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Sample records for palindromic pcr rep-pcr

  1. Validation of use of whole-cell repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) for typing strains belonging to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex and application of the method to the investigation of a hospital outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, A M; Gerner-Smidt, P; Hawkey, P M; Heritage, J; Parnell, P; Porter, C; Bodenham, A R; Inglis, T

    1996-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are being reported with increasing frequency as causes of nosocomial infection. In order to identify reservoirs of infection as quickly as possible, a rapid typing method that can differentiate epidemic strains from environmental and nonepidemic strains is needed. In 1993, a cluster of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from five patients in the adult intensive therapy unit of our tertiary-care teaching hospital led us to develop and optimize a rapid repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) typing protocol for members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex that uses boiled colonies and consensus primers aimed at repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences. Four of the five patient isolates gave the same REP-PCR typing pattern as isolates of A. baumannii obtained from the temperature probe of a Bennett humidifier; the fifth isolate had a unique profile. Disinfection of the probe with 70% ethanol, as recommended by the manufacturer, proved ineffective, as A. baumannii with the same REP-PCR pattern was isolated from it 10 days after cleaning, necessitating a change in our decontamination procedure. Results obtained with REP-PCR were subsequently confirmed by ribotyping. To evaluate the discriminatory power (D) of REP-PCR for typing members of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex, compared with that of ribotyping, we have applied both methods to a collection of 85 strains that included representatives of six DNA groups within the complex. Ribotyping using EcoRI digests yielded 53 patterns (D = 0.98), whereas 68 different REP-PCR patterns were observed (D = 0.99). By computer-assisted analysis of gel images, 74 patterns were observed with REP-PCR (D = 1.0). Overall, REP-PCR typing proved to be slightly more discriminatory than ribotyping. Our results indicate that REP-PCR typing used boiled colonies is a simple, rapid, and effective means of typing members of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex. PMID

  2. Genetic Diversity and Evidence for Transmission of Streptococcus mutans by DiversiLab rep-PCR.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Stephanie S; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Ghazal, Tariq; Moser, Stephen A; Childers, Noel K

    2016-09-01

    This two-part study investigated the genetic diversity and transmission of Streptococcus mutans using the DiversiLab repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) approach. For children with S. mutans and participating household members, analysis for evidence of unrelated child-to-child as well as intra-familial transmission was evaluated based on commonality of genotypes. A total of 169 index children and 425 household family members from Uniontown, Alabama were evaluated for genetic diversity using rep-PCR. Thirty-four unique rep-PCR genotypes were observed for 13,906 S. mutans isolates. For transmission, 117 child and household isolates were evaluated for shared genotype (by child and by genotype cases, multiple matches possible for each child). Overall, children had 1-9 genotypes and those with multiple genotypes were 2.3 times more likely to have caries experience (decayed, missing and filled teeth/surfaces>0). Only 28% of children shared all genotypes within the household, while 72% had at least 1 genotype not shared with anyone in the household. Children had genotype(s) not shared with any household members in 157 cases. In 158 cases children and household members shared a genotype in which 55% (87/158 cases) were shared with more than one family member. Children most frequently shared genotypes with their mothers (54%; 85/158), siblings (46%; 72/158) and cousins (23%; 37/158). A reference library for S. mutans for epidemiological surveillance using the DiversiLab rep-PCR approach is detailed. The genetic diversity of S. mutans in this population demonstrated frequent commonality of genotypes. Evidence for both child-to-child and intra-familial transmission of S. mutans was observed by rep-PCR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Diversity and Evidence for Transmission of Streptococcus mutans by DiversiLab rep-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Stephanie S.; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Ghazal, Tariq; Moser, Stephen A.; Childers, Noel K.

    2016-01-01

    This two-part study investigated the genetic diversity and transmission of Streptococcus mutans using the DiversiLab repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) approach. For children with S. mutans and participating household members, analysis for evidence of unrelated child-to-child as well as intra-familial transmission was evaluated based on commonality of genotypes. A total of 169 index children and 425 household family members from Uniontown, Alabama were evaluated for genetic diversity using rep-PCR. Thirty-four unique rep-PCR genotypes were observed for 13,906 S. mutans isolates. For transmission, 117 child and household isolates were evaluated for shared genotype (by child and by genotype cases, multiple matches possible for each child). Overall, children had 1–9 genotypes and those with multiple genotypes were 2.3 times more likely to have caries experience (decayed, missing and filled teeth/surfaces>0). Only 28% of children shared all genotypes within the household, while 72% had at least 1 genotype not shared with anyone in the household. Children had genotype(s) not shared with any household members in 155 cases. In 158 cases children and household members shared a genotype in which 55% (87/158 cases) were shared with more than one family member. Children most frequently shared genotypes with their mothers (54%; 85/158), siblings (46%; 72/158) and cousins (23%; 37/158). A reference library for S. mutans for epidemiological surveillance using the DiversiLab rep-PCR approach is detailed. The genetic diversity of S. mutans in this population demonstrated frequent commonality of genotypes. Evidence for both child-to-child and intra-familial transmission of S. mutans was observed by rep-PCR. PMID:27432341

  4. Applications of the rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting technique to study microbial diversity, ecology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2009-04-01

    A large number of repetitive DNA sequences are found in multiple sites in the genomes of numerous bacteria, archaea and eukarya. While the functions of many of these repetitive sequence elements are unknown, they have proven to be useful as the basis of several powerful tools for use in molecular diagnostics, medical microbiology, epidemiological analyses and environmental microbiology. The repetitive sequence-based PCR or rep-PCR DNA fingerprint technique uses primers targeting several of these repetitive elements and PCR to generate unique DNA profiles or 'fingerprints' of individual microbial strains. Although this technique has been extensively used to examine diversity among variety of prokaryotic microorganisms, rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting can also be applied to microbial ecology and microbial evolution studies since it has the power to distinguish microbes at the strain or isolate level. Recent advancement in rep-PCR methodology has resulted in increased accuracy, reproducibility and throughput. In this minireview, we summarize recent improvements in rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting methodology, and discuss its applications to address fundamentally important questions in microbial ecology and evolution.

  5. Use of a rep-PCR system to predict species in the Aspergillus section Nigri

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Aspergillus niger aggregate within the A. section Nigri, is a group of black-spored aspergilli which taxonomy has been elusive. REP-PCR has become a rapid and cost-effective method for genotyping fungi and bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the discriminatory power of a semi-automate...

  6. rep-PCR-Mediated Genomic Fingerprinting: A Rapid and Effective Method to Identify Clavibacter michiganensis.

    PubMed

    Louws, F J; Bell, J; Medina-Mora, C M; Smart, C D; Opgenorth, D; Ishimaru, C A; Hausbeck, M K; de Bruijn, F J; Fulbright, D W

    1998-08-01

    ABSTRACT The genomic DNA fingerprinting technique known as repetitive-sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) was evaluated as a tool to differentiate subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis, with special emphasis on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the pathogen responsible for bacterial canker of tomato. DNA primers (REP, ERIC, and BOX), corresponding to conserved repetitive element motifs in the genomes of diverse bacterial species, were used to generate genomic fingerprints of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, C. michiganensis subsp. tessellarius, and C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosum. The rep-PCR-generated patterns of DNA fragments observed after agarose gel electrophoresis support the current division of C. michiganensis into five subspecies. In addition, the rep-PCR fingerprints identified at least four types (A, B, C, and D) within C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis based on limited DNA polymorphisms; the ability to differentiate individual strains may be of potential use in studies on the epidemiology and host-pathogen interactions of this organism. In addition, we have recovered from diseased tomato plants a relatively large number of naturally occurring avirulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains with rep-PCR fingerprints identical to those of virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains.

  7. Use of a rep-PCR system to predict species in the Aspergillus section Nigri.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Edwin R; Klich, Maren A; Glenn, Anthony E; Bacon, Charles W

    2009-10-01

    The Aspergillus niger aggregate within the A. section Nigri is a group of black-spored aspergilli of great agro-economic importance whose well defined taxonomy has been elusive. Rep-PCR has become a rapid and cost-effective method for genotyping fungi and bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the discriminatory power of a semi-automated rep-PCR barcoding system to distinguish morphotypic species and compare the results with the data obtained from ITS and partial calmodulin regions. For this purpose, 20 morphotyped black-spored Aspergillus species were used to create the A. section Nigri library in this barcoding system that served to identify 34 field isolates. A pair-wise similarity matrix was calculated using the cone-based Pearson correlation method and the dendrogram was generated by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), illustrating four different clustered groups: the uniseriate cluster (I), the Aspergillus carbonarius cluster (II), and. the two A. niger aggregate clusters (named III.A and III.B). Rep-PCR showed higher resolution than the ITS and the partial calmodulin gene analytical procedures. The data of the 34 unknown field isolates, collected from different locations in the United States, indicated that only 12% of the field isolates were >95% similar to one of the genotypes included in the A. section Nigri library. However, 64% of the field isolates matched genotypes with the reference library (similarity values >90%). Based on these results, this barcoding procedure has the potential for use as a reproducible tool for identifying the black-spored aspergilli.

  8. Direct Application of Rep-PCR on Type I Sourdough Matrix to Monitor the Dominance and Persistence of a Lactobacillus plantarum Starter Throughout Back-Slopping.

    PubMed

    Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2017-08-01

    This study describes the optimization and application of repetitive element-PCR (rep-PCR) technique directly on microbial DNA extracted from type I sourdoughs for fast monitoring of a Lb. plantarum starter strain (P1FMC) throughout daily back-slopping. The challenge was to follow and study the performance of a starter culture directly in sourdoughs without cultivation on selective media. The extraction of good quality microbial DNA suitable for amplification from a complex matrix such as dough was the first target. In addition, the objective to obtain a clear rep-PCR profile referable to a specific starter strain among a microbial community was pursued. Co-inoculum trials, in flour matrix, with Lb. plantarum P1FMC and L. lactis LC71 strains and, subsequently, type I sourdough back-slopping trials were performed. The rep-PCR amplification profiles obtained were clearly referable to that of Lb. plantarum P1FMC starter in both co-inoculum trials (also when it was present with one order of magnitude less with respect to L. lactis LC71) and back-slopping trials where it dominated the fermentation process with loads of 10 8 cfu g -1 and prevailed on the autochthonous microbiota. Thus, the approach proposed in this paper could be considered a methodological advancement, based on a culture-independent one-step rep-PCR, suitable for fast monitoring of starter performance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Utilisation of Rep-PCR to track microbes in aerosols collected adjacent to their source, a saline lake in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Munday, Chris I; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Tapper, Nigel J; De Deckker, Patrick; Allison, Gwen E

    2013-04-15

    Dust storms are a major source of aerosolized bacteria, especially in the drought conditions experienced in Australia in the decade to 2009. The major aims of this project were to identify the culturable bacteria in environmental samples and to genetically fingerprint all isolates using repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR) to investigate the possibility of tracking isolates from their source into the atmosphere. Four field trips were conducted to a dry lake in western Victoria, Australia to sample aerosols and sediments. Aerosols were collected at heights up to 150 m using vacuum pumps with filters attached to a tethered helium balloon, while corresponding sediments were collected in sterile polypropylene tubes. Isolates were cultivated on Tryptic Soy Agar, R2 Agar and Marine Agar, and grown in dark conditions at ambient temperature. By sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of 270 isolates, fifteen different bacterial families were identified, with both the aerosols and sediments dominated by the Bacillaceae family. Four sets of Rep-PCR primers were tested, with the ERIC and (GTG)5 primers proving to be the most suitable for fingerprinting the cultured taxa. Rep-PCR revealed very high strain diversity in the samples collected, however some strains were still able to be tracked from sediments up to 150 m in height. This shows the potential of Rep-PCR, however very large reference databases would be required for the technique to be more useful. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of SPM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa by rep-PCR in hospitals in Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kalluf, K O; Arend, L N; Wuicik, T E; Pilonetto, M; Tuon, F F

    2017-04-01

    Infections caused by multidrug resistant microorganisms are a global health problem, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen, easily disseminated in the hospital environment. The aim of this study was to determine SPM-1 in P. aeruginosa strains in 30 Brazilian hospitals and the genetic similarity of isolates. We analyzed 161 isolates of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. Imipenem/EDTA and imipenem strip were used for phenotypic detection of MBL production; and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genetic detection. Genetic similarity was determined by rep-PCR. We obtained 136/161 (84.5%) isolates with positive phenotypic result for metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) and the bla SPM-1 gene was identified in 41 isolates. There was a predominant profile (>95% of genetic similarity) in 92.7% of isolates. This predominant profile was widely disseminated in Paraná state. SPM-1 is the main MBL identified in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa in Southern Brazil. The genetic similarity among some isolates suggests a clonal expansion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of semi-automated commercial rep-PCR fingerprinting, spoligotyping, 12-locus MIRU-VNTR typing and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the embB gene as molecular typing tools for Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Armas, Federica; Camperio, Cristina; Coltella, Luana; Selvaggini, Serena; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Pacciarini, Maria Lodovica; Di Marco Lo Presti, Vincenzo; Marianelli, Cinzia

    2017-08-04

    Highly discriminatory genotyping strategies are essential in molecular epidemiological studies of tuberculosis. In this study we evaluated, for the first time, the efficacy of the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) DiversiLab Mycobacterium typing kit over spoligotyping, 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing and embB single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis for Mycobacterium bovis typing. A total of 49 M. bovis animal isolates were used. DNA was extracted and genomic DNA was amplified using the DiversiLab Mycobacterium typing kit. The amplified fragments were separated and detected using a microfluidics chip with Agilent 2100. The resulting rep-PCR-based DNA fingerprints were uploaded to and analysed using web-based DiversiLab software through Pearson's correlation coefficient. Rep-PCR DiversiLab grouped M. bovis isolates into ten different clusters. Most isolates sharing identical spoligotype, MIRU-VNTR profile or embB gene polymorphism were grouped into different rep-PCR clusters. Rep-PCR DiversiLab displayed greater discriminatory power than spoligotyping and embB SNP analysis but a lower resolution power than the 12-locus MIRU-VNTR analysis. MIRU-VNTR confirmed that it is superior to the other PCR-based methods tested here. In combination with spoligotyping and 12-locus MIRU-VNTR analysis, rep-PCR improved the discriminatory power for M. bovis typing.

  12. Conventional Morphology Versus PCR Sequencing, rep-PCR, and MALDI-TOF-MS for Identification of Clinical Aspergillus Isolates Collected Over a 2-Year Period in a University Hospital at Kayseri, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Altay; Koc, Ayse Nedret; Suel, Ahmet; Sav, Hafize; Demir, Gonca; Elmali, Ferhan; Cakir, Nuri; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species cause a wide range of diseases in humans, including allergies, localized infections, or fatal disseminated diseases. Rapid detection and identification of Aspergillus spp. facilitate effective patient management. In the current study we compared conventional morphological methods with PCR sequencing, rep-PCR, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identification of Aspergillus strains. A total of 24 consecutive clinical isolates of Aspergillus were collected during 2012-2014. Conventional morphology and rep-PCR were performed in our Mycology Laboratory. The identification, evaluation, and reporting of strains using MALDI-TOF-MS were performed by BioMérieux Diagnostic, Inc. in Istanbul. DNA sequence analysis of the clinical isolates was performed by the BMLabosis laboratory in Ankara. Samples consisted of 18 (75%) lower respiratory tract specimens, 3 otomycosis (12.5%) ear tissues, 1 sample from keratitis, and 1 sample from a cutaneous wound. According to DNA sequence analysis, 12 (50%) specimens were identified as A. fumigatus, 8 (33.3%) as A. flavus, 3 (12.5%) as A. niger, and 1 (4.2%) as A. terreus. Statistically, there was good agreement between the conventional morphology and rep-PCR and MALDI-TOF methods; kappa values were κ = 0.869, 0.871, and 0.916, respectively (P < 0.001). The good level of agreement between the methods included in the present study and sequence method could be due to the identification of Aspergillus strains that were commonly encountered. Therefore, it was concluded that studies conducted with a higher number of isolates, which include other Aspergillus strains, are required. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR for discrimination of fecal Escherichia coli from humans, and different domestic- and wild-animals.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Bidyut R; Broersma, Klaas; Nordin, Rick; Mazumder, Asit

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of repetitive extragenic palindromic anchored polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) in differentiating fecal Escherichia coli isolates of human, domestic- and wild-animal origin that might be used as a molecular tool to identify the possible source(s) of fecal pollution of source water. A total of 625 fecal E. coli isolates of human, 3 domestic- (cow, dog and horse) and 7 wild-animal (black bear, coyote, elk, marmot, mule deer, raccoon and wolf) species were characterized by rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting technique coupled with BOX A1R primer and discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis of rep-PCR DNA fingerprints of fecal E. coli isolates from 11 host sources revealed an average rate of correct classification of 79.89%, and 84.6%, 83.8%, 83.3%, 82.5%, 81.6%, 80.8%, 79.8%, 79.3%, 77.4%, 73.2% and 63.6% of elk, human, marmot, mule deer, cow, coyote, raccoon, horse, dog, wolf and black bear fecal E. coli isolates were assigned to the correct host source. These results suggest that rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting procedures can be used as a source tracking tool for detection of human- as well as animal-derived fecal contamination of water.

  14. Discrimination of probiotic Lactobacillus strains for poultry by repetitive sequenced-based PCR fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chin Mei; Sieo, Chin Chin; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen; Abdullah, Norhani; Ho, Yin Wan

    2012-02-01

    Four repetitive element sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) methods, namely repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR), polytrinucleotide (GTG)₅ -PCR and BOX-PCR, were evaluated for the molecular differentiation of 12 probiotic Lactobacillus strains previously isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens and used as a multistrain probiotic. This study represents the first analysis of the comparative efficacy of these four rep-PCR methods and their combination (composite rep-PCR) in the molecular typing of Lactobacillus strains based on a discriminatory index (D). Species-specific and strain-specific profiles were observed from rep-PCR. From the numerical analysis of composite rep-PCR, BOX-PCR, (GTG)₅ -PCR, REP-PCR and ERIC-PCR, D values of 0.9118, 0.9044, 0.8897, 0.8750 and 0.8529 respectively were obtained. Composite rep-PCR analysis was the most discriminative method, with eight Lactobacillus strains, namely L. brevis ATCC 14869(T) , L. reuteri C 10, L. reuteri ATCC 23272(T) , L. gallinarum ATCC 33199(T) , L. salivarius ATCC 11741(T) , L. salivarius I 24, L. panis JCM 11053(T) and L. panis C 17, being differentiated at the strain level. Composite rep-PCR analysis is potentially a useful fingerprinting method to discriminate probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Genetic relationships among strains of Xanthomonas fragariae based on random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR data and generation of multiplexed PCR primers useful for the identification of this phytopathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Pooler, M R; Ritchie, D F; Hartung, J S

    1996-01-01

    Genetic relationships among 25 isolates of Xanthomonas fragariae from diverse geographic regions were determined by three PCR methods that rely on different amplification priming strategies: random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR, repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR. The results of these assays are mutually consistent and indicate that pathogenic strains are very closely related to each other. RAPD, ERIC, and REP PCR assays identified nine, four, and two genotypes, respectively, within X. fragariae isolates. A single nonpathogenic isolate of X. fragariae was not distinguishable by these methods. The results of the PCR assays were also fully confirmed by physiological tests. There was no correlation between DNA amplification product patterns and geographic sites of isolation, suggesting that this bacterium has spread largely through exchange of infected plant germ plasm. Sequences identified through the RAPD assays were used to develop three primer pairs for standard PCR assays to identify X. fragariae. In addition, we developed a stringent multiplexed PCR assay to identify X. fragariae by simultaneously using the three independently derived sets of primers specific for pathogenic strains of the bacteria. PMID:8795198

  16. Clonal relationship and differentiation among Mycobacterium abscessus isolates as determined using the semiautomated repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR-based DiversiLab system.

    PubMed

    Mougari, Faiza; Raskine, Laurent; Ferroni, Agnes; Marcon, Estelle; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Veziris, Nicolas; Heym, Beate; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Nassif, Xavier; Cambau, Emmanuelle

    2014-06-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium that causes respiratory tract infections in predisposed patients, such as those with cystic fibrosis and nosocomial skin and soft tissue infections. In order to investigate the clonal relationships between the strains causing epidemic episodes, we evaluated the discriminatory power of the semiautomated DiversiLab (DL) repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (REP-PCR) test for M. abscessus genotyping. Since M. abscessus was shown to be composed of subspecies (M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, M. abscessus subsp. bolletii, and M. abscessus subsp. abscessus), we also evaluated the ability of this technique to differentiate subspecies. The technique was applied to two collections of clinical isolates, (i) 83 M. abscessus original isolates (43 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, 12 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii, and 28 M. abscessus subsp. massiliense) from infected patients and (ii) 35 repeated isolates obtained over 1 year from four cystic fibrosis patients. The DL REP-PCR test was standardized for DNA extraction, DNA amplification, and electrophoresis pattern comparisons. Among the isolates from distinct patients, 53/83 (62%) isolates showed a specific pattern, and 30 were distributed in 11 clusters and 6 patterns, with 2 to 4 isolates per pattern. The clusters and patterns did not fully correlate with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis results. This revealed a high genomic diversity between patients, with a discriminatory power of 98% (Simpson's diversity index). However, since some isolates shared identical patterns, this raises the question of whether it is due to transmission between patients or a common reservoir. Multiple isolates from the same patient showed identical patterns, except for one patient infected by two strains. Between the M. abscessus subspecies, the indexes were <70%, indicating that the DL REP-PCR test is not an accurate tool for identifying organisms to the subspecies level

  17. Rapid Molecular Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii Clones with rep-PCR and Evaluation of Carbapenemase Genes by New Multiplex PCR in Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa

    PubMed Central

    Pasanen, Tanja; Koskela, Suvi; Mero, Sointu; Tarkka, Eveliina; Tissari, Päivi; Vaara, Martti; Kirveskari, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is an increasing problem worldwide. Prevalence of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. due to acquired carbapenemase genes is not known in Finland. The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence and clonal spread of multiresistant A. baumannii group species, and their carbapenemase genes. A total of 55 Acinetobacter isolates were evaluated with repetitive PCR (DiversiLab) to analyse clonality of isolates, in conjunction with antimicrobial susceptibility profile for ampicillin/sulbactam, colistin, imipenem, meropenem, rifampicin and tigecycline. In addition, a new real-time PCR assay, detecting most clinically important carbapenemase genes just in two multiplex reactions, was developed. The assay detects genes for KPC, VIM, IMP, GES-1/-10, OXA-48, NDM, GIM-1, SPM-1, IMI/NMC-A, SME, CMY-10, SFC-1, SIM-1, OXA-23-like, OXA-24/40-like, OXA-58 and ISAbaI-OXA-51-like junction, and allows confident detection of isolates harbouring acquired carbapenemase genes. There was a time-dependent, clonal spread of multiresistant A. baumannii strongly correlating with carbapenamase gene profile, at least in this geographically restricted study material. The new carbapenemase screening assay was able to detect all the genes correctly suggesting it might be suitable for epidemiologic screening purposes in clinical laboratories. PMID:24465749

  18. Validation of the (GTG)(5)-rep-PCR fingerprinting technique for rapid classification and identification of acetic acid bacteria, with a focus on isolates from Ghanaian fermented cocoa beans.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Luc; Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Van de Perre, Vincent; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vos, Paul; Cleenwerck, Ilse

    2008-06-30

    Amplification of repetitive bacterial DNA elements through the polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR fingerprinting) using the (GTG)(5) primer, referred to as (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting, was found a promising genotypic tool for rapid and reliable speciation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB). The method was evaluated with 64 AAB reference strains, including 31 type strains, and 132 isolates from Ghanaian, fermented cocoa beans, and was validated with DNA:DNA hybridization data. Most reference strains, except for example all Acetobacter indonesiensis strains and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens LMG 1509, grouped according to their species designation, indicating the usefulness of this technique for identification to the species level. Moreover, exclusive patterns were obtained for most strains, suggesting that the technique can also be used for characterization below species level or typing of AAB strains. The (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting allowed us to differentiate four major clusters among the fermented cocoa bean isolates, namely A. pasteurianus (cluster I, 100 isolates), A. syzygii- or A. lovaniensis-like (cluster II, 23 isolates), and A. tropicalis-like (clusters III and IV containing 4 and 5 isolates, respectively). A. syzygii-like and A. tropicalis-like strains from cocoa bean fermentations were reported for the first time. Validation of the method and indications for reclassifications of AAB species and existence of new Acetobacter species were obtained through 16S rRNA sequencing analyses and DNA:DNA hybridizations. Reclassifications refer to A. aceti LMG 1531, Ga. xylinus LMG 1518, and Ga. xylinus subsp. sucrofermentans LMG 18788(T).

  19. Molecular typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from the Philippines by PCR-based methods.

    PubMed

    Maluping, R P; Ravelo, C; Lavilla-Pitogo, C R; Krovacek, K; Romalde, J L

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to use three PCR-based techniques for the analysis of genetic variability among Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from the Philippines. Seventeen strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from shrimps (Penaeus monodon) and from the environments where these shrimps are being cultivated were analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR). The results of this work have demonstrated genetic variability within the V. parahaemolyticus strains that were isolated from the Philippines. In addition, RAPD, ERIC and REP-PCR are suitable rapid typing methods for V. parahaemolyticus. All three methods have good discriminative ability and can be used as a rapid means of comparing V. parahaemolyticus strains for epidemiological investigation. Based on the results of this study, we could say that REP-PCR is inferior to RAPD and ERIC-PCR owing to the fact that it is less reproducible. Moreover, the REP-PCR analysis yielded a relatively small number of products. This may suggests that the REP sequences may not be widely distributed in the V. parahaemolyticus genome. Genetic variability within V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated in the Philippines has been demonstrated. The presence of ERIC and REP sequences in the genome of this bacterial species was confirmed. The RAPD, ERIC and REP-PCR techniques are useful methods for molecular typing of V. parahaemolyticus strains. To our knowledge this is the first study of this kind carried out on V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from the Philippines.

  20. PCR Methods for Rapid Identification and Characterization of Actinobacillus seminis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Appuhamy, S.; Coote, J. G.; Low, J. C.; Parton, R.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-four isolates of Actinobacillus seminis were typed by PCR ribotyping, repetitive extragenic palindromic element (REP)-based PCR, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-based PCR. Five types were distinguished by REP-PCR, and nine types were distinguished by ERIC-PCR. PCR ribotyping produced the simplest pattern and could be useful for identification of A. seminis and for its differentiation from related species. REP- and ERIC-PCR could be used for strain differentiation in epidemiological studies of A. seminis. PMID:9508320

  1. Identification and molecular epidemiology of dermatophyte isolates by repetitive-sequence-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting using the DiversiLab system in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koc, A Nedret; Atalay, Mustafa A; Inci, Melek; Sariguzel, Fatma M; Sav, Hafize

    2017-05-01

    Dermatophyte species, isolation and identification in clinical samples are still difficult and take a long time. The identification and molecular epidemiology of dermatophytes commonly isolated in a clinical laboratory in Turkey by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) were assessed by comparing the results with those of reference identification. A total of 44 dermatophytes isolated from various clinical specimens of 20 patients with superficial mycoses in Kayseri and 24 patients in Hatay were studied. The identification of dermatophyte isolates was based on the reference identification and rep-PCR using the DiversiLab System (BioMerieux). The genotyping of dermatophyte isolates from different patients was determined by rep-PCR. In the identification of dermatophyte isolates, agreement between rep-PCR and conventional methods was 87.8 % ( 36 of 41). The dermatophyte strains belonged to four clones (A -D) which were determined by the use of rep-PCR. The dermatophyte strains in Clone B, D showed identical patterns with respect to the region. In conclusion, rep-PCR appears to be useful for evaluation of the identification and clonal relationships between Trichophyton rubrum species complex and Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex isolates. The similarity and diversity of these isolates may be assessed according to different regions by rep-PCR. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Typing of Ochrobactrum anthropi clinical isolates using automated repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction DNA fingerprinting and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Quirino, Angela; Pulcrano, Giovanna; Rametti, Linda; Puccio, Rossana; Marascio, Nadia; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Matera, Giovanni; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2014-03-22

    Ochrobactrum anthropi (O. anthropi), is a non-fermenting gram-negative bacillus usually found in the environment. Nevertheless, during the past decade it has been identified as pathogenic to immunocompromised patients. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of the automated repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR-based DiversiLab™ system, bioMèrieux, France) and of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF MS) for typing of twentythree O. anthropi clinical isolates that we found over a four-months period (from April 2011 to August 2011) in bacteriemic patients admitted in the same operative unit of our hospital. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), commonly accepted as the gold standard technique for typing, was also used. Analysis was carried out using the Pearson correlation coefficient to determine the distance matrice and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) to generate dendogram. Rep-PCR analysis identified four different patterns: three that clustered together with 97% or more pattern similarity, and one whose members showed < 95% pattern similarity. Interestingly, strains isolated later (from 11/06/2011 to 24/08/2011) displayed a pattern with 99% similarity. MALDI-TOF MS evaluation clustered the twentythree strains of O. anthropi into a single group containing four distinct subgroups, each comprising the majority of strains clustering below 5 distance levels, indicating a high similarity between the isolates. Our results indicate that these isolates are clonally-related and the methods used afforded a valuable contribution to the epidemiology, prevention and control of the infections caused by this pathogen.

  3. Evaluation of automated repetitive-sequence-based PCR (DiversiLab) compared to PCR ribotyping for rapid molecular typing of community- and nosocomial-acquired Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Church, Deirdre L; Chow, Barbara L; Lloyd, Tracie; Gregson, Daniel B

    2011-06-01

    Automated repetitive PCR (rep-PCR; DiversiLab) was compared to PCR ribotyping of the 16S-23S RNA intergenic spacer of Clostridium difficile (CD) as the "gold standard" method for CD typing. PCR products were separated on DiversiLab LabChips (bioMérieux, St. Laurent, Quebec, Canada) utilizing a 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA) operating the DiversiLab v1.4 assay. Bioanalyzer data were exported to a secure DiversiLab website and analyzed with DiversiLab v3.4 software. Replicability of each method was verified by confirming that the 5 CD reference strains (RS) formed distinct clusters (CD4, CD6, VL0047, VL0013 [ribotype 027], VL0018 [ribotype 001]) by both typing methods. Ninety randomly selected clinical isolates (CS) were analyzed by both methods: 49 from community-acquired and 41 from hospital-acquired cases. A similarity index (SI) of ≥90% was used to define clusters when comparing the known RS cluster to the PCR ribotyping and rep-PCR patterns of CS. Fourteen different PCR-ribotype clusters were identified, but most CS formed 4 major clusters (i.e., CD4 [15/90; 17%], CD6 [17%], 027 [12%], and 001 [9%]). A total of 7 rep-PCR types were identified, but most CS formed 2 major rep-PCR clusters (i.e., CD4 [29/90; 32%] and CD6 [23%]); several PCR ribotypes occurred within a single rep-PCR cluster. Rep-PCR did not distinguish 027 or 001 isolates; i) 027 RS strain did not cluster, ii) eleven 027 CS strains clustered as CD4, iii) no 027 CS strains clustered with the 027 RS, and iv) only 2 001 CS clustered with the RS. Agreement between the PCR-ribotype and rep-PCR clusters only occurred for 35/90 (39%) of the CS using a rep-PCR SI of ≥90%. Rep-PCR time to results was similar, but the annual costs of routinely using this method are 32% higher than PCR ribotyping. Routine use of rep-PCR for CD typing is limited by its lack of definitive separation of the hypertoxigenic 027 or 001 outbreak CD strains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Discrimination of Scedosporium prolificans against Pseudallescheria boydii and Scedosporium apiospermum by semiautomated repetitive sequence-based PCR.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, J; Schmidt, D; Buer, J; Rath, P-M

    2011-07-01

    The laboratory identification of Pseudallescheria and Scedosporium isolates at the species level is important for clinical and epidemiological purposes. This study used semiautomated repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) to identify Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium. Reference strains of Pseudallescheria boydii (n = 12), Scedosporium prolificans (n = 8), Scedosporium apiospermum (n = 9), and clinical/environmental isolates (P. boydii, 7; S. prolificans, 7; S. apiospermum, 7) were analyzed by rep-PCR. All clinical isolates were identified by morphological and phenotypic characteristics and by sequence analysis. Species identification of reference strains was based on the results of available databases. Rep-PCR studies were also conducted with various molds to differentiate Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium spp. from other commonly encountered filamentous fungi. All tested Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium isolates were distinguishable from the other filamentous fungi. All Scedosporium prolificans strains clustered within the cutoff of 85%, and species identification by rep-PCR showed an agreement of 100% with sequence analysis. However, several isolates of P. boydii and S. apiospermum did not cluster within the 85% cutoff with the same species by rep-PCR. Although the identification of P. boydii and S. apiospermum was not correct, the semiautomated rep-PCR system is a promising tool for the identification of S. prolificans isolates.

  5. Optimization of analytical parameters for inferring relationships among Escherichia coli isolates from repetitive-element PCR by maximizing correspondence with multilocus sequence typing data.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Tony L; Gillespie, Thomas R; Singer, Randall S

    2006-09-01

    Repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) is a method for genotyping bacteria based on the selective amplification of repetitive genetic elements dispersed throughout bacterial chromosomes. The method has great potential for large-scale epidemiological studies because of its speed and simplicity; however, objective guidelines for inferring relationships among bacterial isolates from rep-PCR data are lacking. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) as a "gold standard" to optimize the analytical parameters for inferring relationships among Escherichia coli isolates from rep-PCR data. We chose 12 isolates from a large database to represent a wide range of pairwise genetic distances, based on the initial evaluation of their rep-PCR fingerprints. We conducted MLST with these same isolates and systematically varied the analytical parameters to maximize the correspondence between the relationships inferred from rep-PCR and those inferred from MLST. Methods that compared the shapes of densitometric profiles ("curve-based" methods) yielded consistently higher correspondence values between data types than did methods that calculated indices of similarity based on shared and different bands (maximum correspondences of 84.5% and 80.3%, respectively). Curve-based methods were also markedly more robust in accommodating variations in user-specified analytical parameter values than were "band-sharing coefficient" methods, and they enhanced the reproducibility of rep-PCR. Phylogenetic analyses of rep-PCR data yielded trees with high topological correspondence to trees based on MLST and high statistical support for major clades. These results indicate that rep-PCR yields accurate information for inferring relationships among E. coli isolates and that accuracy can be enhanced with the use of analytical methods that consider the shapes of densitometric profiles.

  6. REPETITIVE SEQUENCE BASED-PCR PROFILING OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 STRAINS FROM BEEF IN SOUTHERN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Sukhumungoon, Pharanai; Tantadapan, Rujira; Rattanachuay, Pattamarat

    2016-01-01

    Beef and its products are potential vehicles of Escherichia coli O157, the most important serotype implicated in many large outbreaks of diarrheal infection in humans worldwide. There is a need for rapid detection of contaminated food in order to implement appropriate and effective control measures. In this study, repetitive sequence (rep)-PCR, using three different primers, BOXA1R, ERIC2 and (GTG)5, singly and in combinations, were employed to compare the genetic relatedness among E. coli O157 group with other diarrheagenic E. coli strains as controls. Although a combination of BOXA1R + ERIC2 + (GTG)5 primers generated a rep-PCR profile containing the highest number of amplicon bands among the DEC strains tested, dendrogram (at 80% similarity) exhibited the lowest DEC classification of 5 clusters, whereas that from BOXA1R or BOXA1R+ (GTG)5 rep-PCR profiling produced 8 clusters. Nevertheless, focusing E. coli O157 strains were grouped into 4 clusters irrespective of the rep-PCR profiles analyzed, and all 14 but two, PSU60 and PSU132, E. coli O157 strains isolated from beef in southern Thailand during 2012 to 2014 fell into a single cluster. Thus, rep-PCR profiling generated with BOXA1R or BOXA1R + (GTG)5 is sufficient for distinguishing among DEC strains, including E. coli O157 in southern Thailand.

  7. Comparative evaluation of an automated repetitive-sequence-based PCR instrument versus pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in the setting of a Serratia marcescens nosocomial infection outbreak.

    PubMed

    Ligozzi, Marco; Fontana, Roberta; Aldegheri, Marco; Scalet, Giovanna; Lo Cascio, Giuliana

    2010-05-01

    A semiautomated, repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) instrument (DiversiLab system) was evaluated in comparison with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to investigate an outbreak of Serratia marcescens infections in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A selection of 36 epidemiologically related and 8 epidemiologically unrelated isolates was analyzed. Among the epidemiologically related isolates, PFGE identified five genetically unrelated patterns. Thirty-two isolates from patients and wet nurses showed the same PFGE profile (pattern A). Genetically unrelated PFGE patterns were found in one patient (pattern B), in two wet nurses (patterns C and D), and in an environmental isolate from the NICU (pattern G). Rep-PCR identified seven different patterns, three of which included the 32 isolates of PFGE type A. One or two band differences in isolates of these three types allowed isolates to be categorized as similar and included in a unique cluster. Isolates of different PFGE types were also of unrelated rep-PCR types. All of the epidemiologically unrelated isolates were of different PFGE and rep-PCR types. The level of discrimination exhibited by rep-PCR with the DiversiLab system allowed us to conclude that this method was able to identify genetic similarity in a spatio-temporal cluster of S. marcescens isolates.

  8. Efficacy of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Repetitive Element Sequence-Based PCR in Typing of Salmonella Isolates from Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Purnima; Borah, Probodh; Hussain, Iftikar; Das, Leena; Hazarika, Girin; Tamuly, Shantanu; Barkalita, Luit Moni

    2018-05-01

    A total of 12 Salmonella isolates belonging to different serovars, viz , Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ( n = 4), Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden ( n = 4), Salmonella enterica serovar Newport ( n = 1), Salmonella enterica serovar Litchifield ( n = 1), and untypeable strains ( n = 2) were isolated from 332 diarrheic fecal samples collected from animals, birds, and humans. Of the two molecular typing methods applied, viz , repetitive element sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PFGE could clearly differentiate the strains belonging to different serovars as well as differentiate between strains of the same serovar with respect to their source of isolation, whereas REP-PCR could not differentiate between strains of the same serovar. Thus, it can be suggested that PFGE is more useful and appropriate for molecular typing of Salmonella isolates during epidemiological investigations than REP-PCR. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Semi-automated repetitive sequence-based PCR amplification for species of the Scedosporium apiospermum complex.

    PubMed

    Matray, Olivier; Mouhajir, Abdelmounaim; Giraud, Sandrine; Godon, Charlotte; Gargala, Gilles; Labbé, Franck; Rougeron, Amandine; Ballet, Jean-Jacques; Zouhair, Rachid; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Favennec, Loïc

    2016-05-01

    The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex usually ranks second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), but little is known about the molecular epidemiology of the airway colonization. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of repetitive sequences (rep-PCR) was applied to the retrospective analysis of a panel of isolates already studied by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and comprising 63 isolates recovered from sputa from 9 CF patients. Results were compared to those obtained previously by RAPD, and herein by beta-tubulin (TUB) gene sequencing and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Within the panel of isolates studied,S. apiospermum sensu stricto and Scedosporium boydii, as expected, were the predominant species with 21 and 36 isolates, respectively. Four isolates from one patient were identified as Scedosporium aurantiacum, whereas two isolates belonged to the Pseudallescheria ellipsoidea subgroup of S. boydii rep-PCR analysis of these isolates clearly differentiated the three species and P. ellipsoidea isolates, whatever the rep-PCR kit used, and also permitted strain differentiation. When using the mold primer kit, results from rep-PCR were in close agreement with those obtained by MLST. For both S. apiospermum and S. boydii, 8 genotypes were differentiated by rep-PCR and MLST compared to 10 by RAPD. All S. aurantiacum isolates shared the same RAPD genotype and exhibited the same rep-PCR profile and sequence type. These results illustrate the efficacy of rep-PCR for both species identification within the S. apiospermum complex and genotyping for the two major species of this complex.Abstract presentation: Part of this work was presented during the 18th Congress of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, Berlin (Germany), June 2012.S. Giraud, C. Godon, A. Rougeron, J.P. Bouchara and L. Favennec are members of the ECMM/ISHAM working group on Fungal respiratory infections in

  10. Evaluation of (GTG)5-PCR for identification of Enterococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Svec, Pavel; Vancanneyt, Marc; Seman, Milan; Snauwaert, Cindy; Lefebvre, Karen; Sedlácek, Ivo; Swings, Jean

    2005-06-01

    A set of reference strains and a group of previously unidentified enterococci were analysed by rep-PCR with the (GTG)(5) primer to evaluate the discriminatory power and suitability of this method for typing and identification of enterococcal species. A total of 49 strains representing all validly described species were obtained from bacterial collections. For more extensive evaluation of this identification approach 112 well-defined and identified enterococci isolated from bryndza cheese were tested. The (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting assigned all strains into well-differentiated clusters representing individual species. Subsequently, a group including 44 unidentified enterococci isolated from surface waters was analysed to evaluate this method for identification of unknown isolates. Obtained band patterns allowed us to identify all the strains clearly to the species level. This study proved that rep-PCR with (GTG)(5) primer is a reliable and fast method for species identification of enterococci.

  11. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. using (GTG)₅-PCR fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Svec, Pavel; Pantůček, Roman; Petráš, Petr; Sedláček, Ivo; Nováková, Dana

    2010-12-01

    A group of 212 type and reference strains deposited in the Czech Collection of Microorganisms (Brno, Czech Republic) and covering 41 Staphylococcus species comprising 21 subspecies was characterised using rep-PCR fingerprinting with the (GTG)₅ primer in order to evaluate this method for identification of staphylococci. All strains were typeable using the (GTG)₅ primer and generated PCR products ranging from 200 to 4500 bp. Numerical analysis of the obtained fingerprints revealed (sub)species-specific clustering corresponding with the taxonomic position of analysed strains. Taxonomic position of selected strains representing the (sub)species that were distributed over multiple rep-PCR clusters was verified and confirmed by the partial rpoB gene sequencing. Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus piscifermentans, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus revealed heterogeneous fingerprints and each (sub)species was distributed over several clusters. However, representatives of the remaining Staphylococcus spp. were clearly separated in single (sub)species-specific clusters. These results showed rep-PCR with the (GTG)₅ primer as a fast and reliable method applicable for differentiation and straightforward identification of majority of Staphylococcus spp. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Palindromic Rheumatism: Does It Cause Joint Pain?

    MedlinePlus

    ... rheumatoid arthritis? Is palindromic rheumatism a precursor to rheumatoid arthritis? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. About a third of the ... have palindromic rheumatism will go on to develop rheumatoid arthritis. Palindromic rheumatism is characterized by sudden and recurrent ...

  13. Evaluation of repetitive-PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid strain typing of Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Motokazu; Tomita, Ayumi; Sonoda, Takumi; Hasumi, Motomitsu; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    In order to establish rapid and accurate typing method for Bacillus coagulans strains which is important for controlling in some canned foods and tea-based beverages manufacturing because of the high-heat resistance of the spores and high tolerance of the vegetative cells to catechins and chemicals, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and repetitive-PCR (rep-PCR) were evaluated. For this purpose, 28 strains of B. coagulans obtained from various culture collections were tested. DNA sequence analyses of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase classified the test strains into two and three groups, respectively, regardless of their phenotypes. Both MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR methods classified the test strains in great detail. Strains classified in each group showed similar phenotypes, such as carbohydrate utilization determined using API 50CH. In particular, the respective two pairs of strains which showed the same metabolic characteristic were classified into the same group by both MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR methods separating from the other strains. On the other hand, the other strains which have the different profiles of carbohydrate utilization were separated into different groups by these methods. These results suggested that the combination of MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR analyses was advantageous for the rapid and detailed typing of bacterial strains in respect to both phenotype and genotype. PMID:29020109

  14. Evaluation of repetitive-PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid strain typing of Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun; Nakayama, Motokazu; Tomita, Ayumi; Sonoda, Takumi; Hasumi, Motomitsu; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    In order to establish rapid and accurate typing method for Bacillus coagulans strains which is important for controlling in some canned foods and tea-based beverages manufacturing because of the high-heat resistance of the spores and high tolerance of the vegetative cells to catechins and chemicals, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and repetitive-PCR (rep-PCR) were evaluated. For this purpose, 28 strains of B. coagulans obtained from various culture collections were tested. DNA sequence analyses of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase classified the test strains into two and three groups, respectively, regardless of their phenotypes. Both MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR methods classified the test strains in great detail. Strains classified in each group showed similar phenotypes, such as carbohydrate utilization determined using API 50CH. In particular, the respective two pairs of strains which showed the same metabolic characteristic were classified into the same group by both MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR methods separating from the other strains. On the other hand, the other strains which have the different profiles of carbohydrate utilization were separated into different groups by these methods. These results suggested that the combination of MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR analyses was advantageous for the rapid and detailed typing of bacterial strains in respect to both phenotype and genotype.

  15. Chromosomal translocations and palindromic AT-rich repeats

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takema; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Emanuel1, Beverly S.

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences constitute 30% of the human genome, and are often sites of genomic rearrangement. Recently, it has been found that several constitutional translocations, especially those that involve chromosome 22, take place utilizing palindromic sequences on 22q11 and on the partner chromosome. Analysis of translocation junction fragments shows that the breakpoints of such palindrome-mediated translocations are localized at the center of palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs). The presence of PATRRs at the breakpoints, indicates a palindrome-mediated mechanism involved in the generation of these constitutional translocations. Identification of these PATRR-mediated translocations suggests a universal pathway for gross chromosomal rearrangement in the human genome. De novo occurrences of PATRR-mediated translocations can be detected by PCR in normal sperm samples but not somatic cells. Polymorphisms of various PATRRs influence their propensity for adopting a secondary structure, which in turn affects de novo translocation frequency. We propose that the PATRRs form an unstable secondary structure, which leads to double-strand breaks at the center of the PATRR. The double-strand breaks appear to be followed by a non-homologous end-joining repair pathway, ultimately leading to the translocations. This review considers recent findings concerning the mechanism of meiosis-specific, PATRR-mediated translocations. PMID:22402448

  16. An Investigation of Palindromes and Their Place in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivens, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Some people recognize a palindrome when they see one, however fewer realize that a palindrome is a special case of a pattern and that these patterns are all around. Palindromes frequently occur in names, both of vehicles and people, and in music. The traditional mathematical curriculum has often left palindromes out of the common vernacular. Where…

  17. Multicenter Evaluation of Epidemiological Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains by Repetitive-Element PCR Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deplano, Ariane; Schuermans, Annette; Van Eldere, Johan; Witte, Wolfgang; Meugnier, Hèléne; Etienne, Jerome; Grundmann, Hajo; Jonas, Daniel; Noordhoek, Gerda T.; Dijkstra, Jolanda; van Belkum, Alex; van Leeuwen, Willem; Tassios, Panayotis T.; Legakis, Nicholas J.; van der Zee, Anneke; Bergmans, Anneke; Blanc, Dominique S.; Tenover, Fred C.; Cookson, Barry C.; O'Neil, Gael; Struelens, Marc J.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid and efficient epidemiologic typing systems would be useful to monitor transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at both local and interregional levels. To evaluate the intralaboratory performance and interlaboratory reproducibility of three recently developed repeat-element PCR (rep-PCR) methods for the typing of MRSA, 50 MRSA strains characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (SmaI) analysis and epidemiological data were blindly typed by inter-IS256, 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and MP3 PCR in 12 laboratories in eight countries using standard reagents and protocols. Performance of typing was defined by reproducibility (R), discriminatory power (D), and agreement with PFGE analysis. Interlaboratory reproducibility of pattern and type classification was assessed visually and using gel analysis software. Each typing method showed a different performance level in each center. In the center performing best with each method, inter-IS256 PCR typing achieved R = 100% and D = 100%; 16S-23S rDNA PCR, R = 100% and D = 82%; and MP3 PCR, R = 80% and D = 83%. Concordance between rep-PCR type and PFGE type ranged by center: 70 to 90% for inter-IS256 PCR, 44 to 57% for 16S-23S rDNA PCR, and 53 to 54% for MP3 PCR analysis. In conclusion, the performance of inter-IS256 PCR typing was similar to that of PFGE analysis in some but not all centers, whereas other rep-PCR protocols showed lower discrimination and intralaboratory reproducibility. None of these assays, however, was sufficiently reproducible for interlaboratory exchange of data. PMID:11015358

  18. DNA Fingerprinting of Lactobacillus crispatus Strain CTV-05 by Repetitive Element Sequence-Based PCR Analysis in a Pilot Study of Vaginal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, May A. D.; Hillier, Sharon L.

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus crispatus is one of the predominant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing species found in the vagina and is under development as a probiotic for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. In this study, we assessed whether DNA fingerprinting by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) can be used to distinguish the capsule strain of L. crispatus (CTV-05) from other endogenous strains as well as other species of vaginal lactobacilli. Vaginal and rectal lactobacilli were identified to the species level by using whole-chromosome probe DNA hybridization. The DNAs from L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. gasseri, and an as-yet-unnamed H2O2-negative Lactobacillus species designated 1086V were subjected to rep-PCR. The results of gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining of the DNA fingerprints obtained were compared. L. crispatus CTV-05 had a unique DNA fingerprint compared to all other lactobacilli. DNA fingerprints for 27 production lots of L. crispatus sampled from 1994 through 2001 were identical to that of the original strain isolated in 1993, suggesting strain stability. In a pilot study of nine women, this DNA fingerprinting method distinguished CTV-05 from other endogenous vaginal lactobacilli prior to and after vaginal capsule use. rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting is useful for strain typing and for evaluating longitudinal loss or acquisition of vaginal lactobacilli used as probiotics. PMID:12734221

  19. Singular over-representation of an octameric palindrome, HIP1, in DNA from many cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Robinson, N J; Robinson, P J; Gupta, A; Bleasby, A J; Whitton, B A; Morby, A P

    1995-03-11

    An octameric palindrome (5'-GCGATCGC-3') is abundant in cyanobacterial sequences within databases (GenBank/EMBL) and was designated HIP1 (highly iterated palindrome). The frequency of occurrence of all 256 octameric palindromes has now been determined in sub-databases revealing large and unique over-representation of HIP1 in cyanobacterial entries. DNA sequences from other bacteria were searched for any over-represented octameric palindromes analogous to HIP1. Only two sequences were identified, in the genomes of a thermophile and halophilic archaebacteria, although these were less abundant than HIP1 in cyanobacteria and relate to codon usage. To test the proposed widespread distribution of HIP1 in DNA from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 6301, randomly selected genomic clones were partly sequenced. HIP1 constituted 2.5% of the novel sequences, equivalent to a site on average once every 320 nucleotides. An oligonucleotide including HIP1 was also tested in PCR. Multiple products were obtained using template DNA from cyanobacterial strains in which HIP1 is abundant in known sequences, and some strains generated characteristic HIP-PCR banding patterns. However, analysis of DNA from one strain (not previously represented in databases) by random sequencing, HIP-PCR and Pvul digestion, confirms that not all cyanobacterial genomes are rich in HIP1.

  20. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Vibrio vulnificus in raw seafood and seawater in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-10-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a highly invasive human pathogen that exists naturally in estuarine environment and coastal waters. In this study, we used different PCR assays to detect V. vulnificus in 260 seafood and 80 seawater samples. V. vulnificus was present in about 34 (13%) of the 260 seafood samples and 18 (23%) of the 80 seawater samples. Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) were applied to subtype the V. vulnificus isolates. Twenty-five REP profiles and 45 ERIC profiles were observed, and the isolates were categorized into 9 and 10 distinct clusters at the similarity of 80%, by REP-PCR and ERIC-PCR, respectively. ERIC-PCR is more discriminative than REP-PCR in subtyping V. vulnificus, demonstrating high genetic diversity among the isolates.

  1. Musical Palindromes for Liberal Arts Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Renesse, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows how to teach a mathematics for liberal arts class in an inquiry-based way using ideas from music to launch the mathematical activities. No musical knowledge is required to understand and teach the material. The main activity is analyzing the differences between two kinds of rhythmic palindromes. The content is mathematically…

  2. Evaluation of (GTG)5-PCR for rapid identification of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Svec, Pavel; Nováková, Dana; Zácková, Lenka; Kukletová, Martina; Sedlácek, Ivo

    2008-11-01

    Repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting using the (GTG)(5) primer was applied for fast screening of bacterial strains isolated from dental plaque of early childhood caries (ECC)-affected children. A group of 29 Gram-positive bacteria was separated into a homogeneous cluster together with Streptococcus mutans reference strains and constituted an aberrant branch after the numerical analysis of (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. Automated ribotyping with EcoRI restriction enzyme (RiboPrinter microbial characterization system) revealed high genetic heterogeneity among the tested group and proved to be a good tool for strain-typing purposes. Further characterization of the studied strains was achieved by extensive phenotyping and whole-cell protein fingerprinting and confirmed all the strains as S. mutans representatives. Obtained results showed rep-PCR fingerprinting with the (GTG)(5) primer to be a fast and reliable method for identification of S. mutans.

  3. [Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) site in Bacillus anthracis].

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiqi; Wang, Dongshu; Feng, Erling; Wang, Bingxiang; Hui, Yiming; Han, Shaobo; Jiao, Lei; Liu, Xiankai; Wang, Hengliang

    2014-11-04

    To investigate the polymorphism of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in Bacillu santhracis and the application to molecular typing based on the polymorphism of CRISPR in B. anthracis. We downloaded the whole genome sequence of 6 B. anthracis strains and extracted the CRISPR sites. We designed the primers of CRISPR sites and amplified the CRISPR fragments in 193 B. anthracis strains by PCR and sequenced these fragments. In order to reveal the polymorphism of CRISPR in B. anthracis, wealigned all the extracted sequences and sequenced results by local blasting. At the same time, we also analyzed the CRISPR sites in B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We did not find any polymorphism of CRISPR in B. anthracis. The molecular typing approach based on CRISPR polymorphism is not suitable for B. anthracis, but it is possible for us to distinguish B. anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis.

  4. Species-specific Typing of DNA Based on Palindrome Frequency Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Lamprea-Burgunder, Estelle; Ludin, Philipp; Mäser, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    DNA in its natural, double-stranded form may contain palindromes, sequences which read the same from either side because they are identical to their reverse complement on the sister strand. Short palindromes are underrepresented in all kinds of genomes. The frequency distribution of short palindromes exhibits more than twice the inter-species variance of non-palindromic sequences, which renders palindromes optimally suited for the typing of DNA. Here, we show that based on palindrome frequency, DNA sequences can be discriminated to the level of species of origin. By plotting the ratios of actual occurrence to expectancy, we generate palindrome frequency patterns that allow to cluster different sequences of the same genome and to assign plasmids, and in some cases even viruses to their respective host genomes. This finding will be of use in the growing field of metagenomics. PMID:21429991

  5. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) analysis of members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Ana; Canto, Ana; Leão, Célia; Cunha, Mónica V

    2015-01-01

    Typical CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat) regions are constituted by short direct repeats (DRs), interspersed with similarly sized non-repetitive spacers, derived from transmissible genetic elements, acquired when the cell is challenged with foreign DNA. The analysis of the structure, in number and nature, of CRISPR spacers is a valuable tool for molecular typing since these loci are polymorphic among strains, originating characteristic signatures. The existence of CRISPR structures in the genome of the members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) enabled the development of a genotyping method, based on the analysis of the presence or absence of 43 oligonucleotide spacers separated by conserved DRs. This method, called spoligotyping, consists on PCR amplification of the DR chromosomal region and recognition after hybridization of the spacers that are present. The workflow beneath this methodology implies that the PCR products are brought onto a membrane containing synthetic oligonucleotides that have complementary sequences to the spacer sequences. Lack of hybridization of the PCR products to a specific oligonucleotide sequence indicates absence of the correspondent spacer sequence in the examined strain. Spoligotyping gained great notoriety as a robust identification and typing tool for members of MTBC, enabling multiple epidemiological studies on human and animal tuberculosis.

  6. Sample size, library composition, and genotypic diversity among natural populations of Escherichia coli from different animals influence accuracy of determining sources of fecal pollution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, LeeAnn K; Brown, Mary B; Carruthers, Ethan A; Ferguson, John A; Dombek, Priscilla E; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2004-08-01

    A horizontal, fluorophore-enhanced, repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR) DNA fingerprinting technique (HFERP) was developed and evaluated as a means to differentiate human from animal sources of Escherichia coli. Box A1R primers and PCR were used to generate 2,466 rep-PCR and 1,531 HFERP DNA fingerprints from E. coli strains isolated from fecal material from known human and 12 animal sources: dogs, cats, horses, deer, geese, ducks, chickens, turkeys, cows, pigs, goats, and sheep. HFERP DNA fingerprinting reduced within-gel grouping of DNA fingerprints and improved alignment of DNA fingerprints between gels, relative to that achieved using rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting. Jackknife analysis of the complete rep-PCR DNA fingerprint library, done using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient, indicated that animal and human isolates were assigned to the correct source groups with an 82.2% average rate of correct classification. However, when only unique isolates were examined, isolates from a single animal having a unique DNA fingerprint, Jackknife analysis showed that isolates were assigned to the correct source groups with a 60.5% average rate of correct classification. The percentages of correctly classified isolates were about 15 and 17% greater for rep-PCR and HFERP, respectively, when analyses were done using the curve-based Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient, rather than the band-based Jaccard algorithm. Rarefaction analysis indicated that, despite the relatively large size of the known-source database, genetic diversity in E. coli was very great and is most likely accounting for our inability to correctly classify many environmental E. coli isolates. Our data indicate that removal of duplicate genotypes within DNA fingerprint libraries, increased database size, proper methods of statistical analysis, and correct alignment of band data within and between gels improve the accuracy of microbial source tracking methods.

  7. [Molecular characteristics of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat in Shigella].

    PubMed

    Xue, Zerun; Wang, Yingfang; Duan, Guangcai; Yang, Haiyan; Xi, Yuanlin; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Linlin; Guo, Xiangjiao

    2015-08-01

    To detect the molecular characteristics of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) in Shigella and to analyze the distribution of CRISPR related to the time of isolation. Of the 52 Shigella strains, 41 were isolated from Henan, 6 from Jiangxi and 5 isolated from Beijing. Both CRISPR locus of S1, S2, S3 and S4 in Shigella were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were sequenced and compared. The positive rates of CRISPR locus in Shigella were 33.69% (S1), 50.00% (S2), 82.69% (S3) and 73.08% (S4), respectively. Two subtypes were discovered in S1 and S3 locus. Three subtypes were discovered in S2 locus. Four different subtypes were discovered in S4 locus. The isolates from Henan strains were divided into two groups by the time of isolation. Distributions of S1 were different, before or after 2004, on Shigella. S1 could not be detected after 2004. There were no statistical differences of S2, S3 and S4 in two groups. Different CRISPR subtypes or Shigella were discovered. A significant correlation was noticed between the CRISPR S1 related to the time of isolation but not between S2, S3 or S4 on the time of isolation.

  8. Unusually Long Palindromes Are Abundant in Mitochondrial Control Regions of Insects and Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Arunkumar, K. P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2006-01-01

    Background Palindromes are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes. In the present investigation we carried out a comprehensive analysis of palindromes in the mitochondrial control regions (CRs) of several animal groups to study their frequency, distribution and architecture to gain insights into the origin of replication of mtDNA. Methodology/Principal Findings Many species of Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca and Annelida harbor palindromes and inverted repeats (IRs) in their CRs. Lower animals like cnidarians and higher animal groups like chordates are almost devoid of palindromes and IRs. The study revealed that palindrome occurrence is positively correlated with the AT content of CRs, and that IRs are likely to give rise to longer palindromes. Conclusions/Significance The present study attempts to explain possible reasons and gives in silico evidence for absence of palindromes and IRs from CR of vertebrate mtDNA and acquisition and retention of the same in insects. Study of CRs of different animal phyla uncovered unique architecture of this locus, be it high abundance of long palindromes and IRs in CRs of Insecta and Nematoda, or short IRs of 10–20 nucleotides with a spacer region of 12–14 bases in subphylum Chelicerata, or nearly complete of absence of any long palindromes and IRs in Vertebrata, Cnidaria and Echinodermata. PMID:17205114

  9. Genetic Relatedness of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) Obtained from Wet Markets and Ponds in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Budiati, Titik; Rusul, Gulam; Wan-Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Chuah, Li-Oon; Ahmad, Rosma; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-04-01

    A total of 43 Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to different serovars (Salmonella Albany, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Corvallis, Salmonella Stanley, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Mikawasima, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans) were isolated from catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds in Penang, Malaysia. Thirteen, 19, and 11 isolates were isolated from 9 of 32 catfish, 14 of 32 tilapia, and 11 of 44 water samples, respectively. Fish reared in ponds were fed chicken offal, spoiled eggs, and commercial fish feed. The genetic relatedness of these Salmonella isolates was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) using primer OPC2, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Composite analysis of the RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR, and PFGE results showed that the Salmonella serovars could be differentiated into six clusters and 15 singletons. RAPD-PCR differentiated the Salmonella isolates into 11 clusters and 10 singletons, while REP-PCR differentiated them into 4 clusters and 1 singleton. PFGE differentiated the Salmonella isolates into seven clusters and seven singletons. The close genetic relationship of Salmonella isolates from catfish or tilapia obtained from different ponds, irrespective of the type of feed given, may be caused by several factors, such as the quality of the water, density of fish, and size of ponds.

  10. Palindromic repetitive DNA elements with coding potential in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Mikita; Lathe, Warren C; Bork, Peer

    2005-10-10

    We have identified 141 novel palindromic repetitive elements in the genome of euryarchaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. The total length of these elements is 14.3kb, which corresponds to 0.9% of the total genomic sequence and 6.3% of all extragenic regions. The elements can be divided into three groups (MJRE1-3) based on the sequence similarity. The low sequence identity within each of the groups suggests rather old origin of these elements in M. jannaschii. Three MJRE2 elements were located within the protein coding regions without disrupting the coding potential of the host genes, indicating that insertion of repeats might be a widespread mechanism to enhance sequence diversity in coding regions.

  11. Efficiency of PCR-based methods in discriminating Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis strains of human origin.

    PubMed

    Srůtková, Dagmar; Spanova, Alena; Spano, Miroslav; Dráb, Vladimír; Schwarzer, Martin; Kozaková, Hana; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2011-10-01

    Bifidobacterium longum is considered to play an important role in health maintenance of the human gastrointestinal tract. Probiotic properties of bifidobacterial isolates are strictly strain-dependent and reliable methods for the identification and discrimination of this species at both subspecies and strain levels are thus required. Differentiation between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis is difficult due to high genomic similarities. In this study, four molecular-biological methods (species- and subspecies-specific PCRs, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method using 5 primers, repetitive sequence-based (rep)-PCR with BOXA1R and (GTG)(5) primers and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA)) and biochemical analysis, were compared for the classification of 30 B. longum strains (28 isolates and 2 collection strains) on subspecies level. Strains originally isolated from the faeces of breast-fed healthy infants (25) and healthy adults (3) showed a high degree of genetic homogeneity by PCR with subspecies-specific primers and rep-PCR. When analysed by RAPD, the strains formed many separate clusters without any potential for subspecies discrimination. These methods together with arabionose/melezitose fermentation analysis clearly differentiated only the collection strains into B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis at the subspecies level. On the other hand, ARDRA analysis differentiated the strains into the B. longum/infantis subspecies using the cleavage analysis of genus-specific amplicon with just one enzyme, Sau3AI. According to our results the majority of the strains belong to the B. longum ssp. infantis (75%). Therefore we suggest ARDRA using Sau3AI restriction enzyme as the first method of choice for distinguishing between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting of lactobacilli isolated from cervix of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Svec, P; Sedláček, I; Chrápavá, M; Vandamme, P

    2011-01-01

    A group of lactobacilli isolated from the cervix of 31 healthy women was characterized by (GTG)(5)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting in order to evaluate this method for identification of vaginal lactobacilli. Obtained fingerprints were compared with profiles available in an in-house database of the CCM bacteria collection covering type and reference strains of multiple lactic acid bacteria including lactobacilli. Selected strains representing individual clusters were further identified by pheS gene sequencing. In total, six lactobacillus species were found among lactobacilli isolated from the cervix of healthy women. The (GTG)(5)-PCR method identified Lactobacillus gasseri (11 strains), Lactobacillus fermentum (one), and some of the Lactobacillus jensenii strains (eight out of 11), but failed to identify the remaining strains, including the Lactobacillus crispatus (18), Lactobacillus mucosae (one), and Lactobacillus vaginalis (one) species. L. jensenii strains were distributed over two fingerprint clusters. The majority of samples was dominated by one (GTG)(5)-PCR type. The rep-PCR fingerprinting using the (GTG)(5) primer allowed straightforward identification of many, but not all, isolates. This method has been shown to be a useful tool for fast screening and grouping of vaginal lactobacilli, but its combination with another identification method is needed to obtain reliable identification results. In addition, Lactobacillus acidophilus was not shown to be the most common inhabitant of the female genital tract as generally assumed.

  13. [Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 in Shigella].

    PubMed

    Xue, Zerun; Wang, Yingfang; Duan, Guangcai; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Linlin; Guo, Xiangjiao; Xi, Yuanlin

    2014-05-01

    To detect the distribution of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 in Shigella and to understand the characteristics of CRISPR with relationship between CRISPR and related characteristics on drug resistance. CRISPR associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 in Shigella were detected by PCR, with its products sequenced and compared. The CRISPR-associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 were found in all the 196 Shigella isolates which were isolated at different times and locations in China. Consistencies showed through related sequencing appeared as follows: cas2, cas1 (a) and cas1 (b) were 96.44%, 97.61% and 96.97%, respectively. There were two mutations including 3177129 site(C→G)and 3177126 site (G→C) of cas1 (b) gene in 2003135 strain which were not found in the corresponding sites of Z23 and 2008113. showed that in terms of both susceptibility and antibiotic-resistance, strain 2003135 was stronger than Z23 and 2008113. CRISPR system widely existed in Shigella, with the level of drug resistance in cas1 (b) gene mutant strains higher than in wild strains. Cas1 (b) gene mutation might be one of the reasons causing the different levels of resistance.

  14. Assessment of palindromes as platforms for DNA amplification in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guenthoer, Jamie; Diede, Scott J.; Tanaka, Hisashi; Chai, Xiaoyu; Hsu, Li; Tapscott, Stephen J.; Porter, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    DNA amplification, particularly of chromosomes 8 and 11, occurs frequently in breast cancer and is a key factor in tumorigenesis, often associated with poor prognosis. The mechanisms involved in the amplification of these regions are not fully understood. Studies from model systems have demonstrated that palindrome formation can be an early step in DNA amplification, most notably seen in the breakage–fusion–bridge (BFB) cycle. Therefore, palindromes might be associated with gene amplicons in breast cancer. To address this possibility, we coupled high-resolution palindrome profiling by the Genome-wide Analysis of Palindrome Formation (GAPF) assay with genome-wide copy-number analyses on a set of breast cancer cell lines and primary tumors to spatially associate palindromes and copy-number gains. We identified GAPF-positive regions distributed nonrandomly throughout cell line and tumor genomes, often in clusters, and associated with copy-number gains. Commonly amplified regions in breast cancer, chromosomes 8q and 11q, had GAPF-positive regions flanking and throughout the copy-number gains. We also identified amplification-associated GAPF-positive regions at similar locations in subsets of breast cancers with similar characteristics (e.g., ERBB2 amplification). These shared positive regions offer the potential to evaluate the utility of palindromes as prognostic markers, particularly in premalignant breast lesions. Our results implicate palindrome formation in the amplification of regions with key roles in breast tumorigenesis, particularly in subsets of breast cancers. PMID:21752925

  15. New hosts and genetic diversity of Flavobacterium columnare isolated from Brazilian native species and Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Barony, G M; Tavares, G C; Assis, G B N; Luz, R K; Figueiredo, H C P; Leal, C A G

    2015-11-17

    Flavobacterium columnare is responsible for disease outbreaks in freshwater fish farms. Several Brazilian native fish have been commercially exploited or studied for aquaculture purposes, including Amazon catfish Leiarius marmoratus × Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum and pacamã Lophiosilurus alexandri. This study aimed to identify the aetiology of disease outbreaks in Amazon catfish and pacamã hatcheries and to address the genetic diversity of F. columnare isolates obtained from diseased fish. Two outbreaks in Amazon catfish and pacamã hatcheries took place in 2010 and 2011. Four F. columnare strains were isolated from these fish and identified by PCR. The disease was successfully reproduced under experimental conditions for both fish species, fulfilling Koch's postulates. The genomovar of these 4 isolates and of an additional 11 isolates from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus was determined by 16S rRNA restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR. The genetic diversity was evaluated by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR). Most isolates (n = 13) belonged to genomovar II; the remaining 2 isolates (both from Nile tilapia) were assigned to genomovar I. Phylogenetic analysis and REP-PCR were able to demonstrate intragenomovar diversity. This is the first report of columnaris in Brazilian native Amazon catfish and pacamã. The Brazilian F. columnare isolates showed moderate diversity, and REP-PCR was demonstrated to be a feasible method to evaluate genetic variability in this bacterium.

  16. Gene Conversion Violates the Stepwise Mutation Model for Microsatellites in Y-Chromosomal Palindromic Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Balaresque, Patricia; King, Turi E; Parkin, Emma J; Heyer, Evelyne; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; de Knijff, Peter; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome (MSY) contains eight large inverted repeats (palindromes), in which high-sequence similarity between repeat arms is maintained by gene conversion. These palindromes also harbor microsatellites, considered to evolve via a stepwise mutation model (SMM). Here, we ask whether gene conversion between palindrome microsatellites contributes to their mutational dynamics. First, we study the duplicated tetranucleotide microsatellite DYS385a,b lying in palindrome P4. We show, by comparing observed data with simulated data under a SMM within haplogroups, that observed heteroallelic combinations in which the modal repeat number difference between copies was large, can give rise to homoallelic combinations with zero-repeats difference, equivalent to many single-step mutations. These are unlikely to be generated under a strict SMM, suggesting the action of gene conversion. Second, we show that the intercopy repeat number difference for a large set of duplicated microsatellites in all palindromes in the MSY reference sequence is significantly reduced compared with that for nonpalindrome-duplicated microsatellites, suggesting that the former are characterized by unusual evolutionary dynamics. These observations indicate that gene conversion violates the SMM for microsatellites in palindromes, homogenizing copies within individual Y chromosomes, but increasing overall haplotype diversity among chromosomes within related groups. PMID:24610746

  17. Molecular Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Isolated From Clinical Samples in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Rouhi, Samaneh; Shakib, Pegah; Shahbazi, Babak; Bidarpour, Farzam; Karimi, Mohammad

    2015-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae causes diarrhoeal disease that afflicts thousands of people annually. V. cholerae is classified on the basis of somatic antigens into serovars or serogroups and there are at least 200 known serogroup. Two serogroups, O1 and O139 have been associated with epidemic diseases. Virulence genes of these bacteria are OmpW, ctxA and tcpA. Due to the importance of V. cholerae infection and developing molecular diagnostics of this organism in medical and microbiology sciences, this study aimed to describe molecular characterization of V. cholerae isolated from clinical samples using a molecular method. In this study, 48 samples were provided during summer 2013 (late August and early September) by reference laboratory. Samples were assessed using biochemical tests initially. The primer of OmpW, ctxA and tcpA genes was used in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) protocols. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic (REP)-PCR methods were used to subtype V. cholerae. In this study, from a total of 48 clinical stool samples 39 (81.2 %) were positive for V. cholerae in biochemical tests and bacteria culture tests. The PCR results showed that of 39 positive isolates 35 (89.7%), 34 (87.1%) and 37 (94.8%) were positive for ctxA, tcpA and OmpW gene, respectively. Also, in the REP-PCR method with ERIC primer strains were divided into 10 groups. In the REP-PCR method with REP primer, strains were divided into 13 groups. Polymerase chain reaction has specificity and accuracy for identification of the organism and is able to differentiate biotypes. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence is one of the informative and discriminative methods for the analysis of V. cholerae diversity. The REP-PCR is a less informative and discriminative method compared to other methods for the analysis of V. cholerae diversity.

  18. Molecular characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated from fishes in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amal, M N A; Zamri-Saad, M; Siti-Zahrah, A; Zulkafli, A R; Nur-Nazifah, M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Streptococcus agalactiae strains that were isolated from fishes in Malaysia using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) techniques. A total of 181 strains of Strep. agalactiae isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) and golden pompano (Trachinotus blochii) were characterized using RAPD and REP-PCR techniques. Both the fingerprinting techniques generated reproducible band patterns, differing in the number and molecular mass amplicons. The RAPD technique displayed greater discriminatory power by its production of more complex binding pattern and divided all the strains into 13 groups, compared to 9 by REP-PCR technique. Both techniques showed the availability to differentiate the genetic profiles of the strains according to their geographical location of origin. Three strains of Strep. agalactiae that were recovered from golden pompano showed a genetic dissimilarity from the strains isolated from red hybrid tilapia, while the strain of ATCC 27956 that recovered from bovine displayed a unique profile for both methods. Both techniques possess excellent discriminative capabilities and can be used as a rapid means of comparing Strep. agalactiae strains for future epidemiological investigation. Framework as the guideline in traceability of this disease and in the search for potential local vaccine candidates for streptococcosis in this country. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) diversity and virulence factor distribution in avian Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Su, Zhixin; Cheng, Yuqiang; Wang, Zhaofei; Li, Shiyu; Wang, Heng'an; Sun, Jianhe; Yan, Yaxian

    In order to investigate the diverse characteristics of clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) arrays and the distribution of virulence factor genes in avian Escherichia coli, 80 E. coli isolates obtained from chickens with avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) or avian fecal commensal E. coli (AFEC) were identified. Using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), five genes were subjected to phylogenetic typing and examined for CRISPR arrays to study genetic relatedness among the strains. The strains were further analyzed for CRISPR loci and virulence factor genes to determine a possible association between their CRISPR elements and their potential virulence. The strains were divided into five phylogenetic groups: A, B1, B2, D and E. It was confirmed that two types of CRISPR arrays, CRISPR1 and CRISPR2, which contain up to 246 distinct spacers, were amplified in most of the strains. Further classification of the isolates was achieved by sorting them into nine CRISPR clusters based on their spacer profiles, which indicates a candidate typing method for E. coli. Several significant differences in invasion-associated gene distribution were found between the APEC isolates and the AFEC isolates. Our results identified the distribution of 11 virulence genes and CRISPR diversity in 80 strains. It was demonstrated that, with the exception of iucD and aslA, there was no sharp demarcation in the gene distribution between the pathogenic (APEC) and commensal (AFEC) strains, while the total number of indicated CRISPR spacers may have a positive correlation with the potential pathogenicity of the E. coli isolates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Insight into microevolution of Yersinia pestis by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yujun; Li, Yanjun; Gorgé, Olivier; Platonov, Mikhail E; Yan, Yanfeng; Guo, Zhaobiao; Pourcel, Christine; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V; Balakhonov, Sergey V; Wang, Xiaoyi; Song, Yajun; Anisimov, Andrey P; Vergnaud, Gilles; Yang, Ruifu

    2008-07-09

    Yersinia pestis, the pathogen of plague, has greatly influenced human history on a global scale. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR), an element participating in immunity against phages' invasion, is composed of short repeated sequences separated by unique spacers and provides the basis of the spoligotyping technology. In the present research, three CRISPR loci were analyzed in 125 strains of Y. pestis from 26 natural plague foci of China, the former Soviet Union and Mongolia were analyzed, for validating CRISPR-based genotyping method and better understanding adaptive microevolution of Y. pestis. Using PCR amplification, sequencing and online data processing, a high degree of genetic diversity was revealed in all three CRISPR elements. The distribution of spacers and their arrays in Y. pestis strains is strongly region and focus-specific, allowing the construction of a hypothetic evolutionary model of Y. pestis. This model suggests transmission route of microtus strains that encircled Takla Makan Desert and ZhunGer Basin. Starting from Tadjikistan, one branch passed through the Kunlun Mountains, and moved to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Another branch went north via the Pamirs Plateau, the Tianshan Mountains, the Altai Mountains and the Inner Mongolian Plateau. Other Y. pestis lineages might be originated from certain areas along those routes. CRISPR can provide important information for genotyping and evolutionary research of bacteria, which will help to trace the source of outbreaks. The resulting data will make possible the development of very low cost and high-resolution assays for the systematic typing of any new isolate.

  1. A palindrome-mediated mechanism distinguishes translocations involving LCR-B of chromosome 22q11.2.

    PubMed

    Gotter, Anthony L; Shaikh, Tamim H; Budarf, Marcia L; Rhodes, C Harker; Emanuel, Beverly S

    2004-01-01

    Two known recurrent constitutional translocations, t(11;22) and t(17;22), as well as a non-recurrent t(4;22), display derivative chromosomes that have joined to a common site within the low copy repeat B (LCR-B) region of 22q11.2. This breakpoint is located between two AT-rich inverted repeats that form a nearly perfect palindrome. Breakpoints within the 11q23, 17q11 and 4q35 partner chromosomes also fall near the center of palindromic sequences. In the present work the breakpoints of a fourth translocation involving LCR-B, a balanced ependymoma-associated t(1;22), were characterized not only to localize this junction relative to known genes, but also to further understand the mechanism underlying these rearrangements. FISH mapping was used to localize the 22q11.2 breakpoint to LCR-B and the 1p21 breakpoint to single BAC clones. STS mapping narrowed the 1p21.2 breakpoint to a 1990 bp AT-rich region, and junction fragments were amplified by nested PCR. Junction fragment-derived sequence indicates that the 1p21.2 breakpoint splits a 278 nt palindrome capable of forming stem-loop secondary structure. In contrast, the 1p21.2 reference genomic sequence from clones in the database does not exhibit this configuration, suggesting a predisposition for regional genomic instability perhaps etiologic for this rearrangement. Given its similarity to known chromosomal fragile site (FRA) sequences, this polymorphic 1p21.2 sequence may represent one of the FRA1 loci. Comparative analysis of the secondary structure of sequences surrounding translocation breakpoints that involve LCR-B with those not involving this region indicate a unique ability of the former to form stem-loop structures. The relative likelihood of forming these configurations appears to be related to the rate of translocation occurrence. Further analysis suggests that constitutional translocations in general occur between sequences of similar melting temperature and propensity for secondary structure.

  2. A palindrome-mediated mechanism distinguishes translocations involving LCR-B of chromosome 22q11.2

    PubMed Central

    Gotter, Anthony L.; Shaikh, Tamim H.; Budarf, Marcia L.; Rhodes, C. Harker; Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2010-01-01

    Two known recurrent constitutional translocations, t(11;22) and t(17;22), as well as a non-recurrent t(4;22), display derivative chromosomes that have joined to a common site within the low copy repeat B (LCR-B) region of 22q11.2. This breakpoint is located between two AT-rich inverted repeats that form a nearly perfect palindrome. Breakpoints within the 11q23, 17q11 and 4q35 partner chromosomes also fall near the center of palindromic sequences. In the present work the breakpoints of a fourth translocation involving LCR-B, a balanced ependymoma-associated t(1;22), were characterized not only to localize this junction relative to known genes, but also to further understand the mechanism underlying these rearrangements. FISH mapping was used to localize the 22q11.2 breakpoint to LCR-B and the 1p21 breakpoint to single BAC clones. STS mapping narrowed the 1p21.2 breakpoint to a 1990 bp AT-rich region, and junction fragments were amplified by nested PCR. Junction fragment-derived sequence indicates that the 1p21.2 breakpoint splits a 278 nt palindrome capable of forming stem–loop secondary structure. In contrast, the 1p21.2 reference genomic sequence from clones in the database does not exhibit this configuration, suggesting a predisposition for regional genomic instability perhaps etiologic for this rearrangement. Given its similarity to known chromosomal fragile site (FRA) sequences, this polymorphic 1p21.2 sequence may represent one of the FRA1 loci. Comparative analysis of the secondary structure of sequences surrounding translocation breakpoints that involve LCR-B with those not involving this region indicate a unique ability of the former to form stem–loop structures. The relative likelihood of forming these configurations appears to be related to the rate of translocation occurrence. Further analysis suggests that constitutional translocations in general occur between sequences of similar melting temperature and propensity for secondary structure. PMID

  3. Palindromic Genes in the Linear Mitochondrial Genome of the Nonphotosynthetic Green Alga Polytomella magna

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David Roy; Hua, Jimeng; Archibald, John M.; Lee, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Organelle DNA is no stranger to palindromic repeats. But never has a mitochondrial or plastid genome been described in which every coding region is part of a distinct palindromic unit. While sequencing the mitochondrial DNA of the nonphotosynthetic green alga Polytomella magna, we uncovered precisely this type of genic arrangement. The P. magna mitochondrial genome is linear and made up entirely of palindromes, each containing 1–7 unique coding regions. Consequently, every gene in the genome is duplicated and in an inverted orientation relative to its partner. And when these palindromic genes are folded into putative stem-loops, their predicted translational start sites are often positioned in the apex of the loop. Gel electrophoresis results support the linear, 28-kb monomeric conformation of the P. magna mitochondrial genome. Analyses of other Polytomella taxa suggest that palindromic mitochondrial genes were present in the ancestor of the Polytomella lineage and lost or retained to various degrees in extant species. The possible origins and consequences of this bizarre genomic architecture are discussed. PMID:23940100

  4. Scoring schemes of palindrome clusters for more sensitive prediction of replication origins in herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Chew, David S. H.; Choi, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ming-Ying

    2005-01-01

    Many empirical studies show that there are unusual clusters of palindromes, closely spaced direct and inverted repeats around the replication origins of herpesviruses. In this paper, we introduce two new scoring schemes to quantify the spatial abundance of palindromes in a genomic sequence. Based on these scoring schemes, a computational method to predict the locations of replication origins is developed. When our predictions are compared with 39 known or annotated replication origins in 19 herpesviruses, close to 80% of the replication origins are located within 2% of the genome length. A list of predicted locations of replication origins in all the known herpesviruses with complete genome sequences is reported. PMID:16141192

  5. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRi) plasmids | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    CTD2 researchers at the University of California in San Francisco developed a modified Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) CRISPR/dCas9 system. Catalytically inactive dCas9 enables modular and programmable RNA-guided genome regulation in eukaryotes.

  6. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRi) plasmids | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    CTD2 researchers at the University of California in San Francisco developed a modified Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) CRISPR/dCas9 system. Catalytically inactive dCas9 enables modular and programmable RNA-guided genome regulation in eukaryotes.

  7. [Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats--a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; He, Jin; Wang, Jieping

    2011-08-01

    The recently discovered Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPRs) can protect bacteria and archaea with adaptive and heritable defense systems against the invasion of phage- and plasmid- associated mobile genetic elements. Here, we review the structure, diversity, mechanism of interference and self versus non-self discrimination of CRISPR systems. We also discuss the potential applications of this novel interference system.

  8. Mre11-Sae2 and RPA Collaborate to Prevent Palindromic Gene Amplification.

    PubMed

    Deng, Sarah K; Yin, Yi; Petes, Thomas D; Symington, Lorraine S

    2015-11-05

    Foldback priming at DNA double-stranded breaks is one mechanism proposed to initiate palindromic gene amplification, a common feature of cancer cells. Here, we show that small (5-9 bp) inverted repeats drive the formation of large palindromic duplications, the major class of chromosomal rearrangements recovered from yeast cells lacking Sae2 or the Mre11 nuclease. RPA dysfunction increased the frequency of palindromic duplications in Sae2 or Mre11 nuclease-deficient cells by ∼ 1,000-fold, consistent with intra-strand annealing to create a hairpin-capped chromosome that is subsequently replicated to form a dicentric isochromosome. The palindromic duplications were frequently associated with duplication of a second chromosome region bounded by a repeated sequence and a telomere, suggesting the dicentric chromosome breaks and repairs by recombination between dispersed repeats to acquire a telomere. We propose secondary structures within single-stranded DNA are potent instigators of genome instability, and RPA and Mre11-Sae2 play important roles in preventing their formation and propagation, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chromosome evolution with naked eye: Palindromic context of the life origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, Sergei; Loskutov, Alexander; Ryadchenko, Eugeny

    2008-03-01

    Based on the representation of the DNA sequence as a two-dimensional (2D) plane walk, we consider the problem of identification and comparison of functional and structural organizations of chromosomes of different organisms. According to the characteristic design of 2D walks we identify telomere sites, palindromes of various sizes and complexity, areas of ribosomal RNA, transposons, as well as diverse satellite sequences. As an interesting result of the application of the 2D walk method, a new duplicated gigantic palindrome in the X human chromosome is detected. A schematic mechanism leading to the formation of such a duplicated palindrome is proposed. Analysis of a large number of the different genomes shows that some chromosomes (or their fragments) of various species appear as imperfect gigantic palindromes, which are disintegrated by many inversions and the mutation drift on different scales. A spread occurrence of these types of sequences in the numerous chromosomes allows us to develop a new insight of some accepted points of the genome evolution in the prebiotic phase.

  10. Molecular identification and characterization of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) gene cluster in Taylorella equigenitalis.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yasushi; Hayashi, Kyohei; Nakajima, Takuya; Kagawa, Shizuko; Tazumi, Akihiro; Moore, John E; Matsuda, Motoo

    2013-09-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), of approximately 10,000 base pairs (bp) in length, were shown to occur in the Japanese Taylorella equigenitalis strain, EQ59. The locus was composed of the putative CRISPRs-associated with 5 (cas5), RAMP csd1, csd2, recB, cas1, a leader region, 13 CRISPR consensus sequence repeats (each 32 bp; 5'-TCAGCCACGTTCGCGTGGCTGTGTGTTTAAAG-3'). These were in turn separated by 12 non repetitive unique spacer regions of similar length. In addition, a leader region, a transposase/IS protein, a leader region, and cas3 were also seen. All seven putative open reading frames carry their ribosome binding sites. Promoter consensus sequences at the -35 and -10 regions and putative intrinsic ρ-independent transcription terminator regions also occurred. A possible long overlap of 170 bp in length occurred between the recB and cas1 loci. Positive reverse transcription PCR signals of cas5, RAMP csd1, csd2-recB/cas1, and cas3 were generated. A putative secondary structure of the CRISPR consensus repeats was constructed. Following this, CRISPR results of the T. equigenitalis EQ59 isolate were subsequently compared with those from the Taylorella asinigenitalis MCE3 isolate.

  11. Virtual PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Clague, D S; Vandersall, J A

    2006-02-23

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) stands among the keystone technologies for analysis of biological sequence data. PCR is used to amplify DNA, to generate many copies from as little as a single template. This is essential, for example, in processing forensic DNA samples, pathogen detection in clinical or biothreat surveillance applications, and medical genotyping for diagnosis and treatment of disease. It is used in virtually every laboratory doing molecular, cellular, genetic, ecologic, forensic, or medical research. Despite its ubiquity, we lack the precise predictive capability that would enable detailed optimization of PCR reaction dynamics. In this LDRD, we proposed tomore » develop Virtual PCR (VPCR) software, a computational method to model the kinetic, thermodynamic, and biological processes of PCR reactions. Given a successful completion, these tools will allow us to predict both the sequences and concentrations of all species that are amplified during PCR. The ability to answer the following questions will allow us both to optimize the PCR process and interpret the PCR results: What products are amplified when sequence mixtures are present, containing multiple, closely related targets and multiplexed primers, which may hybridize with sequence mismatches? What are the effects of time, temperature, and DNA concentrations on the concentrations of products? A better understanding of these issues will improve the design and interpretation of PCR reactions. The status of the VPCR project after 1.5 years of funding is consistent with the goals of the overall project which was scoped for 3 years of funding. At half way through the projected timeline of the project we have an early beta version of the VPCR code. We have begun investigating means to improve the robustness of the code, performed preliminary experiments to test the code and begun drafting manuscripts for publication. Although an experimental protocol for testing the code was developed, the

  12. [Bioinformatics Analysis of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats in the Genomes of Shigella].

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Yingfang; Duan, Guangcai; Xue, Zerun; Wang, Linlin; Guo, Xiangjiao; Yang, Haiyan; Xi, Yuanlin

    2015-04-01

    This study was aimed to explore the features of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) structures in Shigella by using bioinformatics. We used bioinformatics methods, including BLAST, alignment and RNA structure prediction, to analyze the CRISPR structures of Shigella genomes. The results showed that the CRISPRs existed in the four groups of Shigella, and the flanking sequences of upstream CRISPRs could be classified into the same group with those of the downstream. We also found some relatively conserved palindromic motifs in the leader sequences. Repeat sequences had the same group with corresponding flanking sequences, and could be classified into two different types by their RNA secondary structures, which contain "stem" and "ring". Some spacers were found to homologize with part sequences of plasmids or phages. The study indicated that there were correlations between repeat sequences and flanking sequences, and the repeats might act as a kind of recognition mechanism to mediate the interaction between foreign genetic elements and Cas proteins.

  13. Circularized Chromosome with a Large Palindromic Structure in Streptomyces griseus Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Tetsuya; Ishihara, Naoto; Zenitani, Hiroyuki; Hiratsu, Keiichiro; Kinashi, Haruyasu

    2004-01-01

    Streptomyces linear chromosomes display various types of rearrangements after telomere deletion, including circularization, arm replacement, and amplification. We analyzed the new chromosomal deletion mutants Streptomyces griseus 301-22-L and 301-22-M. In these mutants, chromosomal arm replacement resulted in long terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) at both ends; different sizes were deleted again and recombined inside the TIRs, resulting in a circular chromosome with an extremely large palindrome. Short palindromic sequences were found in parent strain 2247, and these sequences might have played a role in the formation of this unique structure. Dynamic structural changes of Streptomyces linear chromosomes shown by this and previous studies revealed extraordinary strategies of members of this genus to keep a functional chromosome, even if it is linear or circular. PMID:15150216

  14. [Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats: structure, function and application--a review].

    PubMed

    Cui, Yujun; Li, Yanjun; Yan, Yanfeng; Yang, Ruifu

    2008-11-01

    CRISPRs (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), the basis of spoligotyping technology, can provide prokaryotes with heritable adaptive immunity against phages' invasion. Studies on CRISPR loci and their associated elements, including various CAS (CRISPR-associated) proteins and leader sequences, are still in its infant period. We introduce the brief history', structure, function, bioinformatics research and application of this amazing immunity system in prokaryotic organism for inspiring more scientists to find their interest in this developing topic.

  15. Palindromic Sequence Artifacts Generated during Next Generation Sequencing Library Preparation from Historic and Ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Star, Bastiaan; Nederbragt, Alexander J.; Hansen, Marianne H. S.; Skage, Morten; Gilfillan, Gregor D.; Bradbury, Ian R.; Pampoulie, Christophe; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Jentoft, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Degradation-specific processes and variation in laboratory protocols can bias the DNA sequence composition from samples of ancient or historic origin. Here, we identify a novel artifact in sequences from historic samples of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), which forms interrupted palindromes consisting of reverse complementary sequence at the 5′ and 3′-ends of sequencing reads. The palindromic sequences themselves have specific properties – the bases at the 5′-end align well to the reference genome, whereas extensive misalignments exists among the bases at the terminal 3′-end. The terminal 3′ bases are artificial extensions likely caused by the occurrence of hairpin loops in single stranded DNA (ssDNA), which can be ligated and amplified in particular library creation protocols. We propose that such hairpin loops allow the inclusion of erroneous nucleotides, specifically at the 3′-end of DNA strands, with the 5′-end of the same strand providing the template. We also find these palindromes in previously published ancient DNA (aDNA) datasets, albeit at varying and substantially lower frequencies. This artifact can negatively affect the yield of endogenous DNA in these types of samples and introduces sequence bias. PMID:24608104

  16. Palindromic Molecule Beacon-Based Cascade Amplification for Colorimetric Detection of Cancer Genes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhi-Fa; Li, Feng; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Chen, Chang; Xu, Huo; Li, Cong-Cong; Yang, Zhe; Wu, Zai-Sheng

    2018-03-06

    A highly sensitive and selective colorimetric assay based on a multifunctional molecular beacon with palindromic tail (PMB) was proposed for the detection of target p53 gene. The PMB probe can serve as recognition element, primer, and polymerization template and contains a nicking site and a C-rich region complementary to a DNAzyme. In the presence of target DNA, the hairpin of PMB is opened, and the released palindromic tails intermolecularly hybridize with each other, triggering the autonomous polymerization/nicking/displacement cycles. Although only one type of probe is involved, the system can execute triple and continuous polymerization strand displacement amplifications, generating large amounts of G-quadruplex fragments. These G-rich fragments can bind to hemin and form the DNAzymes that possess the catalytic activity similar to horseradish peroxidase, catalyzing the oxidation of ABTS by H 2 O 2 and producing the colorimetric signal. Utilizing the newly proposed sensing system, target DNA can be detected down to 10 pM with a linear response range from 10 pM to 200 nM, and mutant target DNAs are able to be distinguished even by the naked eye. The desirable detection sensitivity, high specificity, and operation convenience without any separation step and chemical modification demonstrate that the palindromic molecular beacon holds the potential for detecting and monitoring a variety of nucleic acid-related biomarkers.

  17. The Evolutionary Divergence of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Is Reflected in Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) Spacer Composition

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shuang; Jensen, Mark A.; Bai, Jiawei; DebRoy, Chitrita; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    The Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, including those of O157:H7 and the “big six” serogroups (i.e., serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145), are a group of pathogens designated food adulterants in the United States. The relatively conserved nature of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) in phylogenetically related E. coli strains makes them potential subtyping markers for STEC detection, and a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based assay was previously developed for O26:H11, O45:H2, O103:H2, O111:H8, O121:H19, O145:H28, and O157:H7 isolates. To better evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this qPCR method, the CRISPR loci of 252 O157 and big-six STEC isolates were sequenced and analyzed along with 563 CRISPR1 and 624 CRISPR2 sequences available in GenBank. General conservation of spacer content and order was observed within each O157 and big-six serogroup, validating the qPCR method. Meanwhile, it was found that spacer deletion, the presence of an insertion sequence, and distinct alleles within a serogroup are sources of false-negative reactions. Conservation of CRISPR arrays among isolates expressing the same flagellar antigen, specifically, H7, H2, and H11, suggested that these isolates share an ancestor and provided an explanation for the false positives previously observed in the qPCR results. An analysis of spacer distribution across E. coli strains provided limited evidence for temporal spacer acquisition. Conversely, comparison of CRISPR sequences between strains along the stepwise evolution of O157:H7 from its O55:H7 ancestor revealed that, over this ∼7,000-year span, spacer deletion was the primary force generating CRISPR diversity. PMID:23851088

  18. The evolutionary divergence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is reflected in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) spacer composition.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shuang; Jensen, Mark A; Bai, Jiawei; Debroy, Chitrita; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G

    2013-09-01

    The Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, including those of O157:H7 and the "big six" serogroups (i.e., serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145), are a group of pathogens designated food adulterants in the United States. The relatively conserved nature of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) in phylogenetically related E. coli strains makes them potential subtyping markers for STEC detection, and a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based assay was previously developed for O26:H11, O45:H2, O103:H2, O111:H8, O121:H19, O145:H28, and O157:H7 isolates. To better evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this qPCR method, the CRISPR loci of 252 O157 and big-six STEC isolates were sequenced and analyzed along with 563 CRISPR1 and 624 CRISPR2 sequences available in GenBank. General conservation of spacer content and order was observed within each O157 and big-six serogroup, validating the qPCR method. Meanwhile, it was found that spacer deletion, the presence of an insertion sequence, and distinct alleles within a serogroup are sources of false-negative reactions. Conservation of CRISPR arrays among isolates expressing the same flagellar antigen, specifically, H7, H2, and H11, suggested that these isolates share an ancestor and provided an explanation for the false positives previously observed in the qPCR results. An analysis of spacer distribution across E. coli strains provided limited evidence for temporal spacer acquisition. Conversely, comparison of CRISPR sequences between strains along the stepwise evolution of O157:H7 from its O55:H7 ancestor revealed that, over this ∼7,000-year span, spacer deletion was the primary force generating CRISPR diversity.

  19. Development of a novel molecular detection method for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) in Taylorella organisms.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yasushi; Nakajima, Takuya; Akamatsu, Marie; Yahiro, Motoki; Kagawa, Shizuko; Petry, Sandrine; Matsuda, Motoo; Moore, John E

    2015-07-01

    Contagious equine metritis is a bacterial infectious disease of horses caused by Taylorella equigenitalis, a Gram-negative eubacterium. The disease has been described in several continents, including Europe, North America and Asia. A novel molecular method was developed to detect clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), which were separated by non-repetitive unique spacer regions (NRUSRs) of similar length, in the Taylorella equigenitalis EQ59 strain using a primer pair, f-/r-TeCRISPR-ladder, by PCR amplification. In total, 31 Taylorella isolates (17 T. equigenitalis and 14 Taylorella asinigenitalis) were examined. The T. equigenitalis isolates came from thoroughbred and cold-blooded horses from nine countries during 1980-1996, whilst the T. asinigenitalis isolates all originated from donkey jacks in France and the USA during 1997-2006. PAGE fractionated all of the 13 CRISPRs separated by 12 NRUSRs in T. equigenitalis EQ59. Permutation examples of CRISPRs, which were separated by NRUSRs for small-sized ladders, consisting of two doublet bands were shown. Putative CRISPRs separated by NRUSRs were amplified with 14/17 (82.4 %) geographically disparate T. equigenitalis isolates using the newly designed primer pair. Approximately 82.4 % of the T. equigenitalis isolates had CRISPRs separated by NRUSRs. The CRISPR locus was also found in the French T. asinigenitalis strain MCE3. Putative CRISPRs separated by NRUSRs were detected similarly in 4/14 (28.6 %) T. asinigenitalis isolates. Overall, a more detailed understanding of the molecular biology of CRISPRs within Taylorella organisms may help elucidate the pathogenic virulence and transmission mechanisms associated with this important equine pathogen.

  20. Characterization of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats sites in Streptococcus mutans isolated from early childhood caries patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Li, Tiancheng; Zhou, Xuedong; Cheng, Lei; Huo, Yuanyuan; Zou, Jing; Li, Yuqing

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) sites in 45 clinical Streptococcus mutans strains and their relationship to the clinical manifestations of early childhood caries (ECC). Forty-five S. mutans strains were isolated from the plaque samples taken from sixty-three children. CRISPR sites were sequenced and BLAST was used to compare these sites to those in the CRISPRTarget database. The association between the distribution of CRISPR sites and the manifestation of caries was analyzed by Chi-Square test. Further, biofilm formation (by crystal violet staining) and the synthesis of polysaccharide (by anthrone-sulfuric method) of all clinical isolated S. mutans strains with both CRISPR sites and no CRISPR site were comapared. Finally, acidogenicity and acidurity of two typical strains were determined using pH drop and acid tolerance assays. Biofilm formation and EPS synthesis by two typical strains were compared by 3D CLSM (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope) assays and the expression of gtf genes were evaluated using qPCR. We found that most of the spacers in the clinical S. mutans strains were derived from Streptococcus phages APCM01 and M102. The number of CRISPR sites in these strains was associated with the clinical manifestations of ECC. Moreover, we found that the biofilm formation and EPS synthesis ability of the S. mutans strains with both CRISPR sites was significant improved. An association was found between the distribution of CRISPR sites and the clinical manifestations of caries. The CRISPR sites might contribute to the cariogenic potential of S. mutans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PCR thermocycler

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.

    2003-01-01

    A sleeve-type silicon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber or thermocycler having improved thermal performance. The silicon sleeve reaction chamber is improved in thermal performance by etched features therein that reduce thermal mass and increase the surface area of the sleeve for cooling. This improved thermal performance of the thermocycler enables an increase in speed and efficiency of the reaction chamber. The improvement is accomplished by providing grooves in the faces of the sleeve and a series of grooves on the interior surfaces that connect with grooves on the faces of the sleeve. The grooves can be anisotropically etched in the silicon sleeve simultaneously with formation of the chamber.

  2. PCR thermocycler

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.

    2005-05-17

    A sleeve-type silicon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber or thermocycler having improved thermal performance. The silicon sleeve reaction chamber is improved in thermal performance by etched features therein that reduce thermal mass and increase the surface area of the sleeve for cooling. This improved thermal performance of the thermocycler enables an increase in speed and efficiency of the reaction chamber. The improvement is accomplished by providing grooves in the faces of the sleeve and a series of grooves on the interior surfaces that connect with grooves on the faces of the sleeve. The grooves can be anisotropically etched in the silicon sleeve simultaneously with formation of the chamber.

  3. Genetic characterization of Streptococcus phocae strains isolated from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Chile.

    PubMed

    Valdés, I; Jaureguiberry, B; Romalde, J L; Toranzo, A E; Magariños, B; Avendaño-Herrera, R

    2009-04-01

    Streptococcus phocae is a beta-haemolytic bacterium frequently involved in disease outbreaks in seals causing pneumonia or respiratory infection. Since 1999, this pathogen has been isolated from diseased Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, causing serious economic losses in the salmon industry in Chile. In this study, we used different molecular typing methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR), repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) and restriction of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer regions to evaluate the genetic diversity in S. phocae. Thirty-four strains isolated in different years were analysed. The S. phocae type strain ATCC 51973(T) was included for comparative purposes. The results demonstrated genetic homogeneity within the S. phocae strains isolated in Chile over several years, suggesting the existence of clonal relationships among S. phocae isolated from Atlantic salmon. The type strain ATCC 51973(T) presented a different genetic pattern with the PFGE, RAPD, ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR methods. However, the fingerprint patterns of two seal isolates were distinct from those of the type strain.

  4. Heterogeneous Diversity of Spacers within CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiankui; Deem, Michael W.

    2010-09-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in bacterial and archaeal DNA have recently been shown to be a new type of antiviral immune system in these organisms. We here study the diversity of spacers in CRISPR under selective pressure. We propose a population dynamics model that explains the biological observation that the leader-proximal end of CRISPR is more diversified and the leader-distal end of CRISPR is more conserved. This result is shown to be in agreement with recent experiments. Our results show that the CRISPR spacer structure is influenced by and provides a record of the viral challenges that bacteria face.

  5. Heterogeneous diversity of spacers within CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats).

    PubMed

    He, Jiankui; Deem, Michael W

    2010-09-17

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in bacterial and archaeal DNA have recently been shown to be a new type of antiviral immune system in these organisms. We here study the diversity of spacers in CRISPR under selective pressure. We propose a population dynamics model that explains the biological observation that the leader-proximal end of CRISPR is more diversified and the leader-distal end of CRISPR is more conserved. This result is shown to be in agreement with recent experiments. Our results show that the CRISPR spacer structure is influenced by and provides a record of the viral challenges that bacteria face.

  6. Experimental definition of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic duplicon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Goren, Moran G; Yosef, Ido; Auster, Oren; Qimron, Udi

    2012-10-12

    We analyzed sequences of newly inserted repeats in an Escherichia coli CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) array in vivo and showed that a base previously thought to belong to the repeat is actually derived from a protospacer. Based on further experimental results, we propose to use the term "duplicon" for a repeated sequence in a CRISPR array that serves as a template for a new duplicon. Our findings suggest the possibility of redrawing the borders between repeats, spacers, and protospacer adjacent motifs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) for the genotyping of bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Grissa, Ibtissem; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are DNA sequences composed of a succession of repeats (23- to 47-bp long) separated by unique sequences called spacers. Polymorphism can be observed in different strains of a species and may be used for genotyping. We describe protocols and bioinformatics tools that allow the identification of CRISPRs from sequenced genomes, their comparison, and their component determination (the direct repeats and the spacers). A schematic representation of the spacer organization can be produced, allowing an easy comparison between strains.

  8. Novel Method Developed to Further the Understanding of DNA Palindromes | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Editor's note: Platinum Highlight articles are noteworthy publications selected periodically by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications. When Alison Rattray and colleagues in the Gene Regulation and Chromosome Biology Laboratory (GRCBL) examined a mutant yeast cell they had isolated in a screen, they noticed something strange. The DNA exhibited a “very specific, but weird, rearrangement,” she explained. The arrangement turned out to be a DNA palindrome, “opening the door to studying these elusive DNA motifs,” she said.

  9. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats: Challenges in Treating Retinal Disease.

    PubMed

    Chrenek, Micah A; Nickerson, John M; Boatright, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Ophthalmic researchers and clinicians arguably have led the way for safe, effective gene therapy, most notably with adeno-associated viral gene supplementation in the treatment for patients with Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 with mutations in the RPE65 gene. These successes notwithstanding, most other genetic retinal disease will be refractory to supplementation. The ideal gene therapy approach would correct gene mutations to restore normal function in the affected cells. Gene editing in which a mutant allele is inactivated or converted to sequence that restores normal function is hypothetically one such approach. Such editing involves site-specific digestion of mutant genomic DNA followed by repair. Previous experimental approaches were hampered by inaccurate and high rates of off-site lesioning and by overall low digestion rates. A new tool, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats coupled with the nuclease Cas9, may address both shortcomings. Some of the many challenges that must be addressed in moving clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats coupled with the nuclease Cas9 therapies to the ophthalmic clinic are discussed here.

  10. Highly Iterated Palindromic Sequences (HIPs) and Their Relationship to DNA Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Elhai, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The sequence GCGATCGC (Highly Iterated Palindrome, HIP1) is commonly found in high frequency in cyanobacterial genomes. An important clue to its function may be the presence of two orphan DNA methyltransferases that recognize internal sequences GATC and CGATCG. An examination of genomes from 97 cyanobacteria, both free-living and obligate symbionts, showed that there are exceptional cases in which HIP1 is at a low frequency or nearly absent. In some of these cases, it appears to have been replaced by a different GC-rich palindromic sequence, alternate HIPs. When HIP1 is at a high frequency, GATC- and CGATCG-specific methyltransferases are generally present in the genome. When an alternate HIP is at high frequency, a methyltransferase specific for that sequence is present. The pattern of 1-nt deviations from HIP1 sequences is biased towards the first and last nucleotides, i.e., those distinguish CGATCG from HIP1. Taken together, the results point to a role of DNA methylation in the creation or functioning of HIP sites. A model is presented that postulates the existence of a GmeC-dependent mismatch repair system whose activity creates and maintains HIP sequences. PMID:25789551

  11. Highly Iterated Palindromic Sequences (HIPs) and Their Relationship to DNA Methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Elhai, Jeff

    2015-03-17

    The sequence GCGATCGC (Highly Iterated Palindrome, HIP1) is commonly found in high frequency in cyanobacterial genomes. An important clue to its function may be the presence of two orphan DNA methyltransferases that recognize internal sequences GATC and CGATCG. An examination of genomes from 97 cyanobacteria, both free-living and obligate symbionts, showed that there are exceptional cases in which HIP1 is at a low frequency or nearly absent. In some of these cases, it appears to have been replaced by a different GC-rich palindromic sequence, alternate HIPs. When HIP1 is at a high frequency, GATC- and CGATCG-specific methyltransferases are generally present in the genome. When an alternate HIP is at high frequency, a methyltransferase specific for that sequence is present. The pattern of 1-nt deviations from HIP1 sequences is biased towards the first and last nucleotides, i.e., those distinguish CGATCG from HIP1. Taken together, the results point to a role of DNA methylation in the creation or functioning of HIP sites. A model is presented that postulates the existence of a GmeC-dependent mismatch repair system whose activity creates and maintains HIP sequences.

  12. Dimeric PROP1 binding to diverse palindromic TAAT sequences promotes its transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Michie; Kato, Takako; Susa, Takao; Sano, Akiko; Kitahara, Kousuke; Kato, Yukio

    2009-08-13

    Mutations in the Prop1 gene are responsible for murine Ames dwarfism and human combined pituitary hormone deficiency with hypogonadism. Recently, we reported that PROP1 is a possible transcription factor for gonadotropin subunit genes through plural cis-acting sites composed of AT-rich sequences containing a TAAT motif which differs from its consensus binding sequence known as PRDQ9 (TAATTGAATTA). This study aimed to verify the binding specificity and sequence of PROP1 by applying the method of SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment), EMSA (electrophoretic mobility shift assay) and transient transfection assay. SELEX, after 5, 7 and 9 generations of selection using a random sequence library, showed that nucleotides containing one or two TAAT motifs were accumulated and accounted for 98.5% at the 9th generation. Aligned sequences and EMSA demonstrated that PROP1 binds preferentially to 11 nucleotides composed of an inverted TAAT motif separated by 3 nucleotides with variation in the half site of palindromic TAAT motifs and with preferential requirement of T at the nucleotide number 5 immediately 3' to a TAAT motif. Transient transfection assay demonstrated first that dimeric binding of PROP1 to an inverted TAAT motif and its cognates resulted in transcriptional activation, whereas monomeric binding of PROP1 to a single TAAT motif and an inverted ATTA motif did not mediate activation. Thus, this study demonstrated that dimeric binding of PROP1 is able to recognize diverse palindromic TAAT sequences separated by 3 nucleotides and to exhibit its transcriptional activity.

  13. Antifungal activity of strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a semolina ecosystem against Penicillium roqueforti, Aspergillus niger and Endomyces fibuliger contaminating bakery products.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; Favilla, Mara; De Bellis, Palmira; Sisto, Angelo; de Candia, Silvia; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2009-09-01

    Thirty samples of Italian durum wheat semolina and whole durum wheat semolina, generally used for the production of Southern Italy's traditional breads, were subjected to microbiological analysis in order to explore their lactic acid bacteria (LAB) diversity and to find strains with antifungal activity. A total of 125 presumptive LAB isolates (Gram-positive and catalase-negative) were characterized by repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (REP-PCR) and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, leading to the identification of the following species: Weissella confusa, Weissella cibaria, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus rossiae and Lactobacillus plantarum. The REP-PCR results delineated 17 different patterns whose cluster analysis clearly differentiated W. cibaria from W. confusa isolates. Seventeen strains, each characterized by a different REP-PCR pattern, were screened for their antifungal properties. They were grown in a flour-based medium, comparable to a real food system, and the resulting fermentation products (FPs) were tested against fungal species generally contaminating bakery products, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium roqueforti and Endomyces fibuliger. The results of the study indicated a strong inhibitory activity - comparable to that obtained with the common preservative calcium propionate (0.3% w/v) - of ten LAB strains against the most widespread contaminant of bakery products, P. roqueforti. The screening also highlighted the unexplored antifungal activity of L. citreum, L. rossiae and W. cibaria (1 strain), which inhibited all fungal strains to the same or a higher extent compared with calcium propionate. The fermentation products of these three strains were characterized by low pH values, and a high content of lactic and acetic acids.

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of phenanthrene-degrading fluorescent Pseudomonas biovars.

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, K; Andersen, S; Jacobsen, C S

    1996-01-01

    A total of 41 phenanthrene degraders were isolated from a former coal gasification site by using Pseudomonas-selective Gould's S1 medium. All isolates were found to belong to the fluorescent Pseudomonas group and were subjected to characterization by phenotypic methods, including classical taxonomic tests, API 20NE, and Biolog GN, and the strains were further characterized by the genotypic method repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR). By using classical tests, the population was found to consist of 38 strains belonging to P. fluorescens, 2 P. putida strains, and 1 Pseudomonas sp. Bacteria in phenograms from Biolog GN and REP-PCR data were divided into groups, which were in good agreement with classical test and API 20NE results. We found a nonfluorescent group of 22 bacteria inconsistent with any Pseudomonas sp. in Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. The group showed small differences in the genotypic test, indicating that all 22 isolates were not recent clones of the same isolate. Analyses of the nonfluorescent group indicated that it belonged to Pseudomonas, but the group could not be affiliated with P. fluorescens because of differences in DNA-DNA hybridization. Identifications using classical tests and API 20NE were found to correlate, but Biolog GN identifications after 24-h incubation resulted very often in the distantly related P. corrugata. The reproducibilities of individual tests of each phenotypic method were assessed, and low reproducibilities were mainly found to be associated with specific Biolog GN test wells. Classical tests and API 20NE proved to be the best for identification of isolates, whereas Biolog GN and REP-PCR were found to be the best tests for high resolution among these closely related isolates. PMID:8837438

  15. Emerging ethical perspectives in the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats genome-editing debate

    PubMed Central

    Camporesi, Silvia; Cavaliere, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues in the international clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) genome editing debate from March 2015 to September 2016. We present the regulatory framework for embryo research in the UK, and explain why CRISPR is not a significant break with the past. We discuss the ethical issues arising from CRISPR applications beyond human embryos, namely the use of gene drive-engineered mosquitoes to eradicate diseases, engineering nonhuman animals to harvest organs for human transplant and engineering crops. We discuss the experiments that have demonstrated the technical feasibility of cultivating embryos in vitro for up to 14 days, and possibly beyond this limit, and the ethical issues arising from the proposal to extend the limit beyond 14 days. PMID:28757883

  16. Assembling the Streptococcus thermophilus clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) array for multiplex DNA targeting.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lijun; Xu, Kun; Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Cunfang; Xin, Ying; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-06-01

    In addition to the advantages of scalable, affordable, and easy to engineer, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) technology is superior for multiplex targeting, which is laborious and inconvenient when achieved by cloning multiple gRNA expressing cassettes. Here, we report a simple CRISPR array assembling method which will facilitate multiplex targeting usage. First, the Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR3/Cas locus was cloned. Second, different CRISPR arrays were assembled with different crRNA spacers. Transformation assays using different Escherichia coli strains demonstrated efficient plasmid DNA targeting, and we achieved targeting efficiency up to 95% with an assembled CRISPR array with three crRNA spacers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Progress of genome engineering technology via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats--a review].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2013-10-04

    In survival competition with phage, bacteria and archaea gradually evolved the acquired immune system--Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), presenting the trait of transcribing the crRNA and the CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) to silence or cleaving the foreign double-stranded DNA specifically. In recent years, strong interest arises in prokaryotes primitive immune system and many in-depth researches are going on. Recently, researchers successfully repurposed CRISPR as an RNA-guided platform for sequence-specific gene expression, which provides a simple approach for selectively perturbing gene expression on a genome-wide scale. It will undoubtedly bring genome engineering into a more convenient and accurate new era.

  18. Emerging ethical perspectives in the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats genome-editing debate.

    PubMed

    Camporesi, Silvia; Cavaliere, Giulia

    2016-11-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues in the international clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) genome editing debate from March 2015 to September 2016. We present the regulatory framework for embryo research in the UK, and explain why CRISPR is not a significant break with the past. We discuss the ethical issues arising from CRISPR applications beyond human embryos, namely the use of gene drive-engineered mosquitoes to eradicate diseases, engineering nonhuman animals to harvest organs for human transplant and engineering crops. We discuss the experiments that have demonstrated the technical feasibility of cultivating embryos in vitro for up to 14 days, and possibly beyond this limit, and the ethical issues arising from the proposal to extend the limit beyond 14 days.

  19. Analysis of the t(3;8) of Hereditary Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Palindrome-Mediated Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takema; Franconi, Colleen P.; Sheridan, Molly B.; Hacker, April M.; Inagakai, Hidehito; Glover, Thomas W.; Arlt, Martin F.; Drabkin, Harry A.; Gemmill, Robert M.; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2014-01-01

    It has emerged that palindrome-mediated genomic instability generates DNA-based rearrangements. The presence of palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) at the translocation breakpoints suggested a palindrome-mediated mechanism in the generation of several recurrent constitutional rearrangements: the t(11;22), t(17;22) and t(8;22). To date, all reported PATRR mediated translocations include the PATRR on chromosome 22 (PATRR22) as a translocation partner. Here, the constitutional rearrangement, t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1), segregating with renal cell carcinoma in two families, is examined. The chromosome 8 breakpoint lies in PATRR8 in the first intron of the RNF139 (TRC8) gene while the chromosome 3 breakpoint is located in an AT-rich palindromic sequence in intron 3 of the FHIT gene (PATRR3). Thus, the t(3;8) is the first PATRR-mediated, recurrent, constitutional translocation that does not involve PATRR22. Furthermore, similar to the t(11;22) and t(8;22), we detect de novo translocations involving PATRR3 in normal sperm. The breakpoint on chromosome 3 is in proximity to FRA3B, the most common fragile site in the human genome and a site of frequent deletions in tumor cells. However, the lack of involvement of PATRR3 sequence in numerous FRA3B-related deletions suggests that there are several different DNA sequence based etiologies responsible for chromosome 3p14.2 genomic rearrangements. PMID:24813807

  20. Intricate interactions between the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and foreign genetic elements, revealed by diversified clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) signatures.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Sotaro; Yoshida, Takashi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2012-08-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) confer sequence-dependent, adaptive resistance in prokaryotes against viruses and plasmids via incorporation of short sequences, called spacers, derived from foreign genetic elements. CRISPR loci are thus considered to provide records of past infections. To describe the host-parasite (i.e., cyanophages and plasmids) interactions involving the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated CRISPR in four M. aeruginosa strains and in two previously sequenced genomes. The number of spacers in each locus was larger than the average among prokaryotes. All spacers were strain specific, except for a string of 11 spacers shared in two closely related strains, suggesting diversification of the loci. Using CRISPR repeat-based PCR, 24 CRISPR genotypes were identified in a natural cyanobacterial community. Among 995 unique spacers obtained, only 10 sequences showed similarity to M. aeruginosa phage Ma-LMM01. Of these, six spacers showed only silent or conservative nucleotide mutations compared to Ma-LMM01 sequences, suggesting a strategy by the cyanophage to avert CRISPR immunity dependent on nucleotide identity. These results imply that host-phage interactions can be divided into M. aeruginosa-cyanophage combinations rather than pandemics of population-wide infectious cyanophages. Spacer similarity also showed frequent exposure of M. aeruginosa to small cryptic plasmids that were observed only in a few strains. Thus, the diversification of CRISPR implies that M. aeruginosa has been challenged by diverse communities (almost entirely uncharacterized) of cyanophages and plasmids.

  1. Intricate Interactions between the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and Foreign Genetic Elements, Revealed by Diversified Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Kuno, Sotaro; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) confer sequence-dependent, adaptive resistance in prokaryotes against viruses and plasmids via incorporation of short sequences, called spacers, derived from foreign genetic elements. CRISPR loci are thus considered to provide records of past infections. To describe the host-parasite (i.e., cyanophages and plasmids) interactions involving the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated CRISPR in four M. aeruginosa strains and in two previously sequenced genomes. The number of spacers in each locus was larger than the average among prokaryotes. All spacers were strain specific, except for a string of 11 spacers shared in two closely related strains, suggesting diversification of the loci. Using CRISPR repeat-based PCR, 24 CRISPR genotypes were identified in a natural cyanobacterial community. Among 995 unique spacers obtained, only 10 sequences showed similarity to M. aeruginosa phage Ma-LMM01. Of these, six spacers showed only silent or conservative nucleotide mutations compared to Ma-LMM01 sequences, suggesting a strategy by the cyanophage to avert CRISPR immunity dependent on nucleotide identity. These results imply that host-phage interactions can be divided into M. aeruginosa-cyanophage combinations rather than pandemics of population-wide infectious cyanophages. Spacer similarity also showed frequent exposure of M. aeruginosa to small cryptic plasmids that were observed only in a few strains. Thus, the diversification of CRISPR implies that M. aeruginosa has been challenged by diverse communities (almost entirely uncharacterized) of cyanophages and plasmids. PMID:22636003

  2. [Knocking-out extra domain A alternative splice fragment of fibronectin using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated proteins 9 system].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Haicheng; Xu, Shuyu; Peng, Jing; Jiang, Jiuhui; Li, Cuiying

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effect of the fibronectin extra domain A on the aggressiveness of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) cells, via the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/ associated proteins (Cas) system. One sgRNA was designed to target the upstream of the genome sequences of extra domain A(EDA) exon and the downstream. Then the sgRNA was linked into plasmid PX-330 and transfected into SACC-83 cells. PCR and DNA sequence were used to testify the knockout cells, and the monoclones of EDA absent SACC cells were selected (A+C-2, A+C-6, B+C-10). CCK-8 cell proliferation and invasion was then tested in control group and the experimental group. The sgRNA was successfully linked into PX-330 plasmid. Part of adenoid cystic carcinoma cells' SACC-83 genomic EDA exon was knocked out, and the knockdown efficiency was above 70%, but the total amount of fibronectin did not change significantly. Three monoclones of EDA absent SACC- 83 cells were successfully selected with diminished migration and proliferation. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was a simplified system with relatively high knockout efficiency and EDA knockout could inhibiting SACC cell's mobility and invasiveness.

  3. Molecular characteristics, biofilm-forming abilities, and quorum sensing molecules in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from marine and clinical environments in Korea.

    PubMed

    Mizan, Md Furkanur Rahaman; Bang, Hyeon-Jo; Sadekuzzaman, Mohammad; Lee, Nari; Kim, Tae-Jo; Ha, Sang-Do

    2017-05-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an inhabitant of marine and estuarine environments and causes seafood-borne gastroenteritis in humans. In this study, an UltraFast LabChip Real-Time PCR assay was evaluated for rapid detection and quantification of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Escherichia coli and Vibrio harveyi were used as negative controls. Twenty-six tdh-positive, biofilm-producing V. parahaemolyticus isolates were analyzed by repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR). REP-PCR analysis showed that the majority of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates originated from seafood and that clinical specimens formed two major clusters at 92.8% and 32% similarity levels. The presence and quantification of Autoinducer-2 was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) after derivatization of Autoinducer-2 with 2, 3-diaminonaphthalene. The presence of tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus in marine samples highlights the need for constant environmental monitoring to protect public health.

  4. Relationship between drug resistance and the clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeat-associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 in Shigella from giant panda dung.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lu; Deng, Lin-Hua; Zhang, Ri-Peng; Wang, Cheng-Dong; Li, De-Sheng; Xi, Li-Xin; Chen, Zhen-Rong; Yang, Rui; Huang, Jie; Zeng, Yang-Ru; Wu, Hong-Lin; Cao, San-Jie; Wu, Rui; Huang, Yong; Yan, Qi-Gui

    2017-02-01

    To detect drug resistance in Shigella obtained from the dung of the giant panda, explore the factors leading to drug resistance in Shigella, understand the characteristics of clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and assess the relationship between CRISPR and drug resistance. We collected fresh feces from 27 healthy giant pandas in the Giant Panda Conservation base (Wolong, China). We identified the strains of Shigella in the samples by using nucleotide sequence analysis. Further, the Kirby-Bauer paper method was used to determine drug sensitivity of the Shigella strains. CRISPR-associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 in Shigella were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the PCR products were sequenced and compared. We isolated and identified 17 strains of Shigella from 27 samples, including 14 strains of Shigella flexneri, 2 strains of Shigella sonnei, and 1 strain of Shigella dysenteriae. Further, drug resistance to cefazolin, imipenem, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was identified as a serious problem, as multidrug-resistant strains were detected. Further, cas1 and cas2 showed different degrees of point mutations. The CRISPR system widely exists in Shigella and shares homology with that in Escherichia coli. The cas1 and cas 2 mutations contribute to the different levels of resistance. Point mutations at sites 3176455, 3176590, and 3176465 in cas1 (a); sites 3176989, 3176992, and 3176995 in cas1 (b); sites 3176156 and 3176236 in cas2 may affect the resistance of bacteria, cause emergence of multidrug resistance, and increase the types of drug resistance.

  5. Relationship between drug resistance and the clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeat-associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 in Shigella from giant panda dung

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lu; Deng, Lin-Hua; Zhang, Ri-Peng; Wang, Cheng-Dong; Li, De-Sheng; Xi, Li-Xin; Chen, Zhen-rong; Yang, Rui; Huang, Jie; Zeng, Yang-ru; Wu, Hong-Lin; Cao, San-Jie; Wu, Rui; Huang, Yong; Yan, Qi-Gui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: To detect drug resistance in Shigella obtained from the dung of the giant panda, explore the factors leading to drug resistance in Shigella, understand the characteristics of clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and assess the relationship between CRISPR and drug resistance. Methods: We collected fresh feces from 27 healthy giant pandas in the Giant Panda Conservation base (Wolong, China). We identified the strains of Shigella in the samples by using nucleotide sequence analysis. Further, the Kirby-Bauer paper method was used to determine drug sensitivity of the Shigella strains. CRISPR-associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 in Shigella were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the PCR products were sequenced and compared. Results: We isolated and identified 17 strains of Shigella from 27 samples, including 14 strains of Shigella flexneri, 2 strains of Shigella sonnei, and 1 strain of Shigella dysenteriae. Further, drug resistance to cefazolin, imipenem, and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid was identified as a serious problem, as multidrug-resistant strains were detected. Further, cas1 and cas2 showed different degrees of point mutations. Conclusion: The CRISPR system widely exists in Shigella and shares homology with that in Escherichia coli. The cas1 and cas 2 mutations contribute to the different levels of resistance. Point mutations at sites 3176455, 3176590, and 3176465 in cas1 (a); sites 3176989, 3176992, and 3176995 in cas1 (b); sites 3176156 and 3176236 in cas2 may affect the resistance of bacteria, cause emergence of multidrug resistance, and increase the types of drug resistance. PMID:28207509

  6. Sex Determination Using PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kima, Peter E.; Rasche, Madeline E.

    2004-01-01

    PCR has revolutionized many aspects of biochemistry and molecular biology research. In the following exercise, students learn PCR by isolating their own DNA, amplifying specific segments of the X and Y chromosomes, and estimating the sizes of the PCR products using agarose gel electrophoresis. Based on the pattern of PCR products, students can…

  7. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

    PubMed Central

    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-01-01

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lack of a role for AP1 in GPEI mediated trans-activation in F9 cells, although endogenously present AP1 can influence GPEI in HeLa cells. Co-transfection of delta fosB with c-jun, which forms an inactive c-Jun/delta FosB heterodimer that binds TRE sequences, inhibits GPEI-mediated transcription in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well as AP1-containing HeLa cells. These data suggest novel factor(s) other than AP1 are influencing GPEI. Binding studies reveal multiple nucleoproteins bind to GPEI. These factors are likely responsible for the high level of GPEI-mediated transcription observed in the absence of AP1 and during hepatocarcinogenesis. Images PMID:1408831

  8. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

    PubMed

    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-10-11

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lack of a role for AP1 in GPEI mediated trans-activation in F9 cells, although endogenously present AP1 can influence GPEI in HeLa cells. Co-transfection of delta fosB with c-jun, which forms an inactive c-Jun/delta FosB heterodimer that binds TRE sequences, inhibits GPEI-mediated transcription in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well as AP1-containing HeLa cells. These data suggest novel factor(s) other than AP1 are influencing GPEI. Binding studies reveal multiple nucleoproteins bind to GPEI. These factors are likely responsible for the high level of GPEI-mediated transcription observed in the absence of AP1 and during hepatocarcinogenesis.

  9. Single palindromic molecular beacon-based amplification for genetic analysis of cancers.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Zheng-Yong; Wu, Zai-Sheng; Yang, Zhe; Li, Cong-Cong; Xu, Huo; Lyu, Jian-Xin; Shen, Zhi-Fa

    2017-05-15

    The detection of biomarkers is of crucial importance in reducing the morbidity and mortality of complex diseases. Thus, there is a great desire to develop highly efficient and simple sensing methods to fulfill the different diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Herein, using tumor suppressor p53 gene as model target DNA, we developed a novel palindromic fragment-incorporated molecular beacon (P-MB) that can perform multiple functions, including recognition element, signal reporter, polymerization template and primer. Upon specific hybridization with target DNA, P-MBs can interact with each other and are extended by polymerase without any additional probes. As a result, hybridized targets are peeled off from P-MBs and initiate the next round of reactions, leading to the unique strand displacement amplification (SDA). The newly-proposed enzymatic amplification displays the detection limit as low as 100pM and excellent selectivity in distinguishing single-base mutation with the linear response range from 100pM to 75nM. This is the simplest SDA sensing system so far because of only involving one type of DNA probe. This impressive sensing paradigm is expected to provide new insight into developing new-type of DNA probes that hold tremendous potential with important applications in molecular biology research and clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CRISPRcompar: a website to compare clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    PubMed

    Grissa, Ibtissem; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2008-07-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) elements are a particular family of tandem repeats present in prokaryotic genomes, in almost all archaea and in about half of bacteria, and which participate in a mechanism of acquired resistance against phages. They consist in a succession of direct repeats (DR) of 24-47 bp separated by similar sized unique sequences (spacers). In the large majority of cases, the direct repeats are highly conserved, while the number and nature of the spacers are often quite diverse, even among strains of a same species. Furthermore, the acquisition of new units (DR + spacer) was shown to happen almost exclusively on one side of the locus. Therefore, the CRISPR presents an interesting genetic marker for comparative and evolutionary analysis of closely related bacterial strains. CRISPRcompar is a web service created to assist biologists in the CRISPR typing process. Two tools facilitates the in silico investigation: CRISPRcomparison and CRISPRtionary. This website is freely accessible at http://crispr.u-psud.fr/CRISPRcompar/.

  11. Lactobacillus buchneri Genotyping on the Basis of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) Locus Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Briner, Alexandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in combination with associated sequences (cas) constitute the CRISPR-Cas immune system, which uptakes DNA from invasive genetic elements as novel “spacers” that provide a genetic record of immunization events. We investigated the potential of CRISPR-based genotyping of Lactobacillus buchneri, a species relevant for commercial silage, bioethanol, and vegetable fermentations. Upon investigating the occurrence and diversity of CRISPR-Cas systems in Lactobacillus buchneri genomes, we observed a ubiquitous occurrence of CRISPR arrays containing a 36-nucleotide (nt) type II-A CRISPR locus adjacent to four cas genes, including the universal cas1 and cas2 genes and the type II signature gene cas9. Comparative analysis of CRISPR spacer content in 26 L. buchneri pickle fermentation isolates associated with spoilage revealed 10 unique locus genotypes that contained between 9 and 29 variable spacers. We observed a set of conserved spacers at the ancestral end, reflecting a common origin, as well as leader-end polymorphisms, reflecting recent divergence. Some of these spacers showed perfect identity with phage sequences, and many spacers showed homology to Lactobacillus plasmid sequences. Following a comparative analysis of sequences immediately flanking protospacers that matched CRISPR spacers, we identified a novel putative protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM), 5′-AAAA-3′. Overall, these findings suggest that type II-A CRISPR-Cas systems are valuable for genotyping of L. buchneri. PMID:24271175

  12. CRISPRFinder: a web tool to identify clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    PubMed

    Grissa, Ibtissem; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2007-07-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) constitute a particular family of tandem repeats found in a wide range of prokaryotic genomes (half of eubacteria and almost all archaea). They consist of a succession of highly conserved regions (DR) varying in size from 23 to 47 bp, separated by similarly sized unique sequences (spacer) of usually viral origin. A CRISPR cluster is flanked on one side by an AT-rich sequence called the leader and assumed to be a transcriptional promoter. Recent studies suggest that this structure represents a putative RNA-interference-based immune system. Here we describe CRISPRFinder, a web service offering tools to (i) detect CRISPRs including the shortest ones (one or two motifs); (ii) define DRs and extract spacers; (iii) get the flanking sequences to determine the leader; (iv) blast spacers against Genbank database and (v) check if the DR is found elsewhere in prokaryotic sequenced genomes. CRISPRFinder is freely accessible at http://crispr.u-psud.fr/Server/CRISPRfinder.php.

  13. Lactobacillus buchneri genotyping on the basis of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus diversity.

    PubMed

    Briner, Alexandra E; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2014-02-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in combination with associated sequences (cas) constitute the CRISPR-Cas immune system, which uptakes DNA from invasive genetic elements as novel "spacers" that provide a genetic record of immunization events. We investigated the potential of CRISPR-based genotyping of Lactobacillus buchneri, a species relevant for commercial silage, bioethanol, and vegetable fermentations. Upon investigating the occurrence and diversity of CRISPR-Cas systems in Lactobacillus buchneri genomes, we observed a ubiquitous occurrence of CRISPR arrays containing a 36-nucleotide (nt) type II-A CRISPR locus adjacent to four cas genes, including the universal cas1 and cas2 genes and the type II signature gene cas9. Comparative analysis of CRISPR spacer content in 26 L. buchneri pickle fermentation isolates associated with spoilage revealed 10 unique locus genotypes that contained between 9 and 29 variable spacers. We observed a set of conserved spacers at the ancestral end, reflecting a common origin, as well as leader-end polymorphisms, reflecting recent divergence. Some of these spacers showed perfect identity with phage sequences, and many spacers showed homology to Lactobacillus plasmid sequences. Following a comparative analysis of sequences immediately flanking protospacers that matched CRISPR spacers, we identified a novel putative protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM), 5'-AAAA-3'. Overall, these findings suggest that type II-A CRISPR-Cas systems are valuable for genotyping of L. buchneri.

  14. Function and Regulation of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) / CRISPR Associated (Cas) Systems

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Corinna; Chang, James T.; Fineran, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Phages are the most abundant biological entities on earth and pose a constant challenge to their bacterial hosts. Thus, bacteria have evolved numerous ‘innate’ mechanisms of defense against phage, such as abortive infection or restriction/modification systems. In contrast, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems provide acquired, yet heritable, sequence-specific ‘adaptive’ immunity against phage and other horizontally-acquired elements, such as plasmids. Resistance is acquired following viral infection or plasmid uptake when a short sequence of the foreign genome is added to the CRISPR array. CRISPRs are then transcribed and processed, generally by CRISPR associated (Cas) proteins, into short interfering RNAs (crRNAs), which form part of a ribonucleoprotein complex. This complex guides the crRNA to the complementary invading nucleic acid and targets this for degradation. Recently, there have been rapid advances in our understanding of CRISPR/Cas systems. In this review, we will present the current model(s) of the molecular events involved in both the acquisition of immunity and interference stages and will also address recent progress in our knowledge of the regulation of CRISPR/Cas systems. PMID:23202464

  15. Function and regulation of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) / CRISPR associated (Cas) systems.

    PubMed

    Richter, Corinna; Chang, James T; Fineran, Peter C

    2012-10-19

    Phages are the most abundant biological entities on earth and pose a constant challenge to their bacterial hosts. Thus, bacteria have evolved numerous 'innate' mechanisms of defense against phage, such as abortive infection or restriction/modification systems. In contrast, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems provide acquired, yet heritable, sequence-specific 'adaptive' immunity against phage and other horizontally-acquired elements, such as plasmids. Resistance is acquired following viral infection or plasmid uptake when a short sequence of the foreign genome is added to the CRISPR array. CRISPRs are then transcribed and processed, generally by CRISPR associated (Cas) proteins, into short interfering RNAs (crRNAs), which form part of a ribonucleoprotein complex. This complex guides the crRNA to the complementary invading nucleic acid and targets this for degradation. Recently, there have been rapid advances in our understanding of CRISPR/Cas systems. In this review, we will present the current model(s) of the molecular events involved in both the acquisition of immunity and interference stages and will also address recent progress in our knowledge of the regulation of CRISPR/Cas systems.

  16. CRISPR Recognition Tool (CRT): a tool for automatic detection ofclustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, Charles; Ramsey, Teresa L.; Sabree, Fareedah

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) are a novel type of direct repeat found in a wide range of bacteria and archaea. CRISPRs are beginning to attract attention because of their proposed mechanism; that is, defending their hosts against invading extrachromosomal elements such as viruses. Existing repeat detection tools do a poor job of identifying CRISPRs due to the presence of unique spacer sequences separating the repeats. In this study, a new tool, CRT, is introduced that rapidly and accurately identifies CRISPRs in large DNA strings, such as genomes and metagenomes. CRT was compared to CRISPR detection tools, Patscan andmore » Pilercr. In terms of correctness, CRT was shown to be very reliable, demonstrating significant improvements over Patscan for measures precision, recall and quality. When compared to Pilercr, CRT showed improved performance for recall and quality. In terms of speed, CRT also demonstrated superior performance, especially for genomes containing large numbers of repeats. In this paper a new tool was introduced for the automatic detection of CRISPR elements. This tool, CRT, was shown to be a significant improvement over the current techniques for CRISPR identification. CRT's approach to detecting repetitive sequences is straightforward. It uses a simple sequential scan of a DNA sequence and detects repeats directly without any major conversion or preprocessing of the input. This leads to a program that is easy to describe and understand; yet it is very accurate, fast and memory efficient, being O(n) in space and O(nm/l) in time.« less

  17. Abundance and distribution of the highly iterated palindrome 1 (HIP1) among prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the abundance and phylogenetic distribution of the Highly Iterated Palindrome 1 (HIP1) among sequenced prokaryotic genomes. We show that an overrepresentation of HIP1 is exclusive of some lineages of cyanobacteria, and that this abundance was gained only once during evolution and was subsequently lost in the lineage leading to marine pico-cyanobacteria. We show that among cyanobacterial protein sequences with annotated Pfam domains, only OpcA (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase assembly protein) has a phylogenetic distribution fully matching HIP1 abundance, suggesting a functional relationship; we also show that DAM methylase (an enzyme that has the four central nucleotides of HIP1 as is site of action) is present in all cyanobacterial genomes (independently of their HIP1 content) with the exception of marine pico-cyanobacteria whom might have lost this enzyme during the process of genome reduction. Our analyses also show that in some prokaryotic lineages (particularly in those species with large genomes), HIP1 is unevenly distributed between coding and non-coding DNA (being more common in coding regions; with the exception of Cyanobacteria Yellowstone B' and Synechococcus elongates where the reverse pattern is true). Finally, we explore the hypothesis that the HIP1 can be used as a molecular “water-mark” to identify horizontally transferred genes from cyanobacteria to other species. PMID:22312590

  18. Selection, periodicity and potential function for Highly Iterative Palindrome-1 (HIP1) in cyanobacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minli; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Durand, Dannie

    2018-03-16

    Highly Iterated Palindrome 1 (HIP1, GCGATCGC) is hyper-abundant in most cyanobacterial genomes. In some cyanobacteria, average HIP1 abundance exceeds one motif per gene. Such high abundance suggests a significant role in cyanobacterial biology. However, 20 years of study have not revealed whether HIP1 has a function, much less what that function might be. We show that HIP1 is 15- to 300-fold over-represented in genomes analyzed. More importantly, HIP1 sites are conserved both within and between open reading frames, suggesting that their overabundance is maintained by selection rather than by continual replenishment by neutral processes, such as biased DNA repair. This evidence for selection suggests a functional role for HIP1. No evidence was found to support a functional role as a peptide or RNA motif or a role in the regulation of gene expression. Rather, we demonstrate that the distribution of HIP1 along cyanobacterial chromosomes is significantly periodic, with periods ranging from 10 to 90 kb, consistent in scale with periodicities reported for co-regulated, co-expressed and evolutionarily correlated genes. The periodicity we observe is also comparable in scale to chromosomal interaction domains previously described in other bacteria. In this context, our findings imply HIP1 functions associated with chromosome and nucleoid structure.

  19. Abundance and distribution of the highly iterated palindrome 1 (HIP1) among prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Delaye, Luis; Moya, Andrés

    2011-09-01

    We have studied the abundance and phylogenetic distribution of the Highly Iterated Palindrome 1 (HIP1) among sequenced prokaryotic genomes. We show that an overrepresentation of HIP1 is exclusive of some lineages of cyanobacteria, and that this abundance was gained only once during evolution and was subsequently lost in the lineage leading to marine pico-cyanobacteria. We show that among cyanobacterial protein sequences with annotated Pfam domains, only OpcA (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase assembly protein) has a phylogenetic distribution fully matching HIP1 abundance, suggesting a functional relationship; we also show that DAM methylase (an enzyme that has the four central nucleotides of HIP1 as is site of action) is present in all cyanobacterial genomes (independently of their HIP1 content) with the exception of marine pico-cyanobacteria whom might have lost this enzyme during the process of genome reduction. Our analyses also show that in some prokaryotic lineages (particularly in those species with large genomes), HIP1 is unevenly distributed between coding and non-coding DNA (being more common in coding regions; with the exception of Cyanobacteria Yellowstone B' and Synechococcus elongates where the reverse pattern is true). Finally, we explore the hypothesis that the HIP1 can be used as a molecular "water-mark" to identify horizontally transferred genes from cyanobacteria to other species.

  20. Selection, periodicity and potential function for Highly Iterative Palindrome-1 (HIP1) in cyanobacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Minli; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Durand, Dannie

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Highly Iterated Palindrome 1 (HIP1, GCGATCGC) is hyper-abundant in most cyanobacterial genomes. In some cyanobacteria, average HIP1 abundance exceeds one motif per gene. Such high abundance suggests a significant role in cyanobacterial biology. However, 20 years of study have not revealed whether HIP1 has a function, much less what that function might be. We show that HIP1 is 15- to 300-fold over-represented in genomes analyzed. More importantly, HIP1 sites are conserved both within and between open reading frames, suggesting that their overabundance is maintained by selection rather than by continual replenishment by neutral processes, such as biased DNA repair. This evidence for selection suggests a functional role for HIP1. No evidence was found to support a functional role as a peptide or RNA motif or a role in the regulation of gene expression. Rather, we demonstrate that the distribution of HIP1 along cyanobacterial chromosomes is significantly periodic, with periods ranging from 10 to 90 kb, consistent in scale with periodicities reported for co-regulated, co-expressed and evolutionarily correlated genes. The periodicity we observe is also comparable in scale to chromosomal interaction domains previously described in other bacteria. In this context, our findings imply HIP1 functions associated with chromosome and nucleoid structure. PMID:29432573

  1. Selection and differentiation of Bacillus spp. Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani infecting Tomato.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Veerubommu; Atri, Kamini; Gupta, Samriti; Kanoujia, Nandina; Naruka, Digvijay Singh

    2011-03-01

    Antagonistic Bacillus spp. displaying in vitro production of siderophore, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase were identified from dual culture assays. In independent greenhouse studies, seed bacterization and soil application of Bacillus atrophaeus S2BC-2 challenge inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) and Alternaria solani (AS) recorded low percent disease index of 25.3 and 28.7, respectively, over nonbacterised pathogen control (44.3 and 56.4). The low disease incidence corroborated with tomato growth promotion with high vigor index (8,041.2) and fresh plant weight (82.5 g) on challenge inoculation with FOL. Analysis of root and leaf samples in rhizobacterial treatment challenged with FOL and AS revealed maximum induction of chitinase (1.9 and 1.7 U/mg of protein, respectively) and β-1,3-glucanase (23.5 and 19.2 U/mg of protein, respectively). In native gel activity assays, the rhizobacterial treatment on challenge inoculation strongly expressed three high intensity PO isoforms along with one low intensity isoform. In studies on genetic diversity of the Bacillus strains by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) patterns, ARDRA was more highly discriminant than REP-PCR and allowed grouping of the strains and differentiation of the antagonistic strains from other isolates.

  2. MATLAB Algorithms for Rapid Detection and Embedding of Palindrome and Emordnilap Electronic Watermarks in Simulated Chemical and Biological Image Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    digital watermarking http:// ww*.petitcolas .net/ fabien/ steganography / email: fapp2@cl.cam.ac.uk a=double(imread(’custom-a.jpg’)); %load in image ...MATLAB Algorithms for Rapid Detection and Embedding of Palindrome and Emordnilap Electronic Watermarks in Simulated Chemical and Biological Image ...approach (Ref 2-4) to watermarking involves be used to inform the viewer of data (such as photographs putting the cover image in the first 4

  3. MATLAB Algorithms for Rapid Detection and Embedding of Palindrome and Emordnilap Electronic Watermarks in Simulated Chemical and Biological Image Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-16

    MATLAB Algorithms for Rapid Detection and Embedding of Palindrome and Emordnilap Electronic Watermarks in Simulated Chemical and Biological Image ...and Emordnilap Electronic Watermarks in Simulated Chemical and Biological Image Data 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Conference on Chemical and Biological Defense Research. Held in Hunt Valley, Maryland on 15-17 November 2004., The original document contains color images

  4. [Comparative analysis of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) loci in the genomes of halophilic archaea].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Bing; Xiang, Hua; Hu, Songnian

    2009-11-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) is a widespread system that provides acquired resistance against phages in bacteria and archaea. Here we aim to genome-widely analyze the CRISPR in extreme halophilic archaea, of which the whole genome sequences are available at present time. We used bioinformatics methods including alignment, conservation analysis, GC content and RNA structure prediction to analyze the CRISPR structures of 7 haloarchaeal genomes. We identified the CRISPR structures in 5 halophilic archaea and revealed a conserved palindromic motif in the flanking regions of these CRISPR structures. In addition, we found that the repeat sequences of large CRISPR structures in halophilic archaea were greatly conserved, and two types of predicted RNA secondary structures derived from the repeat sequences were likely determined by the fourth base of the repeat sequence. Our results support the proposal that the leader sequence may function as recognition site by having palindromic structures in flanking regions, and the stem-loop secondary structure formed by repeat sequences may function in mediating the interaction between foreign genetic elements and CAS-encoded proteins.

  5. Deletion within the metallothionein locus of cadmium-tolerant Synechococcus PCC 6301 involving a highly iterated palindrome (HIP1).

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Morby, A P; Turner, J S; Whitton, B A; Robinson, N J

    1993-01-01

    Genomic rearrangements involving amplification of metallothionein (MT) genes have been reported in metal-tolerant eukaryotes. Similarly, we have recently observed amplification and rearrangement of a prokaryotic MT locus, smt, in cells of Synechococcus PCC 6301 selected for Cd tolerance. Following the characterization of this locus, the altered smt region has now been isolated from a Cd-tolerant cell line, C3.2, and its nucleotide sequence determined. This has identified a deletion within smtB, which encodes a trans-acting repressor of smt transcription. Two identical palindromic octanucleotides (5'-GCGATC-GC-3') traverse both borders of the excised element. This palindromic sequence is highly represented in the smt locus (7 occurrences in 1326 nucleotides) and analysis of the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ DNA Nucleotide Sequence Data Libraries reveals that this is a highly iterated palindrome (HIP1) in other known sequences from Synechococcus strains (estimated to occur at an average frequency of once every c. 664 bp). HIP1 is also abundant in the genomes of other cyanobacteria. The functional significance of smtB deletion and the possible role of HIP1 in genome plasticity and adaptation in cyanobacteria are discussed.

  6. Invasive Species Management on Military Lands: Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/ CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) based Gene Drives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-30

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/ CRISPR -associated protein 9 ( CRISPR /Cas9)-based Gene Drives En vi ro nm en ta l L ab or at...Management on Military Lands Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/ CRISPR -associated protein 9 ( CRISPR /Cas9)-based Gene Drives Ping... CRISPR /Cas9-based Gene Drives for Invasive Species Management on Military Lands” ERDC/EL SR-17-2 ii Abstract Applications of genetic engineering

  7. COMPUTER SIMULATION STUDY OF AMYLOID FIBRIL FORMATION BY PALINDROMIC SEQUENCES IN PRION PEPTIDES

    PubMed Central

    Wagoner, Victoria; Cheon, Mookyung; Chang, Iksoo; Hall, Carol

    2011-01-01

    We simulate the aggregation of large systems containing palindromic peptides from the Syrian hamster prion protein SHaPrP 113–120 (AGAAAAGA) and the mouse prion protein MoPrP 111–120 (VAGAAAAGAV) and eight sequence variations: GAAAAAAG, (AG)4, A8, GAAAGAAA, A10, V10, GAVAAAAVAG, and VAVAAAAVAV The first two peptides are thought to act as the Velcro that holds the parent prion proteins together in amyloid structures and can form fibrils themselves. Kinetic events along the fibrillization pathway influence the types of structures that occur and variations in the sequence affect aggregation kinetics and fibrillar structure. Discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations using the PRIME20 force field are performed on systems containing 48 peptides starting from a random coil configuration. Depending on the sequence, fibrillar structures form spontaneously over a range of temperatures, below which amorphous aggregates form and above which no aggregation occurs. AGAAAAGA forms well organized fibrillar structures whereas VAGAAAAGAV forms less well organized structures that are partially fibrillar and partially amorphous. The degree of order in the fibrillar structure stems in part from the types of kinetic events leading up to its formation, with AGAAAAGA forming less amorphous structures early in the simulation than VAGAAAAGAV. The ability to form fibrils increases as the chain length and the length of the stretch of hydrophobic residues increase. However as the hydrophobicity of the sequence increases, the ability to form well-ordered structures decreases. Thus, longer hydrophobic sequences form slightly disordered aggregates that are partially fibrillar and partially amorphous. Subtle changes in sequence result in slightly different fibril structures. PMID:21557317

  8. CRISPR recognition tool (CRT): a tool for automatic detection of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats.

    PubMed

    Bland, Charles; Ramsey, Teresa L; Sabree, Fareedah; Lowe, Micheal; Brown, Kyndall; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2007-06-18

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) are a novel type of direct repeat found in a wide range of bacteria and archaea. CRISPRs are beginning to attract attention because of their proposed mechanism; that is, defending their hosts against invading extrachromosomal elements such as viruses. Existing repeat detection tools do a poor job of identifying CRISPRs due to the presence of unique spacer sequences separating the repeats. In this study, a new tool, CRT, is introduced that rapidly and accurately identifies CRISPRs in large DNA strings, such as genomes and metagenomes. CRT was compared to CRISPR detection tools, Patscan and Pilercr. In terms of correctness, CRT was shown to be very reliable, demonstrating significant improvements over Patscan for measures precision, recall and quality. When compared to Pilercr, CRT showed improved performance for recall and quality. In terms of speed, CRT proved to be a huge improvement over Patscan. Both CRT and Pilercr were comparable in speed, however CRT was faster for genomes containing large numbers of repeats. In this paper a new tool was introduced for the automatic detection of CRISPR elements. This tool, CRT, showed some important improvements over current techniques for CRISPR identification. CRT's approach to detecting repetitive sequences is straightforward. It uses a simple sequential scan of a DNA sequence and detects repeats directly without any major conversion or preprocessing of the input. This leads to a program that is easy to describe and understand; yet it is very accurate, fast and memory efficient, being O(n) in space and O(nm/l) in time.

  9. Introduction to digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Bizouarn, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Digital PCR (dPCR) is a molecular biology technique going through a renaissance. With the arrival of new instrumentation dPCR can now be performed as a routine molecular biology assay. This exciting new technique provides quantitative and detection capabilities that by far surpass other methods currently used. This chapter is an overview of some of the applications currently being performed using dPCR as well as the fundamental concepts and techniques this technology is based on.

  10. A versatile palindromic amphipathic repeat coding sequence horizontally distributed among diverse bacterial and eucaryotic microbes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    HGT and intra-genomic shuffling. Conclusions We describe novel features of PARCELs (Palindromic Amphipathic Repeat Coding ELements), a set of widely distributed repeat protein domains and coding sequences that were likely acquired through HGT by diverse unicellular microbes, further mobilized and diversified within genomes, and co-opted for expression in the membrane proteome of some taxa. Disseminated by multiple gene-centric vehicles, ORFs harboring these elements enhance accessory gene pools as part of the "mobilome" connecting genomes of various clades, in taxa sharing common niches. PMID:20626840

  11. Optimal packaging of FIV genomic RNA depends upon a conserved long-range interaction and a palindromic sequence within gag.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Tahir A; Kenyon, Julia C; Ali, Jahabar; Aktar, Suriya J; Phillip, Pretty S; Ghazawi, Akela; Mustafa, Farah; Lever, Andrew M L

    2010-10-15

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that is related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), causing a similar pathology in cats. It is a potential small animal model for AIDS and the FIV-based vectors are also being pursued for human gene therapy. Previous studies have mapped the FIV packaging signal (ψ) to two or more discontinuous regions within the 5' 511 nt of the genomic RNA and structural analyses have determined its secondary structure. The 5' and 3' sequences within ψ region interact through extensive long-range interactions (LRIs), including a conserved heptanucleotide interaction between R/U5 and gag. Other secondary structural elements identified include a conserved 150 nt stem-loop (SL2) and a small palindromic stem-loop within gag open reading frame that might act as a viral dimerization initiation site. We have performed extensive mutational analysis of these sequences and structures and ascertained their importance in FIV packaging using a trans-complementation assay. Disrupting the conserved heptanucleotide LRI to prevent base pairing between R/U5 and gag reduced packaging by 2.8-5.5 fold. Restoration of pairing using an alternative, non-wild type (wt) LRI sequence restored RNA packaging and propagation to wt levels, suggesting that it is the structure of the LRI, rather than its sequence, that is important for FIV packaging. Disrupting the palindrome within gag reduced packaging by 1.5-3-fold, but substitution with a different palindromic sequence did not restore packaging completely, suggesting that the sequence of this region as well as its palindromic nature is important. Mutation of individual regions of SL2 did not have a pronounced effect on FIV packaging, suggesting that either it is the structure of SL2 as a whole that is necessary for optimal packaging, or that there is redundancy within this structure. The mutational analysis presented here has further validated the previously predicted RNA secondary structure of FIV

  12. Using a color-coded ambigraphic nucleic acid notation to visualize conserved palindromic motifs within and across genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ambiscript is a graphically-designed nucleic acid notation that uses symbol symmetries to support sequence complementation, highlight biologically-relevant palindromes, and facilitate the analysis of consensus sequences. Although the original Ambiscript notation was designed to easily represent consensus sequences for multiple sequence alignments, the notation’s black-on-white ambiguity characters are unable to reflect the statistical distribution of nucleotides found at each position. We now propose a color-augmented ambigraphic notation to encode the frequency of positional polymorphisms in these consensus sequences. Results We have implemented this color-coding approach by creating an Adobe Flash® application ( http://www.ambiscript.org) that shades and colors modified Ambiscript characters according to the prevalence of the encoded nucleotide at each position in the alignment. The resulting graphic helps viewers perceive biologically-relevant patterns in multiple sequence alignments by uniquely combining color, shading, and character symmetries to highlight palindromes and inverted repeats in conserved DNA motifs. Conclusion Juxtaposing an intuitive color scheme over the deliberate character symmetries of an ambigraphic nucleic acid notation yields a highly-functional nucleic acid notation that maximizes information content and successfully embodies key principles of graphic excellence put forth by the statistician and graphic design theorist, Edward Tufte. PMID:24447494

  13. Advances in PCR technology.

    PubMed

    Lauerman, Lloyd H

    2004-12-01

    Since the discovery of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 20 years ago, an avalanche of scientific publications have reported major developments and changes in specialized equipment, reagents, sample preparation, computer programs and techniques, generated through business, government and university research. The requirement for genetic sequences for primer selection and validation has been greatly facilitated by the development of new sequencing techniques, machines and computer programs. Genetic libraries, such as GenBank, EMBL and DDBJ continue to accumulate a wealth of genetic sequence information for the development and validation of molecular-based diagnostic procedures concerning human and veterinary disease agents. The mechanization of various aspects of the PCR assay, such as robotics, microfluidics and nanotechnology, has made it possible for the rapid advancement of new procedures. Real-time PCR, DNA microarray and DNA chips utilize these newer techniques in conjunction with computer and computer programs. Instruments for hand-held PCR assays are being developed. The PCR and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays have greatly accelerated the speed and accuracy of diagnoses of human and animal disease, especially of the infectious agents that are difficult to isolate or demonstrate. The PCR has made it possible to genetically characterize a microbial isolate inexpensively and rapidly for identification, typing and epidemiological comparison.

  14. Review of PCR methodology.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-03-01

    This study was conducted to review the Pavement Condition Rating (PCR) : methodology currently used by the Ohio DOT. The results of the literature search in this : connection indicated that many Highway agencies use a similar methodology to rate thei...

  15. Emergence of carbapenem non-susceptible multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains of clonal complexes 103(B) and 92(B) harboring OXA-type carbapenemases and metallo-β-lactamases in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Saranathan, Rajagopalan; Vasanth, Vaidyanathan; Vasanth, Thamodharan; Shabareesh, Pidathala Raghavendra Venkata; Shashikala, P; Devi, Chandrakesan Sheela; Kalaivani, Ramakrishnan; Asir, Johny; Sudhakar, Pagal; Prashanth, K

    2015-05-01

    The molecular epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii obtained from a south Indian tertiary care hospital were investigated by repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (REP-PCR) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Analysis of resistant determinants was achieved by PCR screening for the presence of genes encoding OXA-carbapenemases, metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and efflux pumps. REP-PCR generated around eight clusters of high heterogeneity; of these, two major clusters (I and V) appeared to be clonal in origin. Analysis of representative isolates from different clusters by MLST revealed that most of the isolates belonged to sequence type 103 of CC103(B) . Second most prevalent ST belonged to clonal complex (CC) 92(B) which is also referred to as international clone II. Most of the isolates were multi-drug resistant, being susceptible only to polymyxin-B and newer quinolones. Class D β-lactamases such as blaOXA-51-like (100%), blaOXA-23-like (56.8%) and blaOXA-24-like (14.8%) were found to be predominant, followed by a class B β-lactamase, namely blaIMP-1 (40.7%); none of the isolates had blaOXA-58 like, blaNDM-1 or blaSIM-1 . Genes of efflux-pump adeABC were predominant, most of isolates being biofilm producers that were PCR-positive for autoinducer synthase gene (>94%). Carbapenem non-susceptible isolates were highly diverse and present throughout the hospital irrespective of type of ward or intensive care unit. Although previous reports have documented diverse resistant mechanisms in A. baumannii, production of MBL and OXA-type of carbapenamases were found to be the predominant mechanism(s) of carbapenem resistance identified in strains isolated from Southern India. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. [Advances in application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 system in stem cells research].

    PubMed

    Sun, S J; Huo, J H; Geng, Z J; Sun, X Y; Fu, X B

    2018-04-20

    Gene engineering has attracted worldwide attention because of its ability of precise location of disease mutations in genome. As a new gene editing technology, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system is simple, fast, and accurate to operate at a specific gene site. It overcomes the long-standing problem of conventional operation. At the same time, stem cells are a good foundation for establishing disease model in vitro. Therefore, it has great significance to combine stem cells with the rapidly developing gene manipulation techniques. In this review, we mainly focus on the mechanism of CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its application in stem cell genomic editing, so as to pave the way for promoting rapid application and development of CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

  17. Crystal Structure of the Dimeric Oct6 (Pou3fl) POU Domain Bound to Palindromic MORE DNA

    SciTech Connect

    R Jauch; S Choo; C Ng

    POU domains (named after their identification in Pit1, Oct1 unc86) are found in around 15 transcription factors encoded in mammalian genomes many of which feature prominently as key regulators at development bifurcations. For example, the POU III class Octamer binding protein 6 (Oct6) is expressed in embryonic stem cells and during neural development and drives the differentia5tion of myelinated cells in the central and peripheral nervous system. Defects in oct6 expression levels are linked to neurological disorders such as schizophrenia. POU proteins contain a bi-partite DNA binding domain that assembles on various DNA motifs with differentially configured subdomains. Intriguingly, alternativemore » configurations of POU domains on different DNA sites were shown to affect the subsequent recruitment of transcriptional coactivators. Namely, binding of Oct1 to a Palindromic Oct-factor Recognition Element (PORE) was shown to facilitate the recruitment of the OBF1 coactivator whereas More of PORE (MORE) bound Oct1 does not. Moreover, Pit1 was shown to recruit the corepressor N-CoR only when bound to a variant MORE motif with a 2 bp half-site spacing. Therefore, POU proteins are seen as a paradigm for DNA induced allosteric effects on transcription factors modulating their regulatory potential. However, a big unresolved conundrum for the POU class and for most if not all other transcription factor classes is how highly similar proteins regulate different sets of genes causing fundamentally different biological responses. Ultimately, there must be subtle features enabling those factors to engage in contrasting molecular interactions in the cell. Thus, the dissection of the molecular details of the transcription-DNA recognition in general, and the formation of multimeric regulatory complexes, in particular, is highly desirable. To contribute to these efforts they solved the 2.05 {angstrom} crystal structure of Oct6 bound as a symmetrical homodimer to palindromic MORE

  18. Evaluation of repetitive element polymerase chain reaction for surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at a large academic medical center and community hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Hua; Stevenson, Kurt B; Hines, Lisa; Mediavilla, José R; Khan, Yosef; Soni, Ruchi; Dutch, Wendy; Brandt, Eric; Bannerman, Tammy; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Pancholi, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) typing has been used for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain characterization. The goal of this study was to determine if a rapid commercial rep-PCR system, DiversiLab™ (DL; bioMérieux, Durham, NC, USA), could be used for MRSA surveillance at a large medical center and community hospitals. A total of 1286 MRSA isolates genotyped by the DL system were distributed into 84 distinct rep-PCR patterns: 737/1286 (57%) were clustered into 6 major rep-PCR patterns. A subset of 220 isolates was further typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and SCCmec typing. The 220 isolates were distributed into 80 rep-PCR patterns, 94 PFGE pulsotypes, 27 spa, and 3 SCCmec types. The DL rep-PCR system is sufficient for surveillance, but the DL system alone cannot be used to compare data to other institutions until a standardized nomenclature is established and the DL MRSA reference library is expanded. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Single-Step qPCR and dPCR Detection of Diverse CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing Events In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Falabella, Micol; Sun, Linqing; Barr, Justin; Pena, Andressa Z; Kershaw, Erin E; Gingras, Sebastien; Goncharova, Elena A; Kaufman, Brett A

    2017-10-05

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-based technology is currently the most flexible means to create targeted mutations by recombination or indel mutations by nonhomologous end joining. During mouse transgenesis, recombinant and indel alleles are often pursued simultaneously. Multiple alleles can be formed in each animal to create significant genetic complexity that complicates the CRISPR-Cas9 approach and analysis. Currently, there are no rapid methods to measure the extent of on-site editing with broad mutation sensitivity. In this study, we demonstrate the allelic diversity arising from targeted CRISPR editing in founder mice. Using this DNA sample collection, we validated specific quantitative and digital PCR methods (qPCR and dPCR, respectively) for measuring the frequency of on-target editing in founder mice. We found that locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes combined with an internal reference probe (Drop-Off Assay) provide accurate measurements of editing rates. The Drop-Off LNA Assay also detected on-target CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing in blastocysts with a sensitivity comparable to PCR-clone sequencing. Lastly, we demonstrate that the allele-specific LNA probes used in qPCR competitor assays can accurately detect recombinant mutations in founder mice. In summary, we show that LNA-based qPCR and dPCR assays provide a rapid method for quantifying the extent of on-target genome editing in vivo , testing RNA guides, and detecting recombinant mutations. Copyright © 2017 Falabella et al.

  20. QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held a workshop in January 2003 on the detection of viruses in water using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Speakers were asked to address a series of specific questions, including whether a single standard method coul...

  1. QUALITY CONTROLS FOR PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to present an overview of the quality control (QC) sections of a draft EPA document entitled, "Quality Assurance/Quality Control Guidance for Laboratories Performing PCR Analyses on Environmental Samples." This document has been prepared by th...

  2. Genetic and phenotypic diversity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacteria isolated from 2,4-D-treated field soils.

    PubMed Central

    Ka, J O; Holben, W E; Tiedje, J M

    1994-01-01

    Forty-seven numerically dominant 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacteria were isolated at different times from 1989 through 1992 from eight agricultural plots (3.6 by 9.1 m) which were either not treated with 2,4-D or treated with 2,4-D at three different concentrations. Isolates were obtained from the most dilute positive most-probable-number tubes inoculated with soil samples from the different plots on seven sampling dates over the 3-year period. The isolates were compared by using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles, chromosomal patterns obtained by PCR amplification of repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) sequences, and hybridization patterns obtained with probes for the tfd genes of plasmid pJP4 and a probe (Spa probe) that detects a distinctly different 2,4-D-degrading isolate, Sphingomonas paucimobilis (formerly Pseudomonas paucimobilis). A total of 57% of the isolates were identified to the species level by the FAME analysis, and these isolates were strains of Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, or Alcaligenes species. Hybridization analysis revealed four groups. Group I strains, which exhibited sequence homology with tfdA, -B, -C, and -D genes, were rather diverse, as determined by both the FAME analysis and the REP-PCR analysis. Group II, which exhibited homology only with the tfdA gene, was a small group and was probably a subset of group I. All group I and II strains had plasmids. Hybridization analysis revealed that the tfd genes were located on plasmids in 75% of these strains and on the chromosome or a large plasmid in the other 25% of the strains. One strain exhibited tfdA and -B hybridization associated with a plasmid band, while tfdC and -D hybridized with the chromosomal band area. The group III strains exhibited no detectable homology to tfd genes but hybridized to the Spa probe. The members of this group were tightly clustered as determined by both the FAME analysis and the REP-PCR analysis, were distinctly different from group

  3. Clonal spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii across a community hospital and its affiliated long-term care facilities: A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Kuo, Han-Yueh; Hsu, Po-Jui; Chang, Chien-Min; Chen, Jiann-Yuan; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing; Chen, Hsin-Yao; Liou, Ming-Li

    2018-06-01

    The global spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is now a public health problem. In Taiwan, the relationship of the CRAB circulation between long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and acute care hospitals remains unclear. Here, we use molecular epidemiologic methods to describe the transmission of CRAB isolates between a community hospital and its affiliated LTCFs. Subjects localized in eight LTCFs who were not admitted acute care hospitals in recent a year were enrolled in this study. CRAB isolates were collected during June 1, 2015 and December 31, 2015. DNA fingerprinting was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (Rep-PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Multiplex-PCR amplification for the detection of bla OXA genes and beta-lactamase genes was performed. Twenty one subjects were enrolled. The major hospital admission diagnoses among the 21 subjects were pneumonia (71.4%). Genotyping of CRAB isolates by Rep-PCR revealed that a major clone, designated as type III, comprised fifteen of 21 (71.4%) isolates taken from 5 LTCFs and one study hospital. The isolates with type III were subtyped by PubMLST into 4 ST types. The most prevalent bla OXA genes in these isolates were bla OXA-23 -like (85.70%, 18/21). Twenty isolates carried bla SHV. CONCLUSION: Clonal spread of bla OxA-23 -carrying CRABs was found around LTCFs and the affiliated hospital. In Taiwan, it is important for the government to focus attention on the importance of identifying and tracing CRAB infections in LTCFs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Taxonomic Subgroups of Pasteurella multocida Correlate with Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Henry I.; Hulten, Kristina; Clarridge III, Jill E.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a small nonmotile gram-negative coccobacillus that is found in the nasopharynx and gastrointestinal tract of many wild and domesticated animals. In humans it most commonly causes cellulitis and localized superficial skin abscesses following an animal bite or scratch. The respiratory tract is the second most common site of infection for Pasteurella. Of the more than 17 species of Pasteurella known, Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica are among the most common pathogens in humans. With the use of molecular techniques, distinction between different subspecies of P. multocida can be made more easily and accurately. We used the sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-PCR (REP-PCR) to characterize 20 strains (14 of P. multocida subsp. multocida and 6 of P. multocida subsp. septica; the 16S rDNA is identical for P. multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. gallicida but differs from that of P. multocida subsp. septica) isolated from various anatomic sites. We found excellent correlation between the 16S rDNA sequence (a marker for a small conserved region of the genome), REP-PCR (a marker for a large portion of the genome), and biochemical tests (trehalose and sorbitol). We also found a correlation between the clinical presentation and the taxonomic group, with P. multocida subsp. septica more often associated with wounds than with respiratory infections (67 versus 17%, respectively) (P < 0.05, Z test) and P. multocida subsp. multocida more often associated with respiratory infections than with wounds (71 versus 14%, respectively) (P < 0.05, Z test). PMID:12202590

  5. Differing specificities and isotypes of anti-citrullinated peptide/protein antibodies in palindromic rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Villalba, Sonia; Gomara, María José; Cañete, Juan D; Ramírez, Julio; Salvador, Georgina; Ruiz-Esquide, Virginia; Hernández, Maria Victoria; Inciarte-Mundo, José; Haro, Isabel; Sanmartí, Raimon

    2017-06-15

    To analyze differences in the recognition of anti-citrullinated peptide/protein antibody (ACPA) citrullinated epitopes and isotypes in patients with palindromic rheumatism (PR) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ACPA fine specificities (citrullinated peptides of enolase, fibrin, and vimentin) and isotypes (IgG, IgM, and IgA) were analyzed in 54 patients with longstanding PR and 54 patients with established RA. CCP2 tested positive in 66.7% of patients with PR and RA. The ACPA distribution of fine specificities and isotypes differed between PR and RA patients. PR patients had a lower frequency of fine ACPA specificities than RA patients, which was significant in the case of a peptide derived from vimentin (PR 24.1% vs. 59.3% RA; p < 0.001). The mean number of ACPA specificities was lower in PR than in RA patients, and only 25.9% of PR patients recognized ≥2 additional specificities compared with 46.3% of RA patients. Significantly less isotype usage, especially IgA, was observed in PR patients. The ACPA immune response differed in patients with PR and RA, with fewer fine specificities and isotype usage in patients with PR. Some patients with PR may have impaired maturation of the B-cell response against citrullinated peptides with no progression to RA.

  6. Gene Repression in Haloarchaea Using the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-Cas I-B System.

    PubMed

    Stachler, Aris-Edda; Marchfelder, Anita

    2016-07-15

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system is used by bacteria and archaea to fend off foreign genetic elements. Since its discovery it has been developed into numerous applications like genome editing and regulation of transcription in eukaryotes and bacteria. For archaea currently no tools for transcriptional repression exist. Because molecular biology analyses in archaea become more and more widespread such a tool is vital for investigating the biological function of essential genes in archaea. Here we use the model archaeon Haloferax volcanii to demonstrate that its endogenous CRISPR-Cas system I-B can be harnessed to repress gene expression in archaea. Deletion of cas3 and cas6b genes results in efficient repression of transcription. crRNAs targeting the promoter region reduced transcript levels down to 8%. crRNAs targeting the reading frame have only slight impact on transcription. crRNAs that target the coding strand repress expression only down to 88%, whereas crRNAs targeting the template strand repress expression down to 8%. Repression of an essential gene results in reduction of transcription levels down to 22%. Targeting efficiencies can be enhanced by expressing a catalytically inactive Cas3 mutant. Genes can be targeted on plasmids or on the chromosome, they can be monocistronic or part of a polycistronic operon. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs): the hallmark of an ingenious antiviral defense mechanism in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Sinan; Westra, Edze R; van der Oost, John; Brouns, Stan J J

    2011-04-01

    Many prokaryotes contain the recently discovered defense system against mobile genetic elements. This defense system contains a unique type of repetitive DNA stretches, termed Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs). CRISPRs consist of identical repeated DNA sequences (repeats), interspaced by highly variable sequences referred to as spacers. The spacers originate from either phages or plasmids and comprise the prokaryotes' 'immunological memory'. CRISPR-associated (cas) genes encode conserved proteins that together with CRISPRs make-up the CRISPR/Cas system, responsible for defending the prokaryotic cell against invaders. CRISPR-mediated resistance has been proposed to involve three stages: (i) CRISPR-Adaptation, the invader DNA is encountered by the CRISPR/Cas machinery and an invader-derived short DNA fragment is incorporated in the CRISPR array. (ii) CRISPR-Expression, the CRISPR array is transcribed and the transcript is processed by Cas proteins. (iii) CRISPR-Interference, the invaders' nucleic acid is recognized by complementarity to the crRNA and neutralized. An application of the CRISPR/Cas system is the immunization of industry-relevant prokaryotes (or eukaryotes) against mobile-genetic invasion. In addition, the high variability of the CRISPR spacer content can be exploited for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Despite impressive progress during the last couple of years, the elucidation of several fundamental details will be a major challenge in future research.

  8. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats Are emm Type-Specific in Highly Prevalent Group A Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Po-Xing; Chan, Yuen-Chi; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Wang, Shu-Ying; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Lin, Yee-Shin; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are the bacterial adaptive immune system against foreign nucleic acids. Given the variable nature of CRISPR, it could be a good marker for molecular epidemiology. Group A streptococcus is one of the major human pathogens. It has two CRISPR loci, including CRISPR01 and CRISPR02. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CRISPR-associated gene cassettes (cas) and CRISPR arrays in highly prevalent emm types. The cas cassette and CRISPR array in two CRISPR loci were analyzed in a total of 332 strains, including emm1, emm3, emm4, emm12, and emm28 strains. The CRISPR type was defined by the spacer content of each CRISPR array. All strains had at least one cas cassette or CRISPR array. More than 90% of the spacers were found in one emm type, specifically. Comparing the consistency between emm and CRISPR types by Simpson's index of diversity and the adjusted Wallace coefficient, CRISPR01 type was concordant to emm type, and CRISPR02 showed unidirectional congruence to emm type, suggesting that at least for the majority of isolates causing infection in high income countries, the emm type can be inferred from CRISPR analysis, which can further discriminate isolates sharing the same emm type.

  9. Diversity, evolution, and functionality of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) regions in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion

    2011-06-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas system confers acquired heritable immunity against mobile nucleic acid elements in prokaryotes, limiting phage infection and horizontal gene transfer of plasmids. In CRISPR arrays, characteristic repeats are interspersed with similarly sized nonrepetitive spacers derived from transmissible genetic elements and acquired when the cell is challenged with foreign DNA. New spacers are added sequentially and the number and type of CRISPR units can differ among strains, providing a record of phage/plasmid exposure within a species and giving a valuable typing tool. The aim of this work was to investigate CRISPR diversity in the highly homogeneous species Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. A total of 18 CRISPR genotypes were defined within a collection of 37 cosmopolitan strains. Strains from Spiraeoideae plants clustered in three major groups: groups II and III were composed exclusively of bacteria originating from the United States, whereas group I generally contained strains of more recent dissemination obtained in Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East. Strains from Rosoideae and Indian hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis indica) clustered separately and displayed a higher intrinsic diversity than that of isolates from Spiraeoideae plants. Reciprocal exclusion was generally observed between plasmid content and cognate spacer sequences, supporting the role of the CRISPR/Cas system in protecting against foreign DNA elements. However, in several group III strains, retention of plasmid pEU30 is inconsistent with a functional CRISPR/Cas system.

  10. Gene Repression in Haloarchaea Using the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-Cas I-B System*

    PubMed Central

    Stachler, Aris-Edda; Marchfelder, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system is used by bacteria and archaea to fend off foreign genetic elements. Since its discovery it has been developed into numerous applications like genome editing and regulation of transcription in eukaryotes and bacteria. For archaea currently no tools for transcriptional repression exist. Because molecular biology analyses in archaea become more and more widespread such a tool is vital for investigating the biological function of essential genes in archaea. Here we use the model archaeon Haloferax volcanii to demonstrate that its endogenous CRISPR-Cas system I-B can be harnessed to repress gene expression in archaea. Deletion of cas3 and cas6b genes results in efficient repression of transcription. crRNAs targeting the promoter region reduced transcript levels down to 8%. crRNAs targeting the reading frame have only slight impact on transcription. crRNAs that target the coding strand repress expression only down to 88%, whereas crRNAs targeting the template strand repress expression down to 8%. Repression of an essential gene results in reduction of transcription levels down to 22%. Targeting efficiencies can be enhanced by expressing a catalytically inactive Cas3 mutant. Genes can be targeted on plasmids or on the chromosome, they can be monocistronic or part of a polycistronic operon. PMID:27226589

  11. Comparisons of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and viromes in human saliva reveal bacterial adaptations to salivary viruses.

    PubMed

    Pride, David T; Salzman, Julia; Relman, David A

    2012-09-01

    Explorations of human microbiota have provided substantial insight into microbial community composition; however, little is known about interactions between various microbial components in human ecosystems. In response to the powerful impact of viral predation, bacteria have acquired potent defences, including an adaptive immune response based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)/Cas system. To improve our understanding of the interactions between bacteria and their viruses in humans, we analysed 13 977 streptococcal CRISPR sequences and compared them with 2 588 172 virome reads in the saliva of four human subjects over 17 months. We found a diverse array of viruses and CRISPR spacers, many of which were specific to each subject and time point. There were numerous viral sequences matching CRISPR spacers; these matches were highly specific for salivary viruses. We determined that spacers and viruses coexist at the same time, which suggests that streptococcal CRISPR/Cas systems are under constant pressure from salivary viruses. CRISPRs in some subjects were just as likely to match viral sequences from other subjects as they were to match viruses from the same subject. Because interactions between bacteria and viruses help to determine the structure of bacterial communities, CRISPR-virus analyses are likely to provide insight into the forces shaping the human microbiome. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) RNAs in the Porphyromonas gingivalis CRISPR-Cas I-C System.

    PubMed

    Burmistrz, Michal; Rodriguez Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Krochmal, Daniel; Staniec, Dominika; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-CRISPR-associated protein) system is unique to prokaryotes and provides the majority of bacteria and archaea with immunity against nucleic acids of foreign origin. CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are the key element of this system, since they are responsible for its selectivity and effectiveness. Typical crRNAs consist of a spacer sequence flanked with 5' and 3' handles originating from repeat sequences that are important for recognition of these small RNAs by the Cas machinery. In this investigation, we studied the type I-C CRISPR-Cas system in Porphyromonas gingivalis , a human pathogen associated with periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and aspiration pneumonia. We demonstrated the importance of the 5' handle for crRNA recognition by the effector complex and consequently activity, as well as secondary trimming of the 3' handle, which was not affected by modifications of the repeat sequence. IMPORTANCE Porphyromonas gingivalis , a clinically relevant Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium, is one of the major etiologic agents of periodontitis and has been linked with the development of other clinical conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and aspiration pneumonia. The presented results on the biogenesis and functions of crRNAs expand our understanding of CRISPR-Cas cellular defenses in P. gingivalis and of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats Are emm Type-Specific in Highly Prevalent Group A Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Po-Xing; Chan, Yuen-Chi; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Wang, Shu-Ying; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Lin, Yee-Shin; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are the bacterial adaptive immune system against foreign nucleic acids. Given the variable nature of CRISPR, it could be a good marker for molecular epidemiology. Group A streptococcus is one of the major human pathogens. It has two CRISPR loci, including CRISPR01 and CRISPR02. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CRISPR-associated gene cassettes (cas) and CRISPR arrays in highly prevalent emm types. The cas cassette and CRISPR array in two CRISPR loci were analyzed in a total of 332 strains, including emm1, emm3, emm4, emm12, and emm28 strains. The CRISPR type was defined by the spacer content of each CRISPR array. All strains had at least one cas cassette or CRISPR array. More than 90% of the spacers were found in one emm type, specifically. Comparing the consistency between emm and CRISPR types by Simpson’s index of diversity and the adjusted Wallace coefficient, CRISPR01 type was concordant to emm type, and CRISPR02 showed unidirectional congruence to emm type, suggesting that at least for the majority of isolates causing infection in high income countries, the emm type can be inferred from CRISPR analysis, which can further discriminate isolates sharing the same emm type. PMID:26710228

  14. Double-stranded endonuclease activity in Bacillus halodurans clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas2 protein.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Ding, Fran; Haitjema, Charles; Huang, Qingqiu; DeLisa, Matthew P; Ke, Ailong

    2012-10-19

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system is a prokaryotic RNA-based adaptive immune system against extrachromosomal genetic elements. Cas2 is a universally conserved core CRISPR-associated protein required for the acquisition of new spacers for CRISPR adaptation. It was previously characterized as an endoribonuclease with preference for single-stranded (ss)RNA. Here, we show using crystallography, mutagenesis, and isothermal titration calorimetry that the Bacillus halodurans Cas2 (Bha_Cas2) from the subtype I-C/Dvulg CRISPR instead possesses metal-dependent endonuclease activity against double-stranded (ds)DNA. This activity is consistent with its putative function in producing new spacers for insertion into the 5'-end of the CRISPR locus. Mutagenesis and isothermal titration calorimetry studies revealed that a single divalent metal ion (Mg(2+) or Mn(2+)), coordinated by a symmetric Asp pair in the Bha_Cas2 dimer, is involved in the catalysis. We envision that a pH-dependent conformational change switches Cas2 into a metal-binding competent conformation for catalysis. We further propose that the distinct substrate preferences among Cas2 proteins may be determined by the sequence and structure in the β1-α1 loop.

  15. A novel family of sequence-specific endoribonucleases associated with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    PubMed

    Beloglazova, Natalia; Brown, Greg; Zimmerman, Matthew D; Proudfoot, Michael; Makarova, Kira S; Kudritska, Marina; Kochinyan, Samvel; Wang, Shuren; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Minor, Wladek; Koonin, Eugene V; Edwards, Aled M; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2008-07-18

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) together with the associated CAS proteins protect microbial cells from invasion by foreign genetic elements using presently unknown molecular mechanisms. All CRISPR systems contain proteins of the CAS2 family, suggesting that these uncharacterized proteins play a central role in this process. Here we show that the CAS2 proteins represent a novel family of endoribonucleases. Six purified CAS2 proteins from diverse organisms cleaved single-stranded RNAs preferentially within U-rich regions. A representative CAS2 enzyme, SSO1404 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, cleaved the phosphodiester linkage on the 3'-side and generated 5'-phosphate- and 3'-hydroxyl-terminated oligonucleotides. The crystal structure of SSO1404 was solved at 1.6A resolution revealing the first ribonuclease with a ferredoxin-like fold. Mutagenesis of SSO1404 identified six residues (Tyr-9, Asp-10, Arg-17, Arg-19, Arg-31, and Phe-37) that are important for enzymatic activity and suggested that Asp-10 might be the principal catalytic residue. Thus, CAS2 proteins are sequence-specific endoribonucleases, and we propose that their role in the CRISPR-mediated anti-phage defense might involve degradation of phage or cellular mRNAs.

  16. A Novel Family of Sequence-specific Endoribonucleases Associated with the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Beloglazova, Natalia; Brown, Greg; Zimmerman, Matthew D.

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) together with the associated CAS proteins protect microbial cells from invasion by foreign genetic elements using presently unknown molecular mechanisms. All CRISPR systems contain proteins of the CAS2 family, suggesting that these uncharacterized proteins play a central role in this process. Here we show that the CAS2 proteins represent a novel family of endoribonucleases. Six purified CAS2 proteins from diverse organisms cleaved single-stranded RNAs preferentially within U-rich regions. A representative CAS2 enzyme, SSO1404 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, cleaved the phosphodiester linkage on the 3'-side and generated 5'-phosphate- and 3'-hydroxyl-terminated oligonucleotides. The crystal structure ofmore » SSO1404 was solved at 1.6{angstrom} resolution revealing the first ribonuclease with a ferredoxin-like fold. Mutagenesis of SSO1404 identified six residues (Tyr-9, Asp-10, Arg-17, Arg-19, Arg-31, and Phe-37) that are important for enzymatic activity and suggested that Asp-10 might be the principal catalytic residue. Thus, CAS2 proteins are sequence-specific endoribonucleases, and we propose that their role in the CRISPR-mediated anti-phage defense might involve degradation of phage or cellular mRNAs.« less

  17. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) RNAs in the Porphyromonas gingivalis CRISPR-Cas I-C System

    PubMed Central

    Burmistrz, Michal; Rodriguez Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Krochmal, Daniel; Staniec, Dominika

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat–CRISPR-associated protein) system is unique to prokaryotes and provides the majority of bacteria and archaea with immunity against nucleic acids of foreign origin. CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are the key element of this system, since they are responsible for its selectivity and effectiveness. Typical crRNAs consist of a spacer sequence flanked with 5′ and 3′ handles originating from repeat sequences that are important for recognition of these small RNAs by the Cas machinery. In this investigation, we studied the type I-C CRISPR-Cas system in Porphyromonas gingivalis, a human pathogen associated with periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and aspiration pneumonia. We demonstrated the importance of the 5′ handle for crRNA recognition by the effector complex and consequently activity, as well as secondary trimming of the 3′ handle, which was not affected by modifications of the repeat sequence. IMPORTANCE Porphyromonas gingivalis, a clinically relevant Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium, is one of the major etiologic agents of periodontitis and has been linked with the development of other clinical conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and aspiration pneumonia. The presented results on the biogenesis and functions of crRNAs expand our understanding of CRISPR-Cas cellular defenses in P. gingivalis and of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria. PMID:28893837

  18. Double-stranded Endonuclease Activity in Bacillus halodurans Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas2 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Ding, Fran; Haitjema, Charles; Huang, Qingqiu; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Ke, Ailong

    2012-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system is a prokaryotic RNA-based adaptive immune system against extrachromosomal genetic elements. Cas2 is a universally conserved core CRISPR-associated protein required for the acquisition of new spacers for CRISPR adaptation. It was previously characterized as an endoribonuclease with preference for single-stranded (ss)RNA. Here, we show using crystallography, mutagenesis, and isothermal titration calorimetry that the Bacillus halodurans Cas2 (Bha_Cas2) from the subtype I-C/Dvulg CRISPR instead possesses metal-dependent endonuclease activity against double-stranded (ds)DNA. This activity is consistent with its putative function in producing new spacers for insertion into the 5′-end of the CRISPR locus. Mutagenesis and isothermal titration calorimetry studies revealed that a single divalent metal ion (Mg2+ or Mn2+), coordinated by a symmetric Asp pair in the Bha_Cas2 dimer, is involved in the catalysis. We envision that a pH-dependent conformational change switches Cas2 into a metal-binding competent conformation for catalysis. We further propose that the distinct substrate preferences among Cas2 proteins may be determined by the sequence and structure in the β1–α1 loop. PMID:22942283

  19. MAMMALIAN DNA IN PCR REAGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high- cycle PCR amplification t...

  20. Computing the full spectrum of large sparse palindromic quadratic eigenvalue problems arising from surface Green's function calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tsung-Ming; Lin, Wen-Wei; Tian, Heng; Chen, Guan-Hua

    2018-03-01

    Full spectrum of a large sparse ⊤-palindromic quadratic eigenvalue problem (⊤-PQEP) is considered arguably for the first time in this article. Such a problem is posed by calculation of surface Green's functions (SGFs) of mesoscopic transistors with a tremendous non-periodic cross-section. For this problem, general purpose eigensolvers are not efficient, nor is advisable to resort to the decimation method etc. to obtain the Wiener-Hopf factorization. After reviewing some rigorous understanding of SGF calculation from the perspective of ⊤-PQEP and nonlinear matrix equation, we present our new approach to this problem. In a nutshell, the unit disk where the spectrum of interest lies is broken down adaptively into pieces small enough that they each can be locally tackled by the generalized ⊤-skew-Hamiltonian implicitly restarted shift-and-invert Arnoldi (G⊤SHIRA) algorithm with suitable shifts and other parameters, and the eigenvalues missed by this divide-and-conquer strategy can be recovered thanks to the accurate estimation provided by our newly developed scheme. Notably the novel non-equivalence deflation is proposed to avoid as much as possible duplication of nearby known eigenvalues when a new shift of G⊤SHIRA is determined. We demonstrate our new approach by calculating the SGF of a realistic nanowire whose unit cell is described by a matrix of size 4000 × 4000 at the density functional tight binding level, corresponding to a 8 × 8nm2 cross-section. We believe that quantum transport simulation of realistic nano-devices in the mesoscopic regime will greatly benefit from this work.

  1. Short communication: Determination of Salmonella clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) diversity on dairy farms in Wisconsin and Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Wehnes, C A; Rehberger, T G; Barrangou, R; Smith, A H

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica is a foodborne pathogen able to cause disease in both humans and animals. Diverse serovars of this pathogen exist, some of which are host specific, causing a range of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic infection through morbidity and mortality. According to a 2007 survey by the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System, fecal shedding of Salmonella from healthy cows occurs on 39.7% of dairy farms in the United States. Certain serovars are frequently isolated from dairy farms and the majority of isolates from the National Animal Health Monitoring System study were represented by 5 serovars; however, genotypic diversity was not examined. The objective of this study was to determine the diversity of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci in Salmonella collected from 8 dairy farms with a previous history of salmonellosis. None of the cows or calves sampled on 2 of the 8 dairy farms were shedding Salmonella, although Salmonella was detected in a cow bedding sample on 1 of these farms. Salmonella populations were discrete on each farm, according to CRISPR typing, with the exception of an Anatum var. 15+ type on farms 5 and 6 and the Montevideo type on farms 1 and 2. One to 4 distinct CRISPR genotypes were identified per farm. The CRISPR typing differed within serovars, as Montevideo, Anatum var. 15+, and Muenster serovars had no overlap of spacer content, even on the same farm, reflecting between- and within-serovar genetic diversity. The dynamic nature of Salmonella populations was shown in a farm that was sampled longitudinally over 13.5 mo. Changes in serovar from 3,19:-:z27 to Montevideo was observed between the first sampling time and 8 mo later, with concomitant change in CRISPR alleles. The results indicate that Salmonella strains present in smaller dairy herds (<500 head) are specific to that farm and new Salmonella strains may emerge over time. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  2. Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Carriage in Pregnant Women as Deciphered by Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat Analysis.

    PubMed

    Beauruelle, Clemence; Pastuszka, Adeline; Mereghetti, Laurent; Lanotte, Philippe

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated the diversity of group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaginal carriage populations in pregnant women. For this purpose, we studied each isolate present in a primary culture of a vaginal swab using a new approach based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) locus analysis. To evaluate the CRISPR array composition rapidly, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed. For each different pattern observed, the CRISPR array was sequenced and capsular typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. A total of 970 isolates from 10 women were analyzed by CRISPR-RFLP. Each woman carrying GBS isolates presented one to five specific "personal" patterns. Five women showed similar isolates with specific and unique restriction patterns, suggesting the carriage of a single GBS clone. Different patterns were observed among isolates from the other five women. For three of these, CRISPR locus sequencing highlighted low levels of internal modifications in the locus backbone, whereas there were high levels of modifications for the last two women, suggesting the carriage of two different clones. These two clones were closely related, having the same ancestral spacer(s), the same capsular type and, in one case, the same ST, but showed different antibiotic resistance patterns in pairs. Eight of 10 women were colonized by a single GBS clone, while two of them were colonized by two strains, leading to a risk of selection of more-virulent and/or more-resistant clones during antibiotic prophylaxis. This CRISPR analysis made it possible to separate isolates belonging to a single capsular type and sequence type, highlighting the greater discriminating power of this approach. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Genotype variation and genetic relationship among Escherichia coli from nursery pigs located in different pens in the same farm.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Ahmed, Shahana; Hansen, Monica Hegstad; Denwood, Matthew; Zachariasen, Camilla; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-01-05

    So far, little is known about the genetic diversity and relatedness among Escherichia coli (E. coli) populations in the gut of swine. Information on this is required to improve modeling studies on antimicrobial resistance aiming to fight its occurrence and development. This work evaluated the genotype variation of E. coli isolated from swine fecal samples at the single pig and pen level, as well as between pens using repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR fingerprinting and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The genetic diversity of strains collected from media supplemented with ampicillin or tetracycline was also investigated. Besides, the genetic relationship of strains within each pen, between pens, as well as among strains within each group isolated from media with or without antibiotic, was assessed. REP-PCR patterns (N = 75) were generated for all the isolates (N = 720). Two profiles (REP_2 and REP_5) dominated, accounting for 23.7 and 23.3% of all isolates, respectively. At the pig and at the pen level, the number of different strains ranged from two to eight, and from 27 to 31, respectively, and multiple isolates from a single pen were found to be identical; however, in some of the pens, additional strains occurred at a lower frequency. E. coli isolates yielding different REP profiles were subjected to PFGE and led to 41 different genotypes which were also compared. Despite the presence of dominant strains, our results suggest a high genetic diversity of E. coli strains exist at the pen level and between pens. Selection with antibiotic seems to not affect the genetic diversity. The dominant REP profiles were the same found in a previous study in Denmark, which highlights that the same predominant strains are circulating in pigs of this country and might represent the archetypal E.coli commensal in pigs.

  4. Digital PCR: A brief history.

    PubMed

    Morley, Alexander A

    2014-09-01

    Digital PCR for quantification of a target of interest has been independently developed several times, being described in 1990 and 1991 using the term "limiting dilution PCR" and in 1999 using the term "digital PCR". It came into use in the decade following its first development but its use was cut short by the description of real-time PCR in 1996. However digital PCR has now had a renaissance due to the recent development of new instruments and chemistry which have made it a much simpler and more practical technique.

  5. A PCR technique based on the Hip1 interspersed repetitive sequence distinguishes cyanobacterial species and strains.

    PubMed

    Smith, J K; Parry, J D; Day, J G; Smith, R J

    1998-10-01

    The use of primers based on the Hip1 sequence as a typing technique for cyanobacteria has been investigated. The discovery of short repetitive sequence structures in bacterial DNA during the last decade has led to the development of PCR-based methods for typing, i.e., distinguishing and identifying, bacterial species and strains. An octameric palindromic sequence known as Hip1 has been shown to be present in the chromosomal DNA of many species of cyanobacteria as a highly repetitious interspersed sequence. PCR primers were constructed that extended the Hip1 sequence at the 3' end by two bases. Five of the 16 possible extended primers were tested. Each of the five primers produced a different set of products when used to prime PCR from cyanobacterial genomic DNA. Each primer produced a distinct set of products for each of the 15 cyanobacterial species tested. The ability of Hip1-based PCR to resolve taxonomic differences was assessed by analysis of independent isolates of Anabaena flos-aquae and Nostoc ellipsosporum obtained from the CCAP (Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa, IFE, Cumbria, UK). A PCR-based RFLP analysis of products amplified from the 23S-16S rDNA intergenic region was used to characterize the isolates and to compare with the Hip1 typing data. The RFLP and Hip1 typing yielded similar results and both techniques were able to distinguish different strains. On the basis of these results it is suggested that the Hip1 PCR technique may assist in distinguishing cyanobacterial species and strains.

  6. Differentiation of fecal Escherichia coli from poultry and free-living birds by (GTG)5-PCR genomic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Bidyut R; Broersma, Klaas; Mazumder, Asit

    2008-04-01

    Determination of the non-point sources of fecal pollution is essential for the assessment of potential public health risk and development of appropriate management practices for prevention of further contamination. Repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR coupled with (GTG)(5) primer [(GTG)(5)-PCR] was performed on 573 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from the feces of poultry (chicken, duck and turkey) and free-living (Canada goose, hawk, magpie, seagull and songbird) birds to evaluate the efficacy of (GTG)(5)-PCR genomic fingerprinting in the prediction of the correct source of fecal pollution. A discriminant analysis with the jack-knife algorithm of (GTG)(5)-PCR DNA fingerprints revealed that 95%, 94.1%, 93.2%, 84.6%, 79.7%, 76.7%, 75.3% and 70.7% of magpie, hawk, turkey, seagull, Canada goose, chicken, duck and songbird fecal E. coli isolates classified into the correct host source, respectively. The results of this study indicate that (GTG)(5)-PCR can be considered to be a complementary molecular tool for the rapid determination of E. coli isolates identity and tracking the non-point sources of fecal pollution.

  7. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-Based Genome Surgery for the Treatment of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Lee, Ting-Ting; Wu, Wei-Pu; Xu, Christine L; Park, Karen S; Cui, Xuan; Justus, Sally; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Jauregui, Ruben; Su, Pei-Yin; Tsang, Stephen H

    2018-05-05

    To develop a universal gene therapy to overcome the genetic heterogeneity in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) resulting from mutations in rhodopsin (RHO). Experimental study for a combination gene therapy that uses both gene ablation and gene replacement. This study included 2 kinds of human RHO mutation knock-in mouse models: Rho P23H and Rho D190N . In total, 23 Rho P23H/P23H , 43 Rho P23H/+ , and 31 Rho D190N/+ mice were used for analysis. This study involved gene therapy using dual adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) that (1) destroy expression of the endogenous Rho gene in a mutation-independent manner via an improved clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-based gene deletion and (2) enable expression of wild-type protein via exogenous cDNA. Electroretinographic and histologic analysis. The thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) after the subretinal injection of combination ablate-and-replace gene therapy was approximately 17% to 36% more than the ONL thickness resulting from gene replacement-only therapy at 3 months after AAV injection. Furthermore, electroretinography results demonstrated that the a and b waves of both Rho P23H and Rho D190N disease models were preserved more significantly using ablate-and-replace gene therapy (P < 0.001), but not by gene replacement monotherapy. As a proof of concept, our results suggest that the ablate-and-replace strategy can ameliorate disease progression as measured by photoreceptor structure and function for both of the human mutation knock-in models. These results demonstrate the potency of the ablate-and-replace strategy to treat RP caused by different Rho mutations. Furthermore, because ablate-and-replace treatment is mutation independent, this strategy may be used to treat a wide array of dominant diseases in ophthalmology and other fields. Clinical trials using ablate-and-replace gene therapy would allow researchers to determine if this strategy provides any benefits for patients with diseases of

  8. A role for palindromic structures in the cis-region of maize Sirevirus LTRs in transposable element evolution and host epigenetic response.

    PubMed

    Bousios, Alexandros; Diez, Concepcion M; Takuno, Shohei; Bystry, Vojtech; Darzentas, Nikos; Gaut, Brandon S

    2016-02-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) proliferate within the genome of their host, which responds by silencing them epigenetically. Much is known about the mechanisms of silencing in plants, particularly the role of siRNAs in guiding DNA methylation. In contrast, little is known about siRNA targeting patterns along the length of TEs, yet this information may provide crucial insights into the dynamics between hosts and TEs. By focusing on 6456 carefully annotated, full-length Sirevirus LTR retrotransposons in maize, we show that their silencing associates with underlying characteristics of the TE sequence and also uncover three features of the host-TE interaction. First, siRNA mapping varies among families and among elements, but particularly along the length of elements. Within the cis-regulatory portion of the LTRs, a complex palindrome-rich region acts as a hotspot of both siRNA matching and sequence evolution. These patterns are consistent across leaf, tassel, and immature ear libraries, but particularly emphasized for floral tissues and 21- to 22-nt siRNAs. Second, this region has the ability to form hairpins, making it a potential template for the production of miRNA-like, hairpin-derived small RNAs. Third, Sireviruses are targeted by siRNAs as a decreasing function of their age, but the oldest elements remain highly targeted, partially by siRNAs that cross-map to the youngest elements. We show that the targeting of older Sireviruses reflects their conserved palindromes. Altogether, we hypothesize that the palindromes aid the silencing of active elements and influence transposition potential, siRNA targeting levels, and ultimately the fate of an element within the genome. © 2016 Bousios et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. X-Linked Congenital Hypertrichosis Syndrome Is Associated with Interchromosomal Insertions Mediated by a Human-Specific Palindrome near SOX3

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongwen; Shang, Dandan; Sun, Miao; Choi, Sunju; Liu, Qing; Hao, Jiajie; Figuera, Luis E.; Zhang, Feng; Choy, Kwong Wai; Ao, Yang; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Yue, Fengzhen; Wang, Ming-Rong; Jin, Li; Patel, Pragna I.; Jing, Tao; Zhang, Xue

    2011-01-01

    X-linked congenital generalized hypertrichosis (CGH), an extremely rare condition characterized by universal overgrowth of terminal hair, was first mapped to chromosome Xq24-q27.1 in a Mexican family. However, the underlying genetic defect remains unknown. We ascertained a large Chinese family with an X-linked congenital hypertrichosis syndrome combining CGH, scoliosis, and spina bifida and mapped the disease locus to a 5.6 Mb critical region within the interval defined by the previously reported Mexican family. Through the combination of a high-resolution copy-number variation (CNV) scan and targeted genomic sequencing, we identified an interchromosomal insertion at Xq27.1 of a 125,577 bp intragenic fragment of COL23A1 on 5q35.3, with one X breakpoint within and the other very close to a human-specific short palindromic sequence located 82 kb downstream of SOX3. In the Mexican family, we found an interchromosomal insertion at the same Xq27.1 site of a 300,036 bp genomic fragment on 4q31.2, encompassing PRMT10 and TMEM184C and involving parts of ARHGAP10 and EDNRA. Notably, both of the two X breakpoints were within the short palindrome. The two palindrome-mediated insertions fully segregate with the CGH phenotype in each of the families, and the CNV gains of the respective autosomal genomic segments are not present in the public database and were not found in 1274 control individuals. Analysis of control individuals revealed deletions ranging from 173 bp to 9104 bp at the site of the insertions with no phenotypic consequence. Taken together, our results strongly support the pathogenicity of the identified insertions and establish X-linked congenital hypertrichosis syndrome as a genomic disorder. PMID:21636067

  10. Gene targeting technologies in rats: zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Tomoji

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory rat has been widely used as an animal model in biomedical science for more than 150 years. Applying zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases to rat embryos via microinjection is an efficient genome editing tool for generating targeted knockout rats. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonucleases have been used as an effective tool for precise and multiplex genome editing in mice and rats. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of these site-specific nuclease technologies for genetic analysis and manipulation in rats are discussed. © 2013 The Author Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  11. Surface microbial consortia from Livarot, a French smear-ripened cheese.

    PubMed

    Larpin-Laborde, Sandra; Imran, Muhammad; Bonaïti, Catherine; Bora, Nagamani; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Irlinger, Françoise; Goodfellow, Michael; Ward, Alan C; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Scherer, Siegfried; Guéguen, Micheline; Desmasures, Nathalie

    2011-08-01

    The surface microflora (902 isolates) of Livarot cheeses from three dairies was investigated during ripening. Yeasts were mainly identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Geotrichum candidum was the dominating yeast among 10 species. Bacteria were identified using Biotype 100 strips, dereplicated by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR); 156 representative strains were identified by either BOX-PCR or (GTG)(5)-PCR, and when appropriate by 16S rDNA sequencing and SDS-PAGE analysis. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 65% of the isolates and were mainly assigned to the genera Arthrobacter , Brevibacterium , Corynebacterium , and Staphylococcus . New taxa related to the genera Agrococcus and Leucobacter were found. Yeast and Gram-positive bacteria strains deliberately added as smearing agents were sometimes undetected during ripening. Thirty-two percent of the isolates were Gram-negative bacteria, which showed a high level of diversity and mainly included members of the genera Alcaligenes , Hafnia , Proteus , Pseudomonas , and Psychrobacter . Whatever the milk used (pasteurized or unpasteurized), similar levels of biodiversity were observed in the three dairies, all of which had efficient cleaning procedures and good manufacturing practices. It appears that some of the Gram-negative bacteria identified should now be regarded as potentially useful in some cheese technologies. The assessment of their positive versus negative role should be objectively examined.

  12. Specific interaction of the nonstructural protein NS1 of minute virus of mice (MVM) with [ACCA](2) motifs in the centre of the right-end MVM DNA palindrome induces hairpin-primed viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Willwand, Kurt; Moroianu, Adela; Hörlein, Rita; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Rommelaere, Jean

    2002-07-01

    The linear single-stranded DNA genome of minute virus of mice (MVM) is replicated via a double-stranded replicative form (RF) intermediate DNA. Amplification of viral RF DNA requires the structural transition of the right-end palindrome from a linear duplex into a double-hairpin structure, which serves for the repriming of unidirectional DNA synthesis. This conformational transition was found previously to be induced by the MVM nonstructural protein NS1. Elimination of the cognate NS1-binding sites, [ACCA](2), from the central region of the right-end palindrome next to the axis of symmetry was shown to markedly reduce the efficiency of hairpin-primed DNA replication, as measured in a reconstituted in vitro replication system. Thus, [ACCA](2) sequence motifs are essential as NS1-binding elements in the context of the structural transition of the right-end MVM palindrome.

  13. Restriction enzyme body doubles and PCR cloning: on the general use of type IIs restriction enzymes for cloning.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Eszter; Huszár, Krisztina; Bencsura, Petra; Kulcsár, Péter István; Vodicska, Barbara; Nyeste, Antal; Welker, Zsombor; Tóth, Szilvia; Welker, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    The procedure described here allows the cloning of PCR fragments containing a recognition site of the restriction endonuclease (Type IIP) used for cloning in the sequence of the insert. A Type IIS endonuclease--a Body Double of the Type IIP enzyme--is used to generate the same protruding palindrome. Thus, the insert can be cloned to the Type IIP site of the vector without digesting the PCR product with the same Type IIP enzyme. We achieve this by incorporating the recognition site of a Type IIS restriction enzyme that cleaves the DNA outside of its recognition site in the PCR primer in such a way that the cutting positions straddle the desired overhang sequence. Digestion of the PCR product by the Body Double generates the required overhang. Hitherto the use of Type IIS restriction enzymes in cloning reactions has only been used for special applications, the approach presented here makes Type IIS enzymes as useful as Type IIP enzymes for general cloning purposes. To assist in finding Body Double enzymes, we summarised the available Type IIS enzymes which are potentially useful for Body Double cloning and created an online program (http://group.szbk.u-szeged.hu/welkergr/body_double/index.html) for the selection of suitable Body Double enzymes and the design of the appropriate primers.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance pattern and genetic correlation in Enterococcus faecium isolated from healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Asadian, M; Sadeghi, J; Rastegar Lari, A; Razavi, Sh; Hasannejad Bibalan, M; Talebi, M

    2016-03-01

    Enterococci are known as a cause of nosocomial infections and this aptitude is intensified by the growth of antibiotic resistance. In the present study, Enterococcus faecium isolates from healthy volunteers were considered to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles and genetic correlation. A total 91 normal flora isolates of enterococci were included in this study. Identification of Enterococcus genus and species were done by biochemical and PCR methods, respectively. Sensitivity for 10 antibiotics was determined and genetic relatedness of all isolates was assessed using Repetitive Element Palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) followed by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) on the representative patterns. None of the isolates were resistant to teicoplanin, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and high-level gentamicin. On the other hand, the resistance rate was detected in 30.7%, 23%, and 3.29% of isolates for erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, respectively. The results of PFGE showed 19 (61.5% of our isolates) common types (CT) and 35 (38.5%) single types (ST) amongst the isolates. This is the first study to describe antibiotic resistance pattern and genetic relationship among normal flora enterococci in Iran. This study showed no prevalence of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) and high degrees of diversity among normal flora isolates by genotyping using PFGE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diversities in Virulence, Antifungal Activity, Pigmentation and DNA Fingerprint among Strains of Burkholderia glumae

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Hari S.; Shrestha, Bishnu K.; Han, Jae Woo; Groth, Donald E.; Barphagha, Inderjit K.; Rush, Milton C.; Melanson, Rebecca A.; Kim, Beom Seok; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae is the primary causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice. In this study, 11 naturally avirulent and nine virulent strains of B. glumae native to the southern United States were characterized in terms of virulence in rice and onion, toxofalvin production, antifungal activity, pigmentation and genomic structure. Virulence of B. glumae strains on rice panicles was highly correlated to virulence on onion bulb scales, suggesting that onion bulb can be a convenient alternative host system to efficiently determine the virulence of B. glumae strains. Production of toxoflavin, the phytotoxin that functions as a major virulence factor, was closely associated with the virulence phenotypes of B. glumae strains in rice. Some strains of B. glumae showed various levels of antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of sheath blight, and pigmentation phenotypes on casamino acid-peptone-glucose (CPG) agar plates regardless of their virulence traits. Purple and yellow-green pigments were partially purified from a pigmenting strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, and the purple pigment fraction showed a strong antifungal activity against Collectotrichum orbiculare. Genetic variations were detected among the B. glumae strains from DNA fingerprinting analyses by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) for BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic (BOX) or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences of bacteria; and close genetic relatedness among virulent but pigment-deficient strains were revealed by clustering analyses of DNA fingerprints from BOX-and ERIC-PCR. PMID:23028972

  16. Practical utilization of recombinant AAV vector reference standards: focus on vector genomes titration by free ITR qPCR.

    PubMed

    D'Costa, Susan; Blouin, Veronique; Broucque, Frederic; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; François, Achille; Perez, Irene C; Le Bec, Christine; Moullier, Philippe; Snyder, Richard O; Ayuso, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have demonstrated efficacy and a good safety profile. Although the field is advancing quickly, vector analytics and harmonization of dosage units are still a limitation for commercialization. AAV reference standard materials (RSMs) can help ensure product safety by controlling the consistency of assays used to characterize rAAV stocks. The most widely utilized unit of vector dosing is based on the encapsidated vector genome. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is now the most common method to titer vector genomes (vg); however, significant inter- and intralaboratory variations have been documented using this technique. Here, RSMs and rAAV stocks were titered on the basis of an inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) sequence-specific qPCR and we found an artificial increase in vg titers using a widely utilized approach. The PCR error was introduced by using single-cut linearized plasmid as the standard curve. This bias was eliminated using plasmid standards linearized just outside the ITR region on each end to facilitate the melting of the palindromic ITR sequences during PCR. This new "Free-ITR" qPCR delivers vg titers that are consistent with titers obtained with transgene-specific qPCR and could be used to normalize in-house product-specific AAV vector standards and controls to the rAAV RSMs. The free-ITR method, including well-characterized controls, will help to calibrate doses to compare preclinical and clinical data in the field.

  17. Immuno-PCR: Achievements and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ryazantsev, D Y; Voronina, D V; Zavriev, S K

    2016-12-01

    The immuno-PCR (iPCR) method combines advantages of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction, which is used in iPCR as a method of "visualization" of antigen-antibody interaction. The use of iPCR provides classical PCR sensitivity to objects traditionally detected by ELISA. This method could be very sensitive and allow for detection of quantities of femtograms/ml order. However, iPCR is still not widely used. The aim of this review is to highlight the special features of the iPCR method and to show the main aspects of its development and application in recent years.

  18. Diversity, community structure, and bioremediation potential of mercury-resistant marine bacteria of estuarine and coastal environments of Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Dash, Hirak R; Das, Surajit

    2016-04-01

    Both point and non-point sources increase the pollution status of mercury and increase the population of mercury-resistant marine bacteria (MRMB). They can be targeted as the indicator organism to access marine mercury pollution, besides utilization in bioremediation. Thus, sediment and water samples were collected for 2 years (2010-2012) along Odisha coast of Bay of Bengal, India. Mercury content of the study sites varied from 0.47 to 0.99 ppb irrespective of the seasons of sampling. A strong positive correlation was observed between mercury content and MRMB population (P < 0.05) suggesting the utilization of these bacteria to assess the level of mercury pollution in the marine environment. Seventy-eight percent of the MRMB isolates were under the phylum Firmicutes, and 36 and 31% of them could resist mercury by mer operon-mediated volatilization and mercury biosorption, respectively. In addition, most of the isolates could resist a number of antibiotics and toxic metals. All the MRMB isolates possess the potential of growth and survival at cardinal pH (4-8), temperature (25-37 °C), and salinity (5-35 psu). Enterobacteria repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and repetitive element palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) produced fingerprints corroborating the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis also revealed strain-level speciation and phylogenetic relationships.

  19. Association of Colonization with Streptococcus mutans Genotypes from Mothers and Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Noel K.; Momeni, Stephanie S.; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Cutter, Gary R.; Wiener, Howard W.; Ghazal, Tariq S.; Ruby, John D.; Moser, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated Streptococcus mutans (Sm) genotypes (GT) between mother and child (M-C) in a high caries risk cohort to explore the association with early childhood caries (ECC). Methods Sixty-nine infants (~1 year-old) had periodic oral examination (dmfs) and collection of microbial samples from dental plaque, saliva and oral other surfaces. Their mothers had an examination and plaque collected. Sm isolates were genotyped using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR). Statistical analyses were conducted for associations of Sm in M-C dyads with caries outcomes. Results Twenty-seven Sm genotypes (GT) from 3,414 isolates were identified. M-C were categorized as GT Match (N=40) or no-Match (N=29). When modeling the severity of ECC at 36-months (~4 years old), the estimated dmfs in the Match group was 2.61 times that in the no-Match group (P=.014). Conclusions Colonization of children with Sm GT that matched with mothers was shown to be highly associated with ECC. Although the data suggest vertical transmission of Sm in 40 of 69 children that shared GT with their mother, it is possible that other individuals transmitted the Sm. Nonetheless, these findings support the importance of the mother's oral microbial status as a contributing influence to their children's oral health. PMID:28390463

  20. Bacillus Endospores Isolated from Granite: Close Molecular Relationships to Globally Distributed Bacillus spp. from Endolithic and Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Nicholson, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to catalog spore-forming bacterial populations in environments conducive to interplanetary transfer by natural impacts or by human spaceflight activities, spores of Bacillus spp. were isolated and characterized from the interior of near-subsurface granite rock collected from the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Granite was found to contain ∼500 cultivable Bacillus spores and ∼104 total cultivable bacteria per gram. Many of the Bacillus isolates produced a previously unreported diffusible blue fluorescent compound. Two strains of eight tested exhibited increased spore UV resistance relative to a standard Bacillus subtilis UV biodosimetry strain. Fifty-six isolates were identified by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene analysis as most closely related to B. megaterium (15 isolates), B. simplex (23 isolates), B. drentensis (6 isolates), B. niacini (7 isolates), and, likely, a new species related to B. barbaricus (5 isolates). Granite isolates were very closely related to a limited number of Bacillus spp. previously found to inhabit (i) globally distributed endolithic sites such as biodeteriorated murals, stone tombs, underground caverns, and rock concretions and (ii) extreme environments such as Antarctic soils, deep sea floor sediments, and spacecraft assembly facilities. Thus, it appears that the occurrence of Bacillus spp. in endolithic or extreme environments is not accidental but that these environments create unique niches excluding most Bacillus spp. but to which a limited number of Bacillus spp. are specifically adapted. PMID:16597992

  1. Early detection and control of an Acinetobacter baumannii multi-resistant outbreak in a hospital in Quito, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Cartelle Gestal, Monica; Zurita, Jeannete; Gualpa, Gabriela; Gonzalez, Cecibel; Paz Y Mino, Ariane

    2016-12-30

    Acinetobacter baumannii (ABA) is an important opportunistic pathogen associated with high mortality rates in intensive care units (ICUs). An outbreak in the ICU of a secondary-level hospital in Quito, Ecuador, occurred during April and May 2015 and was successfully controlled. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and repetitive element palindromic (REP)-PCR was conducted on all isolates recovered from patients, as well as environmental samples, to confirm the presence of an outbreak. A case-control study was conducted by comparing the clinical histories of the affected patients and of control patients present in the ICU during the outbreak period who did not present a positive culture for ABA. Five patients were infected and two were colonized with the same clonal strain of ABA, which was also identified on the stethoscope and a monitor associated with an isolation room. Statistical analysis of case histories did not identify any additional risk factors, but the outbreak was initiated by one patient in the isolation room of the ICU who was infected with the outbreak strain. All patients who ocupied that room after the index case tested positive for at least one culture of ABA. The outbreak strain was found on the stethoscope, and a subclone was found on the monitor of that room. Having access to basic equipment will enable well-trained professionals to rapidly detect and initiate the control process of an outbreak, saving lives and money spent on nosocomial infection treatments.

  2. Association Between Early Childhood Caries and Colonization with Streptococcus mutans Genotypes From Mothers.

    PubMed

    Childers, Noel K; Momeni, Stephanie S; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Cutter, Gary R; Wiener, Howard W; Ghazal, Tariq S; Ruby, John D; Moser, Stephen A

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus mutans genotypes (GT) between mother and child (M-C) in a high caries risk cohort to explore the association with early childhood caries (ECC). Sixty-nine infants (each approximately one year old) had periodic oral examinations (dmfs) and microbial samples collected from dental plaque, saliva, and other oral surfaces. Their mothers had an examination and plaque collected. S mutans isolates were genotyped using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR). Statistical analyses were conducted for associations of S mutans in M-C dyads with caries outcomes. Twenty-seven S mutans genotypes (GT) from 3,414 isolates were identified. M-C were categorized as GT match (n equals 40) or no-match (n equals 29). When modeling the severity of ECC at 36 months (approximately four years old), the estimated dmfs in the match group was 2.61 times that of the no-match group (P=.014). Colonization of children with Streptococcus mutans genotypes that matched with mothers was shown to be highly associated with early childhood caries. Although the data suggest vertical transmission of S mutans in 40 of 69 children that shared GT with their mother, it is possible that other individuals transmitted the S mutans. Nonetheless, these findings support the importance of the mother's oral microbial status as a contributing influence to their children's oral health.

  3. CRISPR Is an Optimal Target for the Design of Specific PCR Assays for Salmonella enterica Serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Laetitia; Le Hello, Simon; Roux, Chrystelle; Issenhuth-Jeanjean, Sylvie; Weill, François-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background Serotype-specific PCR assays targeting Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, the causal agents of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers, are required to accelerate formal diagnosis and to overcome the lack of typing sera and, in some situations, the need for culture. However, the sensitivity and specificity of such assays must be demonstrated on large collections of strains representative of the targeted serotypes and all other bacterial populations producing similar clinical symptoms. Methodology Using a new family of repeated DNA sequences, CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), as a serotype-specific target, we developed a conventional multiplex PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A from cultured isolates. We also developed EvaGreen-based real-time singleplex PCR assays with the same two sets of primers. Principal findings We achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity for each protocol after validation of the assays on 188 serotype Typhi and 74 serotype Paratyphi A strains from diverse genetic groups, geographic origins and time periods and on 70 strains of bacteria frequently encountered in bloodstream infections, including 29 other Salmonella serotypes and 42 strains from 38 other bacterial species. Conclusions The performance and convenience of our serotype-specific PCR assays should facilitate the rapid and accurate identification of these two major serotypes in a large range of clinical and public health laboratories with access to PCR technology. These assays were developed for use with DNA from cultured isolates, but with modifications to the assay, the CRISPR targets could be used in the development of assays for use with clinical and other samples. PMID:24498453

  4. Discriminatory Indices of Typing Methods for Epidemiologic Analysis of Contemporary Staphylococcus aureus Strains.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Marcela; Hogan, Patrick G; Satola, Sarah W; Crispell, Emily; Wylie, Todd; Gao, Hongyu; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Fritz, Stephanie A

    2015-09-01

    Historically, a number of typing methods have been evaluated for Staphylococcus aureus strain characterization. The emergence of contemporary strains of community-associated S. aureus, and the ensuing epidemic with a predominant strain type (USA300), necessitates re-evaluation of the discriminatory power of these typing methods for discerning molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics, essential to investigations of hospital and community outbreaks. We compared the discriminatory index of 5 typing methods for contemporary S. aureus strain characterization. Children presenting to St. Louis Children's Hospital and community pediatric practices in St. Louis, Missouri (MO), with community-associated S. aureus infections were enrolled. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (repPCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A (spa), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing were performed on 200 S. aureus isolates. The discriminatory index of each method was calculated using the standard formula for this metric, where a value of 1 is highly discriminatory and a value of 0 is not discriminatory. Overall, we identified 26 distinct strain types by repPCR, 17 strain types by PFGE, 30 strain types by MLST, 68 strain types by spa typing, and 5 strain types by SCCmec typing. RepPCR had the highest discriminatory index (D) of all methods (D = 0.88), followed by spa typing (D = 0.87), MLST (D = 0.84), PFGE (D = 0.76), and SCCmec typing (D = 0.60). The method with the highest D among MRSA isolates was repPCR (D = 0.64) followed by spa typing (D = 0.45) and MLST (D = 0.44). The method with the highest D among MSSA isolates was spa typing (D = 0.98), followed by MLST (D = 0.93), repPCR (D = 0.92), and PFGE (D = 0.89). Among isolates designated USA300 by PFGE, repPCR was most discriminatory, with 10 distinct strain types identified (D = 0.63). We identified 45

  5. Discriminatory Indices of Typing Methods for Epidemiologic Analysis of Contemporary Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Marcela; Hogan, Patrick G.; Satola, Sarah W.; Crispell, Emily; Wylie, Todd; Gao, Hongyu; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Fritz, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Historically, a number of typing methods have been evaluated for Staphylococcus aureus strain characterization. The emergence of contemporary strains of community-associated S. aureus, and the ensuing epidemic with a predominant strain type (USA300), necessitates re-evaluation of the discriminatory power of these typing methods for discerning molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics, essential to investigations of hospital and community outbreaks. We compared the discriminatory index of 5 typing methods for contemporary S. aureus strain characterization. Children presenting to St. Louis Children's Hospital and community pediatric practices in St. Louis, Missouri (MO), with community-associated S. aureus infections were enrolled. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (repPCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A (spa), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec typing were performed on 200 S. aureus isolates. The discriminatory index of each method was calculated using the standard formula for this metric, where a value of 1 is highly discriminatory and a value of 0 is not discriminatory. Overall, we identified 26 distinct strain types by repPCR, 17 strain types by PFGE, 30 strain types by MLST, 68 strain types by spa typing, and 5 strain types by SCCmec typing. RepPCR had the highest discriminatory index (D) of all methods (D = 0.88), followed by spa typing (D = 0.87), MLST (D = 0.84), PFGE (D = 0.76), and SCCmec typing (D = 0.60). The method with the highest D among MRSA isolates was repPCR (D = 0.64) followed by spa typing (D = 0.45) and MLST (D = 0.44). The method with the highest D among MSSA isolates was spa typing (D = 0.98), followed by MLST (D = 0.93), repPCR (D = 0.92), and PFGE (D = 0.89). Among isolates designated USA300 by PFGE, repPCR was most discriminatory, with 10 distinct strain types identified (D = 0.63). We

  6. dPCR: A Technology Review

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Phenix-Lan; Sauzade, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction (dPCR) is a novel method for the absolute quantification of target nucleic acids. Quantification by dPCR hinges on the fact that the random distribution of molecules in many partitions follows a Poisson distribution. Each partition acts as an individual PCR microreactor and partitions containing amplified target sequences are detected by fluorescence. The proportion of PCR-positive partitions suffices to determine the concentration of the target sequence without a need for calibration. Advances in microfluidics enabled the current revolution of digital quantification by providing efficient partitioning methods. In this review, we compare the fundamental concepts behind the quantification of nucleic acids by dPCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). We detail the underlying statistics of dPCR and explain how it defines its precision and performance metrics. We review the different microfluidic digital PCR formats, present their underlying physical principles, and analyze the technological evolution of dPCR platforms. We present the novel multiplexing strategies enabled by dPCR and examine how isothermal amplification could be an alternative to PCR in digital assays. Finally, we determine whether the theoretical advantages of dPCR over qPCR hold true by perusing studies that directly compare assays implemented with both methods. PMID:29677144

  7. Diversity, Evolution, and Functionality of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) Regions in the Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora▿†

    PubMed Central

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H. M.; Duffy, Brion

    2011-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas system confers acquired heritable immunity against mobile nucleic acid elements in prokaryotes, limiting phage infection and horizontal gene transfer of plasmids. In CRISPR arrays, characteristic repeats are interspersed with similarly sized nonrepetitive spacers derived from transmissible genetic elements and acquired when the cell is challenged with foreign DNA. New spacers are added sequentially and the number and type of CRISPR units can differ among strains, providing a record of phage/plasmid exposure within a species and giving a valuable typing tool. The aim of this work was to investigate CRISPR diversity in the highly homogeneous species Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. A total of 18 CRISPR genotypes were defined within a collection of 37 cosmopolitan strains. Strains from Spiraeoideae plants clustered in three major groups: groups II and III were composed exclusively of bacteria originating from the United States, whereas group I generally contained strains of more recent dissemination obtained in Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East. Strains from Rosoideae and Indian hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis indica) clustered separately and displayed a higher intrinsic diversity than that of isolates from Spiraeoideae plants. Reciprocal exclusion was generally observed between plasmid content and cognate spacer sequences, supporting the role of the CRISPR/Cas system in protecting against foreign DNA elements. However, in several group III strains, retention of plasmid pEU30 is inconsistent with a functional CRISPR/Cas system. PMID:21460108

  8. Structural and Functional Characterization of an Archaeal Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)-associated Complex for Antiviral Defense (CASCADE)*

    PubMed Central

    Lintner, Nathanael G.; Kerou, Melina; Brumfield, Susan K.; Graham, Shirley; Liu, Huanting; Naismith, James H.; Sdano, Matthew; Peng, Nan; She, Qunxin; Copié, Valérie; Young, Mark J.; White, Malcolm F.; Lawrence, C. Martin

    2011-01-01

    In response to viral infection, many prokaryotes incorporate fragments of virus-derived DNA into loci called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The loci are then transcribed, and the processed CRISPR transcripts are used to target invading viral DNA and RNA. The Escherichia coli “CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense” (CASCADE) is central in targeting invading DNA. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of an archaeal CASCADE (aCASCADE) from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Tagged Csa2 (Cas7) expressed in S. solfataricus co-purifies with Cas5a-, Cas6-, Csa5-, and Cas6-processed CRISPR-RNA (crRNA). Csa2, the dominant protein in aCASCADE, forms a stable complex with Cas5a. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a helical complex of variable length, perhaps due to substoichiometric amounts of other CASCADE components. A recombinant Csa2-Cas5a complex is sufficient to bind crRNA and complementary ssDNA. The structure of Csa2 reveals a crescent-shaped structure unexpectedly composed of a modified RNA-recognition motif and two additional domains present as insertions in the RNA-recognition motif. Conserved residues indicate potential crRNA- and target DNA-binding sites, and the H160A variant shows significantly reduced affinity for crRNA. We propose a general subunit architecture for CASCADE in other bacteria and Archaea. PMID:21507944

  9. Differential structural status of the RNA counterpart of an undecamer quasi-palindromic DNA sequence present in LCR of human β-globin gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Mahima; Kukreti, Shrikant

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work on structural polymorphism shown at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A → G) site located on HS4 region of locus control region (LCR) of β-globin gene has established a hairpin → duplex equilibrium corresponding to A → B like DNA transition (Kaushik M, Kukreti, R., Grover, D., Brahmachari, S.K. and Kukreti S. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003; Kaushik M, Kukreti S. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006). The G-allele of A → G SNP has been shown to be significantly associated with the occurrence of β-thalassemia. Considering the significance of this 11-nt long quasi-palindromic sequence [5'-TGGGG(G/A)CCCCA; HP(G/A)11] of β-globin gene LCR, we further explored the differential behavior of the same DNA sequence with its RNA counterpart, using various biophysical and biochemical techniques. In contrast to its DNA counterpart exhibiting a A → B structural transition and an equilibrium between duplex and hairpin forms, the studied RNA oligonucleotide sequence [5'-UGGGG(G/A)CCCCA; RHP(G/A)11] existed only in duplex form (A-conformation) and did not form hairpin. The single residue difference from A to G led to the unusual thermal stability of the RNA structure formed by the studied sequence. Since, naturally occurring mutations and various SNP sites may stabilize or destabilize the local DNA/RNA secondary structures, these structural transitions may affect the gene expression by a change in the protein-DNA recognition patterns.

  10. Transgenic Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/Cas9-Mediated Viral Gene Targeting for Antiviral Therapy of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuqing; Hou, Chengxiang; Bi, Honglun; Wang, Yueqiang; Xu, Jun; Li, Muwang; James, Anthony A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We developed a novel antiviral strategy by combining transposon-based transgenesis and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system for the direct cleavage of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) genome DNA to promote virus clearance in silkworms. We demonstrate that transgenic silkworms constitutively expressing Cas9 and guide RNAs targeting the BmNPV immediate early-1 (ie-1) and me53 genes effectively induce target-specific cleavage and subsequent mutagenesis, especially large (∼7-kbp) segment deletions in BmNPV genomes, and thus exhibit robust suppression of BmNPV proliferation. Transgenic animals exhibited higher and inheritable resistance to BmNPV infection than wild-type animals. Our approach will not only contribute to modern sericulture but also shed light on future antiviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Pathogen genome targeting has shown its potential in antiviral research. However, transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 system-mediated viral genome targeting has not been reported as an antiviral strategy in a natural animal host of a virus. Our data provide an effective approach against BmNPV infection in a real-world biological system and demonstrate the potential of transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 systems in antiviral research in other species. PMID:28122981

  11. Crystal structure of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Csn2 protein revealed Ca2+-dependent double-stranded DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kurinov, Igor; Ke, Ailong

    2011-09-02

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated protein genes (cas genes) are widespread in bacteria and archaea. They form a line of RNA-based immunity to eradicate invading bacteriophages and malicious plasmids. A key molecular event during this process is the acquisition of new spacers into the CRISPR loci to guide the selective degradation of the matching foreign genetic elements. Csn2 is a Nmeni subtype-specific cas gene required for new spacer acquisition. Here we characterize the Enterococcus faecalis Csn2 protein as a double-stranded (ds-) DNA-binding protein and report its 2.7 Å tetrameric ring structure. The inner circle of the Csn2 tetrameric ring is ∼26 Å wide and populated with conserved lysine residues poised for nonspecific interactions with ds-DNA. Each Csn2 protomer contains an α/β domain and an α-helical domain; significant hinge motion was observed between these two domains. Ca(2+) was located at strategic positions in the oligomerization interface. We further showed that removal of Ca(2+) ions altered the oligomerization state of Csn2, which in turn severely decreased its affinity for ds-DNA. In summary, our results provided the first insight into the function of the Csn2 protein in CRISPR adaptation by revealing that it is a ds-DNA-binding protein functioning at the quaternary structure level and regulated by Ca(2+) ions.

  12. An active immune defense with a minimal CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) RNA and without the Cas6 protein.

    PubMed

    Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Stachler, Aris-Edda; Saunders, Sita J; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2015-02-13

    The prokaryotic immune system CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) is a defense system that protects prokaryotes against foreign DNA. The short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are central components of this immune system. In CRISPR-Cas systems type I and III, crRNAs are generated by the endonuclease Cas6. We developed a Cas6b-independent crRNA maturation pathway for the Haloferax type I-B system in vivo that expresses a functional crRNA, which we termed independently generated crRNA (icrRNA). The icrRNA is effective in triggering degradation of an invader plasmid carrying the matching protospacer sequence. The Cas6b-independent maturation of the icrRNA allowed mutation of the repeat sequence without interfering with signals important for Cas6b processing. We generated 23 variants of the icrRNA and analyzed them for activity in the interference reaction. icrRNAs with deletions or mutations of the 3' handle are still active in triggering an interference reaction. The complete 3' handle could be removed without loss of activity. However, manipulations of the 5' handle mostly led to loss of interference activity. Furthermore, we could show that in the presence of an icrRNA a strain without Cas6b (Δcas6b) is still active in interference. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. High-temperature protein G is essential for activity of the Escherichia coli clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system.

    PubMed

    Yosef, Ido; Goren, Moran G; Kiro, Ruth; Edgar, Rotem; Qimron, Udi

    2011-12-13

    Prokaryotic DNA arrays arranged as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), along with their associated proteins, provide prokaryotes with adaptive immunity by RNA-mediated targeting of alien DNA or RNA matching the sequences between the repeats. Here, we present a thorough screening system for the identification of bacterial proteins participating in immunity conferred by the Escherichia coli CRISPR system. We describe the identification of one such protein, high-temperature protein G (HtpG), a homolog of the eukaryotic chaperone heat-shock protein 90. We demonstrate that in the absence of htpG, the E. coli CRISPR system loses its suicidal activity against λ prophage and its ability to provide immunity from lysogenization. Transcomplementation of htpG restores CRISPR activity. We further show that inactivity of the CRISPR system attributable to htpG deficiency can be suppressed by expression of Cas3, a protein that is essential for its activity. Accordingly, we also find that the steady-state level of overexpressed Cas3 is significantly enhanced following HtpG expression. We conclude that HtpG is a newly identified positive modulator of the CRISPR system that is essential for maintaining functional levels of Cas3.

  14. Arrangement and number of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat spacers are associated with erythromycin susceptibility in emm12, emm75 and emm92 of group A streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, P-X; Chiang-Ni, C; Wang, S-Y; Tsai, P-J; Kuo, C-F; Chuang, W-J; Lin, Y-S; Liu, C-C; Wu, J-J

    2014-06-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are composed of numerous repeat-spacer units and are considered a prokaryotic defence system against foreign nucleic acids. Since antibiotic-resistant genes are frequently encoded in foreign nucleic acids, the aim of this study was to test whether erythromycin susceptibility in group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) is associated with characteristics of CRISPR elements. Erythromycin susceptibility of 330 isolates collected between 1997 and 2003 was analysed. Among 29 emm types, emm12, emm75 and emm92 showed significant changes in erythromycin-resistance rates. By sequencing the spacers from two CRISPR loci, spacer contents in emm12, emm75 and emm92 strains were associated with erythromycin susceptibility. Strains with fewer spacers were more resistant to erythromycin. Moreover, in emm4 strains, which showed no significant change in their annual erythromycin-resistance rate, CRISPR type and number of spacers were not correlated with erythromycin susceptibility. These results highlight a novel association between CRISPR spacer content and erythromycin susceptibility in group A streptococcus. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  15. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 with improved proof-reading enhances homology-directed repair.

    PubMed

    Kato-Inui, Tomoko; Takahashi, Gou; Hsu, Szuyin; Miyaoka, Yuichiro

    2018-05-18

    Genome editing using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) predominantly induces non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), which generates random insertions or deletions, whereas homology-directed repair (HDR), which generates precise recombination products, is useful for wider applications. However, the factors that determine the ratio of HDR to NHEJ products after CRISPR/Cas9 editing remain unclear, and methods by which the proportion of HDR products can be increased have not yet been fully established. We systematically analyzed the HDR and NHEJ products after genome editing using various modified guide RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9 variants with an enhanced conformational checkpoint to improve the fidelity at endogenous gene loci in HEK293T cells and HeLa cells. We found that these modified gRNAs and Cas9 variants were able to enhance HDR in both single-nucleotide substitutions and a multi-kb DNA fragment insertion. Our results suggest that the original CRISPR/Cas9 system from the bacterial immune system is not necessarily the best option for the induction of HDR in genome editing and indicate that the modulation of the kinetics of conformational checkpoints of Cas9 can optimize the HDR/NHEJ ratio.

  16. Abundant and Diverse Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat Spacers in Clostridium difficile Strains and Prophages Target Multiple Phage Types within This Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Katherine R.; Flores, Cesar O.; Lawley, Trevor D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile is an important human-pathogenic bacterium causing antibiotic-associated nosocomial infections worldwide. Mobile genetic elements and bacteriophages have helped shape C. difficile genome evolution. In many bacteria, phage infection may be controlled by a form of bacterial immunity called the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system. This uses acquired short nucleotide sequences (spacers) to target homologous sequences (protospacers) in phage genomes. C. difficile carries multiple CRISPR arrays, and in this paper we examine the relationships between the host- and phage-carried elements of the system. We detected multiple matches between spacers and regions in 31 C. difficile phage and prophage genomes. A subset of the spacers was located in prophage-carried CRISPR arrays. The CRISPR spacer profiles generated suggest that related phages would have similar host ranges. Furthermore, we show that C. difficile strains of the same ribotype could either have similar or divergent CRISPR contents. Both synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in the protospacer sequences were identified, as well as differences in the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), which could explain how phages escape this system. This paper illustrates how the distribution and diversity of CRISPR spacers in C. difficile, and its prophages, could modulate phage predation for this pathogen and impact upon its evolution and pathogenicity. PMID:25161187

  17. Clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated mutagenesis and phenotype rescue by piggyBac transgenesis in a nonmodel Drosophila species.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, R; Murakami, H; Ote, M; Yamamoto, D

    2016-08-01

    How behavioural diversity emerged in evolution is an unexplored subject in biology. To tackle this problem, genes and circuits for a behaviour need to be determined in different species for phylogenetic comparisons. The recently developed clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system made such a challenge possible by providing the means to induce mutations in a gene of interest in any organism. Aiming at elucidating diversification in genetic and neural networks for courtship behaviour, we attempted to generate a genetic tool kit in Drosophila subobscura, a nonmodel species distantly related to the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report the generation of yellow (y) and white mutations with the aid of the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and the rescue of the y mutant phenotype by germline transformation of the newly established y mutant fly line with a y(+) -marked piggyBac vector. This successful mutagenesis and transformation in D. subobscura open up an avenue for comprehensive genetic analyses of higher functions in this and other nonmodel Drosophila species, representing a key step toward systematic comparisons of genes and circuitries underlying behaviour amongst species. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Structural and biochemical analysis of nuclease domain of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated protein 3 (Cas3).

    PubMed

    Mulepati, Sabin; Bailey, Scott

    2011-09-09

    RNA transcribed from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) protects many prokaryotes from invasion by foreign DNA such as viruses, conjugative plasmids, and transposable elements. Cas3 (CRISPR-associated protein 3) is essential for this CRISPR protection and is thought to mediate cleavage of the foreign DNA through its N-terminal histidine-aspartate (HD) domain. We report here the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the HD domain of Cas3 from Thermus thermophilus HB8. Structural and biochemical studies predict that this enzyme binds two metal ions at its active site. We also demonstrate that the single-stranded DNA endonuclease activity of this T. thermophilus domain is activated not by magnesium but by transition metal ions such as manganese and nickel. Structure-guided mutagenesis confirms the importance of the metal-binding residues for the nuclease activity and identifies other active site residues. Overall, these results provide a framework for understanding the role of Cas3 in the CRISPR system.

  19. Characterization of genomic deletion efficiency mediated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 nuclease system in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Canver, Matthew C; Bauer, Daniel E; Dass, Abhishek; Yien, Yvette Y; Chung, Jacky; Masuda, Takeshi; Maeda, Takahiro; Paw, Barry H; Orkin, Stuart H

    2014-08-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short [corrected] palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 nuclease system has provided a powerful tool for genome engineering. Double strand breaks may trigger nonhomologous end joining repair, leading to frameshift mutations, or homology-directed repair using an extrachromosomal template. Alternatively, genomic deletions may be produced by a pair of double strand breaks. The efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic deletions has not been systematically explored. Here, we present a methodology for the production of deletions in mammalian cells, ranging from 1.3 kb to greater than 1 Mb. We observed a high frequency of intended genomic deletions. Nondeleted alleles are nonetheless often edited with inversions or small insertion/deletions produced at CRISPR recognition sites. Deleted alleles also typically include small insertion/deletions at predicted deletion junctions. We retrieved cells with biallelic deletion at a frequency exceeding that of probabilistic expectation. We demonstrate an inverse relationship between deletion frequency and deletion size. This work suggests that CRISPR/Cas9 is a robust system to produce a spectrum of genomic deletions to allow investigation of genes and genetic elements. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated proteins system for the induction of gene mutations and phenotypic changes in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Song, Jia; Che, Jiaqian; You, Zhengying; Ye, Xiaogang; Li, Jisheng; Ye, Lupeng; Zhang, Yuyu; Qian, Qiujie; Zhong, Boxiong

    2016-12-01

    To probe the general phenomena of gene mutations, Bombyx mori, the lepidopterous model organism, was chosen as the experimental model. To easily detect phenotypic variations, the piggyBac system was utilized to introduce two marker genes into the silkworm, and 23.4% transposition efficiency aided in easily breeding a new strain for the entire experiment. Then, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/an associated protein (Cas9) system was utilized. The results showed that the Cas9 system can induce efficient gene mutations and the base changes could be detected since the G 0 individuals in B. mori; and that the mutation rates on different target sites were diverse. Next, the gRNA2-targeted site that generated higher mutation rate was chosen, and the experimental results were enumerated. First, the mutation proportion in G 1 generation was 30.1%, and some gene mutations were not inherited from the G 0 generation; second, occasionally, base substitutions did not lead to variation in the amino-acid sequence, which decreased the efficiency of phenotypic changes compared with that of genotypic changes. These results laid the foundation for better use of the Cas9 system in silkworm gene editing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Subtyping Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis isolates from different sources by using sequence typing based on virulence genes and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs).

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenyun; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Jayarao, Bhushan M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Ribot, Efrain M; Knabel, Stephen J; Dudley, Edward G

    2011-07-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major cause of food-borne salmonellosis in the United States. Two major food vehicles for S. Enteritidis are contaminated eggs and chicken meat. Improved subtyping methods are needed to accurately track specific strains of S. Enteritidis related to human salmonellosis throughout the chicken and egg food system. A sequence typing scheme based on virulence genes (fimH and sseL) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)-CRISPR-including multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (designated CRISPR-MVLST)-was used to characterize 35 human clinical isolates, 46 chicken isolates, 24 egg isolates, and 63 hen house environment isolates of S. Enteritidis. A total of 27 sequence types (STs) were identified among the 167 isolates. CRISPR-MVLST identified three persistent and predominate STs circulating among U.S. human clinical isolates and chicken, egg, and hen house environmental isolates in Pennsylvania, and an ST that was found only in eggs and humans. It also identified a potential environment-specific sequence type. Moreover, cluster analysis based on fimH and sseL identified a number of clusters, of which several were found in more than one outbreak, as well as 11 singletons. Further research is needed to determine if CRISPR-MVLST might help identify the ecological origins of S. Enteritidis strains that contaminate chickens and eggs.

  2. Combination of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated 9 technique with the piggybac transposon system for mouse in utero electroporation to study cortical development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Man; Jin, Xubin; Mu, Lili; Wang, Fangyu; Li, Wei; Zhong, Xiaoling; Liu, Xuan; Shen, Wenchen; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Yan

    2016-09-01

    In utero electroporation (IUE) is commonly used to study cortical development of cerebrum by downregulating or overexpressing genes of interest in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) of small mammals. However, exogenous plasmids are lost or diluted over time. Furthermore, gene knockdown based on short-hairpin RNAs may exert nonspecific effects that lead to aberrant neuronal migration. Genomic engineering by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system has great research and therapeutic potentials. Here we integrate the CRISPR/Cas9 components into the piggyBac (PB) transposon system (the CRISPR/Cas9-PB toolkit) for cortical IUEs. The mouse Sry-related HMG box-2 (Sox2) gene was selected as the target for its application. Most transduced cortical NPCs were depleted of SOX2 protein as early as 3 days post-IUE, whereas expressions of SOX1 and PAX6 remained intact. Furthermore, both the WT Cas9 and the D10A nickase mutant Cas9n showed comparable knockout efficiency. Transduced cortical cells were purified with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and effective gene editing at the Sox2 loci was confirmed. Thus, application of the CRISPR/Cas9-PB toolkit in IUE is a promising strategy to study gene functions in cortical NPCs and their progeny. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Crystal Structure of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated Csn2 Protein Revealed Ca[superscript 2+]-dependent Double-stranded DNA Binding Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kurinov, Igor; Ke, Ailong

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated protein genes (cas genes) are widespread in bacteria and archaea. They form a line of RNA-based immunity to eradicate invading bacteriophages and malicious plasmids. A key molecular event during this process is the acquisition of new spacers into the CRISPR loci to guide the selective degradation of the matching foreign genetic elements. Csn2 is a Nmeni subtype-specific cas gene required for new spacer acquisition. Here we characterize the Enterococcus faecalis Csn2 protein as a double-stranded (ds-) DNA-binding protein and report its 2.7 {angstrom} tetrameric ring structure. The inner circle ofmore » the Csn2 tetrameric ring is {approx}26 {angstrom} wide and populated with conserved lysine residues poised for nonspecific interactions with ds-DNA. Each Csn2 protomer contains an {alpha}/{beta} domain and an {alpha}-helical domain; significant hinge motion was observed between these two domains. Ca{sup 2+} was located at strategic positions in the oligomerization interface. We further showed that removal of Ca{sup 2+} ions altered the oligomerization state of Csn2, which in turn severely decreased its affinity for ds-DNA. In summary, our results provided the first insight into the function of the Csn2 protein in CRISPR adaptation by revealing that it is a ds-DNA-binding protein functioning at the quaternary structure level and regulated by Ca{sup 2+} ions.« less

  4. An Active Immune Defense with a Minimal CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) RNA and without the Cas6 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Stachler, Aris-Edda; Saunders, Sita J.; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic immune system CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) is a defense system that protects prokaryotes against foreign DNA. The short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are central components of this immune system. In CRISPR-Cas systems type I and III, crRNAs are generated by the endonuclease Cas6. We developed a Cas6b-independent crRNA maturation pathway for the Haloferax type I-B system in vivo that expresses a functional crRNA, which we termed independently generated crRNA (icrRNA). The icrRNA is effective in triggering degradation of an invader plasmid carrying the matching protospacer sequence. The Cas6b-independent maturation of the icrRNA allowed mutation of the repeat sequence without interfering with signals important for Cas6b processing. We generated 23 variants of the icrRNA and analyzed them for activity in the interference reaction. icrRNAs with deletions or mutations of the 3′ handle are still active in triggering an interference reaction. The complete 3′ handle could be removed without loss of activity. However, manipulations of the 5′ handle mostly led to loss of interference activity. Furthermore, we could show that in the presence of an icrRNA a strain without Cas6b (Δcas6b) is still active in interference. PMID:25512373

  5. Structural and functional characterization of an archaeal clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated complex for antiviral defense (CASCADE).

    PubMed

    Lintner, Nathanael G; Kerou, Melina; Brumfield, Susan K; Graham, Shirley; Liu, Huanting; Naismith, James H; Sdano, Matthew; Peng, Nan; She, Qunxin; Copié, Valérie; Young, Mark J; White, Malcolm F; Lawrence, C Martin

    2011-06-17

    In response to viral infection, many prokaryotes incorporate fragments of virus-derived DNA into loci called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The loci are then transcribed, and the processed CRISPR transcripts are used to target invading viral DNA and RNA. The Escherichia coli "CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense" (CASCADE) is central in targeting invading DNA. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of an archaeal CASCADE (aCASCADE) from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Tagged Csa2 (Cas7) expressed in S. solfataricus co-purifies with Cas5a-, Cas6-, Csa5-, and Cas6-processed CRISPR-RNA (crRNA). Csa2, the dominant protein in aCASCADE, forms a stable complex with Cas5a. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a helical complex of variable length, perhaps due to substoichiometric amounts of other CASCADE components. A recombinant Csa2-Cas5a complex is sufficient to bind crRNA and complementary ssDNA. The structure of Csa2 reveals a crescent-shaped structure unexpectedly composed of a modified RNA-recognition motif and two additional domains present as insertions in the RNA-recognition motif. Conserved residues indicate potential crRNA- and target DNA-binding sites, and the H160A variant shows significantly reduced affinity for crRNA. We propose a general subunit architecture for CASCADE in other bacteria and Archaea.

  6. Transgenic Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/Cas9-Mediated Viral Gene Targeting for Antiviral Therapy of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuqing; Hou, Chengxiang; Bi, Honglun; Wang, Yueqiang; Xu, Jun; Li, Muwang; James, Anthony A; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2017-04-15

    We developed a novel antiviral strategy by combining transposon-based transgenesis and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system for the direct cleavage of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) genome DNA to promote virus clearance in silkworms. We demonstrate that transgenic silkworms constitutively expressing Cas9 and guide RNAs targeting the BmNPV immediate early-1 ( ie-1 ) and me53 genes effectively induce target-specific cleavage and subsequent mutagenesis, especially large (∼7-kbp) segment deletions in BmNPV genomes, and thus exhibit robust suppression of BmNPV proliferation. Transgenic animals exhibited higher and inheritable resistance to BmNPV infection than wild-type animals. Our approach will not only contribute to modern sericulture but also shed light on future antiviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Pathogen genome targeting has shown its potential in antiviral research. However, transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 system-mediated viral genome targeting has not been reported as an antiviral strategy in a natural animal host of a virus. Our data provide an effective approach against BmNPV infection in a real-world biological system and demonstrate the potential of transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 systems in antiviral research in other species. Copyright © 2017 Chen et al.

  7. Mature clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats RNA (crRNA) length is measured by a ruler mechanism anchored at the precursor processing site.

    PubMed

    Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Maniv, Inbal; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2011-12-27

    Precise RNA processing is fundamental to all small RNA-mediated interference pathways. In prokaryotes, clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci encode small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that protect against invasive genetic elements by antisense targeting. CRISPR loci are transcribed as a long precursor that is cleaved within repeat sequences by CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. In many organisms, this primary processing generates crRNA intermediates that are subject to additional nucleolytic trimming to render mature crRNAs of specific lengths. The molecular mechanisms underlying this maturation event remain poorly understood. Here, we defined the genetic requirements for crRNA primary processing and maturation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. We show that changes in the position of the primary processing site result in extended or diminished maturation to generate mature crRNAs of constant length. These results indicate that crRNA maturation occurs by a ruler mechanism anchored at the primary processing site. We also show that maturation is mediated by specific cas genes distinct from those genes involved in primary processing, showing that this event is directed by CRISPR/Cas loci.

  8. Molecular identification and characterization of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) in a urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter sp. (UPTC).

    PubMed

    Tasaki, E; Hirayama, J; Tazumi, A; Hayashi, K; Hara, Y; Ueno, H; Moore, J E; Millar, B C; Matsuda, M

    2012-02-01

    Novel clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) locus [7,500 base pairs (bp) in length] occurred in the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) Japanese isolate, CF89-12. The 7,500 bp gene loci consisted of the 5'-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase gene, putative (P) CRISPR associated (p-Cas), putative open reading frames, Cas1 and Cas2, leader sequence region (146 bp), 12 CRISPRs consensus sequence repeats (each 36 bp) separated by a non-repetitive unique spacer region of similar length (26-31 bp) and the phosphatidyl glycerophosphatase A gene. When the CRISPRs loci in the UPTC CF89-12 and five C. jejuni isolates were compared with one another, these six isolates contained p-Cas, Cas1 and Cas2 within the loci. Four to 12 CRISPRs consensus sequence repeats separated by a non-repetitive unique spacer region occurred in six isolates and the nucleotide sequences of those repeats gave approximately 92-100% similarity with each other. However, no sequence similarity occurred in the unique spacer regions among these isolates. The putative σ(70) transcriptional promoter and the hypothetical ρ-independent terminator structures for the CRISPRs and Cas were detected. No in vivo transcription of p-Cas, Cas1 and Cas2 was confirmed in the UPTC cells.

  9. Characterization of Genomic Deletion Efficiency Mediated by Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 Nuclease System in Mammalian Cells*♦

    PubMed Central

    Canver, Matthew C.; Bauer, Daniel E.; Dass, Abhishek; Yien, Yvette Y.; Chung, Jacky; Masuda, Takeshi; Maeda, Takahiro; Paw, Barry H.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2014-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 nuclease system has provided a powerful tool for genome engineering. Double strand breaks may trigger nonhomologous end joining repair, leading to frameshift mutations, or homology-directed repair using an extrachromosomal template. Alternatively, genomic deletions may be produced by a pair of double strand breaks. The efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic deletions has not been systematically explored. Here, we present a methodology for the production of deletions in mammalian cells, ranging from 1.3 kb to greater than 1 Mb. We observed a high frequency of intended genomic deletions. Nondeleted alleles are nonetheless often edited with inversions or small insertion/deletions produced at CRISPR recognition sites. Deleted alleles also typically include small insertion/deletions at predicted deletion junctions. We retrieved cells with biallelic deletion at a frequency exceeding that of probabilistic expectation. We demonstrate an inverse relationship between deletion frequency and deletion size. This work suggests that CRISPR/Cas9 is a robust system to produce a spectrum of genomic deletions to allow investigation of genes and genetic elements. PMID:24907273

  10. High-temperature protein G is essential for activity of the Escherichia coli clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system

    PubMed Central

    Yosef, Ido; Goren, Moran G.; Kiro, Ruth; Edgar, Rotem; Qimron, Udi

    2011-01-01

    Prokaryotic DNA arrays arranged as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), along with their associated proteins, provide prokaryotes with adaptive immunity by RNA-mediated targeting of alien DNA or RNA matching the sequences between the repeats. Here, we present a thorough screening system for the identification of bacterial proteins participating in immunity conferred by the Escherichia coli CRISPR system. We describe the identification of one such protein, high-temperature protein G (HtpG), a homolog of the eukaryotic chaperone heat-shock protein 90. We demonstrate that in the absence of htpG, the E. coli CRISPR system loses its suicidal activity against λ prophage and its ability to provide immunity from lysogenization. Transcomplementation of htpG restores CRISPR activity. We further show that inactivity of the CRISPR system attributable to htpG deficiency can be suppressed by expression of Cas3, a protein that is essential for its activity. Accordingly, we also find that the steady-state level of overexpressed Cas3 is significantly enhanced following HtpG expression. We conclude that HtpG is a newly identified positive modulator of the CRISPR system that is essential for maintaining functional levels of Cas3. PMID:22114197

  11. Technical note: development of a quantitative PCR method for monitoring strain dynamics during yogurt manufacture.

    PubMed

    Miller, D M; Dudley, E G; Roberts, R F

    2012-09-01

    Yogurt starter cultures may consist of multiple strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (LB) and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST). Conventional plating methods for monitoring LB and ST levels during yogurt manufacture do not allow for quantification of individual strains. The objective of the present work was to develop a quantitative PCR method for quantification of individual strains in a commercial yogurt starter culture. Strain-specific primers were designed for 2 ST strains (ST DGCC7796 and ST DGCC7710), 1 LB strain (DGCC4078), and 1 Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis strain (LL; DGCC4550). Primers for the individual ST and LB strains were designed to target unique DNA sequences in clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats. Primers for LL were designed to target a putative mannitol-specific IIbC component of the phosphotransferase system. Following evaluation of primer specificity, standard curves relating cell number to cycle threshold were prepared for each strain individually and in combination in yogurt mix, and no significant differences in the slopes were observed. Strain balance data was collected for yogurt prepared at 41 and 43°C to demonstrate the potential application of this method. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversity of Class 1 Integrons, and Disruption of carO and dacD by Insertion Sequences Among Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirshekar, Maryam; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Azizi, Omid; Solgi, Hamid; Badmasti, Farzad

    2018-05-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen which causes a wide range of infections. In this study, we addressed the role of class 1 integron, ISAba1 and ISAba125 associated with antimicrobial resistance in 72 clinical isolates of A. baumannii collected from clinical settings in Tehran, Iran. Moreover, to study the clonal relatedness of strains, repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR) assay was carried out. PCR revealed that bla OXA-51 -like, bla OXA-23 -like, bla OXA-24/40 -like, bla OXA-58 -like, bla NDM , integrase gene (intI1), ISAba1, and ISAba125 were present in 86.11% (62/72), 84.72% (61/72), 30.55% (22/72), 0% (0/72), 0% (0/72), 58.33% (42/72), 97.22% (70/72), and 65.27% (47/72) of the strains, respectively. Sequencing of 39 internal variable regions of class 1 integrons showed seven gene cassette arrays, including aadA4-catB8-aadA1 (2.77%), aadA1-aadA4 (1.38%), aacC4-aadA1 (2.77%), aacC4 (22.22%), aadA1 (13.88%), aadA4 (5.55%), and catB8 (5.55%). We detected ISAba1 in the upstream of bla OXA-23 -like, bla OXA-51 -like, and bla ADC in 54.16% (39/72), 9.72% (7/72), and 56.94% (41/72) of the strains, respectively. Whereas, there was a low frequency of disruptions in carO and dacD genes: 5.55% (4/72) and 4.16% (3/72). Rep-PCR analysis revealed that the isolates were genetically diverse. However, Cl-12 and Cl-15 were the largest clusters and they were recovered from various hospitals. Our analysis showed the high rates of class 1 integrons as a repertoire of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. It seems that linkages of ISAba1-bla OXA-23 -like and ISAba1-bla OXA-69 , and disruptions in carO or dacD can develop resistance to carbapenems among clinical isolates of A. baumannii.

  13. PALATAL DYSMORPHOGENESIS: QUANTITATIVE RT-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Palatal Dysmorphogenesis : Quantitative RT-PCR

    Gary A. Held and Barbara D. Abbott

    Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is a very sensitive method for detecting mRNA in tissue samples. However, as it is usually performed it is does not yield quantitativ...

  14. Real-Time PCR (qPCR) Primer Design Using Free Online Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2011-01-01

    Real-time PCR (quantitative PCR or qPCR) has become the preferred method for validating results obtained from assays which measure gene expression profiles. The process uses reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), coupled with fluorescent chemistry, to measure variations in transcriptome levels between samples. The four most…

  15. Detection of adenoviruses in shellfish by means of conventional-PCR, nested-PCR, and integrated cell culture PCR (ICC/PCR).

    PubMed

    Rigotto, C; Sincero, T C M; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2005-01-01

    We tested three PCR based methodologies to detect adenoviruses associated with cultivated oysters. Conventional-PCR, nested-PCR, and integrated cell culture-PCR (ICC/PCR) were first optimized using oysters seeded with know amounts of Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5). The maximum sensitivity for Ad5 detection was determined for each method, and then used to detect natural adenovirus contamination in oysters from three aquiculture farms in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, over a period of 6 months. The results showed that the nested-PCR was more sensitive (limit of detection: 1.2 PFU/g of tissue) than conventional-PCR and ICC-PCR (limit of detection for both: 1.2 x 10(2)PFU/g of tissue) for detection of Ad5 in oyster extracts. Nested-PCR was able to detect 90% of Ad5 contamination in harvested oyster samples, while conventional-PCR was unable to detect Ad5 in any of the samples. The present work suggests that detection of human adenoviruses can be used as a tool to monitor the presence of human viruses in marine environments where shellfish grow, and that nested-PCR is the method of choice.

  16. [The genotypic diversity of oral Actinomyces naeslundii of root caries in aged people].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Yang, Fan; Jia, Yue; Xia, Qian; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the genotypic diversity of Actinomyces naeslundii in aged people and the relationship between the genotypes of Actinomyces naeslundii and root caries. According to the inclusion criteria, 20 aged people with root caries and 20 without root caries were chosen into two groups for this study. Two sites were chosen in subjects with root caries: One site was the exposed sound root surface, and the other site was the root caries. In subjects without root caries the sampling site of root surface was exposed. Bacteria were cultured and then identified. Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) was used to analyze the genotypic diversity of the Actinomyces naeslundii clinic isolates. 299 strains were isolated from the groups, 156 strains were chosen to analyze, belonged to 61 different genotypes. At the site of sound root surface in the subjects with root caries, there were 57 strains with 25 different patterns. At the site of root caries and of sound root surface in subjects without caries, there were 34 strains with 25 different patterns and 65 strains with 26 different patterns respectively. There was the genotypic diversity within Actinomyces naeslundii. There was significant difference in the genotypes in every individual site. Many different genotypes of Actinomyces naeslundii concerned with occurrence of root caries.

  17. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of aerosolized bacteria collected from African dust events

    DOE PAGES

    Wilson, Christina A.; Brigmon, Robin L.; Yeager, Chris; ...

    2013-07-31

    Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and characterized from air samples collected in Africa and the Caribbean by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Isolates were selected based on preliminary characterization as possible pathogens. Identification of the bacterial isolates was 25 achieved using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) profiling, the BIOLOG Microlog® System (carbon substrate assay), and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR analysis. The majority of isolates (18/21) were identified as species of the genus Bacillus. Three isolates were classified within the Bacillus cereus senso lato group, which includes Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus cereus strains. Onemore » isolate was identified as a Staphylococcus sp., 30 most closely related to species (i.e Staphylococcus kloosii, Staphylococcus warneri) that are commonly associated with human or animal skin, but can also act as opportunistic pathogen. Another isolate was tentatively identified as Tsukamurella inchonensis, a known respiratory pathogen, and was resistant to the ten antibiotics tested including vancomycin.« less

  18. Serological and molecular heterogeneity among Yersinia ruckeri strains isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Chile.

    PubMed

    Bastardo, A; Bohle, H; Ravelo, C; Toranzo, A E; Romalde, J L

    2011-02-22

    We investigated 11 strains of Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM), that had been isolated from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. farmed in Chile and previously vaccinated against ERM. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the identification of the salmon isolates as Y. ruckeri. A comparative analysis of the biochemical characteristics was made by means of traditional and commercial miniaturised methods. All studied isolates were motile and Tween 80 positive, and were identified as biotype 1. In addition, drug susceptibility tests determined high sensitivity to sulphamethoxazole/trimethroprim, oxytetracycline, ampicillin and enrofloxacin in all isolates. Serological assays showed the presence of O1a, O1b and O2b serotypes, with a predominance of the O1b serotype in 9 strains. Analysis of the lipopolysaccharide profiles and the correspondent immunoblot confirmed these results. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the outer membrane proteins revealed that all Chilean strains had profiles with a molecular weight range between 34 and 55 kDa, with 3 distinct groups based on differences in the major bands. Genotyping analyses by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-) and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP-)PCR techniques clearly indicated intraspecific genetic diversity among Chilean Y. ruckeri strains.

  19. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat-Dependent, Biofilm-Specific Death of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mediated by Increased Expression of Phage-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Heussler, Gary E.; Cady, Kyle C.; Koeppen, Katja; Bhuju, Sabin; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system is an adaptive immune system present in many archaea and bacteria. CRISPR/Cas systems are incredibly diverse, and there is increasing evidence of CRISPR/Cas systems playing a role in cellular functions distinct from phage immunity. Previously, our laboratory reported one such alternate function in which the type 1-F CRISPR/Cas system of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain UCBPP-PA14 (abbreviated as P. aeruginosa PA14) inhibits both biofilm formation and swarming motility when the bacterium is lysogenized by the bacteriophage DMS3. In this study, we demonstrated that the presence of just the DMS3 protospacer and the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) on the P. aeruginosa genome is necessary and sufficient for this CRISPR-dependent loss of these group behaviors, with no requirement of additional DMS3 sequences. We also demonstrated that the interaction of the CRISPR system with the DMS3 protospacer induces expression of SOS-regulated phage-related genes, including the well-characterized pyocin operon, through the activity of the nuclease Cas3 and subsequent RecA activation. Furthermore, our data suggest that expression of the phage-related genes results in bacterial cell death on a surface due to the inability of the CRISPR-engaged strain to downregulate phage-related gene expression, while these phage-related genes have minimal impact on growth and viability under planktonic conditions. Deletion of the phage-related genes restores biofilm formation and swarming motility while still maintaining a functional CRISPR/Cas system, demonstrating that the loss of these group behaviors is an indirect effect of CRISPR self-targeting. PMID:25968642

  20. Relevance of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats of Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from retreatment root canals on periapical lesions, resistance to irrigants and biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhongchun; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi; Huang, Lijia; Ma, Jinglei

    2017-01-01

    A high prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is observed in teeth with root canal treatment failures. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are widely distributed in prokaryotes that have adaptive immune systems against mobile elements, including pathogenic genes. The present study investigated the relevance of the CRISPR in E. faecalis strains isolated from retreated root canals on biofilms, periapical lesions and drug resistance. A total of 20 E. faecalis strains were extracted from the root canals of teeth referred for root canal retreatment. CRISPR-Cas loci were identified by two pairs of relevant primers and polymerase chain reaction. The susceptibility of the 20 isolated strains to intracanal irrigants was evaluated by 1- and 5-minute challenges with a mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid and a detergent (MTAD), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The microtiter plate assay and crystal violet staining were used to compare the biofilm formation of the E. faecalis isolate strains. Out of the 20 E. faecalis isolate strains, 5 strains that lacked CRISPR-cas determinants exhibited significant periapical lesions. Among the 15 strains containing CRISPR-cas determinants, 8 were isolated from root canals with inadequate fillings and 7 were isolated from root canals without any fillings. The five strains lacking CRISPR-cas loci were observed to be more resistant to MTAD and 2% CHX than the 15 strains that had CRISPR-cas loci. All of the strains exhibited the same susceptibility to 5.25% NaOCl. Furthermore, the 5 strains lacking CRISPR-cas determinants generated more biofilm than the other 15 strains. Thus, the results of the present study suggested that E. faecalis root canal isolates lacking CRISPR-cas exhibit higher resistance to intracanal irrigants, stronger biofilm formation and generate significant periapical lesions. PMID:29285081

  1. Association of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) elements with specific serotypes and virulence potential of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Toro, Magaly; Cao, Guojie; Ju, Wenting; Allard, Marc; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Zhao, Shaohua; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong

    2014-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains (n = 194) representing 43 serotypes and E. coli K-12 were examined for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) arrays to study genetic relatedness among STEC serotypes. A subset of the strains (n = 81) was further analyzed for subtype I-E cas and virulence genes to determine a possible association of CRISPR elements with potential virulence. Four types of CRISPR arrays were identified. CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 were present in all strains tested; 1 strain also had both CRISPR3 and CRISPR4, whereas 193 strains displayed a short, combined array, CRISPR3-4. A total of 3,353 spacers were identified, representing 528 distinct spacers. The average length of a spacer was 32 bp. Approximately one-half of the spacers (54%) were unique and found mostly in strains of less common serotypes. Overall, CRISPR spacer contents correlated well with STEC serotypes, and identical arrays were shared between strains with the same H type (O26:H11, O103:H11, and O111:H11). There was no association identified between the presence of subtype I-E cas and virulence genes, but the total number of spacers had a negative correlation with potential pathogenicity (P < 0.05). Fewer spacers were found in strains that had a greater probability of causing outbreaks and disease than in those with lower virulence potential (P < 0.05). The relationship between the CRISPR-cas system and potential virulence needs to be determined on a broader scale, and the biological link will need to be established.

  2. Generation of Hypertension-Associated STK39 Polymorphism Knockin Cell Lines With the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Mandai, Shintaro; Mori, Takayasu; Sohara, Eisei; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi

    2015-12-01

    Previous genome-wide association studies identified serine threonine kinase 39 (STK39), encoding STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase, as one of a limited number of hypertension susceptibility genes. A recent meta-analysis confirmed the association of STK39 intronic polymorphism rs3754777 with essential hypertension, among previously reported hypertension-associated STK39 polymorphisms. However, the biochemical function of this polymorphism in the mechanism responsible for hypertension is yet to be clarified. We generated rs3754777G>A knockin human cell lines with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-mediated genome engineering. Homozygous (A/A) and heterozygous (G/A) knockin human embryonic kidney cell lines were generated using a double nickase, single-guide RNAs targeting STK39 intron 5 around single-nucleotide polymorphism, and a 100-bp donor single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with sequencing analyses revealed the identical STK39 transcripts among the wild-type and both knockin cell lines. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed increased STK39 mRNA expression, and immunoblot analysis revealed increases in total and phosphorylated STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase with increased phosphorylated Na-K-Cl cotransporter isoform 1 in both knockin cell lines. The largest increases in these molecules were observed in the homozygous cell line. These findings indicated that this intronic polymorphism increases STK39 transcription, leading to activation of the STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase-solute carrier family 12A signaling cascade. Increased interactions between STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase and the target cation-chloride cotransporters may be responsible for hypertension susceptibility in individuals with this polymorphism. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Relevance of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats of Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from retreatment root canals on periapical lesions, resistance to irrigants and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhongchun; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi; Huang, Lijia; Ma, Jinglei

    2017-12-01

    A high prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis ) is observed in teeth with root canal treatment failures. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are widely distributed in prokaryotes that have adaptive immune systems against mobile elements, including pathogenic genes. The present study investigated the relevance of the CRISPR in E. faecalis strains isolated from retreated root canals on biofilms, periapical lesions and drug resistance. A total of 20 E. faecalis strains were extracted from the root canals of teeth referred for root canal retreatment. CRISPR-Cas loci were identified by two pairs of relevant primers and polymerase chain reaction. The susceptibility of the 20 isolated strains to intracanal irrigants was evaluated by 1- and 5-minute challenges with a mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid and a detergent (MTAD), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The microtiter plate assay and crystal violet staining were used to compare the biofilm formation of the E. faecalis isolate strains. Out of the 20 E. faecalis isolate strains, 5 strains that lacked CRISPR-cas determinants exhibited significant periapical lesions. Among the 15 strains containing CRISPR-cas determinants, 8 were isolated from root canals with inadequate fillings and 7 were isolated from root canals without any fillings. The five strains lacking CRISPR-cas loci were observed to be more resistant to MTAD and 2% CHX than the 15 strains that had CRISPR-cas loci. All of the strains exhibited the same susceptibility to 5.25% NaOCl. Furthermore, the 5 strains lacking CRISPR-cas determinants generated more biofilm than the other 15 strains. Thus, the results of the present study suggested that E. faecalis root canal isolates lacking CRISPR-cas exhibit higher resistance to intracanal irrigants, stronger biofilm formation and generate significant periapical lesions.

  4. Association of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) Elements with Specific Serotypes and Virulence Potential of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Magaly; Cao, Guojie; Ju, Wenting; Allard, Marc; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Zhao, Shaohua; Brown, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains (n = 194) representing 43 serotypes and E. coli K-12 were examined for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) arrays to study genetic relatedness among STEC serotypes. A subset of the strains (n = 81) was further analyzed for subtype I-E cas and virulence genes to determine a possible association of CRISPR elements with potential virulence. Four types of CRISPR arrays were identified. CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 were present in all strains tested; 1 strain also had both CRISPR3 and CRISPR4, whereas 193 strains displayed a short, combined array, CRISPR3-4. A total of 3,353 spacers were identified, representing 528 distinct spacers. The average length of a spacer was 32 bp. Approximately one-half of the spacers (54%) were unique and found mostly in strains of less common serotypes. Overall, CRISPR spacer contents correlated well with STEC serotypes, and identical arrays were shared between strains with the same H type (O26:H11, O103:H11, and O111:H11). There was no association identified between the presence of subtype I-E cas and virulence genes, but the total number of spacers had a negative correlation with potential pathogenicity (P < 0.05). Fewer spacers were found in strains that had a greater probability of causing outbreaks and disease than in those with lower virulence potential (P < 0.05). The relationship between the CRISPR-cas system and potential virulence needs to be determined on a broader scale, and the biological link will need to be established. PMID:24334663

  5. New clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat locus spacer pair typing method based on the newly incorporated spacer for Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Li, Peng; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Yang, Chaojie; Wang, Jian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Nan; Wang, Xu; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Wang, Yong; Jia, Leili; Li, Kaiqin; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2014-08-01

    A clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) typing method has recently been developed and used for typing and subtyping of Salmonella spp., but it is complicated and labor intensive because it has to analyze all spacers in two CRISPR loci. Here, we developed a more convenient and efficient method, namely, CRISPR locus spacer pair typing (CLSPT), which only needs to analyze the two newly incorporated spacers adjoining the leader array in the two CRISPR loci. We analyzed a CRISPR array of 82 strains belonging to 21 Salmonella serovars isolated from humans in different areas of China by using this new method. We also retrieved the newly incorporated spacers in each CRISPR locus of 537 Salmonella isolates which have definite serotypes in the Pasteur Institute's CRISPR Database to evaluate this method. Our findings showed that this new CLSPT method presents a high level of consistency (kappa = 0.9872, Matthew's correlation coefficient = 0.9712) with the results of traditional serotyping, and thus, it can also be used to predict serotypes of Salmonella spp. Moreover, this new method has a considerable discriminatory power (discriminatory index [DI] = 0.8145), comparable to those of multilocus sequence typing (DI = 0.8088) and conventional CRISPR typing (DI = 0.8684). Because CLSPT only costs about $5 to $10 per isolate, it is a much cheaper and more attractive method for subtyping of Salmonella isolates. In conclusion, this new method will provide considerable advantages over other molecular subtyping methods, and it may become a valuable epidemiologic tool for the surveillance of Salmonella infections. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of “Streptococcus milleri” Group Isolates from a Veterans Administration Hospital Population

    PubMed Central

    Clarridge, Jill E.; Osting, Cheryl; Jalali, Mehri; Osborne, Janet; Waddington, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Because identification of the species within the “Streptococcus milleri” group is difficult for the clinical laboratory as the species share overlapping phenotypic characteristics, we wished to confirm biochemical identification with identification by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Ninety-four clinical isolates previously identified as the “Streptococcus milleri” group were reclassified as S. anginosus, S. constellatus, or S. intermedius with the API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux Vikek, Hazelton, Mo.) and the Fluo-card (Key Scientific, Round Rock, Tex.). In addition, we determined the Lancefield group, hemolysis, colony size, colony texture, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) pattern, and cellular fatty acid (CFA) profile (MIDI, Newark, Del.). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis with 40 selected representative strains showed three distinct groups, with S. constellatus and S. intermedius found to be more closely related to each other than to S. anginosus, and further distinguished a biochemically distinct group of urogenital isolates within the S. anginosus group of isolates. Except for strains unreactive with the Fluo-card (8%), all S. anginosus and S. intermedius strains identified by sequencing were similarly identified by biochemical testing. However, 23% of the selected S. constellatus isolates identified by sequencing (9% of all S. constellatus isolates) would have been identified as S. anginosus or S. intermedius by biochemical tests. Although most S. anginosus strains formed one unique cluster by CFA analysis and most S. constellatus strains showed similar rep-PCR patterns, neither method was sufficiently dependable for identification. Whereas Lancefield group or lactose fermentation did not correspond to sequence or biochemical type, S. constellatus was most likely to be beta-hemolytic and S. intermedius was most likely to have a dry colony type. The most frequent isolate in our population was S. constellatus, followed by S. anginosus

  7. Study of the bacterial diversity of foods: PCR-DGGE versus LH-PCR.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Bancalari, Elena; Milanović, Vesna; Cardinali, Federica; Osimani, Andrea; Sardaro, Maria Luisa Savo; Bottari, Benedetta; Bernini, Valentina; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2017-02-02

    The present study compared two culture-independent methods, polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and length-heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR), for their ability to reveal food bacterial microbiota. Total microbial DNA and RNA were extracted directly from fourteen fermented and unfermented foods, and domain A of the variable regions V1 and V2 of the 16S rRNA gene was analyzed through LH-PCR and PCR-DGGE. Finally, the outline of these analyses was compared with bacterial viable counts obtained after bacterial growth on suitable selective media. For the majority of the samples, RNA-based PCR-DGGE revealed species that the DNA-based PCR-DGGE was not able to highlight. When analyzing either DNA or RNA, LH-PCR identified several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase negative cocci (CCN) species that were not identified by PCR-DGGE. This phenomenon was particularly evident in food samples with viable loads<5.0 Logcfug -1 . Furthermore, LH-PCR was able to detect a higher number of peaks in the analyzed food matrices relative to species identified by PCR-DGGE. In light of these findings, it may be suggested that LH-PCR shows greater sensitivity than PCR-DGGE. However, PCR-DGGE detected some other species (LAB included) that were not detected by LH-PCR. Therefore, certain LH-PCR peaks not attributed to known species within the LH-PCR database could be solved by comparing them with species identified by PCR-DGGE. Overall, this study also showed that LH-PCR is a promising method for use in the food microbiology field, indicating the necessity to expand the LH-PCR database, which is based, up to now, mainly on LAB isolates from dairy products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of canine distemper virus (CDV) through one step RT-PCR combined with nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Cho, K W; Youn, H Y; Yoo, H S; Han, H R

    2001-04-01

    A one step reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) combined nested PCR was set up to increase efficiency in the diagnosis of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection after developement of nested PCR. Two PCR primer sets were designed based on the sequence of nucleocapsid gene of CDV Onderstepoort strain. One-step RT-PCR with the outer primer pair was revealed to detect 10(2) PFU/ml. The sensitivity was increased hundredfold using the one-step RT-PCR combined with the nested PCR. Specificity of the PCR was also confirmed using other related canine virus and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and body secretes of healthy dogs. Of the 51 blood samples from dogs clinically suspected of CD, 45 samples were revealed as positive by one-step RT-PCR combined with nested PCR. However, only 15 samples were identified as positive with a single one step RT-PCR. Therefore approximately 60% increase in the efficiency of the diagnosis was observed by the combined method. These results suggested that one step RT-PCR combined with nested PCR could be a sensitive, specific, and practical method for diagnosis of CDV infection.

  9. Pitfalls in PCR troubleshooting: Expect the unexpected?

    PubMed Central

    Schrick, Livia; Nitsche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    PCR is a well-understood and established laboratory technique often used in molecular diagnostics. Huge experience has been accumulated over the last years regarding the design of PCR assays and their set-up, including in-depth troubleshooting to obtain the optimal PCR assay for each purpose. Here we report a PCR troubleshooting that came up with a surprising result never observed before. With this report we hope to sensitize the reader to this peculiar problem and to save troubleshooting efforts in similar situations, especially in time-critical and ambitious diagnostic settings. PMID:27077041

  10. Absolute quantification by droplet digital PCR versus analog real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Hindson, Christopher M; Chevillet, John R; Briggs, Hilary A; Gallichotte, Emily N; Ruf, Ingrid K; Hindson, Benjamin J; Vessella, Robert L; Tewari, Muneesh

    2014-01-01

    Nanoliter-sized droplet technology paired with digital PCR (ddPCR) holds promise for highly precise, absolute nucleic acid quantification. Our comparison of microRNA quantification by ddPCR and real-time PCR revealed greater precision (coefficients of variation decreased by 37–86%) and improved day-to-day reproducibility (by a factor of seven) of ddPCR but with comparable sensitivity. When we applied ddPCR to serum microRNA biomarker analysis, this translated to superior diagnostic performance for identifying individuals with cancer. PMID:23995387

  11. Advantages and limitations of quantitative PCR (Q-PCR)-based approaches in microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cindy J; Osborn, A Mark

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR or real-time PCR) approaches are now widely applied in microbial ecology to quantify the abundance and expression of taxonomic and functional gene markers within the environment. Q-PCR-based analyses combine 'traditional' end-point detection PCR with fluorescent detection technologies to record the accumulation of amplicons in 'real time' during each cycle of the PCR amplification. By detection of amplicons during the early exponential phase of the PCR, this enables the quantification of gene (or transcript) numbers when these are proportional to the starting template concentration. When Q-PCR is coupled with a preceding reverse transcription reaction, it can be used to quantify gene expression (RT-Q-PCR). This review firstly addresses the theoretical and practical implementation of Q-PCR and RT-Q-PCR protocols in microbial ecology, highlighting key experimental considerations. Secondly, we review the applications of (RT)-Q-PCR analyses in environmental microbiology and evaluate the contribution and advances gained from such approaches. Finally, we conclude by offering future perspectives on the application of (RT)-Q-PCR in furthering understanding in microbial ecology, in particular, when coupled with other molecular approaches and more traditional investigations of environmental systems.

  12. Abundant and diverse clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat spacers in Clostridium difficile strains and prophages target multiple phage types within this pathogen.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Katherine R; Flores, Cesar O; Lawley, Trevor D; Clokie, Martha R J

    2014-08-26

    Clostridium difficile is an important human-pathogenic bacterium causing antibiotic-associated nosocomial infections worldwide. Mobile genetic elements and bacteriophages have helped shape C. difficile genome evolution. In many bacteria, phage infection may be controlled by a form of bacterial immunity called the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system. This uses acquired short nucleotide sequences (spacers) to target homologous sequences (protospacers) in phage genomes. C. difficile carries multiple CRISPR arrays, and in this paper we examine the relationships between the host- and phage-carried elements of the system. We detected multiple matches between spacers and regions in 31 C. difficile phage and prophage genomes. A subset of the spacers was located in prophage-carried CRISPR arrays. The CRISPR spacer profiles generated suggest that related phages would have similar host ranges. Furthermore, we show that C. difficile strains of the same ribotype could either have similar or divergent CRISPR contents. Both synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in the protospacer sequences were identified, as well as differences in the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), which could explain how phages escape this system. This paper illustrates how the distribution and diversity of CRISPR spacers in C. difficile, and its prophages, could modulate phage predation for this pathogen and impact upon its evolution and pathogenicity. Clostridium difficile is a significant bacterial human pathogen which undergoes continual genome evolution, resulting in the emergence of new virulent strains. Phages are major facilitators of genome evolution in other bacterial species, and we use sequence analysis-based approaches in order to examine whether the CRISPR/Cas system could control these interactions across divergent C. difficile strains. The presence of spacer sequences in prophages that are homologous to phage genomes raises an

  13. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat-Dependent, Biofilm-Specific Death of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mediated by Increased Expression of Phage-Related Genes.

    PubMed

    Heussler, Gary E; Cady, Kyle C; Koeppen, Katja; Bhuju, Sabin; Stanton, Bruce A; O'Toole, George A

    2015-05-12

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system is an adaptive immune system present in many archaea and bacteria. CRISPR/Cas systems are incredibly diverse, and there is increasing evidence of CRISPR/Cas systems playing a role in cellular functions distinct from phage immunity. Previously, our laboratory reported one such alternate function in which the type 1-F CRISPR/Cas system of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain UCBPP-PA14 (abbreviated as P. aeruginosa PA14) inhibits both biofilm formation and swarming motility when the bacterium is lysogenized by the bacteriophage DMS3. In this study, we demonstrated that the presence of just the DMS3 protospacer and the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) on the P. aeruginosa genome is necessary and sufficient for this CRISPR-dependent loss of these group behaviors, with no requirement of additional DMS3 sequences. We also demonstrated that the interaction of the CRISPR system with the DMS3 protospacer induces expression of SOS-regulated phage-related genes, including the well-characterized pyocin operon, through the activity of the nuclease Cas3 and subsequent RecA activation. Furthermore, our data suggest that expression of the phage-related genes results in bacterial cell death on a surface due to the inability of the CRISPR-engaged strain to downregulate phage-related gene expression, while these phage-related genes have minimal impact on growth and viability under planktonic conditions. Deletion of the phage-related genes restores biofilm formation and swarming motility while still maintaining a functional CRISPR/Cas system, demonstrating that the loss of these group behaviors is an indirect effect of CRISPR self-targeting. The various CRISPR/Cas systems found in both archaea and bacteria are incredibly diverse, and advances in understanding the complex mechanisms of these varied systems has not only increased our knowledge of host

  14. Survey of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and their associated Cas proteins (CRISPR/Cas) systems in multiple sequenced strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Ostria-Hernández, Martha Lorena; Sánchez-Vallejo, Carlos Javier; Ibarra, J Antonio; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2015-08-04

    In recent years the emergence of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains has been an increasingly common event. This opportunistic species is one of the five main bacterial pathogens that cause hospital infections worldwide and multidrug resistance has been associated with the presence of high molecular weight plasmids. Plasmids are generally acquired through horizontal transfer and therefore is possible that systems that prevent the entry of foreign genetic material are inactive or absent. One of these systems is CRISPR/Cas. However, little is known regarding the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and their associated Cas proteins (CRISPR/Cas) system in K. pneumoniae. The adaptive immune system CRISPR/Cas has been shown to limit the entry of foreign genetic elements into bacterial organisms and in some bacteria it has been shown to be involved in regulation of virulence genes. Thus in this work we used bioinformatics tools to determine the presence or absence of CRISPR/Cas systems in available K. pneumoniae genomes. The complete CRISPR/Cas system was identified in two out of the eight complete K. pneumoniae genomes sequences and in four out of the 44 available draft genomes sequences. The cas genes in these strains comprises eight cas genes similar to those found in Escherichia coli, suggesting they belong to the type I-E group, although their arrangement is slightly different. As for the CRISPR sequences, the average lengths of the direct repeats and spacers were 29 and 33 bp, respectively. BLAST searches demonstrated that 38 of the 116 spacer sequences (33%) are significantly similar to either plasmid, phage or genome sequences, while the remaining 78 sequences (67%) showed no significant similarity to other sequences. The region where the CRISPR/Cas systems were located is the same in all the Klebsiella genomes containing it, it has a syntenic architecture, and is located among genes encoding for proteins likely involved in

  15. Effects of the A117V mutation on the folding and aggregation of palindromic sequences (PrP113-120) in prion: insights from replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Ning, Lulu; Wang, Qianqian; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2015-02-01

    The palindromic region AGAAAAGA (PrP113-120) in prion is highly amyloidogenic and very critical in the structural conversion of cellular prion protein to its pathogenetic form. In this region, there is an important point mutation A117V, which is closely related to the occurrence of Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome. However, the detailed knowledge about the effects of the A117V mutation on the folding and aggregation of the palindromic sequences is still lacking. To investigate the impacts of A117V mutation on the earliest steps along the PrP113-120 aggregation pathway, replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of the monomer, 2- and 4-peptide systems of PrP113-120 and its A117V mutant were carried out. The simulations of monomers indicate that both WT and the A117V mutated PrP113-120 are mostly random coils with helical structures transiently populated. Differently, the A117V mutation enhances the intrinsic disorder of PrP113-120. The simulations of 2- and 4-peptide systems of the two species show that the A117V mutation increases the sheet contents and the populations of oligomers, which may be attributed to the enhancement of inter-peptide backbone hydrogen bonding interactions and side chain hydrophobic interactions. Overall, the study provides structural insights into the impacts of the A117V mutation on the folding and assembly of the palindromic sequences, which might be helpful to elucidate the mechanism underlying prion disease and the origin of the Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome.

  16. Bioconservation of deteriorated monumental calcarenite stone and identification of bacteria with carbonatogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Jroundi, Fadwa; Fernández-Vivas, Antonia; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Bedmar, Eulogio J; González-Muñoz, María Teresa

    2010-07-01

    The deterioration of the stone built and sculptural heritage has prompted the search and development of novel consolidation/protection treatments that can overcome the limitations of traditional ones. Attention has been drawn to bioconservation, particularly bacterial carbonatogenesis (i.e. bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation), as a new environmentally friendly effective conservation strategy, especially suitable for carbonate stones. Here, we study the effects of an in situ bacterial bioconsolidation treatment applied on porous limestone (calcarenite) in the sixteenth century San Jeronimo Monastery in Granada, Spain. The treatment consisted in the application of a nutritional solution (with and without Myxococcus xanthus inoculation) on decayed calcarenite stone blocks. The treatment promoted the development of heterotrophic bacteria able to induce carbonatogenesis. Both the consolidation effect of the treatment and the response of the culturable bacterial community present in the decayed stone were evaluated. A significant surface strengthening (consolidation) of the stone, without altering its surface appearance or inducing any detrimental side effect, was achieved upon application of the nutritional solution. The treatment efficacy was independent of the presence of M. xanthus (which is known as an effective carbonatogenic bacterium). The genetic diversity of 116 bacterial strains isolated from the stone, of which 113 strains showed carbonatogenic activity, was analysed by repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The strains were distributed into 31 groups on the basis of their REP-PCR patterns, and a representative strain of each group was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of these sequences showed that isolates belong to a wide variety of phylogenetic groups being closely related to species of 15 genera within the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria. This

  17. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  18. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  19. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) Assays for Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    1 Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) Assays for Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei Vipin K. Rastogi1, Tu-chen Cheng1, Lisa Collins1 and Jennifer Bagley2 1...A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) Assays for Burkholderia mallei and B.pseudomallei 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...pseudomallei and B. mallei , respectively are the causative agents of meliodosis and glanders , primarily in animals (both pathogens), and in humans

  20. A multiplexed droplet digital PCR assay performs better than qPCR on inhibition prone samples.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, Ruth Hall; Kuypers, Jane; Jerome, Keith R

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the development of a multiplex droplet digital PCR assay for human cytomegalovirus (CMV), human adenovirus species F, and an internal plasmid control that may be useful for PCR inhibition-prone clinical samples. This assay performs better on inhibition-prone stool samples than a quantitative PCR assay for CMV and is the first published clinical virology droplet digital PCR assay to incorporate an internal control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in Lebanon using four different typing methods.

    PubMed

    Rafei, Rayane; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Eveillard, Matthieu; Lemarié, Carole; Gaultier, Marie-Pierre; Mallat, Hassan; Moghnieh, Rima; Husni-Samaha, Rola; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed 42 Acinetobacter baumannii strains collected between 2009-2012 from different hospitals in Beyrouth and North Lebanon to better understand the epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms in our collection and to compare the robustness of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing (SBT). Among 31 carbapenem resistant strains, we have detected three carbapenem resistance genes: 28 carried the blaOXA-23 gene, 1 the blaOXA-24 gene and 2 strains the blaOXA-58 gene. This is the first detection of blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-24 in Lebanon. PFGE identified 11 types and was the most discriminating technique followed by rep-PCR (9 types), blaOXA-51 SBT (8 types) and MLST (7 types). The PFGE type A'/ST2 was the dominant genotype in our collection present in Beyrouth and North Lebanon. The clustering agreement between all techniques was measured by adjust Wallace coefficient. An overall agreement has been demonstrated. High values of adjust Wallace coefficient were found with followed combinations: PFGE to predict MLST types  = 100%, PFGE to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 100%, blaOXA-51 SBT to predict MLST = 100%, MLST to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 84.7%, rep-PCR to predict MLST = 81.5%, PFGE to predict rep-PCR = 69% and rep-PCR to predict blaOXA-51 SBT = 67.2%. PFGE and MLST are gold standard methods for outbreaks investigation and population structure studies respectively. Otherwise, these two techniques are technically, time and cost demanding. We recommend the use of blaOXA-51 SBT as first typing method to screen isolates and assign them to their corresponding clonal lineages. Repetitive sequence-based PCR is a rapid tool to access outbreaks but careful interpretation of results must be always performed.

  2. Surfactin production by strains of Bacillus mojavensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacillus mojavensis, RRC101 is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. DNA fingerprint analysis of the rep-PCR fragments of 35 B. mojavensis and 4 B. subtilis strains using the Diversilab genotyping system revealed genotypic distinctive strains alon...

  3. Real-time PCR in virology.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Ian M; Arden, Katherine E; Nitsche, Andreas

    2002-03-15

    The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnostics has increased to the point where it is now accepted as the gold standard for detecting nucleic acids from a number of origins and it has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. Real-time PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There are currently five main chemistries used for the detection of PCR product during real-time PCR. These are the DNA binding fluorophores, the 5' endonuclease, adjacent linear and hairpin oligoprobes and the self-fluorescing amplicons, which are described in detail. We also discuss factors that have restricted the development of multiplex real-time PCR as well as the role of real-time PCR in quantitating nucleic acids. Both amplification hardware and the fluorogenic detection chemistries have evolved rapidly as the understanding of real-time PCR has developed and this review aims to update the scientist on the current state of the art. We describe the background, advantages and limitations of real-time PCR and we review the literature as it applies to virus detection in the routine and research laboratory in order to focus on one of the many areas in which the application of real-time PCR has provided significant methodological benefits and improved patient outcomes. However, the technology discussed has been applied to other areas of microbiology as well as studies of gene expression and genetic disease.

  4. Impact of the ST101 clone on fatality among patients with colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Can, Fusun; Menekse, Sirin; Ispir, Pelin; Atac, Nazli; Albayrak, Ozgur; Demir, Tuana; Karaaslan, Doruk Can; Karahan, Salih Nafiz; Kapmaz, Mahir; Kurt Azap, Ozlem; Timurkaynak, Funda; Simsek Yavuz, Serap; Basaran, Seniha; Yoruk, Fugen; Azap, Alpay; Koculu, Safiye; Benzonana, Nur; Lack, Nathan A; Gönen, Mehmet; Ergonul, Onder

    2018-05-01

    We describe the molecular characteristics of colistin resistance and its impact on patient mortality. A prospective cohort study was performed in seven different Turkish hospitals. The genotype of each isolate was determined by MLST and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR). Alterations in mgrB were detected by sequencing. Upregulation of pmrCAB, phoQ and pmrK was quantified by RT-PCR. mcr-1 and the genes encoding OXA-48, NDM-1 and KPC were amplified by PCR. A total of 115 patients diagnosed with colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae (ColR-Kp) infection were included. Patients were predominantly males (55%) with a median age of 63 (IQR 46-74) and the 30 day mortality rate was 61%. ST101 was the most common ST and accounted for 68 (59%) of the ColR-Kp. The 30 day mortality rate in patients with these isolates was 72%. In ST101, 94% (64/68) of the isolates had an altered mgrB gene, whereas the alteration occurred in 40% (19/47) of non-ST101 isolates. The OXA-48 and NDM-1 carbapenemases were found in 93 (81%) and 22 (19%) of the total 115 isolates, respectively. In multivariate analysis for the prediction of 30 day mortality, ST101 (OR 3.4, CI 1.46-8.15, P = 0.005) and ICU stay (OR 7.4, CI 2.23-29.61, P = 0.002) were found to be significantly associated covariates. Besides ICU stay, ST101 was found to be a significant independent predictor of patient mortality among those infected with ColR-Kp. A significant association was detected between ST101 and OXA-48. ST101 may become a global threat in the dissemination of colistin resistance and the increased morbidity and mortality of K. pneumoniae infection.

  5. Comparison of microfluidic digital PCR and conventional quantitative PCR for measuring copy number variation.

    PubMed

    Whale, Alexandra S; Huggett, Jim F; Cowen, Simon; Speirs, Valerie; Shaw, Jacqui; Ellison, Stephen; Foy, Carole A; Scott, Daniel J

    2012-06-01

    One of the benefits of Digital PCR (dPCR) is the potential for unparalleled precision enabling smaller fold change measurements. An example of an assessment that could benefit from such improved precision is the measurement of tumour-associated copy number variation (CNV) in the cell free DNA (cfDNA) fraction of patient blood plasma. To investigate the potential precision of dPCR and compare it with the established technique of quantitative PCR (qPCR), we used breast cancer cell lines to investigate HER2 gene amplification and modelled a range of different CNVs. We showed that, with equal experimental replication, dPCR could measure a smaller CNV than qPCR. As dPCR precision is directly dependent upon both the number of replicate measurements and the template concentration, we also developed a method to assist the design of dPCR experiments for measuring CNV. Using an existing model (based on Poisson and binomial distributions) to derive an expression for the variance inherent in dPCR, we produced a power calculation to define the experimental size required to reliably detect a given fold change at a given template concentration. This work will facilitate any future translation of dPCR to key diagnostic applications, such as cancer diagnostics and analysis of cfDNA.

  6. Chip PCR. I. Surface passivation of microfabricated silicon-glass chips for PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Shoffner, M A; Cheng, J; Hvichia, G E; Kricka, L J; Wilding, P

    1996-01-01

    The microreaction volumes of PCR chips (a microfabricated silicon chip bonded to a piece of flat glass to form a PCR reaction chamber) create a relatively high surface to volume ratio that increases the significance of the surface chemistry in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We investigated several surface passivations in an attempt to identify 'PCR friendly' surfaces and used those surfaces to obtain amplifications comparable with those obtained in conventional PCR amplification systems using polyethylene tubes. Surface passivations by a silanization procedure followed by a coating of a selected protein or polynucleotide and the deposition of a nitride or oxide layer onto the silicon surface were investigated. Native silicon was found to be an inhibitor of PCR and amplification in an untreated PCR chip (i.e. native slicon) had a high failure rate. A silicon nitride (Si(3)N(4) reaction surface also resulted in consistent inhibition of PCR. Passivating the PCR chip using a silanizing agent followed by a polymer treatment resulted in good amplification. However, amplification yields were inconsistent and were not always comparable with PCR in a conventional tube. An oxidized silicon (SiO(2) surface gave consistent amplifications comparable with reactions performed in a conventional PCR tube. PMID:8628665

  7. Real-time PCR detection chemistry.

    PubMed

    Navarro, E; Serrano-Heras, G; Castaño, M J; Solera, J

    2015-01-15

    Real-time PCR is the method of choice in many laboratories for diagnostic and food applications. This technology merges the polymerase chain reaction chemistry with the use of fluorescent reporter molecules in order to monitor the production of amplification products during each cycle of the PCR reaction. Thus, the combination of excellent sensitivity and specificity, reproducible data, low contamination risk and reduced hand-on time, which make it a post-PCR analysis unnecessary, has made real-time PCR technology an appealing alternative to conventional PCR. The present paper attempts to provide a rigorous overview of fluorescent-based methods for nucleic acid analysis in real-time PCR described in the literature so far. Herein, different real-time PCR chemistries have been classified into two main groups; the first group comprises double-stranded DNA intercalating molecules, such as SYBR Green I and EvaGreen, whereas the second includes fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides. The latter, in turn, has been divided into three subgroups according to the type of fluorescent molecules used in the PCR reaction: (i) primer-probes (Scorpions, Amplifluor, LUX, Cyclicons, Angler); (ii) probes; hydrolysis (TaqMan, MGB-TaqMan, Snake assay) and hybridization (Hybprobe or FRET, Molecular Beacons, HyBeacon, MGB-Pleiades, MGB-Eclipse, ResonSense, Yin-Yang or displacing); and (iii) analogues of nucleic acids (PNA, LNA, ZNA, non-natural bases: Plexor primer, Tiny-Molecular Beacon). In addition, structures, mechanisms of action, advantages and applications of such real-time PCR probes and analogues are depicted in this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid RHD Zygosity Determination Using Digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Sillence, Kelly A; Halawani, Amr J; Tounsi, Wajnat A; Clarke, Kirsty A; Kiernan, Michele; Madgett, Tracey E; Avent, Neil D

    2017-08-01

    Paternal zygosity testing is used for determining homo- or hemizygosity of RHD in pregnancies that are at a risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. At present, this is achieved by using real-time PCR or the Rhesus box PCR, which can be difficult to interpret and unreliable, particularly for black African populations. DNA samples extracted from 53 blood donors were analyzed using 2 multiplex reactions for RHD -specific targets against a reference ( AGO1 ) 2 to determine gene dosage by digital PCR. Results were compared with serological data, and the correct genotype for 2 discordant results was determined by long-range PCR (LR-PCR), next-generation sequencing, and conventional Sanger sequencing. The results showed clear and reliable determination of RHD zygosity using digital PCR and revealed that 4 samples did not match the serologically predicted genotype. Sanger sequencing and long-range PCR followed by next-generation sequencing revealed that the correct genotypes for samples 729M and 351D, which were serologically typed as R 1 R 2 (DCe/DcE), were R 2 r' (DcE/dCe) for 729M and R 1 r″ (DCe/dcE), R 0 r y (Dce/dCE), or R Z r (DCE/dce) for 351D, in concordance with the digital PCR data. Digital PCR provides a highly accurate method to rapidly define blood group zygosity and has clinical application in the analysis of Rh phenotyped or genotyped samples. The vast majority of current blood group genotyping platforms are not designed to define zygosity, and thus, this technique may be used to define paternal RH zygosity in pregnancies that are at a risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and can distinguish between homo- and hemizygous RHD -positive individuals. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  9. Fundamentals of multiplexing with digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Whale, Alexandra S; Huggett, Jim F; Tzonev, Svilen

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade numerous publications have demonstrated how digital PCR (dPCR) enables precise and sensitive quantification of nucleic acids in a wide range of applications in both healthcare and environmental analysis. This has occurred in parallel with the advances in partitioning fluidics that enable a reaction to be subdivided into an increasing number of partitions. As the majority of dPCR systems are based on detection in two discrete optical channels, most research to date has focused on quantification of one or two targets within a single reaction. Here we describe 'higher order multiplexing' that is the unique ability of dPCR to precisely measure more than two targets in the same reaction. Using examples, we describe the different types of duplex and multiplex reactions that can be achieved. We also describe essential experimental considerations to ensure accurate quantification of multiple targets.

  10. Comparison of droplet digital PCR and conventional quantitative PCR for measuring EGFR gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, BO; XU, CHUN-WEI; SHAO, YUN; WANG, HUAI-TAO; WU, YONG-FANG; SONG, YE-YING; LI, XIAO-BING; ZHANG, ZHE; WANG, WEN-JING; LI, LI-QIONG; CAI, CONG-LI

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, particularly EGFR T790M mutation, is of clinical significance. The aim of the present study was to compare the performances of amplification refractory mutation system-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-qPCR) and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) approaches in the detection of EGFR mutation and explore the feasibility of using ddPCR in the detection of samples with low mutation rates. EGFR gene mutations in plasmid samples with different T790M mutation rates (0.1–5%) and 10 clinical samples were detected using the ARMS-qPCR and ddPCR approaches. The results demonstrated that the ARMS-qPCR method stably detected the plasmid samples (6,000 copies) with 5 and 1% mutation rates, while the ddPCR approach reliably detected those with 5% (398 copies), 1% (57 copies), 0.5% (24 copies) and 0.1% (average 6 copies) mutation rates. For the 10 clinical samples, the results for nine samples by the ARMS-qPCR and ddPCR methods were consistent; however, the sample N006, indicated to be EGFR wild-type by ARMS-qPCR, was revealed to have a clear EGFR T790M mutation with seven copies of mutant alleles in a background of 6,000 wild-type copies using ddPCR technology. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying the ddPCR system to detect EGFR mutation and identified the advantage of ddPCR in the detection of samples with a low EGFR mutation abundance, particularly the secondary EGFR T790M resistance mutation, which enables early diagnosis before acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors becomes clinically detectable. PMID:25780439

  11. A naked-eye colorimetric "PCR developer"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, Paola; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Despite several advances in molecular biology and diagnostics, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is currently the gold standard for nucleic acids amplification and detection, due to its versatility, low-cost and universality, with estimated <10 billion reactions per year and a worldwide market of several billion dollars/year. Nevertheless, PCR still relies on the laborious, time-consuming, and multi-step gel electrophoresis-based detection, which includes gel casting, electrophoretic run, gel staining, and gel visualization. In this work, we propose a "PCR developer", namely a universal one-step, one-tube method, based on controlled aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), to detect PCR products by naked eye in few minutes, with no need for any instrumentation. We demonstrated the specificity and sensitivity of the PCR developer on different model targets, suitable for a qualitative detection in real-world diagnostics (i.e., gene rearrangements, genetically modified organisms, and pathogens). The PCR developer proved to be highly specific and ultra-sensitive, discriminating down to few copies of HIV viral DNA, diluted in an excess of interfering human genomic DNA, which is a clinically relevant viral load. Hence, it could be a valuable tool for both academic research and clinical applications.

  12. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of chicha, a rice-based fermented beverage produced by Umutina Brazilian Amerindians.

    PubMed

    Puerari, Cláudia; Magalhães-Guedes, Karina Teixeira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2015-04-01

    Chicha is a traditional, fermented rice beverage produced by the indigenous Umutina people in Brazil. Culture-dependent and independent approaches were used to investigate the microbial community dynamic. The bacterial population ranged from 0.1 to 6.83 log mL(-1). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus dominated throughout the fermentation process. Representative colonies were grouped by Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic and Polymerase Chain Reaction (Rep-PCR) and by biochemical features. Genera of Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, Streptomyces, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Escherichia, Cronobacter, and Klebsiella were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence. As shown by Polimerase and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, uncultivable Bifidobacterium and Propioniobacterium were found throughout fermentation. Uncultured fungi composed the fungal PCR-DGGE profile. The pH values decreased from 5.2 (time 0) to 3.9 at 36 h of fermentation. Ethanol was not found. The lactic acid concentration increased rapidly throughout fermentation until it reached a high final value (1.4 g L(-1)) and the average glycerol content in the beverage was 0.425 g L(-1). Chicha fermentation might be described by the following phenomena: (i) increasing bacterial population, with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as the largest group detected; (ii) increasing concentrations of lactic and citric acids; and (iii) the final product is characterized by a high content of acids and the absence of ethanol, therefore characterizing rice chicha an acidic and nonalcoholic beverage. First, this study characterizes the microbial population involved in the nonalcoholic fermentation of chicha, which is produced from rice by Amerindians in Brazil. This study is important for promoting the appreciation of and safeguarding this Brazilian indigenous beverage as an immaterial cultural heritage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of microbial community isolated from indoor artworks and air environment: identification, biodegradative abilities, and DNA typing.

    PubMed

    Pangallo, Domenico; Chovanová, Katarina; Simonovicová, Alexandra; Ferianc, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This study deals with establishing the characteristics of a microbial community isolated from indoor artworks and the surrounding air environment. It is one of the few studies on microbial degradation of indoor artworks. It shows the potential biodegradative risk that can occur if artworks are not exhibited and conserved in an appropriate environment. The microbial community isolated from the indoor artworks and air environment was examined by cultural and molecular methods. Different plate assays were used to screen the biodegradative activity of the isolated microflora: Remazol Brilliant Blue R, phenol red, and Azure B for the ligninolytic properties; Ostazin brilliant red H-3B for cellulose degradation; CaCO3 glucose agar for solubilization activity; and B4 agar for biomineralization. To type the bacterial and fungal isolates, 2 PCR methods, repetitive extragenic palindromes (REP) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms (RAMP) were used. The art objects were principally colonized by fungi. The most commonly isolated strains were represented by hyphomycetes of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Chaetomium. Members of these genera showed intensive biodegradation activity, both on wood and on stone. Bacteria were predominant in the air, exhibiting complex communities, both in the air and on the artworks. The most frequently isolated genera were Bacillus and Staphylococcus with extensive biodegradation abilities. REP-PCR revealed high variability within strains belonging to the same genus. RAMP is a new PCR-based method, used in this research for the first time to cluster the microfilamentous fungi and to characterize and select especially Penicillium and Aspergillus strains, which were isolated in a large number.

  14. Antibacterial potential and genetic profile of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human normal flora.

    PubMed

    Karimaei, Samira; Sadeghi, Javad; Asadian, Mahla; Esghaei, Maryam; Pourshafie, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Malihe

    2016-07-01

    Enterococci have a widespread attendance in the circumference and belongs to the enteric commensal microbiota. Most of them produce the antimicrobial compounds and have an inhibition effect on pathogenic microorganisms. The objective of this study was to characterize the enterococcal strains isolated from human normal flora and assess their antibacterial activity. Enterococcal isolates were obtained from the feces of eighteen healthy humans. All enterococcal species were identified by biochemical and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isolates were investigated further to examine their ability to inhibit growth of Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli by well diffusion assay. Furthermore, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed and genetic relatedness of all isolates was evaluated by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). In all, 432 isolates were obtained from fecal samples. All of the isolates identified as Enterococcus faecium by biochemical and molecular (PCR) methods. Using repetitive element palindromic (REP)-PCR method 54 patterns have been obtained and were selected for further evaluation. The results indicated that 66%, 38% and 24% of our isolates had antimicrobial effect against S. typhi, S flexneri and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), respectively. On the other hand, there was no significant inhibition effect against enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. On the other hand, the resistance rates for erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were 20%, 22%, and 1.8% respectively. In addition, the analysis of PFGE showed forty patterns with eight (40.7%) common types (CT) and thirty two (59.2%) single types (ST). Among eight common types, only one common type (CT5) had similar antimicrobial effect. These results suggested that enterococcal isolates obtained from

  15. Burkholderia sp. induces functional nodules on the South African invasive legume Dipogon lignosus (Phaseoleae) in New Zealand soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wendy Y Y; Ridgway, Hayley J; James, Trevor K; James, Euan K; Chen, Wen-Ming; Sprent, Janet I; Young, J Peter W; Andrews, Mitchell

    2014-10-01

    The South African invasive legume Dipogon lignosus (Phaseoleae) produces nodules with both determinate and indeterminate characteristics in New Zealand (NZ) soils. Ten bacterial isolates produced functional nodules on D. lignosus. The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences identified one isolate as Bradyrhizobium sp., one isolate as Rhizobium sp. and eight isolates as Burkholderia sp. The Bradyrhizobium sp. and Rhizobium sp. 16S rRNA sequences were identical to those of strains previously isolated from crop plants and may have originated from inocula used on crops. Both 16S rRNA and DNA recombinase A (recA) gene sequences placed the eight Burkholderia isolates separate from previously described Burkholderia rhizobial species. However, the isolates showed a very close relationship to Burkholderia rhizobial strains isolated from South African plants with respect to their nitrogenase iron protein (nifH), N-acyltransferase nodulation protein A (nodA) and N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase nodulation protein C (nodC) gene sequences. Gene sequences and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR and repetitive element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) banding patterns indicated that the eight Burkholderia isolates separated into five clones of one strain and three of another. One strain was tested and shown to produce functional nodules on a range of South African plants previously reported to be nodulated by Burkholderia tuberum STM678(T) which was isolated from the Cape Region. Thus, evidence is strong that the Burkholderia strains isolated here originated in South Africa and were somehow transported with the plants from their native habitat to NZ. It is possible that the strains are of a new species capable of nodulating legumes.

  16. [Genetic diversity of extraintestinal Escherichia coli strains producers of beta-lactamases TEM, SHV and CTX-M associated with healthcare].

    PubMed

    Varela, Yasmin; Millán, Beatriz; Araque, María

    2017-06-01

    There are few reports from Venezuela describing the genetic basis that sustains the pathogenic potential and phylogenetics of Escherichia coli extraintestinal strains isolated in health care units. To establish the genetic diversity of extraintestinal E. coli strains producers of betalactamases TEM, SHV and CTX-M associated with healthcare. We studied a collection of 12 strains of extraintestinal E. coli with diminished sensitivity to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration. We determined the phylogenetic groups, virulence factors and genes encoding antimicrobial resistance using PCR, and clonal characterization by repetitive element palindromic-PCR rep-PCR. All strains showed resistance to cephalosporins and joint resistance to quinolones and aminoglycosides. The phylogenetic distribution showed that the A and B1 groups were the most frequent, followed by D and B2. We found all the virulence factors analyzed in the B2 group, and fimH gene was the most frequent among them. We found blaCTX-M in all strains,with a higher prevalence of blaCTX-M-8; two of these strains showed coproduction of blaCTX-M-9 and were genetically identified as blaCTXM-65 and blaCTX-M-147 by sequencing. The strains under study showed genetic diversity, hosting a variety of virulence genes, as well as antimicrobial resistance with no particular phylogroup prevalence. This is the first report of blaCTX-M alleles in Venezuela and in the world associated to non-genetically related strains isolated in health care units, a situation that deserves attention, as well as the rationalization of antimicrobials use.

  17. pcr: an R package for quality assessment, analysis and testing of qPCR data

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    Background Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a broadly used technique in the biomedical research. Currently, few different analysis models are used to determine the quality of data and to quantify the mRNA level across the experimental conditions. Methods We developed an R package to implement methods for quality assessment, analysis and testing qPCR data for statistical significance. Double Delta CT and standard curve models were implemented to quantify the relative expression of target genes from CT in standard qPCR control-group experiments. In addition, calculation of amplification efficiency and curves from serial dilution qPCR experiments are used to assess the quality of the data. Finally, two-group testing and linear models were used to test for significance of the difference in expression control groups and conditions of interest. Results Using two datasets from qPCR experiments, we applied different quality assessment, analysis and statistical testing in the pcr package and compared the results to the original published articles. The final relative expression values from the different models, as well as the intermediary outputs, were checked against the expected results in the original papers and were found to be accurate and reliable. Conclusion The pcr package provides an intuitive and unified interface for its main functions to allow biologist to perform all necessary steps of qPCR analysis and produce graphs in a uniform way. PMID:29576953

  18. Evaluation of Altona Diagnostics RealStar Zika Virus Reverse Transcription-PCR Test Kit for Zika Virus PCR Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lombos, Ernesto; Tang, Elaine; Perusini, Stephen; Eshaghi, Alireza; Nagra, Sandeep; Frantz, Christine; Olsha, Romy; Kristjanson, Erik; Dimitrova, Kristina; Safronetz, David; Drebot, Mike

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT With the emerging Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic, accessible real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays are needed to streamline testing. The commercial Altona Diagnostics RealStar ZIKV rRT-PCR test kit (Altona PCR) has been approved for emergency use authorization by the U.S. FDA. Our aim was to verify the Altona PCR by comparing it to the CDC-designed dual-target ZIKV rRT-PCR reference assay (reference PCR) and describe the demographics of patients tested for ZIKV by rRT-PCR in Ontario, Canada. A large set of clinical specimens was tested for ZIKV by the Altona PCR and the reference PCR. Positive or equivocal specimens underwent PCR and Sanger sequencing targeting the ZIKV NS5 gene. A total of 671 serum specimens were tested by the reference PCR: 58 (8.6%) were positive, 193 (28.8%) were equivocal, and 420 (62.6%) were negative. Ninety percent of the reference PCR-positive patients were tested in the first 5 days after symptom onset. The Altona PCR was performed on 284/671 specimens tested by the reference PCR. The Altona PCR was positive for 53/58 (91%) reference PCR-positive specimens and 16/193 (8%) reference PCR-equivocal specimens; the ZIKV NS5 PCR was positive for all 68 Altona PCR-positive specimens and negative for all 181 Altona PCR-negative specimens that underwent the NS5 PCR. The Altona PCR has very good sensitivity (91%) and specificity (97%) compared to the reference PCR. The Altona PCR can be used for ZIKV diagnostic testing and has less extensive verification requirements than a laboratory-developed test. PMID:28298448

  19. The principle and application of new PCR Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Cao, Yue; Ji, Yubin

    2017-12-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is essentially a selective DNA amplification technique commonlyapplied for genetic testing and molecular diagnosis because of its high specificity and sensitivity.PCR technologies as the key of molecular biology, has realized that the qualitative detection of absolute quantitative has been changed. It has produced a variety of new PCR technologies, such as extreme PCR, photonic PCR, o-amplification at lower denaturation temperature PCR, nanoparticle PCR and so on. In this paper, the principle and application of PCR technologies are reviewed, and its development is prospected too.

  20. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  1. Utility of PCR in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bennedsen, J; Thomsen, V O; Pfyffer, G E; Funke, G; Feldmann, K; Beneke, A; Jenkins, P A; Hegginbothom, M; Fahr, A; Hengstler, M; Cleator, G; Klapper, P; Wilkins, E G

    1996-06-01

    At present, the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis rests with microscopy. However, this technique is insensitive and many cases of pulmonary tuberculosis cannot be initially confirmed. Nucleic acid amplification techniques are extremely sensitive, but when they are applied to tuberculosis diagnosis, they have given variable results. Investigators at six centers in Europe compared a standardized PCR system (Amplicor; Roche) against conventional culture methods. Defined clinical information was collected. Discrepant samples were retested, and inhibition assays and backup amplification with a separate primer pair were performed. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms were recovered from 654 (9.1%) of 7,194 samples and 293 (7.8%) of 3,738 patients. Four hundred fifty-two of the M. tuberculosis isolates from 204 patients were smear positive and culture positive. Among the culture-positive specimens, PCR had a sensitivity of 91.4% for smear-positive specimens and 60.9% for smear-negative specimens, with a specificity of 96.1%. Analysis of 254 PCR-positive, culture-negative specimens with discrepant results revealed that 130 were from patients with recently diagnosed tuberculosis and 94 represented a presumed laboratory error. Similar analysis of 118 PCR-negative, culture-positive specimens demonstrated that 27 discrepancies were due to presumed uneven aliquot distribution and 11 were due to presumed laboratory error; PCR inhibitors were detected in 8 specimens. Amplicor enables laboratories with little previous experience with nucleic acid amplification to perform PCR. Disease in more than 60% of the patients with tuberculosis with smear-negative, culture-positive specimens can be diagnosed at the time of admission, and potentially all patients with smear-positive specimens can immediately be confirmed as being infected with M. tuberculosis, leading to improved clinical management.

  2. Gemi: PCR Primers Prediction from Multiple Alignments

    PubMed Central

    Sobhy, Haitham; Colson, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Designing primers and probes for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a preliminary and critical step that requires the identification of highly conserved regions in a given set of sequences. This task can be challenging if the targeted sequences display a high level of diversity, as frequently encountered in microbiologic studies. We developed Gemi, an automated, fast, and easy-to-use bioinformatics tool with a user-friendly interface to design primers and probes based on multiple aligned sequences. This tool can be used for the purpose of real-time and conventional PCR and can deal efficiently with large sets of sequences of a large size. PMID:23316117

  3. Real-time PCR: Advanced technologies and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book brings together contributions from 20 experts in the field of PCR, providing a broad perspective of the applications of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The editors state in the preface that the aim is to provide detailed insight into underlying principles and methods of qPCR to provide ...

  4. The Power of Real-Time PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valasek, Mark A.; Repa, Joyce J.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as a robust and widely used methodology for biological investigation because it can detect and quantify very small amounts of specific nucleic acid sequences. As a research tool, a major application of this technology is the rapid and accurate assessment of changes in gene…

  5. [Quantitative PCR in the diagnosis of Leishmania].

    PubMed

    Mortarino, M; Franceschi, A; Mancianti, F; Bazzocchi, C; Genchi, C; Bandi, C

    2004-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a sensitive and rapid method for the diagnosis of canine Leishmania infection and can be performed on a variety of biological samples, including peripheral blood, lymph node, bone marrow and skin. Standard PCR requires electrophoretic analysis of the amplification products and is usually not suitable for quantification of the template DNA (unless competitor-based or other methods are developed), being of reduced usefulness when accurate monitoring of target DNA is required. Quantitative real-time PCR allows the continuous monitoring of the accumulation of PCR products during the amplification reaction. This allows the identification of the cycle of near-logarithmic PCR product generation (threshold cycle) and, by inference, the relative quantification of the template DNA present at the start of the reaction. Since the amplification product are monitored in "real-time" as they form cycle-by-cycle, no post-amplification handling is required. The absolute quantification is performed according either to an internal standard co-amplified with the sample DNA, or to an external standard curve obtained by parallel amplification of serial known concentrations of a reference DNA sequence. From the quantification of the template DNA, an estimation of the relative load of parasites in the different samples can be obtained. The advantages compared to standard and semi-quantitative PCR techniques are reduction of the assay's time and contamination risks, and improved sensitivity. As for standard PCR, the minimal components of the quantitative PCR reaction mixture are the DNA target of the amplification, an oligonucleotide primer pair flanking the target sequence, a suitable DNA polymerase, deoxynucleotides, buffer and salts. Different technologies have been set up for the monitoring of amplification products, generally based on the use of fluorescent probes. For instance, SYBR Green technology is a non-specific detection system based on a

  6. Miniaturized technology for DNA typing: cassette PCR.

    PubMed

    Manage, Dammika P; Pilarski, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    With the smaller size, low cost, and rapid testing capabilities, miniaturized lab-on-a-chip devices can change the way medical diagnostics are currently performed in the health-care system. We have demonstrated such a device that is self-contained, simple, disposable, and inexpensive. It is capable of performing DNA amplification on an inexpensive instrument suitable for near point of care settings. This technology will enable on the spot evaluation of patients in the clinic for faster medical decision-making and more informed therapeutic choices. Our device, a gel capillary cassette, termed cassette PCR, contains capillary reaction units each holding a defined primer set, with arrays of capillary reaction units for simultaneously detecting multiple targets. With the exception of the sample to be tested, each capillary reaction unit holds all the reagents needed for PCR in a desiccated form that can be stored at room temperature for up to 3 months and even longer in colder conditions. It relies on capillary forces for sample delivery of microliter volumes through capillaries, hence avoiding the need for pumps or valves. In the assembled cassette, the wax architecture supporting the capillaries melts during the PCR and acts as a vapor barrier as well as segregating capillaries with different primer sets. No other chip sealing techniques are required. Cassette PCR accepts raw samples such as urine, genital swabs, and blood. The cassette is made with off-the-shelf components and contains integrated positive and negative controls.

  7. PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.

    PubMed

    Reid, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR.

  8. Quantitative PCR and Digital PCR for Detection of Ascaris lumbricoides Eggs in Reclaimed Water

    PubMed Central

    Santísima-Trinidad, Ana Belén; Bornay-Llinares, Fernando Jorge; Martín González, Marcos; Pascual Valero, José Antonio; Ros Muñoz, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    The reuse of reclaimed water from wastewater depuration is a widespread and necessary practice in many areas around the world and must be accompanied by adequate and continuous quality control. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH) with risk for humans due to its high infectivity and an important determinant of transmission is the inadequacy of water supplies and sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a limit equal to or lower than one parasitic helminth egg per liter, to reuse reclaimed water for unrestricted irrigation. We present two new protocols of DNA extraction from large volumes of reclaimed water. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) were able to detect low amounts of A. lumbricoides eggs. By using the first extraction protocol, which processes 500 mL of reclaimed water, qPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as one A. lumbricoides egg equivalent, while dPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as five A. lumbricoides egg equivalents. By using the second protocol, which processes 10 L of reclaimed water, qPCR was able to detect DNA concentrations equivalent to 20 A. lumbricoides eggs. This fact indicated the importance of developing new methodologies to detect helminth eggs with higher sensitivity and precision avoiding possible human infection risks. PMID:28377928

  9. A survey of tools for the analysis of quantitative PCR (qPCR) data.

    PubMed

    Pabinger, Stephan; Rödiger, Stefan; Kriegner, Albert; Vierlinger, Klemens; Weinhäusel, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) is a standard technique in most laboratories used for various applications in basic research. Analysis of qPCR data is a crucial part of the entire experiment, which has led to the development of a plethora of methods. The released tools either cover specific parts of the workflow or provide complete analysis solutions. Here, we surveyed 27 open-access software packages and tools for the analysis of qPCR data. The survey includes 8 Microsoft Windows, 5 web-based, 9 R-based and 5 tools from other platforms. Reviewed packages and tools support the analysis of different qPCR applications, such as RNA quantification, DNA methylation, genotyping, identification of copy number variations, and digital PCR. We report an overview of the functionality, features and specific requirements of the individual software tools, such as data exchange formats, availability of a graphical user interface, included procedures for graphical data presentation, and offered statistical methods. In addition, we provide an overview about quantification strategies, and report various applications of qPCR. Our comprehensive survey showed that most tools use their own file format and only a fraction of the currently existing tools support the standardized data exchange format RDML. To allow a more streamlined and comparable analysis of qPCR data, more vendors and tools need to adapt the standardized format to encourage the exchange of data between instrument software, analysis tools, and researchers.

  10. Quantitative Real-Time PCR using the Thermo Scientific Solaris qPCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ogrean, Christy; Jackson, Ben; Covino, James

    2010-01-01

    The Solaris qPCR Gene Expression Assay is a novel type of primer/probe set, designed to simplify the qPCR process while maintaining the sensitivity and accuracy of the assay. These primer/probe sets are pre-designed to >98% of the human and mouse genomes and feature significant improvements from previously available technologies. These improvements were made possible by virtue of a novel design algorithm, developed by Thermo Scientific bioinformatics experts. Several convenient features have been incorporated into the Solaris qPCR Assay to streamline the process of performing quantitative real-time PCR. First, the protocol is similar to commonly employed alternatives, so the methods used during qPCR are likely to be familiar. Second, the master mix is blue, which makes setting the qPCR reactions easier to track. Third, the thermal cycling conditions are the same for all assays (genes), making it possible to run many samples at a time and reducing the potential for error. Finally, the probe and primer sequence information are provided, simplifying the publication process. Here, we demonstrate how to obtain the appropriate Solaris reagents using the GENEius product search feature found on the ordering web site (www.thermo.com/solaris) and how to use the Solaris reagents for performing qPCR using the standard curve method. PMID:20567213

  11. Real-time PCR (qPCR) primer design using free online software.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2011-01-01

    Real-time PCR (quantitative PCR or qPCR) has become the preferred method for validating results obtained from assays which measure gene expression profiles. The process uses reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), coupled with fluorescent chemistry, to measure variations in transcriptome levels between samples. The four most commonly used fluorescent chemistries are SYBR® Green dyes and TaqMan®, Molecular Beacon or Scorpion probes. SYBR® Green is very simple to use and cost efficient. As SYBR® Green dye binds to any double-stranded DNA product, its success depends greatly on proper primer design. Many types of online primer design software are available, which can be used free of charge to design desirable SYBR® Green-based qPCR primers. This laboratory exercise is intended for those who have a fundamental background in PCR. It addresses the basic fluorescent chemistries of real-time PCR, the basic rules and pitfalls of primer design, and provides a step-by-step protocol for designing SYBR® Green-based primers with free, online software. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pneumocystis PCR: It Is Time to Make PCR the Test of Choice.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Laura; Vogel, Sherilynn; Procop, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    The testing strategy for Pneumocystis at the Cleveland Clinic changed from toluidine blue staining to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We studied the differences in positivity rates for these assays and compared each with the detection of Pneumocystis in companion specimens by cytology and surgical pathology. We reviewed the results of all Pneumocystis test orders 1 year before and 1 year after the implementation of a Pneumocystis -specific PCR. We also reviewed the corresponding cytology and surgical pathology results, if performed. Finally, we reviewed the medical records of patients with rare Pneumocystis detected by PCR in an effort to differentiate colonization vs true disease. Toluidine blue staining and surgical pathology had similar sensitivities and negative predictive values, both of which were superior to cytology. There was a >4-fold increase in the annual detection of Pneumocystis by PCR compared with toluidine blue staining (toluidine blue staining: 11/1583 [0.69%] vs PCR: 44/1457 [3.0%]; chi-square P < .001). PCR detected 1 more case than surgical pathology and was far more sensitive than cytology. Chart review demonstrated that the vast majority of patients with rare Pneumocystis detected were immunosuppressed, had radiologic findings supportive of this infection, had no other pathogens detected, and were treated for pneumocystosis by the clinical team. PCR was the most sensitive method for the detection of Pneumocystis and should be considered the diagnostic test of choice. Correlation with clinical and radiologic findings affords discrimination of early true disease from the far rarer instances of colonization.

  13. Digital PCR on a SlipChip.

    PubMed

    Shen, Feng; Du, Wenbin; Kreutz, Jason E; Fok, Alice; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2010-10-21

    This paper describes a SlipChip to perform digital PCR in a very simple and inexpensive format. The fluidic path for introducing the sample combined with the PCR mixture was formed using elongated wells in the two plates of the SlipChip designed to overlap during sample loading. This fluidic path was broken up by simple slipping of the two plates that removed the overlap among wells and brought each well in contact with a reservoir preloaded with oil to generate 1280 reaction compartments (2.6 nL each) simultaneously. After thermal cycling, end-point fluorescence intensity was used to detect the presence of nucleic acid. Digital PCR on the SlipChip was tested quantitatively by using Staphylococcus aureus genomic DNA. As the concentration of the template DNA in the reaction mixture was diluted, the fraction of positive wells decreased as expected from the statistical analysis. No cross-contamination was observed during the experiments. At the extremes of the dynamic range of digital PCR the standard confidence interval determined using a normal approximation of the binomial distribution is not satisfactory. Therefore, statistical analysis based on the score method was used to establish these confidence intervals. The SlipChip provides a simple strategy to count nucleic acids by using PCR. It may find applications in research applications such as single cell analysis, prenatal diagnostics, and point-of-care diagnostics. SlipChip would become valuable for diagnostics, including applications in resource-limited areas after integration with isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies and visual readout.

  14. Multiplex digital PCR: breaking the one target per color barrier of quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qun; Bhattacharya, Smiti; Kotsopoulos, Steven; Olson, Jeff; Taly, Valérie; Griffiths, Andrew D; Link, Darren R; Larson, Jonathan W

    2011-07-07

    Quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) based on real-time PCR constitute a powerful and sensitive method for the analysis of nucleic acids. However, in qPCR, the ability to multiplex targets using differently colored fluorescent probes is typically limited to 4-fold by the spectral overlap of the fluorophores. Furthermore, multiplexing qPCR assays requires expensive instrumentation and most often lengthy assay development cycles. Digital PCR (dPCR), which is based on the amplification of single target DNA molecules in many separate reactions, is an attractive alternative to qPCR. Here we report a novel and easy method for multiplexing dPCR in picolitre droplets within emulsions-generated and read out in microfluidic devices-that takes advantage of both the very high numbers of reactions possible within emulsions (>10(6)) as well as the high likelihood that the amplification of only a single target DNA molecule will initiate within each droplet. By varying the concentration of different fluorogenic probes of the same color, it is possible to identify the different probes on the basis of fluorescence intensity. Adding multiple colors increases the number of possible reactions geometrically, rather than linearly as with qPCR. Accurate and precise copy numbers of up to sixteen per cell were measured using a model system. A 5-plex assay for spinal muscular atrophy was demonstrated with just two fluorophores to simultaneously measure the copy number of two genes (SMN1 and SMN2) and to genotype a single nucleotide polymorphism (c.815A>G, SMN1). Results of a pilot study with SMA patients are presented. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  15. Comparison of Simultaneous Splenic Sample PCR with Blood Sample PCR for Diagnosis and Treatment of Experimental Ehrlichia canis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Harrus, Shimon; Kenny, Martin; Miara, Limor; Aizenberg, Itzhak; Waner, Trevor; Shaw, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This report presents evidence that dogs recover from acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) after 16 days of doxycycline treatment (10 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h). Blood PCR was as valuable as splenic aspirate PCR for early diagnosis of acute CME. Splenic aspirate PCR was, however, superior to blood PCR for the evaluation of ehrlichial elimination. PMID:15504892

  16. Comparison of simultaneous splenic sample PCR with blood sample PCR for diagnosis and treatment of experimental Ehrlichia canis infection.

    PubMed

    Harrus, Shimon; Kenny, Martin; Miara, Limor; Aizenberg, Itzhak; Waner, Trevor; Shaw, Susan

    2004-11-01

    This report presents evidence that dogs recover from acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) after 16 days of doxycycline treatment (10 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h). Blood PCR was as valuable as splenic aspirate PCR for early diagnosis of acute CME. Splenic aspirate PCR was, however, superior to blood PCR for the evaluation of ehrlichial elimination.

  17. Field and experimental evidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Lozano-Olvera, Rodolfo; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel; Morales-Covarrubias, Maria Soledad

    2015-03-01

    Moribund shrimp affected by acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) from farms in northwestern Mexico were sampled for bacteriological and histological analysis. Bacterial isolates were molecularly identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus by the presence of the tlh gene. The tdh-negative, trh-negative, and tlh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains were further characterized by repetitive extragenic palindromic element-PCR (rep-PCR), and primers AP1, AP2, AP3, and AP and an ems2 IQ2000 detection kit (GeneReach, Taiwan) were used in the diagnostic tests for AHPND. The V. parahaemolyticus strains were used in immersion challenges with shrimp, and farmed and challenged shrimp presented the same clinical and pathological symptoms: lethargy, empty gut, pale and aqueous hepatopancreas, and expanded chromatophores. Using histological analysis and bacterial density count, three stages of AHNPD (initial, acute, and terminal) were identified in the affected shrimp. The pathognomonic lesions indicating severe desquamation of tubular epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas were observed in both challenged and pond-infected shrimp. The results showed that different V. parahaemolyticus strains have different virulences; some of the less virulent strains do not induce 100% mortality, and mortality rates also rise more slowly than they do for the more virulent strains. The virulence of V. parahaemolyticus strains was dose dependent, where the threshold infective density was 10(4) CFU ml(-1); below that density, no mortality was observed. The AP3 primer set had the best sensitivity and specificity. Field and experimental results showed that the V. parahaemolyticus strain that causes AHPND acts as a primary pathogen for shrimp in Mexico compared with the V. parahaemolyticus strains reported to date. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Candida halmiae sp. nov., Geotrichum ghanense sp. nov. and Candida awuaii sp. nov., isolated from Ghanaian cocoa fermentations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Dennis S; Jakobsen, Mogens; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-06-01

    During an investigation of the microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations, a number of yeast isolates with unusual pheno- and genotypic properties representing three possible novel species were isolated. Members of Group A divided by multilateral budding and ascospores were not produced. Group B strains produced true hyphae and ascospores were not produced. Group C representatives divided by budding and formed chains and star-like aggregates. Ascospores were not produced. Sequence analysis of the 26S rRNA gene (D1/D2 region) revealed that the Group A isolates were phylogenetically most closely related to Saturnispora mendoncae (gene sequence similarity 92.4 %), Saturnispora besseyi (88.8 %), Saturnispora saitoi (88.8 %) and Saturnispora ahearnii (88.3 %). Members of Group B were most closely related to representatives of the genera Dipodascus and Galactomyces and the asporogenous genus Geotrichum, but in all cases with 26S rRNA gene (D1/D2 region) similarities below 87 %. For Group C, the most closely related species were Candida rugopelliculosa (92.4 %), Pichia occidentalis (91.6 %) and Pichia exigua (91.9 %). The very low gene sequence similarities obtained for the three groups of isolates clearly indicated that they represented novel species. Repetitive Palindromic PCR (Rep-PCR) of the isolates and their closest phylogenetic relatives confirmed that the new isolates belonged to previously undescribed species. In conclusion, based on the genetic and phenotypic results, the new isolates were considered to represent three novel species, for which the names Candida halmiae (group A, type strain G3(T)=CBS 11009(T)=CCUG 56721(T)); Geotrichum ghanense (group B, type strain G6(T)=CBS 11010(T)=CCUG 56722(T)) and Candida awuaii (group C, type strain G15(T)=CBS 11011(T)=CCUG 56723(T)) are proposed.

  19. Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo and Newport in Free-ranging Sea Turtles and Beach Sand in the Caribbean and Persistence in Sand and Seawater Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Ives, A-K; Antaki, E; Stewart, K; Francis, S; Jay-Russell, M T; Sithole, F; Kearney, M T; Griffin, M J; Soto, E

    2017-09-01

    Salmonellae are Gram-negative zoonotic bacteria that are frequently part of the normal reptilian gastrointestinal flora. The main objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica in the nesting and foraging populations of sea turtles on St. Kitts and in sand from known nesting beaches. Results suggest a higher prevalence of Salmonella in nesting leatherback sea turtles compared with foraging green and hawksbill sea turtles. Salmonella was cultured from 2/9 and identified by molecular diagnostic methods in 3/9 leatherback sea turtle samples. Salmonella DNA was detected in one hawksbill turtle, but viable isolates were not recovered from any hawksbill sea turtles. No Salmonella was detected in green sea turtles. In samples collected from nesting beaches, Salmonella was only recovered from a single dry sand sample. All recovered isolates were positive for the wzx gene, consistent with the O:7 serogroup. Further serotyping characterized serovars Montevideo and Newport present in cloacal and sand samples. Repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the 2014 isolates from turtles and sand as well as archived Salmonella isolates recovered from leatherback sea turtles in 2012 and 2013, identified two distinct genotypes and four different pulsotypes, respectively. The genotyping and serotyping were directly correlated. To determine the persistence of representative strains of each serotype/genotype in these environments, laboratory-controlled microcosm studies were performed in water and sand (dry and wet) incubated at 25 or 35°C. Isolates persisted for at least 32 days in most microcosms, although there were significant decreases in culturable bacteria in several microcosms, with the greatest reduction in dry sand incubated at 35°C. This information provides a better understanding of the epizootiology of Salmonella in free-ranging marine reptiles and the potential

  20. Occurrence of Diarrheagenic Virulence Genes and Genetic Diversity in Escherichia coli Isolates from Fecal Material of Various Avian Hosts in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Asit

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of surface water by fecal microorganisms originating from human and nonhuman sources is a public health concern. In the present study, Escherichia coli isolates (n = 412) from the feces of various avian host sources were screened for various virulence genes: stx1 and stx2 (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC]), eae (enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC]), est-h, est-p, and elt (encoding heat-stable toxin [ST] variants STh and STp and heat-labile toxin [LT], respectively) (enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC]), and ipaH (enteroinvasive E. coli [EIEC]). None of the isolates were found to be positive for stx1, while 23% (n = 93) were positive for only stx2, representing STEC, and 15% (n = 63) were positive for only eae, representing EPEC. In addition, five strains obtained from pheasant were positive for both stx2 and eae and were confirmed as non-O157 by using an E. coli O157 rfb (rfbO157) TaqMan assay. Isolates positive for the virulence genes associated with ETEC and EIEC were not detected in any of the hosts. The repetitive element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis identified 143 unique fingerprints, with an overall Shannon diversity index of 2.36. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed that the majority of the STEC and EPEC isolates were genotypically distinct from nonpathogenic E. coli and clustered independently. MANOVA analysis also revealed spatial variation among the E. coli isolates, since the majority of the isolates clustered according to the sampling locations. Although the presence of virulence genes alone cannot be used to determine the pathogenicity of strains, results from this study show that potentially pathogenic STEC and EPEC strains can be found in some of the avian hosts studied and may contaminate surface water and potentially impact human health. PMID:24441159

  1. Pathogenic Potential, Genetic Diversity, and Population Structure of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from a Forest-Dominated Watershed (Comox Lake) in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Asit

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates (n = 658) obtained from drinking water intakes of Comox Lake (2011 to 2013) were screened for the following virulence genes (VGs): stx1 and stx2 (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC]), eae and the adherence factor (EAF) gene (enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC]), heat-stable (ST) enterotoxin (variants STh and STp) and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) genes (enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC]), and ipaH (enteroinvasive E. coli [EIEC]). The only genes detected were eae and stx2, which were carried by 37.69% (n = 248) of the isolates. Only eae was harbored by 26.74% (n = 176) of the isolates, representing potential atypical EPEC strains, while only stx2 was detected in 10.33% (n = 68) of the isolates, indicating potential STEC strains. Moreover, four isolates were positive for both the stx2 and eae genes, representing potential EHEC strains. The prevalence of VGs (eae or stx2) was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in the fall season, and multiple genes (eae plus stx2) were detected only in fall. Repetitive element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis of 658 E. coli isolates identified 335 unique fingerprints, with an overall Shannon diversity (H′) index of 3.653. Diversity varied among seasons over the years, with relatively higher diversity during fall. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that the majority of the fingerprints showed a tendency to cluster according to year, season, and month. Taken together, the results indicated that the diversity and population structure of E. coli fluctuate on a temporal scale, reflecting the presence of diverse host sources and their behavior over time in the watershed. Furthermore, the occurrence of potentially pathogenic E. coli strains in the drinking water intakes highlights the risk to human health associated with direct and indirect consumption of untreated surface water. PMID:25548059

  2. Field and Experimental Evidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus as the Causative Agent of Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease of Cultured Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Northwestern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Lozano-Olvera, Rodolfo; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel; Morales-Covarrubias, Maria Soledad

    2014-01-01

    Moribund shrimp affected by acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) from farms in northwestern Mexico were sampled for bacteriological and histological analysis. Bacterial isolates were molecularly identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus by the presence of the tlh gene. The tdh-negative, trh-negative, and tlh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains were further characterized by repetitive extragenic palindromic element-PCR (rep-PCR), and primers AP1, AP2, AP3, and AP and an ems2 IQ2000 detection kit (GeneReach, Taiwan) were used in the diagnostic tests for AHPND. The V. parahaemolyticus strains were used in immersion challenges with shrimp, and farmed and challenged shrimp presented the same clinical and pathological symptoms: lethargy, empty gut, pale and aqueous hepatopancreas, and expanded chromatophores. Using histological analysis and bacterial density count, three stages of AHNPD (initial, acute, and terminal) were identified in the affected shrimp. The pathognomonic lesions indicating severe desquamation of tubular epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas were observed in both challenged and pond-infected shrimp. The results showed that different V. parahaemolyticus strains have different virulences; some of the less virulent strains do not induce 100% mortality, and mortality rates also rise more slowly than they do for the more virulent strains. The virulence of V. parahaemolyticus strains was dose dependent, where the threshold infective density was 104 CFU ml−1; below that density, no mortality was observed. The AP3 primer set had the best sensitivity and specificity. Field and experimental results showed that the V. parahaemolyticus strain that causes AHPND acts as a primary pathogen for shrimp in Mexico compared with the V. parahaemolyticus strains reported to date. PMID:25548045

  3. Specific Detection of Enteroaggregative Hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4 Strains by Use of the CRISPR Locus as a Target for a Diagnostic Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar; Burgos, Ylanna

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, a large outbreak of an unusual bacterial strain occurred in Europe. This strain was characterized as a hybrid of an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) and a Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strain of the serotype O104:H4. Here, we present a single PCR targeting the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats locus of E. coli O104:H4 (CRISPRO104:H4) for specific detection of EAEC STEC O104:H4 strains from different geographical locations and time periods. The specificity of the CRISPRO104:H4 PCR was investigated using 1,321 E. coli strains, including reference strains for E. coli O serogroups O1 to O186 and flagellar (H) types H1 to H56. The assay was compared for specificity using PCR assays targeting different O104 antigen-encoding genes (wbwCO104, wzxO104, and wzyO104). The PCR assays reacted with all types of E. coli O104 strains (O104:H2, O104:H4, O104:H7, and O104:H21) and with E. coli O8 and O9 strains carrying the K9 capsular antigen and were therefore not specific for detection of the EAEC STEC O104:H4 type. A single PCR developed for the CRISPRO104:H4 target was sufficient for specific identification and detection of the 48 tested EAEC STEC O104:H4 strains. The 35 E. coli O104 strains expressing H types other than H4 as well as 8 E. coli strains carrying a K9 capsular antigen tested all negative for the CRISPRO104:H4 locus. Only 12 (0.94%) of the 1,273 non-O104:H4 E. coli strains (serotypes Ont:H2, O43:H2, O141:H2, and O174:H2) reacted positive in the CRISPRO104:H4 PCR (99.06% specificity). PMID:22895033

  4. The Next-Generation PCR-Based Quantification Method for Ambient Waters: Digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yiping; Griffith, John F; Weisberg, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is increasingly being used for ambient water monitoring, but development of digital polymerase chain reaction (digital PCR) has the potential to further advance the use of molecular techniques in such applications. Digital PCR refines qPCR by partitioning the sample into thousands to millions of miniature reactions that are examined individually for binary endpoint results, with DNA density calculated from the fraction of positives using Poisson statistics. This direct quantification removes the need for standard curves, eliminating the labor and materials associated with creating and running standards with each batch, and removing biases associated with standard variability and mismatching amplification efficiency between standards and samples. Confining reactions and binary endpoint measurements to small partitions also leads to other performance advantages, including reduced susceptibility to inhibition, increased repeatability and reproducibility, and increased capacity to measure multiple targets in one analysis. As such, digital PCR is well suited for ambient water monitoring applications and is particularly advantageous as molecular methods move toward autonomous field application.

  5. Replaceable Microfluidic Cartridges for a PCR Biosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Kevin; Sullivan, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts a replaceable microfluidic cartridge that is a component of a miniature biosensor that detects target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences. The biosensor utilizes (1) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to multiply the amount of DNA to be detected, (2) fluorogenic polynucleotide probe chemicals for labeling the target DNA sequences, and (3) a high-sensitivity epifluorescence-detection optoelectronic subsystem. Microfluidics is a relatively new field of device development in which one applies techniques for fabricating microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) to miniature systems for containing and/or moving fluids. Typically, microfluidic devices are microfabricated, variously, from silicon or polymers. The development of microfluidic devices for applications that involve PCR and fluorescence-based detection of PCR products poses special challenges

  6. Three-color crystal digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Madic, J; Zocevic, A; Senlis, V; Fradet, E; Andre, B; Muller, S; Dangla, R; Droniou, M E

    2016-12-01

    Digital PCR is an exciting new field for molecular analysis, allowing unprecedented precision in the quantification of nucleic acids, as well as the fine discrimination of rare molecular events in complex samples. We here present a novel technology for digital PCR, Crystal Digital PCR™, which relies on the use of a single chip to partition samples into 2D droplet arrays, which are then subjected to thermal cycling and finally read using a three-color fluorescence scanning device. This novel technology thus allows three-color multiplexing, which entails a different approach to data analysis. In the present publication, we present this innovative workflow, which is both fast and user-friendly, and discuss associated data analysis issue, such as fluorescence spillover compensation and data representation. Lastly, we also present proof-of-concept of this three-color detection system, using a quadriplex assay for the detection of EGFR mutations L858R, L861Q and T790M.

  7. Miniature PCR based portable bioaerosol monitor development.

    PubMed

    Agranovski, I E; Usachev, E V; Agranovski, E; Usacheva, O V

    2017-01-01

    A portable bioaerosol monitor is greatly demanded technology in many areas including air quality control, occupational exposure assessment and health risk evaluation, environmental studies and, especially, in defence and bio-terrorism applications. Our recent groundwork allowed us to formulate the concept of a portable bioaerosol monitor, which needs to be light, user friendly, reliable and capable of detecting airborne pathogens within 1-1·5 h on the spot. Conceptually, the event of a bioaerosol concentration burst is determined by triggers to commence the representative air sampling with sequential real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of the targeted micro-organism present in the air. To minimize reagent consumption and idle running of the technology, an event of a bioaerosol burst is confirmed by three parameters: aerosol particle size, concentration and composition. Only particle sizes above 200 nm attract interest in the bioaerosol. Only an elevated aerosol concentration above the threshold (background aerosol concentration) is a signal to commence the analytical procedure. The combination of our previously developed personal bioaerosol sampler, aerosol particle counter based trigger and portable real-time PCR device formed the basis of the bioaerosol monitoring technology. The portable real-time PCR device was advanced to provide internally controlled detection, significantly reducing false-positive alarms. The technique is capable of detecting selected airborne micro-organisms on the spot within 30-80 min, depending on the genome organization of the particular strain. Due to recent outbreaks of infectious airborne diseases and the continuing threat of intentionally released bioaerosol attacks, investigations into the possibility of the early and reliable detection of pathogenic micro-organisms in the air is becoming increasingly important. The proposed technology consisting of a bioaerosol sampler, technology trigger and PCR device is

  8. PCR-based 'serotyping' of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Thürmer, Alexander; Helbig, Jürgen Herbert; Jacobs, Enno; Lück, Paul Christian

    2009-05-01

    Currently, several PCR assays based on 16S rRNA and virulence-associated genes are available for detection of Legionella pneumophila. So far, no genotyping method has been published that can discriminate between serogroups and monoclonal subgroups of the most common L. pneumophila serogroup 1. Our first approach was to analyse LPS-associated genes of seven L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains, and we developed two PCR-based methods specific for serogroup 1. Specific DNA fragments could be amplified from all the serogroup 1 strains (n=43) including the strains from the American Type Culture Collection. In contrast, none of the strains from serogroups 2-15 (n=41) contained these specific gene regions. In a second approach, primers specific for the lag-1 gene, encoding an O-acetyltransferase, which is responsible for the presence of the LPS epitope recognized by mAb 3/1, were designed and tested for their ability to differentiate between mAb 3/1-positive and -negative strains. All mAb 3/1-positive strains (n=30) contained the lag-1 gene, but in turn 4 of 13 tested mAb 3/1-negative strains were also positive in the PCR. Thus, the discrimination between mAb 3/1-positive and mAb 3/1-negative subgroups could not be achieved for all strains. In a third approach, two intergenic regions expected to be specific for monoclonal subgroup Knoxville and closely related subgroups Benidorm/Bellingham were identified and used for selective genotyping. These intergenic regions could not only be amplified in every tested strain belonging to the subgroups Knoxville, Benidorm and Bellingham, but also in some strains of other unrelated subgroups. The two PCR approaches with primers specific for serogroup 1 genes definitely represent a valuable tool in outbreak investigations and for risk assessment. They also might be used for culture-independent diagnosis of legionellosis caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 1.

  9. PCR-mediated site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Carey, Michael F; Peterson, Craig L; Smale, Stephen T

    2013-08-01

    Unlike traditional site-directed mutagenesis, this protocol requires only a single PCR step using full plasmid amplification to generate point mutants. The method can introduce small mutations into promoter sites and is even better suited for introducing single or double mutations into proteins. It is elegant in its simplicity and can be applied quite easily in any laboratory using standard protein expression vectors and commercially available reagents.

  10. Digital PCR analysis of circulating nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Hudecova, Irena

    2015-10-01

    Detection of plasma circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) requires the use of extremely sensitive and precise methods. The commonly used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) poses certain technical limitations in relation to the precise measurement of CNAs whereas the costs of massively parallel sequencing are still relatively high. Digital PCR (dPCR) now represents an affordable and powerful single molecule counting strategy to detect minute amounts of genetic material with performance surpassing many quantitative methods. Microfluidic (chip) and emulsion (droplet)-based technologies have already been integrated into platforms offering hundreds to millions of nanoliter- or even picoliter-scale reaction partitions. The compelling observations reported in the field of cancer research, prenatal testing, transplantation medicine and virology support translation of this technology into routine use. Extremely sensitive plasma detection of rare mutations originating from tumor or placental cells among a large background of homologous sequences facilitates unraveling of the early stages of cancer or the detection of fetal mutations. Digital measurement of quantitative changes in plasma CNAs associated with cancer or graft rejection provides valuable information on the monitoring of disease burden or the recipient's immune response and subsequent therapy treatment. Furthermore, careful quantitative assessment of the viral load offers great value for effective monitoring of antiviral therapy for immunosuppressed or transplant patients. The present review describes the inherent features of dPCR that make it exceptionally robust in precise and sensitive quantification of CNAs. Moreover, I provide an insight into the types of potential clinical applications that have been developed by researchers to date. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A disposable, self-contained PCR chip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jitae; Byun, Doyoung; Mauk, Michael G; Bau, Haim H

    2009-02-21

    A disposable, self-contained polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip with on-board stored, just-on-time releasable, paraffin-passivated, dry reagents is described. During both storage and sample preparation, the paraffin immobilizes and protects the stored reagents. Fluid flow through the reactor leaves the reagents undisturbed. Prior to the amplification step, the chamber is filled with target analyte suspended in water. Upon heating the PCR chamber to the DNA's denaturation temperature, the paraffin melts and moves out of the way, and the reagents are released and hydrated. To better understand the reagent release process, a scaled up model of the reactor was constructed and the paraffin migration was visualized. Experiments were carried out with a 30 microl reactor demonstrating detectable amplification (with agarose gel electrophoresis) of 10 fg ( approximately 200 copies) of lambda DNA template. The in-reactor storage and on-time release of the PCR reagents reduce the number of needed operations and significantly simplifies the flow control that would, otherwise, be needed in lab-on-chip devices.

  12. A Disposable, Self-Contained PCR Chip

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jitae; Byun, Doyoung; Mauk, Michael G.; Bau, Haim H.

    2009-01-01

    A disposable, self-contained polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip with on-board stored, just on time releasable, paraffin-passivated, dry reagents is described. During both storage and sample preparation, the paraffin immobilizes and protects the stored reagents. Fluid flow through the reactor leaves the reagents undisturbed. Prior to the amplification step, the chamber is filled with target analyte suspended in water. Upon heating the PCR chamber to the DNA’s denaturation temperature, the paraffin melts and moves out of the way, and the reagents are released and hydrated. To better understand the reagent release process, a scaled up model of the reactor was constructed and the paraffin migration was visualized. Experiments were carried out with a 30 μl reactor demonstrating detectable amplification (with agarose gel electrophoresis) of 10 fg (~200 copies) of lambda DNA template. The in-reactor storage and on-time release of the PCR reagents reduce the number of needed operations and significantly simplify the flow control that would, otherwise, be needed in lab-on-chip devices. PMID:19190797

  13. [Agrobacterium rubi strains from blueberry plants are highly diverse].

    PubMed

    Abrahamovich, Eliana; López, Ana C; Alippi, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of a collection of Agrobacterium rubi strains isolated from blueberries from different regions of Argentina was studied by conventional microbiological tests and molecular techniques. Results from biochemical and physiological reactions, as well as from rep-PCR and RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 23S rDNA showed high phenotypic and genotypic intraspecific variation. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio splendidus from captive-bred seahorses with disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Balcázar, José L; Gallo-Bueno, Alfonso; Planas, Miquel; Pintado, José

    2010-02-01

    Vibrio species isolated from diseased seahorses were characterized by PCR amplification of repetitive bacterial DNA elements (rep-PCR) and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. The results demonstrated that Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio splendidus were predominant in the lesions of these seahorses. To our knowledge, this is the first time that these bacterial species have been associated with disease symptoms in captive-bred seahorses.

  15. Pneumocystis PCR: It Is Time to Make PCR the Test of Choice

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Laura; Vogel, Sherilynn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The testing strategy for Pneumocystis at the Cleveland Clinic changed from toluidine blue staining to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We studied the differences in positivity rates for these assays and compared each with the detection of Pneumocystis in companion specimens by cytology and surgical pathology. Methods We reviewed the results of all Pneumocystis test orders 1 year before and 1 year after the implementation of a Pneumocystis-specific PCR. We also reviewed the corresponding cytology and surgical pathology results, if performed. Finally, we reviewed the medical records of patients with rare Pneumocystis detected by PCR in an effort to differentiate colonization vs true disease. Results Toluidine blue staining and surgical pathology had similar sensitivities and negative predictive values, both of which were superior to cytology. There was a >4-fold increase in the annual detection of Pneumocystis by PCR compared with toluidine blue staining (toluidine blue staining: 11/1583 [0.69%] vs PCR: 44/1457 [3.0%]; chi-square P < .001). PCR detected 1 more case than surgical pathology and was far more sensitive than cytology. Chart review demonstrated that the vast majority of patients with rare Pneumocystis detected were immunosuppressed, had radiologic findings supportive of this infection, had no other pathogens detected, and were treated for pneumocystosis by the clinical team. Conclusion PCR was the most sensitive method for the detection of Pneumocystis and should be considered the diagnostic test of choice. Correlation with clinical and radiologic findings affords discrimination of early true disease from the far rarer instances of colonization. PMID:29062861

  16. Influence of PCR reagents on DNA polymerase extension rates measured on real-time PCR instruments.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Jesse L; Wittwer, Carl T

    2014-02-01

    Radioactive DNA polymerase activity methods are cumbersome and do not provide initial extension rates. A simple extension rate assay would enable study of basic assumptions about PCR and define the limits of rapid PCR. A continuous assay that monitors DNA polymerase extension using noncovalent DNA dyes on common real-time PCR instruments was developed. Extension rates were measured in nucleotides per second per molecule of polymerase. To initiate the reaction, a nucleotide analog was heat activated at 95 °C for 5 min, the temperature decreased to 75 °C, and fluorescence monitored until substrate exhaustion in 30-90 min. The assay was linear with time for over 40% of the reaction and for polymerase concentrations over a 100-fold range (1-100 pmol/L). Extension rates decreased continuously with increasing monovalent cation concentrations (lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, and ammonium). Melting-temperature depressors had variable effects. DMSO increased rates up to 33%, whereas glycerol had little effect. Betaine, formamide, and 1,2-propanediol decreased rates with increasing concentrations. Four common noncovalent DNA dyes inhibited polymerase extension. Heat-activated nucleotide analogs were 92% activated after 5 min, and hot start DNA polymerases were 73%-90% activated after 20 min. Simple DNA extension rate assays can be performed on real-time PCR instruments. Activity is decreased by monovalent cations, DNA dyes, and most melting temperature depressors. Rational inclusion of PCR components on the basis of their effects on polymerase extension is likely to be useful in PCR, particularly rapid-cycle or fast PCR.

  17. Species identification and quantification in meat and meat products using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).

    PubMed

    Floren, C; Wiedemann, I; Brenig, B; Schütz, E; Beck, J

    2015-04-15

    Species fraud and product mislabelling in processed food, albeit not being a direct health issue, often results in consumer distrust. Therefore methods for quantification of undeclared species are needed. Targeting mitochondrial DNA, e.g. CYTB gene, for species quantification is unsuitable, due to a fivefold inter-tissue variation in mtDNA content per cell resulting in either an under- (-70%) or overestimation (+160%) of species DNA contents. Here, we describe a reliable two-step droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay targeting the nuclear F2 gene for precise quantification of cattle, horse, and pig in processed meat products. The ddPCR assay is advantageous over qPCR showing a limit of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD) in different meat products of 0.01% and 0.001%, respectively. The specificity was verified in 14 different species. Hence, determining F2 in food by ddPCR can be recommended for quality assurance and control in production systems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Java web tools for PCR, in silico PCR, and oligonucleotide assembly and analysis.

    PubMed

    Kalendar, Ruslan; Lee, David; Schulman, Alan H

    2011-08-01

    The polymerase chain reaction is fundamental to molecular biology and is the most important practical molecular technique for the research laboratory. We have developed and tested efficient tools for PCR primer and probe design, which also predict oligonucleotide properties based on experimental studies of PCR efficiency. The tools provide comprehensive facilities for designing primers for most PCR applications and their combinations, including standard, multiplex, long-distance, inverse, real-time, unique, group-specific, bisulphite modification assays, Overlap-Extension PCR Multi-Fragment Assembly, as well as a programme to design oligonucleotide sets for long sequence assembly by ligase chain reaction. The in silico PCR primer or probe search includes comprehensive analyses of individual primers and primer pairs. It calculates the melting temperature for standard and degenerate oligonucleotides including LNA and other modifications, provides analyses for a set of primers with prediction of oligonucleotide properties, dimer and G-quadruplex detection, linguistic complexity, and provides a dilution and resuspension calculator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determining Fungi rRNA Copy Number by PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to improve the quantification of indoor fungal pollutants via the specific application of quantitative PCR (qPCR). Improvement will be made in the controls used in current qPCR applications. This work focuses on the use of two separate controls within ...

  20. Native Tandem and Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Highlight Structural and Modular Similarities in Clustered-Regularly-Interspaced Shot-Palindromic-Repeats (CRISPR)-associated Protein Complexes From Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa*

    PubMed Central

    van Duijn, Esther; Barbu, Ioana M.; Barendregt, Arjan; Jore, Matthijs M.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lundgren, Magnus; Westra, Edze R.; Brouns, Stan J. J.; Doudna, Jennifer A.; van der Oost, John; Heck, Albert J. R.

    2012-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated genes) immune system of bacteria and archaea provides acquired resistance against viruses and plasmids, by a strategy analogous to RNA-interference. Key components of the defense system are ribonucleoprotein complexes, the composition of which appears highly variable in different CRISPR/Cas subtypes. Previous studies combined mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and small angle x-ray scattering to demonstrate that the E. coli Cascade complex (405 kDa) and the P. aeruginosa Csy-complex (350 kDa) are similar in that they share a central spiral-shaped hexameric structure, flanked by associating proteins and one CRISPR RNA. Recently, a cryo-electron microscopy structure of Cascade revealed that the CRISPR RNA molecule resides in a groove of the hexameric backbone. For both complexes we here describe the use of native mass spectrometry in combination with ion mobility mass spectrometry to assign a stable core surrounded by more loosely associated modules. Via computational modeling subcomplex structures were proposed that relate to the experimental IMMS data. Despite the absence of obvious sequence homology between several subunits, detailed analysis of sub-complexes strongly suggests analogy between subunits of the two complexes. Probing the specific association of E. coli Cascade/crRNA to its complementary DNA target reveals a conformational change. All together these findings provide relevant new information about the potential assembly process of the two CRISPR-associated complexes. PMID:22918228

  1. The Clustered, Regularly Interspaced, Short Palindromic Repeats-associated Endonuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-created MDM2 T309G Mutation Enhances Vitreous-induced Expression of MDM2 and Proliferation and Survival of Cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yajian; Ma, Gaoen; Huang, Xionggao; D'Amore, Patricia A; Zhang, Feng; Lei, Hetian

    2016-07-29

    The G309 allele of SNPs in the mouse double minute (MDM2) promoter locus is associated with a higher risk of cancer and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), but whether SNP G309 contributes to the pathogenesis of PVR is to date unknown. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease (Cas) 9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) can be harnessed to manipulate a single or multiple nucleotides in mammalian cells. Here we delivered SpCas9 and guide RNAs using dual adeno-associated virus-derived vectors to target the MDM2 genomic locus together with a homologous repair template for creating the mutation of MDM2 T309G in human primary retinal pigment epithelial (hPRPE) cells whose genotype is MDM2 T309T. The next-generation sequencing results indicated that there was 42.51% MDM2 G309 in the edited hPRPE cells using adeno-associated viral CRISPR/Cas9. Our data showed that vitreous induced an increase in MDM2 and subsequent attenuation of p53 expression in MDM2 T309G hPRPE cells. Furthermore, our experimental results demonstrated that MDM2 T309G in hPRPE cells enhanced vitreous-induced cell proliferation and survival, suggesting that this SNP contributes to the pathogenesis of PVR. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Native tandem and ion mobility mass spectrometry highlight structural and modular similarities in clustered-regularly-interspaced shot-palindromic-repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein complexes from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    van Duijn, Esther; Barbu, Ioana M; Barendregt, Arjan; Jore, Matthijs M; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lundgren, Magnus; Westra, Edze R; Brouns, Stan J J; Doudna, Jennifer A; van der Oost, John; Heck, Albert J R

    2012-11-01

    The CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated genes) immune system of bacteria and archaea provides acquired resistance against viruses and plasmids, by a strategy analogous to RNA-interference. Key components of the defense system are ribonucleoprotein complexes, the composition of which appears highly variable in different CRISPR/Cas subtypes. Previous studies combined mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and small angle x-ray scattering to demonstrate that the E. coli Cascade complex (405 kDa) and the P. aeruginosa Csy-complex (350 kDa) are similar in that they share a central spiral-shaped hexameric structure, flanked by associating proteins and one CRISPR RNA. Recently, a cryo-electron microscopy structure of Cascade revealed that the CRISPR RNA molecule resides in a groove of the hexameric backbone. For both complexes we here describe the use of native mass spectrometry in combination with ion mobility mass spectrometry to assign a stable core surrounded by more loosely associated modules. Via computational modeling subcomplex structures were proposed that relate to the experimental IMMS data. Despite the absence of obvious sequence homology between several subunits, detailed analysis of sub-complexes strongly suggests analogy between subunits of the two complexes. Probing the specific association of E. coli Cascade/crRNA to its complementary DNA target reveals a conformational change. All together these findings provide relevant new information about the potential assembly process of the two CRISPR-associated complexes.

  3. Automated PCR setup for forensic casework samples using the Normalization Wizard and PCR Setup robotic methods.

    PubMed

    Greenspoon, S A; Sykes, K L V; Ban, J D; Pollard, A; Baisden, M; Farr, M; Graham, N; Collins, B L; Green, M M; Christenson, C C

    2006-12-20

    Human genome, pharmaceutical and research laboratories have long enjoyed the application of robotics to performing repetitive laboratory tasks. However, the utilization of robotics in forensic laboratories for processing casework samples is relatively new and poses particular challenges. Since the quantity and quality (a mixture versus a single source sample, the level of degradation, the presence of PCR inhibitors) of the DNA contained within a casework sample is unknown, particular attention must be paid to procedural susceptibility to contamination, as well as DNA yield, especially as it pertains to samples with little biological material. The Virginia Department of Forensic Science (VDFS) has successfully automated forensic casework DNA extraction utilizing the DNA IQ(trade mark) System in conjunction with the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Human DNA quantitation is also performed in a near complete automated fashion utilizing the AluQuant Human DNA Quantitation System and the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Recently, the PCR setup for casework samples has been automated, employing the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation and Normalization Wizard, Genetic Identity version, which utilizes the quantitation data, imported into the software, to create a customized automated method for DNA dilution, unique to that plate of DNA samples. The PCR Setup software method, used in conjunction with the Normalization Wizard method and written for the Biomek 2000, functions to mix the diluted DNA samples, transfer the PCR master mix, and transfer the diluted DNA samples to PCR amplification tubes. Once the process is complete, the DNA extracts, still on the deck of the robot in PCR amplification strip tubes, are transferred to pre-labeled 1.5 mL tubes for long-term storage using an automated method. The automation of these steps in the process of forensic DNA casework analysis has been accomplished by performing extensive optimization, validation and testing of the

  4. An Efficient Multistrategy DNA Decontamination Procedure of PCR Reagents for Hypersensitive PCR Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pruvost, Mélanie; Bennett, E. Andrew; Grange, Thierry; Geigl, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Background PCR amplification of minute quantities of degraded DNA for ancient DNA research, forensic analyses, wildlife studies and ultrasensitive diagnostics is often hampered by contamination problems. The extent of these problems is inversely related to DNA concentration and target fragment size and concern (i) sample contamination, (ii) laboratory surface contamination, (iii) carry-over contamination, and (iv) contamination of reagents. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we performed a quantitative evaluation of current decontamination methods for these last three sources of contamination, and developed a new procedure to eliminate contaminating DNA contained in PCR reagents. We observed that most current decontamination methods are either not efficient enough to degrade short contaminating DNA molecules, rendered inefficient by the reagents themselves, or interfere with the PCR when used at doses high enough to eliminate these molecules. We also show that efficient reagent decontamination can be achieved by using a combination of treatments adapted to different reagent categories. Our procedure involves γ- and UV-irradiation and treatment with a mutant recombinant heat-labile double-strand specific DNase from the Antarctic shrimp Pandalus borealis. Optimal performance of these treatments is achieved in narrow experimental conditions that have been precisely analyzed and defined herein. Conclusions/Significance There is not a single decontamination method valid for all possible contamination sources occurring in PCR reagents and in the molecular biology laboratory and most common decontamination methods are not efficient enough to decontaminate short DNA fragments of low concentration. We developed a versatile multistrategy decontamination procedure for PCR reagents. We demonstrate that this procedure allows efficient reagent decontamination while preserving the efficiency of PCR amplification of minute quantities of DNA. PMID:20927390

  5. Comparison of nested PCR and qPCR for the detection and quantitation of BoHV6 DNA.

    PubMed

    Kubiś, Piotr; Materniak, Magdalena; Kuźmak, Jacek

    2013-12-01

    Nested PCR and qPCR (quantitative PCR) tests based on glycoprotein B (gB) gene were designed for detecting Bovine herpesvirus 6 (BoHV6) in bovine whole blood samples and wild ruminant blood clots (deer and roe-deer). This virus, commonly known as BLHV (bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus) belongs to the Herpesviridae family, subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae and Macavirus genus. DNA isolated from 92 dairy cow blood samples and 69 wild ruminant clots were examined for the presence of BoHV6 using nested PCR and qPCR tests. Viral DNA was detected by using nested PCR in 59 out of 92 bovine blood samples (64.1%), and by qPCR in 68 out of 92 bovine blood samples (73.9%), but none out of 69 DNA samples isolated from wild ruminant blood clots, was positive in both assays. The specificity of nested PCR and qPCR was confirmed by using BoHV1, BoHV4, BoHV6, BFV, BIV, and BLV DNA. The sensitivity of nested PCR and qPCR was determined using a serially 10-fold diluted vector pCR2.1HgB (2 × 10(0)-2 × 10(6)copies/reaction). In this testing, qPCR was more sensitive than the nested PCR, detecting two copies of BoHV6 whilst the limit of detection for nested PCR was 20 copies. In all qPCR assays, the coefficients of determination (R(2)) ranged between 0.990 and 0.999, and the calculated amplification efficiencies (Eff%) within the range of 89.7-106.9. The intra- and inter-assay CV (coefficient of variation) values did not exceed 4%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Heterozygote PCR product melting curve prediction.

    PubMed

    Dwight, Zachary L; Palais, Robert; Kent, Jana; Wittwer, Carl T

    2014-03-01

    Melting curve prediction of PCR products is limited to perfectly complementary strands. Multiple domains are calculated by recursive nearest neighbor thermodynamics. However, the melting curve of an amplicon containing a heterozygous single-nucleotide variant (SNV) after PCR is the composite of four duplexes: two matched homoduplexes and two mismatched heteroduplexes. To better predict the shape of composite heterozygote melting curves, 52 experimental curves were compared with brute force in silico predictions varying two parameters simultaneously: the relative contribution of heteroduplex products and an ionic scaling factor for mismatched tetrads. Heteroduplex products contributed 25.7 ± 6.7% to the composite melting curve, varying from 23%-28% for different SNV classes. The effect of ions on mismatch tetrads scaled to 76%-96% of normal (depending on SNV class) and averaged 88 ± 16.4%. Based on uMelt (www.dna.utah.edu/umelt/umelt.html) with an expanded nearest neighbor thermodynamic set that includes mismatched base pairs, uMelt HETS calculates helicity as a function of temperature for homoduplex and heteroduplex products, as well as the composite curve expected from heterozygotes. It is an interactive Web tool for efficient genotyping design, heterozygote melting curve prediction, and quality control of melting curve experiments. The application was developed in Actionscript and can be found online at http://www.dna.utah.edu/hets/. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  7. An evaluation of direct PCR amplification

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Daniel E.; Roy, Reena

    2014-01-01

    Aim To generate complete DNA profiles from blood and saliva samples deposited on FTA® and non-FTA® paper substrates following a direct amplification protocol. Methods Saliva samples from living donors and blood samples from deceased individuals were deposited on ten different FTA® and non-FTA® substrates. These ten paper substrates containing body fluids were kept at room temperature for varying lengths of time ranging from one day to approximately one year. For all assays in this research, 1.2 mm punches were collected from each substrate containing one type of body fluid and amplified with reagents provided in the nine commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification kits. The substrates were not subjected to purification reagent or extraction buffer prior to amplification. Results Success rates were calculated for all nine amplification kits and all ten substrates based on their ability to yield complete DNA profiles following a direct amplification protocol. Six out of the nine amplification kits, and four out of the ten paper substrates had the highest success rates overall. Conclusion The data show that it is possible to generate complete DNA profiles following a direct amplification protocol using both standard (non-direct) and direct PCR amplification kits. The generation of complete DNA profiles appears to depend more on the success of the amplification kit rather than the than the FTA®- or non-FTA®-based substrates. PMID:25559837

  8. [Mission oriented diagnostic real-time PCR].

    PubMed

    Tomaso, Herbert; Scholz, Holger C; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Splettstoesser, Wolf D; Neubauer, Heinrich; Pfeffer, Martin; Straube, Eberhard

    2007-01-01

    In out of area military missions soldiers are potentially exposed to bacteria that are endemic in tropical areas and can be used as biological agents. It can be difficult to culture these bacteria due to sample contamination, low number of bacteria or pretreatment with antibiotics. Commercial biochemical identification systems are not optimized for these agents which can result in misidentification. Immunological assays are often not commercially available or not specific. Real-time PCR assays are very specific and sensitive and can shorten the time required to establish a diagnosis markedly. Therefore, real-time PCRs for the identification of Bacillus anthracis, Brucella spp., Burkholderia mallei und Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis und Yersinia pestis have been developed. PCR results can be false negative due to inadequate clinical samples, low number of bacteria in samples, DNA degradation, inhibitory substances and inappropriate DNA preparation. Hence, it is crucial to cultivate the organisms as a prerequisite for adequate antibiotic therapy and typing of the agent. In a bioterrorist scenario samples have to be treated according to rules applied in forensic medicine and documentation has to be flawless.

  9. A Guide to Using STITCHER for Overlapping Assembly PCR Applications.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2017-01-01

    Overlapping PCR is commonly used in many molecular applications that include stitching PCR fragments together, generating fluorescent transcriptional and translational fusions, inserting mutations, making deletions, and PCR cloning. Overlapping PCR is also used for genotyping and in detection experiments using techniques such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). STITCHER is a web tool providing a central resource for researchers conducting all types of overlapping assembly PCR experiments with an intuitive interface for automated primer design that's fast, easy to use, and freely available online.

  10. Population structure, persistence, and seasonality of autochthonous Escherichia coli in temperate, coastal forest soil from a Great Lakes watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Sadowsky, M.J.; Ishii, S.

    2006-01-01

    The common occurrence of Escherichia coli in temperate soils has previously been reported, however, there are few studies to date to characterize its source, distribution, persistent capability and genetic diversity. In this study, undisturbed, forest soils within six randomly selected 0.5 m2 exclosure plots (covered by netting of 2.3 mm2 mesh size) were monitored from March to October 2003 for E. coli in order to describe its numerical and population characteristics. Culturable E. coli occurred in 88% of the samples collected, with overall mean counts of 16 MPN g-1, ranging from <1 to 1657 (n = 66). Escherichia coli counts did not correlate with substrate moisture content, air, or soil temperatures, suggesting that seasonality were not a strong factor in population density control. Mean E. coli counts in soil samples (n = 60) were significantly higher inside than immediately outside the exclosures; E. coli distribution within the exclosures was patchy. Repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Rep-PCR) demonstrated genetic heterogeneity of E. coli within and among exclosure sites, and the soil strains were genetically distinct from animal (E. coli) strains tested (i.e. gulls, terns, deer and most geese). These results suggest that E. coli can occur and persist for extended periods in undisturbed temperate forest soils independent of recent allochthonous input and season, and that the soil E. coli populations formed a cohesive phylogenetic group in comparison to the set of fecal strains with which they were compared. Thus, in assessing E. coli sources within a stream, it is important to differentiate background soil loadings from inputs derived from animal and human fecal contamination. ?? 2005 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Pantoea ananatis Genetic Diversity Analysis Reveals Limited Genomic Diversity as Well as Accessory Genes Correlated with Onion Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Stice, Shaun P; Stumpf, Spencer D; Gitaitis, Ron D; Kvitko, Brian H; Dutta, Bhabesh

    2018-01-01

    Pantoea ananatis is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and an enigmatic plant pathogen with a broad host range. Although P. ananatis strains can be aggressive on onion causing foliar necrosis and onion center rot, previous genomic analysis has shown that P. ananatis lacks the primary virulence secretion systems associated with other plant pathogens. We assessed a collection of fifty P. ananatis strains collected from Georgia over three decades to determine genetic factors that correlated with onion pathogenic potential. Previous genetic analysis studies have compared strains isolated from different hosts with varying diseases potential and isolation sources. Strains varied greatly in their pathogenic potential and aggressiveness on different cultivated Allium species like onion, leek, shallot, and chive. Using multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) and repetitive extragenic palindrome repeat (rep)-PCR techniques, we did not observe any correlation between onion pathogenic potential and genetic diversity among strains. Whole genome sequencing and pan-genomic analysis of a sub-set of 10 strains aided in the identification of a novel series of genetic regions, likely plasmid borne, and correlating with onion pathogenicity observed on single contigs of the genetic assemblies. We named these loci Onion Virulence Regions (OVR) A-D. The OVR loci contain genes involved in redox regulation as well as pectate lyase and rhamnogalacturonase genes. Previous studies have not identified distinct genetic loci or plasmids correlating with onion foliar pathogenicity or pathogenicity on a single host pathosystem. The lack of focus on a single host system for this phytopathgenic disease necessitates the pan-genomic analysis performed in this study.

  12. Pantoea ananatis Genetic Diversity Analysis Reveals Limited Genomic Diversity as Well as Accessory Genes Correlated with Onion Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Shaun P.; Stumpf, Spencer D.; Gitaitis, Ron D.; Kvitko, Brian H.; Dutta, Bhabesh

    2018-01-01

    Pantoea ananatis is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and an enigmatic plant pathogen with a broad host range. Although P. ananatis strains can be aggressive on onion causing foliar necrosis and onion center rot, previous genomic analysis has shown that P. ananatis lacks the primary virulence secretion systems associated with other plant pathogens. We assessed a collection of fifty P. ananatis strains collected from Georgia over three decades to determine genetic factors that correlated with onion pathogenic potential. Previous genetic analysis studies have compared strains isolated from different hosts with varying diseases potential and isolation sources. Strains varied greatly in their pathogenic potential and aggressiveness on different cultivated Allium species like onion, leek, shallot, and chive. Using multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) and repetitive extragenic palindrome repeat (rep)-PCR techniques, we did not observe any correlation between onion pathogenic potential and genetic diversity among strains. Whole genome sequencing and pan-genomic analysis of a sub-set of 10 strains aided in the identification of a novel series of genetic regions, likely plasmid borne, and correlating with onion pathogenicity observed on single contigs of the genetic assemblies. We named these loci Onion Virulence Regions (OVR) A-D. The OVR loci contain genes involved in redox regulation as well as pectate lyase and rhamnogalacturonase genes. Previous studies have not identified distinct genetic loci or plasmids correlating with onion foliar pathogenicity or pathogenicity on a single host pathosystem. The lack of focus on a single host system for this phytopathgenic disease necessitates the pan-genomic analysis performed in this study. PMID:29491851

  13. Efficacy of amoxycillin-clavulanate in an experimental model of murine pneumonia caused by AmpC-non-hyperproducing clinical isolates of Escherichia coli resistant to cefoxitin.

    PubMed

    Docobo-Pérez, F; Fernández-Cuenca, F; Pachón-Ibáñez, M E; Pascual, A; Pichardo, C; Martínez-Martínez, L; Pachón, J

    2008-06-01

    The algorithms included in most automated systems used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (e.g., Vitek 2) consider that Escherichia coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin are AmpC-hyperproducers and, consequently, resistant also to amoxycillin-clavulanate. However, a recent study revealed that 30% of E. coli clinical isolates resistant to cefoxitin remained susceptible in vitro to amoxycillin-clavulanate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in-vivo efficacy of amoxycillin-clavulanate in the treatment of an experimental model of pneumonia, using two clonally related isolates (with identical repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence (REP)-PCR patterns) of AmpC-non-hyperproducing and OmpF-lacking E. coli (Ec985 and Ec571) that were resistant to cefoxitin and susceptible to cefotaxime and amoxycillin-clavulanate. MICs were determined using a microdilution technique, and in-vitro bactericidal activity was tested using time-kill assays. The in-vivo efficacy of amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime against both isolates was tested in a murine pneumonia model using immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. Ec571 (a TEM-1/2 producer) was resistant to amoxycillin, whereas Ec985 (a TEM-1/2 non-producer) was susceptible. Amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime were bactericidal for Ec985, and amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime were bactericidal for Ec571 at different concentrations and time-points, as determined using time-kill assays. Treatment with amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime reduced the bacterial lung concentration of Ec985 compared with non-treated controls (p <0.05), whereas amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime showed efficacy against Ec571 when compared with the control and amoxycillin groups (p <0.05). Regardless of the exact underlying mechanism(s) of resistance, amoxycillin-clavulanate was effective in the experimental murine model in the treatment of pneumonia caused by AmpC-non-hyperproducing strains of E

  14. Epidemiologic and Clinical Impact of Acinetobacter baumannii Colonization and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Macarena; Cano, María E.; Gato, Eva; Garnacho-Montero, José; Miguel Cisneros, José; Ruíz de Alegría, Carlos; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Vila, Jordi; Pascual, Alvaro; Tomás, María; Bou, Germán; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important antibiotic-resistant nosocomial bacteria. We investigated changes in the clinical and molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii over a 10-year period. We compared the data from 2 prospective multicenter cohort studies in Spain, one performed in 2000 (183 patients) and one in 2010 (246 patients), which included consecutive patients infected or colonized by A. baumannii. Molecular typing was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The incidence density of A. baumannii colonization or infection increased significantly from 0.14 in 2000 to 0.52 in 2010 in medical services (p < 0.001). The number of non-nosocomial health care-associated cases increased from 1.2% to 14.2%, respectively (p < 0.001). Previous exposure to carbapenems increased in 2010 (16.9% in 2000 vs 27.3% in 2010, p = 0.03). The drugs most frequently used for definitive treatment of patients with infections were carbapenems in 2000 (45%) and colistin in 2010 (50.3%). There was molecular-typing evidence of an increase in the frequency of A. baumannii acquisition in non-intensive care unit wards in 2010 (7.6% in 2000 vs 19.2% in 2010, p = 0.01). By MSLT, the ST2 clonal group predominated and increased in 2010. This epidemic clonal group was more frequently resistant to imipenem and was associated with an increased risk of sepsis, although not with severe sepsis or mortality. Some significant changes were noted in the epidemiology of A. baumannii, which is increasingly affecting patients admitted to conventional wards and is also the cause of non-nosocomial health care-associated infections. Epidemic clones seem to combine antimicrobial resistance and the ability to spread, while maintaining their clinical virulence. PMID:25181313

  15. Detection of pseudorabies virus by duplex droplet digital PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Ren, Meishen; Lin, Hua; Chen, Shijie; Yang, Miao; An, Wei; Wang, Yin; Xue, Changhua; Sun, Yinjie; Yan, Yubao; Hu, Juan

    2018-01-01

    Aujeszky's disease, caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), has damaged the economy of the Chinese swine industry. A large number of PRV gene-deleted vaccines have been constructed based on deletion of the glycoprotein E ( gE) gene combined with other virulence-related gene deletions, such as thymidine kinase ( TK), whereas PRV wild-type strains contain an intact gE gene. We developed a sensitive duplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay to rapidly detect PRV wild-type isolates and gE gene-deleted viral vaccines. We compared this assay with a TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) using the same primers and probes. Both assays exhibited good linearity and repeatability; however, ddPCR maintained linearity at extremely low concentrations, whereas qPCR did not. Based on positive results for both gE and gB, the detection limit of ddPCR was found to be 4.75 copies/µL in contrast of 76 copies/µL for qPCR, showing that ddPCR provided a 16-fold improvement in sensitivity. In addition, no nonspecific amplification was shown in specificity testing, and the PRV wild-type was distinguished from a gE-deleted strain. The ddPCR was more sensitive when analyzing clinical serum samples. Thus, ddPCR may become an appropriate detection platform for PRV.

  16. Digital Droplet PCR: CNV Analysis and Other Applications.

    PubMed

    Mazaika, Erica; Homsy, Jason

    2014-07-14

    Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) is an assay that combines state-of-the-art microfluidics technology with TaqMan-based PCR to achieve precise target DNA quantification at high levels of sensitivity and specificity. Because quantification is achieved without the need for standard assays in an easy to interpret, unambiguous digital readout, ddPCR is far simpler, faster, and less error prone than real-time qPCR. The basic protocol can be modified with minor adjustments to suit a wide range of applications, such as CNV analysis, rare variant detection, SNP genotyping, and transcript quantification. This unit describes the ddPCR workflow in detail for the Bio-Rad QX100 system, but the theory and data interpretation are generalizable to any ddPCR system. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Simultaneous detection of ricin and abrin DNA by real-time PCR (qPCR).

    PubMed

    Felder, Eva; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Lange, Mirko; Wölfel, Roman

    2012-09-01

    Ricin and abrin are two of the most potent plant toxins known and may be easily obtained in high yield from the seeds using rather simple technology. As a result, both toxins are potent and available toxins for criminal or terrorist acts. However, as the production of highly purified ricin or abrin requires sophisticated equipment and knowledge, it may be more likely that crude extracts would be used by non-governmental perpetrators. Remaining plant-specific nucleic acids in these extracts allow the application of a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection and identification of abrin or ricin genomic material. Therefore, we have developed a duplex real-time PCR assays for simultaneous detection of ricin and abrin DNA based on the OmniMix HS bead PCR reagent mixture. Novel primers and hybridization probes were designed for detection on a SmartCycler instrument by using 5'-nuclease technology. The assay was thoroughly optimized and validated in terms of analytical sensitivity. Evaluation of the assay sensitivity by probit analysis demonstrated a 95% probability of detection at 3 genomes per reaction for ricin DNA and 1.2 genomes per reaction for abrin DNA. The suitability of the assays was exemplified by detection of ricin and abrin contaminations in a food matrix.

  18. Analytical Performance of Four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Real Time PCR (qPCR) Assays for the Detection of Six Leishmania Species DNA in Colombia.

    PubMed

    León, Cielo M; Muñoz, Marina; Hernández, Carolina; Ayala, Martha S; Flórez, Carolina; Teherán, Aníbal; Cubides, Juan R; Ramírez, Juan D

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis comprises a spectrum of parasitic diseases caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania . Molecular tools have been widely employed for the detection of Leishmania due to its high sensitivity and specificity. However, the analytical performance of molecular platforms as PCR and real time PCR (qPCR) including a wide variety of molecular markers has never been evaluated. Herein, the aim was to evaluate the analytical performance of 4 PCR-based assays (designed on four different targets) and applied on conventional and real-time PCR platforms. We evaluated the analytical performance of conventional PCR and real time PCR, determining exclusivity and inclusivity, Anticipated Reportable Range (ARR), limit of detection (LoD) and accuracy using primers directed to kDNA, HSP70, 18S and ITS-1 targets. We observed that the kDNA was the most sensitive but does not meet the criterion of exclusivity. The HSP70 presented a higher LoD in conventional PCR and qPCR in comparison with the other markers (1 × 10 1 and 1 × 10 -1 equivalent parasites/mL respectively) and had a higher coefficient of variation in qPCR. No statistically significant differences were found between the days of the test with the four molecular markers. The present study revealed that the 18S marker presented the best performance in terms of analytical sensitivity and specificity for the qPCR in the species tested (species circulating in Colombia). Therefore, we recommend to explore the analytical and diagnostic performance in future studies using a broader number of species across America.

  19. Analytical Performance of Four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Real Time PCR (qPCR) Assays for the Detection of Six Leishmania Species DNA in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    León, Cielo M.; Muñoz, Marina; Hernández, Carolina; Ayala, Martha S.; Flórez, Carolina; Teherán, Aníbal; Cubides, Juan R.; Ramírez, Juan D.

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis comprises a spectrum of parasitic diseases caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania. Molecular tools have been widely employed for the detection of Leishmania due to its high sensitivity and specificity. However, the analytical performance of molecular platforms as PCR and real time PCR (qPCR) including a wide variety of molecular markers has never been evaluated. Herein, the aim was to evaluate the analytical performance of 4 PCR-based assays (designed on four different targets) and applied on conventional and real-time PCR platforms. We evaluated the analytical performance of conventional PCR and real time PCR, determining exclusivity and inclusivity, Anticipated Reportable Range (ARR), limit of detection (LoD) and accuracy using primers directed to kDNA, HSP70, 18S and ITS-1 targets. We observed that the kDNA was the most sensitive but does not meet the criterion of exclusivity. The HSP70 presented a higher LoD in conventional PCR and qPCR in comparison with the other markers (1 × 101 and 1 × 10-1 equivalent parasites/mL respectively) and had a higher coefficient of variation in qPCR. No statistically significant differences were found between the days of the test with the four molecular markers. The present study revealed that the 18S marker presented the best performance in terms of analytical sensitivity and specificity for the qPCR in the species tested (species circulating in Colombia). Therefore, we recommend to explore the analytical and diagnostic performance in future studies using a broader number of species across America. PMID:29046670

  20. DNA polymerase preference determines PCR priming efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wenjing; Byrne-Steele, Miranda; Wang, Chunlin; Lu, Stanley; Clemmons, Scott; Zahorchak, Robert J; Han, Jian

    2014-01-30

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most important developments in modern biotechnology. However, PCR is known to introduce biases, especially during multiplex reactions. Recent studies have implicated the DNA polymerase as the primary source of bias, particularly initiation of polymerization on the template strand. In our study, amplification from a synthetic library containing a 12 nucleotide random portion was used to provide an in-depth characterization of DNA polymerase priming bias. The synthetic library was amplified with three commercially available DNA polymerases using an anchored primer with a random 3' hexamer end. After normalization, the next generation sequencing (NGS) results of the amplified libraries were directly compared to the unamplified synthetic library. Here, high throughput sequencing was used to systematically demonstrate and characterize DNA polymerase priming bias. We demonstrate that certain sequence motifs are preferred over others as primers where the six nucleotide sequences at the 3' end of the primer, as well as the sequences four base pairs downstream of the priming site, may influence priming efficiencies. DNA polymerases in the same family from two different commercial vendors prefer similar motifs, while another commercially available enzyme from a different DNA polymerase family prefers different motifs. Furthermore, the preferred priming motifs are GC-rich. The DNA polymerase preference for certain sequence motifs was verified by amplification from single-primer templates. We incorporated the observed DNA polymerase preference into a primer-design program that guides the placement of the primer to an optimal location on the template. DNA polymerase priming bias was characterized using a synthetic library amplification system and NGS. The characterization of DNA polymerase priming bias was then utilized to guide the primer-design process and demonstrate varying amplification efficiencies among three commercially

  1. Molecular cloning of IGλ rearrangements using long-distance inverse PCR (LDI-PCR).

    PubMed

    Shimanuki, Masaya; Sonoki, Takashi; Hosoi, Hiroki; Watanuki, Jyuri; Murata, Shogo; Kawakami, Keiki; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Hanaoka, Nobuyoshi; Nakakuma, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Malignant cells of mature B-cell origin show tumor-specific clonal immunoglobulin gene (IG) rearrangements, including V(D)J recombinations, nucleotide mutations, or translocations. Rapid molecular cloning of the breakpoint sequence by long-distance inverse PCR (LDI-PCR) has so far been applied to rearrangements targeted to IGH joining, IGH switch, and IGκ regions. We tended to apply LDI-PCR method for cloning of IGλ rearrangements. To identify which IGλ isotype segment was rearranged, we performed Southern blot analysis using isotype-specific probes. We set inverse primers on the telomeric side of each joining region and amplified rearranged bands detected by Southern blot analysis as corresponding PCR products. All germline IGλ segments were successfully amplified as expected PCR products. We determined breakpoint sequences of five chromosome translocations involving IGλ locus: three novel t(8;22)(q24;q11), one known t(3;22)(q27;q11), and one partially known t(11;22)(q13;q11). Two of the three t(8;22)(q24;q11) were involved in Jλ with a recombination signal sequence and one of three in the first exon of IGLL5, which lies upstream of Jλ1. Three 8q24 breakpoints were widespread at 132, 260 and 366 kb downstream of MYC locus. The t(3;22)(q27;q11) showed a juxtaposition of Jλ2 and the first intron of BCL6, as previously reported. In t(11;22)(q13;q11), 3'UTR of cyclin D1 fused to the constant region of λ7 with nucleotide mutations. We also amplified four Vλ/Jλ recombination sequences. Our method is a useful tool for molecular analysis of genetic events in IGλ. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System PCR (ARMS-PCR) provides sequencing independent typing of canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Chander, Vishal; Chakravarti, Soumendu; Gupta, Vikas; Nandi, Sukdeb; Singh, Mithilesh; Badasara, Surendra Kumar; Sharma, Chhavi; Mittal, Mitesh; Dandapat, S; Gupta, V K

    2016-12-01

    Canine parvovirus-2 antigenic variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c) ubiquitously distributed worldwide in canine population causes severe fatal gastroenteritis. Antigenic typing of CPV-2 remains a prime focus of research groups worldwide in understanding the disease epidemiology and virus evolution. The present study was thus envisioned to provide a simple sequencing independent, rapid, robust, specific, user-friendly technique for detecting and typing of presently circulating CPV-2 antigenic variants. ARMS-PCR strategy was employed using specific primers for CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c to differentiate these antigenic types. ARMS-PCR was initially optimized with reference positive controls in two steps; where first reaction was used to differentiate CPV-2a from CPV-2b/CPV-2c. The second reaction was carried out with CPV-2c specific primers to confirm the presence of CPV-2c. Initial validation of the ARMS-PCR was carried out with 24 sequenced samples and the results were matched with the sequencing results. ARMS-PCR technique was further used to screen and type 90 suspected clinical samples. Randomly selected 15 suspected clinical samples that were typed with this technique were sequenced. The results of ARMS-PCR and the sequencing matched exactly with each other. The developed technique has a potential to become a sequencing independent method for simultaneous detection and typing of CPV-2 antigenic variants in veterinary disease diagnostic laboratories globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Alteration of hairpin ribozyme specificity utilizing PCR.

    PubMed

    DeGrandis, P; Hampel, A; Galasinski, S; Borneman, J; Siwkowski, A; Altschuler, M

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a method by which a researcher can quickly alter the specificity of a trans hairpin ribozyme. Utilizing this PCR method, two oligonucleotides, and any target vector, new ribozyme template sequences can be generated without the synthesis of longer oligonucleotides. We have produced templates with altered specificity for both standard and modified (larger) ribozymes. After transcription, these ribozymes show specific cleavage activity with the new substrate beta-glucuronidase (GUS), and no activity against the original substrate (HIV-1, 5' leader sequence). Utilizing this technique, it is also possible to produce an inactive ribozyme that can be used as an antisense control. Applications of this procedure would provide a rapid and economical system for the assessment of trans ribozyme activity.

  4. PCR detection of uncultured rumen bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rosero, Jaime A; Strosová, Lenka; Mrázek, Jakub; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kopečný, Jan

    2012-07-01

    16S rRNA sequences of ruminal uncultured bacterial clones from public databases were phylogenetically examined. The sequences were found to form two unique clusters not affiliated with any known bacterial species: cluster of unidentified sequences of free floating rumen fluid uncultured bacteria (FUB) and cluster of unidentified sequences of bacteria associated with rumen epithelium (AUB). A set of PCR primers targeting 16S rRNA of ruminal free uncultured bacteria and rumen epithelium adhering uncultured bacteria was designed based on these sequences. FUB primers were used for relative quantification of uncultured bacteria in ovine rumen samples. The effort to increase the population size of FUB group has been successful in sulfate reducing broth and culture media supplied with cellulose.

  5. STS-102 MPLM Leonardo moves into PCR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the payload changeout room on the Rotating Service Structure, Launch Pad 39B, workers move the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo out of the payload canister. From the PCR Leonardo then will be transferred into Space Shuttle Discovery'''s payload bay. One of Italy'''s major contributions to the International Space Station program, Leonardo is a reusable logistics carrier. It is the primary delivery system used to resupply and return Station cargo requiring a pressurized environment. Leonardo is the primary payload on mission STS-102 and will deliver up to 10 tons of laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments and supplies for outfitting the newly installed U.S. Laboratory Destiny. STS-102 is scheduled to launch March 8 at 6:45 a.m. EST.

  6. ReadqPCR and NormqPCR: R packages for the reading, quality checking and normalisation of RT-qPCR quantification cycle (Cq) data.

    PubMed

    Perkins, James R; Dawes, John M; McMahon, Steve B; Bennett, David L H; Orengo, Christine; Kohl, Matthias

    2012-07-02

    Measuring gene transcription using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technology is a mainstay of molecular biology. Technologies now exist to measure the abundance of many transcripts in parallel. The selection of the optimal reference gene for the normalisation of this data is a recurring problem, and several algorithms have been developed in order to solve it. So far nothing in R exists to unite these methods, together with other functions to read in and normalise the data using the chosen reference gene(s). We have developed two R/Bioconductor packages, ReadqPCR and NormqPCR, intended for a user with some experience with high-throughput data analysis using R, who wishes to use R to analyse RT-qPCR data. We illustrate their potential use in a workflow analysing a generic RT-qPCR experiment, and apply this to a real dataset. Packages are available from http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/ReadqPCR.htmland http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/NormqPCR.html These packages increase the repetoire of RT-qPCR analysis tools available to the R user and allow them to (amongst other things) read their data into R, hold it in an ExpressionSet compatible R object, choose appropriate reference genes, normalise the data and look for differential expression between samples.

  7. ReadqPCR and NormqPCR: R packages for the reading, quality checking and normalisation of RT-qPCR quantification cycle (Cq) data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Measuring gene transcription using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technology is a mainstay of molecular biology. Technologies now exist to measure the abundance of many transcripts in parallel. The selection of the optimal reference gene for the normalisation of this data is a recurring problem, and several algorithms have been developed in order to solve it. So far nothing in R exists to unite these methods, together with other functions to read in and normalise the data using the chosen reference gene(s). Results We have developed two R/Bioconductor packages, ReadqPCR and NormqPCR, intended for a user with some experience with high-throughput data analysis using R, who wishes to use R to analyse RT-qPCR data. We illustrate their potential use in a workflow analysing a generic RT-qPCR experiment, and apply this to a real dataset. Packages are available from http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/ReadqPCR.htmland http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/NormqPCR.html Conclusions These packages increase the repetoire of RT-qPCR analysis tools available to the R user and allow them to (amongst other things) read their data into R, hold it in an ExpressionSet compatible R object, choose appropriate reference genes, normalise the data and look for differential expression between samples. PMID:22748112

  8. Digital PCR as a tool to measure HIV persistence.

    PubMed

    Rutsaert, Sofie; Bosman, Kobus; Trypsteen, Wim; Nijhuis, Monique; Vandekerckhove, Linos

    2018-01-30

    Although antiretroviral therapy is able to suppress HIV replication in infected patients, the virus persists and rebounds when treatment is stopped. In order to find a cure that can eradicate the latent reservoir, one must be able to quantify the persisting virus. Traditionally, HIV persistence studies have used real-time PCR (qPCR) to measure the viral reservoir represented by HIV DNA and RNA. Most recently, digital PCR is gaining popularity as a novel approach to nucleic acid quantification as it allows for absolute target quantification. Various commercial digital PCR platforms are nowadays available that implement the principle of digital PCR, of which Bio-Rad's QX200 ddPCR is currently the most used platform in HIV research. Quantification of HIV by digital PCR is proving to be a valuable improvement over qPCR as it is argued to have a higher robustness to mismatches between the primers-probe set and heterogeneous HIV, and forfeits the need for a standard curve, both of which are known to complicate reliable quantification. However, currently available digital PCR platforms occasionally struggle with unexplained false-positive partitions, and reliable segregation between positive and negative droplets remains disputed. Future developments and advancements of the digital PCR technology are promising to aid in the accurate quantification and characterization of the persistent HIV reservoir.

  9. A Complex of Cas Proteins 5, 6, and 7 Is Required for the Biogenesis and Stability of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-derived RNAs (crRNAs) in Haloferax volcanii*

    PubMed Central

    Brendel, Jutta; Stoll, Britta; Lange, Sita J.; Sharma, Kundan; Lenz, Christof; Stachler, Aris-Edda; Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Richter, Hagen; Nickel, Lisa; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Randau, Lennart; Allers, Thorsten; Urlaub, Henning; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2014-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR-Cas) system is a prokaryotic defense mechanism against foreign genetic elements. A plethora of CRISPR-Cas versions exist, with more than 40 different Cas protein families and several different molecular approaches to fight the invading DNA. One of the key players in the system is the CRISPR-derived RNA (crRNA), which directs the invader-degrading Cas protein complex to the invader. The CRISPR-Cas types I and III use the Cas6 protein to generate mature crRNAs. Here, we show that the Cas6 protein is necessary for crRNA production but that additional Cas proteins that form a CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense (Cascade)-like complex are needed for crRNA stability in the CRISPR-Cas type I-B system in Haloferax volcanii in vivo. Deletion of the cas6 gene results in the loss of mature crRNAs and interference. However, cells that have the complete cas gene cluster (cas1–8b) removed and are transformed with the cas6 gene are not able to produce and stably maintain mature crRNAs. crRNA production and stability is rescued only if cas5, -6, and -7 are present. Mutational analysis of the cas6 gene reveals three amino acids (His-41, Gly-256, and Gly-258) that are essential for pre-crRNA cleavage, whereas the mutation of two amino acids (Ser-115 and Ser-224) leads to an increase of crRNA amounts. This is the first systematic in vivo analysis of Cas6 protein variants. In addition, we show that the H. volcanii I-B system contains a Cascade-like complex with a Cas7, Cas5, and Cas6 core that protects the crRNA. PMID:24459147

  10. A complex of Cas proteins 5, 6, and 7 is required for the biogenesis and stability of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (crispr)-derived rnas (crrnas) in Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Jutta; Stoll, Britta; Lange, Sita J; Sharma, Kundan; Lenz, Christof; Stachler, Aris-Edda; Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Richter, Hagen; Nickel, Lisa; Schmitz, Ruth A; Randau, Lennart; Allers, Thorsten; Urlaub, Henning; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2014-03-07

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR-Cas) system is a prokaryotic defense mechanism against foreign genetic elements. A plethora of CRISPR-Cas versions exist, with more than 40 different Cas protein families and several different molecular approaches to fight the invading DNA. One of the key players in the system is the CRISPR-derived RNA (crRNA), which directs the invader-degrading Cas protein complex to the invader. The CRISPR-Cas types I and III use the Cas6 protein to generate mature crRNAs. Here, we show that the Cas6 protein is necessary for crRNA production but that additional Cas proteins that form a CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense (Cascade)-like complex are needed for crRNA stability in the CRISPR-Cas type I-B system in Haloferax volcanii in vivo. Deletion of the cas6 gene results in the loss of mature crRNAs and interference. However, cells that have the complete cas gene cluster (cas1-8b) removed and are transformed with the cas6 gene are not able to produce and stably maintain mature crRNAs. crRNA production and stability is rescued only if cas5, -6, and -7 are present. Mutational analysis of the cas6 gene reveals three amino acids (His-41, Gly-256, and Gly-258) that are essential for pre-crRNA cleavage, whereas the mutation of two amino acids (Ser-115 and Ser-224) leads to an increase of crRNA amounts. This is the first systematic in vivo analysis of Cas6 protein variants. In addition, we show that the H. volcanii I-B system contains a Cascade-like complex with a Cas7, Cas5, and Cas6 core that protects the crRNA.

  11. Multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR): a high-throughput, highly sensitive detection method for GMO identification.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wei, Shuang; Zhixin, Du; Wang, Chenguang; Wu, Xiyang; Li, Feiwu; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-04-01

    Among all of the high-throughput detection methods, PCR-based methodologies are regarded as the most cost-efficient and feasible methodologies compared with the next-generation sequencing or ChIP-based methods. However, the PCR-based methods can only achieve multiplex detection up to 15-plex due to limitations imposed by the multiplex primer interactions. The detection throughput cannot meet the demands of high-throughput detection, such as SNP or gene expression analysis. Therefore, in our study, we have developed a new high-throughput PCR-based detection method, multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR), which is a combination of qPCR and nested PCR. The GMO content detection results in our study showed that ME-qPCR could achieve high-throughput detection up to 26-plex. Compared to the original qPCR, the Ct values of ME-qPCR were lower for the same group, which showed that ME-qPCR sensitivity is higher than the original qPCR. The absolute limit of detection for ME-qPCR could achieve levels as low as a single copy of the plant genome. Moreover, the specificity results showed that no cross-amplification occurred for irrelevant GMO events. After evaluation of all of the parameters, a practical evaluation was performed with different foods. The more stable amplification results, compared to qPCR, showed that ME-qPCR was suitable for GMO detection in foods. In conclusion, ME-qPCR achieved sensitive, high-throughput GMO detection in complex substrates, such as crops or food samples. In the future, ME-qPCR-based GMO content identification may positively impact SNP analysis or multiplex gene expression of food or agricultural samples. Graphical abstract For the first-step amplification, four primers (A, B, C, and D) have been added into the reaction volume. In this manner, four kinds of amplicons have been generated. All of these four amplicons could be regarded as the target of second-step PCR. For the second-step amplification, three parallels have been taken for

  12. Microfluidics-Based PCR for Fusion Transcript Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The microfluidic technology allows the production of network of submillimeter-size fluidic channels and reservoirs in a variety of material systems. The microfluidic-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows automated multiplexing of multiple samples and multiple assays simultaneously within a network of microfluidic channels and chambers that are co-ordinated in controlled fashion by the valves. The individual PCR reaction is performed in nanoliter volume, which allows testing on samples with limited DNA and RNA. The microfluidics devices are used in various types of PCR such as digital PCR and single molecular emulsion PCR for genotyping, gene expression, and miRNA expression. In this chapter, the use of a microfluidics-based PCR for simultaneous screening of 14 known fusion transcripts in patients with leukemia is described.

  13. Optimized MOL-PCR for Characterization of Microbial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wuyts, Véronique; Roosens, Nancy H C; Bertrand, Sophie; Marchal, Kathleen; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J

    2016-01-06

    Characterization of microbial pathogens is necessary for surveillance, outbreak detection, and tracing of outbreak sources. This unit describes a multiplex oligonucleotide ligation-PCR (MOL-PCR) optimized for characterization of microbial pathogens. With MOL-PCR, different types of markers, like unique sequences, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels, can be simultaneously analyzed in one assay. This assay consists of a multiplex ligation for detection of the markers, a singleplex PCR for signal amplification, and hybridization to MagPlex-TAG beads for readout on a Luminex platform after fluorescent staining. The current protocol describes the MOL-PCR, as well as methods for DNA isolation, probe design, and data interpretation and it is based on an optimized MOL-PCR assay for subtyping of Salmonella Typhimurium. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Product differentiation during continuous-flow thermal gradient PCR.

    PubMed

    Crews, Niel; Wittwer, Carl; Palais, Robert; Gale, Bruce

    2008-06-01

    A continuous-flow PCR microfluidic device was developed in which the target DNA product can be detected and identified during its amplification. This in situ characterization potentially eliminates the requirement for further post-PCR analysis. Multiple small targets have been amplified from human genomic DNA, having sizes of 108, 122, and 134 bp. With a DNA dye in the PCR mixture, the amplification and unique melting behavior of each sample is observed from a single fluorescent image. The melting behavior of the amplifying DNA, which depends on its molecular composition, occurs spatially in the thermal gradient PCR device, and can be observed with an optical resolution of 0.1 degrees C pixel(-1). Since many PCR cycles are within the field of view of the CCD camera, melting analysis can be performed at any cycle that contains a significant quantity of amplicon, thereby eliminating the cycle-selection challenges typically associated with continuous-flow PCR microfluidics.

  15. How to Combine ChIP with qPCR.

    PubMed

    Asp, Patrik

    2018-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with quantitative PCR (qPCR) has in the last 15 years become a basic mainstream tool in genomic research. Numerous commercially available ChIP kits, qPCR kits, and real-time PCR systems allow for quick and easy analysis of virtually anything chromatin-related as long as there is an available antibody. However, the highly accurate quantitative dimension added by using qPCR to analyze ChIP samples significantly raises the bar in terms of experimental accuracy, appropriate controls, data analysis, and data presentation. This chapter will address these potential pitfalls by providing protocols and procedures that address the difficulties inherent in ChIP-qPCR assays.

  16. Blood grouping based on PCR methods and agarose gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sell, Ana Maria; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2015-01-01

    The study of erythrocyte antigens continues to be an intense field of research, particularly after the development of molecular testing methods. More than 300 specificities have been described by the International Society for Blood Transfusion as belonging to 33 blood group systems. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a central tool for red blood cells (RBC) genotyping. PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis are low cost, easy, and versatile in vitro methods for amplifying defined target DNA (RBC polymorphic region). Multiplex-PCR, AS-PCR (Specific Allele Polymerase Chain Reaction), and RFLP-PCR (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polymerase Chain Reaction) techniques are usually to identify RBC polymorphisms. Furthermore, it is an easy methodology to implement. This chapter describes the PCR methodology and agarose gel electrophoresis to identify the polymorphisms of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood group systems.

  17. Evaluation of digital PCR for absolute RNA quantification.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Rebecca; Mason, Deborah J; Foy, Carole A; Huggett, Jim F

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression measurements detailing mRNA quantities are widely employed in molecular biology and are increasingly important in diagnostic fields. Reverse transcription (RT), necessary for generating complementary DNA, can be both inefficient and imprecise, but remains a quintessential RNA analysis tool using qPCR. This study developed a Transcriptomic Calibration Material and assessed the RT reaction using digital (d)PCR for RNA measurement. While many studies characterise dPCR capabilities for DNA quantification, less work has been performed investigating similar parameters using RT-dPCR for RNA analysis. RT-dPCR measurement using three, one-step RT-qPCR kits was evaluated using single and multiplex formats when measuring endogenous and synthetic RNAs. The best performing kit was compared to UV quantification and sensitivity and technical reproducibility investigated. Our results demonstrate assay and kit dependent RT-dPCR measurements differed significantly compared to UV quantification. Different values were reported by different kits for each target, despite evaluation of identical samples using the same instrument. RT-dPCR did not display the strong inter-assay agreement previously described when analysing DNA. This study demonstrates that, as with DNA measurement, RT-dPCR is capable of accurate quantification of low copy RNA targets, but the results are both kit and target dependent supporting the need for calibration controls.

  18. Antigenic typing of canine parvovirus using differential PCR.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Chandra, Mudit; Dwivedi, P N; Sharma, N S

    2014-12-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an enteric pathogen causing hemorrhagic enteritis in pups of 3-6 months of age and is mainly transmitted via feco-oral route. In the present study, a total of 85 animals rectal swabs suspected of CPV were tested using a PCR, nested PCR and a newly designed differential PCR. Using PCR 7 (8.23 %) animals were positive whereas 39 (45.88 %) were positive by using nested PCR and 40 (47.05 %) were positive for either one or more than one antigenic types of CPV using differential PCR. Using differential PCR it was found that CPV-2a and CPV-2b were the most prevailing antigenic types. Also it was found that dogs that were vaccinated too yielded positive CPV indicating a possible presence of additional CPV antigenic types. Thus, the primers used in differential PCR can be used in a single PCR reaction to detect various antigenic types of CPV.

  19. Application of Reverse Transcriptase -PCR (RT-PCR) for rapid detection of viable Escherichia coli in drinking water samples.

    PubMed

    Molaee, Neda; Abtahi, Hamid; Ghannadzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Karimi, Masoude; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah

    2015-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is preferred to other methods for detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water in terms of speed, accuracy and efficiency. False positive result is considered as the major disadvantages of PCR. For this reason, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can be used to solve this problem. The aim of present study was to determine the efficiency of RT-PCR for rapid detection of viable Escherichia coli in drinking water samples and enhance its sensitivity through application of different filter membranes. Specific primers were designed for 16S rRNA and elongation Factor II genes. Different concentrations of bacteria were passed through FHLP and HAWP filters. Then, RT-PCR was performed using 16srRNA and EF -Tu primers. Contamination of 10 wells was determined by RT-PCR in Arak city. To evaluate RT-PCR efficiency, the results were compared with most probable number (MPN) method. RT-PCR is able to detect bacteria in different concentrations. Application of EF II primers reduced false positive results compared to 16S rRNA primers. The FHLP hydrophobic filters have higher ability to absorb bacteria compared with HAWB hydrophilic filters. So the use of hydrophobic filters will increase the sensitivity of RT-PCR. RT-PCR shows a higher sensitivity compared to conventional water contamination detection method. Unlike PCR, RT-PCR does not lead to false positive results. The use of EF-Tu primers can reduce the incidence of false positive results. Furthermore, hydrophobic filters have a higher ability to absorb bacteria compared to hydrophilic filters.

  20. Harnessing Next-Generation Sequencing Capabilities for Microbial Forensics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-15

    content typing, rep-PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, optical mapping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (G. Gault et al., 2011; P...Tremlett, G, Pidd, 2011). This case demonstrates the vulnerability of our food supply and why unusual outbreaks involving endemic microbes must be taken as... food products to malevolent tampering, and the widespread international economic consequences that can occur even from limited product contamination

  1. Identifying a Path Towards Rapid Discrimination of Infection Disease Outbreaks: Harnessing Next-Generation Sequencing Capabilities for Microbial Forensics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-15

    content typing, rep-PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, optical mapping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (G. Gault et al., 2011; P...Tremlett, G, Pidd, 2011). This case demonstrates the vulnerability of our food supply and why unusual outbreaks involving endemic microbes must be taken as... food products to malevolent tampering, and the widespread international economic consequences that can occur even from limited product contamination

  2. Research Area 7.4: Identifying a Path Towards Rapid Discrimination of Infection Disease Outbreaks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-15

    content typing, rep-PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, optical mapping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (G. Gault et al., 2011; P...Tremlett, G, Pidd, 2011). This case demonstrates the vulnerability of our food supply and why unusual outbreaks involving endemic microbes must be taken as... food products to malevolent tampering, and the widespread international economic consequences that can occur even from limited product contamination

  3. Comparison of droplet digital PCR with quantitative real-time PCR for determination of zygosity in transgenic maize.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoli; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Xiaofu; Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Junfeng

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) as a tool for maize zygosity determination using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) as a reference technology. Quantitative real-time PCR is commonly used to determine transgene copy number or GMO zygosity characterization. However, its effectiveness is based on identical reaction efficiencies for the transgene and the endogenous reference gene. Additionally, a calibrator sample should be utilized for accuracy. Droplet digital PCR is a DNA molecule counting technique that directly counts the absolute number of target and reference DNA molecules in a sample, independent of assay efficiency or external calibrators. The zygosity of the transgene can be easily determined using the ratio of the quantity of the target gene to the reference single copy endogenous gene. In this study, both the qPCR and ddPCR methods were used to determine insect-resistant transgenic maize IE034 zygosity. Both methods performed well, but the ddPCR method was more convenient because of its absolute quantification property.

  4. Comparison of ELISA, nested PCR and sequencing and a novel qPCR for detection of Giardia isolates from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hijjawi, Nawal; Yang, Rongchang; Hatmal, Ma'mon; Yassin, Yasmeen; Mharib, Taghrid; Mukbel, Rami; Mahmoud, Sameer Alhaj; Al-Shudifat, Abdel-Ellah; Ryan, Una

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in human patients in Jordan and all previous studies have used direct microscopy, which lacks sensitivity. The present study developed a novel quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay at the β-giardin (bg) locus and evaluated its use as a frontline test for the diagnosis of giardiasis in comparison with a commercially available ELISA using nested PCR and sequencing of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) locus (gdh nPCR) as the gold standard. A total of 96 human faecal samples were collected from 96 patients suffering from diarrhoea from 5 regions of Jordan and were screened using the ELISA and qPCR. The analytical specificity of the bg qPCR assay revealed no cross-reactions with other genera and detected all the Giardia isolates tested. Analytical sensitivity was 1 Giardia cyst per μl of DNA extract. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 64.6%. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the bg qPCR was 89.9% and 82.9% respectively compared to 76.5 and 68.0% for the ELISA. This study is the first to compare three different methods (ELISA, bg qPCR, nested PCR and sequencing at the gdh locus) to diagnose Jordanian patients suffering from giardiasis and to analyze their demographic data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Digital Assays Part I: Partitioning Statistics and Digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Basu, Amar S

    2017-08-01

    A digital assay is one in which the sample is partitioned into many small containers such that each partition contains a discrete number of biological entities (0, 1, 2, 3, …). A powerful technique in the biologist's toolkit, digital assays bring a new level of precision in quantifying nucleic acids, measuring proteins and their enzymatic activity, and probing single-cell genotypes and phenotypes. Part I of this review begins with the benefits and Poisson statistics of partitioning, including sources of error. The remainder focuses on digital PCR (dPCR) for quantification of nucleic acids. We discuss five commercial instruments that partition samples into physically isolated chambers (cdPCR) or droplet emulsions (ddPCR). We compare the strengths of dPCR (absolute quantitation, precision, and ability to detect rare or mutant targets) with those of its predecessor, quantitative real-time PCR (dynamic range, larger sample volumes, and throughput). Lastly, we describe several promising applications of dPCR, including copy number variation, quantitation of circulating tumor DNA and viral load, RNA/miRNA quantitation with reverse transcription dPCR, and library preparation for next-generation sequencing. This review is intended to give a broad perspective to scientists interested in adopting digital assays into their workflows. Part II focuses on digital protein and cell assays.

  6. Interlaboratory Comparison of Quantitative PCR Test Results for Dehalococcoides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) techniques have been widely used to measure Dehalococcoides (Dhc) DNA in the groundwater at field sites for several years. Interpretation of these data may be complicated when different laboratories using alternate methods conduct the analysis. An...

  7. Detection of Bacillus spores using PCR and FTA filters.

    PubMed

    Lampel, Keith A; Dyer, Deanne; Kornegay, Leroy; Orlandi, Palmer A

    2004-05-01

    Emphasis has been placed on developing and implementing rapid detection systems for microbial pathogens. We have explored the utility of expanding FTA filter technology for the preparation of template DNA for PCR from bacterial spores. Isolated spores from several Bacillus spp., B. subtilis, B. cereus, and B. megaterium, were applied to FTA filters, and specific DNA products were amplified by PCR. Spore preparations were examined microscopically to ensure that the presence of vegetative cells, if any, did not yield misleading results. PCR primers SRM86 and SRM87 targeted a conserved region of bacterial rRNA genes, whereas primers Bsub5F and Bsub3R amplified a product from a conserved sequence of the B. subtilis rRNA gene. With the use of the latter set of primers for nested PCR, the sensitivity of the PCR-based assay was increased. Overall, 53 spores could be detected after the first round of PCR, and the sensitivity was increased to five spores by nested PCR. FTA filters are an excellent platform to remove PCR inhibitors and have universal applications for environmental, clinical, and food samples.

  8. Quantitative PCR Method for Diagnosis of Citrus Bacterial Canker†

    PubMed Central

    Cubero, J.; Graham, J. H.; Gottwald, T. R.

    2001-01-01

    For diagnosis of citrus bacterial canker by PCR, an internal standard is employed to ensure the quality of the DNA extraction and that proper requisites exist for the amplification reaction. The ratio of PCR products from the internal standard and bacterial target is used to estimate the initial bacterial concentration in citrus tissues with lesions. PMID:11375206

  9. Diagnostic multiplex PCR for toxin genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolates.

    PubMed

    Baums, Christoph G; Schotte, Ulrich; Amtsberg, Gunter; Goethe, Ralph

    2004-05-20

    In this study we provide a protocol for genotyping Clostridium perfringens with a new multiplex PCR. This PCR enables reliable and specific detection of the toxin genes cpa, cpb, etx, iap, cpe and cpb2 from heat lysed bacterial suspensions. The efficiency of the protocol was demonstrated by typing C. perfringens reference strains and isolates from veterinary bacteriological routine diagnostic specimens.

  10. Comparison between ICT and PCR for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Khan, E R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Hasan, M M; Rahman, M M; Nahar, K; Kubayashi, N

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium which is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI). The present study was carried to diagnose genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women of reproductive age, attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during July 2009 to June 2010 by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 70 females were included in this study. Out of 70 cases 56 were symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic. Endocervical swabs were collected from each of the cases and examined by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) for antigen detection and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of endogenous plasmid-based nucleic acid. A total 29(41.4%) of the cases were found positive for C. trachomatis either by ICT or PCR. Of the 56 symptomatic cases, 19(33.9%) were found ICT positive and 17(30.4%) were PCR positive. Among 14 asymptomatic females, 2(14.3%) were ICT positive and none were PCR positive. Though PCR is highly sensitive but a total of twelve cases were found ICT positive but PCR negative. It may be due to presence of plasmid deficient strain of C trachomatis which could be amplified by ompA based (Chromosomal gene) multiplex PCR.

  11. Human fecal source identification with real-time quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waterborne diseases represent a significant public health risk worldwide, and can originate from contact with water contaminated with human fecal material. We describe a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method that targets a Bacteroides dori human-associated genetic marker for...

  12. Optimization of Diamond Nucleic Acid Dye for quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alicia M; Tobe, Shanan S; Linacre, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Here, we evaluate Diamond Nucleic Acid Dye (DD) for use in quantitative PCR (qPCR) applications. Although DD is a commercially available stain for detection of DNA separated by gel electrophoresis, its use as a detection dye in qPCR has yet to be described. To determine if DD can be used in qPCR, we investigated its inhibitory effects on qPCR at concentrations ranging 0.1-2.5×. Serial dilution of DNA was used to determine the efficiency, sensitivity, and linearity of DD-generated qPCR data in comparison to other commonly used fluorescent dyes such as SYBR Green (SG), EvaGreen (EG), and BRYT Green (BG). DD was found to be comparable with other dyes for qPCR applications, with an R2 value >0.9 and an efficiency of 0.83. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) target signals were successfully produced by DD over a DNA dilution range of ~28 ng- 0.28 pg, demonstrating comparable sensitivity to the other dyes investigated. Cq values obtained using DD were lower than those using EG by almost 7 cycles. We conclude that Diamond Nucleic Acid Dye is a cheaper, less toxic alternative for qPCR applications.

  13. Evaluation of Aspergillus PCR protocols for testing serum specimens.

    PubMed

    White, P Lewis; Mengoli, Carlo; Bretagne, Stéphane; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Finnstrom, Niklas; Klingspor, Lena; Melchers, Willem J G; McCulloch, Elaine; Barnes, Rosemary A; Donnelly, J Peter; Loeffler, Juergen

    2011-11-01

    A panel of human serum samples spiked with various amounts of Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA was distributed to 23 centers within the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative to determine analytical performance of PCR. Information regarding specific methodological components and PCR performance was requested. The information provided was made anonymous, and meta-regression analysis was performed to determine any procedural factors that significantly altered PCR performance. Ninety-seven percent of protocols were able to detect a threshold of 10 genomes/ml on at least one occasion, with 83% of protocols reproducibly detecting this concentration. Sensitivity and specificity were 86.1% and 93.6%, respectively. Positive associations between sensitivity and the use of larger sample volumes, an internal control PCR, and PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were shown. Negative associations between sensitivity and the use of larger elution volumes (≥100 μl) and PCR targeting the mitochondrial genes were demonstrated. Most Aspergillus PCR protocols used to test serum generate satisfactory analytical performance. Testing serum requires less standardization, and the specific recommendations shown in this article will only improve performance.

  14. ANIMAL DNA IN PCR REAGENTS PLAGUES ANCIENT DNA RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high-cycle PCR amplification targ...

  15. Reconstruction of the original mycoflora in pelleted feed by PCR-SSCP and qPCR.

    PubMed

    Dorn-In, Samart; Fahn, Carmen; Hölzel, Christina S; Wenz, Sebastian; Hartwig, Isabella; Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann

    2014-10-01

    Ground feeds for pigs were investigated for fungal contamination before and after pelleting (subsamples in total n = 24) by cultural and molecular biological methods. A fungal-specific primer pair ITS1/ITS5.8R was used to amplify fungal DNA; PCR products were processed for the PCR-SSCP method. In the resulting acrylamide gel, more than 85% of DNA bands of ground feeds were preserved after pelleting. Twenty-two DNA bands were sequenced; all represented fungal DNA. The level of fungal DNA in ground feed samples was equivalent to 4.77-5.69 log10  CFU g(-1) , calculated by qPCR using a standard curve of Aspergillus flavus. In pelleted feed, the level of fungal DNA was in average ± 0.07 log10 different from ground feed. Quantified by cultural methods, the fresh ground feeds contained up to 4.51 log10  CFU g(-1) culturable fungi, while there was < 2.83 log10  CFU g(-1) detected in pelleted feeds. This result shows that, while the process of pelleting reduced the amount of living fungi dramatically, it did not affect the total fungal DNA in feed. Thus, the described methodology was able to reconstruct the fungal microbiota in feeds and reflected a considerable fungal contamination of raw materials such as grains. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette

    2003-01-01

    Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)

  17. Comparison of droplet digital PCR and quantitative real-time PCR for examining population dynamics of bacteria in soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Jeong, So-Yeon; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2014-07-01

    The newly developed droplet digital PCR (DD-PCR) has shown promise as a DNA quantification technology in medical diagnostic fields. This study evaluated the applicability of DD-PCR as a quantitative tool for soil DNA using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) as a reference technology. Cupriavidus sp. MBT14 and Sphingopyxis sp. MD2 were used, and a primer/TaqMan probe set was designed for each (CupMBT and SphMD2, respectively). Standard curve analyses on tenfold dilution series showed that both qRT-PCR and DD-PCR exhibited excellent linearity (R (2) = 1.00) and PCR efficiency (≥92 %) across their detectable ranges. However, DD-PCR showed a tenfold greater sensitivity than qRT-PCR. MBT14 and MD2 were added to non-sterile soil at 0 ~ 5 × 10(8) and 0 ~ 5 × 10(7) cells per gram of soil, respectively (n = 5). This bacterial load test indicated that DD-PCR was more sensitive and discriminating than qRT-PCR. For instance, DD-PCR showed a gradual DNA increase from 14 to 141,160 MBT14 rDNA copies μL DNA extract(-1) as the bacterial load increased, while qRT-PCR could quantify the DNA (6,432 copies μL DNA(-1)) at ≥5 × 10(5) MBT14 per gram of soil. When temporal DNA changes were monitored for 3 weeks in the amended soils, the two technologies exhibited nearly identical changes over time. Linearity tests (y = a · x) revealed excellent quantitative agreement between the two technologies (a = 0.98, R (2) = 0.97 in the CupMBT set and a = 0.90, R (2) = 0.94 in the SphMD2 set). These results suggest that DD-PCR is a promising tool to examine temporal dynamics of microorganisms in complex environments.

  18. Strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae from pea are phylogenetically and pathogenically diverse.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sanz, Alberto; de la Vega, Marcelino Pérez; Murillo, Jesús; Caminero, Constantino

    2013-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes extensive yield losses in the pea crop worldwide, although there is little information on its host specialization and its interactions with pea. A collection of 88 putative P. syringae pv. syringae strains (including 39 strains isolated from pea) was characterized by repetitive polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and syrB amplification and evaluated for pathogenicity and virulence. rep-PCR data grouped the strains from pea into two groups (1B and 1C) together with strains from other hosts; a third group (1A) was formed exclusively with strains isolated from non-legume species. MLST data included all strains from pea in the genomospecies 1 of P. syringae pathovars defined in previous studies; they were distributed in the same three groups defined by rep-PCR. The inoculations performed in two pea cultivars showed that P. syringae pv. syringae strains from groups 1A and 1C were less virulent than strains from group 1B, suggesting a possible pathogenic specialization in this group. This study shows the existence of genetically and pathogenically distinct P. syringae pv. syringae strain groups from pea, which will be useful for the diagnostic and epidemiology of this pathogen and for disease resistance breeding.

  19. Prevalence, Seasonal Occurrence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolates Recovered from Chicken Carcasses Sampled at Major Poultry Processing Plants of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Kyoung; Choi, Dasom; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-10-01

    The current study was conducted to assess Salmonella spp. contamination in chicken carcasses produced at major poultry processing plants in South Korea. In total, 120 chicken carcasses were collected through 12 individual trials (10 chickens per trial) from six poultry processing plants in the summer of 2014 and the winter of 2015. Eighteen chicken samples (15%) were contaminated with Salmonella, with a higher rate of contamination observed during summer (14 isolates, 11.7%) than during winter (four isolates, 3.3%). Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium was the most prevalent, followed by Salmonella Hadar, Salmonella Rissen, Salmonella Bareilly, and Salmonella Virchow. Among five multidrug resistant isolates, a single strain was resistant to 10 antibiotics, including third-generation cephalosporins. This cephalosporin-resistant strain exhibited the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype and harbored the gene encoding CTX-M-15, the most prevalent ESBL enzyme worldwide. Herein, repetitive-sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) subtyping was conducted to discriminate the isolated Salmonella spp. and the ESBL-producing Salmonella isolate was distinguished by rep-PCR molecular subtyping, showing low genetic similarity in their rep-PCR-banding patterns. Given that poultry processing plants are the last stage in the chicken-production chain, the occurrence of Salmonella spp. including ESBL-producing strain in individually packaged chicken products highlights the necessity for regular monitoring for Salmonella in poultry processing plants.

  20. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for differentiation of Pichia kluyveri strains isolated from traditional fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    De la Torre González, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez Avendaño, Daniel Oswaldo; Gschaedler Mathis, Anne Christine; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart

    2018-06-06

    Non- Saccharomyces yeasts are widespread microorganisms and some time ago were considered contaminants in the beverage industry. However, nowadays they have gained importance for their ability to produce aromatic compounds, which in alcoholic beverages improves aromatic complexity and therefore the overall quality. Thus, identification and differentiation of the species involved in fermentation processes is vital and can be classified in traditional methods and techniques based on molecular biology. Traditional methods, however, can be expensive, laborious and/or unable to accurately discriminate on strain level. In the present study, a total of 19 strains of Pichia kluyveri isolated from mezcal, tejuino and cacao fermentations were analyzed with rep-PCR fingerprinting and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The comparative analysis between MS spectra and rep-PCR patterns obtained from these strains showed a high similarity between both methods. However, minimal differences between the obtained rep-PCR and MALDI-TOF MS clusters could be observed. The data shown suggests that MALDI-TOF MS is a promising alternative technique for rapid, reliable and cost-effective differentiation of natives yeast strains isolated from different traditional fermented foods and beverages. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiplex PCR identification of Taenia spp. in rodents and carnivores.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Kapel, Christian M O

    2011-11-01

    The genus Taenia includes several species of veterinary and public health importance, but diagnosis of the etiological agent in definitive and intermediate hosts often relies on labor intensive and few specific morphometric criteria, especially in immature worms and underdeveloped metacestodes. In the present study, a multiplex PCR, based on five primers targeting the 18S rDNA and ITS2 sequences, produced a species-specific banding patterns for a range of Taenia spp. Species typing by the multiplex PCR was compared to morphological identification and sequencing of cox1 and/or 12S rDNA genes. As compared to sequencing, the multiplex PCR identified 31 of 32 Taenia metacestodes from rodents, whereas only 14 cysts were specifically identified by morphology. Likewise, the multiplex PCR identified 108 of 130 adult worms, while only 57 were identified to species by morphology. The tested multiplex PCR system may potentially be used for studies of Taenia spp. transmitted between rodents and carnivores.

  2. Detection of isotype switch rearrangement in bulk culture by PCR.

    PubMed

    Max, E E; Mills, F C; Chu, C

    2001-05-01

    When a B lymphocyte changes from synthesizing IgM to synthesizing IgG, IgA, or IgE, this isotype switch is generally accompanied by a unique DNA rearrangement. The protocols in this unit describe two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based strategies for detecting switch rearrangements in bulk culture. The first involves direct PCR across the switch junctions, providing the opportunity for characterizing the recombination products by nucleotide sequence analysis; however, because of characteristics inherent to the PCR methodology this strategy cannot easily be used as a quantitative assay for recombination. A support protocol details the preparation of the 5' Su PCR probe for this protocol. The second basic protocol describes a method known as digestion-circularization PCR (DCPCR) that is more amenable to quantitation but yields no information on structure of the recombination products. Both techniques should be capable of detecting reciprocal deletion circles as well as functional recombination products remaining on the expressed chromosome.

  3. Correction of Hirschsprung-Associated Mutations in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Via Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9, Restores Neural Crest Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Lai, Frank Pui-Ling; Lau, Sin-Ting; Wong, John Kwong-Leong; Gui, Hongsheng; Wang, Reeson Xu; Zhou, Tingwen; Lai, Wing Hon; Tse, Hung-Fat; Tam, Paul Kwong-Hang; Garcia-Barcelo, Maria-Mercedes; Ngan, Elly Sau-Wai

    2017-07-01

    Hirschsprung disease is caused by failure of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) to fully colonize the bowel, leading to bowel obstruction and megacolon. Heterozygous mutations in the coding region of the RET gene cause a severe form of Hirschsprung disease (total colonic aganglionosis). However, 80% of HSCR patients have short-segment Hirschsprung disease (S-HSCR), which has not been associated with genetic factors. We sought to identify mutations associated with S-HSCR, and used the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 gene editing system to determine how mutations affect ENCC function. We created induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from 1 patient with total colonic aganglionosis (with the G731del mutation in RET) and from 2 patients with S-HSCR (without a RET mutation), as well as RET +/- and RET -/- iPSCs. IMR90-iPSC cells were used as the control cell line. Migration and differentiation capacities of iPSC-derived ENCCs were analyzed in differentiation and migration assays. We searched for mutation(s) associated with S-HSCR by combining genetic and transcriptome data from patient blood- and iPSC-derived ENCCs, respectively. Mutations in the iPSCs were corrected using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. ENCCs derived from all iPSC lines, but not control iPSCs, had defects in migration and neuronal lineage differentiation. RET mutations were associated with differentiation and migration defects of ENCCs in vitro. Genetic and transcriptome analyses associated a mutation in the vinculin gene (VCL M209L) with S-HSCR. CRISPR/Cas9 correction of the RET G731del and VCL M209L mutations in iPSCs restored the differentiation and migration capacities of ENCCs. We identified mutations in VCL associated with S-HSCR. Correction of this mutation in iPSC using CRISPR/Cas9 editing, as well as the RET G731del mutation that causes Hirschsprung disease with total colonic aganglionosis, restored ENCC function. Our study demonstrates how human iPSCs can

  4. [A new method of processing quantitative PCR data].

    PubMed

    Ke, Bing-Shen; Li, Guang-Yun; Chen, Shi-Min; Huang, Xiang-Yan; Chen, Ying-Jian; Xu, Jun

    2003-05-01

    Today standard PCR can't satisfy the need of biotechnique development and clinical research any more. After numerous dynamic research, PE company found there is a linear relation between initial template number and cycling time when the accumulating fluorescent product is detectable.Therefore,they developed a quantitative PCR technique to be used in PE7700 and PE5700. But the error of this technique is too great to satisfy the need of biotechnique development and clinical research. A better quantitative PCR technique is needed. The mathematical model submitted here is combined with the achievement of relative science,and based on the PCR principle and careful analysis of molecular relationship of main members in PCR reaction system. This model describes the function relation between product quantity or fluorescence intensity and initial template number and other reaction conditions, and can reflect the accumulating rule of PCR product molecule accurately. Accurate quantitative PCR analysis can be made use this function relation. Accumulated PCR product quantity can be obtained from initial template number. Using this model to do quantitative PCR analysis,result error is only related to the accuracy of fluorescence intensity or the instrument used. For an example, when the fluorescence intensity is accurate to 6 digits and the template size is between 100 to 1,000,000, the quantitative result accuracy will be more than 99%. The difference of result error is distinct using same condition,same instrument but different analysis method. Moreover,if the PCR quantitative analysis system is used to process data, it will get result 80 times of accuracy than using CT method.

  5. Field effect sensors for PCR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taing, Meng-Houit; Sweatman, Denis R.

    2004-03-01

    The use of field effect sensors for biological and chemical sensing is widely employed due to its ability to make detections based on charge and surface potential. Because proteins and DNA almost always carry a charge [1], silicon can be used to micro fabricate such a sensor. The EIS structure (Electrolyte on Insulator on Silicon) provides a novel, label-free and simple to fabricate way to make a field effect DNA detection sensor. The sensor responds to fluctuating capacitance caused by a depletion layer thickness change at the surface of the silicon substrate through DNA adsorption onto the dielectric oxide/PLL (Poly-L-Lysine) surface. As DNA molecules diffuse to the sensor surface, they are bound to their complimentary capture probes deposited on the surface. The negative charge exhibited by the DNA forces negative charge carriers in the substrate to move away from the surface. This causes an n-type depletion layer substrate to thicken and a p-type to thin. The depletion layer thickness can be measured by its capacitance using an LCR meter. This experiment is conducted using the ConVolt (constant voltage) approach. Nucleic acids are amplified by an on chip PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) system and then fed into the sensor. The low ionic solution strength will ensure that counter-ions do not affect the sensor measurements. The sensor surface contains capture probes that bind to the pathogen. The types of pathogens we"ll be detecting include salmonella, campylobacter and E.Coli DNA. They are held onto the sensor surface by the positively charged Poly-L-Lysine layer. The electrolyte is biased through a pseudo-reference electrode. Pseudo reference electrodes are usually made from metals such as Platinum or Silver. The problem associated with "floating" biasing electrodes is they cannot provide stable biasing potentials [2]. They drift due to surface charging effects and trapped charges on the surface. To eliminate this, a differential system consisting of 2 sensors

  6. Broad-range PCR: past, present, or future of bacteriology?

    PubMed

    Renvoisé, A; Brossier, F; Sougakoff, W; Jarlier, V; Aubry, A

    2013-08-01

    PCR targeting the gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA (commonly named broad-range PCR or 16S PCR) has been used for 20 years as a polyvalent tool to study prokaryotes. Broad-range PCR was first used as a taxonomic tool, then in clinical microbiology. We will describe the use of broad-range PCR in clinical microbiology. The first application was identification of bacterial strains obtained by culture but whose phenotypic or proteomic identification remained difficult or impossible. This changed bacterial taxonomy and allowed discovering many new species. The second application of broad-range PCR in clinical microbiology is the detection of bacterial DNA from clinical samples; we will review the clinical settings in which the technique proved useful (such as endocarditis) and those in which it did not (such as characterization of bacteria in ascites, in cirrhotic patients). This technique allowed identifying the etiological agents for several diseases, such as Whipple disease. This review is a synthesis of data concerning the applications, assets, and drawbacks of broad-range PCR in clinical microbiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Ureaplasma parvum prosthetic joint infection detected by PCR.

    PubMed

    Farrell, John J; Larson, Joshua A; Akeson, Jeffrey W; Lowery, Kristin S; Rounds, Megan A; Sampath, Rangarajan; Bonomo, Robert A; Patel, Robin

    2014-06-01

    We describe the first reported case of Ureaplasma parvum prosthetic joint infection (PJI) detected by PCR. Ureaplasma species do not possess a cell wall and are usually associated with colonization and infection of mucosal surfaces (not prosthetic material). U. parvum is a relatively new species name for certain serovars of Ureaplasma urealyticum, and PCR is useful for species determination. Our patient presented with late infection of his right total knee arthroplasty. Intraoperative fluid and tissue cultures and pre- and postoperative synovial fluid cultures were all negative. To discern the pathogen, we employed PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). Our patient's failure to respond to empirical antimicrobial treatment and our previous experience with PCR/ESI-MS in culture-negative cases of infection prompted us to use this approach over other diagnostic modalities. PCR/ESI-MS detected U. parvum in all samples. U. parvum-specific PCR testing was performed on all synovial fluid samples to confirm the U. parvum detection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. DNA Differential Diagnosis of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis by Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Allan, James C.; Sato, Marcello Otake; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Dongchuan; Mamuti, Wulamu; Craig, Philip S.; Ito, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Multiplex PCR was established for differential diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, including their causative agents. For identification of the parasites, multiplex PCR with cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene yielded evident differential products unique for Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica and for American/African and Asian genotypes of Taenia solium with molecular sizes of 827, 269, 720, and 984 bp, respectively. In the PCR-based detection of tapeworm carriers using fecal samples, the diagnostic markers were detected from 7 of 14 and 4 of 9 T. solium carriers from Guatemala and Indonesia, respectively. Test sensitivity may have been reduced by the length of time (up to 12 years) that samples were stored and/or small sample volumes (ca. 30 to 50 mg). However, the diagnostic markers were detected by nested PCR in five worm carriers from Guatemalan cases that were found to be negative by multiplex PCR. It was noteworthy that a 720 bp-diagnostic marker was detected from a T. solium carrier who was egg-free, implying that it is possible to detect worm carriers and treat before mature gravid proglottids are discharged. In contrast to T. solium carriers, 827-bp markers were detected by multiplex PCR in all T. saginata carriers. The application of the multiplex PCR would be useful not only for surveillance of taeniasis and cysticercosis control but also for the molecular epidemiological survey of these cestode infections. PMID:14766815

  9. PCR in laboratory diagnosis of human Borrelia burgdorferi infections.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B L

    1997-01-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the United States and endemic in parts of Europe and Asia, is currently based on serology with known limitations. Direct demonstration of Borrelia burgdorferi by culture may require weeks, while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for antigen detection often lack sensitivity. The development of the PCR has offered a new dimension in the diagnosis. Capable of amplifying minute amounts of DNA into billions of copies in just a few hours, PCR facilitates the sensitive and specific detection of DNA or RNA of pathogenic organisms. This review is restricted to applications of PCR methods in the diagnosis of human B. burgdorferi infections. In the first section, methodological aspects, e.g., sample preparation, target selection, primers and PCR methods, and detection and control of inhibition and contamination, are highlighted. In the second part, emphasis is placed on diagnostic aspects, where PCR results in patients with dermatological, neurological, joint, and ocular manifestations of the disease are discussed. Here, special attention is given to monitoring treatment efficacy by PCR tests. Last, specific guidelines on how to interpret PCR results, together with the advantages and limitations of these new techniques, are presented.

  10. A multiplex PCR for detection of six viruses in ducks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Shanyuan; Hong, Weiming; Wang, Anping; Zuo, Weiyong

    2017-10-01

    In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system. Specificity and sensitivity assays were also developed. The multiplex PCR was used to detect duck embryos infected with mixed viruses and those with clinically suspected diseases to verify the feasibility of the multiplex PCR. Results show that the primers can specifically amplify target fragments, without any cross-amplification with other viruses. The multiplex PCR system can amplify six DNA fragments from the pooled viral genomes and specifically detect nucleic acids of the six duck susceptible viruses when the template amount is 10 2 copies/μl. In addition, the system can be used to detect viral nucleic acids in duck embryos infected with the six common viruses. The detection results for clinical samples are consistent with those detected by single PCR. Therefore, the established multiplex PCR method can perform specific, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of six duck-infecting viruses and can be applied to clinical identification and diagnosis of viral infection in ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Quantification of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Pradip; Ahmed, Warish; Sidhu, Jatinder P; Jagals, Paul; Toze, Simon

    2017-07-01

    A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was used to quantify Ancylostoma caninum ova in wastewater and sludge samples. We estimated the average gene copy numbers for a single ovum using a mixed population of ova. The average gene copy numbers derived from the mixed population were used to estimate numbers of hookworm ova in A. caninum seeded and unseeded wastewater and sludge samples. The newly developed qPCR assay estimated an average of 3.7×10 3 gene copies per ovum, which was then validated by seeding known numbers of hookworm ova into treated wastewater. The qPCR estimated an average of (1.1±0.1), (8.6±2.9) and (67.3±10.4) ova for treated wastewater that was seeded with (1±0), (10±2) and (100±21) ova, respectively. The further application of the qPCR assay for the quantification of A. caninum ova was determined by seeding a known numbers of ova into the wastewater matrices. The qPCR results indicated that 50%, 90% and 67% of treated wastewater (1L), raw wastewater (1L) and sludge (~4g) samples had variable numbers of A. caninum gene copies. After conversion of the qPCR estimated gene copy numbers to ova for treated wastewater, raw wastewater, and sludge samples, had an average of 0.02, 1.24 and 67 ova, respectively. The result of this study indicated that qPCR can be used for the quantification of hookworm ova from wastewater and sludge samples; however, caution is advised in interpreting qPCR generated data for health risk assessment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Four human Plasmodium species quantification using droplet digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Srisutham, Suttipat; Saralamba, Naowarat; Malleret, Benoit; Rénia, Laurent; Dondorp, Arjen M; Imwong, Mallika

    2017-01-01

    Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a partial PCR based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a highly sensitive method for detecting and delineating minor alleles from complex backgrounds and provides absolute quantification of DNA targets. The ddPCR technology has been applied for detection of many pathogens. Here the sensitive assay utilizing ddPCR for detection and quantification of Plasmodium species was investigated. The assay was developed for two levels of detection, genus specific for all Plasmodium species and for specific Plasmodium species detection. The ddPCR assay was developed based on primers and probes specific to the Plasmodium genus 18S rRNA gene. Using ddPCR for ultra-sensitive P. falciparum assessment, the lower level of detection from concentrated DNA obtained from a high volume (1 mL) blood sample was 11 parasites/mL. For species identification, in particular for samples with mixed infections, a duplex reaction was developed for detection and quantification P. falciparum/ P. vivax and P. malariae/ P. ovale. Amplification of each Plasmodium species in the duplex reaction showed equal sensitivity to singleplex single species detection. The duplex ddPCR assay had higher sensitivity to identify minor species in 32 subpatent parasitaemia samples from Cambodia, and performed better than real-time PCR. The ddPCR assay shows high sensitivity to assess very low parasitaemia of all human Plasmodium species. This provides a useful research tool for studying the role of the asymptomatic parasite reservoir for transmission in regions aiming for malaria elimination.

  13. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) outperforms real-time PCR in the detection of environmental DNA from an invasive fish species.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Matsuhashi, Saeko; Uchii, Kimiko; Yamanaka, Hiroki

    2015-05-05

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to investigate species distributions in aquatic ecosystems. Most of these studies use real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect eDNA in water; however, PCR amplification is often inhibited by the presence of organic and inorganic matter. In droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), the sample is partitioned into thousands of nanoliter droplets, and PCR inhibition may be reduced by the detection of the end-point of PCR amplification in each droplet, independent of the amplification efficiency. In addition, real-time PCR reagents can affect PCR amplification and consequently alter detection rates. We compared the effectiveness of ddPCR and real-time PCR using two different PCR reagents for the detection of the eDNA from invasive bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in ponds. We found that ddPCR had higher detection rates of bluegill eDNA in pond water than real-time PCR with either of the PCR reagents, especially at low DNA concentrations. Limits of DNA detection, which were tested by spiking the bluegill DNA to DNA extracts from the ponds containing natural inhibitors, found that ddPCR had higher detection rate than real-time PCR. Our results suggest that ddPCR is more resistant to the presence of PCR inhibitors in field samples than real-time PCR. Thus, ddPCR outperforms real-time PCR methods for detecting eDNA to document species distributions in natural habitats, especially in habitats with high concentrations of PCR inhibitors.

  14. Identification and quantification of ice nucleation active microorganisms by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Martin; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Several bioaerosol types, including bacteria, fungi, pollen and lichen, have been identified as sources of biological ice nucleators (IN) which induce ice formation already at temperatures as high as -10 °C or above. Accordingly, they potentially contribute widely to environmental ice nucleation in the atmosphere and are of great interest in the study of natural heterogenous ice nucleation processes. Ice nucleation active microorganisms have been found and studied among bacteria (Proteobacteria) and fungi (phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota). The mechanisms enabling the microorganisms to ice nucleation are subject to ongoing research. While it has been demonstrated that whole cells can act as ice nucleators in the case of bacteria due to the presence of specific membrane proteins, cell-free ice nucleation active particles seem to be responsible for this phenomenon in fungi and lichen. The identification and quantification of these ice nucleation active microorganisms and their IN in atmospheric samples is crucial to understand their contribution to the pool of atmospheric IN. This is not a trivial task since the respective microorganisms are often prevalent in lowest concentrations and a variety of states, be it viable cells, spores or cell debris from dead cells. Molecular biology provides tools to identify and quantify ice nucleation active microorganisms independent of their state by detecting genetic markers specific for the organism of interest. Those methods are not without their drawbacks in terms of sample material concentration required or reliable standardization. Digital Droplet Polymerase Chain Reaction (ddPCR) was chosen for our demands as a more elegant, quick and specific method in the investigation of ice nucleation active microorganisms in atmospheric samples. The advantages of ddPCR lie in the simultaneous detection and quantification of genetic markers and their original copy numbers in a sample. This is facilitated by the fractionation of the

  15. Predicting Gene Structures from Multiple RT-PCR Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, Jakub; Vinař, Tomáš; Brejová, Broňa

    It has been demonstrated that the use of additional information such as ESTs and protein homology can significantly improve accuracy of gene prediction. However, many sources of external information are still being omitted from consideration. Here, we investigate the use of product lengths from RT-PCR experiments in gene finding. We present hardness results and practical algorithms for several variants of the problem and apply our methods to a real RT-PCR data set in the Drosophila genome. We conclude that the use of RT-PCR data can improve the sensitivity of gene prediction and locate novel splicing variants.

  16. Preparation of DNA-containing extract for PCR amplification

    DOEpatents

    Dunbar, John M.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2006-07-11

    Environmental samples typically include impurities that interfere with PCR amplification and DNA quantitation. Samples of soil, river water, and aerosol were taken from the environment and added to an aqueous buffer (with or without detergent). Cells from the sample are lysed, releasing their DNA into the buffer. After removing insoluble cell components, the remaining soluble DNA-containing extract is treated with N-phenacylthiazolium bromide, which causes rapid precipitation of impurities. Centrifugation provides a supernatant that can be used or diluted for PCR amplification of DNA, or further purified. The method may provide a DNA-containing extract sufficiently pure for PCR amplification within 5–10 minutes.

  17. PCR amplification on microarrays of gel immobilized oligonucleotides

    DOEpatents

    Strizhkov, Boris; Tillib, Sergei; Mikhailovich, Vladimir; Mirzabekov, Andrei

    2003-11-04

    The invention relates two general methods for performing PCR amplification, combined with the detection and analysis of the PCR products on a microchip. In the first method, the amplification occurs both outside and within a plurality of gel pads on a microchip, with at least one oligonucleotide primer immobilized in a gel pad. In the second method, PCR amplification also takes place within gel pads on a microchip, but the pads are surrounded by a hydrophobic liquid such as that which separates the individual gel pads into environments which resemble micro-miniaturized test tubes.

  18. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  19. [Identification of lactic acid bacteria in commercial yogurt and their antibiotic resistance].

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuxuan; Li, Jing; Wang, Qiuya; Gao, Kexin; Zhu, Baoli; Lv, Na

    2013-08-04

    To identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial yogurts and investigate their antibiotic resistance. LABs were cultured from 5 yogurt brands and the isolates were identified at the species level by 16S rRNA sequence. Genotyping was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR). The sensitivity to 7 antibiotics was tested for all LAB isolates by Kirby-Bauer paper diffusion (K-B method). Meanwhile, 9 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including erythromycin resistance genes (ermA and ermB) and tetracycline resistance genes (tetM, tetK, tetS, tetQ, tetO, tetL and tetW), were detected by PCR amplification in the identified LAB isolates. The PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. Total 100 LABs were isolated, including 23 Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, 26 Lactobacillus casei, 30 Streptococcus thermophilus, 5 Lactobacillus acidophilus, 6 Lactobacillus plantarum, and 10 Lactobacillus paracasei. The drug susceptibility test shows that all 100 isolates were resistant to gentamicin and streptomycin, 42 isolates were resistant to vancomycin, and on the contrary all were sensitive to cefalexin, erythromycin, tetracycline and oxytetracycline. Moreover, 5 ARGs were found in the 28 sequencing confirmed isolates, ermB gene was detected in 8 isolates, tet K in 4 isolates, tetL in 2 isolates, tetM in 4 isolates, tetO in 2 isolates. erm A, tet S, tet Q and tet W genes were not detected in the isolates. Antibiotic resistance genes were found in 53.57% (15/28) sequenced isolates, 2 -3 antibiotic resistance genes were detected in 4 isolates of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Some LABs were not labeled in commercial yogurt products. Antibiotic resistance genes tend to be found in the starter culture of L. delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. All the LAB isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and tetracycline, even though some carried erythromycin and/or tetracycline resistance genes. We proved again that LAB could carry antibiotic

  20. Whole blood Nested PCR and Real-time PCR amplification of Talaromyces marneffei specific DNA for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sha; Li, Xiqing; Calderone, Richard; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jianchi; Cai, Wenying; Xi, Liyan

    2016-02-01

    Talaromyces marneffei is a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, which is a life-threatening invasive mycosis in the immunocompromised host. Prompt diagnosis of T. marneffei infection remains difficult although there has been progress in attempts to expedite the diagnosis of this infection. We previously demonstrated the value of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect T. marneffei in paraffin embedded tissue samples with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, this assay was used to detect the DNA of T. marneffei in whole blood samples. Real-time PCR assay was also evaluated to identify T. marneffei in the same samples. Twenty out of 30 whole blood samples (67%) collected from 23 patients were found positive by using the nested PCR assay, while 23/30 (77%) samples were found positive by using the real-time PCR assay. In order to express accurately the fungal loads, we used a normalized linearized plasmid as an internal control for real-time PCR. The assay results were correlated as the initial quantity (copies/μl) with fungal burden. These data indicate that combination of nested PCR and real-time PCR assay provides an attractive alternative for identification of T. marneffei DNA in whole blood samples of HIV-infected patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. COMplementary Primer ASymmetric PCR (COMPAS-PCR) Applied to the Identification of Salmo salar, Salmo trutta and Their Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Avoiding complementarity between primers when designing a PCR assay constitutes a central rule strongly anchored in the mind of the molecular scientist. 3’-complementarity will extend the primers during PCR elongation using one another as template, consequently disabling further possible involvement in traditional target amplification. However, a 5’-complementarity will leave the primers unchanged during PCR cycles, albeit sequestered to one another, therefore also suppressing target amplification. We show that 5’-complementarity between primers may be exploited in a new PCR method called COMplementary-Primer-Asymmetric (COMPAS)-PCR, using asymmetric primer concentrations to achieve target PCR amplification. Moreover, such a design may paradoxically reduce spurious non-target amplification by actively sequestering the limiting primer. The general principles were demonstrated using 5S rDNA direct repeats as target sequences to design a species-specific assay for identifying Salmo salar and Salmo trutta using almost fully complementary primers overlapping the same target sequence. Specificity was enhanced by using 3’-penultimate point mutations and the assay was further developed to enable identification of S. salar x S. trutta hybrids by High Resolution Melt analysis in a 35 min one-tube assay. This small paradigm shift, using highly complementary primers for PCR, should help develop robust assays that previously would not be considered. PMID:27783658

  2. Clinical Performance of Aspergillus PCR for Testing Serum and Plasma: a Study by the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative.

    PubMed

    White, P Lewis; Barnes, Rosemary A; Springer, Jan; Klingspor, Lena; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Morton, C Oliver; Lagrou, Katrien; Bretagne, Stéphane; Melchers, Willem J G; Mengoli, Carlo; Donnelly, J Peter; Heinz, Werner J; Loeffler, Juergen

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus PCR testing of serum provides technical simplicity but with potentially reduced sensitivity compared to whole-blood testing. With diseases for which screening to exclude disease represents an optimal strategy, sensitivity is paramount. The associated analytical study confirmed that DNA concentrations were greater in plasma than those in serum. The aim of the current investigation was to confirm analytical findings by comparing the performance of Aspergillus PCR testing of plasma and serum in the clinical setting. Standardized Aspergillus PCR was performed on plasma and serum samples concurrently obtained from hematology patients in a multicenter retrospective anonymous case-control study, with cases diagnosed according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) consensus definitions (19 proven/probable cases and 42 controls). Clinical performance and clinical utility (time to positivity) were calculated for both kinds of samples. The sensitivity and specificity for Aspergillus PCR when testing serum were 68.4% and 76.2%, respectively, and for plasma, they were 94.7% and 83.3%, respectively. Eighty-five percent of serum and plasma PCR results were concordant. On average, plasma PCR was positive 16.8 days before diagnosis and was the earliest indicator of infection in 13 cases, combined with other biomarkers in five cases. On average, serum PCR was positive 10.8 days before diagnosis and was the earliest indicator of infection in six cases, combined with other biomarkers in three cases. These results confirm the analytical finding that the sensitivity of Aspergillus PCR using plasma is superior to that using serum. PCR positivity occurs earlier when testing plasma and provides sufficient sensitivity for the screening of invasive aspergillosis while maintaining methodological simplicity. Copyright

  3. The use of ELISA, nPCR and qPCR for diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, João Luis; Burrells, Alison; Bartley, Paul M; Bartley, Kathryn; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2017-12-01

    In the present study we experimentally infected pigs with T. gondii tachyzoites, bradyzoites and oocysts in order to evaluate IgG-ELISA, nested-PCR, and qPCR for diagnosis of ocular infection. Eighteen pigs were divided into four groups: G1 (infected with 10 3 tissue cysts of the M4 strain (type II) at day 28, n=5), G2 (infected with 10 3 oocysts of the M4 strain at day 28, n=5), G3 (infected with tachyzoites of S48 strain (type 1) at day 0, n=5), and G4 (uninfected unchallenged, control group n=3). At day 70 of the experiment all animals were culled, and serum, aqueous humor (AH) and vitreous humor (VH) samples were collected to perform indirect ELISA, and PCR (nPCR, and qPCR). By ELISA nine pigs (60%) out of 15 were positive in VH samples, and seven out of 15 (46%) were positive in AH samples. Both molecular techniques used here, nPCR and qPCR, were able to detect <50fg of T. gondii tachyzoite DNA. The nPCR and qPCR detected six (7/15, 47%) and two (2/15, 13.3%) positive animals respectively. Antibody responses were detected in serum and in AH and VH from the eye, suggesting that pigs may be an animal that could be used as a model to further our understanding of diagnosis of human ocular infection with T. gondii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantification of functional genes from procaryotes in soil by PCR.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shilpi; Radl, Viviane; Hai, Brigitte; Kloos, Karin; Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjic; Engel, Marion; Schauss, Kristina; Schloter, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Controlling turnover processes and fluxes in soils and other environments requires information about the gene pool and possibilities for its in situ induction. Therefore in the recent years there has been a growing interest in genes and transcripts coding for metabolic enzymes. Besides questions addressing redundancy and diversity, more and more attention is given on the abundance of specific DNA and mRNA in the different habitats. This review will describe several PCR techniques that are suitable for quantification of functional genes and transcripts such as MPN-PCR, competitive PCR and real-time PCR. The advantages and disadvantages of the mentioned methods are discussed. In addition, the problems of quantitative extraction of nucleic acid and substances that inhibit polymerase are described. Finally, some examples from recent papers are given to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of the different approaches.

  5. Multiplex PCR assay to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Schuenck, Ricardo P; Pereira, Eliezer M; Iorio, Natalia L P; Dos Santos, Kátia R N

    2008-04-01

    Staphylococcus haemolyticus is the most frequently coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species associated with antimicrobial resistance isolated from nosocomial infections. We developed an accurate and simple multiplex PCR assay to identify methicillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (MRSH) isolates. We designed species-specific primers of the mvaA gene that encodes a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A involved in the mevalonate pathway of the microorganism. Simultaneously, mecA gene primers of methicillin resistance were also used. The PCR assay was established using 16 strains of different reference Staphylococcus species and validated with a collection of 147 clinical staphylococcal isolates that were also phenotypically characterized. Reliable results for the detection of MRSH isolates were obtained for 100% of the strains evaluated, showing that this PCR assay can be used for the routine microbiology laboratories. This is the first report using species-specific multiplex PCR to detect a single segment of S. haemolyticus associated with a segment of mecA gene.

  6. Quantitative PCR for genetic markers of human fecal pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with human fecal pollution requires reliable host-specific analytical methods and a rapid quantification approach. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for enumeration of two recently described hum...

  7. Quantitative PCR for Genetic Markers of Human Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with human fecal pollution requires reliable host-specific analytical methods and a rapid quantificationapproach. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for quantification of two recently described human-...

  8. Evaluation of the PCR method for identification of Bifidobacterium species.

    PubMed

    Youn, S Y; Seo, J M; Ji, G E

    2008-01-01

    Bifidobacterium species are known for their beneficial effects on health and their wide use as probiotics. Although various polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the identification of Bifidobacterium species have been published, the reliability of these methods remains open to question. In this study, we evaluated 37 previously reported PCR primer sets designed to amplify 16S rDNA, 23S rDNA, intergenic spacer regions, or repetitive DNA sequences of various Bifidobacterium species. Ten of 37 experimental primer sets showed specificity for B. adolescentis, B. angulatum, B. pseudocatenulatum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. longum, B. longum biovar infantis and B. dentium. The results suggest that published Bifidobacterium primer sets should be re-evaluated for both reproducibility and specificity for the identification of Bifidobacterium species using PCR. Improvement of existing PCR methods will be needed to facilitate identification of other Bifidobacterium strains, such as B. animalis, B. catenulatum, B. thermophilum and B. subtile.

  9. Detection of toxoplasmosis in experimentally infected goats by PCR.

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, C; Rao, J R; Mishra, A K; Ray, D; Joshi, P; Singh, R K

    2004-05-15

    PCR was used to diagnose toxoplasmosis in two pairs of Barbari goats infected by oral administration of doses of either 10(4) or 10(5) oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii. Blood and lymph node aspirates were collected from the infected goats and control goat at intervals, and tissues were also collected from a fetus that was aborted and a doe that died during the trial. Both processed and unprocessed samples were used for the PCR, using primers directed to the multicopy B1 gene. None of the blood samples was positive, but a specific signal was obtained from the lymph node aspirates after partial DNA extraction. Direct PCR of the lung, muscle and mesenteric lymph node of the doe and lung tissue of the aborted fetus yielded the target fragment. The simplified PCR protocols, including partial DNA extraction and direct assay of lung tissue, were effective for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

  10. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Winchell, Jonas M; Mitchell, Stephanie L

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a significant cause of respiratory disease, accounting for approximately 20% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. Although several diagnostic methods exist to detect M. pneumoniae in respiratory specimens, real-time PCR has emerged as a significant improvement for the rapid diagnosis of this pathogen. The method described herein details the procedure for the detection of M. pneumoniae by real-time PCR (qPCR). The qPCR assay described can be performed with three targets specific for M. pneumoniae (Mp181, Mp3, and Mp7) and one marker for the detection of the RNaseP gene found in human nucleic acid as an internal control reaction. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of this procedure to reliably identify this agent and facilitate the timely recognition of an outbreak.

  11. The clinical potential of Enhanced-ice-COLD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Tost, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced-ice-COLD-PCR (E-ice-COLD-PCR) is a novel assay format that allows for the efficient enrichment and sensitive detection of all mutations in a region of interest using a chemically modified blocking oligonucleotide, which impedes the amplification of wild-type sequences. The assay is compatible with DNA extracted from tissue and cell-free circulating DNA. The main features of E-ice-COLD-PCR are the simplicity of the setup and the optimization of the assay, the use of standard laboratory equipment and the very short time to results (~4 h including DNA extraction, enrichment and sequence-based identification of mutations). E-ice-COLD-PCR is therefore a highly promising technology for a number of basic research as well as clinical applications including detection of clinically relevant mutated subclones and monitoring of treatment response or disease recurrence.

  12. Rapid single nucleotide polymorphism based method for hematopoietic chimerism analysis and monitoring using high-speed droplet allele-specific PCR and allele-specific quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Taira, Chiaki; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Akemi; Uehara, Masayuki; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Okumura, Nobuo; Honda, Takayuki

    2015-05-20

    Chimerism analysis is important for the evaluation of engraftment and predicting relapse following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We developed a chimerism analysis for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rapid screening of the discriminable donor/recipient alleles using droplet allele-specific PCR (droplet-AS-PCR) pre-HSCT and quantitation of recipient DNA using AS-quantitative PCR (AS-qPCR) following HSCT. SNP genotyping of 20 donor/recipient pairs via droplet-AS-PCR and the evaluation of the informativity of 5 SNP markers for chimerism analysis were performed. Samples from six follow-up patients were analyzed to assess the chimerism via AS-qPCR. These results were compared with that determined by short tandem repeat PCR (STR-PCR). Droplet-AS-PCR could determine genotypes within 8min. The total informativity using all 5 loci was 95% (19/20). AS-qPCR provided the percentage of recipient DNA in all 6 follow-up patients without influence of the stutter peak or the amplification efficacy, which affected the STR-PCR results. The droplet-AS-PCR had an advantage over STR-PCR in terms of rapidity and simplicity for screening before HSCT. Furthermore, AS-qPCR had better accuracy than STR-PCR for quantification of recipient DNA following HSCT. The present chimerism assay compensates for the disadvantages of STR-PCR and is readily performable in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Methods for Multiplex Template Sampling in Digital PCR Assays

    PubMed Central

    Petriv, Oleh I.; Heyries, Kevin A.; VanInsberghe, Michael; Walker, David; Hansen, Carl L.

    2014-01-01

    The efficient use of digital PCR (dPCR) for precision copy number analysis requires high concentrations of target molecules that may be difficult or impossible to obtain from clinical samples. To solve this problem we present a strategy, called Multiplex Template Sampling (MTS), that effectively increases template concentrations by detecting multiple regions of fragmented target molecules. Three alternative assay approaches are presented for implementing MTS analysis of chromosome 21, providing a 10-fold concentration enhancement while preserving assay precision. PMID:24854517

  14. Methods for multiplex template sampling in digital PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Petriv, Oleh I; Heyries, Kevin A; VanInsberghe, Michael; Walker, David; Hansen, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    The efficient use of digital PCR (dPCR) for precision copy number analysis requires high concentrations of target molecules that may be difficult or impossible to obtain from clinical samples. To solve this problem we present a strategy, called Multiplex Template Sampling (MTS), that effectively increases template concentrations by detecting multiple regions of fragmented target molecules. Three alternative assay approaches are presented for implementing MTS analysis of chromosome 21, providing a 10-fold concentration enhancement while preserving assay precision.

  15. Detection of group a streptococcal pharyngitis by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Eileen M; Marshall, Julia L; Baker, Ciara A; Manning, Jayne; Gonis, Gena; Danchin, Margaret H; Smeesters, Pierre R; Satzke, Catherine; Steer, Andrew C

    2013-07-11

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of sore throat. School-age children bear the highest burden of GAS pharyngitis. Accurate diagnosis is difficult: the majority of sore throats are viral in origin, culture-based identification of GAS requires 24-48 hours, and up to 15% of children are asymptomatic throat carriers of GAS. The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for detecting GAS pharyngitis and assess its suitability for clinical diagnosis. Pharyngeal swabs were collected from children aged 3-18 years (n = 91) and adults (n = 36) located in the Melbourne area who presented with sore throat. Six candidate PCR assays were screened using a panel of reference isolates, and two of these assays, targeting speB and spy1258, were developed into qPCR assays. The qPCR assays were compared to standard culture-based methods for their ability to detect GAS pharyngitis. GAS isolates from culture positive swabs underwent emm-typing. Clinical data were used to calculate McIsaac scores as an indicator of disease severity. Twenty-four of the 127 samples (18.9%) were culture-positive for GAS, and all were in children (26%). The speB qPCR had 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared with gold-standard culture, whereas the spy1258 qPCR had 87% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Nine different emm types were found, of which emm 89, 3, and 28 were most common. Bacterial load as measured by qPCR correlated with culture load. There were no associations between symptom severity as indicated by McIsaac scores and GAS bacterial load. The speB qPCR displayed high sensitivity and specificity and may be a useful tool for GAS pharyngitis diagnosis and research.

  16. DNA microarray-based PCR ribotyping of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Schneeberg, Alexander; Ehricht, Ralf; Slickers, Peter; Baier, Vico; Neubauer, Heinrich; Zimmermann, Stefan; Rabold, Denise; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Seyboldt, Christian

    2015-02-01

    This study presents a DNA microarray-based assay for fast and simple PCR ribotyping of Clostridium difficile strains. Hybridization probes were designed to query the modularly structured intergenic spacer region (ISR), which is also the template for conventional and PCR ribotyping with subsequent capillary gel electrophoresis (seq-PCR) ribotyping. The probes were derived from sequences available in GenBank as well as from theoretical ISR module combinations. A database of reference hybridization patterns was set up from a collection of 142 well-characterized C. difficile isolates representing 48 seq-PCR ribotypes. The reference hybridization patterns calculated by the arithmetic mean were compared using a similarity matrix analysis. The 48 investigated seq-PCR ribotypes revealed 27 array profiles that were clearly distinguishable. The most frequent human-pathogenic ribotypes 001, 014/020, 027, and 078/126 were discriminated by the microarray. C. difficile strains related to 078/126 (033, 045/FLI01, 078, 126, 126/FLI01, 413, 413/FLI01, 598, 620, 652, and 660) and 014/020 (014, 020, and 449) showed similar hybridization patterns, confirming their genetic relatedness, which was previously reported. A panel of 50 C. difficile field isolates was tested by seq-PCR ribotyping and the DNA microarray-based assay in parallel. Taking into account that the current version of the microarray does not discriminate some closely related seq-PCR ribotypes, all isolates were typed correctly. Moreover, seq-PCR ribotypes without reference profiles available in the database (ribotype 009 and 5 new types) were correctly recognized as new ribotypes, confirming the performance and expansion potential of the microarray. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. [Optimized application of nested PCR method for detection of malaria].

    PubMed

    Yao-Guang, Z; Li, J; Zhen-Yu, W; Li, C

    2017-04-28

    Objective To optimize the application of the nested PCR method for the detection of malaria according to the working practice, so as to improve the efficiency of malaria detection. Methods Premixing solution of PCR, internal primers for further amplification and new designed primers that aimed at two Plasmodium ovale subspecies were employed to optimize the reaction system, reaction condition and specific primers of P . ovale on basis of routine nested PCR. Then the specificity and the sensitivity of the optimized method were analyzed. The positive blood samples and examination samples of malaria were detected by the routine nested PCR and the optimized method simultaneously, and the detection results were compared and analyzed. Results The optimized method showed good specificity, and its sensitivity could reach the pg to fg level. The two methods were used to detect the same positive malarial blood samples simultaneously, the results indicated that the PCR products of the two methods had no significant difference, but the non-specific amplification reduced obviously and the detection rates of P . ovale subspecies improved, as well as the total specificity also increased through the use of the optimized method. The actual detection results of 111 cases of malarial blood samples showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the routine nested PCR were 94.57% and 86.96%, respectively, and those of the optimized method were both 93.48%, and there was no statistically significant difference between the two methods in the sensitivity ( P > 0.05), but there was a statistically significant difference between the two methods in the specificity ( P < 0.05). Conclusion The optimized PCR can improve the specificity without reducing the sensitivity on the basis of the routine nested PCR, it also can save the cost and increase the efficiency of malaria detection as less experiment links.

  18. Direct PCR Improves the Recovery of DNA from Various Substrates.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Skuza, Pawel; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-11-01

    This study reports on the comparison of a standard extraction process with the direct PCR approach of processing low-level DNA swabs typical in forensic investigations. Varying concentrations of control DNA were deposited onto three commonly encountered substrates, brass, plastic, and glass, left to dry, and swabbed using premoistened DNA-free nylon FLOQswabs(™) . Swabs (n = 90) were either processed using the DNA IQ(™) kit or, for direct PCR, swab fibers (~2 mm(2) ) were added directly to the PCR with no prior extraction. A significant increase in the height of the alleles (p < 0.005) was observed when using the direct PCR approach over the extraction methodology when controlling for surface type and mass of DNA deposited. The findings indicate the potential use of direct PCR for increasing the PCR product obtained from low-template DNA samples in addition to minimizing contamination and saving resources. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Development of PCR for screening of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, H; Knop, C; Franke, S; Aleksic, S; Heesemann, J; Karch, H

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we determined the sequence of the EcoRI-PstI fragment of the plasmid pCVD432, also termed the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) probe. A primer pair complementary to this probe was designed for PCR amplification of a 630-bp region. Comparison of the analysis of the EAggEC probe sequence with those in database libraries revealed no significant similarity to any known bacterial gene. Pure cultures of E. coli cells, as well as mixed cultures from stool specimens, were investigated with the PCR assay, the EAggEC probe test, and the adherence test. Of 50 E. coli strains which demonstrated aggregative adherence to HEp-2 cells, 43 (86%) were positive with the EAggEC PCR. All 43 of these strains reacted with the EAggEC probe. Six EAggEC strains gave negative results by both molecular techniques. In contrast, only 4 of 418 (0.96%) strains representing other categories of diarrheagenic E. coli demonstrated a positive PCR result. The PCR was also successful in screening for the presence of EAggEC in enriched cultures grown from stool specimens. Compared with cell culture assays and colony hybridization, our findings revealed that the PCR assay was more rapid, simple, and highly sensitive and can therefore be recommended as a screening method for EAggEC in the clinical laboratory. PMID:7751380

  20. COLD-PCR: improving the sensitivity of molecular diagnostics assays

    PubMed Central

    Milbury, Coren A; Li, Jin; Liu, Pingfang; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2011-01-01

    The detection of low-abundance DNA variants or mutations is of particular interest to medical diagnostics, individualized patient treatment and cancer prognosis; however, detection sensitivity for low-abundance variants is a pronounced limitation of most currently available molecular assays. We have recently developed coamplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR (COLD-PCR) to resolve this limitation. This novel form of PCR selectively amplifies low-abundance DNA variants from mixtures of wild-type and mutant-containing (or variant-containing) sequences, irrespective of the mutation type or position on the amplicon, by using a critical denaturation temperature. The use of a lower denaturation temperature in COLD-PCR results in selective denaturation of amplicons with mutation-containing molecules within wild-type mutant heteroduplexes or with a lower melting temperature. COLD-PCR can be used in lieu of conventional PCR in several molecular applications, thus enriching the mutant fraction and improving the sensitivity of downstream mutation detection by up to 100-fold. PMID:21405967

  1. PCR performance of a thermostable heterodimeric archaeal DNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Killelea, Tom; Ralec, Céline; Bossé, Audrey; Henneke, Ghislaine

    2014-01-01

    DNA polymerases are versatile tools used in numerous important molecular biological core technologies like the ubiquitous polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cDNA cloning, genome sequencing, and nucleic acid based diagnostics. Taking into account the multiple DNA amplification techniques in use, different DNA polymerases must be optimized for each type of application. One of the current tendencies is to reengineer or to discover new DNA polymerases with increased performance and broadened substrate spectra. At present, there is a great demand for such enzymes in applications, e.g., forensics or paleogenomics. Current major limitations hinge on the inability of conventional PCR enzymes, such as Taq, to amplify degraded or low amounts of template DNA. Besides, a wide range of PCR inhibitors can also impede reactions of nucleic acid amplification. Here we looked at the PCR performances of the proof-reading D-type DNA polymerase from P. abyssi, Pab-polD. Fragments, 3 kilobases in length, were specifically PCR-amplified in its optimized reaction buffer. Pab-polD showed not only a greater resistance to high denaturation temperatures than Taq during cycling, but also a superior tolerance to the presence of potential inhibitors. Proficient proof-reading Pab-polD enzyme could also extend a primer containing up to two mismatches at the 3' primer termini. Overall, we found valuable biochemical properties in Pab-polD compared to the conventional Taq, which makes the enzyme ideally suited for cutting-edge PCR-applications. PMID:24847315

  2. Comparison of Conventional PCR, Multiplex PCR, and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Rapid Detection of Arcobacter Species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Seo, Dong Joo; Lee, Min Hwa

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of Arcobacter species. Specific primers targeting the 23S ribosomal RNA gene were used to detect Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii. The specificity of the LAMP primer set was assessed using DNA samples from a panel of Arcobacter and Campylobacter species, and the sensitivity was determined using serial dilutions of Arcobacter species cultures. LAMP showed a 10- to 1,000-fold-higher sensitivity than multiplex PCR, with a detection limit of 2 to 20 CFU per reaction in vitro. Whereas multiplex PCR showed cross-reactivity with Campylobacter species, the LAMP method developed in this study was more sensitive and reliable than conventional PCR or multiplex PCR for the detection of Arcobacter species. PMID:24478488

  3. [Isolation of ABA-regulated genes in Oryza sativa through fluorescent differential display PCR (FDD-PCR)].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shou Ling; Shen, Si Shi; Xu, Zhi Hong; Xue, Hong Wei

    2002-12-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) was critical in plant seed development and response to environmental factors such as stress situations. To study the possible ABA related signaling transduction pathways, we tried to isolate the ABA-regulated genes through fluorescent differential display PCR (FDD-PCR) technology using rice seedling as materials (treated with ABA for 2, 4, 8 and 12h). In the 17 fragments isolated, 14 and 3 clones were up-and down-regulated respectively. Sequence analyses revealed that the encoded proteins were involved in photosynthesis (7 fragments), signal transduction (1 fragments), transcription (2 fragments), metabolism and resistance (6 fragments), and unknown protein (1 fragments). 3 clones, encoding putative alpha/beta hydrolase fold, putative vacuolar H+ -ATPase B subunit, putative tyrosine phosphatase, were confirmed to be regulated under ABA treatment by RT-PCR and northern blot analysis. FDD-PCR and possible functional mechanisms of ABA were discussed.

  4. Detection of DNA double-strand breaks and chromosome translocations using ligation-mediated PCR and inverse PCR.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Michael J; Betti, Christopher J; Vaughan, Andrew T M

    2006-01-01

    Current techniques for examining the global creation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks are restricted in their sensitivity, and such techniques mask any site-dependent variations in breakage and repair rate or fidelity. We present here a system for analyzing the fate of documented DNA breaks, using the MLL gene as an example, through application of ligation-mediated PCR. Here, a simple asymmetric double-stranded DNA adapter molecule is ligated to experimentally induced DNA breaks and subjected to seminested PCR using adapter and gene-specific primers. The rate of appearance and loss of specific PCR products allows detection of both the break and its repair. Using the additional technique of inverse PCR, the presence of misrepaired products (translocations) can be detected at the same site, providing information on the fidelity of the ligation reaction in intact cells. Such techniques may be adapted for the analysis of DNA breaks introduced into any identifiable genomic location.

  5. Monitoring food pathogens: Novel instrumentation for cassette PCR testing

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Darin; Figley, Curtis; Lauzon, Jana; Figley, Rachel; Pilarski, Linda M.; McMullen, Lynn M.; Pilarski, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    In this manuscript, we report the design and development of a fast, reliable instrument to run gel-based cassette polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Here termed the GelCycler Mark II, our instrument is a miniaturized molecular testing system that is fast, low cost and sensitive. Cassette PCR utilizes capillary reaction units that carry all reagents needed for PCR, including primers and Taq polymerase, except the sample, which is loaded at the time of testing. Cassette PCR carries out real time quantitative PCR followed by melt curve analysis (MCA) to verify amplicon identity at the expected melt temperature (Tm). The cassette PCR technology is well developed, particularly for detecting pathogens, and has been rigorously validated for detecting pathogenic Escherichia coli in meat samples. However, the work has been hindered by the lack of a robust and stable instrument to carry out the PCR, which requires fast and accurate temperature regulation, improved light delivery and fluorescent recording, and faster PCR reactions that maintain a high sensitivity of detection. Here, we report design and testing of a new instrument to address these shortcomings and to enable standardized testing by cassette PCR and commercial manufacture of a robust and accurate instrument that can be mass produced to deliver consistent performance. As a corollary to our new instrument development, we also report the use of an improved design approach using a machined aluminum cassette to meet the new instrument standards, prevent any light bleed across different trenches in each cassette, and allow testing of a larger number of samples for more targets in a single run. The GelCycler Mark II can detect and report E. coli contamination in 41 minutes. Sample positives are defined in as having a melt curve comparable to the internal positive control, with peak height exceeding that of the internal negative control. In a fractional analysis, as little as 1 bacterium per capillary reaction unit is

  6. Enhanced analysis of real-time PCR data by using a variable efficiency model: FPK-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Lievens, Antoon; Van Aelst, S.; Van den Bulcke, M.; Goetghebeur, E.

    2012-01-01

    Current methodology in real-time Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis performs well provided PCR efficiency remains constant over reactions. Yet, small changes in efficiency can lead to large quantification errors. Particularly in biological samples, the possible presence of inhibitors forms a challenge. We present a new approach to single reaction efficiency calculation, called Full Process Kinetics-PCR (FPK-PCR). It combines a kinetically more realistic model with flexible adaptation to the full range of data. By reconstructing the entire chain of cycle efficiencies, rather than restricting the focus on a ‘window of application’, one extracts additional information and loses a level of arbitrariness. The maximal efficiency estimates returned by the model are comparable in accuracy and precision to both the golden standard of serial dilution and other single reaction efficiency methods. The cycle-to-cycle changes in efficiency, as described by the FPK-PCR procedure, stay considerably closer to the data than those from other S-shaped models. The assessment of individual cycle efficiencies returns more information than other single efficiency methods. It allows in-depth interpretation of real-time PCR data and reconstruction of the fluorescence data, providing quality control. Finally, by implementing a global efficiency model, reproducibility is improved as the selection of a window of application is avoided. PMID:22102586

  7. Analysis of ELA-DQB exon 2 polymorphism in Argentine Creole horses by PCR-RFLP and PCR-SSCP.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Castagnasso, E E; Díaz, S; Giovambattista, G; Dulout, F N; Peral-García, P

    2003-08-01

    The second exon of equine leucocyte antigen (ELA)-DQB genes was amplified from genomic DNA of 32 Argentine Creole horses by PCR. Amplified DNA was analysed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). The PCR-RFLP analysis revealed two HaeIII patterns, four RsaI patterns, five MspI patterns and two HinfI patterns. EcoRI showed no variation in the analysed sample. Additional patterns that did not account for known exon 2 DNA sequences were observed, suggesting the existence of novel ELA-DQB alleles. PCR-SSCP analysis exhibited seven different band patterns, and the number of bands per animal ranged from four to nine. Both methods indicated that at least two DQB genes are present. The presence of more than two alleles in each animal showed that the primers employed in this work are not specific for a unique DQB locus. The improvement of this PCR-RFLP method should provide a simple and rapid technique for an accurate definition of ELA-DQB typing in horses.

  8. Species Identification of Fox-, Mink-, Dog-, and Rabbit-Derived Ingredients by Multiplex PCR and Real-Time PCR Assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingqing; Xiang, Shengnan; Wang, Wenjun; Zhao, Jinyan; Xia, Jinhua; Zhen, Yueran; Liu, Bang

    2018-05-01

    Various detection methods have been developed to date for identification of animal species. New techniques based on PCR approach have raised the hope of developing better identification methods, which can overcome the limitations of the existing methods. PCR-based methods used the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as well as nuclear DNA sequences. In this study, by targeting nuclear DNA, multiplex PCR and real-time PCR methods were developed to assist with qualitative and quantitative analysis. The multiplex PCR was found to simultaneously and effectively distinguish four species (fox, dog, mink, and rabbit) ingredients by the different sizes of electrophoretic bands: 480, 317, 220, and 209 bp. Real-time fluorescent PCR's amplification profiles and standard curves showed good quantitative measurement responses and linearity, as indicated by good repeatability and coefficient of determination R 2  > 0.99. The quantitative results of quaternary DNA mixtures including mink, fox, dog, and rabbit DNA are in line with our expectations: R.D. (relative deviation) varied between 1.98 and 12.23% and R.S.D. (relative standard deviation) varied between 3.06 and 11.51%, both of which are well within the acceptance criterion of ≤ 25%. Combining the two methods is suitable for the rapid identification and accurate quantification of fox-, dog-, mink-, and rabbit-derived ingredients in the animal products.

  9. Real-Time PCR Analysis of Vibrio vulnificus from Oysters

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Mark S.; Wright, Anita C.

    2003-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen commonly found in estuarine environments. Infections are associated with raw oyster consumption and can produce rapidly fatal septicemia in susceptible individuals. Standard enumeration of this organism in shellfish or seawater is laborious and inaccurate; therefore, more efficient assays are needed. An oligonucleotide probe derived from the cytolysin gene, vvhA, was previously used for colony hybridizations to enumerate V. vulnificus. However, this method requires overnight growth, and vibrios may lack culturability under certain conditions. In the present study, we targeted the same locus for development of a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Probe specificity was confirmed by amplification of 28 V. vulnificus templates and by the lack of a PCR product with 22 non-V. vulnificus strains. Detection of V. vulnificus in pure cultures was observed over a 6-log-unit linear range of concentration (102 to 108 CFU ml−1), with a lower limit of 72 fg of genomic DNA μl of PCR mixture−1 or the equivalent of six cells. Similar sensitivity was observed in DNA extracted from mixtures of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus cells. Real-time PCR enumeration of artificially inoculated oyster homogenates correlated well with colony hybridization counts (r2 = 0.97). Numbers of indigenous V. vulnificus cells in oysters by real-time PCR showed no significant differences from numbers from plate counts with probe (t test; P = 0.43). Viable but nonculturable cells were also enumerated by real-time PCR and confirmed by the BacLight viability assay. These data indicate that real-time PCR can provide sensitive species-specific detection and enumeration of V. vulnificus in seafood. PMID:14660359

  10. Droplet-based micro oscillating-flow PCR chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Zhi-Xin; Luo, Rong; Lü, Shu-Hai; Xu, Ai-Dong; Yang, Yong-Jun

    2005-08-01

    Polymerase chain reactions (PCR), thermally activated chemical reactions which are widely used for nucleic acid amplification, have recently received much attention in microelectromechanical systems and micro total analysis systems because a wide variety of DNA/RNA molecules can be enriched by PCR for further analyses. In the present work, a droplet-based micro oscillating-flow PCR chip was designed and fabricated by the silicon microfabrication technique. Three different temperature zones, which were stable at denaturation, extension and annealing temperatures and isolated from each other by a thin-wall linkage, were integrated with a single, simple and straight microchannel to form the chip's basic functional structure. The PCR mixture was injected into the chip as a single droplet and flowed through the three temperature zones in the main microchannel in an oscillating manner to achieve the temperature maintenance and transitions. The chip's thermal performance was theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated. The results indicated that the time needed for the temperature of the droplet to change to the target value is less than 1 s, and the root mean square error of temperature is less than 0.2 °C. A droplet of 1 µl PCR mixture with standard HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)-DNA sample inside was amplified by the present chip and the results were analyzed by slab gel electrophoresis with separation of DNA markers in parallel. The electrophoresis results demonstrated that the micro oscillating-flow PCR chip successfully amplified the HPV-DNA, with a processing time of about 15 min which is significantly reduced compared to that for the conventional PCR instrument.

  11. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) vs quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) approach for detection and quantification of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) cutaneous biopsies.

    PubMed

    Arvia, Rosaria; Sollai, Mauro; Pierucci, Federica; Urso, Carmelo; Massi, Daniela; Zakrzewska, Krystyna

    2017-08-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is associated with Merkel cell carcinoma and high viral load in the skin was proposed as a risk factor for the occurrence of this tumour. MCPyV DNA was detected, with lower frequency, in different skin cancers but since the viral load was usually low, the real prevalence of viral DNA could be underestimated. To evaluate the performance of two assays (qPCR and ddPCR) for MCPyV detection and quantification in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. Both assays were designed to simultaneous detection and quantification of both MCPyV as well as house-keeping DNA in clinical samples. The performance of MCPyV quantification was investigated using serial dilutions of cloned target DNA. We also evaluated the applicability of both tests for the analysis of 76 FFPE cutaneous biopsies. The two approaches resulted equivalent with regard to the reproducibility and repeatability and showed a high degree of linearity in the dynamic range tested in the present study. Moreover, qPCR was able to quantify ≥10 5 copies per reaction, while the upper limit of ddPCR was 10 4 copies. There was not significant difference between viral load measured by the two methods The detection limit of both tests was 0,15 copies per reaction, however, the number of positive samples obtained by ddPCR was higher than that obtained by qPCR (45% and 37% respectively). The ddPCR represents a better method for detection of MCPyV in FFPE biopsies, mostly these containing low copies number of viral genome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Species identification of Cannabis sativa using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher E; Premasuthan, Amritha; Satkoski Trask, Jessica; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2013-03-01

    Most narcotics-related cases in the United States involve Cannabis sativa. Material is typically identified based on the cystolithic hairs on the leaves and with chemical tests to identify of the presence of cannabinoids. Suspect seeds are germinated into a viable plant so that morphological and chemical tests can be conducted. Seed germination, however, causes undue analytical delays. DNA analyses that involve the chloroplast and nuclear genomes have been developed for identification of C. sativa materials, but they require several nanograms of template DNA. Using the trnL 3' exon-trnF intragenic spacer regions within the C. sativa chloroplast, we have developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay that is capable of identifying picogram amounts of chloroplast DNA for species determination of suspected C. sativa material. This assay provides forensic science laboratories with a quick and reliable method to identify an unknown sample as C. sativa. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Droplet digital PCR technology promises new applications and research areas.

    PubMed

    Manoj, P

    2016-01-01

    Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction (dPCR) is used to quantify nucleic acids and its applications are in the detection and precise quantification of low-level pathogens, rare genetic sequences, quantification of copy number variants, rare mutations and in relative gene expressions. Here the PCR is performed in large number of reaction chambers or partitions and the reaction is carried out in each partition individually. This separation allows a more reliable collection and sensitive measurement of nucleic acid. Results are calculated by counting amplified target sequence (positive droplets) and the number of partitions in which there is no amplification (negative droplets). The mean number of target sequences was calculated by Poisson Algorithm. Poisson correction compensates the presence of more than one copy of target gene in any droplets. The method provides information with accuracy and precision which is highly reproducible and less susceptible to inhibitors than qPCR. It has been demonstrated in studying variations in gene sequences, such as copy number variants and point mutations, distinguishing differences between expression of nearly identical alleles, assessment of clinically relevant genetic variations and it is routinely used for clonal amplification of samples for NGS methods. dPCR enables more reliable predictors of tumor status and patient prognosis by absolute quantitation using reference normalizations. Rare mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with a range of diseases and disorders as well as aging can be accurately detected with droplet digital PCR.

  14. Multiplex PCR Tests for Detection of Pathogens Associated with Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongwei; Morrison, Scott; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis A wide range of enteric pathogens can cause infectious gastroenteritis. Conventional diagnostic algorithms including culture, biochemical identification, immunoassay and microscopic examination are time consuming and often lack sensitivity and specificity. Advances in molecular technology have as allowed its use as clinical diagnostic tools. Multiplex PCR based testing has made its way to gastroenterology diagnostic arena in recent years. In this article we present a review of recent laboratory developed multiplex PCR tests and current commercial multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen tests. We will focus on two FDA cleared commercial syndromic multiplex tests: Luminex xTAG GPP and Biofire FimArray GI test. These multiplex tests can detect and identify multiple enteric pathogens in one test and provide results within hours. Multiplex PCR tests have shown superior sensitivity to conventional methods for detection of most pathogens. The high negative predictive value of these multiplex tests has led to the suggestion that they be used as screening tools especially in outbreaks. Although the clinical utility and benefit of multiplex PCR test are to be further investigated, implementing these multiplex PCR tests in gastroenterology diagnostic algorithm has the potential to improve diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis. PMID:26004652

  15. Design and optimization of reverse-transcription quantitative PCR experiments.

    PubMed

    Tichopad, Ales; Kitchen, Rob; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Becker, Christiane; Ståhlberg, Anders; Kubista, Mikael

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a valuable technique for accurately and reliably profiling and quantifying gene expression. Typically, samples obtained from the organism of study have to be processed via several preparative steps before qPCR. We estimated the errors of sample withdrawal and extraction, reverse transcription (RT), and qPCR that are introduced into measurements of mRNA concentrations. We performed hierarchically arranged experiments with 3 animals, 3 samples, 3 RT reactions, and 3 qPCRs and quantified the expression of several genes in solid tissue, blood, cell culture, and single cells. A nested ANOVA design was used to model the experiments, and relative and absolute errors were calculated with this model for each processing level in the hierarchical design. We found that intersubject differences became easily confounded by sample heterogeneity for single cells and solid tissue. In cell cultures and blood, the noise from the RT and qPCR steps contributed substantially to the overall error because the sampling noise was less pronounced. We recommend the use of sample replicates preferentially to any other replicates when working with solid tissue, cell cultures, and single cells, and we recommend the use of RT replicates when working with blood. We show how an optimal sampling plan can be calculated for a limited budget. .

  16. A PCR primer bank for quantitative gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Seed, Brian

    2003-12-15

    Although gene expression profiling by microarray analysis is a useful tool for assessing global levels of transcriptional activity, variability associated with the data sets usually requires that observed differences be validated by some other method, such as real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). However, non-specific amplification of non-target genes is frequently observed in the latter, confounding the analysis in approximately 40% of real-time PCR attempts when primer-specific labels are not used. Here we present an experimentally validated algorithm for the identification of transcript-specific PCR primers on a genomic scale that can be applied to real-time PCR with sequence-independent detection methods. An online database, PrimerBank, has been created for researchers to retrieve primer information for their genes of interest. PrimerBank currently contains 147 404 primers encompassing most known human and mouse genes. The primer design algorithm has been tested by conventional and real-time PCR for a subset of 112 primer pairs with a success rate of 98.2%.

  17. Rapid detection and ruling out of neonatal sepsis by PCR coupled with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Delcò, Cristina; Karam, Oliver; Pfister, Riccardo; Gervaix, Alain; Renzi, Gesuele; Emonet, Stéphane; Schrenzel, Jacques; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2017-05-01

    Sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates and clinicians are typically required to administer empiric antibiotics while waiting for blood culture results. However, prolonged and inappropriate use of antibiotics is associated with various complications and adverse events. Better tools to rapidly rule out bacterial infections are therefore needed. We aimed to assess the negative predictive value of PCR coupled with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) compared to conventional blood cultures in neonatal sepsis. Prospective observational study. All consecutive neonates (<28days old) with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Samples for PCR/ESI-MS analysis were collected at the same time as samples for the blood culture, before the initiation of antibiotics. Our primary objective was to evaluate the negative predictive value of PCR/ESI-MS for the detection of bacteria in the bloodstream of newborns with suspected sepsis. Our secondary objective was the evaluation of the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the PCR/ESI-MS in such a neonatal population. We analysed 114 samples over 14months. The median age and weight were 32weeks+3days and 1840g, respectively. Two patients had negative PCR/ESI-MS results, but positive blood cultures. Overall, the negative predictive value was 98% (95%CI: 92% to 100%). Based on these results, PCR/ESI-MS analysis of blood samples of neonates with suspected sepsis appears to have a very good negative predictive value when compared to blood cultures as gold standard. This novel test might allow for early reassessment of the need for antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of PCR and real-time PCR for monitoring cyanobacteria, Microcystis spp. and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in Macau freshwater reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiying; Lou, Inchio; Ung, Wai Kin; Kong, Yijun; Mok, Kai Meng

    2014-06-01

    Freshwater algal blooms have become a growing concern world-wide. They are caused by a high level of cyanobacteria, predominantly Microcystis spp. and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, which can produce microcystin and cylindrospermopsin, respectively. Longtime exposure to these cyanotoxins may affect public health, thus reliable detection, quantification, and enumeration of these harmful algae species has become a priority in water quality management. Traditional manual enumeration of algal bloom cells primarily involves microscopic identification which limited by inaccuracy and time-consumption.With the development of molecular techniques and an increasing number of microbial sequences available in the Genbank database, the use of molecular methods can be used for more rapid, reliable, and accurate detection and quantification. In this study, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) techniques were developed and applied for monitoring cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. and C. raciborskii in the Macau Storage Reservoir (MSR). The results showed that the techniques were successful for identifying and quantifying the species in pure cultures and mixed cultures, and proved to be a potential application for water sampling in MSR. When the target species were above 1 million cells/L, similar cell numbers estimated by microscopic enumeration and qPCR were obtained. Further quantification in water samples indicated that the ratio of the estimated number of cell by microscopy and qPCR was 0.4-12.9 for cyanobacteria and 0.2-3.9 for C. raciborskii. However, Microcystis spp. was not observed by manual enumeration, while it was detected at low levels by qPCR, suggesting that qPCR is more sensitive and accurate. Thus the molecular approaches provide an additional reliable monitoring option to traditional microscopic enumeration for the ecosystems monitoring program.

  19. Analysis of Multiallelic CNVs by Emulsion Haplotype Fusion PCR.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Jess; Armour, John A L

    2017-01-01

    Emulsion-fusion PCR recovers long-range sequence information by combining products in cis from individual genomic DNA molecules. Emulsion droplets act as very numerous small reaction chambers in which different PCR products from a single genomic DNA molecule are condensed into short joint products, to unite sequences in cis from widely separated genomic sites. These products can therefore provide information about the arrangement of sequences and variants at a larger scale than established long-read sequencing methods. The method has been useful in defining the phase of variants in haplotypes, the typing of inversions, and determining the configuration of sequence variants in multiallelic CNVs. In this description we outline the rationale for the application of emulsion-fusion PCR methods to the analysis of multiallelic CNVs, and give practical details for our own implementation of the method in that context.

  20. High-throughput real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Bookout, Angie L; Cummins, Carolyn L; Mangelsdorf, David J; Pesola, Jean M; Kramer, Martha F

    2006-02-01

    Extensive detail on the application of the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) for the analysis of gene expression is provided in this unit. The protocols are designed for high-throughput, 384-well-format instruments, such as the Applied Biosystems 7900HT, but may be modified to suit any real-time PCR instrument. QPCR primer and probe design and validation are discussed, and three relative quantitation methods are described: the standard curve method, the efficiency-corrected DeltaCt method, and the comparative cycle time, or DeltaDeltaCt method. In addition, a method is provided for absolute quantification of RNA in unknown samples. RNA standards are subjected to RT-PCR in the same manner as the experimental samples, thus accounting for the reaction efficiencies of both procedures. This protocol describes the production and quantitation of synthetic RNA molecules for real-time and non-real-time RT-PCR applications.

  1. [Use of nested PCR in detection of the plague pathogen].

    PubMed

    Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A; Al'tshuler, M L; Zykova, I E; Severin, S E

    2003-07-01

    Causative agents of plague, i.e. bacterium Yersina pestis (in the subcutaneous tissues of rodents) and their cutaneous parasites need to be isolated to enable plague prevention. A comparatively new method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) opens up new possibilities of determining Y. pestis just within several hours and without any cultivation. The article contains a description of the PCR-method, which makes it possible to distinguish the culture of Y. pestis from cultures of other microorganism, including speci of Yersina. The method is of the cluster-type, i.e. it is made up of subsequent PC reactions with the substrate for the second reaction being the product of the first one. The cluster nature of the method preconditions a higher sensitivity and specificity versus the ordinary PCR.

  2. [Application of rapid PCR to authenticate medicinal snakes].

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Man

    2014-10-01

    To obtained an accurate, rapid and efficient method for authenticate medicinal snakes listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Zaocysd humnades, Bungarus multicinctus, Agkistrodon acutus), a rapid PCR method for authenticate snakes and its adulterants was established based on the classic molecular authentication methods. DNA was extracted by alkaline lysis and the specific primers were amplified by two-steps PCR amplification method. The denatured and annealing temperature and cycle numbers were optimized. When 100 x SYBR Green I was added in the PCR product, strong green fluorescence was visualized under 365 nm UV whereas adulterants without. The whole process can complete in 30-45 minutes. The established method provides the technical support for authentication of the snakes on field.

  3. Warfarin genotyping in a single PCR reaction for microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Poe, Brian L; Haverstick, Doris M; Landers, James P

    2012-04-01

    Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant medication but also is the second leading cause of emergency room visits for adverse drug reactions. Genetic testing for warfarin sensitivity may reduce hospitalization rates, but prospective genotyping is impeded in part by the turnaround time and costs of genotyping. Microfluidics-based assays can reduce reagent consumption and analysis time; however, no current assay has integrated multiplexed allele-specific PCR for warfarin genotyping with electrophoretic microfluidics hardware. Ideally, such an assay would use a single PCR reaction and, without further processing, a single microchip electrophoresis (ME) run to determine the 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting warfarin sensitivity [i.e., CYP2C9 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 9) *2, CYP2C9 *3, and the VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1) A/B haplotype]. We designed and optimized primers for a fully multiplexed assay to examine 3 biallelic SNPs with the tetraprimer amplification refractory mutation system (T-ARMS). The assay was developed with conventional PCR equipment and demonstrated for microfluidic infrared-mediated PCR. Genotypes were determined by ME on the basis of the pattern of PCR products. Thirty-five samples of human genomic DNA were analyzed with this multiplex T-ARMS assay, and 100% of the genotype determinations agreed with the results obtained by other validated methods. The sample population included several genotypes conferring warfarin sensitivity, with both homozygous and heterozygous genotypes for each SNP. Total analysis times for the PCR and ME were approximately 75 min (1-sample run) and 90 min (12-sample run). This multiplexed T-ARMS assay coupled with microfluidics hardware constitutes a promising avenue for an inexpensive and rapid platform for warfarin genotyping.

  4. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  5. Detection of DNA double-strand breaks and chromosome translocations using ligation-mediated PCR and inverse PCR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheetal; Shih, Shyh-Jen; Vaughan, Andrew T M

    2014-01-01

    Current techniques for examining the global creation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks are restricted in their sensitivity, and such techniques mask any site-dependent variations in breakage and repair rate or fidelity. We present here a system for analyzing the fate of documented DNA breaks, using the MLL gene as an example, through application of ligation-mediated PCR. Here, a simple asymmetric double-stranded DNA adapter molecule is ligated to experimentally induced DNA breaks and subjected to seminested PCR using adapter- and gene-specific primers. The rate of appearance and loss of specific PCR products allows detection of both the break and its repair. Using the additional technique of inverse PCR, the presence of misrepaired products (translocations) can be detected at the same site, providing information on the fidelity of the ligation reaction in intact cells. Such techniques may be adapted for the analysis of DNA breaks and rearrangements introduced into any identifiable genomic location. We have also applied parallel sequencing for the high-throughput analysis of inverse PCR products to facilitate the unbiased recording of all rearrangements located at a specific genomic location.

  6. PCR Amplicon Prediction from Multiplex Degenerate Primer and Probe Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S. N.

    2013-08-08

    Assessing primer specificity and predicting both desired and off-target amplification products is an essential step for robust PCR assay design. Code is described to predict potential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons in a large sequence database such as NCBI nt from either singleplex or a large multiplexed set of primers, allowing degenerate primer and probe bases, with target mismatch annotates amplicons with gene information automatically downloaded from NCBI, and optionally it can predict whether there are also TaqMan/Luminex probe matches within predicted amplicons.

  7. Droplet Digital™ PCR Next-Generation Sequencing Library QC Assay.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Nicholas J

    2018-01-01

    Digital PCR is a valuable tool to quantify next-generation sequencing (NGS) libraries precisely and accurately. Accurately quantifying NGS libraries enable accurate loading of the libraries on to the sequencer and thus improve sequencing performance by reducing under and overloading error. Accurate quantification also benefits users by enabling uniform loading of indexed/barcoded libraries which in turn greatly improves sequencing uniformity of the indexed/barcoded samples. The advantages gained by employing the Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR™) library QC assay includes the precise and accurate quantification in addition to size quality assessment, enabling users to QC their sequencing libraries with confidence.

  8. [Do Multiplex PCR techniques displace classical cultures in microbiology?].

    PubMed

    Auckenthaler, Raymond; Risch, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Multiplex PCR technologies progressively find their way in clinical microbiology. This technique allows the simultaneous amplification of multiple DNA targets in a single test run for the identification of pathogens up to the species level. Various pathogens of infectious diseases can be detected by a symptom-oriented approach clearly and quickly with high reliability. Essentially multiplex PCR panels are available for clarification of gastrointestinal, respiratory, sexually transmitted infections and meningitis. Today's offer from industry, university hospitals and large private laboratories of Switzerland is tabulated and commented.

  9. Gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Su-Hua; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Tsai, Ming-Hong; Tsai, I.-Shou; Lu, Huang-Chih; Chuang, Pei-Hsin; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2008-10-01

    Virus isolation and antibody detection are routinely used for diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, but the low level of transient viremia in some JE patients makes JEV isolation from clinical and surveillance samples very difficult. We describe the use of gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of JEV from its RNA genome. We tested the effect of gold nanoparticles on four different PCR systems, including conventional PCR, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and SYBR green real-time PCR and RT-PCR assays for diagnosis in the acute phase of JEV infection. Gold nanoparticles increased the amplification yield of the PCR product and shortened the PCR time compared to the conventional reaction. In addition, nanogold-based real-time RT-PCR showed a linear relationship between Ct and template amount using ten-fold dilutions of JEV. The nanogold-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays were able to detect low levels (1-10 000 copies) of the JEV RNA genomes extracted from culture medium or whole blood, providing early diagnostic tools for the detection of low-level viremia in the acute-phase infection. The assays described here were simple, sensitive, and rapid approaches for detection and quantitation of JEV in tissue cultured samples as well as clinical samples.

  10. Comparison of PCR and quantitative real-time PCR methods for the characterization of ruminant and cattle fecal pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Raith, Meredith R; Kelty, Catherine A; Griffith, John F; Schriewer, Alexander; Wuertz, Stefan; Mieszkin, Sophie; Gourmelon, Michele; Reischer, Georg H; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Ervin, Jared S; Holden, Patricia A; Ebentier, Darcy L; Jay, Jennifer A; Wang, Dan; Boehm, Alexandria B; Aw, Tiong Gim; Rose, Joan B; Balleste, E; Meijer, W G; Sivaganesan, Mano; Shanks, Orin C

    2013-11-15

    The State of California has mandated the preparation of a guidance document on the application of fecal source identification methods for recreational water quality management. California contains the fifth highest population of cattle in the United States, making the inclusion of cow-associated methods a logical choice. Because the performance of these methods has been shown to change based on geography and/or local animal feeding practices, laboratory comparisons are needed to determine which assays are best suited for implementation. We describe the performance characterization of two end-point PCR assays (CF128 and CF193) and five real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays (Rum2Bac, BacR, BacCow, CowM2, and CowM3) reported to be associated with either ruminant or cattle feces. Each assay was tested against a blinded set of 38 reference challenge filters (19 duplicate samples) containing fecal pollution from 12 different sources suspected to impact water quality. The abundance of each host-associated genetic marker was measured for qPCR-based assays in both target and non-target animals and compared to quantities of total DNA mass, wet mass of fecal material, as well as Bacteroidales, and enterococci determined by 16S rRNA qPCR and culture-based approaches (enterococci only). Ruminant- and cow-associated genetic markers were detected in all filters containing a cattle fecal source. However, some assays cross-reacted with non-target pollution sources. A large amount of variability was evident across laboratories when protocols were not fixed suggesting that protocol standardization will be necessary for widespread implementation. Finally, performance metrics indicate that the cattle-associated CowM2 qPCR method combined with either the BacR or Rum2Bac ruminant-associated methods are most suitable for implementation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Detection of BRCA1 gross rearrangements by droplet digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Preobrazhenskaya, Elena V; Bizin, Ilya V; Kuligina, Ekatherina Sh; Shleykina, Alla Yu; Suspitsin, Evgeny N; Zaytseva, Olga A; Anisimova, Elena I; Laptiev, Sergey A; Gorodnova, Tatiana V; Belyaev, Alexey M; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Sokolenko, Anna P

    2017-10-01

    Large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) constitute a significant share of pathogenic BRCA1 mutations. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a leading method for LGR detection; however, it is entirely based on the use of commercial kits, includes relatively time-consuming hybridization step, and is not convenient for large-scale screening of recurrent LGRs. We developed and validated the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay, which covers the entire coding region of BRCA1 gene and is capable to precisely quantitate the copy number for each exon. 141 breast cancer (BC) patients, who demonstrated evident clinical features of hereditary BC but turned out to be negative for founder BRCA1/2 mutations, were subjected to the LGR analysis. Four patients with LGR were identified, with three cases of exon 8 deletion and one women carrying the deletion of exons 5-7. Excellent concordance with MLPA test was observed. Exon 8 copy number was tested in additional 720 BC and 184 ovarian cancer (OC) high-risk patients, and another four cases with the deletion were revealed; MLPA re-analysis demonstrated that exon 8 loss was a part of a larger genetic alteration in two cases, while the remaining two patients had isolated defect of exon 8. Long-range PCR and next generation sequencing of DNA samples carrying exon 8 deletion revealed two types of recurrent LGRs. Droplet digital PCR is a reliable tool for the detection of large genomic rearrangements.

  12. CODEHOP (COnsensus-DEgenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primer) PCR primer design

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Timothy M.; Henikoff, Jorja G.; Henikoff, Steven

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a new primer design strategy for PCR amplification of distantly related gene sequences based on consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers (CODEHOPs). An interactive program has been written to design CODEHOP PCR primers from conserved blocks of amino acids within multiply-aligned protein sequences. Each CODEHOP consists of a pool of related primers containing all possible nucleotide sequences encoding 3–4 highly conserved amino acids within a 3′ degenerate core. A longer 5′ non-degenerate clamp region contains the most probable nucleotide predicted for each flanking codon. CODEHOPs are used in PCR amplification to isolate distantly related sequences encoding the conserved amino acid sequence. The primer design software and the CODEHOP PCR strategy have been utilized for the identification and characterization of new gene orthologs and paralogs in different plant, animal and bacterial species. In addition, this approach has been successful in identifying new pathogen species. The CODEHOP designer (http://blocks.fhcrc.org/codehop.html) is linked to BlockMaker and the Multiple Alignment Processor within the Blocks Database World Wide Web (http://blocks.fhcrc.org). PMID:12824413

  13. Quantitative competitive (QC) PCR for quantification of porcine DNA.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C; Lüthy, J

    2001-02-01

    Many meat products nowadays may contain several species in different proportions. To protect consumers from fraud and misdeclarations, not only a qualitative but also a quantitative monitoring of ingredients of complex food products is necessary. DNA based techniques like the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are widely used for identification of species but no answer to the proportional amount of a certain species could be given using current techniques. In this study we report the development and evaluation of a quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) for detection and quantification of porcine DNA using a new porcine specific PCR system based on the growth hormone gene of sus scrofa. A DNA competitor differing by 30 bp in length from the porcine target sequence was constructed and used for PCR together with the target DNA. Specificity of the new primers was evaluated with DNA from cattle, sheep, chicken and turkey. The competitor concentration was adjusted to porcine DNA contents of 2 or 20% by coamplification of mixtures containing porcine and corresponding amounts of bovine DNA in defined ratios.

  14. FTA card utility for PCR detection of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Aye, Khin Saw; Matsuoka, Masanori; Kai, Masanori; Kyaw, Kyaw; Win, Aye Aye; Shwe, Mu Mu; Thein, Min; Htoo, Maung Maung; Htoon, Myo Thet

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of the FTA® elute card for the collection of slit skin smear (SSS) samples for PCR detection of Mycobacterium leprae was evaluated. A total of 192 SSS leprosy samples, of bacillary index (BI) 1 to 5, were collected from patients attending two skin clinics in Myanmar and preserved using both FTA® elute cards and 70% ethanol tubes. To compare the efficacy of PCR detection of DNA from each BI class, PCR was performed to amplify an M. leprae-specific repetitive element. Of the 192 samples, 116 FTA® elute card and 112 70% ethanol samples were PCR positive for M. leprae DNA. When correlated with BI, area under the curve (AUC) values of the respective receiver-operating characteristic curves were similar for the FTA® elute card and ethanol collection methods (AUC=0.6). Taken together, our results indicate that the FTA® elute card, which enables the collection, transport, and archiving of clinical samples, is an attractive alternative to ethanol preservation for the detection of M. leprae DNA.

  15. Using qPCR for Water Microbial Risk Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial risk assessment (MRA) has traditionally utilized microbiological data that was obtained by culture-based techniques that are expensive and time consuming. With the advent of PCR methods there is a realistic opportunity to conduct MRA studies economically, in less time,...

  16. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  17. Halal authenticity of gelatin using species-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Hessam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dezfouli, Ehsan Ansari; Solgi, Tara; Khodaverdi, Mahdi; Rabiei, Maryam; Rastegar, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of food products derived from porcine sources is strictly prohibited in Islam. Gelatin, mostly derived from bovine and porcine sources, has many applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. To ensure that food products comply with halal regulations, development of valid and reliable analytical methods is very much required. In this study, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using conserved regions of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene) was performed to evaluate the halal authenticity of gelatin. After isolation of DNA from gelatin powders with known origin, conventional PCR using species-specific primers was carried out on the extracted DNA. The amplified expected PCR products of 212 and 271 bp were observed for porcine and bovine gelatin, respectively. The sensitivity of the method was tested on binary gelatin mixtures containing 0.1%, 1%, 10%, and 100% (w/w) of porcine gelatin within bovine gelatin and vice versa. Although most of the DNA is degraded due to the severe processing steps of gelatin production, the minimum level of 0.1% w/w of both porcine and bovine gelatin was detected. Moreover, eight food products labeled as containing bovine gelatin and eight capsule shells were subjected to PCR examination. The results showed that all samples contained bovine gelatin, and the absence of porcine gelatin was verified. This method of species authenticity is very useful to verify whether gelatin and gelatin-containing food products are derived from halal ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Introducing Undergraduate Students to Real-Time PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dale; Funnell, Alister; Jack, Briony; Johnston, Jill

    2010-01-01

    An experiment is conducted, which in four 3 h laboratory sessions, introduces third year undergraduate Biochemistry students to the technique of real-time PCR in a biological context. The model used is a murine erythroleukemia cell line (MEL cells). These continuously cycling, immature red blood cells, arrested at an early stage in erythropoiesis,…

  19. MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR: THE EMERGING STANDARD IN MOLD ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Today I will talk about the use of quantitative or Real time PCR for the standardized identification and quantification of molds. There are probably at least 100,000 species of molds or fungi. But there are actually about 100 typically found indoors. Some pose a threat to human...

  20. Evaluation of nested PCR in diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Badiee, Parisa; Gandomi, Behrooz; Sabz, Gholamabbass; Khodami, Bijan; Choopanizadeh, Maral; Jafarian, Hadis

    2015-02-01

    Given the importance of rapid diagnosis for fungal rhinosinusitis, this study aimed to evaluate the use of nested PCR to identify Aspergillus and Mucor species in clinical samples from patients with suspected fungal rhinosinusitis. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery specimens were collected from 98 patients with rhinosinusitis from 2012 to 2013. All samples were ground and cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar. The isolated fungi were identified based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. Fungal DNA was extracted from the tissue samples and nested PCR was performed with two sets of primers for Mucor and Aspergillus. Direct microscopic showed that 5.1% contained fungal components and 9.2% exhibited growth of fungi in culture. The most common agents isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus (n= 3), Aspergillus flavus (n=2), Penicillium sp (n=3) and Alternaria sp. (n=1). Mucor sp. was identified in the pathology smear from 1 patient. Positive results for fungal rhinosinusitis were obtained for a total of 10.2% by culture or pathology smear. Positive PCR results were obtained in 72 samples for Aspergillus and 31 samples for Mucor. Our results suggest that endoscopic sinus surgery specimens are not suitable for nested PCR, probably because of the accumulation of fungi that contaminate the environmental air. This drawback is a limiting factor for diagnosis with nasal cavity specimens. Therefore, molecular methods and conventional culture techniques are helpful complementary diagnostic methods to detect fungal rhinosinusitis and determine appropriate management for these patients.

  1. The LAM-PCR Method to Sequence LV Integration Sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Gabriel, Richard; Deichmann, Annette; Schmidt, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Integrating viral gene transfer vectors are commonly used gene delivery tools in clinical gene therapy trials providing stable integration and continuous gene expression of the transgene in the treated host cell. However, integration of the reverse-transcribed vector DNA into the host genome is a potentially mutagenic event that may directly contribute to unwanted side effects. A comprehensive and accurate analysis of the integration site (IS) repertoire is indispensable to study clonality in transduced cells obtained from patients undergoing gene therapy and to identify potential in vivo selection of affected cell clones. To date, next-generation sequencing (NGS) of vector-genome junctions allows sophisticated studies on the integration repertoire in vitro and in vivo. We have explored the use of the Illumina MiSeq Personal Sequencer platform to sequence vector ISs amplified by non-restrictive linear amplification-mediated PCR (nrLAM-PCR) and LAM-PCR. MiSeq-based high-quality IS sequence retrieval is accomplished by the introduction of a double-barcode strategy that substantially minimizes the frequency of IS sequence collisions compared to the conventionally used single-barcode protocol. Here, we present an updated protocol of (nr)LAM-PCR for the analysis of lentiviral IS using a double-barcode system and followed by deep sequencing using the MiSeq device.

  2. A Trio of Human Molecular Genetics PCR Assays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinking, Jeffrey L.; Waldo, Jennifer T.; Dinsmore, Jannett

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory exercise demonstrates three different analytical forms of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that allow students to genotype themselves at four different loci. Here, we present protocols to allow students to a) genotype a non-coding polymorphic Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) locus on human chromosome 5 using conventional…

  3. DETECTION OF FECAL ENTEROCOCCI USING A REAL TIME PCR METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In spite of their importance in public health, the detection of fecal enterococci is performed via culturing methods that are time consuming and that are subject to inaccuracies that relate to their culturable status. In order to address these problems, a real time PCR (TaqMan) ...

  4. Qualitative PCR method for Roundup Ready soybean: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Takashi; Kasahara, Masaki; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots.

  5. A comparative study of digital RT-PCR and RT-qPCR for quantification of Hepatitis A virus and Norovirus in lettuce and water samples.

    PubMed

    Coudray-Meunier, Coralie; Fraisse, Audrey; Martin-Latil, Sandra; Guillier, Laurent; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Perelle, Sylvie

    2015-05-18

    Sensitive and quantitative detection of foodborne enteric viruses is classically achieved by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Recently, digital PCR (dPCR) was described as a novel approach to genome quantification without need for a standard curve. The performance of microfluidic digital RT-PCR (RT-dPCR) was compared to RT-qPCR for detecting the main viruses responsible for foodborne outbreaks (human Noroviruses (NoV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV)) in spiked lettuce and bottled water. Two process controls (Mengovirus and Murine Norovirus) were used and external amplification controls (EAC) were added to examine inhibition of RT-qPCR and RT-dPCR. For detecting viral RNA and cDNA, the sensitivity of the RT-dPCR assays was either comparable to that of RT-qPCR (RNA of HAV, NoV GI, Mengovirus) or slightly (around 1 log10) decreased (NoV GII and MNV-1 RNA and of HAV, NoV GI, NoV GII cDNA). The number of genomic copies determined by dPCR was always from 0.4 to 1.7 log10 lower than the expected numbers of copies calculated by using the standard qPCR curve. Viral recoveries calculated by RT-dPCR were found to be significantly higher than by RT-qPCR for NoV GI, HAV and Mengovirus in water, and for NoV GII and HAV in lettuce samples. The RT-dPCR assay proved to be more tolerant to inhibitory substances present in lettuce samples. This absolute quantitation approach may be useful to standardize quantification of enteric viruses in bottled water and lettuce samples and may be extended to quantifying other human pathogens in food samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the performance in detection of HPV infections between the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR and the PCR-reverse dot blot assays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lahong; Dai, Yibei; Chen, Jiahuan; Hong, Liquan; Liu, Yuhua; Ke, Qiang; Chen, Yiwen; Cai, Chengsong; Liu, Xia; Chen, Zhaojun

    2018-01-01

    A new multiplex real-time PCR assay, the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR assay (HR HPV RT-PCR), has been developed to detect 15 high-risk HPV types with respective viral loads. In this report, a total of 684 cervical specimens from women diagnosed with vaginitis were assessed by the HR HPV RT-PCR and the PCR reaction and reverse dot blot (PCR-RDB) assays, using a PCR-sequencing method as a reference standard. A total coincidence of 97.7% between the HR HPV RT PCR and the PCR-RDB assays was determined with a Kappa value of 0.953. The HR HPV RT PCR assay had sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rates (accuracy) of 99.7%, 99.7%, and 99.7%, respectively, as confirmed by PCR-sequencing, while the PCR-RDB assay had respective rates of 98.8%, 97.1%, and 98.0%. The overall rate of HPV infection, determined by PCR-sequencing, in women diagnosed with vaginitis was 49.85%, including 36.26% of single infection and 13.6% of multiple infections. The most common infections among the 15 high-risk HPV types in women diagnosed with vaginitis were HPV-52, HPV-16, and HPV-58, with a total detection rate of 10.23%, 7.75%, and 5.85%, respectively. We conclude that the HR HPV RT PCR assay exhibits better clinical performance than the PCR-RDB assay, and is an ideal alternative method for HPV genotyping. In addition, the HR HPV RT PCR assay provides HPV DNA viral loads, and could serve as a quantitative marker in the diagnosis and treatment of single and multiple HPV infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparison of allele-specific PCR, created restriction-site PCR, and PCR with primer-introduced restriction analysis methods used for screening complex vertebral malformation carriers in Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    Altınel, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is an inherited, autosomal recessive disorder of Holstein cattle. The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and rapidity of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), created restriction-site PCR (CRS-PCR), and PCR with primer-introduced restriction analysis (PCR-PIRA), three methods used in identification of CVM carriers in a Holstein cattle population. In order to screen for the G>T mutation in the solute carrier family 35 member A3 (SLC35A3) gene, DNA sequencing as the gold standard method was used. The prevalence of carriers and the mutant allele frequency were 3.2% and 0.016, respectively, among Holstein cattle in the Thrace region of Turkey. Among the three methods, the fastest but least accurate was AS-PCR. Although the rapidity of CRS-PCR and PCR-PIRA were nearly equal, the accuracy of PCR-PIRA was higher than that of CRS-PCR. Therefore, among the three methods, PCR-PIRA appears to be the most efficacious for screening of mutant alleles when identifying CVM carriers in a Holstein cattle population. PMID:28927256

  8. STITCHER: A web resource for high-throughput design of primers for overlapping PCR applications.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2015-06-01

    Overlapping PCR is routinely used in a wide number of molecular applications. These include stitching PCR fragments together, generating fluorescent transcriptional and translational fusions, inserting mutations, making deletions, and PCR cloning. Overlapping PCR is also used for genotyping by traditional PCR techniques and in detection experiments using techniques such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). STITCHER is a web tool providing a central resource for researchers conducting all types of overlapping PCR experiments with an intuitive interface for automated primer design that's fast, easy to use, and freely available online (http://ohalloranlab.net/STITCHER.html). STITCHER can handle both single sequence and multi-sequence input, and specific features facilitate numerous other PCR applications, including assembly PCR, adapter PCR, and primer walking. Field PCR, and in particular, LAMP, offers promise as an on site tool for pathogen detection in underdeveloped areas, and STITCHER includes off-target detection features for pathogens commonly targeted using LAMP technology.

  9. Advances in digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) and its emerging biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Cui, Xingye; Hu, Jie; Li, Zedong; Choi, Jane Ru; Yang, Qingzhen; Lin, Min; Ying Hui, Li; Xu, Feng

    2017-04-15

    Since the invention of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 1985, PCR has played a significant role in molecular diagnostics for genetic diseases, pathogens, oncogenes and forensic identification. In the past three decades, PCR has evolved from end-point PCR, through real-time PCR, to its current version, which is the absolute quantitive digital PCR (dPCR). In this review, we first discuss the principles of all key steps of dPCR, i.e., sample dispersion, amplification, and quantification, covering commercialized apparatuses and other devices still under lab development. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of different technologies based on these steps, and discuss the emerging biomedical applications of dPCR. Finally, we provide a glimpse of the existing challenges and future perspectives for dPCR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

  11. Applicability of integrated cell culture reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (ICC-RTqPCR) for the simultaneous detection of the four human enteric enterovirus species in disinfection studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    A newly developed integrated cell culture reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (ICC-RTqPCR) method and its applicability in UV disinfection studies is described. This method utilizes a singular cell culture system coupled with four RTqPCR assays to detect infectious serotypes t...

  12. Agreement Rate of Rapid Urease Test, Conventional PCR, and Scorpion Real-Time PCR in Detecting Helicobacter Pylori from Tonsillar Samples of Patients with Chronic Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Reza; Farivar, Taghi Naserpour; Pahlevan, Ali Akbar; Johari, Pouran; Safdarian, Farshid; Asefzadeh, Mina

    2012-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori is capable of inducing systemic inflammatory reactions through immunological processes. There are several methods to identify the presence of H. pylori in clinical samples including rapid urease test (RUT), conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the Scorpion real-time PCR. Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare the agreement rate of these tests in identifying H. pylori in tonsillar biopsy specimens collected from patients with chronic tonsillitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 103 tonsil biopsy samples from patients with clinical signs of chronic tonsillitis were examined with RUT, PCR, and Scorpion real-time PCR. The degree of agreement between the three tests was later calculated. Results: There was a poor degree of agreement between RUT and PCR and also RUT and Scorpion real-time PCR (Kappa=0.269 and 0.249, respectively). In contrast with RUT, there was a strong degree of agreement between PCR and Scorpion real-time PCR (Kappa=0.970). Conclusion: The presence of a strong agreement between the Scorpion real-time PCR and PCR as well as its technical advantage over the conventional PCR assay, made the Scorpion real-time PCR an appropriate laboratory test to investigate the presence of H. pylori in tonsillar biopsy specimens in patients suffering from chronic tonsillitis. PMID:22754245

  13. RUCS: rapid identification of PCR primers for unique core sequences.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Hasman, Henrik; Westh, Henrik; Kaya, Hülya; Lund, Ole

    2017-12-15

    Designing PCR primers to target a specific selection of whole genome sequenced strains can be a long, arduous and sometimes impractical task. Such tasks would benefit greatly from an automated tool to both identify unique targets, and to validate the vast number of potential primer pairs for the targets in silico. Here we present RUCS, a program that will find PCR primer pairs and probes for the unique core sequences of a positive genome dataset complement to a negative genome dataset. The resulting primer pairs and probes are in addition to simple selection also validated through a complex in silico PCR simulation. We compared our method, which identifies the unique core sequences, against an existing tool called ssGeneFinder, and found that our method was 6.5-20 times more sensitive. We used RUCS to design primer pairs that would target a set of genomes known to contain the mcr-1 colistin resistance gene. Three of the predicted pairs were chosen for experimental validation using PCR and gel electrophoresis. All three pairs successfully produced an amplicon with the target length for the samples containing mcr-1 and no amplification products were produced for the negative samples. The novel methods presented in this manuscript can reduce the time needed to identify target sequences, and provide a quick virtual PCR validation to eliminate time wasted on ambiguously binding primers. Source code is freely available on https://bitbucket.org/genomicepidemiology/rucs. Web service is freely available on https://cge.cbs.dtu.dk/services/RUCS. mcft@cbs.dtu.dk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinitz, David M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  15. New PCR Test That Recognizes All Human Prototypes of Enterovirus: Application for Clinical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bourlet, Thomas; Caro, Valerie; Minjolle, Sophie; Jusselin, Isabelle; Pozzetto, Bruno; Crainic, Radu; Colimon, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new PCR test (Penter RT-PCR) that recognizes all 64 prototypes of enterovirus. Sixty clinical samples were analyzed in parallel with this Penter RT-PCR and previously described PCR tests: 34 and 32 samples tested positive, respectively. This assay is suitable for use in clinical diagnosis, and its ability to amplify all known serotypes makes it more useful than other consensus PCR tests. PMID:12682177

  16. Combination of Multiplex PCR and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis for Monitoring Common Sourdough-Associated Lactobacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Settanni, Luca; Valmorri, Sara; van Sinderen, Douwe; Suzzi, Giovanna; Paparella, Antonello; Corsetti, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    A combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and a previously described multiplex PCR approach was employed to detect sourdough lactobacilli. Primers specific for certain groups of Lactobacillus spp. were used to amplify fragments, which were analyzed by DGGE. DGGE profiles obtained from Lactobacillus type strains acted as standards to analyze lactobacilli from four regional Abruzzo (central Italy) sourdoughs. PMID:16672538

  17. Application of multiplex PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and BOX-PCR for molecular analysis of enterococci

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the study was to use band-based molecular methods including BOX-PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine if genetically related enterococci were found among different stores, food types, or years. Enterococci were also characterized f...

  18. Application of droplet digital PCR for quantitative detection of Spiroplasma citri in comparison with real time PCR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Droplet digital Polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a unique approach to measure the absolute copy number of nucleic acid targets without the need of external standards. It is a promising DNA quantification technology for medical diagnostics but there are only a few reports of its use for plant pat...

  19. Absolute quantification of olive oil DNA by droplet digital-PCR (ddPCR): Comparison of isolation and amplification methodologies.

    PubMed

    Scollo, Francesco; Egea, Leticia A; Gentile, Alessandra; La Malfa, Stefano; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar

    2016-12-15

    Olive oil is considered a premium product for its nutritional value and health benefits, and the ability to define its origin and varietal composition is a key step towards ensuring the traceability of the product. However, isolating the DNA from such a matrix is a difficult task. In this study, the quality and quantity of olive oil DNA, isolated using four different DNA isolation protocols, was evaluated using the qRT-PCR and ddPCR techniques. The results indicate that CTAB-based extraction methods were the best for unfiltered oil, while Nucleo Spin-based extraction protocols showed greater overall reproducibility. The use of both qRT-PCR and ddPCR led to the absolute quantification of the DNA copy number. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of the choice of DNA-isolation protocol, which should take into consideration the qualitative aspects of DNA and the evaluation of the amplified DNA copy number. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The detectability of the pretreatment EGFR T790M mutations in lung adenocarcinoma using CAST-PCR and digital PCR

    PubMed Central

    Tatematsu, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Ayumi; Oda, Risa; Sakane, Tadashi; Kawano, Osamu; Haneda, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Satoru; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Nakanishi, Ryoichi

    2017-01-01

    Background A gatekeeper T790M mutation is thought to cause resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment. The detection of a 2nd mutation is important for planning the next therapy when patients acquire resistance to the first line EGFR-TKI. Methods We used a competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (CAST-PCR) to analyze the incidence and clinical significance of T790M mutations in 153 lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR-activating mutations. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the detection of T790M mutations, we subjected 20 of the 153 cases to a digital PCR. The genomic DNAs were extracted from frozen, surgically resected tumor tissue specimens. Results The CAST-PCR detected T790M mutations in 45 (29.4%) of the 153 cases. The analytical sensitivity in the detection T790M mutations was 0.13–2.65% (average 0.27%, median 0.20%). In contrast, the digital PCR, detected T790M mutations in 8 (40%) out of 20 cases. Conclusions Our study shows that the pretreatment incidence of T790M mutation was less than that reported in previous studies. In order to clinically use pretreatment EGFR T790M mutation identification method, we should clarify the adequate methods and tissue preserved status. PMID:28932544

  1. Detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences by ligation-mediated PCR (DIPS-PCR) and molecular characterization in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Luft, F; Klaes, R; Nees, M; Dürst, M; Heilmann, V; Melsheimer, P; von Knebel Doeberitz, M

    2001-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genomes usually persist as episomal molecules in HPV associated preneoplastic lesions whereas they are frequently integrated into the host cell genome in HPV-related cancers cells. This suggests that malignant conversion of HPV-infected epithelia is linked to recombination of cellular and viral sequences. Due to technical limitations, precise sequence information on viral-cellular junctions were obtained only for few cell lines and primary lesions. In order to facilitate the molecular analysis of genomic HPV integration, we established a ligation-mediated PCR assay for the detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences (DIPS-PCR). DIPS-PCR was initially used to amplify genomic viral-cellular junctions from HPV-associated cervical cancer cell lines (C4-I, C4-II, SW756, and HeLa) and HPV-immortalized keratinocyte lines (HPKIA, HPKII). In addition to junctions already reported in public data bases, various new fusion fragments were identified. Subsequently, 22 different viral-cellular junctions were amplified from 17 cervical carcinomas and 1 vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN III). Sequence analysis of each junction revealed that the viral E1 open reading frame (ORF) was fused to cellular sequences in 20 of 22 (91%) cases. Chromosomal integration loci mapped to chromosomes 1 (2n), 2 (3n), 7 (2n), 8 (3n), 10 (1n), 14 (5n), 16 (1n), 17 (2n), and mitochondrial DNA (1n), suggesting random distribution of chromosomal integration sites. Precise sequence information obtained by DIPS-PCR was further used to monitor the monoclonal origin of 4 cervical cancers, 1 case of recurrent premalignant lesions and 1 lymph node metastasis. Therefore, DIPS-PCR might allow efficient therapy control and prediction of relapse in patients with HPV-associated anogenital cancers. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Comparison of Quantitative PCR and Droplet Digital PCR Multiplex Assays for Two Genera of Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis and Microcystis

    PubMed Central

    Te, Shu Harn; Chen, Enid Yingru

    2015-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms, often linked to deteriorated water quality and adverse public health effects, has become a worldwide concern in recent decades. The use of molecular techniques such as real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become increasingly popular in the detection and monitoring of harmful cyanobacterial species. Multiplex qPCR assays that quantify several toxigenic cyanobacterial species have been established previously; however, there is no molecular assay that detects several bloom-forming species simultaneously. Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis are the two most commonly found genera and are known to be able to produce microcystin and cylindrospermopsin hepatotoxins. In this study, we designed primers and probes which enable quantification of these genera based on the RNA polymerase C1 gene for Cylindrospermopsis species and the c-phycocyanin beta subunit-like gene for Microcystis species. Duplex assays were developed for two molecular techniques—qPCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). After optimization, both qPCR and ddPCR assays have high linearity and quantitative correlations for standards. Comparisons of the two techniques showed that qPCR has higher sensitivity, a wider linear dynamic range, and shorter analysis time and that it was more cost-effective, making it a suitable method for initial screening. However, the ddPCR approach has lower variability and was able to handle the PCR inhibition and competitive effects found in duplex assays, thus providing more precise and accurate analysis for bloom samples. PMID:26025892

  3. Molecular methods (digital PCR and real-time PCR) for the quantification of low copy DNA of Phytophthora nicotianae in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Josefa; Lloret, Eva; Santísima-Trinidad, Ana B; Ros, Margarita; Pascual, Jose A

    2016-04-01

    Currently, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the technique most often used to quantify pathogen presence. Digital PCR (dPCR) is a new technique with the potential to have a substantial impact on plant pathology research owing to its reproducibility, sensitivity and low susceptibility to inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using dPCR and qPCR to quantify Phytophthora nicotianae in several background matrices, including host tissues (stems and roots) and soil samples. In spite of the low dynamic range of dPCR (3 logs compared with 7 logs for qPCR), this technique proved to have very high precision applicable at very low copy numbers. The dPCR was able to detect accurately the pathogen in all type of samples in a broad concentration range. Moreover, dPCR seems to be less susceptible to inhibitors than qPCR in plant samples. Linear regression analysis showed a high correlation between the results obtained with the two techniques in soil, stem and root samples, with R(2) = 0.873, 0.999 and 0.995 respectively. These results suggest that dPCR is a promising alternative for quantifying soil-borne pathogens in environmental samples, even in early stages of the disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Sporulation properties and antimicrobial susceptibility in endemic and rare Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes.

    PubMed

    Zidaric, Valerija; Rupnik, Maja

    2016-06-01

    Increased sporulation and antibiotic resistance have been proposed to be associated with certain Clostridium difficile epidemic strains such as PCR ribotype 027. In this study we examined these properties in another widespread PCR ribotype, 014/020, in comparison to prevalent PCR ribotype 002 and a group of rarely represented PCR ribotypes. Highest sporulation was observed in 014/020 strains at 24 h, while after 72 h PCR ribotype 002 and rare PCR ribotypes formed higher total number of spores. PCR ribotype 014/020 strains exhibited slightly higher resistance to tested antimicrobials, followed by group of rare PCR ribotypes and less common PCR ribotype 002. Neither sporulation properties nor antibiotic resistance clearly differed in endemic and rare strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. pPCV, a versatile vector for cloning PCR products.

    PubMed

    Janner, Christiane R; Brito, Ana Lívia P; Moraes, Lidia Maria P; Reis, Viviane Cb; Torres, Fernando Ag

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of PCR product cloning depends on the nature of the DNA polymerase employed because amplicons may have blunt-ends or 3' adenosines overhangs. Therefore, for amplicon cloning, available commercial vectors are either blunt-ended or have a single 3' overhanging thymidine. The aim of this work was to offer in a single vector the ability to clone both types of PCR products. For that purpose, a minimal polylinker was designed to include restriction sites for EcoRV and XcmI which enable direct cloning of amplicons bearing blunt-ends or A-overhangs, respectively, still offering blue/white selection. When tested, the resulting vector, pPCV, presented high efficiency cloning of both types of amplicons.

  6. WetLab-2: Providing Quantitative PCR Capabilities on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Macarena; Jung, Jimmy Kar Chuen; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis David; Schonfeld, Julie; Tran, Luan Hoang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of NASA Ames Research Centers WetLab-2 Project is to place on the ISS a system capable of conducting gene expression analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of biological specimens sampled or cultured on orbit. The WetLab-2 system is capable of processing sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on-orbit. The project has developed a RNA preparation module that can lyse cells and extract RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for use as templates in qRT-PCR reactions. Our protocol has the advantage that it uses non-toxic chemicals, alcohols or other organics. The resulting RNA is transferred into a pipette and then dispensed into reaction tubes that contain all lyophilized reagents needed to perform qRT-PCR reactions. These reaction tubes are mounted on rotors to centrifuge the liquid to the reaction window of the tube using a cordless drill. System operations require simple and limited crew actions including syringe pushes, valve turns and pipette dispenses. The resulting process takes less than 30 min to have tubes ready for loading into the qRT-PCR unit.The project has selected a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) qRT-PCR unit, the Cepheid SmartCycler, that will fly in its COTS configuration. The SmartCycler has a number of advantages including modular design (16 independent PCR modules), low power consumption, rapid thermal ramp times and four-color detection. The ability to detect up to four fluorescent channels will enable multiplex assays that can be used to normalize for RNA concentration and integrity, and to study multiple genes of interest in each module. The WetLab-2 system will have the capability to downlink data from the ISS to the ground after a completed run and to uplink new programs. The ability to conduct qRT-PCR on-orbit eliminates the confounding effects on gene expression of reentry stresses and shock acting on live cells and organisms or the concern of RNA degradation of fixed samples. The

  7. Actuation method and apparatus, micropump, and PCR enhancement method

    SciTech Connect

    Ullakko, Kari; Mullner, Peter; Hampikian, Greg

    An actuation apparatus includes at least one magnetic shape memory (MSM) element containing a material configured to expand and/or contract in response to exposure to a magnetic field. Among other things, the MSM element may be configured to pump fluid through a micropump by expanding and/or contracting in response to the magnetic field. The magnetic field may rotate about an axis of rotation and exhibit a distribution having a component substantially perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Further, the magnetic field distribution may include at least two components substantially orthogonal to one another lying in one or more planes perpendicularmore » to the axis of rotation. The at least one MSM element may contain nickel, manganese, and gallium. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be enhanced by contacting a PCR reagent and DNA material with the MSM element.« less

  8. Inter-laboratory analysis of selected genetically modified plant reference materials with digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Dobnik, David; Demšar, Tina; Huber, Ingrid; Gerdes, Lars; Broeders, Sylvia; Roosens, Nancy; Debode, Frederic; Berben, Gilbert; Žel, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Digital PCR (dPCR), as a new technology in the field of genetically modified (GM) organism (GMO) testing, enables determination of absolute target copy numbers. The purpose of our study was to test the transferability of methods designed for quantitative PCR (qPCR) to dPCR and to carry out an inter-laboratory comparison of the performance of two different dPCR platforms when determining the absolute GM copy numbers and GM copy number ratio in reference materials certified for GM content in mass fraction. Overall results in terms of measured GM% were within acceptable variation limits for both tested dPCR systems. However, the determined absolute copy numbers for individual genes or events showed higher variability between laboratories in one third of the cases, most possibly due to variability in the technical work, droplet size variability, and analysis of the raw data. GMO quantification with dPCR and qPCR was comparable. As methods originally designed for qPCR performed well in dPCR systems, already validated qPCR assays can most generally be used for dPCR technology with the purpose of GMO detection. Graphical abstract The output of three different PCR-based platforms was assessed in an inter-laboratory comparison.

  9. Quantitation of Porcine Cytomegalovirus in Pig Tissues by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Jacqueline F. L.; Griffiths, Paul D.; Fishman, Jay A.; Emery, Vincent C.; Clark, Duncan A.

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative-competitive PCR for the quantification of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) was developed. The virus was detected in a variety of pig organs (including potential xenotransplant donations), with viral loads ranging from <10 to 97 genome copies/μg of DNA. This assay will have significant utility for studying the activation and replication of PCMV and in swine models for allo- and xenotransplantation. PMID:11230447

  10. Multiple Hotspot Mutations Scanning by Single Droplet Digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Decraene, Charles; Silveira, Amanda B; Bidard, François-Clément; Vallée, Audrey; Michel, Marc; Melaabi, Samia; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Saliou, Adrien; Houy, Alexandre; Milder, Maud; Lantz, Olivier; Ychou, Marc; Denis, Marc G; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Stern, Marc-Henri; Proudhon, Charlotte

    2018-02-01

    Progress in the liquid biopsy field, combined with the development of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), has enabled noninvasive monitoring of mutations with high detection accuracy. However, current assays detect a restricted number of mutations per reaction. ddPCR is a recognized method for detecting alterations previously characterized in tumor tissues, but its use as a discovery tool when the mutation is unknown a priori remains limited. We established 2 ddPCR assays detecting all genomic alterations within KRAS exon 2 and EGFR exon 19 mutation hotspots, which are of clinical importance in colorectal and lung cancer, with use of a unique pair of TaqMan ® oligoprobes. The KRAS assay scanned for the 7 most common mutations in codons 12/13 but also all other mutations found in that region. The EGFR assay screened for all in-frame deletions of exon 19, which are frequent EGFR-activating events. The KRAS and EGFR assays were highly specific and both reached a limit of detection of <0.1% in mutant allele frequency. We further validated their performance on multiple plasma and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor samples harboring a panel of different KRAS or EGFR mutations. This method presents the advantage of detecting a higher number of mutations with single-reaction ddPCRs while consuming a minimum of patient sample. This is particularly useful in the context of liquid biopsy because the amount of circulating tumor DNA is often low. This method should be useful as a discovery tool when the tumor tissue is unavailable or to monitor disease during therapy. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  11. Underwater Application of Quantitative PCR on an Ocean Mooring

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Christina M.; Harris, Adeline; Ryan, John P.; Roman, Brent; Marin, Roman; Jensen, Scott; Everlove, Cheri; Birch, James; Dzenitis, John M.; Pargett, Douglas; Adachi, Masao; Turk, Kendra; Zehr, Jonathon P.; Scholin, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) is a device that allows for the underwater, autonomous application of DNA and protein probe array technologies as a means to remotely identify and quantify, in situ, marine microorganisms and substances they produce. Here, we added functionality to the ESP through the development and incorporation of a module capable of solid-phase nucleic acid extraction and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Samples collected by the instrument were homogenized in a chaotropic buffer compatible with direct detection of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and nucleic acid purification. From a single sample, both an rRNA community profile and select gene abundances were ascertained. To illustrate this functionality, we focused on bacterioplankton commonly found along the central coast of California and that are known to vary in accordance with different oceanic conditions. DNA probe arrays targeting rRNA revealed the presence of 16S rRNA indicative of marine crenarchaea, SAR11 and marine cyanobacteria; in parallel, qPCR was used to detect 16S rRNA genes from the former two groups and the large subunit RuBisCo gene (rbcL) from Synecchococcus. The PCR-enabled ESP was deployed on a coastal mooring in Monterey Bay for 28 days during the spring-summer upwelling season. The distributions of the targeted bacterioplankon groups were as expected, with the exception of an increase in abundance of marine crenarchaea in anomalous nitrate-rich, low-salinity waters. The unexpected co-occurrence demonstrated the utility of the ESP in detecting novel events relative to previously described distributions of particular bacterioplankton groups. The ESP can easily be configured to detect and enumerate genes and gene products from a wide range of organisms. This study demonstrated for the first time that gene abundances could be assessed autonomously, underwater in near real-time and referenced against prevailing chemical, physical and bulk biological conditions. PMID:21829630

  12. Evaluation of PCR Systems for Field Screening of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Colburn, Heather A.; Victry, Kristin D.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Arce, Jennifer S.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Jarman, Kristin; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2017-01-01

    There is little published data on the performance of hand-portable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems that can be used by first responders to determine if a suspicious powder contains a potential biothreat agent. We evaluated 5 commercially available hand-portable PCR instruments for detection of Bacillus anthracis. We used a cost-effective, statistically based test plan to evaluate systems at performance levels ranging from 0.85-0.95 lower confidence bound (LCB) of the probability of detection (POD) at confidence levels of 80% to 95%. We assessed specificity using purified genomic DNA from 13 B. anthracis strains and 18 Bacillus near neighbors, potential interference with 22 suspicious powders that are commonly encountered in the field by first responders during suspected biothreat incidents, and the potential for PCR inhibition when B. anthracis spores were spiked into these powders. Our results indicate that 3 of the 5 systems achieved 0.95 LCB of the probability of detection with 95% confidence levels at test concentrations of 2,000 genome equivalents/mL (GE/mL), which is comparable to 2,000 spores/mL. This is more than sufficient sensitivity for screening visible suspicious powders. These systems exhibited no false-positive results or PCR inhibition with common suspicious powders and reliably detected B. anthracis spores spiked into these powders, though some issues with assay controls were observed. Our testing approach enables efficient performance testing using a statistically rigorous and cost-effective test plan to generate performance data that allow users to make informed decisions regarding the purchase and use of field biodetection equipment. PMID:28192050