lower than those reported in previous studies of similar Palestinian populations. Prompt access to medical care for Palestinians is required to mitigate ophthalmic morbidity. Approximately half of the cases were caused by severe trauma or infection, with rubber bullet injuries responsible for 20% of the traumatic cases. PMID:21731330

  14. Theoretical Evaluation of Electromagnetic Emissions from GSM900 Mobile Telephony Base Stations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip-Palestine.

    PubMed

    Lahham, Adnan; Alkbash, Jehad Abu; ALMasri, Hussien

    2016-04-21

    Theoretical assessments of power density in far-field conditions were used to evaluate the levels of environmental electromagnetic frequencies from selected GSM900 macrocell base stations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Assessments were based on calculating the power densities using commercially available software (RF-Map from Telstra Research Laboratories-Australia). Calculations were carried out for single base stations with multiantenna systems and also for multiple base stations with multiantenna systems at 1.7 m above the ground level. More than 100 power density levels were calculated at different locations around the investigated base stations. These locations include areas accessible to the general public (schools, parks, residential areas, streets and areas around kindergartens). The maximum calculated electromagnetic emission level resulted from a single site was 0.413 μW cm(-2)and found at Hizma town near Jerusalem. Average maximum power density from all single sites was 0.16 μW cm(-2) The results of all calculated power density levels in 100 locations distributed over the West Bank and Gaza were nearly normally distributed with a peak value of ~0.01% of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection's limit recommended for general public. Comparison between calculated and experimentally measured value of maximum power density from a base station showed that calculations overestimate the actual measured power density by ~27%.

  15. Influence of upwelling induced near shore hypoxia on the Alappuzha mud banks, South West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gireeshkumar, T. R.; Mathew, D.; Pratihary, A. K.; Naik, H.; Narvekar, K. U.; Araujo, J.; Balachandran, K. K.; Muraleedharan, K. R.; Thorat, B.; Nair, M.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2017-05-01

    The results of the first time-series measurements spanning 18-weeks (22 April to 20 September 2014) from a coastal environment (Alappuzha, southwest India), where two process of upwelling and mud banks are concurrent during summer monsoon are presented. The upwelling signals were evident from the 2nd week of May onwards and the intensity varied widely from 1st week of June to 3rd week of September. The formation of mud banks was observed during the peak upwelling period (14th June) and once formed, they were persistent till the end of monsoon season (September 2014). The time-series evolution of dissolved oxygen levels showed the incursion of hypoxic waters well in to the mud banks during peak upwelling period. The considerable reduction in the dissolved methane levels (300 to <50 nM) during hypoxia is an anomaly, which may be due to some microbial processes. The incursion of hypoxic waters in to the Alappuzha mud banks is the first observation and is significant because, it can now explain why mud banks are not always good fishing grounds. The present study shows that the fish availability is mainly dependent on the incursion and prevalence of hypoxic waters in the mud banks.

  16. Childhood Lead Exposure in the Palestinian Authority, Israel, and Jordan: Results from the Middle Eastern Regional Cooperation Project, 1996–2000

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Jamal; Fischbein, Alf; Haj, Sameer El; Sansour, Ramzi; Jaghabir, Madi; Hashish, Mohammed Abu; Suleiman, Hassan; Safi, Nimer; Abu-Hamda, Abed; Witt, Joyce K.; Platkov, Efim; Reingold, Steven; Alayyan, Amber; Berman, Tamar; Bercovitch, Matti; Choudhri, Yogesh; Richter, Elihu D.

    2006-01-01

    In the Middle East, the major sources of lead exposure have been leaded gasoline, lead-contaminated flour from traditional stone mills, focal exposures from small battery plants and smelters, and kohl (blue color) in cosmetics. In 1998–2000, we measured blood lead (PbB) levels in children 2–6 years of age in Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority (n = 1478), using a fingerstick method. Mean (peak; percentage > 10 μg/dL) PbB levels in Israel (n = 317), the West Bank (n = 344), Jordan (n = 382), and Gaza (n = 435) were 3.2 μg/dL (18.2; 2.2%), 4.2 μg/dL (25.7; 5.2%), 3.2 μg/dL (39.3; < 1%), and 8.6 μg/dL (> 80.0; 17.2%), respectively. High levels in Gaza were all among children living near a battery factory. The findings, taken together with data on time trends in lead emissions and in PbB in children in previous years, indicate the benefits from phasing out of leaded gasoline but state the case for further reductions and investigation of hot spots. The project demonstrated the benefits of regional cooperation in planning and carrying out a jointly designed project. PMID:16759995

  17. Temperament-Based Learning Styles of Palestinian and US Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Alghorani, Mohammed Adnan; Lee, Dong Hun

    2007-01-01

    Temperament styles of 400 Palestinian children living in Gaza are described, examined for possible gender and age differences, and compared with those of 3,200 US children in light of Jung's theory of temperament as modified by Myers and Briggs. The results show that Palestinian children generally prefer practical to imaginative, feeling to…

  18. Needs and Context of ODL at Palestinian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuzir, Yousef

    2010-01-01

    Higher education plays vital role in developing the social, political, and economical situation of the Palestinian people. It is considered the main wealth of the Palestinian people in the absence of other natural resources. The main objective of this study was to investigate and identify the needs, challenges, and demands of our institutions,…

  19. Temperament-Based Learning Styles of Palestinian and US Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Alghorani, Mohammed Adnan; Lee, Dong Hun

    2007-01-01

    Temperament styles of 400 Palestinian children living in Gaza are described, examined for possible gender and age differences, and compared with those of 3,200 US children in light of Jung's theory of temperament as modified by Myers and Briggs. The results show that Palestinian children generally prefer practical to imaginative, feeling to…

  20. Education and Identity Control among the Palestinians in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makkawi, Ibrahim A.

    Unlike many Third World nation minorities living in Western societies, the Palestinians in Israel did not immigrate to the new system; rather, the system was imposed on them by the Israeli Jewish government. This paper argues that the Israeli government uses its hegemony over the educational system for its Palestinian citizens to manipulate and…

  1. Genomic analysis of a heterogeneous Mendelian phenotype: multiple novel alleles for inherited hearing loss in the Palestinian population

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Recessively inherited phenotypes are frequent in the Palestinian population, as the result of a historical tradition of marriages within extended kindreds, particularly in isolated villages. In order to characterise the genetics of inherited hearing loss in this population, we worked with West Bank schools for the deaf to identify children with prelingual, bilateral, severe to profound hearing loss not attributable to infection, trauma or other known environmental exposure. Of 156 families enrolled, hearing loss in 17 families (11 per cent) was due to mutations in GJB2 (connexin 26), a smaller fraction of GJB2-associated deafness than in other populations. In order to estimate how many different genes might be responsible for hearing loss in this population, we evaluated ten families for linkage to all 36 known human autosomal deafness-related genes, fully sequencing hearing-related genes at any linked sites in informative relatives. Four families harboured four novel alleles of TMPRSS3 (988ΔA = 352stop), otoancorin (1067A >T = D356V) and pendrin (716T > A = V239D and 1001G > T = 346stop). In each family, all affected individuals were homozygous for the critical mutation. Each allele was specific to one or a few families in the cohort; none were widespread. Since epidemiological tests of association of mutations with deafness were not feasible for such rare alleles, we used functional and bioinformatics approaches to evaluate their consequences. In six other families, hearing loss was not linked to any known gene, suggesting that these families harbour novel genes responsible for this phenotype. We conclude that inherited hearing loss is highly heterogeneous in this population, with most extended families acting as genetic isolates in this context. We also conclude that the same genes are responsible for hearing loss in this population as elsewhere, so that gene discovery in these families informs the genetics of hearing loss worldwide. PMID:16460646

  2. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants practiced by traditional healers and herbalists for treatment of some urological diseases in the West Bank/Palestine.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Al-Ramahi, Rowa; Alqub, Malik A; Hussein, Fatima; Hamdan, Zakaria; Mustafa, Mahmoud; Qneibi, Mohammad; Ali, Iyad

    2017-05-08

    Throughout history, every civilization in the world used plants or their derivatives for treatment or prevention of diseases. In Palestine as in many other countries, herbal medicines are broadly used in the treatment of wide range of diseases including urological diseases. The main objective of this research is to study the use of herbal remedies by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urological diseases in the West Bank regions of Palestine and to assess their efficacy and safety through the literature review of the most cited plants. The study included a survey part, plant identification and a review study. The first part was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Face to face questionnaires were distributed to 150 traditional healers and herbalist in all regions of the West Bank of Palestine. The literature review part was to assess the most cited plants for their efficacy and toxicity. One hundred forty four herbalists and traditional healers accepted to participate in this study which was conducted between March and April, 2016. The results showed that 57 plant species belonging to 30 families were used by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urinary tract diseases in Palestine. Of these, Apiaceae family was the most prevalent. Paronychia argentea, Plantago ovata, Punica granatum, Taraxacum syriacum, Morus alba and Foeniculum vulgare were the most commonly used plant species in the treatment of kidney stones, while Capsella bursa-pastoris, Ammi visnaga and Ammi majus were the most recommended species for treatment of urinary tract infections and Portulaca oleracea used for renal failure. In addition Curcuma longa and Crocus sativus were used for enuresis while Juglans regia, Quercus infectoria, Sambucus ebulus and Zea mays were used for treatment symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia. Fruits were the most common parts used, and a decoction was the most commonly used method of preparation. Through literature

  3. Harmful Algal Blooms of the West Florida Shelf and Campeche Bank: Visualization and Quantification using Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto Ramos, Inia Mariel

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are natural phenomena that can have negative impacts on marine ecosystems on which human health and the economy of some Gulf States depends. Many of the HABs in the GOM are dominated by the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Non-toxic phytoplankton taxa such as Scrippsiella sp. also form intense blooms off the Mexican coast that result in massive fish mortality and economic losses, particularly as they may lead to anoxia. The main objectives of this dissertation were to (1) evaluate and improve the techniques developed for detection of Karenia spp. blooms on the West Florida Shelf (WFS) using satellite remote sensing methods, (2) test the use of these methods for waters in the GOM, and (3) use the output of these techniques to better understand the dynamics and evolution of Karenia spp. blooms in the WFS and off Mexico. The first chapter of this dissertation examines the performance of several Karenia HABs detection techniques using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images and historical ground truth observations collected on the WFS from August 2002 to December 2011. A total of 2323 in situ samples collected by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute to test for Karenia spp. matched pixels with valid ocean color satellite observations over this period. This dataset was used to systematically optimize variables and coefficients used in five published HAB detection methods. Each technique was tested using a set of metrics that included the F-Measure (FM). Before optimization, the average FM for all techniques was 0.47. After optimization, the average FM increased to 0.59, and false positives decreased ~50%. The addition of a Fluorescence Line Height (FLH) criterion improved the performance of every method. A new practical method was developed using a combination of FLH and Remote Sensing Reflectance at 555 nm (Rrs555-FLH). The new method resulted in an FM of 0.62 and 3

  4. Palestinian youth of the Intifada: PTSD and future orientation.

    PubMed

    Lavi, Tamar; Solomon, Zahava

    2005-11-01

    To assess the nature of chronic exposure to terror and its psychological and cognitive toll on Palestinian youths, as is reflected in posttraumatic symptoms, future orientation, and attitudes toward peace. In the summer of 2001, 245 Palestinian and 300 Israeli-Palestinian adolescents in the sixth to ninth grades were assessed with self-report questionnaires that measured level of exposure to terror, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, anger, dissociation, future orientation, and attitudes toward peace. Palestinians experienced significantly more traumatic events than Israeli Palestinians; the groups did not differ, however, in their subjective perception of the threat. Palestinians also reported higher levels of posttraumatic symptoms, more pessimistic future orientation, and less favorable attitudes toward peace negotiations than the Israeli Palestinians. The groups did not differ in reported psychological symptoms related to chronic exposure to stress. In both groups, subjective perceptions of the threat were implicated in the pathogenic sequelae of exposure to terror-induced trauma. Chronic or repeated exposure to terror may be related to complex posttraumatic symptoms beyond those specified in DSM-IV or ICD-10, including negative personal and national future orientation. The role of subjective appraisal deserves professional attention.

  5. Burnout among workers in emergency Departments in Palestinian hospitals: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Motasem; Hamra, Asma'a Abu

    2017-06-15

    Working in Emergency Departments (EDs) entails high work pressure and stress due to witnessing human suffering and the unpredictable nature of the work. This environment puts personnel at risk of burnout. This analysis aims to assess burnout levels and associated risk factors among health workers in EDs in Palestinian hospitals. Also, it examines the association between burnout and workplace violence, as well as with job turnover. Cross-sectional design utilising a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from all workers at 14 EDs; 8 from the West Bank and 6 from the Gaza Strip. Burnout was measured using Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. A total of 444 workers (response rate 74.5%) participated: 161(36.3%) nurses, 142(32.0%) physicians and 141(31.7%) administrative personnel. Results showed high levels of burnout among EDs workers; 64.0% suffered from high emotional exhaustion, 38.1% from high depersonalization and 34.6% from low personal accomplishment. In addition, high levels of emotional exhaustion (72.3%) was significantly prevalent among physicians compared to nurses (69.8%) and administrative workers (51.4%) (p < 0.05). In comparison, high levels of depersonalization was significantly prevalent among nurses (48.8%) compared to physicians (32.1%) and administrative workers (31.9%) (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the levels of personal accomplishment burnout among the three groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, high degree of burnout was more prevalent among EDs workers in the West Bank than among those working in the Gaza Strip (OR 2.02, 95% CI = 1.11-3.69, p = 0.019), and higher among younger workers (aged ≤30 years old) than their older counterparts (OR 2.4, 95% CI = 1.302-4.458, p = 0.005). Exposure to physical violence was significantly associated with having a high degree of burnout (OR 2.017 95% CI = 1.121-3.631, p = 0.019), but no association was observed with regards to

  6. Ethnopharmacological survey of home remedies used for treatment of hair and scalp and their methods of preparation in the West Bank-Palestine.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Eid, Ahmad Mustafa; Al Zabadi, Hamzeh; Alkaiyat, Abdulsalam; Darwish, Saja Adam

    2017-07-05

    Natural products have many uses and purposes, including those linked to pharmaceutics and cosmetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of natural remedies for the treatment of hair and scalp disorders in the West Bank, Palestine. An ethnopharmacological survey of herbal remedies and other natural products used in cosmetics and cosmeceuticals was carried out in the West Bank, Palestine. A questionnaire was distributed to 267 herbalists, traditional healers, hairdressers and rural dwellers. Collected information included: the names of plants and other natural products, the parts used, hair conditions, diseases and problems for which these products were used and also their methods of preparation. To identify the most important species used, the factor of informant's consensus (Fic), fidelity level (Fl) and the use-value (UV) were calculated. Collected data showed that 41 plants are utilized for the treatment of hair and scalp disorders, belonging to 27 families; among them Lamiaceae and Rosaceae, which were the most commonly used. Plant oils and their fruits are the most commonly used parts. Hair loss, dandruff, split hair endings and lice treatment, are reported as the most treated disorders. The number of plant species used consisted of 19, 14, 13, and again 13 with a factor of informant's consensus (Fic) for these disorders corresponding to 0.93, 0.94, 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. Fl was 100% for many plants; the highest UV value (0.84) was registered for Lawsonia inermis, which belongs to the Lythraceae family. This study showed that many natural remedies are still used in Palestine for the treatment of scalp and hair disorders as well as for cosmeceutical purposes. This study is of great importance as it allows us to have a greater perspective on our folkloric use of these natural products. A combined scientific effort between informants and the scientific community, working in this field, may help in the discovery of new cosmetics, cosmeceutical

  7. Indigenous practices among Palestinians for healing eye diseases and inflammations.

    PubMed

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    2005-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the state health services in general, and eye care in particular for Palestinian Arabs under the British Mandate (1917-1948). The paper will also discuss the environmental and cultural origins of the prevalence of eye diseases among Palestinian Arabs. The second part of the research describes in detail indigenous practices of traditional medicine for healing trachoma and other eye diseases, inflammation that were prevalent in Mandatory Palestine.

  8. Higher Education in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Volume I: Overview of the System and the Needs of the Reconstruction Process [and] Volume II: Recommendations and Project Proposals for Strengthening Higher Education in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip over the 1994-1998 Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This publication comprised of two volumes describes the findings of a review of Palestinian universities emphasizing science and technology, and the resulting recommendations for higher education improvement and support to be carried out between 1994 and 1998. In volume I the review, or mission, found that there are 28 tertiary-level institutions…

  9. Sexual torture of Palestinian men by Israeli authorities.

    PubMed

    Weishut, Daniel J N

    2015-11-01

    In the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, arrests and imprisonment of Palestinian men in their early adulthood are common practice. The Public Committee Against Torture in Israel (PCATI) collected thousands of testimonies of Palestinian men allegedly tortured or ill-treated by Israeli authorities. There are many types of torture, sexual torture being one of them. This study is based on the PCATI database during 2005-2012, which contains 60 cases-- 4% of all files in this period--with testimonies of alleged sexual torture or ill-treatment. It is a first in the investigation of torture and ill-treatment of a sexual nature, allegedly carried out by Israeli security authorities on Palestinian men. Findings show that sexual ill-treatment is systemic, with 36 reports of verbal sexual harassment, either directed toward Palestinian men and boys or toward family members, and 35 reports of forced nudity. Moreover, there are six testimonies of Israeli officials involved in physical sexual assault of arrested or imprisoned Palestinian men. Physical assault in most cases concerned pressing and/or kicking the genitals, while one testimony pertained to simulated rape, and another described an actual rape by means of a blunt object. The article provides illustrations of the various types of sexual torture and ill-treatment of boys and men in the light of existing literature, and recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and services

    PubMed Central

    THABET, ABDEL AZIZ; EL GAMMAL, HOSSAM; VOSTANIS, PANOS

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mental health problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mental health issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mental health care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mental health problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mental health service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures. PMID:16946953

  11. Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and services.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Abdel Aziz; El Gammal, Hossam; Vostanis, Panos

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mental health problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mental health issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mental health care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mental health problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mental health service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures.

  12. The demise of a major Acropora palmata bank-barrier reef off the southeast coast of Barbados, West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, I. G.; Glynn, P. W.; Toscano, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    Formerly attributed to human activity, the demise of a bank-barrier reef off southeastern Barbados known as Cobbler’s Reef is now thought to be largely the result of late Holocene, millennial-scale storm damage. Eleven surface samples of the reef crest coral Acropora palmata from nine sites along its 15-km length plot above the western Atlantic sea-level curve from 3,000 to 4,500 cal years ago (calibrated, calendar 14C years). These elevated clusters suggest that the reef complex suffered extensive storm damage during this period. The constant heavy wave action typical of this area and consequent low herbivory maintain conditions favoring algal growth, thereby limiting the reestablishment of post-storm reef framework. Site descriptions and detailed line surveys show a surface now composed mainly of reworked fragments of A. palmata covered with algal turf, macroalgae and crustose coralline algae. The reef contains no live A. palmata and only a few scattered coral colonies consisting primarily of Diploria spp . and Porites astreoides, along with the hydrocoral Millepora complanata. A few in situ framework dates plot at expected depths for normal coral growth below the sea-level curve during and after the period of intense storm activity. The most recent of these in situ samples are 320 and 400 cal years old. Corals of this late period likely succumbed to high turbidity associated with land clearance for sugarcane agriculture in the mid-1600s.

  13. The Holocaust in Palestinian Textbooks: Differences and Similarities in Israel and Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alayan, Samira

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how the Holocaust is represented in history textbooks for Palestinian pupils in the Palestinian and Arab-Israeli curricula from a pedagogical perspective. Since no mention of the Holocaust was found in Palestinian Authority textbooks, the study seeks to explain why this is so, while examining representations of the Holocaust…

  14. 31 CFR 597.508 - Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Licensing Policy § 597.508 Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority. (a) Effective... receipt of permits or public utility services from, the Palestinian Authority where such transactions are... a debit to an account of the Palestinian Authority on the books of a U.S. financial institution...

  15. Fragmented Foundations: Education and Chronic Crisis in the Occupied Palestinian Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolai, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the setting up and development of the first Palestinian-led education system, from 1994 to 2005. Given the context of chronic crisis, and the immensity of the endeavour, the Palestinians have made substantial progress in a relatively short time. However, the Palestinian education story does not end here. The author looks at…

  16. The Holocaust in Palestinian Textbooks: Differences and Similarities in Israel and Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alayan, Samira

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how the Holocaust is represented in history textbooks for Palestinian pupils in the Palestinian and Arab-Israeli curricula from a pedagogical perspective. Since no mention of the Holocaust was found in Palestinian Authority textbooks, the study seeks to explain why this is so, while examining representations of the Holocaust…

  17. Making Sense of Conflicting Role Expectations among Palestinian Teachers in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makkawi, Ibrahim A.

    This paper explores the dynamics of conflicting role expectations among Palestinian teachers in Israel as these expectations are generated by the broader Israeli-Palestinian conflict and its manifestation in the educational system. To understand the enigma of Palestinian teachers in Israel, the paper briefly reviews the different role patterns…

  18. Characterization by electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods of the shallow hydrogeological system at Hebron (West Bank, Palestine) in a semi-arid zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirhan, Asal; Hamidi, Mohammad O.

    2012-09-01

    Multi-electrode geo-electrical and transient electromagnetic surveys were carried out to characterize the nature of the subsurface infiltration zones (5 to 20 m) related to a series of groundwater outlets, and to reveal the geometry of the different aquifers at Bani-Naim, in the south-eastern foothills of the Hebron area, West Bank, Palestine. The purpose of the surveys was to understand the link between water storage/transfer and the characteristics of the geological formations. The strata in this semi-arid region are composed of alternate layers of chalky limestone, hard limestone, marl and chalk. A total of 30 ERT and 15 TDEM were conducted at Bani Naim-Jahir and Bani Naim-Birein. A correlation between the results indicates various infiltration pathways: fractures, feature heterogeneities, and porous chalk. The local heterogeneity on the eastern side were the major pathways for the water infiltration, whereas the thick marl layer underneath acts as a natural impermeable barrier preventing water from infiltrating deeper. A combination of the different geophysical results identified conductive features that correspond to the infiltration zones supplying the dug wells with water. Furthermore, it was established that the fractured chalk and porous chalky limestone act as an aquifer. A three-dimensional visualization of the resistivity allowed a useful reconstruction of the shallow hydrogeological system. Consequently, these studies contribute to regional sustainable development projects in this semi-arid region.

  19. Societal Norms and Conditions and Their Influence on Daily Life in Children With Type 1 Diabetes in the West Bank in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Elissa, Kawther; Bratt, Ewa-Lena; Axelsson, Åsa B; Khatib, Salam; Sparud-Lundin, Carina

    To explore the experiences of daily life in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their parents living in the West Bank in Palestine. A qualitative study using thematic interviews was performed with 10 children with T1D and their parents (n=10). Content analysis was performed with the assistance of NVIVO 10. The overall theme was facing the social reality of diabetes. This was underpinned by two themes: stigmatization and social constraints. Facing the social reality of diabetes described children and their parents' everyday life attempts to place themselves within the context of the disease and social context. Children and their parents described how stigmatization and social constraints impacted their daily life as a result of fear of disclosing the disease, which could affect their social status. These findings highlighted how daily life in children with T1D and their parents was highly affected by cultural impacts, especially as stigma related to the illness affected social interactions of female and male children/adolescents. Lack of knowledge and misunderstandings about T1D in society lead to negative consequences like poorer management of diabetes, and this becomes mediated by gender. The findings suggest health care providers need to be aware of the cultural and social impact of T1D on children's and parents' daily life in order to meet their needs and challenges by providing appropriate interventions, strategies and support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Organizing health care within political turmoil: the Palestinian case.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Motasem; Defever, Mia; Abdeen, Ziad

    2003-01-01

    Palestinians were given control over their own health services in late 1994. Since then they have been facing the challenge of reorganizing disordered health services into a cohesive, regulated and sustainable health care system. This paper focuses on the experience of organizing health care during political instability. It considers the ways that health care is currently provided and funded in the Palestinian Territories. The patterns of accessibility to health care services in terms of insurance coverage and provision (physical allocation) of services are discussed. Finally, the major health care policy changes in this transitional period are examined.

  1. Cut Bank Municipal Airport and Army Air Force Base, Terminal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cut Bank Municipal Airport and Army Air Force Base, Terminal Building, Approximately 390 yards west of Valier Highway (Montana Route 358), three miles southwest of Cut Bank, Cut Bank, Glacier County, MT

  2. Ethnopharmacological survey of herbal remedies used for treatment of various types of cancer and their methods of preparations in the West Bank-Palestine.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Al-Ramahi, Rowa; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ayesh, Ola Ibrahim; Eid, Ahmad Mustafa

    2016-03-08

    Plants have been the primary source of medicines since life on earth; more than 50 % of existing cancer treatments are derived from plants. An ethnopharmacological survey of herbal remedies used in cancer treatment was carried out in the West Bank/ Palestine. A questionnaire was distributed to one hundred and fifty herbalists, traditional healers and rural dwellers. Collected information included the names of plants, the used parts, types of cancers for which these plants were used and also their methods of preparation. To identify the most important species used, Factor of informant's consensus (F(ic)), Fidelity level (Fl) and the Use-value (UV) were calculated. Collected data has shown that 72 plants are utilized for treatment of cancer, belonging to 44 families; from them Compositae and Lamiaceae were the most common. Leaves and fruits were the most commonly used parts, while decoctions, infusions and syrups were the main methods of preparation. Lung cancer was the most common type of cancer treated with these plants and Ephedra alata was the most commonly used plant for treatment of cancer in Palestine. The Fic was high for all the plants; Fl was 100% for many plants, the highest UV (0.72) was for Ephedra alata. This study showed that many herbal remedies are still used by herbalists in Palestine for treatment of cancer; some of them have been approved scientifically while others are not. A combined effort between informants and scientific institutions working in this field can help in the discovery of new anticancer agents. Moreover, scientists must explore the most suitable method of extraction, formulation and dose determination in order to achieve the best benefits from these herbals.

  3. Molecular characterisation of Escherichia coli from dead broiler chickens with signs of colibacillosis and ready-to-market chicken meat in the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Qabajah, M; Awwad, E; Ashhab, Y

    2014-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare a group of virulence-associated characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens that had died with signs of colibacillosis against E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken meat in the West Bank. 2. The isolates were investigated to determine the virulence factor (VF) profile, phylogenetic group and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). A total of 66 avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains from different affected broiler farms and 21 E. coli isolates from ready-to-market chicken carcasses (hereinafter called meat strains) from 8 slaughter houses were analysed. 3. The overall content of VFs was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among APEC strains, with over 75% of APEC strains having ≥4 VFs, while over 75% of the meat strains had <4 VFs. The VFs iss, astA and iucD were frequently detected in APEC and meat strains, whereas cvi, papC, vat, tsh and irp2 occurred more significantly in APEC strains. Phylogenetic typing showed that 67% of the meat strains belonged to group B2. Phylogroup D was predominant (50%) in the APEC strains. Using double disc diffusion and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 10.6% of the APEC and 9.5% of the meat strains were determined to be ESBL positive. 4. Our findings show that the VFs papC, vat, irp2 and to a lesser extent tsh and cvi are significantly more prevalent in APEC strains. The results demonstrate that chicken meat can be contaminated with APEC strains (≥4 VF). A significant percentage of the meat strains fall in the B2 group, which is a phylogroup largely associated with human pathogenic ExPEC strains. The results of ESBL screening indicated that broiler chicken products in Palestine represent a potential reservoir of ESBL genes and therefore could be considered a possible public health risk.

  4. Fear in the Palestinian Classroom: Pedagogy, Authoritarianism and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affouneh, Saida; Hargreaves, Eleanore

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on pictures, written sentences and interview contributions, this article explores some Palestinian children's perspectives in order to gain insights into some children's classroom fear in the light of its potential influence on learning. After presenting some existing research indicating a negative relationship between fear and young…

  5. Validity of Palestinian University Students' Responses in Evaluating Their Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ahmad M.

    1986-01-01

    A study of Palestinian university students' evaluations of their teachers' instruction examined the possible biasing effect of their sex, academic class, or expected grade in the course. The results are examined in the context of Arab and Third World higher education and the need to establish standards of evaluation. (MSE)

  6. From Marginalisation to Integration: Arab-Palestinians in Israeli Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Tamar; Jabareen, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The Arab-Palestinian minority in Israel, one-fifth of the country's population, has been underrepresented in Israeli institutions of higher education since the establishment of the state. This article focuses on the authors' shared aim of promoting diversity and multiculturalism in institutions of higher education in Israel. It first introduces…

  7. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  8. Adapting the Critical Thinking Assessment Test for Palestinian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basha, Sami; Drane, Denise; Light, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking is a key learning outcome for Palestinian students. However, there are no validated critical thinking tests in Arabic. Suitability of the US developed Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT) for use in Palestine was assessed. The test was piloted with university students in English (n = 30) and 4 questions were piloted in Arabic…

  9. From Marginalisation to Integration: Arab-Palestinians in Israeli Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Tamar; Jabareen, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The Arab-Palestinian minority in Israel, one-fifth of the country's population, has been underrepresented in Israeli institutions of higher education since the establishment of the state. This article focuses on the authors' shared aim of promoting diversity and multiculturalism in institutions of higher education in Israel. It first introduces…

  10. Children and Nationalism in a Palestinian Refugee Camp in Jordan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Jason

    2002-01-01

    Describes engagement of children in a Palestinian refugee camp in Jordan with projects of nationalism. Outlines different visions for the children's future and ways these visions inform actions of their proponents. Focuses on how children draw upon different discourses of national community in the process of developing identities that are strongly…

  11. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  12. Perceptions of Forgiveness among Palestinian Teachers in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ilham; Abu-Nimer, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study conducted among Palestinian teachers in Israel to address their contextual understanding and perceptions of forgiveness. It sheds light on K-12 teachers' responses to daily cultural and social conflict situations in a Middle Eastern context. This research aims to contribute to our understanding of…

  13. Perceptions of Forgiveness among Palestinian Teachers in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ilham; Abu-Nimer, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study conducted among Palestinian teachers in Israel to address their contextual understanding and perceptions of forgiveness. It sheds light on K-12 teachers' responses to daily cultural and social conflict situations in a Middle Eastern context. This research aims to contribute to our understanding of…

  14. Differences in tobacco smoking prevalence and frequency between adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank: cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Mohammed; Khader, Ali; Millett, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is conflicting as to the whether tobacco smoking prevalence is higher in refugee than non-refugee populations. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and frequency of tobacco smoking in Palestine refugee and non-refugee adolescent populations in the Middle East. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank among adolescent Palestine refugees and non-refugees. Age- and sex-adjusted regression models assessed the association between refugee status and current (past-30 day) tobacco use prevalence and frequency. Prevalence estimates for current tobacco smoking were similar between Palestine refugee and non-refugee groups in Jordan (26.7 % vs. 24.0 %), Lebanon (39.4 % vs. 38.5 %), and the West Bank (39.5 % vs. 38.4 %). In Syria, Palestine refugees had nearly twice the odds of current tobacco smoking compared to non-refugees (23.2 % vs. 36.6 %, AOR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.46-2.62). Palestine refugees consumed more cigarettes per month than non-refugees in Lebanon (β 0.57, 95 % CI 0.17-0.97) and Palestine refugees consumed more waterpipe tobacco per month than non-refugees in Syria (β 0.40, 95 % CI 0.19-0.61) and the West Bank (β 0.42, 95 % CI 0.21-0.64). Current tobacco smoking prevalence is in excess of 20 % in both adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Middle Eastern countries, however Palestine refugees may smoke tobacco more frequently than non-refugees. Comparison of simple prevalence estimates may therefore mask important differences in tobacco use patterns within population groups.

  15. 31 CFR 597.509 - Transactions with entities under the control of the Palestinian President and certain other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Statements of Licensing Policy § 597.509 Transactions with entities under the control of the Palestinian.../External Audit Agency; and the Palestinian Monetary Authority. (b) Effective April 12, 2006, U.S....

  16. 31 CFR 595.511 - Transactions with entities under the control of the Palestinian President and certain other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Policy § 595.511 Transactions with entities under the control of the Palestinian President and certain...; and the Palestinian Monetary Authority. (b) Effective April 12, 2006, U.S. financial institutions...

  17. 31 CFR 594.513 - Transactions with entities under the control of the Palestinian President and certain other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Licensing Policy § 594.513 Transactions with entities under the control of the Palestinian President and...; and the Palestinian Monetary Authority. (b) Effective April 12, 2006, U.S. financial institutions...

  18. The Palestinian Territories: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-05

    banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine.” It calls for the elimination of Israel and Jews from Islamic holy land and portrays the Jews as evil...Palestinian state “on all the lands that were occupied in 1967 with Jerusalem as its capital,” and at the same time affirmed the Palestinians’ right to...States’ Pledges to UNRWA 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1 In 1922, Britain set up a separate administration for the land

  19. U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-29

    Financial Statements (for the Biennium Ended 31 December 2007) and Report of the Board of Auditors , U.N. General Assembly Official Records (63rd...2003 report from the General Accounting Office described UNRWA’s efforts in implementing the Section 301(c) requirement and the State Department’s...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians Jim Zanotti Analyst in

  20. U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-15

    December 2007) and Report of the Board of Auditors , U.N. General Assembly Official Records (63rd Session, Supplement No. 5C), 2008. 25 See Presidential...who has engaged in any act of terrorism.” A November 2003 report from the General Accounting Office described UNRWA’s efforts in implementing the...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians Jim Zanotti Analyst in

  1. U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-16

    See UNRWA Financial Report and Audited Financial Statements (for the Biennium Ended 31 December 2007) and Report of the Board of Auditors , U.N...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians Jim Zanotti Analyst in...Middle Eastern Affairs July 16, 2009 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RS22967 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704

  2. Troubled Waters: Water and the Israeli-Palestinian Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    network , build cisterns for rainfall collection, and to repair older water networks . Israeli influence over water extraction from the aquifers is...more expensive than water purchased through the water network , costing 15-30 shekels per cubic meter depending on location compared to 2.5 shekels...per cubic meter through the water network . 56 It is not only through bureaucratic administrative policies that Israel controls Palestinian access

  3. Effect of Olive mill wastewater spreading on soil wettability and acidity under different season in a semi humid area: A field study in Bait Reema - West Bank - Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamimi, Nesreen; Marei Sawalha, Amer; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is generated seasonally in large amounts during the olive oil production in Palestine, and it is often disposal of in uncontrolled manner into the open environment. OMW has a high amount of phototoxic compounds, high salinity and acidity and therefore is challenging when disposed on soil. The objective of this study was to study the persistence and degree of water repellency during different season of OMW application in soil samples (0-5 cm deep), and to elucidate how extent this phenomenon is associated with soil acidity, to analyze the relationships between soil water repellency and environmental factors including, temperature and moisture and to describe the seasonal variation in the phenol concentration of the soil. In order to understand how climatic conditions at the time of OMW disposal affect the development of soil water repelleny in field, soil acidity and phenol content in soil, we conducted a field study in Bait Reema village in the West Bank - Palestine. The study site is characterized by 1.5 m thick brown rendzina and has an annual average rainfall of 550 mm. On an extensively used olive orchard field, we implemented 16 plots (2.5 x 3.5 m). OMW application (14 L / m2) was conducted either in winter, spring or summer on two replicate plots distributed randomly among the 16 plots. To test the effect of soil moisture on the persistence of OMW effects, we implemented an OMW application in summer on two additional plots, but kept those plots moist before and after OMW application until start of the rain season. For each of the treatment variants, we implemented two control plots which were treated in the same way as their counterparts, but with tap water. Soil samples (0-5 cm) were collected after 2 days, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months , 9 months, 12 months , and 18 months. pH was determined and analyzed in aqueous soil extracts (1:5), the total phenol content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent, soil water

  4. Palestinian and Jewish Israeli-Born Immigrants in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Yinon; Tyree, Andrea

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on Arab and Jewish immigration to the United States from Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. It explains how Jewish and Arab immigrants from these areas were identified and compares the socioeconomic characteristics of the two immigrant populations. (GLR)

  5. 9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH SIDE OF DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  6. National Identity Development among Palestinian Student Activists in the Israeli Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makkawi, Ibrahim

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the process of national identity development, and closely related themes among Palestinian student activists in the Israeli universities. Informed by the tradition of social identity theory, in-depth qualitative inquiry was conducted with an intensity sample of 35 Palestinian student activists attending the major five Israeli…

  7. Peace and Human Rights Education in the Middle East: Comparing Jewish and Palestinian Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velloso, Agustin

    1998-01-01

    The author asks to what extent peace and human-rights education programs for Israeli and Palestinian children have fostered peaceful solutions to the differences between the Israeli and Palestinian people. He concludes that the programs are very limited and have made little impact in reversing the long educational legacy of mutual distrust and…

  8. Reconciliation through Education--Experiences from the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study deals with how to establish positive attitudes and behaviours between Israelis and Palestinians that endure during times of negative shifts in the external conflict. In this study it will be shown that educational projects that bring Israelis and Palestinians together over a longer period of time, and that use the premises of the…

  9. The Everyday Realities of Palestinian College Students Living and Studying in Israel: A Photovoice Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to allow Palestinian, primarily Muslim, college students to document, reflect, and critique, through photography and storytelling (photovoice), their everyday realities as Arab citizens living and studying in Israel. Sixty Palestinian, preservice, English teachers participated in this study, of whom 55 were female and…

  10. Higher Education for Palestinian Muslim Female Students in Israel and Jordan: Migration and Identity Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Masry-Harzalla, Asmahan; Haj-Yehia, Kussai

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the migration of Palestinian Muslim women, citizens of Israel, to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem or to Jordanian universities for academic studies, and the influence of this migration on their norms, behavior and identity. Narrative interviews were conducted with Palestinian Muslim women graduates: eight from the…

  11. The Other Side of the Story: Israeli and Palestinian Teachers Write a History Textbook Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Shoshana; Bar-On, Dan

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Shoshana Steinberg and Dan Bar-On present the work of a team of Israeli and Palestinian teachers who developed a history textbook that includes both groups' narratives of the same events side by side. These teachers then tested the effects of its use in both Israeli and Palestinian classrooms; for the first time, students on each…

  12. Nationalist Narratives, Boundaries and Social Inclusion/Exclusion in Palestinian Camps in South Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincham, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how in the contexts of exile and statelessness and in the absence of Palestinian institutions, such as schools, Palestinian youth in south Lebanon construct their identities through nationalist narratives of shared history, kinship, culture and religion. Although these narratives help to construct shared notions of…

  13. Gender and Higher Education in Different National Spaces: Female Palestinian Students Attending Israeli and Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia-Queder, Sarab; Arar, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the higher education experience among Palestinian Arab females in two national spaces and seeks to determine whether studying at an Arab institution of higher learning in a nearby Arab country can alleviate the emotional and economic difficulties that affect Palestinian women at Israeli universities. What can institutions of…

  14. Palestinian Refugees in the Levant: Alternate Theories for Disparity in Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    2  D.   LITERATURE REVIEW ...............................................................................5  E.  METHODS AND...political factors that affect the treatment of the Palestinians. D. LITERATURE REVIEW After the proclamation by the UN General Assembly on November...Syrian economy. Of the adult Palestinian refugees in camps, 48 percent of the population works. That figure breaks down into a 75 percent male work

  15. Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their…

  16. 31 CFR 597.508 - Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority. 597.508 Section 597.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Licensing Policy § 597.508 Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority. (a)...

  17. 31 CFR 597.508 - Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority. 597.508 Section 597.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Licensing Policy § 597.508 Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority. (a)...

  18. Nationalist Narratives, Boundaries and Social Inclusion/Exclusion in Palestinian Camps in South Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincham, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how in the contexts of exile and statelessness and in the absence of Palestinian institutions, such as schools, Palestinian youth in south Lebanon construct their identities through nationalist narratives of shared history, kinship, culture and religion. Although these narratives help to construct shared notions of…

  19. Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their…

  20. Communal and Familial War-Related Stress Factors: The Case of the Palestinian Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srour, Roney W.; Srour, Anan

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss traumatic familial and communal risk factors faced by the average Palestinian child during times of war. Unlike most research, which limits Palestinian children's experience to military-related traumatic events, this article attempts to illustrate their communal and familial contexts empirically. Sources studies were published…

  1. The Everyday Realities of Palestinian College Students Living and Studying in Israel: A Photovoice Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to allow Palestinian, primarily Muslim, college students to document, reflect, and critique, through photography and storytelling (photovoice), their everyday realities as Arab citizens living and studying in Israel. Sixty Palestinian, preservice, English teachers participated in this study, of whom 55 were female and…

  2. Higher Education for Palestinian Muslim Female Students in Israel and Jordan: Migration and Identity Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Masry-Harzalla, Asmahan; Haj-Yehia, Kussai

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the migration of Palestinian Muslim women, citizens of Israel, to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem or to Jordanian universities for academic studies, and the influence of this migration on their norms, behavior and identity. Narrative interviews were conducted with Palestinian Muslim women graduates: eight from the…

  3. Reconciliation through Education--Experiences from the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study deals with how to establish positive attitudes and behaviours between Israelis and Palestinians that endure during times of negative shifts in the external conflict. In this study it will be shown that educational projects that bring Israelis and Palestinians together over a longer period of time, and that use the premises of the…

  4. The Curriculum in the Palestinian Territories: Drama Processes in Theatre Making and Self-Liberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yamani, Hala; Attallah, Susan; Alsawayfa, Fadel

    2016-01-01

    The Israeli occupation and its strategies employed for controlling the Palestinian Territories have reflected negatively on all aspects of Palestinians' lives. The occupation has also created a closed environment where people have little room to act and react freely. This article highlights the importance of drama and theatre making for…

  5. The power and limits of ethnonationalism: Palestinians and Eastern Jews in Israel, 1974-1991.

    PubMed

    Kraus, V; Yonay, Y

    2000-09-01

    The relative standings of four ethnic groups - Muslim Palestinians, Christian Palestinians, Asian-African Jews, European Jews -were compared, using mobility data from 1974 and 1991. The findings show that despite the lack of government support and the prevalence of inexorable discrimination against Israeli Palestinians, they have narrowed the gap with Asian-African Jews in both education and occupational prestige. This finding demonstrates that ideological and political hegemony is not always effective in improving the socio-economic standing of preferred minorities (Asian-African Jews), and that social and economic structures may counterbalance the anti-Palestinian nationalist ideology. The analysis suggests that residential and educational segregation of Palestinians protects them from direct competition with European Jews, whereas Asian-African Jews have to compete with this dominant group in schools, as well as in the labour market.

  6. 76 FR 12109 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...://www.fhfa.gov/webfiles/2924/FHFAForm060.pdf . Upon request, the member's Bank also will provide... Kewaunee Wisconsin. West Pointe Bank Oshkosh Wisconsin. ] Dairy State Bank Rice Lake Wisconsin. National... Kansas. of Olathe. Golden Belt Bank, FSA Hays Kansas. Kanza Bank Kingman Kansas. Midland National Bank...

  7. Pesticide use and opportunities of exposure among farmers and their families: cross-sectional studies 1998-2006 from Hebron governorate, occupied Palestinian territory

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects caused by pesticide exposure have been reported in occupied Palestinian territory and the world at large. The objective of this paper is to compare patterns of pesticide use in Beit-U'mmar village, West Bank, between 1998 and 2006. Methods We studied two populations in Beit-U'mmar village, comprised of: 1) 61 male farmers and their wives in 1998 and 2) 250 male farmers in 2006. Both populations completed a structured interview, which included questions about socio-demographic factors, types of farming tasks, as well as compounds, quantities, and handling of pesticides. Using the 1998 population as a reference, we applied generalized linear regression models (GLM) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in order to estimate prevalence differences (PD) between the two populations. Results In 1998, farmers used 47 formulated pesticides on their crops. In 2006, 16 of these pesticides were still in use, including five internationally banned compounds. There were positive changes with less use of large quantities of pesticides (>40 units/year) (PD -51; CI -0.60, -0.43), in applying the recommended dosage of pesticides (PD +0.57; CI +0.48, +0.68) and complying with the safety period (PD +0.89; CI+0.83, +0.95). Changes also included farmers' habits while applying pesticides, such as less smoking (PD -0.20; CI-0.34, -0.07) and eating at the work place (PD -0.33; CI-0.47, -0.19). No significant changes were found from 1998 to 2006 regarding use of personal protective equipment, pesticide storage, farmers' habits after applying pesticides, and in using some highly hazardous pesticides. Conclusions The results were based on two cross-sectional surveys and should be interpreted with caution due to potential validity problems. The results of the study suggest some positive changes in the handling of pesticides amongst participants in 2006, which could be due to different policy interventions and regulations that were implemented after 1998. However

  8. Psychosocial outcomes related to subjective threat from armed conflict events (STACE): Findings from the Israeli-Palestinian cross-cultural HBSC study.

    PubMed

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Radwan, Qasrowi; Walsh, Sophie D; Laufer, Avital; Amitai, Gabriel; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya; Abdeen, Ziad

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates the relationship between exposure to armed conflict and terror events, and an array of mental and behavioral outcomes within a large cross-cultural scientifically representative sample of 24,935 Palestinian (7,430 West Bank and 7,217 Gaza) and Israeli (5,255 Jewish and 6,033 Arab) 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old school children. The children of the Middle East have been subjected to exposure from armed conflict and terrorism repeatedly with no adequate research or interventions aimed at shielding them from the hazards of such exposure to their mental and social well-being. This paper studies the relationship between a newly developed scale (STACE) measuring levels of subjective perceptions of threat/fear due to exposure to armed conflict events and its predicting association with six psychosocial and behavioral outcomes covering (1) poor mental health, (2) positive well-being, and (3) risk behaviors. It also examines the role of parental support in "buffering" the effects of exposure to armed conflict events within the four target populations. Results showed that STACE has significant and strong effects on all six dependent variables representing (1) mental post trauma, (2) diminished well-being, and (3) elevated risk behaviors. STACE strongly affects all four populations with the greatest impact among the Jewish Israeli population and the least impact shown for the Arab Israeli youth. Parental support ("significant adult") has both a direct main effect on the outcomes of all six variables as well as a significant "buffering" effect on the impact of STACE on certain outcome variables (posttraumatic symptoms, life satisfaction, positive life perceptions, and tobacco use). Regardless of the type of armed conflict events, the perception of threat and fear that a child experiences has a universal significant negative impact on mental, social, and behavioral well-being. The importance of the existence of a supporting significant adult in exposed

  9. Molecular detection and genotyping of enteroviruses from CSF samples of patients with suspected sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis from 2012 to 2015 in West Bank, Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Dumaidi, Kamal; Al-Jawabreh, Amer

    2017-01-01

    Background Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are the most frequently reported cause of aseptic meningitis with or without CSF pleocytosis in childhood. Rapid detection and genotype of HEVs is essential to determine the causative agent and variant causing sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis. Aim To investigate the molecular epidemiology of enteroviruses (EVs) among patients with sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis admitted to three major hospitals in West Bank, Palestine from 2012 to 2015. Methods During the study period, 356 CSF samples were collected from patients with sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis. Two RT-nested PCR assays targeting a partial part of 5'UTR for direct diagnosis and the VP1 region for genotyping by sequence analysis of the viral genome were used. Results HEV RNA was detected in 66 of 356 (18.5%) of CSF samples. Age distribution showed that 64% (42/66) were infants (<1 year), 18% were children between 1 and 5 years old, 12% were children between 5 and 10 years old, and 6% were more than 10 years old. Of the 66 EV cases, 12 were successfully genotyped. Five different EV genotypes were identified. All of them belonged to HEV-B species. The study showed that echovirus 6 genotype accounted for 42% of the sequenced cases. The HEV infections in the present study tended to show slight seasonal pattern with more cases occurring during spring and summer, yet still significant numbers were also reported in fall and winter seasons. Conclusion HEV was isolated from a significant number of children with sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis. In addition, the molecular method utilized for direct diagnosis and genotyping of HEV from CSF revealed that more than one HEV type circulated in the West Bank, Palestine during the study period. PMID:28225788

  10. Molecular detection and genotyping of enteroviruses from CSF samples of patients with suspected sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis from 2012 to 2015 in West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Dumaidi, Kamal; Al-Jawabreh, Amer

    2017-01-01

    Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are the most frequently reported cause of aseptic meningitis with or without CSF pleocytosis in childhood. Rapid detection and genotype of HEVs is essential to determine the causative agent and variant causing sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis. To investigate the molecular epidemiology of enteroviruses (EVs) among patients with sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis admitted to three major hospitals in West Bank, Palestine from 2012 to 2015. During the study period, 356 CSF samples were collected from patients with sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis. Two RT-nested PCR assays targeting a partial part of 5'UTR for direct diagnosis and the VP1 region for genotyping by sequence analysis of the viral genome were used. HEV RNA was detected in 66 of 356 (18.5%) of CSF samples. Age distribution showed that 64% (42/66) were infants (<1 year), 18% were children between 1 and 5 years old, 12% were children between 5 and 10 years old, and 6% were more than 10 years old. Of the 66 EV cases, 12 were successfully genotyped. Five different EV genotypes were identified. All of them belonged to HEV-B species. The study showed that echovirus 6 genotype accounted for 42% of the sequenced cases. The HEV infections in the present study tended to show slight seasonal pattern with more cases occurring during spring and summer, yet still significant numbers were also reported in fall and winter seasons. HEV was isolated from a significant number of children with sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis. In addition, the molecular method utilized for direct diagnosis and genotyping of HEV from CSF revealed that more than one HEV type circulated in the West Bank, Palestine during the study period.

  11. Internal displacement and health among the Palestinian minority in Israel.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K

    2012-04-01

    Long term health impacts of internal displacement (ID) resulting from political violence are not well documented or understood. One such case is the ID of 300,000-420,000 Palestinian citizens of Israel and their descendants during the Nakba of 1948 (Palestinian Catastrophe). We aim to document the long term health impacts of this ID. We draw on data collected in 2005 from a nationwide random sample of 902 individuals aged 30-70. Research participants were interviewed in person after being selected through a multistage sampling procedure. About 24% of participants reported that either they or their families had been internally displaced. Palestinian internally displaced persons (IDPs), that is, those who were forcibly displaced and dispossessed from their homes and lands during the Nakba and its aftermath, as well as their families and descendants, and who reside within the current borders of Israel, had an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI = 1.02-2.07) for poor self-rated health (SRH) compared to non-IDPs after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. No difference was found between IDPs and non-IDPs in limiting longstanding illness following control for confounders. Low socioeconomic position and chronic stress were significantly related to ID and to SRH. Our findings suggest adverse long term health impacts of the Nakba on the IDPs when compared to non-IDPs. We propose that these disparities might stem from IDPs' unhealed post-traumatic scars from the Nakba, or from becoming a marginalized minority within their own society due to their displacement and loss of collective identity. Given these long term health consequences, we conclude that displacement should be addressed with health and social policies for IDPs.

  12. Social ecology of resilience and Sumud of Palestinians.

    PubMed

    Marie, Mohammad; Hannigan, Ben; Jones, Aled

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of theoretical perspectives and practical research knowledge in relation to 'resilience', the resilience of Palestinians in particular and the related concept of 'Sumud'. 'Sumud' is a Palestinian idea that is interwoven with ideas of personal and collective resilience and steadfastness. It is also a socio-political concept and refers to ways of surviving in the context of occupation, chronic adversity, lack of resources and limited infrastructure. The concept of 'resilience' has deep roots, going back at least to the 10th century when Arabic scholars suggested strategies to cope with life adversity. In Europe, research into resilience extends back to the 1800s. The understanding of resilience has developed over four overlapping waves. These focus on individual traits, protective factors, ecological assets and (in the current wave) social ecological factors. The current wave of resilience research focuses on the contribution of cultural contextualisation and is an approach that is discussed in this article, which draws on Arabic and English language literature located through a search of multiple databases (CINAHL, British Nursing Index, ASSIA, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE). Findings suggest that 'Sumud' is linked to the surrounding cultural context and can be thought of as an innovative, social ecological, approach to promoting resilience. We show that resilience is a prerequisite to 'Sumud', meaning that the individual has to be resilient in order to stay and not to leave their place, position or community. We close by pressing the case for studies which investigate resilience especially in underdeveloped countries such as Palestine (occupied Palestinian territories), and which reveal how resilience is embedded in pre-existing cultural contexts.

  13. The distribution of geochemical heterogeneities in the source of Hawaiian shield lavas as revealed by a transect across the strike of the Loa and Kea spatial trends: East Molokai to West Molokai to Penguin Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guangping; Huang, Shichun; Frey, Frederick A.; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Abouchami, Wafa; Clague, David A.; Cousens, Brian; Moore, James G.; Beeson, Melvin H.

    2014-05-01

    An important feature of <2 Ma Hawaiian volcanoes is that they define two sub-parallel spatial trends known as the Loa- and Kea-trends. On the Island of Hawaii, the <1.5 Ma shield lavas on the Loa and Kea spatial trends have distinctive geochemical characteristics that are designated as Loa-type and Kea-type. These geochemical differences are clearly expressed in Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb isotopic ratios, major element contents, and ratios of incompatible elements. They are interpreted to reflect varying proportions of sediment, basalt, gabbro and peridotite in subducted oceanic lithosphere. Pb isotopic ratios indicate that the Loa-type component reflects ancient subduction, >2.5 Ga, whereas the Kea-type component reflects younger subduction, <1.5 Ga. To evaluate the temporal persistence of these geochemical differences in the source of Hawaiian shield lavas, we analyzed lavas from the ˜1.5 to 2 Ma Molokai Island volcanoes, East and West Molokai, and the adjacent submarine Penguin Bank. The three volcanoes form a nearly east-west trend that crosscuts the Loa and Kea spatial trends at a high angle; consequently we can determine if these older lavas are Kea-type in the east and Loa-type in the west. All lavas collected from the subaerial flanks of East Molokai, a Kea-trend volcano, have Kea-type geochemical characteristics; however, dive samples collected from Wailau landslide blocks, probably samples of the East Molokai shield that are older than those exposed on the subaerial flanks, include basalt with Loa-type geochemical features. Shield lavas from West Molokai and Penguin Bank, both on the Loa-trend, are dominantly Loa-type, but samples with Kea-type compositions also erupted at these Loa-trend volcanoes. The Loa-trend volcanoes, Mahukona, West Molokai, Penguin Bank, and Koolau, have also erupted lavas with Kea-type geochemical characteristics, and the Kea-trend volcanoes, Mauna Kea, Kohala, Haleakala, and East Molokai, have erupted lavas with Loa-type geochemical

  14. Vocational Preparation (14-19) in West Germany. Intensive Study Visit Sponsored by the Central Bureau for Educational Visits and Exchanges (Rochdale-Bielefeld, West Germany, March 9-13, 1987). Information Bank Working Paper Number 2784.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Rosemary

    A group of British researchers visited Bielefeld, West Germany, for 5 days in order to look at the German system of prevocational/vocational education programs for 14-19 year olds. The results of their observations and interviews were the following: (1) despite the differences in their education and training systems, the United Kingdom and West…

  15. A preliminary investigation of the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing contributions from eroding channel banks to the siltation of salmonid spawning gravels across the south west UK.

    PubMed

    Collins, Adrian L; Walling, Desmond E; McMellin, Grant K; Zhang, Yusheng; Gray, Janina; McGonigle, Daniel; Cherrington, Ross

    2010-06-01

    The low productivity of salmonids in many river systems across the UK is testament to their intolerance of water quality perturbations including those associated with excessive sedimentation. Catchment and fishery managers concerned with combating such issues require reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem to target management and on the efficacy of the mitigation options being implemented. In recognition of the latter requirement, a pre- and post-remediation sediment sourcing survey was used to examine the potential for using sediment tracing to assemble preliminary information on the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing sediment contributions from eroding channel banks to salmonid spawning gravels in the Rivers Camel, Fal, Lynher, Plym, Tamar and Tavy in the south west of the UK. Respective estimates of the overall mean proportion (+/-95% confidence limits) of the interstitial sediment input to salmonid spawning gravels originating from eroding channel banks during the pre- (1999-2000) and post-remediation (2008-2009) study periods were computed at 97+/-1% vs. 69+/-1%, 94+/-1% vs. 91+/-1%, 12+/-1% vs. 10+/-1%, 92+/-1% vs. 34+/-1%, 31+/-1% vs. 16+/-1% and 90+/-1% vs. 66+/-1%. Whilst the study demonstrates the potential utility of the fingerprinting approach for helping to assemble important information on the efficacy of bank fencing as a sediment source control measure at catchment scale, a number of limitations of the work and some suggestions for improving experimental design are discussed. Equivalent data are urgently required for many sediment mitigation options to help inform the development of water quality policy packages designed to protect aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Differences in the Triglyceride to HDL-Cholesterol Ratio between Palestinian and Israeli Adults

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Ram; Nassar, Hisham; Sinnreich, Ronit; Kark, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate differences in the triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL), thought to be a proxy measure of insulin resistance, between Palestinian and Israeli adults in view of the greater incidence of coronary heart disease and high prevalence of diabetes in Palestinian Arabs. Research Methods A population-based observational prevalence study of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in Jerusalem. Participants (968 Palestinians, 707 Israelis, sampled at ages 25-74 years) underwent fasting and 2h post-75g oral challenge plasma glucose determinations. Metabolic risk was assessed using the surrogate index TG/HDL. Sex-specific comparisons were stratified by categories of body mass index and sex-specific waist circumference quartiles, adjusted by regression for age, glucose tolerance status and use of statins. Results Prevalence of overweight and obesity was substantially larger in Palestinians (p = 0.005). Prevalence of diabetes was 2.4 and 4 fold higher among Palestinian men and women, respectively (p<0.001). Adjusted TG/HDL was higher in Palestinians than Israelis across BMI and waist circumference categories (p<0.001 for both). Higher TG/HDL in Palestinians persisted in analyses restricted to participants with normal glucose tolerance and off statins. Notably, higher TG/HDL among Palestinians prevailed at a young age (25-44 years) and in normal weight individuals of both sexes. Conclusions Palestinians have a higher TG/HDL ratio than Israelis. Notably, this is evident also in young, healthy and normal weight participants. These findings indicate the need to study the determinants of this biomarker and other measures of insulin resistance in urban Arab populations and to focus research attention on earlier ages: childhood and prenatal stages of development. PMID:25635396

  17. Y-chromosome DNA haplotypes in Jews: comparisons with Lebanese and Palestinians.

    PubMed

    Lucotte, Gérard; Mercier, Géraldine

    2003-01-01

    One Y-specific DNA polymorphism (p49/Taq I) was studied in 54 Lebanese and 69 Palestinian males, and compared with the results found in 693 Jews from three communities (Oriental, Sephardic, and Ashkenazic). Lebanese, Palestinian, and Sephardic Jews seem to be similar in their Y-haplotype patterns, both with regard to the haplotype distributions and the ancestral haplotype VIII frequencies. The haplotype distribution in Oriental Jews is characterized by a significantly higher frequency of haplotype VIII. These results confirm similarities in the Y-haplotype frequencies in Lebanese, Palestinian, and Sephardic Jewish men, three Near-Eastern populations sharing a common geographic origin.

  18. Source apportionments of ambient fine particulate matter in Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian cities.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jongbae; Wu, Bo; Abdeen, Ziad; Qasrawi, Radwan; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Sharf, Geula; Shpund, Kobby; Schauer, James J

    2017-06-01

    This manuscript evaluates spatial and temporal variations of source contributions to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian cities. Twenty-four hour integrated PM2.5 samples were collected every six days over a 1-year period (January to December 2007) in four cities in Israel (West Jerusalem, Eilat, Tel Aviv, and Haifa), four cities in Jordan (Amman, Aqaba, Rahma, and Zarka), and three cities in Palestine (Nablus, East Jerusalem, and Hebron). The PM2.5 samples were analyzed for major chemical components, including organic carbon and elemental carbon, ions, and metals, and the results were used in a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model to estimate source contributions to PM2.5 mass. Nine sources, including secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, mobile, industrial lead sources, dust, construction dust, biomass burning, fuel oil combustion and sea salt, were identified across the sampling sites. Secondary sulfate was the dominant source, contributing 35% of the total PM2.5 mass, and it showed relatively homogeneous temporal trends of daily source contribution in the study area. Mobile sources were found to be the second greatest contributor to PM2.5 mass in the large metropolitan cities, such as Tel Aviv, Hebron, and West and East Jerusalem. Other sources (i.e. industrial lead sources, construction dust, and fuel oil combustion) were closely related to local emissions within individual cities. This study demonstrates how international cooperation can facilitate air pollution studies that address regional air pollution issues and the incremental differences across cities in a common airshed. It also provides a model to study air pollution in regions with limited air quality monitoring capacity that have persistent and emerging air quality problems, such as Africa, South Asia and Central America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 10. DETAIL OF RUBBLE MASONRY ABUTMENT ON THE SOUTH BANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF RUBBLE MASONRY ABUTMENT ON THE SOUTH BANK AND DISINTEGRATING CONCRETE FACING; VIEW FROM WEST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  20. Consanguinity trends and correlates in the Palestinian Territories.

    PubMed

    Assaf, Shireen; Khawaja, Marwan

    2009-01-01

    Secondary analysis of the trends and correlates of consanguinity in the Palestinian Territories was conducted using data from two separate surveys in 1995 and 2004. The analysis was conducted on ever-married women aged 15-54 who were asked about their relation to their husband in both surveys. A total of 16,197 women in 1995 and 4971 women in 2004 were successfully interviewed. Consanguinity was found to be widely practised in the Palestinian Territories with rates of total consanguinity reaching 45% of all marriages in 2004. Analysis was conducted with the data from the two surveys combined and this indicated that consanguinity was significantly decreasing with time after controlling for other variables. Age of the women, their age at marriage, region and locality type they lived in and their standard of living were all found to be significant predictors of consanguinity. The education level of the women was not found to be significant. After controlling for the survey year, women's labour force status was also found to be a non-significant predictor of consanguinity. Although consanguinity was found to be significantly decreasing slowly with time after controlling for other variables, the future trends of consanguinity are not known due to the unstable political situation in the territories, which could have a direct effect on marriage patterns.

  1. Americans and Palestinians judge spontaneous facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Kayyal, Mary H; Russell, James A

    2013-10-01

    The claim that certain emotions are universally recognized from facial expressions is based primarily on the study of expressions that were posed. The current study was of spontaneous facial expressions shown by aborigines in Papua New Guinea (Ekman, 1980); 17 faces claimed to convey one (or, in the case of blends, two) basic emotions and five faces claimed to show other universal feelings. For each face, participants rated the degree to which each of the 12 predicted emotions or feelings was conveyed. The modal choice for English-speaking Americans (n = 60), English-speaking Palestinians (n = 60), and Arabic-speaking Palestinians (n = 44) was the predicted label for only 4, 5, and 4, respectively, of the 17 faces for basic emotions, and for only 2, 2, and 2, respectively, of the 5 faces for other feelings. Observers endorsed the predicted emotion or feeling moderately often (65%, 55%, and 44%), but also denied it moderately often (35%, 45%, and 56%). They also endorsed more than one (or, for blends, two) label(s) in each face-on average, 2.3, 2.3, and 1.5 of basic emotions and 2.6, 2.2, and 1.5 of other feelings. There were both similarities and differences across culture and language, but the emotional meaning of a facial expression is not well captured by the predicted label(s) or, indeed, by any single label.

  2. Predicted efficacy of the Palestinian wheat flour fortification program: complementary analysis of biochemical and dietary data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To utilize complementary biochemical and dietary data collected before the initiation of national flour fortification to 1) identify micronutrient insufficiencies or deficiencies and dietary inadequacies in Palestinian women and children in vulnerable communities and 2) assess the suitabi...

  3. The extraordinary decline of infant and childhood mortality among Palestinian refugees.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Marwan

    2004-02-01

    This article documents the levels and patterns of infant and child mortality among Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and the Palestinian areas based on comparable data from household sample surveys conducted since 1995. The findings show that Palestinian refugees have clear advantage in mortality levels as compared to their non-refugee counterparts in every setting, and refugees living in the camps have similar or lower levels of mortality than their non-camp counterparts, other things being equal. The recent decline of infant and child mortality among this vulnerable segment of the Palestinian population demonstrates the importance of political will in halting the truncation of infant lives. An examination of the mortality patterns by sex and education sheds light on the nature of the decline currently underway.

  4. When "humanitarianism" becomes "development": the politics of international aid in Syria's Palestinian refugee camps.

    PubMed

    Gabiam, Nell

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has attempted to go beyond its role as a provider of relief and basic services in Palestinian refugee camps and emphasize its role as a development agency. In this article, I focus on the Neirab Rehabilitation Project, an UNRWA-sponsored development project taking place in the Palestinian refugee camps of Ein el Tal and Neirab in northern Syria. I argue that UNRWA's role as a relief-centered humanitarian organization highlights the everyday suffering of Palestinian refugees, suffering that has become embedded in refugees’ political claims. I show that UNRWA's emphasis on “development” in the refugee camps is forcing Palestinian refugees in Ein el Tal and Neirab to reassess the political narrative through which they have understood their relationship with UNRWA.

  5. Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Main Sticking Points in the Conflict, Suggestions for Optional Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Strategic issues in the Israeli – Palestinian Conflict. History and current issues , what are the goals of both sides. Ends, Ways and Means of the...Palestinians, as well as multilateral talks on key regional issues . This negotiation led foundation for peace treatment between Israel and Jordan, as...Most of them observed traditional , orthodox religious practices. Many spent their time studying religious texts and depended on the charity of world

  6. Mental health, social distress and political oppression: the case of the occupied Palestinian territory.

    PubMed

    Giacaman, Rita; Rabaia, Yoke; Nguyen-Gillham, Viet; Batniji, Rajaie; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Summerfield, Derek

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of Palestinian mental health care, a discussion of the current status of mental health and health services in the occupied Palestinian territory, and a critique of the biomedical Western-led discourse as it relates to the mental health needs of Palestinians. Medicalising distress and providing psychological therapies for Palestinians offer little in the way of alleviating the underlying causes of ongoing collective trauma. This paper emphasises the importance of separating clinical responses to mental illness from the public health response to mass political violation and distress. Palestinian academic research reframes the mental health paradigm utilising an approach based on the broader framework of social justice, quality of life, human rights and human security. Recognising social suffering as a public mental health issue requires a shift in the emphasis from narrow medical indicators, injury and illness to the lack of human security and human rights violations experienced by ordinary Palestinians. Such a change in perspective requires a parallel change in mental health policies from short-term emergency humanitarian aid to the development of a sustainable system of public mental health services, in combination with advocacy for human rights and the restoration of political, historical and moral justice.

  7. Imprisoned Husbands: Palestinian Wives and Experiences of Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Shehadeh, Amer; Dawani, Sama; Saed, Mohammed; Derluyn, Ilse; Loots, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate difficulties experienced by the wives of Palestinian men arrested and held in Israeli prisons. 16 captives' wives were interviewed using a semi-structured interview to provide them with a greater opportunity to speak about their experiences. Three main research questions were discussed; community difficulties, social support, and coping strategies. A thematic analysis was used throughout the interviews. We concluded that in addition to the stress of being separated from their husbands, the frustrating visitation process to prison and the ongoing political conflict, the wives expressed a frustrating social network characterized by constant interferences in their personal lives and the choices they make. Most women expressed a lack in psychosocial support given through governmental and non-governmental organizations; in addition they expressed a need for that kind of support. Coping strategies ranged from religious, acceptance, distraction, to planning strategies.

  8. Palestinian refugee statistics, digit preference and the Turner hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Weller, R H; Serow, W J; Bailey, M

    1987-12-01

    The UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) was originally established by the UN General Assembly as a temporary agency to provide services for those persons whose normal residence was Palestine preceding the Arab-Israeli conflict in 1984 and who, as a result of the conflict, lost both their homes and their livelihood. UNRWA routinely collects data on the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the registered refugee population. On the basis of relatively low age heaping and digit preference patterns, the UNRWA data are relatively useful. The amount of inferred age misreporting in the UNRWA data is less than in censuses conducted in countries in the area. There are variations in the quality of the data by country and through time. The quality of the data appears highest in Lebanon and lowest in the Gaza Strip. Within each of the 5 areas studied, the quality of the data has improved markedly through time. The data also seem better for males than for females. The UNRWA data seem internally consistent and appear to be favorable in comparison to data available for other populations in the Middle East. Although the there is digit preference/avoidance, it is not systematic, and its degree has lessened since the beginning of the study. UNRWA does not collect its statistics under the best of circumstances. It inherited registration lists from its predecessor rather than having the luxury of beginning its own. It is an agency that dispenses welfare in the form of rations, housing, and social and economic services. Hence, many of its clients are suspicious of its attempts to gather information on them. Moreover, for many Palestinians there is no other documentary proof of their Palestinian identity that would be accepted internationally.

  9. 3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers and industrial windows; view to southeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  10. 4. Detail of west facade showing brick piers and industrial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail of west facade showing brick piers and industrial windows with metal sash and reinforced concrete lintels and sills. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  11. 17. DETAIL OF FRAGMENTS FROM WEST GATE (off site) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF FRAGMENTS FROM WEST GATE (off site) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  12. West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, South of State Route 664 along North bank of West Branch of Susquehanna River, 2,000 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  13. 3. VIEW WEST OF HEADRACE UNDER WAREHOUSE; SLUICE GATES AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW WEST OF HEADRACE UNDER WAREHOUSE; SLUICE GATES AT LEFT CENTER - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  14. 6. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM DURING CONSTRUCTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW NORTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM DURING CONSTRUCTION OF FISHWAY, DECEMBER 1995, SHOWING REMOVAL OF PLANKING - Norwich Water Power Company, Dam, West bank of Shetucket River opposite Fourteenth Street, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

  15. Emerging Adulthood among Palestinian Minority in Israel: The Relation between Perceived Career Barriers, Future Orientation and Career Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajna, Sami

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relation between perceived career barriers, future orientation and career decisions among young Palestinian-Israeli youth. The study employs a theoretical model that links perceived career barriers and career decisions via variables of future orientation. Three hundred eighty-eight young Palestinian-Israeli women (73.20%)…

  16. Creating Digital Games as Interactive Learning Environments: Factors That Affect Palestinian Teachers' Success in Modifying Video Games for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younis, Bilal Khaleel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that might predict Palestinian teachers' success in modding games for instruction. An instructional game design model named Game Modding for Non-Professionals (GMNP) was created specifically for the training of Palestinian teachers during this study. This study addressed the question: To…

  17. Creating Digital Games as Interactive Learning Environments: Factors That Affect Palestinian Teachers' Success in Modifying Video Games for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younis, Bilal Khaleel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that might predict Palestinian teachers' success in modding games for instruction. An instructional game design model named Game Modding for Non-Professionals (GMNP) was created specifically for the training of Palestinian teachers during this study. This study addressed the question: To…

  18. The Implication of the Intifada on the Personality and Behavior of Palestinian Children between 6-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanoun, Rasmiyah Abd El-Kader

    This paper considers the impact of the Palestinian second uprising on the emotional and psychological aspects of the lives of Palestinian children. It attempts to shed light on changes that occurred in children's behavior during the Intifada. Children ages 6 through 16, living in villages and refugee camps, completed a questionnaire which looked…

  19. Health sector reform in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT): targeting the forest or the trees?

    PubMed Central

    GIACAMAN, RITA; ABDUL-RAHIM, HANAN F; WICK, LAURA

    2006-01-01

    Since the signing of the Oslo Peace Accords and the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in 1994, reform activities have targeted various spheres, including the health sector. Several international aid and UN organizations have been involved, as well as local and international non-governmental organizations, with considerable financial and technical investments. Although important achievements have been made, it is not evident that the quality of care has improved or that the most pressing health needs have been addressed, even before the second Palestinian Uprising that began in September 2000. The crisis of the Israeli re-invasion of Palestinian-controlled towns and villages since April 2002 and the attendant collapse of state structures and services have raised the problems to critical levels. This paper attempts to analyze some of the obstacles that have faced reform efforts. In our assessment, those include: ongoing conflict, frail Palestinian quasi-state structures and institutions, multiple and at times inappropriate donor policies and practices in the health sector, and a policy vacuum characterized by the absence of internal Palestinian debate on the type and direction of reform the country needs to take. In the face of all these considerations, it is important that reform efforts be flexible and consider realistically the political and economic contexts of the health system, rather than focus on mere narrow technical, managerial and financial solutions imported from the outside. PMID:12582108

  20. A Doctor's Testimony: Medical Neutrality and the Visibility of Palestinian Grievances in Jewish-Israeli Publics.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Guy

    2016-06-01

    This paper follows the testimony of Izzeldin Abuelaish, a Palestinian physician who bears witness to his experiences working, living, and suffering under Israeli rule. He presents his story as a doctor's story, drawing on his identity as a medical professional to gain credibility and visibility and to challenge the limited legitimacy of Palestinian grievances. In this paper, I explore his testimony as a medical voice that at once recounts the suffering and loss endured by the Palestinian people and also struggles to negotiate the values associated with being a "reliable" witness. Consequently, I ethnographically examine the social life and reception of his story in Jewish-Israeli publics. In comparison with most Palestinian narratives, Abuelaish's testimony achieved an extremely rare degree of visibility and sympathy, a phenomenon that calls out for analysis. I identify the boundaries that typically render Palestinian grievances invisible to Israeli publics and suggest how medicine's self-proclaimed ethos of neutrality served as a channel for crossing them. Finally, I reflect on the political possibilities and limitations of medical witnessing to render suffering visible and arouse compassion toward those construed as a dangerous/enemy Other.

  1. Confronting water in an Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David; Trottier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    SummaryTrans-boundary water agreements are usually conceived as allocation agreements. In other words, water is treated as if it were a pie to be divided among the riparian states. The treatment of water as if it were as immobile as land may be useful in the short term, but it is fundamentally flawed as a means to avoid conflict as well as to ensure efficient, equitable, and sustainable management of water over the long term. This article proposes to avoid quantitative allocations within international water agreements, whether they be presented as percentage or fixed allocations or whether or not accompanied by a periodic revision clause. It proposes instead an ongoing joint management structure that allows for continuous conflict resolution concerning water demands and uses in a manner that effectively de-nationalises water uses. As well, it builds on existing, functioning institutions that are already active over a variety of scalar levels. It disaggregates what is usually perceived as a national water demand into its component institutions and re-aggregates them within an international institutional context. Though this approach for building trans-boundary water agreements can prove useful in any geographical situation, this article uses the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as a model. It proposes to respect the existing differences in the institutional management of water between the two entities and to reach four general objectives: economic efficiency, social and political equity, ecological sustainability, and the ability to implement the agreement in practice. The institutional design and proposed mechanisms follow five key principles for shared management: water allocations that are not fixed but variable over time; equality in rights and responsibilities; priority for demand management over supply management; continuous monitoring of water quality and quantity; and mediation among competing uses of fresh water. This institutional structure balances water

  2. Effect of Palestinian honey on spermatogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Ghani, Abdul-Salam; Dabdoub, Nabil; Muhammad, Rateb; Abdul-Ghani, Rula; Qazzaz, Munir

    2008-12-01

    Treatment of male albino rats with 5% honey for 20 days had no significant effect on total body weight or on the relative weight of other organs like the testis, seminal vesicles, spleen, kidneys, liver, heart, or brain. The only significant change was a 17% increase in the relative weight of the epididymis (P < or = .01). The relative weight of all the other organs was similar to those in control animals treated for the same period with drinking water. Treatment of rats for the same period with the same concentration of 5% sucrose produced no significant changes in absolute or relative weight of tested organs compared to control animals. The same treatment with Palestinian honey increased significantly the epididymal sperm count by 37% (P < or = .05). The activity of testicular marker enzymes for spermatogenesis such as sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) was increased by 31% (P < or = .05), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was reduced by 48% (P < or = .05), which indicates that treatment with honey induces spermatogenesis. Similar treatment with sucrose had no significant effect on any of the key enzymes or epididymal sperm count. In conclusion, our results show that ingestion of honey induces spermatogenesis in rats by increasing epididymal sperm count, increasing selectively the relative weight of the epididymis, and increasing SDH activity and reducing LDH activity.

  3. Terrorism As a Psychological Operation: A Comparative Analysis of the Zionist and the Palestinian Terrorist Campaigns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-24

    arts, poetry , and songs. He states a central theme has been the plight of the Palestinian refugee, his sense of injustice and his longing for a...Autumn 63, p. 507-9) on Palestinian art and poetry : "There is a new Zionism in the making, an "Arab Zionism" with the aim of returning to the...political Marxist-Leninist Sub-Revolutionarv Maximalist Right-Wing Left-Wing Minimalist Nainstfam Haganah /- 1" AI-Fatah 1967-72 Of 1973- Dissidents

  4. Complementary medicine as a path toward empowerment of Arab-Palestinian women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Keshet, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Arab-Palestinians in Israel compose a traditional minority population that previously relied on traditional folk medicine and religious healing. Today some among this minority population are adopting imported complementary medicine. We interviewed Arab-Palestinians of the first generation of complementary medicine practitioners. Their decision to study complementary medicine constitutes a path toward empowerment, providing healers with an aura of modernity, enabling integration into the predominantly Jewish Israeli medical establishment to gain professional recognition as experts, and to acquire a sense of belonging. Practicing complementary medicine provides financial independence, liberation, and self-fulfillment and an opportunity to help female patients break through constraining barriers.

  5. 78 FR 41929 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Holdings GP LLC, IMB Management Holdings LP, all of Pasadena, California, and The SHM 2009D Trust, Palm Beach, Florida; to become bank holding companies upon the conversion of OneWest Bank, FSB,...

  6. 76 FR 70450 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ..., Inc., and Grand Bank and Trust of Florida, both in West Palm Beach, Florida. ] B. Federal Reserve Bank...) 1000 Peachtree Street NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30309: 1. HCBF Holding Company, Inc., Palm City,...

  7. Social Understanding in Israeli-Jewish, Israeli-Palestinian, Palestinian, and Jordanian 5-year-old Children: Moral Judgments and Stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie; Lee-Kim, Jennie; Fox, Nathan; Leavitt, Lewis; Raviv, Amiram; Masalha, Shafiq; Murra, Farid; Smadi, Yahia

    2015-01-01

    An empirical investigation was conducted of young Palestinian, Jordanian, Israeli-Palestinian, and Israeli-Jewish children’s (N = 433; M = 5.7 years of age) cultural stereotypes and their evaluations of peer intergroup exclusion based upon a number of different factors, including being from a different country and speaking a different language. Children in this study live in a geographical region that has a history of cultural and religious tension, violence, and extreme intergroup conflict. Our findings revealed that the negative consequences of living with intergroup tension are related to the use of stereotypes. At the same time, the results for moral judgments and evaluations about excluding peers provided positive results about the young children’s inclusive views regarding peer interactions. PMID:25741172

  8. Sleep habits and sleep problems among Palestinian students.

    PubMed

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Ali, Iyad A; Sawalha, Ansam F; Abu-Taha, Adham S; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates in Palestine. Association between self-reported sleep quality and self-reported academic achievement was also investigated. Sleep habits and problems were investigated using a convenience sample of students from An-Najah National University, Palestine. The study was carried out during spring semester, 2009. A self-administered questionnaire developed based on The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used. 400 students with a mean age of 20.2 ± 1.3 were studied. Reported mean duration of night sleep in the study sample was 6.4 ± 1.1 hours. The majority (58.3%) of students went to bed before midnight and 18% of the total sample woke up before 6 am. Sleep latency of more than one hour was present in 19.3% of the students. Two thirds (64.8%) of the students reported having at least one nocturnal awakening per night. Nightmares were the most common parasomnia reported by students. Daytime naps were common and reported in 74.5% of the study sample. Sleep quality was reported as "poor" in only 9.8% and was significantly associated with sleep latency, frequency of nocturnal awakenings, time of going to bed, nightmares but not with academic achievement. Sleep habits among Palestinian undergraduates were comparable to those reported in European studies. Sleep problems were common and there was no significant association between sleep quality and academic achievement.

  9. Assessing the spatial and temporal variability of fine particulate matter components in Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Moise, Tamar; Shpund, Jacob; Liu, Yang; Pachon, Jorge E.; Qasrawi, Radwan; Abdeen, Ziad; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Schauer, James J.

    2010-07-01

    This manuscript presents results from an extensive, multi-country comparative monitoring study of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and its primary chemical components in Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian cities. This study represented the first time that researchers from these countries have worked together to examine spatial and temporal relationships for PM 2.5 and its major components among the study sites. The findings indicated that total PM 2.5 mass was relatively homogenous among many of the 11 sites as shown from strong between-site correlations. Mean annual concentrations ranged from 19.9 to 34.9 μg m -3 in Haifa and Amman, respectively, and exceeded accepted international air quality standards for annual PM 2.5 mass. Similarity of total mass was largely driven by SO 42- and crustal PM 2.5 components. Despite the close proximity of the seven, well correlated sites with respect to PM 2.5, there were pronounced differences among the cities for EC and, to a lesser degree, OC. EC, in particular, exhibited spatiotemporal trends that were indicative of strong local source contributions. Interestingly, there were moderate to strong EC correlations ( r > 0.65) among the large metropolitan cities, West Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Amman. For these relatively large cities, (i.e., West Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Amman), EC sources from the fleet of buses and cars typical for many urban areas predominate and likely drive spatiotemporal EC distributions. As new airshed management strategies and public health interventions are implemented throughout the Middle East, our findings support regulatory strategies that target integrated regional and local control strategies to reduce PM 2.5 mass and specific components suspected to drive adverse health effects of particulate matter exposure.

  10. Israeli and Palestinian Teachers' Self-Reported Motivations for Teaching Religion: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilheany, Terence

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of religion raises opportunities to reduce prejudicial beliefs and attitudes among students. In this study, 30 religion, history, and civics teachers in Israel, East Jerusalem, and the Palestinian Territories were interviewed about their motivations for teaching religion. This study found that teachers expressed a variety of…

  11. Political Conflict Confronted through Prison Education: A Case Study of Israeli Teachers Working with Palestinian Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Tsur, Dalia

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores a unique and controversial case of Israeli English-language teachers working with Palestinian inmates incarcerated in prisons around Israel for involvement in terrorist activity against Israelis. This phenomenon is profoundly complex as the prisoners in question have been convicted of terrorist crimes against Israeli soldiers…

  12. Support Services for Victims of Political Violence and Their Families: A Comparison between Israelis and Palestinians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes interviews with five social workers who helped families that experienced political violence, and with 16 families that lost a family member due to terrorist activity in Israel and Palestine from 2000 to 2005. Results revealed a great disparity between the Israelis and the Palestinians on the types of and extent of benefits…

  13. Oasis of Dreams: Teaching and Learning Peace in a Jewish-Palestinian Village in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerverger, Grace

    This book provides an interpretive/ethnographic inquiry into the relationship between Jews and Palestinians who live in a small cooperative community and into its two schools, which are devoted to peaceful coexistence. The village aims to create a social, cultural, and political framework of equality and mutual respect for the residents while…

  14. Acquiring Noun Plurals in Palestinian Arabic: Morphology, Familiarity, and Pattern Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Hadieh, Areen; Ravid, Dorit

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the acquisition of two morphological procedures of noun pluralization in Palestinian Arabic: "Sound Feminine Plural" (SFP) and "Broken Plural" (BP). We tested if noun pluralization was affected by (1) the type of morphological procedure, (2) the degree of familiarity with the singular noun stem, and (3) the…

  15. Identity, Moral and Political Development among Palestinian Student Activists in the Israeli Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almiccawy, Abraheem

    This study aims to understand the process of collective identity, self-concept, and political development of the individual Palestinian student activist within the context of collective action in Israel. The paper addresses the complexity of the issue with the terminology for the non-Jew in Israel and the conflicting beliefs which see Israel as a…

  16. Facebook, Political Narrative, and Political Change: A Case Study of Palestinian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenderes, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I aim to advance political narrative theory by exploring the use of political narrative on Facebook and the possibility for Facebook to be used among Palestinian youth for political change. To examine the concepts of political narrative and political change, I developed a model for political change based on the changing…

  17. Support Services for Victims of Political Violence and Their Families: A Comparison between Israelis and Palestinians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes interviews with five social workers who helped families that experienced political violence, and with 16 families that lost a family member due to terrorist activity in Israel and Palestine from 2000 to 2005. Results revealed a great disparity between the Israelis and the Palestinians on the types of and extent of benefits…

  18. Palestinian Continuing Education under Occupation:Images of Distress and Possibilities for Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how aspects of a militarily enforced occupation have influenced continuing education at Palestinian universities. It focuses on three influences: the impact of the politics of occupation on the history of continuing education; the effect of travel restriction, violence, and a damaged economy on participation; and the influence…

  19. Collective Identity Development among Arab-Palestinian Students in Israel: Context, Content, and Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makkawi, Ibrahim

    A study explored the process of collective identity development and related social-psychological factors among the Arab-Palestinian students in Israeli universities. The purpose was not only to explore the content or structure of collective identity among this national minority, but more importantly, to understand collective identity as a…

  20. Towards a Class-Centred Approach to EFL Teaching in the Palestinian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyash, Adnan I. Abu

    2011-01-01

    The teaching article attempts to highlight the significance of introducing a class-centred approach (henceforth CCA) to L2 teaching in the Palestinian context. Additionally, it aims to pinpoint that experienced teachers can make their teaching strategies more motivating and more communicative, through intertwining their learners' pedagogical and…

  1. Grammatical Features of Egyptian and Palestinian Arabic Heritage Speakers' Oral Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas; Saadah, Eman

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an investigation of oral narratives collected from heritage Egyptian and Palestinian Arabic speakers living in the United States. The focus is on a number of syntactic and morphological features in their production, such as word order, use of null subjects, selection of prepositions, agreement, and possession. The degree of…

  2. Palestinian EFL Teachers' Attitudes towards English Textbooks Used at the First Three Grades of Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammad, Enas Abdullah Rajab

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating language materials is very useful for language teachers, and one essential consideration in evaluating language materials is obtaining the teachers' views on its value (Tomlinson, 2003). Thus, this study aimed to explore Palestinian English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attitudes towards the different aspects of the English…

  3. Are Community Studies of Psychological Trauma's Impact Accurate? A Study among Jews and Palestinians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Canetti, Daphna; Hall, Brian J.; Brom, Danny; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Johnson, Robert J.; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) diagnoses using brief assessment instruments conducted by phone. PTSD and MD were assessed by telephone interview in a randomly selected sample of Jewish and Palestinian residents of Jerusalem (N = 150) during a period of marked threat of terrorism and war.…

  4. Child Development and Family Mental Health in War and Military Violence: The Palestinian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qouta, Samir; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; El Sarraj, Eyad

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews developmental research among Palestinians living in Gaza. The aims are, first, to analyze how exposure to traumatic events associates with children's mental health and their cognitive, emotional and social development. Second, we aimed to model familial and symbolic processes that can either harm or protect the mental health of…

  5. Palestinian Youth and Political Activism: The Emerging Internet Culture and New Modes of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury-Machool, Makram

    2007-01-01

    The information technology revolution and the introduction of the Internet in the last decade have transformed the life of individuals and groups across the globe. One unique example of the remarkable impact of this new medium on the life of a marginalised society is the impact of the Internet on the life of Palestinians. The author demonstrates…

  6. Child Development and Family Mental Health in War and Military Violence: The Palestinian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qouta, Samir; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; El Sarraj, Eyad

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews developmental research among Palestinians living in Gaza. The aims are, first, to analyze how exposure to traumatic events associates with children's mental health and their cognitive, emotional and social development. Second, we aimed to model familial and symbolic processes that can either harm or protect the mental health of…

  7. The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict through Theatre: A Qualitative Study of Israeli High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Both theatre artists and educators believe the theatre has many advantages as a vehicle for the promotion of social and political issues. This study examines how the Israeli theatre represents the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and promotes peace and tolerance among young people. The study, conducted between the years 2005 and 2007, included 26…

  8. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal osteoporosis and normal women.

    PubMed

    Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Smoom, Riham; Bader, Khaldoun; Darwish, Hisham

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the association of vitamin D and bone markers with the development osteoporosis in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Even though vitamin D deficiency was very high for the recruited subjects, it was not associated with osteoporosis except for bones of the hip. Age and obesity were the strongest determining factors of the disease.

  9. Predictors of Psychological Distress and Positive Resources among Palestinian Adolescents: Trauma, Child, and Mothering Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qouta, Samir; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Montgomery, Edith; El Sarraj, Eyad

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to examine how traumatic and stressful events, responses to violence, child characteristics, and mothering quality, as measured in middle childhood predict psychological distress and positive resources in adolescence. Method: The participants were 65 Palestinian adolescents (17 [plus or minus] 0.85 years; 52% girls), who had…

  10. The Well Being of Children Living in Chronic War Zones: The Palestinian-Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive review and integration of available studies on the effects of severe traumatic experiences on children, especially in the context of short and enduring exposure to harsh events and adversities, as they relate to children who live in violent war zones, in particular in Israel and the Palestinian territories. The…

  11. An Investigation of Palestinian EFL Majors' Writing Apprehension: Causes and Remedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Shawish, Jaber I.; Abdelraheem, Mohammad Atea

    2010-01-01

    A considerable number of research and reports attempted to tackle the different aspects of writing apprehension. The current research dealt with the topic quantitatively and qualitatively in an attempt to know why Palestinian university students majoring in English feel anxious and stressed when they are asked to write. The possible remedies for…

  12. Palestinian Continuing Education under Occupation:Images of Distress and Possibilities for Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how aspects of a militarily enforced occupation have influenced continuing education at Palestinian universities. It focuses on three influences: the impact of the politics of occupation on the history of continuing education; the effect of travel restriction, violence, and a damaged economy on participation; and the influence…

  13. Hebrew and Palestinian Arabic in Israel: Linguistic Frameworks and Speech-Language Pathology Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uziel-Karl, Sigal; Kanaan, Fadi; Yifat, Rachel; Meir, Irit; Abugov, Netta; Ravid, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    This article is the result of cooperation between Israeli Jewish and Arab psycholinguists and speech-language disorders specialists. It presents two facets of the Israeli communications disorders scene: (1) a review of some linguistic, psycholinguistic, and sociolinguistic facets of Hebrew and Palestinian Arabic, two Semitic languages whose…

  14. I Know There Is No Justice: Palestinian Perceptions of Higher Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marar, Marianne Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study utilizes critical ethnography methods to illustrate Palestinian refugee perceptions of higher education in Jordan. Participants addressed their assimilation to the Jordanian national identity as a means of obtaining education. Content and access to education were more important than assimilation, maintenance of ethnic…

  15. The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict through Theatre: A Qualitative Study of Israeli High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Both theatre artists and educators believe the theatre has many advantages as a vehicle for the promotion of social and political issues. This study examines how the Israeli theatre represents the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and promotes peace and tolerance among young people. The study, conducted between the years 2005 and 2007, included 26…

  16. Modern Standard Arabic and Rural Palestinian Dialect: Patterns of the Active Participle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohaidat, Mohammed Mahmoud Talal

    2017-01-01

    This paper was mainly concerned with analyzing the processes of active participle formation in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). It also aimed to examine the Rural Palestinian Dialect (RPD) in order to reveal the derivation of the active participle in this dialect and to describe any patterns that might vary from MSA. The study was based on the…

  17. Hebrew and Palestinian Arabic in Israel: Linguistic Frameworks and Speech-Language Pathology Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uziel-Karl, Sigal; Kanaan, Fadi; Yifat, Rachel; Meir, Irit; Abugov, Netta; Ravid, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    This article is the result of cooperation between Israeli Jewish and Arab psycholinguists and speech-language disorders specialists. It presents two facets of the Israeli communications disorders scene: (1) a review of some linguistic, psycholinguistic, and sociolinguistic facets of Hebrew and Palestinian Arabic, two Semitic languages whose…

  18. Judgment of Land Ownership by Young Refugee Palestinian and U.S. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebian, Samar; Rochat, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Children's sense and reasoning about territory and land ownership may develop differently in contexts of poverty and where narratives of dispossession are a part of daily life and are of political and historical significance, as is the case in the Palestinian refugee context in Lebanon. In this study we looked at how 3- and 5-year-old refugee…

  19. 77 FR 33947 - Waiver of Restriction on Providing Funds to the Palestinian Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Funds to the Palestinian Authority Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 7040... security interests of the United States to waive the provisions of section 7040(a) of the Act, in order...

  20. Are Community Studies of Psychological Trauma's Impact Accurate? A Study among Jews and Palestinians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Canetti, Daphna; Hall, Brian J.; Brom, Danny; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Johnson, Robert J.; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) diagnoses using brief assessment instruments conducted by phone. PTSD and MD were assessed by telephone interview in a randomly selected sample of Jewish and Palestinian residents of Jerusalem (N = 150) during a period of marked threat of terrorism and war.…

  1. Political Activism of Palestinian Youth: Exploring Individual, Parental, and Ecological Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Carolyn R.; Barber, Brian K.; Olsen, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The growing literature on youth and political conflict has not included an adequate focus on youth activism. To address this deficit, this study used youth- and parent-reported data (N = 6,718) from the 1994-1995 Palestinian Family Study to test an ecological model of family influence (parents' activism, expectations for their adolescents'…

  2. Tracking Drop-out Students in Palestinian Refugee Camps in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2015-01-01

    This research paper examines the perceptions of students on the school drop-out problem in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon regarding (a) the social and economic causes associated with the phenomenon of school drop-out; (b) the educational policies and practices used in UNRWA schools and their relationship to student drop-out; and (c) the role…

  3. Identity, Conflict, and Coexistence: Life Stories of Israeli and Palestinian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.

    2006-01-01

    Assuming a cultural psychology approach, this study examines the life stories of 30 Israeli and Palestinian adolescent participants in a coexistence program. Prior to participation, youth identity was characterized by polarization in which an ingroup ideology is internalized with little understanding of the outgroup's ideological perspective.…

  4. An Education Track for the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process. USIPeace Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zasloff, Barbara; Shapiro, Adina; Coyne, A. Heather

    2009-01-01

    Educational issues have largely been excluded from previous efforts to resolve the Israeli- Palestinian conflict. This report examines how the parties and international mediators can create an education track for the peace process that would create opportunities for more effective mediation, and increase the chances for success of the process…

  5. Perspectives of Palestinian and Jewish Parents in Israel on Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ilham

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a study conducted at the first Arabic and Hebrew bilingual school in Israel (Neve-Shalom/Wahat-Alsalam--NSWAS). The article focuses on Jewish as well as Palestinian parents' perspectives and responses to survey questions and interviews conducted at the school. Parents named reasons for choosing the school, satisfaction…

  6. Israel and the Palestinians: Prospects for a Two-State Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-08

    the next democratic test arises for Palestinians, but some observers warn not to underestimate Hamas’s organization and political base. 47 Marwan ...jailed Fatah leader] Marwan Barghouti or [Damascus-based Hamas leader] Khaled Mashaal was to come out in favor, the consequences could be dramatic.’”81

  7. The Cultural Inertia of the Habitus: Gendered Narrations of Agency amongst Educated Female Palestinians in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alayan, Samira; Yair, Gad

    2010-01-01

    Key experiences are short and intense instructional episodes that students remember to have had a decisive effect on their lives and are usually equated with a sense of self-direction and empowerment. This study analyzes gender differences in the narrations of key educational experiences of Palestinian Israeli students--an educated segment in…

  8. Political Activism of Palestinian Youth: Exploring Individual, Parental, and Ecological Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Carolyn R.; Barber, Brian K.; Olsen, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The growing literature on youth and political conflict has not included an adequate focus on youth activism. To address this deficit, this study used youth- and parent-reported data (N = 6,718) from the 1994-1995 Palestinian Family Study to test an ecological model of family influence (parents' activism, expectations for their adolescents'…

  9. 31 CFR 595.510 - Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 595.510... are authorized to pay taxes or fees to, and purchase or receive permits or public utility services... Palestinian Authority on the books of a U.S. financial institution or to any account blocked pursuant to...

  10. 31 CFR 594.512 - Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 594.... persons are authorized to pay taxes or fees to, and purchase or receive permits or public utility services... Palestinian Authority on the books of a U.S. financial institution or to any account blocked pursuant to...

  11. Preparing Palestinian Reflective English Language Teachers through Classroom Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dajani, Majida "Mohammed Yousef "

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the implementation of individual action research projects among some forty English language teachers distributed in thirty Palestinian schools in Ramallah and Qabatya districts-Palestine. It aimed to analyze the outcomes of the teachers' action research as part of a broader participatory action research project that is…

  12. Dance Education in the Occupied Palestinian Territories: Hegemony, Counter-Hegemony and Anti-Hegemony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a historical, ethnographic and practice-based study of dance education in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The concepts of dance learning, hegemony and counter-hegemony are analysed in the context of cross-cultural interventions in politically marginalized communities, and the theoretical concept of anti-hegemony is…

  13. Teachers' "Inside" Reports on Language Instruction in the Palestinian-Jewish Schools in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajuan, Maureen; Bekerman, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on data from teachers' research reports in the context of an in-service workshop for professional development for teachers of the bilingual-integrated Palestinian-Jewish Schools in Israel. We used conventional qualitative methods, looking for patterns and thematic issues of relevance, which were then coded to allow for further…

  14. I Know There Is No Justice: Palestinian Perceptions of Higher Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marar, Marianne Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study utilizes critical ethnography methods to illustrate Palestinian refugee perceptions of higher education in Jordan. Participants addressed their assimilation to the Jordanian national identity as a means of obtaining education. Content and access to education were more important than assimilation, maintenance of ethnic…

  15. Israeli and Palestinian Teachers' Self-Reported Motivations for Teaching Religion: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilheany, Terence

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of religion raises opportunities to reduce prejudicial beliefs and attitudes among students. In this study, 30 religion, history, and civics teachers in Israel, East Jerusalem, and the Palestinian Territories were interviewed about their motivations for teaching religion. This study found that teachers expressed a variety of…

  16. Investigating the Geometry Curriculum in Palestinian Textbooks: Towards Multimodal Analysis of Arabic Mathematics Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshwaikh, Jehad

    2016-01-01

    The analytical scheme used in the project The Evolution of the Discourse of School Mathematics (EDSM) was developed to analyse the change over time in examination texts. An adapted version of the EDSM scheme has been deployed to analyse the nature of mathematics construed in Palestinian schools' textbooks and the mathematical activity expected of…

  17. Investigating the Geometry Curriculum in Palestinian Textbooks: Towards Multimodal Analysis of Arabic Mathematics Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshwaikh, Jehad

    2016-01-01

    The analytical scheme used in the project The Evolution of the Discourse of School Mathematics (EDSM) was developed to analyse the change over time in examination texts. An adapted version of the EDSM scheme has been deployed to analyse the nature of mathematics construed in Palestinian schools' textbooks and the mathematical activity expected of…

  18. Internet Diffusion and Adoption within Arab-Palestinian Society in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganayem, Asmaa N.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the nature of Internet access and use within Arab-Palestinian society in Israel. The research focuses on two points: (i) examining the pace of Internet growth during the last decade and studying the nature of the digital gaps within the studied society in a specific time, (ii) studying the extend of the effect of…

  19. The Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process and Its Vicissitudes: Insights from Attitude Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelman, Herbert C.

    2007-01-01

    The vicissitudes of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process since 1967 are analyzed using attitudes and related concepts where relevant. The 1967 war returned the two peoples' zero-sum conflict around national identity to its origin as a conflict within the land both peoples claim. Gradually, new attitudes evolved regarding the necessity and…

  20. An Education Track for the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process. USIPeace Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zasloff, Barbara; Shapiro, Adina; Coyne, A. Heather

    2009-01-01

    Educational issues have largely been excluded from previous efforts to resolve the Israeli- Palestinian conflict. This report examines how the parties and international mediators can create an education track for the peace process that would create opportunities for more effective mediation, and increase the chances for success of the process…

  1. Acquiring Noun Plurals in Palestinian Arabic: Morphology, Familiarity, and Pattern Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Hadieh, Areen; Ravid, Dorit

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the acquisition of two morphological procedures of noun pluralization in Palestinian Arabic: "Sound Feminine Plural" (SFP) and "Broken Plural" (BP). We tested if noun pluralization was affected by (1) the type of morphological procedure, (2) the degree of familiarity with the singular noun stem, and (3) the…

  2. Dance Education in the Occupied Palestinian Territories: Hegemony, Counter-Hegemony and Anti-Hegemony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a historical, ethnographic and practice-based study of dance education in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The concepts of dance learning, hegemony and counter-hegemony are analysed in the context of cross-cultural interventions in politically marginalized communities, and the theoretical concept of anti-hegemony is…

  3. Arab Education in Israel: Lessons from Positive Learning Experiences of Palestinian-Israelis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alayan, Samira

    2012-01-01

    This empirical study investigates positive learning experiences of 250 Palestinian-Israeli high school graduates who were formerly pupils in Israeli Arab schools. It addresses how they perceived and now describe such experiences in a questionnaire. The study inquires as to what characterizes these positive learning experiences and under which…

  4. 31 CFR 597.507 - Travel, employment, residence and maintenance transactions with the Palestinian Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel, employment, residence and maintenance transactions with the Palestinian Authority. 597.507 Section 597.507 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 31 CFR 595.509 - Travel, employment, residence and maintenance transactions with the Palestinian Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel, employment, residence and maintenance transactions with the Palestinian Authority. 595.509 Section 595.509 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 31 CFR 594.511 - Travel, employment, residence and maintenance transactions with the Palestinian Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel, employment, residence and maintenance transactions with the Palestinian Authority. 594.511 Section 594.511 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. Facebook, Political Narrative, and Political Change: A Case Study of Palestinian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenderes, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I aim to advance political narrative theory by exploring the use of political narrative on Facebook and the possibility for Facebook to be used among Palestinian youth for political change. To examine the concepts of political narrative and political change, I developed a model for political change based on the changing…

  8. Analysis of trauma exposure, symptomatology and functioning in Jewish Israeli and Palestinian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv

    2009-11-01

    There has been no reported research comparing Jewish Israeli and Palestinian adolescents regarding the effect of ongoing political violence on adolescent psychosocial, family, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and aggression problems. To compare Israeli and Palestinian responses regarding the relationship between exposure to traumatic events and psychosocial, behavioural, emotional and family problems. A cluster sample of youths aged 14-18 years, including 442 Jewish Israeli adolescents in Ariel, Haifa and Tel-Aviv, and 450 Palestinian adolescents in Gaza cities, villages and refugee camps were surveyed in 2006 using our Traumatic Events Questionnaire (TEV), the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), the PTSD Symptom Scale - Interview (PSS-I), the Index of Peer Relations scale (IPR), Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the MacMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD). Palestinian respondents had higher scores in the TEV, BSI, PSS-I and BPAQ questionnaires, and greater problems in functioning as revealed in the IPR and FAD. The social functioning of the adolescents with their peers predicted mental health symptoms and PTSD symptoms. Lower socioeconomic status predicted mental health symptoms, PTSD, pathology of participants' family functioning and the social functioning of the adolescents with their peers. Parents' education positively effected the FAD score and the avoidance item on the PSS-I, and religiosity improved the score on the FAD. Females reported more symptoms on the BSI and PSS-I than males, and males more symptoms on the FAD and IPR than females. Both respondent groups had significant emotional and behavioural problems. Individual and community treatment, and community and social development, are likely to be useful for both populations, particularly Palestinians.

  9. Victims of the Palestinian uprising (Intifada): a retrospective review of 220 cases.

    PubMed

    Emile, H; Hashmonai, D

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the cases of the victims of the Palestinian uprising (Intifada) and to describe the clinical presentations, the types of weapons used, and the different sites of injuries. This is a retrospective chart review study of the patients who were injured during the Palestinian uprising in the period April 1993-April 1994 and treated in the emergency department of the Barzilai Medical Center, Ashkelon, Israel. The Barzilai Medical Center is a regional level II trauma referral general hospital. Two hundred and twenty patients were injured during the Palestinian uprising and referred to our emergency department. Forty-one patients were citizens of the Gaza area, 26 patients were Israeli civilians, and 153 were Israeli soldiers. There were 55 patients (25%) injured by firearms, 10 patients (4.5%) by explosives, and 120 (54.5%) by striking stones. Seventy-three patients (33.2%) were hospitalized, and 22 patients needed surgery. The most commonly injured part of the body was the lower limb among the Gaza citizens and the head and neck among the Israeli soldiers and civilians. Striking stones was the most common means of injury used by the Palestinians, and stab wounds by knives and other sharp objects were the most common injuries among Israeli civilians. None of the patients suffered direct blast injuries. The Palestinian uprising resulted in many victims and disabled people in both nations. Terrorism did not cease after the peace treaty. It changed its face and moved from Gaza to the center of Israel. Suicidal terrorist bombing in public spaces and public buses carries more danger and more victims with much more severe injuries. We hope that the future will be brighter, and both nations will eventually be able to live in peace.

  10. Bank Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

  11. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  12. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  13. 5. Photocopy of illustration on Map of East and West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of illustration on Map of East and West Goshen Townships and the Borough of Westchester, published by Smith and Wistar, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1849 WEST AND NORTH SIDES, 1849 - Bank of Chester County, 17 North High Street, West Chester, Chester County, PA

  14. 13. LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM NORTHWEST BANK. A DETAIL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM NORTHWEST BANK. A DETAIL OF THE UNDERSIDE OF THE WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING ITS COFFERS, GRAVEL BASE AND RIP RAP. - Dubois County Bridge No. 3002, Spanning Hunley Creek on State Road 64, Huntingburg, Dubois County, IN

  15. 7. TRANSFORMER BANK. NOTE CONCRETE BARRIER WALL FROM WWII ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. TRANSFORMER BANK. NOTE CONCRETE BARRIER WALL FROM WWII ON LEFT TO PROTECT TRANSFORMERS FROM JAPANESE BOMBS. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  17. 17. Photocopy of photograph showing excavation of South Bank Substation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of photograph showing excavation of South Bank Substation site, 15 May 1939 (from the BPA Photo Archives, Portland, Oregon, Negative No. 345), LOOKING WEST - Bonneville Power Administration South Bank Substation, I-84, South of Bonneville Dam Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  18. Juliano Khamis: Martyr of Freedom and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yamani, Hala; Abusrour, Abdelfattah

    2012-01-01

    Juliano Khamis was born in Nazareth to a Palestinian father and a Jewish mother who had lived in Jenin for many years and supported the Palestinian opposition to the Israeli occupation. Juliano's mother Arna Mer Khamis established Elhajar Theatre in Jenin Refugee Camp in the Occupied West Bank with money awarded to her as winner of the Right…

  19. "Which Palestine Should We Teach?" Signatures, Palimpsests, and Struggles over School Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazawi, Andre Elias

    2011-01-01

    The present paper offers a reflection on school textbooks produced and introduced by the Palestinian Authority in the West Bank and Gaza Strip from the year 2000 onward. The aim is to examine the debates over these textbooks, by situating them over the backdrop of larger geopolitical dynamics and intra-Palestinian social and political struggles.

  20. Juliano Khamis: Martyr of Freedom and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yamani, Hala; Abusrour, Abdelfattah

    2012-01-01

    Juliano Khamis was born in Nazareth to a Palestinian father and a Jewish mother who had lived in Jenin for many years and supported the Palestinian opposition to the Israeli occupation. Juliano's mother Arna Mer Khamis established Elhajar Theatre in Jenin Refugee Camp in the Occupied West Bank with money awarded to her as winner of the Right…

  1. Dieting behaviours, obesity and predictors of dieting among female college students at Palestinian universities.

    PubMed

    Bayyari, W D; Henry, L J; Jones, C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore dieting practices of female Palestinian college students. Participants ( = 410) were selected by cluster-sampling from 4 Palestinian universities. A regression model investigated dieting using: body mass index (BMI); body satisfaction; self-esteem; dress style; exercise; sociocultural factors; residence; strength of faith; perceived impact of weight on social interaction; and number of previous times dieting. Significant predictors of dieting were low body satisfaction, number of previous dieting times, perceived media pressure, regular exercising, BMI, and perceived impact of weight on social interaction, The model accounted for 45% of the variance in dieting. Body satisfaction was not significantly correlated with self-esteem or strength of faith, which indicates that "internalization of thinness" may be becoming evident among populations in certain developing countries, as in "Western" countries.

  2. Health-related quality of life of Palestinian refugees inside and outside camps in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alduraidi, Hamza; Waters, Catherine M

    Jordan hosts more Palestinian refugees than any country in the world. Conditions under which people in a community live influence their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of this descriptive comparative cross-sectional study was to compare HRQOL of Palestinian refugees in Jordan who live inside camps with those who live outside camps. Participants, recruited from inside the Baqa'a camp (n = 86) and the surrounding Abu Nsair community (n = 91), completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief questionnaire. There were disparities in education and social relations and environment HRQOL related to income and residency, but not gender, among refugees. Refugees living inside camps, particularly if poorer, fared worse than refugees living outside camps. Enhanced programs and policies may be needed to improve HRQOL, education, and socioeconomics for camp refugees. Nursing's perspective on refugee health could make an important contribution to humanitarian efforts and health diplomacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Peace and Human Rights Education in the Middle East: Comparing Jewish and Palestinian Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velloso, Agustín

    1998-07-01

    The Washington agreement of 1993 gave a new impetus to attempts by Palestinian and Israeli leaders to find a peaceful solution to their differences. The author asks to what extent this process has been accompanied by peace/human rights education programmes for Israeli and Palestinian children. While such programmes exist, they are very limited and have so far made little impact in reversing the long educational legacy of mutual distrust and hostility, which the article examines in detail. Furthermore, the continuing conflicts between the two communities make peace/human rights education difficult. However, despite the enormous obstacles, the author concludes that the efforts of peace/human rights educators are not wasted.

  4. Bartonella species in fleas from Palestinian territories: prevalence and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Nasereddin, A; Risheq, A; Harrus, S; Azmi, K; Ereqat, S; Baneth, G; Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Abdeen, Z

    2014-12-01

    Bartonellosis is an infectious bacterial disease. The prevalence and genetic characteristics of Bartonella spp. in fleas of wild and domestic animals from Palestinian territories are described. Flea samples (n=289) were collected from 121 cats, 135 dogs, 26 hyraxes and seven rats from northern (n=165), central (n=113), and southern Palestinian territories (n=11). The prevalent flea species were: Ctenocephalides felis (n=119/289; 41.2%), Ctenocephalides canis (n=159/289; 55%), and Xenopsylla sp. (n=7/289; 2.4%). Targeting the Intergenic Transcribed Spacer (ITS) locus, DNA of Bartonella was detected in 22% (64/289) of all fleas. Fifty percent of the C. felis and 57% of the Xenopsylla sp. contained Bartonella DNA. DNA sequencing showed the presence of Bartonella clarridgeiae (50%), Bartonella henselae (27%), and Bartonella koehlerae (3%) in C. felis. Xenopsylla sp. collected from Rattus rattus rats were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella elizabethae, and Bartonella rochalimae. Phylogenetic sequence analysis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene obtained four genetic clusters, B. henselae and B. koehlerae as subcluster 1, B. clarridgeiae as cluster 2, while the rat Bartonella species (B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae) were an outgroup cluster. These findings showed the important role of cat and rat fleas as vectors of zoonotic Bartonella species in Palestinian territories. It is hoped that this publication will raise awareness among physicians, veterinarians, and other health workers of the high prevalence of Bartonella spp. in fleas in Palestinian territories and the potential risk of these pathogens to humans and animals in this region.

  5. Planning Considerations for International Involvement in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    advancement in providing the structures for the rule of law. It would be a mistake to ignore Palestinian accomplishments to date and assume a tabula rasa ...conditions on the ground and which need to be considered in operational planning for a third party role . I. Urgency of Ground Conditions Two...vision? What role will the international intervention play in the freezing of Israeli settlement activity and even in the withdrawal of settlements? What

  6. Forest pricing and concession policies: Managing the high forest of west and central Africa. World Bank technical paper; Politique de redevances et de concessions forestieres: gestion des futaies en afrique occidentale et centrale

    SciTech Connect

    Grut, M.; Gray, J.A.; Egli, N.

    1993-12-01

    This French edition describes forest revenue systems and concession policies in the tropical moist hardwood forests of West and Central Africa. The paper reviews current issues in silviculture, tenure, concession management, and biological and financial sustainable development. Until the fledgling forestry departments of governments in West and Central Africa are strengthened, the report concludes that a simple system of forest fees should be implemented. The report recommends that such a system emphasize bidding and concession fees.

  7. Segregation, ethnic labour market and the occupational expectations of Palestinian students in Israel.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Nabil

    2003-06-01

    Using data from a large national representative survey of Palestinian high school students in Israel, this study examines the effect of the local labour market and the internal ethnic/religious segregation between Muslims, Christians and Druze, on students' occupational expectations. The data, which were collected in spring 1997, consisted of two types, these being data regarding students, and data regarding schools. The findings show that despite the disadvantages of the Palestinian minority as a whole within Israeli society, students tend to develop high occupational expectations. While the general level of their expectations can be explained by their educational and residential segregation from the Jewish majority, the multi-level analyses suggests that the internal segregation facilitates differential access to socio-economic resources, which generate different levels of occupational expectations between students from various ethnic/religious groups. More specifically, the findings demonstrate that the social and economic differences between Muslims, Christians and Druze are playing a central role in determining students' expectations, acting as a mechanism to preserve social inequality. The gender dimension of the occupational expectations and the influence of die segregation between Palestinian and Jewish students, are also discussed.

  8. 11. VIEW NORTH ALONG DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM FROM SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTH ALONG DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM FROM SOUTH SIDE OF CHANNEL ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF RESERVOIR - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  9. Understanding the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict: A Historical and Religious Perspective. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosso, David

    In light of on-going strife in the Middle East, particularly in Palestinian-Israeli relations, it is intriguing to note how relatively unaware many Americans are of the historical and religious framework from which much of the conflict derives. In addition, the perception of many Americans of current Palestinian-Israeli relations has been tainted…

  10. Cord-Blood Banking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy ... Cord Blood Is Important How Banking Works Private Banking Not Widely Recommended Is Banking Right for ...

  11. 13. VIEW TO WEST. DETAIL, WEST PIER, WEST APPROACH SPAN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW TO WEST. DETAIL, WEST PIER, WEST APPROACH SPAN, LOCKING GEAR AT WEST END OF SWING SPAN. (photographed from boat) - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  12. 1. THREESTALL GARAGE. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. THREE-STALL GARAGE. SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Three Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  13. 2. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TOOL HOUSE. NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Tool House, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  14. 4. TENSTALL GARAGE. GARAGE DOOR DETAIL. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. TEN-STALL GARAGE. GARAGE DOOR DETAIL. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Ten Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  15. 3. TENSTALL GARAGE. NORTH AND WEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TEN-STALL GARAGE. NORTH AND WEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Ten Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  16. 3. TWOSTALL GARAGE SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TWO-STALL GARAGE SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST SIDES. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Two Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  17. Perspective view lookin southeast to west elevation and north gable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view lookin southeast to west elevation and north gable end; note change in grade and banked quality of north and east elevations. - Roulette Farm, Springhouse-Kitchen, Sharpsburg, Washington County, MD

  18. 11. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE PRESSURE CASE; ACCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE PRESSURE CASE; ACCESS TO WICKET GATES AT BOTTOM - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  19. 9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  20. 1. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO WEST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  1. 10. DETAIL VIEW NORTH AND WEST OF GENERATOR (LEFT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW NORTH AND WEST OF GENERATOR (LEFT AND CENTER) AND BELT (RIGHT) - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  2. 8. CHESTNUT ST. (vertical line) LOOKING WEST BETWEEN FIFTH (upper) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CHESTNUT ST. (vertical line) LOOKING WEST BETWEEN FIFTH (upper) AND FOURTH (lower) STS., SHOWING SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 3. Looking West, view of the entire bridge from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Looking West, view of the entire bridge from the downstream side of thomes creek. The ends of structure are concealed by natural vegetation on the stream banks. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  4. 8. EMPTY LOCK CHAMBER FROM DOWNSTREAM (WEST) END, WITH VISITORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EMPTY LOCK CHAMBER FROM DOWNSTREAM (WEST) END, WITH VISITORS CENTER (LEFT) AND LOCKMASTER'S HOUSE ON NORTH BANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  5. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND MISSISSIPPI RIVER, FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND MISSISSIPPI RIVER, FROM WEST RIVER-BANK. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  6. Southwest facade, main block, interior of portico looking west into ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest facade, main block, interior of portico looking west into the sun (duplicate of HABS VA-1254-16) - Virginia State Capitol, Bank and 10th Streets, Capitol Square, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  7. The Bank that Failed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    The school bank at Easton Middle School operated successfully as an educational experience until the state bank examiners closed it for violating banking laws. The process has become a "real life" education as school authorities and students work to change the law and open a "legal bank." (MD)

  8. Forest pricing and concession policies: Managing the high forest of west and Central Africa. World Bank Technical Paper 143; Politique de redevances et de concessions forestires: gestion des futaies en afrique occidentale et centrale

    SciTech Connect

    Grut, M.; Gray, J.A.; Egli, N.

    1993-12-01

    This French edition of Forest Pricing and Concession Policies: Managing the High Forest of West and Central Africa describes forest revenue systems and concession policies in the tropical moist hardwood forests of West and Central Africa. Virtually all the forests of Africa are publicly owned by central governments or local communities. Revenues from these forests are generally very low due to low forest fees and low collection rates. The lack of concession fees encourages acquisition and waste rather than management and conservation, leading to the allocation of large areas as logging concessions. This paper reviews current issues in silviculture, tenure, concession management, and biological and financial sustainable development. Until the fledgling forestry departments of governments in West and Central Africa are strengthened, the report concludes that a simple system of forest fees should be implemented. The report recommends that such a system emphasize bidding and concession fees. Three specific options in forest pricing are examined for a proposed system; annual concession rent; annual concession rent set by competitive bidding; logging concessions replaced by forest management concessions.

  9. Looking east at the west wall of the boiler house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the west wall of the boiler house, boiler water treatment tank, and waste gas stack. Water tower is to the left of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  10. 4. Long view of west half of site from Lawrence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Long view of west half of site from Lawrence General Hospital parking deck (former location of coating mill) showing north side of rear portion of Wilder Mill and Paper Machine Building; view to southwest. - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  11. 6. AN IMAGE OF THE WEST PORTAL OF THE BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AN IMAGE OF THE WEST PORTAL OF THE BRIDGE, TAKEN FROM AN ELEVATED POSITION, SHOWING THE RURAL QUALITY OF THE RIVER SCENE AND ITS BANKS. - Freedom Bridge, Spanning West Fork of White River at County Road 590 South, Freedom, Owen County, IN

  12. 13. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF WEST WALL CAPSTONES, SHOWING CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF WEST WALL CAPSTONES, SHOWING CONNECTING STRAPS AND RETAINING STRAP - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  13. 6. VIEW WEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  14. 7. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, FIRST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, FIRST AND SECOND LAYER OF PLANKS (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  15. 11. VIEW WEST, RECESS AREA WITH PORTION OF MITER SILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW WEST, RECESS AREA WITH PORTION OF MITER SILL (Numbers painted on stones for reconstruction purposes) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  16. 8. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, CROSS MEMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF WEST WALL, FLOOR FULLY EXCAVATED, CROSS MEMBER (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  17. 12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT STONE AND RUBBLESTONE CONSTRUCTION - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  18. 14. VIEW WEST, DETAIL OF MITTER SILL, SHOWING MISSING PLANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW WEST, DETAIL OF MITTER SILL, SHOWING MISSING PLANKS - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  19. 30. Photographic copy of photo of the north and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photographic copy of photo of the north and west elevations of Bowditch Hall, c. 1960, taken from building photo files in Caretaker Site Office, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, New London. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  20. Learning the Nation in Exile: Constructing Youth Identities, Belonging and "Citizenship" in Palestinian Refugee Camps in South Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincham, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which "Palestine" and "Palestinianess" are culturally, socially and symbolically produced and regulated through formal and non-formal institutional sites in Palestinian camps in south Lebanon. It argues that although institutional power, processes and outcomes help to construct shared notions of…

  1. The Context Is the Message?! Learning about the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict through Computerized Simulations in Different National Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampf, Ronit

    2016-01-01

    Two cross-national experimental studies examined the effects of PeaceMaker and Global Conflicts on knowledge acquisition and attitude change regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. PeaceMaker and Global Conflicts are role-playing computerized simulations of this conflict. 248 undergraduate students from Turkey, Israel, Palestine and the US…

  2. Making Sense of Collective Identity and Trauma through Drawing: The Case Study of a Palestinian Refugee Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauregard, Caroline; Papazian-Zohrabian, Garine; Rousseau, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    Identity construction can be very complex for refugee children, especially for Palestinian refugee children. For refugee children, organised violence and immigration are important parts of their life experience that can lead to trauma, which in turn influences how they construct their collective identity. Schools have to consider this specific…

  3. Living in the Crossfire: Effects of Exposure to Political Violence on Palestinian and Israeli Mothers and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Shoshani, Anat; Farhan, Khaled; Aliman, Moran; Hirschberger, Gilad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined children's psychological symptoms, particularly aggression, in the context of family characteristics, exposure to political violence, and nationality. We examined the association among Palestinian and Israeli children's and mothers' attachment (measured by self-report questionnaires), exposure to political violence, and…

  4. Constructing Israeli and Palestinian Identity: A Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis of World History Textbooks and Teacher Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This research critically evaluates the depiction of Israelis and Palestinians in World History textbooks and World History teachers' instructional discourse. Employing a Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis methodology, this study offers a comparison between written narratives and spoken discourse in order to analyze the portrayals found in…

  5. The Management of Pupil Difference in Catholic-Protestant and Palestinian-Jewish Integrated Education in Northern Ireland and Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Claire; Bekerman, Zvi

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers issues related to integration in education, specifically those related to the integration of ethnic/religious populations in conflict. The case study we will use is the educating together of Catholic and Protestant children and Palestinian and Jewish children in two troubled societies, Northern Ireland and Israel, where…

  6. Living in the Crossfire: Effects of Exposure to Political Violence on Palestinian and Israeli Mothers and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Shoshani, Anat; Farhan, Khaled; Aliman, Moran; Hirschberger, Gilad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined children's psychological symptoms, particularly aggression, in the context of family characteristics, exposure to political violence, and nationality. We examined the association among Palestinian and Israeli children's and mothers' attachment (measured by self-report questionnaires), exposure to political violence, and…

  7. The Management of Pupil Difference in Catholic-Protestant and Palestinian-Jewish Integrated Education in Northern Ireland and Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Claire; Bekerman, Zvi

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers issues related to integration in education, specifically those related to the integration of ethnic/religious populations in conflict. The case study we will use is the educating together of Catholic and Protestant children and Palestinian and Jewish children in two troubled societies, Northern Ireland and Israel, where…

  8. Positive weighing of the other's collective narrative among Jewish and Bedouin-Palestinian teachers in Israel and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Alon; Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Litvak Hirsch, Tal

    2016-06-01

    Teachers play a pivotal role in the educational discourse around collective narratives, and especially the other's narrative. The study assumed that members of groups entangled in a conflict approach the different modules of the other's narrative distinctively. Jewish and Palestinian teachers, Israeli citizens, answered questionnaires dealing with the narrative of the other, readiness for interethnic contact, negative between-group emotions and preferences for resolutions of the Israeli-Palestinian (I-P) conflict. Positive weighing of the other's narrative among Jewish teachers correlated with high levels of readiness for interethnic contact and low levels of negative between-group emotions, across the various modules of the Palestinian narrative. Preferences for a peaceful resolution of the I-P conflict and rejection of a violent one were noted in two of the modules. Among Palestinian teachers, positive weighing of the other's collective narrative was exclusively noted for the Israeli narrative of the Holocaust, and this stance negatively related to negative between-group emotions and preference for a violent solution of the I-P conflict, and positively related to readiness for interethnic contact and preference of a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Practical implications of these findings for peace education are discussed.

  9. The Personal as Political: The Function of the Private Space in Contextualizing the "Other" in Jewish-Palestinian Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovich, Dalya Yafa

    2015-01-01

    The private/personal sphere is perceived to be a channel of empowerment that fosters processes of acknowledgment and recognition during encounters between participants from different cultural groups. Drawing on ethnographic research at an inter-cultural program that offered a space for engagement for Palestinian and Jewish educational trainees',…

  10. What Makes Me Happy, and What Makes Me Scared? An Analysis of Drawings Made by Norwegian and Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maagerø, Eva; Sunde, Tone

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present and discuss a project in which children in two different environments, in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon and in the south-eastern part of Norway, were given the opportunity to express themselves through drawings. We investigate how differently--and how similarly--the children express themselves when they were…

  11. Progressive Education and the Case of a Bilingual Palestinian-Arab and Jewish Co-Existence School in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Massry-Herzalah, Asmahan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to exemplify a "grass-roots" change based on Dewey's experimental progressive education model employed in the "Bridge over the Valley" bilingual school, a Palestinian-Arab and Jewish school in Israel. In order to identify the progressive "approach" underlying this change, the…

  12. Dental Caries Status, Socio-Economic, Behavioral and Biological Variables among 12-Year-Old Palestinian School Children.

    PubMed

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Bajali, M; Eskander, L; Steinberg, D; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    There are currently inadequate data regarding the prevalence of dental caries and its associated variables, among Palestinian children. To determine the current prevalence of dental caries and related variables, among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. A stratified sample of 286 East Jerusalem Palestinian children was selected, employing randomly chosen sixth grade clusters from three pre-selected socio-economic school groups. Dental caries was recorded according to WHO recommendations. Salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters, were recorded according to previously employed methodologies. The mean level of caries experience, by DMFT, was 1.98 ± 2.05. This level was higher than those found among Israeli children, but lower than several other Middle Eastern countries. In uni-variate analysis, significant associations were revealed between caries and school categories, which indicated lower, middle and higher socio-economic position(SEP), mothers' employment, home densities, dental visits, tooth brushing, Streptococci mutans (SM), Lactobacilli (LB), and saliva pH. According to a linear logistic regression model, children learning in lower SEP schools, with higher SM levels and more acidic saliva, had a higher chance of experiencing dental caries. These findings should be considered in the planning of services and dental health care programs for Palestinian children.

  13. Effects of Israeli Press Restrictions on Coverage of the Palestinian Uprising and on U.S. Public Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jeffrey L.

    Comparing United States television news coverage of the Palestinian uprising in the Israeli-occupied territories before and after press restrictions were introduced in March 1988, a study examined whether Israel's press clampdown (restricting particularly the activities of camera crews, and apparently begun in response to negative foreign opinion…

  14. What Makes Me Happy, and What Makes Me Scared? An Analysis of Drawings Made by Norwegian and Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maagerø, Eva; Sunde, Tone

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present and discuss a project in which children in two different environments, in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon and in the south-eastern part of Norway, were given the opportunity to express themselves through drawings. We investigate how differently--and how similarly--the children express themselves when they were…

  15. The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Hopeless Case for U.S. Policy in the Middle East?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-24

    Washington, D.C., Potomac Books, Inc., 2005 Jones, Bruce B. The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Where Do We Stand? Atlanta, Carter Center 69 Karsch ...Efraim and Karsch . Inari. Empires of the Sand.. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1999 Kershner, Isabel. Barrier: The Seam of the Israeli

  16. The Personal as Political: The Function of the Private Space in Contextualizing the "Other" in Jewish-Palestinian Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovich, Dalya Yafa

    2015-01-01

    The private/personal sphere is perceived to be a channel of empowerment that fosters processes of acknowledgment and recognition during encounters between participants from different cultural groups. Drawing on ethnographic research at an inter-cultural program that offered a space for engagement for Palestinian and Jewish educational trainees',…

  17. Inside and outside the Integrated Bilingual Palestinian-Jewish Schools in Israel: Teachers' Perceptions of Personal, Professional and Political Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajuan, Maureen; Bekerman, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how teachers of the integrated bilingual Palestinian-Jewish schools in Israel construct their school culture in relation to various outside pressures in their attempt to achieve educational change. Field notes from an in-service training workshop were analyzed according to three levels of the teaching…

  18. Opportunities and Challenges of Integrated Education in Conflict-Ridden Societies: The Case of Palestinian-Jewish Schools in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekerman, Zvi; Nir, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a rather new and revolutionary education initiative in Israel. The information and descriptions offered are based on the results of a long-term ethnographic research effort that has been conducted since 1999 in the integrated bilingual Palestinian-Jewish schools in Israel. The bilingual schools are a product of the…

  19. Entertainment-Education: Dilemmas of Israeli Creators of Theatre about the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict in Promoting Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Israeli-Palestinian peace is promoted through political and diplomatic channels, as well as indirect channels such as conferences, lectures, meetings, workshops and political journalism. However, there is less awareness of the extensive artistic activity in Israel surrounding peace and its implications for society, or of the uniqueness of the…

  20. Minority Identity Discourse: The Impact of Viewing the Play "An Arab Dream" on the Identity Crisis of Palestinians in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2013-01-01

    This article was written as part of a comprehensive research study whose main goal was to explore and assess the effectiveness of Israeli drama as an instrument to change young Israelis' perceptions and positions toward the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The article will present the findings of the qualitative study of two distinct audiences:…

  1. Effects of Israeli Press Restrictions on Coverage of the Palestinian Uprising and on U.S. Public Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jeffrey L.

    Comparing United States television news coverage of the Palestinian uprising in the Israeli-occupied territories before and after press restrictions were introduced in March 1988, a study examined whether Israel's press clampdown (restricting particularly the activities of camera crews, and apparently begun in response to negative foreign opinion…

  2. Inside and outside the Integrated Bilingual Palestinian-Jewish Schools in Israel: Teachers' Perceptions of Personal, Professional and Political Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajuan, Maureen; Bekerman, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how teachers of the integrated bilingual Palestinian-Jewish schools in Israel construct their school culture in relation to various outside pressures in their attempt to achieve educational change. Field notes from an in-service training workshop were analyzed according to three levels of the teaching…

  3. Opportunities and Challenges of Integrated Education in Conflict-Ridden Societies: The Case of Palestinian-Jewish Schools in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekerman, Zvi; Nir, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a rather new and revolutionary education initiative in Israel. The information and descriptions offered are based on the results of a long-term ethnographic research effort that has been conducted since 1999 in the integrated bilingual Palestinian-Jewish schools in Israel. The bilingual schools are a product of the…

  4. Learning the Nation in Exile: Constructing Youth Identities, Belonging and "Citizenship" in Palestinian Refugee Camps in South Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincham, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which "Palestine" and "Palestinianess" are culturally, socially and symbolically produced and regulated through formal and non-formal institutional sites in Palestinian camps in south Lebanon. It argues that although institutional power, processes and outcomes help to construct shared notions of…

  5. Links Between Education and Age at Marriage among Palestinian Women in Israel: Changes Over Time.

    PubMed

    Sabbah-Karkaby, Maha; Stier, Haya

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on the link between education and marriage timing among Israeli-Palestinian women. Theoretical discussions on marriage timing center on the effect of the time women spend in educational institutions on their age at marriage, and on the change in the desirable traits of women in the marriage market. But most of these arguments overlook situations where significant changes in education take place alongside retention of traditional patriarchal values. Based on data from three population censuses - in 1983, 1995 and 2008-our results suggest that staying longer in schooling delays marriage, so women with less education are more likely to marry earlier than others. While young age is still considered an important characteristic in the Israeli-Palestinian marriage market, and women who delay marriage face a greater risk of remaining single, education becomes more important over the years so that postponing marriage becomes especially problematic for low-educated women. Our findings suggest that traditional norms and structural conditions together shape marriage timing.

  6. Predicted efficacy of the Palestinian wheat flour fortification programme: complementary analysis of biochemical and dietary data.

    PubMed

    Abdeen, Ziad; Ramlawi, Asa'd; Qaswari, Radwan; Alrub, Ala' Abu; Dary, Omar; Rambeloson, Zo; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Dror, Daphna; Allen, Lindsay H; Carriquiry, Alicia; Salman, Rand; Dkeidek, Sahar

    2015-06-01

    To utilize complementary biochemical and dietary data collected before the initiation of national flour fortification to (i) identify micronutrient insufficiencies or deficiencies and dietary inadequacies in Palestinian women and children in vulnerable communities and (ii) assess the suitability of the current wheat flour fortification formula. Quantitative dietary intake questionnaires were administered and fasting venous blood samples collected in randomly selected households in Gaza City and Hebron. The impact of fortification was simulated by estimating the additional micronutrient content of fortified wheat flour. Households in Gaza City and Hebron that were not receiving food aid from social programmes. Non-pregnant women (18-49 years) and children aged 36-83 months. The micronutrients with highest prevalence of insufficiency were vitamin D in women (84-97 % with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol/l) and vitamin B12 in women and children (43-82 % with serum B12 <221 pmol/l). Deficiencies of vitamin A, Fe and Zn were also of public health concern. Current levels of wheat flour fortificants were predicted to improve, but not eliminate, micronutrient intake inadequacies. Modification of fortificant concentrations of vitamin D, thiamin, vitamin B12, Zn and folic acid may be indicated. Micronutrient insufficiencies or deficiencies and intake inadequacies were prevalent based on either biochemical or dietary intake criteria. Adjustments to the current fortification formula for wheat flour are necessary to better meet the nutrient needs of Palestinian women and children.

  7. Explaining the Frequency of Alcohol Consumption in a Conflict Zone: Jews and Palestinians in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Zohar; Chartier, Karen G.; Stebbins, Mary B.; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Hall, Brian J.; Shuval, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing stress and exposure to terrorism may have an adverse effect on health risk behaviors. Few studies have examined alcohol use among adults living in Israel under chronic, stressful terrorism-related conditions. In this study, we examined the relationships of demographics, past stressful events, and terrorism exposure to the frequency of alcohol use and the mediating roles of depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We used three waves of data from a 2007–2008 nationally representative sample of Jewish and Palestinian adults in Israel. We assessed the number of past stressful events, in addition to direct and indirect exposure to terrorism. Results indicated that past stressful events and exposure to terrorism were not directly associated with alcohol use, but were indirectly associated and mediated by depressive and PTSD symptomology. Mental health symptoms were differentially associated with alcohol use. More frequent drinking was mediated by higher levels of depression, including for women and Palestinians; however, PTSD symptom severity was related to less frequent drinking. Mental health may play a prominent role in the frequency of alcohol use among adults exposed to terrorism in Israel. Alcohol use, as a coping mechanism, may differ by demographic characteristics (gender and ethnicity) and psychological symptomology for adults living in a conflict zone in Israel. PMID:25777746

  8. Incidence of Radix Entomolaris in Mandibular First Molars in Palestinian Population: A Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate clinically the percentage of permanent mandibular first molar teeth with three roots amongst Palestinian population. Patients and Methods. Three hundred twenty-two mandibular first molars from 185 females and 137 males scheduled for root canal treatment at the Dental Center of the Arab American University were examined over a 2-year period. The incidence of a third root revealed by periapical radiographs and the comparison of the occurrence between males and females and between the right and left sides of the mandible were recorded. Statistical Analysis. It was performed using the chi-square test with a significant level set at P < 0.05%. Results. Of the 322 treated mandibular first molars, twelve teeth were found to have a third root with an overall incidence being 3.73%. More teeth with a third root were treated on the right side of the mandible compared to the left side. Conclusion. The incidence of a third root in Palestinian population was within the range of previous reports from the Middle East but considerably lower than the percentage from the Far East. PMID:27355078

  9. IL36RN mutation causing generalized pustular psoriasis in a Palestinian patient.

    PubMed

    Renert-Yuval, Yael; Horev, Liran; Babay, Sofia; Tams, Spiro; Ramot, Yuval; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Molho-Pessach, Vered

    2014-07-01

    Deficiency of interleukin-36 (IL-36) receptor antagonist (DITRA; OMIM 614204) is a rare autoinflammatory disorder characterized by periodic fever associated with a generalized erythematous and pustular skin rash. A 6-year-old Arab-Palestinian boy presented with a history of periodic fever and unremitting, erythematous, scaly skin rash accompanied by widespread pustules that had been present since the age of one month. The patient's skin lesions were compatible with generalized pustular psoriasis. Sequence analysis revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation, c.28C>T (p.Arg10X) in the IL36RN gene. The patient improved with oral methotrexate in combination with oral and topical corticosteroids. The molecular basis for DITRA has only recently been identified, and the mutation spectrum for this disorder in many populations is still obscure. This paper reports the presence of the c.28C>T mutation in an Arab-Palestinian patient and thus represents the first description of this mutation in a non-Japanese subject. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. How Personality Affects Vulnerability among Israelis and Palestinians following the 2009 Gaza Conflict.

    PubMed

    Canetti, Daphna; Kimhi, Shaul; Hanoun, Rasmiyah; Rocha, Gabriel A; Galea, Sandro; Morgan, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Can the onset of PTSD symptoms and depression be predicted by personality factors and thought control strategies? A logical explanation for the different mental health outcomes of individuals exposed to trauma would seem to be personality factors and thought control strategies. Trauma exposure is necessary but not sufficient for the development of PTSD. To this end, we assess the role of personality traits and coping styles in PTSD vulnerability among Israeli and Palestinian students amid conflict. We also determine whether gender and exposure level to trauma impact the likelihood of the onset of PTSD symptoms. Five questionnaires assess previous trauma, PTSD symptoms, demographics, personality factors and thought control strategies, which are analyzed using path analysis. Findings show that the importance of personality factors and thought control strategies in predicting vulnerability increases in the face of political violence: the higher stress, the more important the roles of personality and thought control strategies. Thought control strategies associated with introverted and less emotionally stable personality-types correlate positively with higher levels of PTSD symptoms and depression, particularly among Palestinians. By extension, because mental health is key to reducing violence in the region, PTSD reduction in conflict zones warrants rethinking.

  11. How Personality Affects Vulnerability among Israelis and Palestinians following the 2009 Gaza Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Canetti, Daphna; Kimhi, Shaul; Hanoun, Rasmiyah; Rocha, Gabriel A.; Galea, Sandro; Morgan, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Can the onset of PTSD symptoms and depression be predicted by personality factors and thought control strategies? A logical explanation for the different mental health outcomes of individuals exposed to trauma would seem to be personality factors and thought control strategies. Trauma exposure is necessary but not sufficient for the development of PTSD. To this end, we assess the role of personality traits and coping styles in PTSD vulnerability among Israeli and Palestinian students amid conflict. We also determine whether gender and exposure level to trauma impact the likelihood of the onset of PTSD symptoms. Five questionnaires assess previous trauma, PTSD symptoms, demographics, personality factors and thought control strategies, which are analyzed using path analysis. Findings show that the importance of personality factors and thought control strategies in predicting vulnerability increases in the face of political violence: the higher stress, the more important the roles of personality and thought control strategies. Thought control strategies associated with introverted and less emotionally stable personality-types correlate positively with higher levels of PTSD symptoms and depression, particularly among Palestinians. By extension, because mental health is key to reducing violence in the region, PTSD reduction in conflict zones warrants rethinking. PMID:27391240

  12. Factors related to the willingness of Palestinian dentists to treat patients with blood-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Kateeb, Elham; Amer, Rafat; Bajali, Musa

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to explore, using groups of simulated patients, the willingness of Palestinian dentists to treat patients with blood-borne diseases. Simulated patients conducted a telephone survey of a random sample of dentists registered with the Palestinian Dental Association. A random system was used to assign dentists to one of two groups, in which simulated patients randomly identified themselves with either human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) and asked for a dental appointment. Three-hundred and four dentists (76%) responded to our telephone survey. Sixty-six per cent accepted requests for appointments and 34% declined the appointment requests. Sixty-eight per cent of the dentists declined appointment requests from patients with HIV and 32% declined appointments from patients with HBV. Dentist's gender, 'blood-borne disease type', 'place of private practice', 'country of graduation' and 'years since graduation' were all significant predictors in the final logistic model. More than one-third of our respondents declined appointment requests from patients with blood-borne disease, two-thirds of which were for patients who identified themselves as having HIV. Education and training programmes are needed to improve attitudes of dentists - especially female dentists, older dentists and dentists practising in northern governorates - towards patients with blood-borne diseases.

  13. Explaining the frequency of alcohol consumption in a conflict zone: Jews and Palestinians in Israel.

    PubMed

    Massey, Zohar; Chartier, Karen G; Stebbins, Mary B; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Hall, Brian J; Shuval, Kerem

    2015-07-01

    Experiencing stress and exposure to terrorism may have an adverse effect on health risk behaviors. Few studies have examined alcohol use among adults living in Israel under chronic, stressful terrorism-related conditions. In this study, we examined the relationships of demographics, past stressful events, and terrorism exposure to the frequency of alcohol use and the mediating roles of depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We used three waves of data from a 2007-2008 nationally representative sample of Jewish and Palestinian adults in Israel. We assessed past stressful events, in addition to direct and indirect exposures to terrorism. Results indicated that past stressful events and exposure to terrorism were not directly associated with alcohol use, but were indirectly associated and mediated by depressive and PTSD symptomology. Mental health symptoms were differentially associated with alcohol use. More frequent drinking was mediated by higher levels of depression, including for women and Palestinians; however, PTSD symptom severity was related to less frequent drinking. Mental health may play a prominent role in the frequency of alcohol use among adults exposed to terrorism in Israel. Alcohol use, as a coping mechanism, may differ by demographic characteristics (gender and ethnicity) and psychological symptomology for adults living in a conflict zone in Israel.

  14. Substance abuse policy and peace in the Middle East: a Palestinian and Israeli partnership.

    PubMed

    Isralowitz, R; Sussman, G; Afifi, M; Rawson, R; Babor, T; Monteiro, M

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes the working exchange between Israelis, Palestinians and international experts who engaged in a process to promote communications, cooperation and coordination of efforts directed toward peace as well as the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in the region. From 1997 to 1999, a program of training workshops and courses, drug prevention and treatment skills development and collaborative research was conducted on the basis of mutual respect and cooperation among Palestinians and Israelis. By tapping into the issue of substance abuse and by focusing on its professional and academic dimensions, this initiative engaged representative delegations of the police force, academia, treatment centers and various government ministries. While events of this period underscored the dependence of "bottom-up" peace initiatives on the prevailing political situation, the experience revealed the vital role of NGO frameworks in providing a safety net for promoting and sustaining relations as well as addressing an issue of common concern. This case study shows that addiction professionals, both clinicians and researchers, can be instrumental in conflict resolution as well as the prevention and treatment of drug abuse.

  15. Prevalence and perception of smoking habits among the Palestinian population in the Gaza Strip

    PubMed Central

    Eldalo, Ahmed S

    2016-01-01

    Background The Gaza Strip is a densely populated place with ~2 million inhabitants in an area of 365 km2. The aim of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence in the Gaza Strip and to identify the perception of the Palestinian population on smoking. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Gaza Strip, Palestinian territories, during the period from June to September 2014. Convenient sampling method was adopted. A structured pretested questionnaire was used. Results A total of 600 adults aged 15 years or older completed the questionnaires with a response rate of 83.3%. The prevalence rate of smoking was 26.3%, with a significantly higher rate among males (31%) than females (6.9%) (P<0.001). The mean starting age was 17.4±3.9 years. The study revealed that influence of friends is the major reason for initiation of smoking and the most influential factor in convincing smokers to quit was the family. Smokers’ knowledge about smoking risks motivates them to try stop smoking (64.9%) or desire to stop smoking (65.2%). Conclusion The study revealed that tobacco use is significantly prevalent in the Gaza Strip. The author recommends rapid antismoking campaigns with stress on the family role and massive intervention programs to encourage young people to change their behavior toward smoking. PMID:27486330

  16. Banking on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Internet Research, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

  17. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  18. 1. View east at west facade of culvert outlet headwall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View east at west facade of culvert outlet headwall, above which part of the canal bank has been removed. Foreground to background: streambed and coffer dam (mound in center) that was used in dewatering the culvert; intake pipes (extreme left and right) for dewatering pumps; deteriorated culvert outlet headwall with upper portion of wall fallen away; horizontal masonry cutoff wall extending above the culvert outlet partially up the canal bank (cutoff wall was exposed by removal of part of canal bank); towpath at top of canal bank. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Six Mile Run Culvert, .2 mile South of Blackwells Mills Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Food Insecurity among Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: Data from a Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ghattas, Hala; Sassine, AnnieBelle J.; Seyfert, Karin; Nord, Mark; Sahyoun, Nadine R.

    2015-01-01

    Lebanon hosts the highest per capita refugee concentration worldwide. The Palestinian presence in Lebanon dates from 1948 and they remain a marginalized population. No information on their food security status has been reported previously. A survey of a representative sample of Palestinian refugee households in Lebanon (n = 2501) was conducted using a stratified two stage cluster sampling approach. We measured food insecurity using a modified USDA household food security module, locally validated. We collected data on household demographic, socioeconomic, health, housing, coping strategies and household intake of food groups and analysed these by food security status. About 41% (CI: 39-43) of households reported being food insecure and 20% (CI: 18-22) severely food insecure. Poor households were more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.41 (1.06-1.86)) while higher education of the head of household was significantly associated with protection against severe food insecurity (OR 0.66 (0.52-0.84)). Additionally, higher food expenditure and possession of food-related assets were significantly associated with food security (OR 0.93 (0.89-0.97) and OR 0.74 (0.59-0.92), respectively). After adjusting for confounders, households where at least one member suffered from an acute illness remained significantly more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.31(1.02-1.66)), as were households whose proxy respondent reported poor mental health (OR 2.64 (2.07-3.38)) and poor self-reported health (OR 1.62 (1.22-2.13). Severely food insecure households were more likely to eat cheaper foods when compared to non-severely food insecure households (p<0.001) and were more likely to rely on gifts (p<0.001) or welfare (p<0.001). They were also more likely to have exhausted all coping strategies, indicating significantly more frequently that they could not do anything (p = 0.0102). Food insecurity is a significant problem among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and is likely to be

  20. Workplace violence against physicians and nurses in Palestinian public hospitals: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence against healthcare workers in Palestinian hospitals is common. However, this issue is under researched and little evidence exists. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, magnitude, consequences and possible risk factors for workplace violence against nurses and physicians working in public Palestinian hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional approach was employed. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on different aspects of workplace violence against physicians and nurses in five public hospitals between June and July 2011. The questionnaires were distributed to a stratified proportional random sample of 271 physicians and nurses, of which 240 (88.7%) were adequately completed. Pearson’s chi-square analysis was used to test the differences in exposure to physical and non-physical violence according to respondents’ characteristics. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess potential associations between exposure to violence (yes/no) and the respondents’ characteristics using logistic regression model. Results The majority of respondents (80.4%) reported exposure to violence in the previous 12 months; 20.8% physical and 59.6% non-physical. No statistical difference in exposure to violence between physicians and nurses was observed. Males’ significantly experienced higher exposure to physical violence in comparison with females. Logistic regression analysis indicated that less experienced (OR: 8.03; 95% CI 3.91-16.47), and a lower level of education (OR: 3; 95% CI 1.29-6.67) among respondents meant they were more likely to be victims of workplace violence than their counterparts. The assailants were mostly the patients' relatives or visitors, followed by the patients themselves, and co-workers. Consequences of both physical and non-physical violence were considerable. Only half of victims received any type of treatment. Non-reporting of violence was a concern, main reasons were lack of

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Food Insecurity among Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: Data from a Household Survey.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Sassine, AnnieBelle J; Seyfert, Karin; Nord, Mark; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2015-01-01

    Lebanon hosts the highest per capita refugee concentration worldwide. The Palestinian presence in Lebanon dates from 1948 and they remain a marginalized population. No information on their food security status has been reported previously. A survey of a representative sample of Palestinian refugee households in Lebanon (n = 2501) was conducted using a stratified two stage cluster sampling approach. We measured food insecurity using a modified USDA household food security module, locally validated. We collected data on household demographic, socioeconomic, health, housing, coping strategies and household intake of food groups and analysed these by food security status. About 41% (CI: 39-43) of households reported being food insecure and 20% (CI: 18-22) severely food insecure. Poor households were more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.41 (1.06-1.86)) while higher education of the head of household was significantly associated with protection against severe food insecurity (OR 0.66 (0.52-0.84)). Additionally, higher food expenditure and possession of food-related assets were significantly associated with food security (OR 0.93 (0.89-0.97) and OR 0.74 (0.59-0.92), respectively). After adjusting for confounders, households where at least one member suffered from an acute illness remained significantly more likely to be severely food insecure (OR 1.31(1.02-1.66)), as were households whose proxy respondent reported poor mental health (OR 2.64 (2.07-3.38)) and poor self-reported health (OR 1.62 (1.22-2.13). Severely food insecure households were more likely to eat cheaper foods when compared to non-severely food insecure households (p<0.001) and were more likely to rely on gifts (p<0.001) or welfare (p<0.001). They were also more likely to have exhausted all coping strategies, indicating significantly more frequently that they could not do anything (p = 0.0102). Food insecurity is a significant problem among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and is likely to be

  2. Horizons West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitses, Jim

    The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…

  3. Horizons West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitses, Jim

    The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…

  4. The water exchange between Chinchorro Bank and its surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Julio; Ochoa, Jose Luis; Sheinbaum, Julio; Lopez, Manuel; Cornado, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Chinchorro Bank is a relatively large (~500 km^ 2) atoll situated 33 km in front of the Yucatan Peninsula in the Caribbean coast of Mexico. Two years of continuous measurements of the subsurface pressure field inside and around Chinchorro Bank, along with currents and waves observed outside, suggest four major processes governing the water exchange of the Bank with its surroundings: 1) surface wave pumping of water into the Bank through its eastern edge, 2) the large scale circulation in the region that drives the sea level changes through geostrophy, 3) the tidal pumping with imposed cyclic flows into and out of the Bank and 4) the imposed drift by the wind. Waves impinging all along the eastern barrier reef induce water inflows (from overtopping the reef) and generate a pressure gradient that drives a drift from east to west throughout the Bank. This western drift can normally replenish the water over the Bank with a time scale of ~10 days. However, extreme wave events, lasting around 24 hours, can replenish the whole Bank's water in the order of day. The region's large scale circulation is dominated by the zonal Cayman Current impinging on the Yucatan Peninsula becoming the Yucatan Current as it turns northward. Variability in the strength and impacting latitude of this current causes sea level gradients within the Bank, i.e., a Yucatan Current increase of 1 m/s, over a period of a couple of weeks, sets up a zonal sea level gradient within that can replenish the whole Bank's water in a time scale of ~14 days. At such times, the large scale current around the Bank is at a maximum thus ensuring an effective removal and dispersal of the exported waters. The Bank has a micro-tidal regime with a semidiurnal amplitude of ~12 cm during spring tides and a diurnal of ~2 cm, these imply that the Bank is exchanging ~10% of its waters with its surroundings daily. However small, this tidal pumping is effective for the ventilation of the Banks' waters in ~10 days due to the

  5. Bahrain's offshore banking center

    SciTech Connect

    Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

    1983-01-01

    The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  6. "Resilience in Palestinian adolescents living in Gaza": Correction to Aitcheson et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    2017-01-01

    Reports an error in "Resilience in Palestinian Adolescents Living in Gaza" by Rozanna J. Aitcheson, Soleman H. Abu-Bader, Mary K. Howell, Deena Khalil and Salman Elbedour (Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Advanced Online Publication, May 30, 2016, np). There were grammatical errors to the Method section of the abstract and the Method subsection Participants. Corrected versions are provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-26488-001.) Objective: The pathogenic impact of ongoing political conflict on children and adolescents has been well-documented in the literature. The present study, by contrast, examined the factors that support adolescent health and utilized a salutogenic model to examine prevalence of depression and anxiety and predictors of resilience in a group of adolescents attending secondary school in Gaza.

  7. Exposure to Conflict and Violence across Contexts: Relations to Adjustment among Palestinian Children

    PubMed Central

    Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Shikaki, Khalil; Landau, Simha; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Ginges, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Despite extensive literatures on the impact on children of exposure to violence in families, neighborhoods, and peer groups, there has been relatively little effort evaluating their cumulative impact. There also has been less attention to the effects of exposure to political conflict and violence. We collected data from a representative sample of 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) to evaluate the relation of exposure to political conflict and violence, and violence in the family, community, and school, to post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and aggressive behavior. Results highlight the additive effects of exposure to political conflict and violence, suggesting that interventionists should consider the full spectrum of sources of environmental risk for PTS symptoms and aggressive behavior. PMID:20390802

  8. Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian Refugee Adolescents' Beliefs About Parental Authority Legitimacy and Its Correlates.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues.

  9. Examining health care spending trends over a decade: the Palestinian case.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, S; Narcı, H Ö; Akinci, F; Nacakgedigi, O

    2016-03-15

    An analysis was made of recent health care spending patterns in the occupied Palestinian territory, in order to inform future health policy-making and planning. Data were obtained from the national health accounts for the period 2000-2011. The current level of resource allocation to the health care sector is higher than in many developed countries and is not sustainable. The private sector represents the largest source of health financing (61%) and the burden falls disproportionally on individual households, who account for 63% of private health care expenditure. Key recommendations include: building capacity in the government sector to reduce the outsourcing of health services; modifying inequitable financing mechanisms to reduce the burden on households; and allocating more resources for health promotion and disease prevention programmes. Reorientation of the health system is also needed in terms of reducing the share of spending on inpatient services in favour of more day surgery, outpatient and home-based services.

  10. Anthropometric status in Palestinian children living in refugee camps in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Mouhanad; Hammad, Adnan; Koo, Winston W K

    2006-01-01

    To study the relationship between anthropometric measurements and living conditions in infants and children living in refugee camps. Cross-sectional study. Four Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon. Thirty-three infants younger than two years of age and 234 children (106 males) younger than 15 years of age. Weight and height were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight (kg)/length squared (m2). A parent of the subject answered a questionnaire on employment status, household size, food, and financial assistance as well as child's food consumption. Anthropometric measurements were standardized to the National Center of Health Statistics (NCHS) growth data as age- and sex-specific Z scores. No significant difference was seen between males and females. For all sites studied, the Z scores for weight (WAZ) and height (HAZ) of infants were not significantly different from zero. Among older children, WAZ, HAZ, and Z scores for BMI (BMIZ) were significantly less than zero. In infants, exclusive breast feeding, in addition to receiving financial help, correlated positively while meat and fruit consumption of less than three times per week correlated negatively with WAZ and HAZ. In older children, a mixed relationship was seen among the number of children younger than 10 years of age in a household, the child's meat, vegetable, and fruit consumption less than three times per week, and WAZ and HAZ. Living conditions and socioeconomic restrictions on Palestinian refugees living in Lebanon do not appear to influence growth of infants younger than two years of age but may contribute to the growth deficit in older children.

  11. Compliance of scored tablet halves produced by Palestinian Pharmaceutical Companies with the new European Pharmacopoeia requirements.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ghosh, Abeer Abu

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the weight uniformity of commonly divided tablets produced by Palestinian Pharmaceutical Companies and to evaluate the importance of both patient- and formulation-related variables on the splitting results. Eighty-four volunteers were enrolled in this study; their age, gender and occupation were documented in order, and the effect of these variables on the tablet splitting results was evaluated. Each volunteer was asked to divide six scored tablets of each product tested and was given clear instructions on how to conduct the splitting process. The split units were individually weighed and the RSD for each product was calculated as instructed in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur. 5.5). Only one scored tablet product passed the Ph. Eur. test of mass uniformity, while the remaining 13 products failed; this indicates that the splitting of these tablet products is not a reliable means for the provision of accurate doses to patients. Age, gender and occupation of volunteers were not found to be predictive of any variability noted in the splitting results. The only factors that were suspected to be linked to passing the splitting test, as per the European Pharmacopoeia, were the shape, friability and hardness of the tablets. As a result of this study, we believe that the practice of dividing tablets, which should provide therapeutic and economic benefits for the patient, may potentially cause significant problems, especially in drugs with low therapeutic indices. Tablets produced by Palestinian Pharmaceutical Companies should comply with the new Ph. Eur. splitting regulations to reduce this potential for complications.

  12. Salivary levels of mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli among Palestinian school children in East Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Doron; Eskander, Lana; Zini, Avraham; Sgan-Cohen, Harold; Bajali, Musa

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of oral cariogenic bacteria among 12-year-old Palestinian children attending schools in East Jerusalem. Salivary levels of mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB) were examined by semi-quantitative commercial kits and then correlated to social-demographic parameters. Overall, 52.1 % of the examined children presented the highest possible ranking score categories for MS bacteria, with only 5.4 % in the lowest category. Only 12.6 % of the school children presented the highest LB score, while 25 % had the lowest ranking score. Salivary MS levels in children attending private schools were lower than those of children in government schools and United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) schools. Conversely, levels of LB were lowest in children attending UNRWA schools compared to government and private schools. Girls had significantly higher amounts of MS and LB than boys (p = 0.001). Lower MS levels were significantly related to the following socioeconomic variables: higher father's education level (p = 0.037), higher mother's education level (p = 0.063), mother's employment status (p = 0.012), and lower home density (p = 0.001). For LB, the only significant socioeconomic variable was higher father's employment level, which was related to lower LB level (p = 0.025). Levels of MS and LB were found to be strongly related with socioeconomic status among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. The relatively high prevalence of cariogenic bacteria suggests that oral care prevention and treatment demands special attention from the health care institutions and authorities.

  13. Pesticide use, exposure, and risk: A joint Israeli-Palestinian perspective.

    PubMed

    Richter, E D; Safi, J

    1997-01-01

    The major predictors of health risk from pesticide exposure are quantity and toxicity of pesticides reaching end-users, field workers, and persons (including children) with casual and indirect exposures to field and food residues, drift, and contaminated groundwater. Past work in Israel and the Palestinian National Authority has documented risks for acute poisoning, daily illness, transient neurotoxic effects, and potential cancer hazards in workers, populations exposed to pesticide drift, and the general population. Risk assessment predicts that reduction in use of agents with high toxicity and pesticide substitution are desired strategies for achieving the largest reductions in risk, but successful implementation and program sustainability depend on maintaining crop yield and increasing farmer earnings. A joint pilot Israeli-Palestinian-NGO program aims to determine whether crop yields and profits can be sustained while reducing pesticide use, promoting integrated pest management, and restricting ecosystem damage. The project involves six components: (1) assessments of health risk and crop yield in relation to pesticide use and exposure; (2) training health-agricultural teams to introduce and evaluate crop growth and managements with reduced pesticide use; (3) tracing and stopping import and trade in banned or restricted pesticides; (4) restricting child labor; (5) promoting information delivery and worker and community right-to-know and right-to-act; and (6) establishing a uniform regional standard for protection of workers and the general public. Preliminary evidence (organochlorines and breast cancer, organophosphates and illness in field workers) indicates that (1) a reduction of use is the foremost determinant of a reduction in health risk; (2) cotton yield can be increased despite a reduction in pesticide use (organophosphates); and (3) a reduction in pesticide use (organophosphates and organochlorines) has to be part of a crop rotation program for food

  14. Associations between life conditions and multi-morbidity in marginalized populations: the case of Palestinian refugees

    PubMed Central

    Hojeij, Safa; Elzein, Kareem; Chaaban, Jad; Seyfert, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that higher multi-morbidity rates among people with low socioeconomic status produces and maintains poverty. Our research explores the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and multi-morbidity among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, a marginalized and impoverished population. Methods: A representative sample of Palestinian refugees in Lebanon was surveyed, interviewing 2501 respondents (97% response rate). Multi-morbidity was measured by mental health, chronic and acute illnesses and disability. Multinomial logistic regression models assessed the association between indicators of poverty and multi-morbidities. Results: Findings showed that 14% of respondents never went to school, 41% of households reported water leakage and 10% suffered from severe food insecurity. Participants with an elementary education or less and those completing intermediate school were more than twice as likely to report two health problems than those with secondary education or more (OR: 2.60, CI: 1.73–3.91; OR: 2.47, CI: 1.62–3.77, respectively). Those living in households with water leakage were nearly twice as likely to have three or more health reports (OR = 1.88, CI = 1.45–2.44); this pattern was more pronounced for severely food insecure households (OR = 3.41, CI = 1.83–6.35). Conclusion: We identified a positive gradient between socioeconomic status and multi-morbidity within a refugee population. These findings reflect inequalities produced by the health and social systems in Lebanon, a problem expected to worsen following the massive influx of refugees from Syria. Ending legal discrimination and funding infrastructural, housing and health service improvements may counteract the effects of deprivation. Addressing this problem requires providing a decent livelihood for refugees in Lebanon. PMID:24994504

  15. Problems of management of medical solid waste at primary health care centres in the Palestinian Territory and their remedial measures.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, I A

    2014-01-09

    This study was conducted to investigate the management aspects of medical solid waste (MSW) at primary health care centres in Nablus and Salfit governorates in the West Bank, Palestine. We interviewed 190 health care staff from primary health care centres in this area. The most frequent type of waste produced was sharps waste: only 5.3% of respondents said this was never produced. Infectious waste was the second most frequent type produced. Only 40.4% of the respondents stated that hazardous MSW was always treated. Over 80% said that non-sharps MSW was separated into its different components, but almost 20% said that sharps were not placed in special containers. We recorded a mean of 34 g of hazardous solid waste and 55 g of non-hazardous solid waste generated per outpatient per day. Staff awareness and training, separation of MSW, establishment of simple treatment facilities are the major measures suggested for improvement of the waste management practices.

  16. World Bank challenge.

    PubMed

    Carty, W P

    1992-01-01

    Founded in 1945 to meet the needs of post-war European reconstruction, the World Bank was formerly know as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. While Bank principals increasingly recognize the relationship between population growth and economic development, social investments in family planning have traditionally been less important than conventional Bank activities. Bank staff are generally maladroit in relating to demographic issues and favor carefully designed infrastructure projects over Third World social projects. Dr. Thomas Merrick has recently been appointed Senior Population Adviser to the World Bank. In this position, Dr. Merrick must accomplish the formidable task of convincing skeptical Bank economists that population is directly relevant to their work. He plans to argue the importance of population activities on a country- and issue-specific basis and stress population and family planning policies' bearing on capital formation, health, education, environment, job creation, urban development, and other Bank sectors. Dr. Merrick will also have to build up the number and competence of the World Bank's demographic staff. After having accomplished these internal tasks, the new Senior Population Adviser may also need to address the World Bank's tendency to work with recipient officials who give only low priority to borrowing for family planning.

  17. Wavelet Analysis of Near-Inertial Currents at the East Flower Garden Bank

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-11

    at the East Flower Garden Bank (EFGB), part of the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary. The EFGB, one of several submerged coral reefs, is... coral reefs, is located in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, about 190 km southeast of Galveston, Texas. The bank is about 6 km wide in the east–west... coral reef in the Gulf of Mexico, are located near the edge of the Texas–Louisiana continental shelf in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (see http

  18. Personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices of Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with Jewish Israelis.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Abu Kheit, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the connection between personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices among Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with the Jewish population in Israel. One hundred twenty-two Palestinian Israelis participated in the study. The participants were employed in different professional positions in the Tel Aviv Metropolitan area and were recruited to the study using the snowball technique. A stronger national identification was associated with a higher preference for the security and conformity values, and a lower preference for the humility values. A stronger ethnic identification was associated with a lower preference for the security, power, and stimulation values. Group identifications mediated the connection between personal value preferences and cultural practices. A longer time working in close contact with the majority group and less frequent visits home were associated with a greater adherence to the majority group's cultural practices but not with adherence to the ethnic group's practices and not with the group identifications.

  19. Antone Tarazi: the first Palestinian neurosurgeon and the first neurosurgeon in Jordan: a neurosurgeon of two countries.

    PubMed

    Awad, Ahmed J; Jane, John A

    2014-12-01

    Antone (Tony) Tarazi (1927-1999) was the first Palestinian neurosurgeon and the first neurosurgeon in Jordan. In 1952, Tarazi received his medical degree from the American University of Beirut in Lebanon. After completing neurosurgery training at the Montreal Neurological Institute in 1960, he returned to Palestine to practice neurosurgery in both Palestine and Jordan. For almost 10 years, he alone carried the load of neurosurgery for a population of >3 million people. His skills and knowledge enabled him to achieve admirable results with limited available resources. Tarazi was the president of the Palestinian Neurosurgical Society, a member of Jordan medical societies, and a member of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. His continuous efforts to improve medical services extended beyond neurosurgery to many other fields. This article recounts Antone Tarazi's achievements and contributions to neurosurgery in Palestine and Jordan.

  20. Tissue banking in australia.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.