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Sample records for palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution

  1. Palladium-catalyzed substitution of allylic fluorides.

    PubMed

    Hazari, Amaruka; Gouverneur, Véronique; Brown, John M

    2009-01-01

    As unusual substrates for the Tsuji-Trost allylation reaction, allylic fluorides are responsive to palladium-catalyzed substitution. Their activity towards this reaction fits in the series OCO(2)Me>OBz>F>OAc. The classic stereoretention mechanism that involves sequential inversions does not operate in this case. Several distinct cases are considered.

  2. Role of planar chirality of S,N- and P,N-ferrocene ligands in palladium-catalyzed allylic substitutions.

    PubMed

    You, Shu-Li; Hou, Xue-Long; Dai, Li-Xin; Yu, Yi-Hua; Xia, Wei

    2002-07-12

    Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitutions using thioether and phosphino derivatives of ferrocenyloxazoline as ligands have been investigated with a focus on studying the role of planar chirality. In allylic alkylation, up to 98% ee and 95% ee were achieved with S,N- and P,N-ligands, respectively. In allylic amination, 97% ee was realized with P,N-ligands in the presence of TBAF. Several palladium allylic complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction and/or solution NMR. Thioether derivatives of ferrocenyloxazolines with only planar chirality showed lower enantioselectivity in the allylic alkylation except 5c because of the formation of a new chirality on sulfur atom during the coordination of sulfur with palladium. On the other hand, in the planar chiral P,N-ligands without central chirality, (Sp)-11a-c there was no such disturbance and comparatively higher enantioselectivity in both palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation and amination was provided.

  3. Enantioselective synthesis of 4-substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines via palladium-catalyzed intramolecular Friedel-Crafts type allylic alkylation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zheng-Le; Xu, Qing-Long; Gu, Qing; Wu, Xin-Yan; You, Shu-Li

    2015-03-14

    Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric intramolecular Friedel-Crafts type allylic alkylation reaction of phenols was developed under mild conditions. In the presence of Pd2(dba)3 with (1R,2R)-DACH-phenyl Trost ligand (L2) in toluene at 50 °C, the reaction provides various C4 substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines with moderate to excellent yields, regioselectivity and enantioselectivity.

  4. Enantioselective Construction of Acyclic Quaternary Carbon Stereocenters: Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Allylic Alkylation of Fully Substituted Amide Enolates.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Pavel; Moore, Jared T; Duquette, Douglas C; Stoltz, Brian M; Marek, Ilan

    2017-07-19

    We report a divergent and modular protocol for the preparation of acyclic molecular frameworks containing newly created quaternary carbon stereocenters. Central to this approach is a sequence composed of a (1) regioselective and -retentive preparation of allyloxycarbonyl-trapped fully substituted stereodefined amide enolates and of a (2) enantioselective palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation reaction using a novel bisphosphine ligand.

  5. Palladium-catalyzed Allylic Substitution with (η6-arene–CH2Z)Cr(CO)3-based Nucleophiles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiadi; Stanciu, Corneliu; Wang, Beibei; Hussain, Mahmud M.; Da, Chao-Shan; Carroll, Patrick J.; Dreher, Spencer D.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the palladium-catalyzed Tsuji-Trost allylic substitution reaction has been intensively studied, there is a lack of general methods to employ simple benzylic nucleophiles. Such a method would facilitate access to “α-2-propenyl benzyl” motifs, which are common structural motifs in bioactive compounds and natural products. We report herein the palladium-catalyzed allylation reaction of toluene-derived pronucleophiles activated by tricarbonylchromium. A variety of cyclic and acyclic allylic electrophiles can be employed with in situ generated (η6-C6H5–CHLiR)Cr(CO)3 nucleophiles. Catalyst identification was performed by high throughput experimentation (HTE) and led to the Xantphos/palladium hit, which proved to be a general catalyst for this class of reactions. In addition to η6-toluene complexes, benzyl amine and ether derivatives (η6-C6H5–CH2Z)Cr(CO)3 (Z=NR2, OR) are also viable pronucleophiles, allowing C–C bond-formation alpha to heteroatoms with excellent yields. Finally, a tandem allylic substitution/demetallation procedure is described that affords the corresponding metal-free allylic substitution products. This method will be a valuable complement to the existing arsenal of nucleophiles with applications in allylic substitution reactions. PMID:22047504

  6. Palladium-catalyzed allylic amination: a powerful tool for the enantioselective synthesis of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Mariam; Soriano, Sébastien; Escudero-Casao, Margarita; Matheu, M Isabel; Castillón, Sergio; Díaz, Yolanda

    2017-08-30

    Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates have been prepared in a straightforward manner and in high yields by an enantioselective palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution involving nucleic bases as nucleophiles followed by cross-metathesis reaction with diethyl allylphosphonate.

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed Aminocarbonylation of Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoquan; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2016-07-11

    A benign and efficient palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation reaction of allylic alcohols is presented. The generality of this novel process is demonstrated by the synthesis of β,γ-unsaturated amides including aliphatic, cinnamyl, and terpene derivatives. The choice of ligand is crucial for optimal carbonylation processes: Whereas in most cases the combination of PdCl2 with Xantphos (L6) gave best results, sterically hindered substrates performed better in the presence of simple triphenylphosphine (L10), and primary anilines gave the best results using cataCXium® PCy (L8). The reactivity of the respective catalyst system is significantly enhanced by addition of small amounts of water. Mechanistic studies and control experiments revealed a tandem allylic alcohol amination/C-N bond carbonylation reaction sequence.

  8. Palladium-catalyzed amination of allyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Raju; Sarkar, Amitabha

    2011-10-21

    An efficient catalytic amination of aryl-substituted allylic alcohols has been developed. The complex [(η(3)-allyl)PdCl](2) modified by a bis phosphine ligand, L, has been used as catalyst in the reaction that afforded a wide range of allyl amines in good to excellent yield under mild conditions.

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation of Enol Carbonates

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Xu, Jiayi; Schmidt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative asymmetric allylic alkylation (DAAA) of allyl enol carbonates as a highly chemo-, regio- and enantio-selective process for the synthesis of ketones bearing either a quaternary or a tertiary α-stereogenic center has been investigated in detail. Chiral ligand L4 was found to be optimal in the DAAA of a broad scope of cyclic and acyclic ketones including simple aliphatic ketones with more than one enolizable proton. The allyl moiety of the carbonates has been extended to a variety of cyclic or acyclic di-substituted allyl groups. Our mechanistic studies reveal that, similar to the direct allylation of lithium enolates, the DAAA reaction proceeds through an “outer sphere” SN2 type of attack on the π-allylpalladium complex by the enolate. An important difference between the DAAA reaction and the direct allylation of lithium enolates is that in the DAAA reaction, the nucleophile and the electrophile were generated simultaneously. Since the π-allylpalladium cation must serve as the counterion for the enolate, the enolate probably exists as a tight-ion-pair. This largely prevents the common side reactions of enolates associated with the equilibrium between different enolates. The much milder reaction conditions as well as the much broader substrate scope also represent the advantages of the DAAA reaction over the direct allylation of preformed metal enolates. PMID:19928805

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed Chemoselective Allylic Substitution, Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling, and Allene Formation of Bifunctional 2-B(pin)-Substituted Allylic Acetate Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byeong-Seon; Hussain, Mahmud M.; Hussain, Nusrah

    2014-01-01

    A formidable challenge at the forefront of organic synthesis is the control of chemoselectivity to enable the selective formation of diverse structural motifs from a readily available substrate class. Presented herein is a detailed study of chemoselectivity with palladium-based phosphine catalysts and readily available 2-B(pin)-substituted allylic acetates, benzoates, and carbonates. Depending on the choice of reagents, catalysts and reaction conditions, 2-B(pin)-substituted allylic acetates and derivatives can be steered into one of three reaction manifolds: allylic substitution, Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling, or elimination to form allenes, all with excellent chemoselectivity. The studies on chemoselectivity of Pd catalysts in their reactivity with boron-bearing allylic acetate derivatives led to the development of diverse and practical reactions with potential utility in synthetic organic chemistry. PMID:25077980

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Decarboxylative Allylic Alkylation of Cyclopentanones.

    PubMed

    Craig, Robert A; Loskot, Steven A; Mohr, Justin T; Behenna, Douglas C; Harned, Andrew M; Stoltz, Brian M

    2015-11-06

    The first general method for the enantioselective construction of all-carbon quaternary centers on cyclopentanones by enantioselective palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation is described. Employing the electronically modified (S)-(p-CF3)3-t-BuPHOX ligand, α-quaternary cyclopentanones were isolated in yields up to >99% with ee's up to 94%. Additionally, in order to facilitate large-scale application of this method, a low catalyst loading protocol was employed, using as little as 0.15 mol % Pd, furnishing the product without any loss in ee.

  12. Raising the pKa Limit of “Soft” Nucleophiles in Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitutions. Application of Diarylmethane Pronucleophiles

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Sheng-Chun; Zhang, Jiadi; Carroll, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The Tsuji-Trost allylic substitution reaction provides a useful and efficient approach to construct C-C bonds between sp3-hybridized carbons. The widely accepted paradigm for classifying the mode of attack of nucleophiles on palladium π-allyl intermediates in the Tsuji-Trost reaction is based on the pKa of the pronucleophile: (1) stabilized or “soft” carbon nucleophiles and heteroatom nucleophiles (e.g., pronucleophiles with pKa’s < 25), and (2) unstabilized or “hard” nucleophiles (those from pronucleophiles with pKa’s > 25). One of the keys to the continuing development of allylic substitution processes remains broadening the scope of “soft” nucleophiles. Herein we report a general method for the room temperature Pd-catalyzed allylic substitution with diarylmethane derivatives (pKa’s up to 32). The synthetic significance of the method is that it provides a rapid access to products containing allylated diarylmethyl motifs. The method is general for a wide range of nucleophiles derived from diarylmethanes and heterocyclic derivatives. A procedure for the Pd-catalyzed allylic substitutions to afford diallylation products with quaternary centers is also described. With triarylmethanes and, alkylated diarylmethanes the corresponding allylated products are isolated. We anticipate that the described method will be a valuable complement to the existing arsenal of nucleophiles in Pd-catalyzed allylic substitutions. Mechanistic studies show that the nucleophile derived from diphenylmethane undergoes external attack on π-allyl palladium species under our reaction conditions. This unexpected observation indicates that diarylmethane derivatives behave as “soft” or stabilized nucleophiles. The results of this study indicate that the cutoff between “soft” and “hard” nucleophiles should be raised from a pronucleophile pKa of 25 to at least 32. PMID:24147620

  13. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic amination of racemic butadiene monoxide with isatin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Gen; Feng, Xiangqing; Du, Haifeng

    2015-05-28

    Isatins and their derivatives are important functional moities and building blocks in pharmaceutical and synthetic chemistry. Numerous enantioselective transformations at the C-3 carbonyl group have been well developed. However, the asymmetric substitution reaction with isatins and their derivatives as nucleophiles based on the free N-H groups has been less studied due to the relatively weaker nucleophilicity resulting from the two electron-withdrawing carbonyl groups. In this paper, a palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic amination of racemic butadiene monoxide with isatin derivatives using a chiral phosphoramidite olefin hybrid ligand has been successfully developed under mild conditions. A variety of chiral amino alcohols were afforded in 55-87% yields with 10/1->20/1 regioselectivity ratios and 80-97% ees.

  14. Direct Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylative Transformation of Allylic Alcohols and Related Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu-Peng; Peng, Jin-Bao; Fu, Lu-Yang; Qi, Xinxin; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2017-09-18

    A direct, palladium-catalyzed, carbonylative transformation of allylic alcohols for the synthesis of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids has been developed. With formic acid as the CO source, various allylic alcohols were conveniently transformed into the corresponding β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids with excellent linear and (E)-selectivity. The reaction was performed under mild conditions; toxic CO gas manipulation and high-pressure equipment were avoided in this procedure.

  15. On the Stereochemical Course of Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Allylic Silanolate Salts with Aromatic Bromides

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Werner, Nathan S.

    2010-01-01

    The stereochemical course of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of an enantioenriched, α-substituted, allylic silanolate salt with aromatic bromides has been investigated. The allylic silanolate salt was prepared in high geometrical (Z/E, 94:6) and high enantiomeric (94:6 er) purity by a copper-catalyzed SN2’ reaction of a resolved allylic carbamate. Eight different aromatic bromides underwent cross-coupling with excellent constitutional site selectivity (γ) and with excellent stereospecificity. Stereochemical correlation established that the transmetalation event proceeds through a syn SE’ mechanism which is interpreted in terms of an intramolecular delivery of the arylpalladium electrophile through a key intermediate that contains a discrete Si–O–Pd linkage. PMID:20163185

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic C-H Bond Functionalization of Olefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guosheng; Wu, Yichen

    Transition metal-mediated carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage and functionalization is a mechanistically interesting and synthetically attractive process. One of the important cases is the removal of a allylic hydrogen from an olefin by a PdII salt to yield a π-allylpalladium complex, followed by nucleophilic attack to efficient produce allylic derivatives. In contrast to the well-known allylic acetoxylation of cyclohexene, the reaction of open-chain olefins is fairly poor until recent several years. Some palladium catalytic systems have been reported to achieve allylic C-H functionalization, including acetoxylation, amination and alkylation of terminal alkenes. In the most of cases, ligand is crucial to the success of the transformation. This review surveys the recent development of palladium-catalyzed allylic C-H functionalziation of alkenes. These results promise a significant increase in the scope of olefin transformation.

  17. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of allylic fluorides.

    PubMed

    Katcher, Matthew H; Doyle, Abigail G

    2010-12-15

    The enantioselective fluorination of readily available cyclic allylic chlorides with AgF has been accomplished using a Pd(0) catalyst and Trost bisphosphine ligand. The reactions proceed with unprecedented ease of operation for Pd-mediated nucleophilic fluorination, allowing access to highly enantioenriched cyclic allylic fluorides that bear diverse functional groups. Evidence that supports a mechanism in which C-F bond formation occurs by an S(N)2-type attack of fluoride on a Pd(II)-allyl intermediate is presented.

  18. Palladium-catalyzed allylic C-H fluorination.

    PubMed

    Braun, Marie-Gabrielle; Doyle, Abigail G

    2013-09-04

    The first catalytic allylic C-H fluorination reaction using a nucleophilic fluoride source is reported. Under the influence of a Pd/Cr cocatalyst system, simple olefin substrates undergo fluorination with Et3N·3HF in good yields with high branched:linear regioselectivity. The mild conditions and broad scope make this reaction a powerful alternative to established methods for the preparation of allylic fluorides from prefunctionalized substrates.

  19. Expanding insight into asymmetric palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of N-heterocyclic molecules and cyclic ketones.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Nathan B; Duquette, Douglas C; Kim, Jimin; Liu, Wen-Bo; Marziale, Alexander N; Behenna, Douglas C; Virgil, Scott C; Stoltz, Brian M

    2013-04-02

    Eeny, meeny, miny ... enaminones! Lactams and imides have been shown to consistently provide enantioselectivities substantially higher than other substrate classes previously investigated in the palladium-catalyzed asymmetric decarboxylative allylic alkylation. Several new substrates have been designed to probe the contributions of electronic, steric, and stereoelectronic factors that distinguish the lactam/imide series as superior alkylation substrates (see scheme). These studies culminated in marked improvements on carbocyclic allylic alkylation substrates.

  20. Palladium-catalyzed allylation of acidic and less nucleophilic anilines using allylic alcohols directly.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Chun; Gan, Kim-Hong; Yang, Shyh-Chyun

    2005-10-01

    The direct activation of C-O bonds in allylic alcohols by palladium complexes has been accelerated by carrying out the reactions in the presence of titanium(IV) isoproxide and 4 A molecular sieves. The acidic and less nucleophilic anilines such as diphenylamine, phenothiazine, 4-cyanoaniline, and nitroanilines are efficiently allylated under palladium catalysis using allylic alcohols as allylating reagents.

  1. Et3B-mediated and palladium-catalyzed direct allylation of β-dicarbonyl compounds with Morita–Baylis–Hillman alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Abidi, Ahlem; Oueslati, Yosra

    2016-01-01

    A practical and efficient palladium-catalyzed direct allylation of β-dicarbonyl compounds with both cyclic and acyclic Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH) alcohols, using Et3B as a Lewis acid promoter, is described herein. A wide range of the corresponding functionalized allylated derivatives have been obtained in good yields and with high selectivity. PMID:28144308

  2. Et3B-mediated and palladium-catalyzed direct allylation of β-dicarbonyl compounds with Morita-Baylis-Hillman alcohols.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Ahlem; Oueslati, Yosra; Rezgui, Farhat

    2016-01-01

    A practical and efficient palladium-catalyzed direct allylation of β-dicarbonyl compounds with both cyclic and acyclic Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) alcohols, using Et3B as a Lewis acid promoter, is described herein. A wide range of the corresponding functionalized allylated derivatives have been obtained in good yields and with high selectivity.

  3. Palladium-catalyzed substitution of (coumarinyl)methyl acetates with C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Kalicharan; Fenster, Erik; Grenning, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Summary The palladium-catalyzed nucleophilic substitution of (coumarinyl)methyl acetates is described. The reaction proceeds though a palladium π-benzyl-like complex and allows for many different types of C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles to be regioselectively added to the biologically active coumarin motif. This new method was utilized to prepare a 128-membered library of aminated coumarins for biological screening. PMID:23019448

  4. Indole synthesis by palladium-catalyzed tandem allylic isomerization - furan Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Wipf, Peter

    2017-08-30

    A Pd(0)-catalyzed elimination of an allylic acetate generates a π-allyl complex that is postulated to initiate a novel intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition to a tethered furan (IMDAF). Under the reaction conditions, this convergent, microwave-accelerated cascade process provides substituted indoles in moderate to good yields after Pd-hydride elimination, aromatization by dehydration, and in situ N-Boc cleavage.

  5. Enantioselective synthesis of α-quaternary Mannich adducts by palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation: total synthesis of (+)-sibirinine.

    PubMed

    Numajiri, Yoshitaka; Pritchett, Beau P; Chiyoda, Koji; Stoltz, Brian M

    2015-01-28

    A catalytic enantioselective method for the synthesis of α-quaternary Mannich-type products is reported. The two-step sequence of (1) Mannich reaction followed by (2) decarboxylative enantioselective allylic alkylation serves as a novel strategy to in effect access asymmetric Mannich-type products of "thermodynamic" enolates of substrates possessing additional enolizable positions and acidic protons. Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation enables the enantioselective synthesis of five-, six-, and seven-membered ketone, lactam, and other heterocyclic systems. The mild reaction conditions are notable given the acidic free N-H groups and high functional group tolerance in each of the substrates. The utility of this method is highlighted in the first total synthesis of (+)-sibirinine.

  6. Palladium-catalyzed direct C2 arylation of N-substituted indoles with 1-aryltriazenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Miao, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Pinhua; Zhang, Yicheng; Wang, Lei

    2014-09-01

    A novel and efficient palladium-catalyzed C2 arylation of N-substituted indoles with 1-aryltriazenes for the synthesis of 2-arylindoles was developed. In the presence of BF3⋅OEt2 and palladium(II) acetate (Pd(OAc)2), N-substituted indoles reacted with 1-aryltriazenes in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC) to afford the corresponding aryl-indole-type products in good to excellent yields. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Dehydrogenation of Substituted Cyclohexanones to Phenols

    PubMed Central

    Izawa, Yusuke; Pun, Doris; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic molecules are key constituents of many pharmaceuticals, electronic materials and commodity plastics. The utility of these molecules directly reflects the identity and pattern of substituents on the aromatic ring. Here, we report the discovery of a palladium(II) catalyst system, incorporating an unconventional ortho-dimethylaminopyridine ligand, for the conversion of substituted cyclohexanones to the corresponding phenols. The reaction proceeds via successive dehydrogenation of two saturated carbon-carbon bonds of the six-membered ring and uses molecular oxygen as the hydrogen acceptor. This reactivity demonstrates a versatile and efficient strategy for the synthesis of substituted aromatic molecules with fundamentally different selectivity constraints from the numerous existing synthetic methods that rely on substitution of a pre-existing aromatic ring. PMID:21659567

  8. Palladium-catalyzed direct C7-arylation of substituted indazoles.

    PubMed

    Naas, Mohammed; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Bousmina, Mosto; Guillaumet, Gérald

    2014-08-15

    A novel direct C7-arylation of indazoles with iodoaryls is described using Pd(OAc)2 as catalyst, 1,10-phenanthroline as ligand, and K2CO3 as base in refluxing DMA. Direct C7-arylation of 3-substituted 1H-indazole containing an EWG on the arene ring gave the expected products in good isolated yields. In addition, a one-pot Suzuki-Miyaura/arylation procedure leading to C3,C7-diarylated indazoles has been developed.

  9. Direct palladium-catalyzed arylations of aryl bromides with 2/9-substituted pyrimido[5,4-b]indolizines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Li, Ting; Meng, Linghua; Yang, Chunhao; Xie, Yuyuan; Ding, Jian

    2009-01-01

    C-5 arylated 2/9-substituted pyrimido[5,4-b]indolizines were synthesized via palladium-catalyzed direct arylation. A variety of substituents on both pyrimido[5,4-b]indolizines and aryl/heteroaryl bromides are tolerated, providing rapid access to substituted pyrimido[5,4-b]indolizines in good to excellent yields.

  10. Development of (trimethylsilyl)ethyl ester protected enolates and applications in palladium-catalyzed enantioselective allylic alkylation: intermolecular cross-coupling of functionalized electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Corey M; Behenna, Douglas C; Stoltz, Brian M

    2014-05-02

    The development of (trimethylsilyl)ethyl ester protected enolates is reported. The application of this class of compounds in palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation is explored, yielding a variety of α-quaternary six- and seven-membered ketones and lactams. Independent coupling partner synthesis engenders enhanced allyl substrate scope relative to traditional β-ketoester substrates; highly functionalized α-quaternary ketones generated by the union of (trimethylsilyl)ethyl β-ketoesters and sensitive allylic alkylation coupling partners serve to demonstrate the utility of this method for complex fragment coupling.

  11. 2-Substituted 3-arylindoles through palladium-catalyzed arylative cyclization of 2-alkynyltrifluoroacetanilides with arylboronic acids under oxidative conditions.

    PubMed

    Arcadi, Antonio; Cacchi, Sandro; Fabrizi, Giancarlo; Goggiamani, Antonella; Iazzetti, Antonia; Marinelli, Fabio

    2013-01-28

    Free NH 2-substituted 3-arylindoles have been prepared usually in good to high yields through the palladium-catalyzed reaction of readily available 2-alkynyltrifluoroacetanilides with arylboronic acids under oxidative conditions. The reaction tolerates a variety of useful functional groups both in the arylboronic acid and in the alkyne, including chloro, formyl, and ester groups.

  12. Palladium-catalyzed regio- and enantioselective fluorination of acyclic allylic halides.

    PubMed

    Katcher, Matthew H; Sha, Allen; Doyle, Abigail G

    2011-10-12

    This report describes the Pd(0)-catalyzed fluorination of linear allylic chlorides and bromides, yielding branched allylic fluorides in high selectivity. Many of the significant synthetic limitations previously associated with the preparation of these products are overcome by this catalytic method. We also demonstrate that a chiral bisphosphine-ligated palladium catalyst enables highly enantioselective access to a class of branched allylic fluorides that can be readily diversified to valuable fluorinated products.

  13. Hydrogen-bond-assisted activation of allylic alcohols for palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Gumrukcu, Yasemin; de Bruin, Bas; Reek, Joost N H

    2014-03-01

    We report direct activation of allylic alcohols using a hydrogen-bond-assisted palladium catalyst and use this for alkylation and amination reactions. The novel catalyst comprises a palladium complex based on a functionalized monodentate phosphoramidite ligand in combination with urea additives and affords linear alkylated and aminated allylic products selectively. Detailed kinetic analysis show that oxidative addition of the allyl alcohol is the rate-determining step, which is facilitated by hydrogen bonds between the alcohol, the ligand functional group, and the additional urea additive.

  14. A Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation Approach to α-Quaternary γ-Butyrolactones.

    PubMed

    Nascimento de Oliveira, Marllon; Fournier, Jeremy; Arseniyadis, Stellios; Cossy, Janine

    2017-01-06

    The Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (Pd-AAA) of enol carbonates derived from γ-butyrolactones is reported, affording the corresponding enantioenriched α,α'-disubstituted γ-butyrolactones in both high yields and high enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee). This method was eventually applied to the synthesis of chiral spirocyclic compounds.

  15. Enantioselective Palladium-Catalyzed Alkenylation of Trisubstituted Alkenols to form Allylic Quaternary Centers

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harshkumar H.; Sigman, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe the generation of remote allylic quaternary stereocenters β, γ, and δ relative to a carbonyl in high enantioselectivity. We utilize a redox-relay Heck reaction between alkenyl triflates and acyclic trisubstituted alkenols of varying chain-lengths. A wide array of terminal (E)-alkenyl triflates are suitable for this process. The utility of this functionalization is validated further by conversion of the products, via simple organic processes to access remotely functionalized chiral tertiary acid, amine and alcohol products. PMID:27768842

  16. Branched/linear selectivity in palladium-catalyzed allyl-allyl cross-couplings: The role of ligands.

    PubMed

    Ardolino, Michael J; Morken, James P

    2015-09-16

    While Pd-catalyzed allyl-allyl cross-couplings in the presence of small-bite-angle bidentate ligands reliably furnish the branched regioisomer with high levels of selectivity, cross-couplings in the presence of large-bite-angle bidentate ligands give varying, often unpredictable, levels of selectivity. In a combined computational and experimental study, we probe the underlying features that govern the regioselectivity in these metal-catalyzed cross-couplings.

  17. A Highly Substituted Lactone/Ester-Containing Furan Library by the Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Hydroxyl-Substituted 3-Iodofurans

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chul-Hee; Larock, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Highly substituted lactone- and ester-containing furans have been prepared by the efficient palladium-catalyzed intramolecular cyclocarbonylation or intermolecular carboalkoxylation, respectively, of hydroxyl-containing 3-iodofurans, readily prepared by the iodocyclization of 2-(1-alkynyl)-2-alken-1-ones in the presence of various diols. PMID:21434604

  18. Novel C2-symmetric planar chiral diphosphine ligands and their application in pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Delong; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Wanbin

    2007-08-31

    Novel C(2)-symmetric diphosphine ligands possessing only the planar chirality of ruthenocene, 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-2,2'-disubstituted-ruthenocenes (4), were prepared. With this kind of ligands, excellent enantioselectivity and especially highly catalytic activity in palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitutions of rac-1,3-diphenyl-2-propenyl acetate (9) were observed, compared to their ferrocene analogues 1. Good enantioselectivity and highly catalytic activity were also obtained with 4 in palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitutions of cyclohexen-1-yl acetate (12). Further study on the effect of R in ester group on enantioselectivity of 4 showed an opposite trend compared with their ferrocene analogues 1 in asymmetric allylic substitutions. For ruthenocene ligands 4, the one with the smaller R in the ester group gave higher enantioselectivity for the palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitutions of 9, while a converse trend had been observed with 1. However, for the palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitutions of 12, ligand 4 with a larger R in the ester group resulted in somewhat higher enantioselectivity but still an opposite trend with ligand 1. The X-ray diffraction study of crystal structures of 4 and 1 with Pd(II) was carried out and showed that the enantioselectivity was correlated to the twist angle existing in the palladium complex.

  19. Palladium-Catalyzed, Site-Selective Direct Allylation of Aryl C–H Bonds by Silver-Mediated C–H Activation: A Synthetic and Mechanistic Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sarah Yunmi; Hartwig, John F.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method for the site-selective construction of a C(aryl)–C(sp3) bond by the palladium-catalyzed direct allylation of arenes with allylic pivalates in the presence of AgOPiv to afford the linear (E)-allylated arene with excellent regioselectivity; this reaction occurs with arenes that have not undergone site-selective and stereoselective direct allylation previously, such as monofluorobenzenes and non-fluorinated arenes. Mechanistic studies indicate that AgOPiv ligated by a phosphine reacts with the arene to form an arylsilver(I) species, presumably through a concerted metalation–deprotonation pathway. The activated aryl moiety is then transferred to an allylpalladium(II) intermediate formed by oxidative addition of the allylic pivalate to the Pd(0) complex. Subsequent reductive elimination furnishes the allyl–aryl coupled product. The aforementioned proposed intermediates, including an arylsilver complex, have been isolated, structurally characterized, and determined to be chemically and kinetically competent to undergo the proposed elementary steps of the catalytic cycle. PMID:27797512

  20. Synthesis of substituted isoquinolines utilizing palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of ketones

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe, Timothy J.; Pilgrim, Ben S.; Jones, Geraint R.; Bassuto, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of sequential palladium-catalyzed α-arylation and cyclization reactions provides a general approach to an array of isoquinolines and their corresponding N-oxides. This methodology allows the convergent combination of readily available precursors in a regioselective manner and in excellent overall yields. This powerful route to polysubstituted isoquinolines, which is not limited to electron rich moieties, also allows rapid access to analogues of biologically active compounds. PMID:22753504

  1. Palladium-catalyzed substitution and cross-coupling of benzylic fluorides.

    PubMed

    Blessley, George; Holden, Patrick; Walker, Matthew; Brown, John M; Gouverneur, Véronique

    2012-06-01

    Benzylic fluorides are suitable substrates for Pd(0)-catalyzed Tsuji-Trost substitution using carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur nucleophiles and for cross-coupling with phenylboronic acid. For the bifunctional substrate 4-chlorobenzyl fluoride, fine-tuning of the reaction conditions allows for the regioselective displacement of either the chlorine or fluorine substituent. The leaving group ability of fluoride vs other groups displaced in substitution is CF(3)CO(2) ≈ p-NO(2)C(6)H(4)CO(2) ≈ OCO(2)CH(3) > F > CH(3)CO(2), a ranking similar to allylic fluorides under Pd catalysis.

  2. Organic carbonates as alternative solvents for palladium-catalyzed substitution reactions.

    PubMed

    Schäffner, Benjamin; Holz, Jens; Verevkin, Sergey P; Börner, Armin

    2008-01-01

    Organic carbonates, such as propylene carbonate, butylene carbonate, and diethyl carbonate, were tested in the Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution reactions of rac-1,3-diphenyl-3-acetoxy-prop-1-ene with dimethyl malonate or benzylamine as nucleophiles. Bidentate diphosphanes were used as chiral ligands. The application of monodentate phosphanes capable of self-assembling with the metal was likewise tested. In the substitution reaction with dimethyl malonate, enantioselectivities up to 98% were achieved. In the amination reaction, the chiral product was obtained with up to 83% ee. The results confirm that these "green solvents" can be advantageously used for this catalytic transformation as an alternative to those solvents usually employed which run some risk of being harmful to the environment.

  3. Fluorination Enables a Ligand-Controlled Regiodivergent Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Allylation Reaction to Access α,α-Difluoroketones

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming–Hsiu; Orsi, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    α,α-Difluoroketones possess unique physicochemical properties that are useful for developing therapeutics and probes for chemical biology. In order to access the α-allyl-α,α-difluoroketone substructure, complementary Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative allylation reactions were developed to provide linear and branched α-allyl-α,α-difluoroketones. For these orthogonal processes, the regioselectivity was uniquely controlled by fluorination of the substrate and the structure of ligand. PMID:25581845

  4. Modular Synthesis of 1,2-Diamine Derivatives via Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative Cyclization of Allylic Sulfamides**

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Richard I.

    2010-01-01

    Allylic sulfamides undergo efficient aerobic oxidative cyclization at room temperature, mediated by a new Pd catalyst system consisting of 5% Pd(TFA)2/10% DMSO in THF. The synthetic utility of these reactions is enhanced by several features: (1) the sulfamide substrates are accessible in multi-gram scale from the corresponding allylic and primary amines, (2) the cyclic sulfamide products are readily converted to the corresponding 1,2-diamines upon treatment with LiAlH4, and (3) substrates derived from chiral allylic amines cyclize with very high levels of diastereoselectivity. PMID:21132102

  5. Modular Synthesis of 1,2-Diamine Derivatives via Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative Cyclization of Allylic Sulfamides**

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    Allylic sulfamides undergo efficient aerobic oxidative cyclization at room temperature, mediated by a new Pd catalyst system consisting of 5% Pd(TFA)2/10% DMSO in THF. The synthetic utility of these reactions is enhanced by several features: (1) the sulfamide substrates are accessible in multi-gram scale from the corresponding allylic and primary amines, (2) the cyclic sulfamide products are readily converted to the corresponding 1,2-diamines upon treatment with LiAlH4, and (3) substrates derived from chiral allylic amines cyclize with very high levels of diastereoselectivity. PMID:20583013

  6. Efficient, regioselective palladium-catalyzed tandem Heck-isomerization reaction of aryl bromides and non-allylic benzyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Matthew L; Phipps, Kristin M; Goljer, Igor; Mehlmann, John F; Lundquist, Joseph T; Ullrich, John W; Yang, Cuijian; Mahaney, Paige E

    2009-03-05

    An efficient and mild method to couple aryl bromides and activated non-allylic alcohols in a Heck reaction with tandem isomerization to selectively afford high yields of 1,5-diarylalkan-1-ones has been developed. Mechanistic insight was gained through NMR studies of products derived from deuterium-labeled intermediates.

  7. Regioselective palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of C1-substituted oxabicyclo[2,2,1]hepta-2,5-diene-2,3-dicarboxylates

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Michael; Raheem, Mohammed Abdul; Boutin, Rebecca; Tait, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of C1 substituted 7-oxanorbornadiene derivatives with aryl iodides were investigated. The optimal conditions for this reaction were found to be PdCl2(PPh3)2, ZnCl2, Et3N and Zn in THF. Both steric and electronic factors played a role in the outcome of the reaction as increasing the steric bulk on the bridgehead carbon decreased the yield. These reactions were found to be highly regioselective, giving only one of the two possible regioisomers in all cases. A diverse collection of novel, highly substituted biphenyl derivatives were obtained. PMID:26977182

  8. A highly efficient and aerobic protocol for the synthesis of N-heteroaryl substituted 9-arylcarbazolyl derivatives via a palladium-catalyzed ligand-free Suzuki reaction.

    PubMed

    Rao, Xiaofeng; Liu, Chun; Qiu, Jieshan; Jin, Zilin

    2012-10-21

    A palladium-catalyzed aerobic and ligand-free Suzuki reaction in aqueous ethanol has been developed for the synthesis of N-heteroaryl substituted 9-arylcarbazolyl derivatives. A number of N-heteroaryl halides, namely 2-halogenated pyridines, 2-bromoquinoline, 5-bromopyrimidine and 2-chloropyrazine, were coupled with 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenylboronic acid (CPBA) or 9-phenyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylboronic acid (PCBA) efficiently to afford good to excellent yields in a short reaction time. Moreover, the catalytic system of Pd(OAc)(2)-EtOH/H(2)O-K(2)CO(3) was successfully extended to the cross-couplings of N-heteroaryl halides with various arylboronic acids. The results demonstrated that the cross-coupling reaction in the present protocol was promoted by oxygen.

  9. A novel palladium-catalyzed hydroalkoxylation of alkenes with a migration of double bond.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiajing; Zhang, Zuhui; Wang, Zhiyong

    2008-04-21

    A novel palladium-catalyzed addition of alcohols to olefins was developed, in which a migration of double bond was involved. By this new method, a variety of allylic ethers were prepared with moderate to high yields under mild conditions.

  10. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, John F.; Pouy, Mark J.

    Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution has become a valuable method to prepare products from the addition of nucleophiles at the more substituted carbon of an allyl unit. The most active and selective catalysts contain a phosphoramidite ligand possessing at least one arylethyl substituent on the nitrogen atom of the ligand. In these systems, the active catalyst is generated by a base-induced cyclometalation at the methyl group of this substituent to generate an iridium metalacycle bound by the COD ligand of the [Ir(COD)Cl]2 precursor and one additional labile dative ligand. Such complexes catalyze the reactions of linear allylic esters with alkylamines, arylamines, phenols, alcohols, imides, carbamates, ammonia, enolates and enolate equivalents, as well as typical stabilized carbon nucleophiles generated from malonates and cyanoesters. Iridium catalysts for enantioselective allylic substitution have also been generated from phosphorus ligands with substituents bound by heteroatoms, and an account of the studies of such systems, along with a description of the development of iridium catalysts is included.

  11. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylation of o-iodoanilines for synthesis of isatoic anhydrides.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sha; Chen, Ming; Zhao, Mi-Na; Du, Wei; Ren, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Yao-Yu; Guan, Zheng-Hui

    2014-05-02

    A novel palladium-catalyzed oxidative double carbonylation of o-iodoanilines for the synthesis of isatoic anhydrides has been developed. The reaction employs readily available o-iodoanilines as the starting materials and proceeds under mild conditions. For extension, palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of anthranilic acids was developed for the synthesis of substituted isatoic anhydrides in high to excellent yields.

  12. Asymmetric synthesis of axially chiral anilides by Pd-catalyzed allylic substitutions with P/olefin ligands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yilin; Feng, Xiangqing; Du, Haifeng

    2015-01-07

    As an attractive class of non-biaryl atropisomeric compounds, C-N axially chiral anilides have received considerable attention, and several methods have been successfully developed for their synthesis. Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic amination was proved to be an effective approach for the chiral anilide synthesis, although only moderate enantioselectivity and relatively narrow substrate scope have been achieved in the previous work. Searching for highly efficient methods for the synthesis of axially chiral anilides is therefore of great interest in synthetic and pharmaceutical chemistry. In this paper, a palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution of ortho-substituted anilides using phosphorus amidite-olefin ligands was successfully achieved to afford a variety of axially chiral anilides in high yields with up to 84% ee. The absolute configurations of chiral anilides were also determined from X-ray and CD spectra.

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of 9-Fluorenylidenes through Aryne Annulation

    PubMed Central

    Worlikar, Shilpa A.; Larock, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed annulation of arynes by substituted ortho-halostyrenes produces substituted 9- fluorenylidenes in good yields. This methodology provides this important carbocyclic ring system in a single step, which involves the generation of two new carbon-carbon bonds, occurs under relatively mild reaction conditions and tolerates a variety of functional groups, including cyano, ester, aldehyde and ketone groups. PMID:19413328

  14. Synthesis of Functionalized [3], [4], [5] and [6]Dendralenes through Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings of Substituted Allenoates.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, Daniel J; Linstadt, Roscoe T H; Maser, Michael R; Lipshutz, Bruce H

    2017-01-16

    A mild method for the synthesis of highly functionalized [3]-[6]dendralenes is reported, representing a general strategy to diversely substituted higher homologues of the dendralenes. The methodology utilizes allenoates bearing various substitution patterns, along with a wide range of boron and alkenyl nucleophiles that couple under palladium catalysis leading to sp-, sp(2) -, and sp(3) -substituted arrays. Regioselective transformations of the newly formed unsymmetrical dendralene derivatives are demonstrated. The use of micellar catalysis, where water is the global reaction medium, and room temperature reaction conditions, highlights the green nature of this technology.

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of (Hetero)Aryl, Alkenyl and Allyl Halides by Means of N-Hydroxysuccinimidyl Formate as CO Surrogate.

    PubMed

    Barré, Anaïs; Ţînţaş, Mihaela-Liliana; Alix, Florent; Gembus, Vincent; Papamicaël, Cyril; Levacher, Vincent

    2015-07-02

    An efficient Pd-catalyzed carbonylation protocol is described for the coupling of a large panel of aryl, heteroaryl, benzyl, vinyl and allyl halides 2 with the unusual N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) formate 1 as a CO surrogate to afford the corresponding valuable NHS esters 3. High conversion to the coupling products was achieved with up to 98% yield by means of Pd(OAc)2/Xantphos catalyst system.

  16. Chiral bidentate [N,S]-ferrocene ligands based on a thiazoline framework. Synthesis and use in palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, E P; Hochberger-Roa, F; Corona-Sánchez, R; Barquera-Lozada, J E; Toscano, R A; Urrutigoïty, M; Gouygou, M; Ortega-Alfaro, M C; López-Cortés, J G

    2017-01-31

    An efficient method to obtain chiral 1,2-disubstituted ferrocenyl ligands has been developed. The introduction of planar chirality was accomplished by using 2-thiazoline as an ortho-directing lithiation group, and moreover, these kinds of ligands possess a central chirality from the amino alcohol used in their synthesis. The X-ray analysis and DFT calculations confirmed the diastereoselectivity of ortho-lithiation and the configuration of the planar chirality. The ability of these new bidentate [N,S]-ferrocene ligands to act in Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation has also been demonstrated and compared with their oxazoline counterparts.

  17. Synthesis of D-abrines by palladium-catalyzed reaction of ortho-iodoanilines with N-Boc-N-methylalanyl-substituted acetaldehyde and acetylene.

    PubMed

    Danner, Paulami; Morkunas, Marius; Maier, Martin E

    2013-05-17

    A novel strategy to N-Boc-N-methyl--tryptophans (abrine derivatives) was developed that relies on the palladium-catalyzed annulation of ortho-iodoanilines 12 with either N-Boc-N-methyl-propargylglycine 16 or aldehyde 11. Both 11 and 16 can be prepared from d-serine. An alternative route to propargylglycine 16 utilizes an enantioselective propargylation reaction of glycine imine 17.

  18. Nickel-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation with Diarylmethane Pronucleophiles: Reaction Development and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Sha, Sheng-Chun; Jiang, Hui; Mao, Jianyou; Bellomo, Ana; Jeong, Soo A; Walsh, Patrick J

    2016-01-18

    Palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions are among the most efficient methods to construct C-C bonds between sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms. In contrast, much less work has been done with nickel catalysts, perhaps because of the different mechanisms of the allylic substitution reactions. Palladium catalysts generally undergo substitution by a "soft"-nucleophile pathway, wherein the nucleophile attacks the allyl group externally. Nickel catalysts are usually paired with "hard" nucleophiles, which attack the metal before C-C bond formation. Introduced herein is a rare nickel-based catalyst which promotes substitution with diarylmethane pronucleophiles by the soft-nucleophile pathway. Preliminary studies on the asymmetric allylic alkylation are promising.

  19. Regio- and Stereoselective Modification of Chiral α-Amino Ketones by Pd-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation.

    PubMed

    Huwig, Kai; Schultz, Katharina; Kazmaier, Uli

    2015-07-27

    Chiral α-amino ketones are excellent nucleophiles for stereoselective palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylations. Both chiral as well as achiral allylic substrates can be applied, while the stereochemical outcome of the reaction is controlled by the chiral ketone enolate. The substituted amino ketones formed can be reduced stereoselectively, and up to five consecutive stereogenic centers can be obtained. This approach can be used for the synthesis of highly substituted piperidine derivatives.

  20. Palladium-Catalyzed Dearomative Cyclocarbonylation by C-N Bond Activation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Zhang, Guoying; Huang, Hanmin

    2015-09-07

    A fundamentally novel approach to bioactive quinolizinones is based on the palladium-catalyzed intramolecular cyclocarbonylation of allylamines. [Pd(Xantphos)I2 ], which features a very large bite angle, has been found to facilitate the rapid carbonylation of azaarene-substituted allylamines into bioactive quinolizinones in good to excellent yields. This transformation represents the first dearomative carbonylation and is proposed to proceed by palladium-catalyzed CN bond activation, dearomatization, CO insertion, and a Heck reaction.

  1. Stereoselective synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted morpholines using a palladium-catalyzed hydroamination reaction.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Alicia; Cochran, Brian M; Stenmark, Torrey A; Michael, Forrest E

    2013-08-04

    A palladium-catalyzed hydroamination reaction is the key step in a stereoselective synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted and 2,3,5-trisubsituted morpholines from carbamate-protected aziridines. Aziridines are selectively attacked at the more substituted position by unsaturated alcohol nucleophiles using Lewis acid catalysts. Palladium-catalyzed hydroamination of the resulting aminoalkenes gives morpholines as a single diastereomer in excellent yield.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation of Fluoroalkylamines

    PubMed Central

    Brusoe, Andrew T.; Hartwig, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of fluorinated anilines by palladium-catalyzed coupling of fluoroalkylamines with aryl bromides and aryl chlorides. The products of these reactions are valuable because anilines typically require the presence of an electron-withdrawing substituent on nitrogen to suppress aerobic or metabolic oxidation, and the fluoroalkyl groups have steric properties and polarity distinct from those of more common electron-withdrawing amide and sulfonamide units. The fluoroalkylaniline products are unstable under typical conditions for C–N coupling reactions (heat and strong base). However, the reactions conducted with the weaker base KOPh, which has rarely been used in cross-coupling to form C–N bonds, occurred in high yield in the presence of a catalyst derived from commercially available AdBippyPhos and [Pd(allyl)Cl]2. Under these conditions, the reactions occur with low catalyst loadings (<0.50 mol % for most substrates) and tolerate the presence of various functional groups that react with the strong bases that are typically used in Pd-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions of aryl halides. The resting state of the catalyst is the phenoxide complex, (BippyPhosPd(Ar)OPh); due to the electron-withdrawing property of the fluoroalkyl substituent, the turnover-limiting step of the reaction is reductive elimination to form the C–N bond. PMID:26065341

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation of Fluoroalkylamines.

    PubMed

    Brusoe, Andrew T; Hartwig, John F

    2015-07-08

    We report the synthesis of fluorinated anilines by palladium-catalyzed coupling of fluoroalkylamines with aryl bromides and aryl chlorides. The products of these reactions are valuable because anilines typically require the presence of an electron-withdrawing substituent on nitrogen to suppress aerobic or metabolic oxidation, and the fluoroalkyl groups have steric properties and polarity distinct from those of more common electron-withdrawing amide and sulfonamide units. The fluoroalkylaniline products are unstable under typical conditions for C-N coupling reactions (heat and strong base). However, the reactions conducted with the weaker base KOPh, which has rarely been used in cross-coupling to form C-N bonds, occurred in high yield in the presence of a catalyst derived from commercially available AdBippyPhos and [Pd(allyl)Cl]2. Under these conditions, the reactions occur with low catalyst loadings (<0.50 mol % for most substrates) and tolerate the presence of various functional groups that react with the strong bases that are typically used in Pd-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions of aryl halides. The resting state of the catalyst is the phenoxide complex, (BippyPhosPd(Ar)OPh); due to the electron-withdrawing property of the fluoroalkyl substituent, the turnover-limiting step of the reaction is reductive elimination to form the C-N bond.

  4. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Richland, WA; Hart,; Todd, R [Kennewick, WA; Neuenschwander, Gary G [Burbank, WA

    2011-06-07

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  5. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hu, Jianli; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.

    2008-09-16

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  6. Palladium-catalyzed vinylation of aminals with simple alkenes: a new strategy to construct allylamines.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yinjun; Hu, Jianhua; Wang, Yanyu; Xia, Chungu; Huang, Hanmin

    2012-12-26

    A novel, highly selective palladium-catalyzed vinylation reaction for the direct synthesis of allylic amines from styrenes and aminals has been established. The utility of this method was also demonstrated by the rapid synthesis of cinnarizine from aldehydes, amines, and simple alkenes in one-pot manner. Mechanistic studies suggested that the reaction proceeds through a valuable cyclometalated Pd(II) complex generated by the oxidative addition of aminal to a Pd(0) species.

  7. Palladium-catalyzed 1,4-difunctionalization of butadiene to form skipped polyenes.

    PubMed

    McCammant, Matthew S; Liao, Longyan; Sigman, Matthew S

    2013-03-20

    A palladium-catalyzed 1,4-addition across the commodity chemical 1,3-butadiene to afford skipped polyene products is reported. Through a palladium σ → π → σ allyl isomerization, two new carbon-carbon bonds are formed with high regioselectivity and trans stereoselectivity of the newly formed alkene. The utility of this method is highlighted by the successful synthesis of the ripostatin A skipped triene core.

  8. New Palladium-Catalyzed Approaches to Heterocycles and Carbocycles

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qinhua

    2004-12-19

    The tert-butylimines of o-(1-alkynyl)benzaldehydes and analogous pyridinecarbaldehydes have been cyclized under very mild reaction conditions in the presence of I2, ICl, PhSeCl, PhSCl and p-O2NC6H4SCl to give the corresponding halogen-, selenium- and sulfur-containing disubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines, respectively. Monosubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines have been synthesized by the metal-catalyzed ring closure of these same iminoalkynes. This methodology accommodates a variety of iminoalkynes and affords the anticipated heterocycles in moderate to excellent yields. The Pd(II)-catalyzed cyclization of 2-(1-alkynyl)arylaldimines in the presence of various alkenes provides an efficient way to synthesize a variety of 4-(1-alkenyl)-3-arylisoquinolines in moderate to excellent yields. The introduction of an ortho-methoxy group on the arylaldimine promotes the Pd-catalyzed cyclization and stabilizes the resulting Pd(II) intermediate, improving the yields of the isoquinoline products. Highly substituted naphthalenes have been synthesized by the palladium-catalyzed annulation of a variety of internal alkynes, in which two new carbon-carbon bonds are formed in a single step under relatively mild reaction conditions. This method has also been used to synthesize carbazoles, although a higher reaction temperature is necessary. The process involves arylpalladation of the alkyne, followed by intramolecular Heck olefination and double bond isomerization. This method accommodates a variety of functional groups and affords the anticipated highly substituted naphthalenes and carbazoles in good to excellent yields. Novel palladium migratiodarylation methodology for the synthesis of complex fused polycycles has been developed, in which one or more sequential Pd-catalyzed intramolecular migration processes involving C-H activation are employed. The chemistry works best with electron-rich aromatics, which is in agreement

  9. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric cycloadditions of vinylcyclopropanes and in situ formed unsaturated imines: construction of structurally and optically enriched spiroindolenines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Shui; Li, Wen-Ke; Kang, Tai-Ran; He, Long; Liu, Quan-Zhong

    2015-01-02

    A palladium-catalyzed (3 + 2) cycloaddition of vinyl cyclopropane and α,β-unsaturated imines generated in situ from aryl sulfonyl indoles is reported. The reaction proceeds with high diastereoselectivity to provide the optically enriched spirocyclopentane-1,3'-indolenines in up to 74% yield and with up to 97% ee, which contains an all-carbon quaternary center and two tertiary stereocenters. The reaction involves a first conjugate addition of the carbon anion of zwitterionic π-allylpalladium complex from vinyl cyclopropane to the in situ formed unsaturated imine followed by a palladium-catalyzed intramolecular C3-allylation of indole.

  10. Synthesis of 3' '-substituted TSAO derivatives with anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2 activity through an efficient palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling approach.

    PubMed

    Lobatón, Esther; Rodríguez-Barrios, Fátima; Gago, Federico; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; De Clercq, Erik; Balzarini, Jan; Camarasa, María-José; Velázquez, Sonsoles

    2002-08-29

    Various synthetic studies for the introduction of several functional groups at position 3' ' of the spiro moiety of TSAO derivatives have been explored. Among them, Stille cross-coupling of 3' '-iodo-TSAO derivatives with different stannanes provided an efficient and straightforward route for the direct and selective functionalization of the 3' '-position of the sultone spiro moiety via carbon-carbon bond formation. The compounds synthesized were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on HIV-1 and HIV-2 replication in cell culture. The introduction of a bromine and particularly an iodine at the 3' '-position conferred the highest anti-HIV-1 activity. In contrast, the presence at this position of (un)substituted vinyl, alkynyl, phenyl, or thienyl groups markedly diminished the anti-HIV-1 activity. Surprisingly, several of the 3' '-alkenyl-substituted TSAO derivatives also gained anti-HIV-2 activity at subtoxic concentrations, an observation that is very unusual for NNRTIs and never observed before for TSAO derivatives. Finally, the anti-HIV-1 activity of some of the 3' '-substituted TSAO derivatives is discussed in light of our recently proposed molecular model of interaction of TSAO derivatives with the interphase between the two subunits of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed Fluorosulfonylvinylation of Organic Iodides.

    PubMed

    Zha, Gao-Feng; Zheng, Qinheng; Leng, Jing; Wu, Peng; Qin, Hua-Li; Sharpless, K Barry

    2017-03-29

    A palladium-catalyzed fluorosulfonylvinylation reaction of organic iodides is described. Catalytic Pd(OAc)2 with a stoichiometric amount of silver(I) trifluoroacetate enables the coupling process between either an (hetero)aryl or alkenyl iodide with ethenesulfonyl fluoride (ESF). The method is demonstrated in the successful syntheses of eighty-eight otherwise difficult to access compounds, in up to 99 % yields, including the unprecedented 2-heteroarylethenesulfonyl fluorides and 1,3-dienylsulfonyl fluorides.

  12. A remarkable regiocontrol in the palladium-catalyzed silylstannylation of fluoroalkylated alkynes--highly regio- and stereoselective synthesis of multi-substituted fluorine-containing alkenes.

    PubMed

    Konno, Tsutomu; Kinugawa, Ryoko; Ishihara, Takashi; Yamada, Shigeyuki

    2014-03-14

    On treating fluorine-containing internal alkynes with 1.2 equiv. of (trimethylsilyl)tributyltin in the presence of 2.5 mol% of Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 in THF at the reflux temperature for 6 h, the silylstannylation reaction proceeded smoothly to afford the corresponding silylstannylated adducts in high yields in a highly regio- and cis-selective manner. Switching the palladium catalyst from Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 to Pd(t-BuNC)2Cl2 promoted the formation of silylstannylated adducts with opposite regioselectivity. The thus obtained silylstannylated adducts were subjected to Stille cross-coupling reactions to furnish the corresponding fluoroalkylated vinylsilanes whose C-Si bond was converted to a C-C bond by treating with aldehyde in the presence of TBAF and Zn(OTf)2, the corresponding fluoroalkylated tetra-substituted alkenes being afforded in moderate to good yields with a defined stereochemistry.

  13. The Allyl Intermediate in Regioselective and Enantioselective Iridium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Substitution Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Madrahimov, Sherzod T.; Markovic, Dean; Hartwig., John F.

    2010-01-01

    The isolation and structural characterization of metallacyclic allyl (2a) and crotyl (2b) iridium complexes are reported. Complexes 2a and 2b are rare examples of iriduim allyl complexes that undergo nucleophilic attack at terminal position, rather than the central position, of the allyl unit. Structures of 2a and 2b were obtained by X-ray diffraction. Nucleophilic attack was observed at the carbon that is bound to iridium trans to phosphorus through a longer Ir-C bond. However, the effect of the trans phosphine ligand on the Ir-C bond lengths was smaller than the effect of the substituent on the allyl group in 2b. The competence of complexes 2a and 2b to be intermediates in the catalytic asymmetric allylic substitutions was evaluated by studying their reactivity towards stabilized carbon and heteroatom nucleophiles and comparing the rates and selectivities to those of the catalytic reactions. The stereoselectivity and regioselectivity of stoichiometric reactions of 2b were similar to those of reactions catalyzed by the previously reported iridium catalysts, supporting their intermediacy in the catalytic reactions. Based on the structural data, a model is proposed for the origin of stereoselectivity in iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution reactions. PMID:19432473

  14. The allyl intermediate in regioselective and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution reactions.

    PubMed

    Madrahimov, Sherzod T; Markovic, Dean; Hartwig, John F

    2009-06-03

    The isolation and structural characterization of metallacyclic allyl (2a) and crotyl (2b) iridium complexes are reported. Complexes 2a and 2b are rare examples of iriduim allyl complexes that undergo nucleophilic attack at terminal position, rather than the central position, of the allyl unit. Structures of 2a and 2b were obtained by X-ray diffraction. Nucleophilic attack was observed at the carbon that is bound to iridium trans to phosphorus through a longer Ir-C bond. However, the effect of the trans phosphine ligand on the Ir-C bond lengths was smaller than the effect of the substituent on the allyl group in 2b. The competence of complexes 2a and 2b to be intermediates in the catalytic asymmetric allylic substitutions was evaluated by studying their reactivity toward stabilized carbon and heteroatom nucleophiles and comparing the rates and selectivities to those of the catalytic reactions. The stereoselectivity and regioselectivity of stoichiometric reactions of 2b were similar to those of reactions catalyzed by the previously reported iridium catalysts, supporting their intermediacy in the catalytic reactions. On the basis of the structural data, a model is proposed for the origin of stereoselectivity in iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution reactions.

  15. Palladium-catalyzed imidoylative cyclization of α-isocyanoacetamides: efficient access to C2-diversified oxazoles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Luo, Shuang; Huang, Jinbo; Mao, Tingting; Zhu, Qiang

    2014-08-25

    A novel procedure for the synthesis of C2-diversified oxazoles, through palladium-catalyzed imidoylative cyclization of α-isocyanoacetamides with aryl, vinyl, alkynyl halides, or triflates, was developed. Migratory insertion of isocyanide into a Csp3-palladium(II) intermediate in a cascade process was also realized, generating alkyl-substituted oxazoles. Therefore, oxazoles functionalized at the C2 position with sp, sp(2), and sp(3) hybridized carbon atoms are accessible by applying this method.

  16. Synthesis of 3-aryl-8-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroindolizines via a palladium-catalyzed arylation and heteroarylation.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Stéphanie; Cazorla, Clément; Métay, Estelle; Pellet-Rostaing, Stéphane; Lemaire, Marc

    2009-04-17

    A selective palladium-catalyzed arylation and heteroarylation of 8-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroindolizines has been developed. Mechanistic studies assume an electrophilic substitution pathway for this transformation. This method provides an efficient one-step synthesis of 3-aryl-8-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroindolizines.

  17. Importance of planar chirality in chiral catalysts with three chiral elements: the role of planar chirality in 2'-substituted 1,1'-P,N-ferrocene ligands on the enantioselectivity in Pd-catalyzed allylic substitution.

    PubMed

    Deng, W P; You, S L; Hou, X L; Dai, L X; Yu, Y H; Xia, W; Sun, J

    2001-07-11

    A series of novel planar chiral 2'-substituted 1,1'-P,N-ferrocene ligands 9-11, 14, and 16 were prepared with diastereopurity >99:1 and found to be effective in asymmetric allylic alkylation and amination reactions. Ligand 14 furnished the highest enantiomeric excess, 98.5% and 96.5% ee in alkylation and amination reactions, respectively. The role of planar chirality in asymmetric reactions has been examined, and decisive effects on enantioselectivity as well as the control of absolute configuration in palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation and amination reactions were observed. To clarify why and how the planar chirality governed the stereochemical outcome, X-ray crystallographic structures of eta(3)-diphenylallyl Pd complexes, (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR spectra of palladium dichloride complexes, and eta(3)-diphenylallyl Pd complexes of three 1,1'-P,N-ferrocene ligands were analyzed with the aid of COSY and 2D NOESY experiments. All results led to the conclusion that planar chirality influences the stereochemical outcome by changing or even inverting the ratio of two rotamers because of the steric interaction between a planar chiral group and the coordination site.

  18. Iridium-catalyzed regio- and enantioselective allylic substitution of silyl dienolates derived from dioxinones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Hartwig, John F

    2014-11-03

    Reported herein is the iridium-catalyzed regio- and enantioselective allylic substitution reactions of unstabilized silyl dienolates derived from dioxinones. Asymmetric allylic substitution of a variety of allylic trichloroethyl carbonates with these silyl dienolates gave γ-allylated products selectively in 60-84% yield and 90-98% ee. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Mechanistically Driven Development of Iridium Catalysts for Asymmetric Allylic Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, John F.; Stanley, Levi M.

    2010-01-01

    Conspectus Enantioselective allylic substitution reactions comprise some of the most versatile methods for preparing enantiomerically enriched materials. These reactions form products that contain multiple functionalities by creating carbon–nitrogen, carbon–oxygen, carbon–carbon, and carbon–sulfur bonds. For many years, the development of catalysts for allylic substitution focused on palladium complexes. However, studies of complexes of other metals have revealed selectivities that often complement those of palladium systems. Most striking is the observation that reactions with unsymmetrical allylic electrophiles that typically occur with palladium catalysts at the less hindered site of an allylic electrophile occur at the more hindered site with catalysts based on other metals. In this Account, we describe an iridium precursor and a phosphoramidite ligand that catalyze reactions with a particularly broad scope of nucleophiles. The active form of this iridium catalyst is not generated by the simple binding of the phosphoramidite ligand to the metal precursor. Instead, the initial phosphoramidite and iridium precursor react in the presence of base to form a metallacyclic species that is the active catalyst. This species is generated either in situ or separately in isolated form by reactions with added base. The identification of the structure of the active catalyst led to the development of simplified catalysts as well as the most active form of the catalyst now available, which is stabilized by a loosely bound ethylene. Most recently, this structure was used to prepare intermediates containing allyl ligands, the structures of which provide a model for the enantioselectivities discussed here. Initial studies from our laboratory on the scope of iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution showed that reactions of primary and secondary amines, including alkylamines, benzylamines, and allylamines, and reactions of phenoxides and alkoxides occurred in high yields

  20. Nickel-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution of Simple Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Ryosuke; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a nickel-catalyzed allylic substitution process of simple alkenes whereby an important structural motif, a 1,4-diene, was prepared. A key for this success is the use of an appropriate Ni-phosphine complex and a stoichiometric amount of silyl triflate. Reactions of 1-alkyl-substituted alkenes consistently provided 1,1-disubstituted alkenes with high selectivity. Insight into the reaction mechanism as well as miscellaneous application of the developed catalytic process is also documented. PMID:21387565

  1. Highly efficient palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Ian P; Kwon, Ohyun

    2008-12-08

    The palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of acetylenes is widely exploited in organic synthesis as a means of forming vinyl stannanes for use in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Application of this methodology to ethyl ethynyl ether results in an enol ether that is challenging to isolate from the crude reaction mixture because of incompatibility with typical silica gel chromatography. Reported here is a highly efficient procedure for the palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether using 0.1% palladium(0) catalyst and 1.0 equiv of tributyltin hydride. The product obtained is a mixture of regioisomers that can be carried forward with exclusive reaction of the beta-isomer. This method is highly reproducible; relative to previously reported procedures, it is more economical and involves a more facile purification procedure.

  2. Regiospecific decarboxylative allylation of nitriles

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Antonio; Tunge, Jon A.

    2009-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative α-allylation of nitriles readily occurs using Pd2(dba)3 and rac-BINAP. This catalyst mixture also allows the highly regiospecific α-allylation of nitriles in the presence of much more acidic α-protons. Thus, the reported method provides access to compounds that are not readily available via base-mediated allylation chemistries. Lastly, mechanistic investigations indicate that there is a competition between C- and N-allylation of an intermediate nitrile-stabilized anion and that N-allylation is followed by a rapid [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement. PMID:19921827

  3. General method for the preparation of active esters by palladium-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of aryl bromides.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Angelina M; Andersen, Thomas L; Lindhardt, Anders T; de Almeida, Mauro V; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2015-02-06

    A useful method was developed for the synthesis of active esters by palladium-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of (hetero)aromatic bromides. The protocol was general for a range of oxygen nucleophiles including N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), pentafluorophenol (PFP), hexafluoroisopropyl alcohol (HFP), 4-nitrophenol, and N-hydroxyphthalimide. A high functional group tolerance was displayed, and several active esters were prepared with good to excellent isolated yields. The protocol was extended to access an important synthetic precursor to the HIV-protease inhibitor, saquinavir, by formation of an NHS ester followed by acyl substitution.

  4. Palladium-catalyzed amination of meso-(bromophenyl)porphyrins with diamines and azamacrocycles.

    PubMed

    Mikhalitsyna, E A; Tyurin, V S; Khrustalev, V N; Lonin, I S; Beletskaya, I P

    2014-03-07

    Novel diamino and azamacrocycle functionalized porphyrins were efficiently synthesized by palladium-catalyzed amination of mono- and bis(meso-(bromophenyl))porphyrins. The optimization of reaction conditions allowed us to achieve high yields of products with substrates of different types. Supramolecular utility of the thus obtained aminoporphyrins was shown by investigations of processes of coordination self-assembly in solution by NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The crystalline 1D-coordination polymer formed via self-assembly of N,N-dimethylethylenediamine substituted zinc porphyrin was characterized by X-ray diffraction.

  5. Combination of Microwave Reactions with Fluorous Separations in the Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Aryl Sulfides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Lu, Yimin; Chen, Christine Hiu-Tung

    2007-01-01

    Coupling of microwave reactions with fluorous separations can dramatically increase the efficiency of high-speed synthesis. Described in this paper is a fluorous synthesis of aryl sulfides by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl perfluoroalkylsulfonates (C8F17O2SOAr) with thiols (RSH) under microwave irradiation. Fluorous solid-phase extractions (F-SPE) are employed for the purification of reaction mixtures. No fluorous solvents are involved in reaction and separation processes. The fluorous synthesis is further extended to the multi-step synthesis of substituted hydantoin and amide scaffolds. PMID:14870851

  6. Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadiene with alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Katrina; Alrifai, Oday; Boutin, Rebecca; Haner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Summary Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadiene derivatives using alcohol nucleophiles were investigated. The optimal conditions were found to be 10 mol % PdCl2(CH3CN)2 in methanol, offering yields up to 92%. The reaction was successful using primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol nucleophiles and was compatible with a variety of substituents on cyclopropanated oxabenzonorbornadiene. With unsymmetrical C1-substituted cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadienes, the regioselectivity of the reaction was excellent, forming only one regioisomer in all cases. PMID:27829926

  7. The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, David C.; Bagdanoff, Jeffrey T.; Ferreira, Eric M.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Caspi, Daniel D.; Trend, Raissa M.

    2010-01-01

    The first palladium-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols has been developed, utilizing the readily available diamine (−)-sparteine as chiral ligand and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Mechanistic insights regarding the role of base and hydrogen bond donors have resulted in several improvements to the original system. Namely, addition of cesium carbonate and tert-butyl alcohol greatly enhances reaction rates, promoting rapid resolutions. The use of chloroform as solvent allows the use of ambient air as the terminal oxidant at 23 °C, resulting in enhanced catalyst selectivity. These improved reaction conditions have permitted the successful kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic, and cyclopropyl secondary alcohols to high enantiomeric excess with good to excellent selectivity factors. This catalyst system has also been applied to the desymmetrization of meso-diols, providing high yields of enantioenriched hydroxyketones. PMID:19904777

  8. Copper-Catalyzed SN2'-Selective Allylic Substitution Reaction of gem-Diborylalkanes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Qi; Zhang, Ben; Lu, Xi; Liu, Jing-Hui; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2016-03-04

    A Cu/(NHC)-catalyzed SN2'-selective substitution reaction of allylic electrophiles with gem-diborylalkanes is reported. Different substituted gem-diborylalkanes and allylic electrophiles can be employed in this reaction, and various synthetic valuable functional groups can be tolerated. The asymmetric version of this reaction was initially researched with chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands.

  9. Palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of indoles with cyclohexanones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanping; Liao, Yunfeng; Zhao, Feng; Qi, Hongrui; Liu, Saiwen; Deng, Guo-Jun

    2014-03-21

    A novel palladium catalyzed approach to 3-arylindoles was developed from indoles and cyclohexanones. Various cyclohexanones acted as aryl sources via an alkylation and dehydrogenation sequence using molecular oxygen as the hydrogen acceptor. This method showed good regioselectivity and afforded 3-arylindoles as the sole products.

  10. Palladium-catalyzed silylation of aryl chlorides with hexamethyldisilane.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Eric; Barder, Timothy E; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2007-09-13

    A method for the palladium-catalyzed silylation of aryl chlorides has been developed. The method affords desired product in good yield, is tolerant of a variety of functional groups, and provides access to a wide variety of aryltrimethylsilanes from commercially available aryl chlorides. Additionally, a one-pot procedure that converts aryl chlorides into aryl iodides has been developed.

  11. Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of functionalized tetraarylphosphonium salts.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, David; Charette, André B

    2008-01-18

    An efficient method to synthesize functionalized tetraarylphosphonium salts is described. This palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction between aryl iodides, bromides, or triflates and triphenylphosphine generates phosphonium salts in high yields. The coupling is compatible with a variety of functional groups such as alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, phenols, and amides.

  12. Palladium-catalyzed enantioselective 1,1-fluoroarylation of aminoalkenes.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Yang, Zhenyu; Thornbury, Richard T; Toste, F Dean

    2015-09-30

    The development of an enantioselective palladium-catalyzed 1,1-fluoroarylation of unactivated aminoalkenes is described. The reaction uses arylboronic acids as the arene source and Selectfluor as the fluorine source to generate benzylic fluorides in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. This transformation, likely proceeding through an oxidative Heck mechanism, affords 1,1-difunctionalized alkene products.

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective 1,1-Fluoroarylation of Aminoalkenes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The development of an enantioselective palladium-catalyzed 1,1-fluoroarylation of unactivated aminoalkenes is described. The reaction uses arylboronic acids as the arene source and Selectfluor as the fluorine source to generate benzylic fluorides in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. This transformation, likely proceeding through an oxidative Heck mechanism, affords 1,1-difunctionalized alkene products. PMID:26378886

  14. Palladium catalyzed alkoxy- and aminocarbonylation of vinyl tosylates.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Diana C; Rodriguez, Sonia; Lee, Heewon; Haddad, Nizar; Krishnamurthy, Dhileepkumar; Senanayake, Chris H

    2011-05-06

    The palladium catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation and aminocarbonylation of vinyl tosylates are described. A variety of ketone and aldehyde derived vinyl tosylates may be carbonylated in the presence of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols, or primary and secondary amines, to provide the corresponding esters and amides in good yields. The alkoxycarbonylation was applied to a short synthesis of isoguvacine.

  15. Palladium-catalyzed selective acyloxylation using sodium perborate as oxidant.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, Lukasz T; Janson, Pär G; Szabó, Kálmán J

    2011-03-04

    Sodium perborate (SPB), a principal component of washing powders, was employed as an inexpensive and eco-friendly oxidant in the palladium-catalyzed C-H acyloxylation of alkenes in excellent regio- and stereochemistry. The reactions used anhydrides as acyloxy sources. The method applies to both terminal and internal alkenes, and even benzylic C-H oxidation.

  16. Iridium-catalyzed enantioselective allylic substitution of unstabilized enolates derived from α,β-unsaturated ketones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Hartwig, John F

    2014-08-11

    We report Ir-catalyzed, enantioselective allylic substitution reactions of unstabilized silyl enolates derived from α,β-unsaturated ketones. Asymmetric allylic substitution of a variety of allylic carbonates with silyl enolates gave allylated products in 62-94% yield with 90-98% ee and >20:1 branched-to-linear selectivity. The synthetic utility of this method was illustrated by the short synthesis of an anticancer agent, TEI-9826. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed One-Step Synthesis of Isoindole-1,3-diones by Carbonylative Cyclization of o-Halobenzoates and Primary Amines

    PubMed Central

    Worlikar, Shilpa A.; Larock, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of o-halobenzoates produces 2-substituted isoindole-1,3-diones in good yields. This methodology provides a good one-step approach to this important class of heterocycles and tolerates a variety of functional groups, including methoxy, alcohol, ketone, and nitro groups. PMID:18712929

  18. Palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Kevin H

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic modification of nucleoside structures provides access to molecules of interest as pharmaceuticals, biochemical probes, and models to study diseases. Covalent modification of the purine and pyrimidine bases is an important strategy for the synthesis of these adducts. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling is a powerful method to attach groups to the base heterocycles through the formation of new carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. In this review, approaches to palladium-catalyzed modification of unprotected nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides are reviewed. Polar reaction media, such as water or polar aprotic solvents, allow reactions to be performed directly on the hydrophilic nucleosides and nucleotides without the need to use protecting groups. Homogeneous aqueous-phase coupling reactions catalyzed by palladium complexes of water-soluble ligands provide a general approach to the synthesis of modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides.

  19. Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation of Alkyl Sulfenate Anions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tiezheng; Zhang, Mengnan; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Carol Y; Walsh, Patrick J

    2015-11-04

    A unique palladium-catalyzed arylation of alkyl sulfenate anions is introduced that affords aryl alkyl sulfoxides in high yields. Due to the base sensitivity of the starting sulfoxides, sulfenate anion intermediates, and alkyl aryl sulfoxide products, the use of a mild method to generate alkyl sulfenate anions was crucial to the success of this process. Thus, a fluoride triggered elimination strategy was employed with alkyl 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl sulfoxides to liberate the requisite alkyl sulfenate anion intermediates. In the presence of palladium catalysts with bulky monodentate phosphines (SPhos and Cy-CarPhos) and aryl bromides or chlorides, alkyl sulfenate anions were readily arylated. Moreover, the thermal fragmentation and the base promoted elimination of alkyl sulfoxides was overridden. The alkyl sulfenate anion arylation exhibited excellent chemoselectivity in the presence of functional groups, such as anilines and phenols, which are also known to undergo palladium catalyzed arylation reactions.

  20. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of N-Aryl Carbamates

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradova, Ekaterina V.; Park, Nathaniel H.; Fors, Brett P.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of aryl carbamates was achieved by introducing alcohols into the reaction of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of ArX (X = Cl, OTf) with sodium cyanate. The use of aryl triflates as electrophilic components in this transformation allowed for an expanded substrate scope for direct synthesis of aryl isocyanates. This methodology provides direct access to major carbamate protecting groups, S-thiocarbamates, and diisocyanate precursors to polyurethane materials. PMID:23441814

  1. Biaryl Phosphine Ligands in Palladium-Catalyzed Amination

    PubMed Central

    Surry, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed amination of aryl halides has undergone rapid development in the last 12 years. This has been largely driven by implementation of new classes of ligands. Biaryl phosphines have proven to provide especially active catalysts in this context. This review discusses the applications that these catalysts have found in C-N cross-coupling in heterocycle synthesis, pharmaceuticals, materials science and natural product synthesis. PMID:18663711

  2. Asymmetric Palladium-Catalyzed Directed Intermolecular Fluoroarylation of Styrenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A mild catalytic asymmetric direct fluoro-arylation of styrenes has been developed. The palladium-catalyzed three-component coupling of Selectfluor, a styrene and a boronic acid, provides chiral monofluorinated compounds in good yield and in high enantiomeric excess. A mechanism proceeding through a Pd(IV)-fluoride intermediate is proposed for the transformation and synthesis of an sp3 C–F bond. PMID:24617344

  3. Polymerization of tellurophene derivatives via microwave-assisted palladium-catalyzed ipso-arylative polymerization**

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young S.; Wu, Qin; Nam, Chang-Yong; Grubbs, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a tellurophene-containing low bandgap polymer, PDPPTe2T, via microwave-assisted palladium-catalyzed ipso-arylative polymerization of 2,5-bis[(α-hydroxy-α,α-diphenyl)methyl]tellurophene with a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) monomer. Compared with the corresponding thiophene analog, PDPPTe2T absorbs light of longer wavelengths and has a smaller bandgap. Bulk heterojunction solar cells prepared from PDPPTe2T and PC71BM show PCE values of up to 4.4%. External quantum efficiency measurements show that PDPPTe2T produces photocurrent at wavelengths up to 1 μm. DFT calculations suggest that the atomic substitution from sulfur to tellurium increases electronic coupling to decrease the length of the carbon-carbon bonds between the tellurophene and thiophene rings, which results in the red-shift in absorption upon substitution of tellurium for sulfur. PMID:25145499

  4. Enantioselective Functionalization of Allylic C-H Bonds Following a Strategy of Functionalization and Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ankit; Hartwig, John F.

    2013-01-01

    We report the enantioselective functionalization of allylic C-H bonds in terminal alkenes by a strategy involving the installation of a temporary functional group at the terminal carbon atom by C-H bond functionalization, followed by diversification of this intermediate with a broad scope of reagents. The method consists of a one-pot sequence of palladium-catalyzed allylic C-H bond oxidation under neutral conditions to form linear allyl benzoates, followed by iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution. This overall transformation forms a variety of chiral products containing a new C-N, C-O, C-S or C-C bond at the allylic position in good yield with high branched-to-linear selectivity and excellent enantioselectivity (ee ≤ 97%). The broad scope of the overall process results from separating the oxidation and functionalization steps; by doing so, the scope of nucleophile encompasses those sensitive to direct oxidative functionalization. The high enantioselectivity of the overall process is achieved by developing an allylic oxidation that occurs without acid to form the linear isomer with high selectivity. These allylic functionalization processes are amenable to an iterative sequence leading to (1,n)-functionalized products with catalyst-controlled diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The utility of the method in the synthesis of biologically active molecules has been demonstrated. PMID:24156776

  5. Enantioselective functionalization of allylic C-H bonds following a strategy of functionalization and diversification.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankit; Hartwig, John F

    2013-11-27

    We report the enantioselective functionalization of allylic C-H bonds in terminal alkenes by a strategy involving the installation of a temporary functional group at the terminal carbon atom by C-H bond functionalization, followed by the catalytic diversification of this intermediate with a broad scope of reagents. The method consists of a one-pot sequence of palladium-catalyzed allylic C-H bond oxidation under neutral conditions to form linear allyl benzoates, followed by iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution. This overall transformation forms a variety of chiral products containing a new C-N, C-O, C-S, or C-C bond at the allylic position in good yield with a high branched-to-linear selectivity and excellent enantioselectivity (ee ≤97%). The broad scope of the overall process results from separating the oxidation and functionalization steps; by doing so, the scope of nucleophile encompasses those sensitive to direct oxidative functionalization. The high enantioselectivity of the overall process is achieved by developing an allylic oxidation that occurs without acid to form the linear isomer with high selectivity. These allylic functionalization processes are amenable to an iterative sequence leading to (1,n)-functionalized products with catalyst-controlled diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The utility of the method in the synthesis of biologically active molecules has been demonstrated.

  6. Synthesis of Benzo[c]silole Derivatives Bearing a Tetrasubstituted Exocyclic C=C Double Bond by Palladium-Catalyzed Domino Reactions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Patrick; Gulea, Mihaela; Suffert, Jean; Donnard, Morgan

    2017-06-01

    The synthesis of diversely substituted 2,3-dihydro-benzo[c]siloles through an unprecedented palladium-catalyzed domino sequence is reported, involving a cyclocarbopalladation of an internal silylalkyne. This reaction proceeds with complete stereoselectivity to lead to a fully substituted exocyclic C=C double bond. Notably, the overall domino sequence appears to be crucial to obtain the desired cyclic vinylsilanes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Mild Aromatic Palladium-Catalyzed Protodecarboxylation: Kinetic Assessment of the Decarboxylative Palladation and the Protodepalladation Steps

    PubMed Central

    Dickstein, Joshua S.; Curto, John M.; Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Mulrooney, Carol A.; Kozlowski, Marisa C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanism studies of a mild palladium catalyzed decarboxylation of aromatic carboxylic acids are described. In particular, reaction orders and activation parameters for the two stages of the transformation were determined. These studies guided development of a catalytic system capable of turnover. Further evidence reinforces that the second stage, protonation of the aryl palladium intermediate, is the rate-determining step of the reaction. The first step, decarboxylative palladation is proposed to occur through an intramolecular electrophilic palladation pathway, which is supported by computational and mechansim studies. In contrast to the reverse reaction (C-H insertion), the data support an electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanism involving a stepwise intramolecular protonation sequence for the protodepalladation portion of the reaction. PMID:23590518

  8. Palladium-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation of (Hetero)Arenes with CF3 Br.

    PubMed

    Natte, Kishore; Jagadeesh, Rajenahally V; He, Lin; Rabeah, Jabor; Chen, Jianbin; Taeschler, Christoph; Ellinger, Stefan; Zaragoza, Florencio; Neumann, Helfried; Brückner, Angelika; Beller, Matthias

    2016-02-18

    The CF3 group is an omnipresent motif found in many pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, catalysts, materials, and industrial chemicals. Despite well-established trifluoromethylation methodologies, the straightforward and selective introduction of such groups into (hetero)arenes using available and less expensive sources is still a major challenge. In this regard, the selective synthesis of various trifluoromethyl-substituted (hetero)arenes by palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization is herein reported. This novel methodology proceeds under comparably mild reaction conditions with good regio- and chemoselectivity. As examples, trifluoromethylations of biologically important molecules, such as melatonin, theophylline, caffeine, and pentoxifylline, are showcased. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhkov, Roman Vladimirovich

    2004-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a β-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in β-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the α-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of sec- and tert-Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Dong, Kaiwu; Sang, Rui; Liu, Jie; Razzaq, Rauf; Franke, Robert; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2017-05-22

    A general palladium-catalyzed synthesis of linear esters directly from sec- and tert-alcohols is described. Compared to the classic Koch-Haaf reaction, which leads to branched products, this new transformation gives the corresponding linear esters in high yields and selectivity. Key for this protocol is the use of an advanced palladium catalyst system with L2 (py(t) bpx) as the ligand. A variety of aliphatic and benzylic alcohols can be directly used and the catalyst efficiency for the benchmark reaction is outstanding (turnover number up to 89 000). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Palladium-catalyzed annulation of diarylamines with olefins through C-H activation: direct access to N-arylindoles.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Upendra; Kancherla, Rajesh; Naveen, Togati; Agasti, Soumitra; Maiti, Debabrata

    2014-10-27

    A palladium-catalyzed dehydrogenative coupling between diarylamines and olefins has been discovered for the synthesis of substituted indoles. This intermolecular annulation approach incorporates readily available olefins for the first time and obviates the need of any additional directing group. An ortho palladation, olefin coordination, and β-migratory insertion sequence has been proposed for the generation of olefinated intermediate, which is found to produce the expected indole moiety. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Synthesis of aza-fused isoquinolines through domino cross-aldol condensation and palladium-catalyzed intramolecular direct arylation.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Shiv; Pericherla, Kasiviswanadharaju; Nandwana, Nitesh K; Kumar, Dalip; Kumar, Anil

    2014-08-15

    A straightforward method has been developed for the synthesis of aroyl-substituted imidazo-/benzimidazo-fused isoquinolines. The cascade reaction proceeds via a cross-aldol condensation of 2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl/benzimidazolyl-1-yl)-1-arylethanones and 2-bromobenzaldehyde followed by palladium-catalyzed intramolecular C-H functionalization. This approach offers a simple and efficient alternative one-pot protocol for the assembly of imidazo/benzimidazo[2,1-a]isoquinolines in moderate to good yields.

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Direct C3- and C7-Alkenylations of Indazoles: Application to the Synthesis of Gamendazole.

    PubMed

    Naas, Mohammed; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Bousmina, Mosto; Guillaumet, Gérald

    2015-09-04

    The first palladium-catalyzed oxidative alkenylation of (1H)- and (2H)-indazole derivatives with various olefins is described. The use of Pd(OAc)2 as the catalyst and Ag2CO3 as the oxidant promoted the selective C3-monoalkenylation of (1H)-indazoles and (2H)-indazoles, affording the desired products in good yields. An original oxidative C7-alkenylation of 3-substituted (1H)-indazoles was also developed. The oxidative alkenylation of (1H)-indazole was successfully applied to the total synthesis of the drug candidate gamendazole in a step- and atom-economical fashion.

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of 2,3-Disubstituted Benzofurans: An Approach Towards the Synthesis of Deuterium Labeled Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Agasti, Soumitra; Maity, Soham; Szabo, Kalman J; Maiti, Debabrata

    2015-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed oxidative annulations between phenols and alkenylcarboxylic acids produced a library of benzofuran compounds. Depending on the nature of the substitution of the phenol precursor, either 2,3-dialkylbenzofurans or 2-alkyl-3-methylene-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans can be synthesized with excellent regioselectivity. Reactions between conjugated 5-phenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acids and phenol gave 3-alkylidenedihydrobenzofuran alkaloid motifs while biologically active 7-arylbenzofuran derivatives were prepared by starting from 2-phenylphenols. More interestingly, selective incorporation of deuterium from D2O has been discovered, which offers an attractive one-step method to access deuterated compounds. PMID:26347405

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Dehydration for the Synthesis of α-Vinyl Carbonyl Compounds and Total Synthesis of (−)-Aspewentin A, B, and C

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiyang; Virgil, Scott C.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    The direct α-vinylation of carbonyl compounds that forms a quaternary stereocenter is a challenging transformation. We discovered that δ-oxocarboxylic acids can serve as masked vinyl compounds and be unveiled by palladium-catalyzed decarbonylative dehydration. The carboxylic acids are readily available through enantioselective acrylate addition or asymmetric allylic alkylation. A variety of α-vinyl quaternary carbonyl compounds are obtained in good yields, and an application in the first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-aspewentin A, B, and C is demonstrated. PMID:26230413

  16. Experimental and Mechanistic Analysis of the Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative C8-Selective C–H Homocoupling of Quinoline N-Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, David E.; Lakey-Beitia, Johant; Chavez, Gabriel; Ilie, Carla; Arman, Hadi D.

    2016-01-01

    A novel site-selective palladium-catalyzed oxidative C8–H homocoupling reaction of quinoline N-oxides has been developed. The reaction affords substituted 8,8'-biquinolyl N,N'-dioxides that can be readily converted to a variety of functionalized 8,8'-biquinolyls. Mechanistic studies point to the crucial role of the oxidant and a non-innocent behavior of acetic acid as a solvent. PMID:25966913

  17. Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of 2-alkenyl-3-arylindoles via a dual α-arylation strategy: formal synthesis of the antilipemic drug fluvastatin.

    PubMed

    Kale, Ajit Prabhakar; Kumar, Gangam Srikanth; Kapur, Manmohan

    2015-12-07

    A new approach has been developed for the synthesis of substituted 2-alkenyl-3-arylindoles. The strategy comprises palladium-catalyzed dual α-arylation of TES-enol ethers of enones as the key step. This methodology results in products with very good yields and the regioselectivity is exclusive. We have also successfully used this dual α-arylation methodology in the formal synthesis of the cholesterol-lowering drug fluvastatin.

  18. Cation control of diastereoselectivity in iridium-catalyzed allylic substitutions. Formation of enantioenriched tertiary alcohols and thioethers by allylation of 5H-oxazol-4-ones and 5H-thiazol-4-ones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F

    2014-01-08

    We report highly diastereo- and enantioselective allylations of substituted 5H-oxazol-4-ones and 5H-thiazol-4-ones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex. Enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylation of substituted 5H-oxazol-4-ones occurs with high diastereoselectivity by employing the corresponding zinc enolates; enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylation of substituted 5H-thiazol-4-ones occurs with the corresponding magnesium enolates with high diastereoselectivity. The allylation of substituted 5H-oxazol-4-ones provides rapid access to enantioenriched tertiary α-hydroxy acid derivatives unavailable through Mo-catalyzed allylic substitution. The allylation of substituted 5H-thiazol-4-ones provides a novel method to synthesize enantioenriched tertiary thiols and thioethers. The observed cation effect implies a novel method to control the diastereoselectivity in Ir-catalyzed allylic substitution.

  19. Cation Control of Diastereoselectivity in Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitutions. Formation of Enantioenriched Tertiary Alcohols and Thioethers by Allylation of 5H-Oxazol-4-ones and 5H-Thiazol-4-ones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a highly diastereo- and enantioselective allylation of substituted 5H-oxazol-4-ones and 5H-thiazol-4-ones catalyzed by the metallacyclic iridium complex. Enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylation of substituted 5H-oxazol-4-ones occurs with high diastereoselectivity by employing the corresponding zinc enolates; enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylation of substituted 5H-thiazol-4-ones requires the corresponding magnesium enolates to achieve high diastereoselectivity. The allylation of substituted 5H-oxazol-4-ones provides rapid access to enantioenriched tertiary α-hydroxy acid derivatives unavailable through Mo-catalyzed allylic substitution. The allylation of substituted 5H-thiazol-4-ones provides a novel method to synthesize enantioenriched tertiary thiols and thioethers. The observed cation effect implies a novel method to control the diastereoselectivity in Ir-catalyzed allylic substitution. PMID:24295427

  20. The coordination chemistry of silyl-substituted allyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Sophia A; Layfield, Richard A

    2010-03-14

    Metal allyl complexes in which the ligands carry bulky silyl substituents frequently show stability that cannot be achieved with unsubstituted analogues. As a result, it has been possible to characterize a large family of structurally diverse metal silyl-allyls from the s-, p-, d- and f-blocks of the Periodic Table, and to study the coordination chemistry of compounds that often have no counterparts without bulky substituents. The fact that the majority of compounds discussed in this Perspective have been published since 2000 reflects the newness of the area, and the article summarizes the main developments in the structural chemistry of metal silyl-allyls and also selected synthetic and catalytic applications. Although organometallic chemistry is often regarded as transcending traditional boundaries between 'organic' and 'inorganic' chemistry, an understanding persists that those working in the field can be labelled 'inorganic organometallic' chemists or 'organic organometallic' chemists. It is hoped that chemists from a broad range of backgrounds will be able to use this review as an entry point to an exciting new direction in metal allyl chemistry.

  1. Origins of enantioselectivity during allylic substitution reactions catalyzed by metallacyclic iridium complexes.

    PubMed

    Madrahimov, Sherzod T; Hartwig, John F

    2012-05-16

    In depth mechanistic studies of iridium catalyzed regioselective and enantioselective allylic substitution reactions are presented. A series of cyclometalated allyliridium complexes that are kinetically and chemically competent to be intermediates in the allylic substitution reactions was prepared and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopies and single-crystal X-ray difraction. The rates of epimerization of the less thermodynamically stable diastereomeric allyliridium complexes to the thermodynamically more stable allyliridium stereoisomers were measured. The rates of nucleophilic attack by aniline and by N-methylaniline on the isolated allyliridium complexes were also measured. Attack on the thermodynamically less stable allyliridium complex was found to be orders of magnitude faster than attack on the thermodynamically more stable complex, yet the major enantiomer of the catalytic reaction is formed from the more stable diastereomer. Comparison of the rates of nucleophilic attack to the rates of epimerization of the diastereomeric allyliridium complexes containing a weakly coordinating counterion showed that nucleophilic attack on the less stable allyliridium species is much faster than conversion of the less stable isomer to the more stable isomer. These observations imply that Curtin-Hammett conditions are not met during iridium catalyzed allylic substitution reactions by η(3)-η(1)-η(3) interconversion. Rather, these data imply that when these conditions exist for this reaction, they are created by reversible oxidative addition, and the high selectivity of this oxidative addition step to form the more stable diastereomeric allyl complex leads to the high enantioselectivity. The stereochemical outcome of the individual steps of allylic substitution was assessed by reactions of deuterium-labeled substrates. The allylic substitution was shown to occur by oxidative addition with inversion of configuration, followed by an outer sphere nucleophilic attack

  2. The O- Acylation of Ketone Enolates by Allyl 1H-imidazole-1-carboxylate Mediated with Boron Trifluoride Etherate---A Convenient Procedure for the Synthesis of Substituted Allyl Enol Carbonates

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Xu, Jiayi

    2008-01-01

    A convenient access to substituted allyl enol carbonates was established through the reaction of ketone enolates with the complex of allyl 1H-imidazole-1-carboxylates and boron trifluoride etherate. PMID:17963405

  3. Pyrrolodiazines. 6. Palladium-catalyzed arylation, heteroarylation, and amination of 3,4-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazines.

    PubMed

    Castellote, Isabel; Vaquero, Juan J; Fernández-Gadea, Javier; Alvarez-Builla, Julio

    2004-12-10

    The palladium-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of arylboronic acids and 6-bromo- and 6,8-dibromo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazines afforded 6-substituted and 6,8-disubstituted 3,4-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazines in good yields. Stille and Negishi coupling reactions have been used to prepare 6-heteroaryl-substituted derivatives in moderate yields by employing heteroaryl halides and 6-metalated 3,4-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazines as reaction partners. A variety of cyclic secondary amines have also been incorporated at position C-6 of 6-bromo-1-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine in the presence of the palladium catalyst Pd(2)(dba)(3) in conjunction with BINAP as ligand. This amination reaction is one of the few reported examples of such a palladium-catalyzed transformation on a pyrrole ring, although the reaction could not be extended to less nucleophilic amines.

  4. PALLADIUM-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF STYRENE AND ALKENES IN PRESENCE OF IONIC LIQUIDS (WACKER REACTION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of ionic liquids in various synthetic transformations is gaining significance due to the enhanced reaction rates, potential for recycling and compatibility with various organic compounds and organometallic catalysts. Palladium-catalyzed oxidation of styrene and other alk...

  5. PALLADIUM-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF STYRENE AND ALKENES IN PRESENCE OF IONIC LIQUIDS (WACKER REACTION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of ionic liquids in various synthetic transformations is gaining significance due to the enhanced reaction rates, potential for recycling and compatibility with various organic compounds and organometallic catalysts. Palladium-catalyzed oxidation of styrene and other alk...

  6. Novel method for the synthesis of enamines by palladium catalyzed amination of alkenyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Barluenga, José; Fernández, M Alejandro; Aznar, Fernando; Valdés, Carlos

    2002-10-21

    The intermolecular palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between secondary amines and alkenyl bromides is described for the first time, giving rise to enamines with very high yields and regioselectivity.

  7. Enantioselective Allylation, Crotylation and Reverse Prenylation of Substituted Isatins via Iridium Catalyzed C-C Bond Forming Transfer Hydrogenation**

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Junji; Han, Soo Bong; Krische, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Oxindoles with a Twist Transfer hydrogenation of substituted isatins in the presence of allyl acetate, α-methyl allyl acetate or 1,1,-dimethylallene employing an ortho-cyclometallated iridium catalyst modified by CTH-(R)-P-PHOS provides products of carbonyl allylation, crotylation and reverse prenylation, respectively, in highly enantiomerically enriched form. These studies represent the first use of activated ketones as electrophilic partners in asymmetric C-C bond forming transfer hydrogenation. PMID:19606435

  8. Iridium-Catalyzed Diastereoselective and Enantioselective Allylic Substitutions with Acyclic α-Alkoxy Ketones

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Xingyu; Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F.

    2016-04-01

    The asymmetric alkylation of acyclic ketones is a longstanding challenge in organic synthesis. Here, are the diastereoselective and enantioselective allylic substitutions with acyclic α-alkoxy ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex to form products with contiguous stereogenic centers derived from the nucleophile and electrophile. These reactions occur between allyl methyl carbonates and unstabilized copper(I) enolates generated in situ from acyclic α-alkoxy ketones. The resulting products can be readily converted into enantioenriched tertiary alcohols and tetrahydrofuran derivatives without erosion of enantiomeric purity.

  9. Origins of Enantioselectivity during Allylic Substitution Reactions Catalyzed by Metallacyclic Iridium Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Madrahimov, Sherzod T.; Hartwig, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In depth mechanistic studies of iridium catalyzed regioselective and enantioselective allylic substitution reactions are presented. A series of cyclometallated allyliridium complexes that are kinetically and chemically competent to be intermediates in the allylic substitution reactions was prepared and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopies and solid state structural analysis. The rates of epimerization of the less thermodynamically stable diastereomeric allyliridium complexes to the thermodynamically more stable allyliridium stereoisomers were measured. The rates of nucleophilic attack by aniline and by N-methylaniline on the isolated allyliridium complexes were also measured. Attack on the thermodynamically less stable allyliridium complex was found to be orders of magnitude faster than attack on the thermodynamically more stable complex, yet the major enantiomer of the catalytic reaction is formed from the more stable diastereomer. Comparison of the rates of nucleophilic attack to the rates of epimerization of the diastereomeric allyliridium complexes containing a weakly-coordinating counterion showed that nucleophilic attack on the less stable allyliridium species is much faster than conversion of the less stable isomer to the more stable isomer. These observations imply that Curtin-Hammett conditions are not met during iridium catalyzed allylic substitution reactions by η3-η1-η3 interconversion. Rather, these data imply that when these conditions exist for this reaction, they are created by reversible oxidative addition and the high selectivity of this oxidative addition step to form the more stable diastereomeric allyl complex leads to the high enantioselectivity. The stereochemical outcome of the individual steps of allylic substitution was assessed by reaction of deuterium-labeled substrates. The reaction was shown to occur by oxidative addition with inversion of configuration, followed by an outer sphere nucleophilic attack that leads to a second

  10. Intermolecular Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Fluorocarbonylation of Unactivated Alkenes: Efficient Access to β-Fluorocarboxylic Esters.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoxu; Yu, Feng; Chen, Pinhong; Liu, Guosheng

    2017-10-02

    A novel palladium-catalyzed intermolecular oxidative fluorocarbonylation of alkenes has been developed, in which employment of a cooperative process with electrophilic ArIF2 -meidated alkenes activation and palladium-catalyzed carbonylation is crucial for the successful catalytic transformation. The current transformation presents the first convenient method to generate β-fluorinated carboxylic acid derivatives under mild reaction conditions from simple alkenes with excellent regioselectivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Development of a second generation palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation and its application to bioactive natural product synthesis.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    A novel palladium-catalyzed intramolecular oxidative alkylation of unactivated olefins is described. This protocol was devised to solve one of the drawbacks of the original palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation that we developed. We call this new procedure the 'second generation palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation'. This protocol has been applied to the total syntheses of cis-195A, trans-195A, boonein, scholareins A, C, D, and alpha-skytanthine.

  12. Palladium-catalyzed picolinamide-directed iodination of remote ortho-C−H bonds of arenes: Synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines

    PubMed Central

    Nack, William A; Wang, Xinmou; Wang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Summary A new palladium-catalyzed picolinamide (PA)-directed ortho-iodination reaction of ε-C(sp2)−H bonds of γ-arylpropylamine substrates is reported. This reaction proceeds selectively with a variety of γ-arylpropylamines bearing strongly electron-donating or withdrawing substituents, complementing our previously reported PA-directed electrophilic aromatic substitution approach to this transformation. As demonstrated herein, a three step sequence of Pd-catalyzed γ-C(sp3)−H arylation, Pd-catalyzed ε-C(sp2)−H iodination, and Cu-catalyzed C−N cyclization enables a streamlined synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines bearing diverse substitution patterns. PMID:27559375

  13. Palladium-catalyzed direct heck arylation of dual pi-deficient/pi-excessive heteroaromatics. Synthesis of C-5 arylated imidazo[1,5-a]pyrazines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Xin; McCubbin, J Adam; Jin, Meizhong; Laufer, Radoslaw S; Mao, Yunyu; Crew, Andrew P; Mulvihill, Mark J; Snieckus, Victor

    2008-07-17

    A general and efficient synthesis of 5-aryl imidazo[1,5- a]pyrazines by palladium-catalyzed coupling of the corresponding 8-substituted derivatives with aryl halides is described. The scope of this new reaction for the imidazo[1,5- a]pyrazine ring system was explored using three readily available 8-substituted precursors, X = NH2, NMe2, and OMe, as well as 8-aryl derivatives, X = Ar'. On the basis of these results as well as studies using a deuterated derivative, a Heck-like mechanism is proposed for this transformation.

  14. Origins of Regioselectivity in Iridium Catalyzed Allylic Substitution.

    PubMed

    Madrahimov, Sherzod T; Li, Qian; Sharma, Ankit; Hartwig, John F

    2015-12-02

    Detailed studies on the origin of the regioselectivity for formation of branched products over linear products have been conducted with complexes containing the achiral triphenylphosphite ligand. The combination of iridium and P(OPh)3 was the first catalytic system shown to give high regioselectivity for the branched product with iridium and among the most selective for forming branched products among any combination of metal and ligand. We have shown the active catalyst to be generated from [Ir(COD)Cl]2 and P(OPh)3 by cyclometalation of the phenyl group on the ligand and have shown such species to be the resting state of the catalyst. A series of allyliridium complexes ligated by the resulting P,C ligand have been generated and shown to be competent intermediates in the catalytic system. We have assessed the potential impact of charge, metal-iridium bond length, and stability of terminal vs internal alkenes generated by attack at the branched and terminal positions of the allyl ligand, respectively. These factors do not distinguish the regioselectivity for attack on allyliridium complexes from that for attack on allylpalladium complexes. Instead, detailed computational studies suggest that a series of weak, attractive, noncovalent interactions, including interactions of H-bond acceptors with a vinyl C-H bond of the alkene ligand, favor formation of the branched product with the iridium catalyst. This conclusion underscores the importance of considering attractive interactions, as well as repulsive steric interactions, when seeking to rationalize selectivities.

  15. Mild palladium-catalyzed selective monoarylation of nitriles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingyun; Hartwig, John F

    2005-11-16

    Two new palladium-catalyzed procedures for the arylation of nitriles under less basic conditions than previously reported have been developed. The selective monoarylation of acetonitrile and primary nitriles has been achieved using alpha-silyl nitriles in the presence of ZnF2. This procedure is compatible with a variety of functional groups, including cyano, keto, nitro, and ester groups, on the aryl bromide. The arylation of secondary nitriles occurred in high yield by conducting reactions with zinc cyanoalkyl reagents. These reaction conditions tolerated base-sensitive functional groups, such as ketones and esters. The combination of these two methods, one with alpha-silyl nitriles and one with zinc cyanoalkyl reagents, provides a catalytic route to a variety of benzylic nitriles, which have not only biological significance but utility as synthetic intermediates. The utility of these new coupling reactions has been demonstrated by a synthesis of verapamil, a clinically used drug for the treatment of heart disease, by a three-step route from commercial materials that allows convenient variation of the aryl group.

  16. Tandem C(sp(3))-H Arylation/Oxidation and Arylation/Allylic Substitution of Isoindolinones.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Jacqueline; Kim, Byeong-Seon; Walsh, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    Isoindolinones comprise an important class of medicinally active compounds. Herein we report a straightforward functionalization of the isoindolinones with aryl bromides (22 examples) using a Pd(OAc)2/NIXANTPHOS-based catalyst system. Additionally 3-aryl 3-hydroxy isoindolinone derivatives, which exhibit anti-tumor activity, can be accessed via a tandem reaction. Thus, when the arylation product is exposed to air under basic conditions, in situ oxidation takes place to install the 3-hydroxyl group. Furthermore, a tandem arylation/allylic substitution reaction is advanced in which both the arylation and allylic substitution are catalyzed by the same palladium catalyst. Finally, a tandem arylation/alkylation procedure is presented. These tandem reactions enable the synthesis of a variety of structurally diverse isoindolinone derivatives from common starting materials.

  17. Rhodium-catalyzed allylic substitution with an acyl anion equivalent: stereospecific construction of acyclic quaternary carbon stereogenic centers.

    PubMed

    Evans, P Andrew; Oliver, Samuel; Chae, Jungha

    2012-11-28

    A highly regio- and stereospecific rhodium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of tertiary allylic alcohol derivatives with a cyanohydrin pronucleophile is described. This direct and operationally simple protocol provides a fundamentally novel approach toward the synthesis of α-quaternary substituted ketones and circumvents many of the inherent problems associated with conventional enolate alkylation reactions. The stereospecific variant of this reaction provides the enantiomerically enriched α-quaternary substituted allylic aryl ketone, which is a particularly challenging intermediate for more conventional enolate-based strategies.

  18. Development of the Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of alkoxy- and aryloxy-substituted allyl glycinates.

    PubMed

    Tellam, James P; Carbery, David R

    2010-11-19

    The Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of 3-alkoxy- and 3-aryloxy-substituted allyl glycinates is presented. This [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement route offers direct access to syn β-alkoxy and β-aryloxy α-amino acid systems. In particular, N,N-diboc glycine esters rearrange with excellent diastereoselectivities (dr > 25:1). The synthesis of substrates, rearrangement optimization, and a discussion of stereoselection are presented.

  19. Tandem SN2' nucleophilic substitution/oxidative radical cyclization of aryl substituted allylic alcohols with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Cheng; Wang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Fu-Min; Han, Xue; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

    2017-03-23

    A novel and efficient tandem SN2' nucleophilic substitution/oxidative radical cyclization reaction of aryl substituted allylic alcohols with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds has been developed by using Mn(OAc)3 as an oxidant, which enables the expeditious synthesis of polysubstituted dihydrofuran (DHF) derivatives in moderate to high yields. The use of weakly acidic hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) as the solvent rather than AcOH has successfully improved the yields and expanded the substrate scope of this type of radical cyclization reactions. Mechanistic studies confirmed the cascade reaction process involving a final radical cyclization.

  20. Efficient synthesis of frutinone A and its derivatives through palladium-catalyzed C - H activation/carbonylation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yongje; Yoo, Changho; Moon, Youngtaek; Lee, Yunho; Hong, Sungwoo

    2015-04-01

    Frutinone A, a biologically active ingredient of an antimicrobial herbal extract, demonstrates potent inhibitory activity towards the CYP1A2 enzyme. A three-step total synthesis of frutinone A with an overall yield of 44 % is presented. The construction of the chromone-annelated coumarin core was achieved through palladium-catalyzed CH carbonylation of 2-phenolchromones. The straightforward synthetic route allowed facile substitutions around the frutinone A core and thus rapid exploration of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) profile of the derivatives. The inhibitory activity of the synthesized frutinone A derivatives were determined for CYP1A2, and ten compounds exhibited one-to-two digit nanomolar inhibitory activity towards the CYP1A2 enzyme.

  1. Synthesis of Quaternary Carbon Stereogenic Centers through Enantioselective Cu-Catalyzed Allylic Substitutions with Vinylaluminum Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fang; McGrath, Kevin P.; Lee, Yunmi; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic enantioselective allylic substitution (EAS) reactions, which involve the use of alkyl- or aryl-substituted vinylaluminum reagents and afford 1,4-dienes containing a quaternary carbon stereogenic center at their C-3 site, are disclosed. The C–C bond forming transformations are promoted by 0.5–2.5 mol % of sulfonate bearing chiral bidentate N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes, furnishing the desired products efficiently (66–97% yield of isolated products) and in high site- (>98% SN2′) and enantioselectivity [up to 99:1 enantiomer ratio (er)]. To the best of our knowledge, the present report puts forward the first cases of allylic substitution reactions that result in the generation of all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centers through the addition of a vinyl unit. The aryl- and vinyl-substituted vinylaluminum reagents, which cannot be prepared in high efficiency through direct reaction with diisobutylaluminum hydride, are accessed through a recently introduced Ni-catalyzed reaction of the corresponding terminal alkynes with the same inexpensive metal-hydride agent. Sequential Ni-catalyzed hydrometallations and Cu-catalyzed C–C bond forming reactions allow for efficient and selective synthesis of a range of enantiomerically enriched EAS products, which cannot cannot be accessed by previously disclosed strategies (due to inefficient vinylmetal synthesis or low reactivity and/or selectivity with Si-substituted derivatives). The utility of the protocols developed is demonstrated through a concise enantioselective synthesis of natural product bakuchiol. PMID:20860365

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Fluorination of Cyclic Vinyl Triflates: Effect of TESCF3 as an Additive.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuxuan; Takada, Takashi; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2016-12-12

    A method for the palladium-catalyzed fluorination of cyclic vinyl triflates has been developed. As with several previous palladium-catalyzed fluorination reactions using fluoride salts, controlling the regioselectivity presented a challenge in developing a practical synthetic procedure. The addition of triethyl(trifluoromethyl)silane (TESCF3 ) was found to effectively address this problem and resulted in drastically improved regioselectivities in this palladium-catalyzed fluorination reaction. This discovery, along with the use of a new biarylphosphine ligand, allowed for the development of an efficient and highly regioselective protocol for the fluorination of vinyl triflates. This method is compatible with a range of sensitive functional groups and provides access to five-, six-, and seven-membered cyclic vinyl fluorides.

  3. Synthesis of 2-Azulenyltetrathiafulvalenes by Palladium-Catalyzed Direct Arylation of 2-Chloroazulenes with Tetrathiafulvalene and Their Optical and Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Taku; Araki, Takanori; Sugiyama, Shuhei; Ohta, Akira; Sekiguchi, Ryuta; Ito, Shunji; Okujima, Tetsuo; Toyota, Kozo

    2017-02-03

    Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives with 2-azulenyl substituents 5-11 were prepared by the palladium-catalyzed direct arylation reaction of 2-chloroazulenes with TTF in good yield. Photophysical properties of these compounds were investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. Redox behavior of the novel azulene-substituted TTFs was examined by using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry, which revealed their multistep electrochemical oxidation and/or reduction properties. Moreover, these TTF derivatives showed significant spectral change in the visible region under the redox conditions.

  4. Diversification of edaravone via palladium-catalyzed hydrazine cross-coupling: Applications against protein misfolding and oligomerization of beta-amyloid.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Mark A; Diez-Cecilia, Elena; Lavery, Christopher B; Reed, Mark A; Wang, Yanfei; Weaver, Donald F; Stradiotto, Mark

    2016-01-01

    N-Aryl derivatives of edaravone were identified as potentially effective small molecule inhibitors of tau and beta-amyloid aggregation in the context of developing disease-modifying therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Palladium-catalyzed hydrazine monoarylation protocols were then employed as an expedient means of preparing a focused library of 21 edaravone derivatives featuring varied N-aryl substitution, thereby enabling structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. On the basis of data obtained from two functional biochemical assays examining the effect of edaravone derivatives on both fibril and oligomer formation, it was determined that derivatives featuring an N-biaryl motif were four-fold more potent than edaravone.

  5. Highly regio- and enantioselective synthesis of N-substituted 2-pyridones: iridium-catalyzed intermolecular asymmetric allylic amination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Ze-Peng; Huang, Lin; You, Shu-Li

    2015-02-02

    The first iridium-catalyzed intermolecular asymmetric allylic amination reaction with 2-hydroxypyridines has been developed, thus providing a highly efficient synthesis of enantioenriched N-substituted 2-pyridone derivatives from readily available starting materials. This protocol features a good tolerance of functional groups in both the allylic carbonates and 2-hydroxypyridines, thereby delivering multifunctionalized heterocyclic products with up to 98% yield and 99% ee. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Cross-coupling of aromatic bromides with allylic silanolate salts.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Werner, Nathan S

    2008-12-03

    The sodium salts of allyldimethylsilanol and 2-butenyldimethylsilanol undergo palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling with a wide variety of aryl bromides to afford allylated and crotylated arenes. The coupling of both silanolates required extensive optimization to deliver the expected products in high yields. The reaction of the allyldimethylsilanolate takes place at 85 degrees C in 1,2-dimethoxyethane with allylpalladium chloride dimer (2.5 mol %) to afford 73-95% yields of the allylation products. Both electron-rich and sterically hindered bromides reacted smoothly, whereas electron-poor bromides cross-coupled in poor yield because of a secondary isomerization to the 1-propenyl isomer (and subsequent polymerization). The 2-butenyldimethylsilanolate (E/Z, 80:20) required additional optimization to maximize the formation of the branched (gamma-substitution) product. A remarkable influence of added alkenes (dibenzylideneacetone and norbornadiene) led to good selectivities for electron-rich and electron-poor bromides in 40-83% yields. However, bromides containing coordinating groups (particularly in the ortho position) gave lower, and in one case even reversed, selectivity. Configurationally homogeneous (E)-silanolates gave slightly higher gamma-selectivity than the pure (Z)-silanolates. A unified mechanistic picture involving initial gamma-transmetalation followed by direct reductive elimination or sigma-pi isomerization can rationalize all of the observed trends.

  7. Stereodivergent Allylic Substitutions with Aryl Acetic Acid Esters by Synergistic Iridium and Lewis Base Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xingyu; Beiger, Jason J; Hartwig, John F

    2017-01-11

    The preparation of all possible stereoisomers of a given chiral molecule bearing multiple stereocenters by a simple and unified method is a significant challenge in asymmetric catalysis. We report stereodivergent allylic substitutions with aryl acetic acid esters catalyzed synergistically by a metallacyclic iridium complex and benzotetramisole. Through permutations of the enantiomers of the two chiral catalysts, all four stereoisomers of the products bearing two adjacent stereocenters are accessible with high diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity. The resulting chiral activated ester products can be converted readily to enantioenriched amides, unactivated esters, and carboxylic acids in a one-pot manner.

  8. Synthesis of a Crushed Fullerene C60H24 through Sixfold Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation.

    PubMed

    Dorel, Ruth; de Mendoza, Paula; Calleja, Pilar; Pascual, Sergio; González-Cantalapiedra, Esther; Cabello, Noemí; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis of a new C3v -symmetric crushed fullerene C60H24 (5) has been accomplished in three steps from truxene through sixfold palladium-catalyzed intramolecular arylation of a syn-trialkylated truxene precursor. Laser irradiation of 5 induces cyclodehydrogenation processes that result in the formation of C60, as detected by LDI-MS.

  9. Efficient palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions of aryl bromides and chlorides with phenols.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tongjie; Schulz, Thomas; Torborg, Christian; Chen, Xiaorong; Wang, Jun; Beller, Matthias; Huang, Jun

    2009-12-21

    A convenient and general palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction of aryl bromides and chlorides with phenols was developed. Various functional groups such as nitriles, aldehydes, ketones and esters are well tolerated and the corresponding products are obtained in good to excellent yield.

  10. Unexpected formation of aryl ketones by palladium-catalyzed coupling of aryl bromides with vinylic acetates.

    PubMed

    Jean, Mickaël; Renault, Jacques; Uriac, Philippe; Capet, Marc; van de Weghe, Pierre

    2007-08-30

    A palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction of aryl bromides with vinylic acetates in the presence of tributyltin methoxide has been described. Unexpected formation of aryl ketones was obtained. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicated that the reaction proceeded by the addition of the aryl moiety in the coordination sphere of palladium to a ketene.

  11. Palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to bromides and chlorides.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoqiang; Hyde, Alan M; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2010-10-13

    The palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to aryl and vinyl halides (bromides and chlorides) has been developed using dialkylbiaryl phosphine ligands. A variety of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl halides can be prepared via this method in good to excellent yields.

  12. Palladium-Catalyzed Conversion of Aryl and Vinyl Triflates to Bromides and Chlorides

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoqiang; Hyde, Alan M.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to aryl and vinyl halides (bromides and chlorides) has been developed using dialkylbiaryl phosphine ligands. A variety of aryl, heteroaryl and vinyl halides can be prepared via this method in good to excellent yields. PMID:20857936

  13. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylation reaction of aryl bromides with 2-hydroxyacetophenones to form flavones.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Flavone of the month: a general and efficient method for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative synthesis of flavones has been developed. Starting from aryl bromides and 2-hydroxyacetophenones, the corresponding flavones have been isolated in good yields. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Palladium-catalyzed amination of unprotected five-membered heterocyclic bromides.

    PubMed

    Su, Mingjuan; Hoshiya, Naoyuki; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2014-02-07

    An efficient method for the palladium-catalyzed amination of unprotected bromoimidazoles and bromopyrazoles is presented. The transformation is facilitated by the use of our newly developed Pd precatalyst based on the bulky biarylphosphine ligand tBuBrettPhos (L4). The mild reaction conditions employed allow for the preparation of a broad scope of aminoimidazoles and aminopyrazoles in moderate to excellent yields.

  15. Chemoselective and Sequential Palladium-Catalyzed Couplings for the Generation of Stilbene Libraries via Immobilized Substrates.

    PubMed

    Traficante, Carla I; Fagundez, Catherine; Serra, Gloria L; Mata, Ernesto G; Delpiccolo, Carina M L

    2016-05-09

    A versatile palladium-catalyzed tandem synthetic sequence to afford E-stilbenes libraries has been developed. Excellent regio- and stereocontrol have been achieved by means of the sequence of Hiyama and Heck cross-couplings. Undesirable homocoupling byproducts were avoided employing immobilized substrates.

  16. Palladium-catalyzed addition of disulfides and diselenides to alkynes under solvent free conditions.

    PubMed

    Ananikov, Valentine P; Beletskaya, Irina P

    2004-02-07

    An efficient methodology was developed for performing palladium-catalyzed E-E (E = S, Se) bond addition to alkynes under solvent free conditions. Compared to reaction in solvent significant enhancement of reaction rate, improved efficiency and remarkable catalyst stability were observed under solvent free conditions. The addition reactions were carried out with high stereoselectivity and yields in a short reaction time.

  17. Synthesis of nitriles via palladium-catalyzed water shuffling from amides to acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wandi; Haskins, Christopher W; Yang, Yang; Dai, Mingji

    2014-12-07

    Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of nitriles from amides has been described. Two similar, but complementary reaction conditions have been identified to convert various amides including α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated amides, cinnamides, aromatic amides and alkyl amides to the corresponding nitriles in good to excellent yield.

  18. Synthesis of Nitriles via Palladium-Catalyzed Water Shuffling from Amides to Acetonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wandi; Haskins, Christopher W.; Yang, Yang; Dai, Mingji

    2014-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of nitriles from amides has been described. Two similar, but complementary reaction conditions have been identified to convert various amides including α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated amides, cinnamides, aromatic amides and alkyl amides to the corresponding nitriles in good to excellent yield. PMID:25316145

  19. Enantioselective Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative β,β-Fluoroarylation of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Miró, Javier; Del Pozo, Carlos; Toste, F Dean; Fustero, Santos

    2016-07-25

    The site-selective palladium-catalyzed three-component coupling of deactivated alkenes, arylboronic acids, and N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide is disclosed herein. The developed methodology establishes a general, modular, and step-economical approach to the stereoselective β-fluorination of α,β-unsaturated systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Palladium-catalyzed phosphonylation: synthesis of C3-, C4-, and C5-phosphonylated pyrazoles.

    PubMed

    Tran, Gaël; Gomez Pardo, Domingo; Tsuchiya, Tomoki; Hillebrand, Stefan; Vors, Jean-Pierre; Cossy, Janine

    2013-11-01

    A palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling between 3-, 4-, and 5-halo-pyrazoles and H-phosphonates, H-phosphinates, and secondary phosphine oxides has been developed. This coupling reaction constitutes the first general method allowing the introduction of a great diversity of phosphorus substituents on the different carbons of the pyrazole ring in a one-step process.

  1. Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative ortho-arylation of 2-pyridyl sulfoxides with benzoyl peroxides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Jiaxin; Guo, Peiyu; Chen, Xiangxiang; Li, Ya-Min

    2016-12-07

    A palladium catalyzed efficient strategy for regio-selective ortho-arylation of sulfoxides with benzoyl peroxides via decarboxylation has been developed. This reaction proceeds smoothly, tolerates a variety of functional groups, and provides easy access to the synthesis of different biaryl compounds.

  2. Highly efficient ligands for palladium-catalyzed asymmetric alkylation of ketone enolates.

    PubMed

    You, S L; Hou, X L; Dai, L X; Zhu, X Z

    2001-01-25

    [figure: see text] Ferrocene-modified chiral pocket ligands have been studied in the palladium-catalyzed asymmetric alkylation of simple ketone enolates, in which (R,R,Sp,Sp)-1 containing two pairs of matched chiralities, central chirality and planar chirality, behaved very efficiently in this reaction and up to 95% ee value was achieved.

  3. The Construction of All-Carbon Quaternary Stereocenters by Use of Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation Reactions in Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Allen Y.

    2014-01-01

    All-carbon quaternary stereocenters have posed significant challenges in the synthesis of complex natural products. These important structural motifs have inspired the development of broadly applicable palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions of unstabilized non-biased enolates for the synthesis of enantioenriched α-quaternary products. This microreview outlines key considerations in the application of palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions and presents recent total syntheses of complex natural products that have employed these powerful transformations for the direct, catalytic, enantioselective construction of all-carbon quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24944521

  4. Thermosetting composite matrix materials based on allyl and/or propargyl substituted cyclopentadiene, indene and fluorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tregre, Gregory Jude

    A series of all-hydrocarbon thermoset composite matrix resins was synthesized via electrophilic substitution of cyclopentadiene, indene, and fluorene ring systems with allyl and/or propargyl halides under phase transfer conditions. Reaction of cyclopentadiene with allyl chloride (ACP resin), propargyl bromide (PCP resin) or various feed ratios of allyl chloride and propargyl bromide (APCP resins) yielded mixtures of products with 2-6 substituents per cyclopentadiene ring. Reaction of indene with allyl chloride (Al resins) or propargyl bromide (PI resins) yielded mixtures of products with 2-4 substituents per indene. In both sets of resins the allyl functionality obtained a greater average degree of substitution than the analogous propargyl species. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis of the multifunctional resins showed broad, high-energy thermal cures in all cases. The enthalpies of cure for ACP and PCP were 750 J/g and 805 J/g, respectively, with peak cure energies occurring at 310 and 248sp°C. The enthalpy of cure for APCP resins ranged from 750 J/g to 800 J/g with higher propargyl-functional resins yielding higher enthalpies of cure. Physically mixed ACP/PCP resin systems gave peak cure temperatures and energy values comparable to APCP resins. The enthalpies of cure for Al and PI-resins were 480 J/g and 630 J/g, respectively. Peak cure temperature for Al resin was 320sp°C, while the peak cure for PI resin occurred at 282sp°C. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used to evaluate mechanisms of cure in the experimental resins. The allyl functional resins cured through a combination of ene reactions and polyaddition reactions. The propargyl functional resins cured through ene reactions and polyadditions but also underwent some cyclotrimerization of the propargyl functionalities. A small amount of autoxidation was seen in all of the resins. Thermal stability and carbon yields of the cured resins were

  5. A new class of modular P,N-ligand library for asymmetric Pd-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions: a study of the key Pd-pi-allyl intermediates.

    PubMed

    Mazuela, Javier; Paptchikhine, Alexander; Tolstoy, Päivi; Pàmies, Oscar; Diéguez, Montserrat; Andersson, Pher G

    2010-01-11

    A new class of modular P,N-ligand library has been synthesized and screened in the Pd-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions of several substrate types. These series of ligands can be prepared efficiently from easily accessible hydroxyl-oxazole/thiazole derivatives. Their modular nature enables the bridge length, the substituents at the heterocyclic ring and in the alkyl backbone chain, the configuration of the ligand backbone, and the substituents/configurations in the biaryl phosphite moiety to be easily and systematically varied. By carefully selecting the ligand components, therefore, high regio- and enantioselectivities (ee values up to 96 %) and good activities are achieved in a broad range of mono-, di-, and trisubstituted linear hindered and unhindered substrates and cyclic substrates. The NMR spectroscopic and DFT studies on the Pd-pi-allyl intermediates provide a deeper understanding of the effect of ligand parameters on the origin of enantioselectivity.

  6. Facile synthesis of fluoroalkenes by palladium-catalyzed reductive defluorination of allylic gem-difluorides.

    PubMed

    Narumi, Tetsuo; Tomita, Kenji; Inokuchi, Eriko; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Oishi, Shinya; Ohno, Hiroaki; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2007-08-16

    Chemo- and stereoselective synthesis of fluoroalkenes was achieved in excellent yields via Pd-catalyzed C-F bond activation. In this transformation, Et3N plays a crucial role to produce reactive hydride species such as Ph(EtO)SiH2 and Ph(EtO)2SiH by promoting dehydrogenative coupling. The reaction proceeds efficiently at 50 degrees C with a variety of substrates and is also useful for the synthesis of fluoroalkene peptidomimetics.

  7. The NBS Reaction: A Simple Explanation for the Predominance of Allylic Substitution over Olefin Addition by Bromine at Low Concentrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms related to use of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) for bromination at an allylic position. Also presents derived rate laws for three possible reactions of molecular bromine with an alkene: (1) free radical substitution; (2) free radical addition; and (3) electrophilic addition. (JN)

  8. The NBS Reaction: A Simple Explanation for the Predominance of Allylic Substitution over Olefin Addition by Bromine at Low Concentrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms related to use of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) for bromination at an allylic position. Also presents derived rate laws for three possible reactions of molecular bromine with an alkene: (1) free radical substitution; (2) free radical addition; and (3) electrophilic addition. (JN)

  9. Enantioselective palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization of indoles using an axially chiral 2,2'-bipyridine ligand.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wu, Bo; Huang, Wen-Xue; Chen, Mu-Wang; Zhou, Yong-Gui

    2015-10-05

    A palladium-catalyzed enantioselective CH functionalization of indoles was achieved with an axially chiral 2,2'-bipyridine ligand, thus providing the desired indol-3-acetate derivatives with up to 98 % ee. Moreover, the reaction protocol was also effective for asymmetric OH insertion reaction of phenols using α-aryl-α-diazoacetates. This represents the first successful application of bipyridine ligands with axial chirality in palladium-catalyzed carbene migratory insertion reactions.

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed α-Arylation of Aryl Acetic Acid Derivatives via Dienolate Intermediates with Aryl Chlorides and Bromides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To date, examples of α-arylation of carboxylic acids remain scarce. Using a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP), a method for palladium-catalyzed γ-arylation of aryl acetic acids with aryl halides has been developed. This protocol is applicable to a wide range of aryl bromides and chlorides. A procedure for the palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of styryl acetic acids is also described. PMID:25582024

  11. A Mild, Palladium-Catalyzed Method for the Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Bromides: Synthetic and Mechanistic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bissember, Alex C.; Levina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We have exploited a typically undesired elementary step in cross-coupling reactions, β-hydride elimination, to accomplish palladium-catalyzed dehydrohalogenations of alkyl bromides to form terminal olefins. We have applied this method, which proceeds in excellent yield at room temperature in the presence of a variety of functional groups, to a formal total synthesis of (R)-mevalonolactone. Our mechanistic studies establish that the rate-determining step can vary with the structure of the alkyl bromide, and, most significantly, that L2PdHBr (L=phosphine), an often-invoked intermediate in palladium-catalyzed processes such as the Heck reaction, is not an intermediate in the active catalytic cycle. PMID:22905894

  12. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides via tert-butyl isocyanide insertion.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ting; Fei, Xiang-Dong; Ge, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Zhong; Zhu, Yong-Ming; Ji, Shun-Jun

    2013-04-05

    A simple and efficient palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling via tert-butyl isocyanide insertion has been developed, which demonstrates the utility of isocyanides in intermolecular C-C bond construction. This methodology provides a novel pathway for the synthesis of alkynyl imines which can undergo simple silica gel catalyzed hydrolysis to afford alkynones. The approach is tolerant of a wide range of substrates and applicable to library synthesis.

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Amination of Unprotected Five-Membered Heterocyclic Bromides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An efficient method for the palladium-catalyzed amination of unprotected bromoimidazoles and bromopyrazoles is presented. The transformation is facilitated by the use of our newly developed Pd precatalyst based on the bulky biarylphosphine ligand tBuBrettPhos (L4). The mild reaction conditions employed allow for the preparation of a broad scope of aminoimidazoles and aminopyrazoles in moderate to excellent yields. PMID:24417224

  14. Highly Selective Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Secondary Alkylzinc Reagents with Heteroaryl Halides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The highly selective palladium-catalyzed Negishi coupling of secondary alkylzinc reagents with heteroaryl halides is described. The development of a series of biarylphosphine ligands has led to the identification of an improved catalyst for the coupling of electron-deficient heterocyclic substrates. Preparation and characterization of oxidative addition complex (L)(Ar)PdBr provided insight into the unique reactivity of catalysts based on CPhos-type ligands in facilitating challenging reductive elimination processes. PMID:25153332

  15. Enantioselective palladium-catalyzed dearomative cyclization for the efficient synthesis of terpenes and steroids.

    PubMed

    Du, Kang; Guo, Pan; Chen, Yuan; Cao, Zhen; Wang, Zheng; Tang, Wenjun

    2015-03-02

    A novel enantioselective palladium-catalyzed dearomative cyclization has been developed for the efficient construction of a series of chiral phenanthrenone derivatives bearing an all-carbon quaternary center. The effectiveness of this method in the synthesis of terpenes and steroids was demonstrated by a highly efficient synthesis of a kaurene intermediate, the facile construction of the skeleton of the anabolic steroid boldenone, and the enantioselective total synthesis of the antimicrobial diterpene natural product (-)-totaradiol.

  16. Palladium-catalyzed Heck-type cross-couplings of unactivated alkyl iodides.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Caitlin M; Alexanian, Erik J

    2014-06-02

    A palladium-catalyzed, intermolecular Heck-type coupling of alkyl iodides and alkenes is described. This process is successful with a variety of primary and secondary unactivated alkyl iodides as reaction partners, including those with hydrogen atoms in the β position. The mild catalytic conditions enable intermolecular C-C bond formations with a diverse set of alkyl iodides and alkenes, including substrates containing base- or nucleophile-sensitive functionality.

  17. Mild Palladium Catalyzed ortho C-H Bond Functionalizations of Aniline Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Ms Orsolya; Tóth, Mr Balázs; Novák, Zoltán

    2017-02-01

    This account collects the developments and transformations which avoid the utilization of harsh reaction conditions in the field of palladium catalyzed, ortho-directed C-H activation of aniline derivatives from the first attempts to up-to-date results, including the results of our research laboratory. The discussed functionalizations performed under mild conditions include acylation, olefination, arylation, alkylation, alkoxylation reactions. Beside the optimization studies and the synthetic applications mechanistic investigations are also presented.

  18. Development of a palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of cyclopropyl nitriles.

    PubMed

    McCabe Dunn, Jamie M; Kuethe, Jeffrey T; Orr, Robert K; Tudge, Matthew; Campeau, Louis-Charles

    2014-12-19

    1,1-Disubstituted aryl cyclopropyl nitriles are useful moieties in biologically active compounds and provide access to a range of cyclopropyl derivatives. Herein, we describe the development of a palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, and cyclopentyl nitriles that affords these functional groups in one step from a variety of aryl bromides in good to excellent yields. Furthermore, we demonstrate the transformation of aryl cyclopropyl nitriles into aryl trifluoromethyl cyclopropanes.

  19. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of N-allylamines for the synthesis of β-lactams.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Heng; Ye, Keyin; Zhang, Guanghui; Zhang, Wangzheng; Duan, Zhengli; You, Shuli; Lei, Aiwen

    2014-02-24

    β-Lactam scaffolds are considered to be ideal building blocks for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds. A new palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of N-allylamines for the synthesis of α-methylene-β-lactams is reported. DFT calculations suggest that the formation of β-lactams via a four-membered-ring transition state is favorable. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Chelation-assisted palladium-catalyzed direct cyanation of 2-arylpyridine C-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaofei; Yang, Dongpeng; Zhang, Shouhui; Cheng, Jiang

    2009-10-15

    A chelation-assisted palladium-catalyzed ortho-cyanation of the sp2 C-H bond by CuCN provided aromatic nitriles in moderate to good yields. Notably, the reaction could be conducted on a 10 mmol scale. The key intermediate of the natural product of Menispermum dauricum DC was concisely synthesized by the procedure. This new approach represents an exceedingly practical method for the synthesis of aromatic nitriles and offers an attractive alternative to the traditional Sandmeyer reaction.

  1. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of benzyl chlorides with cyclopropanol-derived ketone homoenolates.

    PubMed

    Nithiy, Nisha; Orellana, Arturo

    2014-11-21

    The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of cyclopropanol-derived ketone homoenolates with benzyl chlorides is reported. This reaction proceeds in high yields with electron-neutral and electron-rich benzyl chlorides; however, yields are low with electron-poor benzyl chlorides. In addition, a range of cyclopropanols can be coupled in good yields. The reaction can be conducted with a low catalyst loading (1% Pd) and on a gram scale without reduction in yield.

  2. Enantioselective epoxidation with chiral MN(III)(salen) catalysts: kinetic resolution of aryl-substituted allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Adam, W; Humpf, H U; Roschmann, K J; Saha-Möller, C R

    2001-08-24

    A set of aryl-substituted allylic alcohols rac-2 has been epoxidized by chiral Mn(salen*) complexes 1 as the catalyst and iodosyl benzene (PhIO) as the oxygen source. Whereas one enantiomer of the allylic alcohol 2 is preferentially epoxidized to give the threo- or cis-epoxy alcohol 3 (up to 80% ee) as the main product (dr up to >95:5), the other enantiomer of 2 is enriched (up to 53% ee). In the case of 1,1-dimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalen-2-ol (2c), the CH oxidation to the enone 4c proceeds enantioselectively and competes with the epoxidation. The absolute configurations of the allylic alcohols 2 and their epoxides 3 have been determined by chemical correlation or CD spectroscopy. The observed diastereo- and enantioselectivities in the epoxidation reactions are rationalized in terms of a beneficial interplay between the hydroxy-directing effect and the attack along the Katsuki trajectory.

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Reactions of Arylindium Reagents Prepared Directly from Aryl Iodides and Indium Metal

    PubMed Central

    Papoian, Vardan

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of aryl iodides with indium metal in the presence of lithium chloride leads to the formation of an organoindium reagent capable of participating in cross-coupling reactions under transition-metal catalysis. Combination with aryl halides in the presence of 5 mol% Cl2Pd(dppf) furnishes biaryl compounds in good yields; similarly, reaction with acyl halides or allylic acetates/carbonates in the presence of 5–10 mol % palladium catalyst leads to arylketones and allylic substitution products, respectively, in moderate yields. The reactions are tolerant of the presence of protic solvents, and ~85% of the indium metal employed can be recovered by reduction of the residual indium salts with zinc(0). PMID:18722408

  4. Stereoselective synthesis of stannyl enones via palladium-catalyzed and free radical hydrostannation of alkynyl ketones with trineophyltin hydride.

    PubMed

    Dodero, Verónica I; Koll, Liliana C; Faraoni, M Belén; Mitchell, Terence N; Podestá, Julio C

    2003-12-26

    A study on the addition of trineophyltin hydride (1) to alkynones under free radical (AIBN and Et3B) and palladium-catalyzed [(PPh3)2PdCl2] conditions is reported. The results obtained indicate that the addition of 1 to eight ynones catalyzed by bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) chloride led in all cases to addition products in very high yields (80-96%). These additions take place with excellent regio- and stereochemistry, leading to the alpha adducts as major products in seven out of the eight cases studied. Also the E adducts, resulting from a syn attack, were the only (seven cases) or the predominant (one case) products. The radical hydrostannations initiated by AIBN of ynones 2-5 with 1 led to addition products in good yields (60-88%); with the more hindered ketones 6 and 7-9 the yields obtained were lower. The radical additions initiated by triethylboron to ynones 2-6 follow a similar pattern but with lower yields; no addition products in the hydrostannation of ynones 7-9 were detected. The new acyl-substituted vinylstannanes, owing to their greater stability compared with that of their tributyl- and trimethylstannyl analogues, can be purified by column chromatography using neutral alumina (in all cases) or silica gel 60 (in most cases) as adsorbents. Full 1H, 13C, and 119Sn NMR data are given.

  5. Regioselective synthesis of novel 3-allyl-2-(substituted imino)-4-phenyl-3H-thiazole and 2,2‧-(1,3-phenylene)bis(3-substituted-2-imino-4-phenyl-3H-thiazole) derivatives as antibacterial agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi Shiran, Jafar; Yahyazadeh, Asieh; Mamaghani, Manouchehr; Rassa, Mehdi

    2013-05-01

    Several novel 3-allyl-2-(substituted imino)-4-phenyl-3H-thiazole derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of allyl-thioureas and 2-bromoacetophenone. We also report the synthesis of bis-allyl-3H thiazoles using the reaction of various isothiocyanates and 1,3-phenylenediamine. The structures of all compounds were characterized by spectral and elemental analysis. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited efficient antibacterial activities against Salmonella enterica, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  6. FeCl3·6H2O-catalyzed intramolecular allylic amination: synthesis of substituted dihydroquinolines and quinolines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiming; Li, Shen; Yu, Bin; Wu, Haibo; Wang, Yurong; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2012-10-05

    A facile and efficient method to synthesize 2- or 4-substituted 1,2-dihydroquinolines and quinolines catalyzed by FeCl(3)·6H(2)O (2 mol %) was described. The iron-catalyzed intramolecular allylic amination of 2-aminophenyl-1-en-3-ols proceeded smoothly to afford 13 1,2-dihydroquinoline and 8 quinoline derivatives under mild reaction conditions with good to excellent yields (up to 96%).

  7. Palladium-catalyzed microwave-assisted direct arylation of imidazo[2,1-b]thiazoles with aryl bromides: synthesis and mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi-Shuo; Shi, Benyi; Fang, Ran; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Jing, Huanwang

    2014-08-14

    A palladium-catalyzed direct C-H arylation of various imidazo[2,1-b]thiazoles with a range of aryl bromides under microwave irradiation is described. 6-Phenyl substituted imidazo[2,1-b]thiazoles could be regioselectively C-5 arylated using the developed protocol. The utility of this method enables the representative coupling product to be achieved by a sequential one-pot reaction. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that this arylation proceeds via a concerted metalation-deprotonation (CMD) pathway, which is in agreement with our experimental results. This work provides a convenient access to a variety of biologically active imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole derivatives. Also, it enriches the mechanism study of site-selective C-H arylation in fused heterocycles, and offers a valuable guide to design highly efficient catalytic systems for the preparation of similar compounds.

  8. Theoretical Bond Dissociation Energies of Halo-Heterocycles: Trends and Relationships to Regioselectivity in Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Yeimy; Schoenebeck, Franziska; Legault, Claude Y.; Merlic, Craig A.; Houk, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Selectivity of the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of heterocycles bearing multiple identical halogens is mainly determined by the relative ease of oxidative addition. This is related to both the energy to distort the carbon halogen bond to the transition-state geometry (related to the CX bond-dissociation energy) and to the interaction between the heterocycle π* (LUMO) and PdL2 HOMO (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 12664). The computed bond dissociation energies of a larger series of halo-heterocycles have been explored with B3LYP and higher accuracy G3B3 calculations. Quantitative trends in bond dissociation energies have been identified for five- and six-membered chloro and bromo substituted heterocycles with N, O, and S heteroatoms. PMID:19368385

  9. An advantageous route to oxcarbazepine (trileptal) based on palladium-catalyzed arylations free of transmetallating agents.

    PubMed

    Carril, Mónica; SanMartin, Raul; Churruca, Fátima; Tellitu, Imanol; Domínguez, Esther

    2005-10-27

    [reaction: see text] A new route to oxcarbazepine (Trileptal), the most widely prescribed antiepileptic drug, starting from commercially available 2'-aminoacetophenone and 1,2-dibromobenzene, is reported. The sequentially accomplished key steps are palladium-catalyzed intermolecular alpha-arylation of ketone enolates and intramolecular N-arylation reactions. After several experiments to establish the best conditions for both arylation processes, the target oxcarbazepine is obtained in a satisfactory overall yield, minimizing the number of steps and employing scalable catalytic procedures developed in partially aqueous media.

  10. Palladium-catalyzed N-acylation of monosubstituted ureas using near-stoichiometric carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Bjerglund, Klaus; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2012-04-20

    The palladium-catalyzed carbonylation of urea derivatives with aryl iodides and bromides afforded N-benzoyl ureas (20 examples) in yields attaining quantitative via the application of near-stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide generated from the decarbonylation of the CO precursor, 9-methylfluorene-9-carbonyl chloride. The synthetic protocol displayed good functional group tolerance. The methodology is also highly suitable for (13)C isotope labeling, which was demonstrated through the synthesis of three benzoyl ureas, including the insecticide triflumuron, whereby (13)CO was incorporated into the core structure. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Acetoxylation of Benzene using NOx-Based Redox Mediators‡

    PubMed Central

    Zultanski, Susan L.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2015-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed methods for C–H oxygenation with O2 as the stoichiometric oxidant are limited. Here, we describe the use of nitrite and nitrate sources as NOx-based redox mediators in the acetoxylation of benzene. The conditions completely avoid formation of biphenyl as a side product, and strongly favor formation of phenyl acetate over nitrobenzene (PhOAc:PhNO2 ratios up to 40:1). Under the optimized reaction conditions, with 0.1 mol% Pd(OAc)2, 136 turnovers of Pd are achieved with only 1 atm of O2 pressure. PMID:25843978

  12. Palladium-catalyzed tandem addition/cyclization in aqueous medium: synthesis of 2-arylindoles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuling; Hu, Kun; Gong, Julin; Qi, Linjun; Zhu, Jianghe; Zhang, Yetong; Cheng, Tianxing; Chen, Jiuxi

    2017-05-23

    An efficient protocol to construct 2-arylindoles was developed through palladium-catalyzed tandem addition/cyclization of potassium aryltrifluoroborates with aliphatic nitriles in aqueous medium. The use of water as the reaction medium makes the synthesis process environmentally benign. A plausible mechanism for the formation of 2-arylindoles involving sequential nucleophilic addition followed by an intramolecular cyclization is proposed. Moreover, the utility of this catalytic tandem transformation was also demonstrated in an efficient gram-scale synthesis. This method provides an alternative synthetic tool for accessing a more diverse array of 2-arylindoles.

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation of Carbasugars Enables the Discovery of Potent and Selective SGLT2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wai-Lung; Lau, Kit-Man; Lau, Clara B-S; Shing, Tony K M

    2016-10-24

    Selective inhibition of the transporter protein sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) has emerged as a promising way to control blood glucose level in diabetes patients. Reported herein is a short and convergent synthetic route towards some small-molecule SGLT2 inhibitors by a chemo- and diastereospecific palladium-catalyzed arylation reaction. This synthetic strategy enabled the discovery of two highly selective and potent SGLT2 inhibitors, thereby paving the way towards the development of carbasugar SGLT2 inhibitors as potential antidiabetic/antitumor agents.

  14. Asymmetric Synthesis of Fluorinated Isoindolinones through Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylative Amination of Enantioenriched Benzylic Carbamates.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Pablo; Ibáñez, Ignacio; Herrera, Lidia; Román, Raquel; Catalán, Silvia; Fustero, Santos

    2015-08-03

    The asymmetric synthesis of fluorinated isoindolinones has been achieved by a palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation reaction of the corresponding α-fluoroalkyl o-iodobenzylamines. A base-mediated anti β-hydride elimination process was suggested to explain the partial erosion of the optical purity observed in some cases. This mechanistic rationale enabled the minimization of this partial racemization by fine-tuning the pKa of the base. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Coupling: An Efficient Synthetic Strategy for the Construction of the Quinoline Core

    PubMed Central

    Carral-Menoyo, Asier; Ortiz-de-Elguea, Verónica; Martinez-Nunes, Mikel; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed dehydrogenative coupling is an efficient synthetic strategy for the construction of quinoline scaffolds, a privileged structure and prevalent motif in many natural and biologically active products, in particular in marine alkaloids. Thus, quinolines and 1,2-dihydroquinolines can be selectively obtained in moderate-to-good yields via intramolecular C–H alkenylation reactions, by choosing the reaction conditions. This methodology provides a direct method for the construction of this type of quinoline through an efficient and atom economical procedure, and constitutes significant advance over the existing procedures that require preactivated reaction partners. PMID:28867803

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Coupling: An Efficient Synthetic Strategy for the Construction of the Quinoline Core.

    PubMed

    Carral-Menoyo, Asier; Ortiz-de-Elguea, Verónica; Martinez-Nunes, Mikel; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther

    2017-08-30

    Palladium-catalyzed dehydrogenative coupling is an efficient synthetic strategy for the construction of quinoline scaffolds, a privileged structure and prevalent motif in many natural and biologically active products, in particular in marine alkaloids. Thus, quinolines and 1,2-dihydroquinolines can be selectively obtained in moderate-to-good yields via intramolecular C-H alkenylation reactions, by choosing the reaction conditions. This methodology provides a direct method for the construction of this type of quinoline through an efficient and atom economical procedure, and constitutes significant advance over the existing procedures that require preactivated reaction partners.

  17. Palladium-catalyzed hydroaminocarbonylation of alkenes with amines: a strategy to overcome the basicity barrier imparted by aliphatic amines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoying; Gao, Bao; Huang, Hanmin

    2015-06-22

    A novel and efficient palladium-catalyzed hydroaminocarbonylation of alkenes with aminals has been developed under mild reaction conditions, and allows the synthesis of a wide range of N-alkyl linear amides in good yields with high regioselectivity. On the basis of this method, a cooperative catalytic system operating by the synergistic combination of palladium, paraformaldehyde, and acid was established for promoting the hydroaminocarbonylation of alkenes with both aromatic and aliphatic amines, which do not react well under conventional palladium-catalyzed hydroaminocarbonylation.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of 2'-O-allyl substituted dinucleotide cap analog for mRNA translation.

    PubMed

    Kore, Anilkumar R; Charles, Irudaya

    2010-11-15

    The first example of the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new analog containing 2'-OH modification on m(7)G moiety, that is, m(7,2'-)(O-Allyl)GpppG is reported. The effect of the 2'-O-allyl substitution on cap analog has been evaluated with respect to its in vitro transcription by using T7 RNA polymerase, capping efficiency, and translational activity. The gel shift assay indicates that the new cap analog has 59% capping efficiency whereas the standard cap analog, m(7)GpppG has a capping efficiency of 70%. The capping efficiency experiment clearly demonstrates that the new analog was a substrate for T7 RNA polymerase. The nature of the orientation has been determined by HPLC that reveals that the new analog incorporates exclusively in the forward orientation. It is noteworthy that the mRNA poly(A) capped with 2'-O-allyl substituted cap analog was translated ∼1.7-fold more efficiently than the mRNA capped with standard cap analog. Based on the higher translational data compared to the standard cap analog, it is likely that the new analog may find application that utilize mRNA transfection such as protein production, anti-cancer immunization, and gene therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of amines with alkenyl bromides: a new method for the synthesis of enamines and imines.

    PubMed

    Barluenga, José; Fernández, M Alejandro; Aznar, Fernando; Valdés, Carlos

    2004-01-23

    The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of alkenyl bromides with secondary and primary amines gives rise to enamines and imines, respectively. This new transformation expands the applicability of palladium-catalyzed C-N bond forming reactions (the Buchwald-Hartwig amination), which have mostly been applied to aryl halides. After screening of different ligands, bases, and solvents, the catalytic combination [Pd(2)(dba)(3)]/BINAP in the presence of NaOtBu in toluene gave the best results in the cross-coupling of secondary amines with 1-bromostyrene (dba=dibenzylideneacetone, BINAP=2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl). The corresponding enamines are obtained cleanly and in nearly quantitative yields. However, steric hindrance seems to be a limitation of the reaction, as amines carrying large substituents are not well converted. The same methodology can be applied to the coupling of secondary amines with 2-bromostyrene. Moreover, the reaction with substituted 2-bromopropenes allows regioselective synthesis of isomerizable terminal enamines without isomerization of the double bond. The best catalytic conditions for the cross-coupling of 1-bromostyrene with primary amines include again the use of the Pd(0)/BINAP/NaOtBu system. The reaction gives rise to the expected imines in very short times and with low catalyst loadings. A set of structurally diverse imines can be prepared by this methodology through variations in the structure of both coupling partners. However, 2-bromostyrene failed to give good results in this coupling reaction, probably due to product inhibition of the catalytic cycle. Competition experiments of vinyl versus aryl amination reveal that the reaction occurs preferentially on vinyl bromides.

  20. Expanding the scope of Metal-Free enantioselective allylic substitutions: Anthrones

    PubMed Central

    Ceban, Victor; Tauchman, Jiří; Meazza, Marta; Gallagher, Greg; Light, Mark E.; Gergelitsová, Ivana; Veselý, Jan; Rios, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The highly enantioselective asymmetric allylic alkylation of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates with anthrones is presented. The reaction is simply catalyzed by cinchona alkaloid derivatives affording the final alkylated products in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:26592555

  1. Expanding the scope of Metal-Free enantioselective allylic substitutions: Anthrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceban, Victor; Tauchman, Jiří; Meazza, Marta; Gallagher, Greg; Light, Mark E.; Gergelitsová, Ivana; Veselý, Jan; Rios, Ramon

    2015-11-01

    The highly enantioselective asymmetric allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with anthrones is presented. The reaction is simply catalyzed by cinchona alkaloid derivatives affording the final alkylated products in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities.

  2. Synthesis of triazafluoranthenones via silver(I)-mediated nonoxidative and oxidative intramolecular palladium-catalyzed cyclizations.

    PubMed

    Koutentis, Panayiotis A; Loizou, Georgia; Lo Re, Daniele

    2011-07-15

    Silver(I) fluoride (AgF)-mediated intramolecular nonoxidative and oxidative palladium-catalyzed cyclizations of 1,3-diphenyl- and 8-iodo-1,3-diphenylbenzo[e][1,2,4]triazin-7(1H)-ones 6a (R = H) and 7a (R = I) afford a new 'alkaloid like' ring system 2-phenyl-6H-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6,1-jk]carbazol-6-one 8a (triazafluoranthenone) in 86 and 100% yields, respectively. Furthermore, these cyclization protocols were used to prepare triazafluoranthenone analogues 8b-e bearing dialkylamino, methoxy, and phenylsulfanyl substituents at C-5, which were also independently synthesized from triazafluoranthenone 8a by regioselective nucleophilic addition. Similar AgF-mediated intramolecular nonoxidative and oxidative palladium-catalyzed cyclizations of 8,10-dihydro-1-iodo-10-phenylphenazin-2(7H)-ones 13 gave the new 'alkaloid like' ring system 8H-indolo[1,2,3-mn]phenazin-8-one 14 in 80 and 18% yields, respectively.

  3. An efficient method for the preparation of tertiary esters by palladium-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of aryl bromides.

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhuo; Gøgsig, Thomas M; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2012-01-06

    The palladium-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of aryl bromides is described for the efficient preparation of tertiary esters. The protocol proved compatible with a wide variety of functionalized (hetero)aromatic bromides, as well as several different sterically hindered tertiary alcohols, affording the alkoxycarbonylated products in high yields. Finally, the formation of aromatic trityl esters is discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Enantioselective palladium-catalyzed arylation of N-tosylarylimines with arylboronic acids using a chiral 2,2'-bipyridine ligand.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wu, Bo; Yan, Zhong; Zhou, Yong-Gui

    2016-01-07

    With the aid of an axially chiral 2,2'-bipyridine ligand, we have successfully developed a palladium-catalyzed method for the enantioselective arylation of N-tosylarylimines, furnishing the chiral diarylmethamines with high yields and enantioselectivities under very mild conditions. An exogenous base was avoided and imine hydrolysis was inhibited in this transformation.

  5. Synthesis of 3-acylindoles by palladium-catalyzed acylation of free (N-H) indoles with nitriles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao-Shan; Wang, Guan-Wu

    2013-02-15

    An efficient palladium-catalyzed synthesis of 3-acylindoles using free (N-H) indoles and nitriles has been developed. The acylation reaction proceeded well under the Pd(OAc)(2)/2,2'-bipyridine system and with D-(+)-camphorsulfonic acid as the additive. A possible mechanism involving carbopalladation of nitriles and subsequent hydrolysis of ketimines is proposed.

  6. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative amination of alkenes: improved catalyst reoxidation enables the use of alkene as the limiting reagent.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michelle M; Kotov, Vasily; Chatwichien, Jaruwan; Stahl, Shannon S

    2007-10-11

    Palladium-catalyzed methods for intermolecular aerobic oxidative amination of alkenes have been identified that are compatible with the use of alkene as the limiting reagent. These procedures, which enhance the utility of this reaction with alkenes that are not commercially available, are demonstrated with substrates bearing dialkyl ether, carboxyester, epoxide, and silyl ether groups.

  7. Formal synthesis of nitidine and NK109 via palladium-catalyzed domino direct arylation/N-arylation of aryl triflates.

    PubMed

    Blanchot, Mathieu; Candito, David A; Larnaud, Florent; Lautens, Mark

    2011-03-18

    The use of aryl triflates as reaction partners in a palladium-catalyzed domino direct arylation/N-arylation provides a great advantage due to the availability of starting materials. Furthermore, it allows expedient access to biologically interesting benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids.

  8. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl fluorides with N-tosylhydrazones via C-F bond activation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haiqing; Wu, Guojiao; Xu, Shuai; Wang, Kang; Wu, Chaoqiang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-09-04

    A palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of electron-deficient aryl fluorides with aryl N-tosylhydrazones has been reported. Mechanistically, this approach involves C-F bond activation and migratory insertion of palladium carbene as the two key steps.

  9. Tsuji-Trost N-allylation with allylic acetates using cellulose-Pd catalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    Allylic amines are synthesized using heterogeneous cellulose-Pd catalyst via N-allylation of amines; aliphatic and benzyl amines undergo facile reaction with substituted and unsubstituted allyl acetates in high yields.

  10. Tsuji-Trost N-allylation with allylic acetates using cellulose-Pd catalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    Allylic amines are synthesized using heterogeneous cellulose-Pd catalyst via N-allylation of amines; aliphatic and benzyl amines undergo facile reaction with substituted and unsubstituted allyl acetates in high yields.

  11. Palladium-catalyzed direct arylation and cyclization of o-iodobiaryls to a library of tetraphenylenes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chendan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Di; Sun, Wei-Yin; Shi, Zhuangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Aryl–aryl bond formation constitutes one of the most important subjects in organic synthesis. The recent developments in direct arylation reactions forming aryl–aryl bond have emerged as very attractive alternatives to traditional cross-coupling reactions. Here, we describe a general palladium-catalyzed direct arylation and cyclization of o-iodobiaryls to build a library of tetraphenylenes. This transformation represents one of the very few examples of C-H activation process that involves simultaneous formation of two aryl–aryl bonds. Oxygen plays a vital role by ensuring high reactivity, with air as the promoter furnished the best results. We anticipate this ligand-free and aerobic catalytic system will simplify the synthesis of tetraphenylenes as many of the reported methods involve use of preformed organometallic reagents and will lead to the discovery of highly efficient new direct arylation process. PMID:27629701

  12. The syn/anti-Dichotomy in the Palladium-Catalyzed Addition of Nucleophiles to Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Kočovský, Pavel; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2015-01-01

    In this review the stereochemistry of palladium-catalyzed addition of nucleophiles to alkenes is discussed, and examples of these reactions in organic synthesis are given. Most of the reactions discussed involve oxygen and nitrogen nucleophiles; the Wacker oxidation of ethylene has been reviewed in detail. An anti-hydroxypalladation in the Wacker oxidation has strong support from both experimental and computational studies. From the reviewed material it is clear that anti-addition of oxygen and nitrogen nucleophiles is strongly favored in intermolecular addition to olefin–palladium complexes even if the nucleophile is coordinated to the metal. On the other hand, syn-addition is common in the case of intramolecular oxy- and amidopalladation as a result of the initial coordination of the internal nucleophile to the metal. PMID:25378278

  13. Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed Alkoxycarbonylation of Bulk Industrial Olefins Using Ferrocenyl Phosphine Ligands.

    PubMed

    Dong, Kaiwu; Sang, Rui; Fang, Xianjie; Franke, Robert; Spannenberg, Anke; Neumann, Helfried; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2017-05-02

    The development of ligands plays a key role and provides important innovations in homogeneous catalysis. In this context, we report a novel class of ferrocenyl phosphines for the alkoxycarbonylation of industrially important alkenes. A basic feature of our ligands is the combination of sterically hindered and amphoteric moieties on the P atoms, which leads to improved activity and productivity for alkoxycarbonylation reactions compared to the current industrial state-of-the-art ligand 1,2-bis((di-tert-butylphosphino)methyl)benzene). Advantageously, palladium catalysts with these novel ligands also enable such transformations without additional acid under milder reaction conditions. The practicability of the optimized ligand was demonstrated by preparation on >10 g scale and its use in palladium-catalyzed carbonylations on kilogram scale. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Mild and Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed Direct Trifluoroethylation of Aromatic Systems by C-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Balázs L; Kovács, Szabolcs; Sályi, Gergő; Novák, Zoltán

    2016-02-05

    The introduction of trifluoroalkyl groups into aromatic molecules is an important transformation in the field of organic and medicinal chemistry. However, the direct installation of fluoroalkyl groups onto aromatic molecules still represents a challenging and highly demanding synthetic task. Herein, a simple trifluoroethylation process that relies on the palladium-catalyzed C-H activation of aromatic compounds is described. With the utilization of a highly active trifluoroethyl(mesityl)iodonium salt, the developed catalytic method enables the first highly efficient and selective trifluoroethylation of aromatic compounds. The robust catalytic procedure provides the desired products in up to 95 % yield at 25 °C in 1.5 to 3 hours and tolerates a broad range of functional groups. The utilization of hypervalent reagents opens new synthetic possibilities for direct alkylations and fluoroalkylations in the field of transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activation.

  15. Biphasic Palladium-Catalyzed Hydroesterification in a Polyol Phase: Selective Synthesis of Derived Monoesters.

    PubMed

    Pruvost, Romain; Boulanger, Jérôme; Léger, Bastien; Ponchel, Anne; Monflier, Eric; Ibert, Mathias; Mortreux, André; Sauthier, Mathieu

    2015-06-22

    The palladium-catalyzed hydroesterification reaction was performed with polyols and olefins in a liquid/liquid biphasic system composed of unreacted polyol on the one hand and apolar reaction products/organic solvents on the other hand. The palladium-based catalyst was immobilized in the polyol phase thanks to the use of cationic triarylphosphines possessing pendent protonated amino groups in the acidic reaction medium or to the sulfonated phosphine TPPTS (trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3''-trisulfonate). Owing to the insolubility of the products in the catalytic phase, this approach allowed the synthesis of monoesters of polyols with high selectivities as well as the easy separation of the catalyst through simple decantation.

  16. Palladium-catalyzed C-F activation of polyfluoronitrobenzene derivatives in Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Cargill, Matthew R; Sandford, Graham; Tadeusiak, Andrezj J; Yufit, Dmitrii S; Howard, Judith A K; Kilickiran, Pinar; Nelles, Gabrielle

    2010-09-03

    Highly fluorinated nitrobenzene derivatives are suitable substrates for palladium-catalyzed C-F bond arylation using readily available palladium catalysts under both conventional heating and microwave conditions. Arylation occurs ortho to the nitro group offering a synthetic route to polyfluorinated 2-arylnitrobenzene systems. The regiochemistry of the arylation reactions suggests that there is a significant directing interaction between the nitro group and the incoming nucleophilic palladium catalyst which is facilitated by the presence of several fluorine atoms attached the ring. Investigations into the regioselectivity and reactivity of several tetrafluoro- and trifluoronitrobenzene derivatives provides further evidence for the highly nucleophilic character of the oxidative addition step in contrast to the concerted mechanism of more conventional Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions involving aryl iodides and bromides.

  17. Palladium-catalyzed direct arylation and cyclization of o-iodobiaryls to a library of tetraphenylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chendan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Di; Sun, Wei-Yin; Shi, Zhuangzhi

    2016-09-01

    Aryl–aryl bond formation constitutes one of the most important subjects in organic synthesis. The recent developments in direct arylation reactions forming aryl–aryl bond have emerged as very attractive alternatives to traditional cross-coupling reactions. Here, we describe a general palladium-catalyzed direct arylation and cyclization of o-iodobiaryls to build a library of tetraphenylenes. This transformation represents one of the very few examples of C-H activation process that involves simultaneous formation of two aryl–aryl bonds. Oxygen plays a vital role by ensuring high reactivity, with air as the promoter furnished the best results. We anticipate this ligand-free and aerobic catalytic system will simplify the synthesis of tetraphenylenes as many of the reported methods involve use of preformed organometallic reagents and will lead to the discovery of highly efficient new direct arylation process.

  18. Development of Safe and Scalable Continuous-Flow Methods for Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation Reactions†

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xuan; Diao, Tianning

    2010-01-01

    Summary The synthetic scope and utility of Pd-catalyzed aerobic oxidation reactions has advanced significantly over the past decade, and these reactions have potential to address important green-chemistry challenges in the pharmaceutical industry. This potential has been unrealized, however, because safety concerns and process constraints hinder large-scale applications of this chemistry. These limitations are addressed by the development of a continuous-flow tube reactor, which has been demonstrated on several scales in the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. Use of a dilute oxygen gas source (8% O2 in N2) ensures that the oxygen/organic mixture never enters the explosive regime, and efficient gas-liquid mixing in the reactor minimizes decomposition of the homogeneous catalyst into inactive Pd metal. These results provide the basis for large-scale implementation of palladium-catalyzed (and other) aerobic oxidation reactions for pharmaceutical synthesis. PMID:20694169

  19. Catalytic, nucleophilic allylation of aldehydes with 2-substituted allylic acetates: carbon-carbon bond formation driven by the water-gas shift reaction.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Matesich, Zachery D

    2014-07-03

    The ruthenium-catalyzed allylation of aldehydes with allylic acetates has been expanded to incorporate substituents at the 2-position of the allylic components. Allylic acetates bearing a variety of substituents (CO2-t-Bu, COMe, Ph, CH(OEt)2, and Me) undergo high-yielding additions with aromatic, α,β-unsaturated, and aliphatic aldehydes. The conditions of the reaction were found to be mild (75 °C, 24-48 h) and only required the use of 2-3 mol % of the triruthenium dodecacarbonyl catalyst under 40-80 psi of CO. The stoichiometries of water and allylic acetate employed were found to be critical to reaction efficiency.

  20. Enantioselective synthesis of β-substituted chiral allylic amines via Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingli; Gao, Wenchao; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu

    2016-09-27

    An asymmetric mono-hydrogenation of 2-acetamido-1,3-dienes catalyzed by a Rh-DuanPhos complex has been developed. This approach provides easy access to chiral allylic amines with excellent enantioselectivities and high regioselectivities. The products are valuable chiral building blocks for pharmaceuticals.

  1. Dibenzo[a,c]carbazoles from 2-(2-bromoaryl)-3-arylindoles via a palladium-catalyzed intramolecular C-H functionalization/C-C bond formation process.

    PubMed

    Cacchi, Sandro; Fabrizi, Giancarlo; Goggiamani, Antonella; Iazzetti, Antonia

    2012-12-14

    The palladium-catalyzed cyclization of 2-(2-bromoaryl)-3-arylindoles provides a new versatile approach to dibenzo[a,c]carbazoles. The reaction tolerates a variety of useful substituents including chloro, nitro, ether, cyano, keto, and ester groups.

  2. A convergent synthesis of the C1-C16 segment of goniodomin A via palladium-catalyzed organostannane-thioester coupling.

    PubMed

    Fuwa, Haruhiko; Nakajima, Motohiro; Shi, Jinglu; Takeda, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Makoto

    2011-03-04

    A convergent synthesis of the C1-C16 segment of goniodomin A, an actin-targeting marine polyether macrolide natural product, has been achieved via a 2-fold application of palladium-catalyzed organostannane-thioester coupling.

  3. Iodination of carbohydrate-derived 1,2-oxazines to enantiopure 5-iodo-3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazines and subsequent palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions

    PubMed Central

    Medvecký, Michal; Linder, Igor; Schefzig, Luise

    2016-01-01

    Iodination of carbohydrate-derived 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazines of type 3 using iodine and pyridine in DMF furnished 5-iodo-substituted 1,2-oxazine derivatives 4 with high efficacy. The alkenyl iodide moiety of 1,2-oxazine derivatives syn-4 and anti-4 was subsequently exploited for the introduction of new functionalities at the C-5 position by applying palladium-catalyzed carbon–carbon bond-forming reactions such as Sonogashira, Heck, or Suzuki coupling reactions as well as a cyanation reaction. These cross-coupling reactions led to a series of 5-alkynyl-, 5-alkenyl-, 5-aryl- and 5-cyano-substituted 1,2-oxazine derivatives being of considerable interest for further synthetic elaborations. This was exemplarily demonstrated by the hydrogenation of syn-21 and anti-24 and by a click reaction of a 5-alkynyl-substituted precursor. PMID:28144363

  4. Indium-Mediated Stereoselective Allylation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Vemula, Sandeep R; Balasubramanian, Narayanaganesh; Cook, Gregory R

    2016-10-04

    reagent, probably through disruption of aggregates and coordination to the metal. We recently reported the palladium-catalyzed umpolung allylation of hydrazones with allyl acetates in the presence of indium(I) iodide (InI) with excellent diastereoselectivity (up to 99:1). The conversion was found to be inversely proportional to the phosphine concentration, providing insight into the mechanism of the critical redox transmetalation process that has implications for other Pd-catalyzed umpolung-type allylation processes. A detailed overview of the work in our lab is presented with the intention of stimulating further research interest in organoindium chemistry and its application in organic synthesis.

  5. One pot iridium-catalyzed asymmetrical double allylations of sodium sulfide: a fast and economic way to construct chiral C2-symmetric bis(1-substituted-allyl)sulfane.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shengcai; Huang, Weiqing; Gao, Ning; Cui, Ruimin; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Xiaoming

    2011-06-28

    One pot asymmetrical double allylations of sodium sulfide catalyzed by an iridium complex along with a combination of caesium fluoride and water in dichloromethane have been realized and the double allylation products with two C-S bond chiral centers were obtained in 67-99% yields with b/l 81/19-99/1, dr 85/15-99/1, and 96-99% ee.

  6. Stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic compounds by intramolecular palladium-catalyzed addition of aryl iodides to carbonyl groups

    PubMed Central

    Saadi, Jakub; Bentz, Christoph; Redies, Kai; Lentz, Dieter; Zimmer, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Summary Starting from γ-ketoesters with an o-iodobenzyl group we studied a palladium-catalyzed cyclization process that stereoselectively led to bi- and tricyclic compounds in moderate to excellent yields. Four X-ray crystal structure analyses unequivocally defined the structure of crucial cyclization products. The relative configuration of the precursor compounds is essentially transferred to that of the products and the formed hydroxy group in the newly generated cyclohexane ring is consistently in trans-arrangement with respect to the methoxycarbonyl group. A transition-state model is proposed to explain the observed stereochemical outcome. This palladium-catalyzed Barbier-type reaction requires a reduction of palladium(II) back to palladium(0) which is apparently achieved by the present triethylamine. PMID:27559374

  7. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of silanolates: a paradigm shift in silicon-based cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Baird, John D

    2006-06-23

    This paper chronicles the conceptual development, proof of principle experiments, and recent advances in the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of the conjugate bases of organosilanols. The discovery that led to the design and refinement of this process represents a classical illustration of how mechanistic studies can provide a fertile ground for the invention of new reactions. On the basis of a working hypothesis (which ultimately proved to be incorrect) and the desire to effect silicon-based cross-coupling without the agency of fluoride activation, a mild and practical palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of alkenyl-, aryl-, and heteroaryl silanolates has been developed. The mechanistic underpinnings, methodological extensions, and the successful applications of this technology to the synthesis of complex molecules are described.

  8. Combinatorial synthesis of RGD model cyclic peptides utilizing a palladium-catalyzed carbonylative macrolactamization on a polymer support.

    PubMed

    Kamioka, Seiji; Shimazu, Sayaka; Doi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    A combinatorial synthesis of 24-member RGD models was accomplished on polymer-support. Ortho-, meta-, and para-iodobenzylamines loaded on an aldehyde linker by reductive amination were coupled with RGD sequences and various omega-amino acids by a split-and-pool method. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative macrolactamization of the polymer-supported cyclization precursors, followed by acid cleavage, provided conformationally restricted RGD model cyclic peptides.

  9. A general synthesis of fluoroalkylated alkenes by palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of fluoroalkyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhang; Min, Qiao-Qiao; Zhao, Hai-Yang; Gu, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Xingang

    2015-01-19

    An efficient palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of fluoroalkyl halides, including perfluoroalkyl bromides, trifluoromethyl iodides, and difluoroalkyl bromides, has been developed. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions with high efficiency and broad substrate scope, and provides a general and straightforward access to fluoroalkylated alkenes which are of interest in life and material sciences. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Palladium-catalyzed arylation of ketone enolates: an expeditious entry to tamoxifen-related 1,2,2-triarylethanones.

    PubMed

    Churruca, Fátima; SanMartin, Raul; Tellitu, Imanol; Domínguez, Esther

    2002-05-02

    [reaction: see text]. After a rigorous study on the effect of several catalytic systems, a simple, high yielding procedure for the preparation of 1,2,2-triarylethanones, skeletal analogues of tamoxifen, is presented. Apart from the economic and environmental advantages involved, this palladium-catalyzed arylation of deoxybenzoin enolates features a lack of ortho-arylation side reactions. In addition, an alternative approach from acetophenones to the target triarylethanone system is also announced.

  11. An approach to the synthesis of dimeric resveratrol natural products via a palladium-catalyzed domino reaction

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, Jenna L.; Sarpong, Richmond

    2009-01-01

    A route for the rapid assembly of the carbon framework of several resveratrol natural products is presented. A palladium-catalyzed domino reaction of bromostilbene derivative 6 and tolane 7, involving two sequential Heck coupling reactions, provides access to the benzofulvene-based core of various resveratrol-derived natural products. The carbon skeleton of pallidol and its congeners is achieved by a Lewis acid-induced Nazarov-type oxidative cyclization of 9. PMID:20161322

  12. Palladium-Catalyzed C-2 C-H Heteroarylation of Chiral Oxazolines: Diverse Synthesis of Chiral Oxazoline Ligands.

    PubMed

    Xi, Tuo; Mei, Yuncai; Lu, Zhan

    2015-12-18

    A direct, efficient, and practical protocol to install a chiral oxazoline unit onto aryl/heteroaryl rings via palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization of 2-positions of oxazolines with a variety of halides using dppe as the ligand has been developed. Various chiral oxazoline ligands could be synthesized, even in a 10-g scale process. This protocol is a good supplement to traditional methods and for diverse synthesis of chiral oxazoline ligands.

  13. Ligand bite angle-dependent palladium-catalyzed cyclization of propargylic carbonates to 2-alkynyl azacycles or cyclic dienamides.

    PubMed

    Daniels, David S B; Jones, Alison S; Thompson, Amber L; Paton, Robert S; Anderson, Edward A

    2014-02-10

    The regioselectivity of the palladium-catalyzed cyclization of propargylic carbonates with sulfonamide nucleophiles is critically dependent on the bite angle of the bidentate phosphine ligand. Ligands with small bite angles favor attack on the central carbon atom of an allenylpalladium intermediate to afford cyclic dienamide products, whereas the use of those with large bite angles leads to alkynyl azacycles, with high stereoselectivity. A computational analysis of the reaction pathway is also presented.

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed Tandem Carbene Migratory Insertion and Intramolecular Cyclization: Synthesis of Chromeno[4,3-b]chromene Compounds.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xue Song; Li, Nian Tai; Siyang, Hai Xiao; Liu, Pei Nian

    2015-05-01

    Chromeno[4,3-b]chromene is a ubiquitous structural motif found in various pharmaceuticals and biologically active compounds. A concise palladium-catalyzed reaction of vinyl iodides and salicyl N-tosylhydrazones has been achieved to afford a series of compounds containing the chromeno[4,3-b]chromene scaffold in moderate to high yield. This tandem reaction involves palladium(II) carbene migratory insertion and intramolecular cyclization assisted by an O nucleophile and tolerates various functional groups.

  15. A Bulky Biaryl Phosphine Ligand Allows for Palladium-Catalyzed Amidation of Five-Membered Heterocycles as Electrophiles**

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mingjuan; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed amidation of five-membered heterocyclic bromides that contain multiple heteroatoms was achieved for the first time using the Pd/1 catalyst system. This system allows for efficient access to N-arylated imidazoles, pyrazoles, thiazoles, pyrroles, and thiophenes in moderate to excellent yield. Experimental results and DFT calculations point to the need for electron-rich and especially sterically demanding biaryl phosphine ligand to promote these difficult cross-coupling reactions. PMID:22473747

  16. A general and practical palladium-catalyzed monoarylation of β-methyl C(sp³)-H of alanine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Shuo-Qing; Xu, Jing-Wen; Hu, Fang; Shi, Bing-Feng

    2014-11-21

    A palladium-catalyzed monoarylation of β-methyl C(sp(3))-H of an alanine derivative with aryl iodides using an 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary is described. The reaction is highly efficient, scalable and compatible with a variety of functional groups with complete retention of chirality, providing a general and practical access to various β-aryl-α-amino acids. The synthetic potential of this protocol is further demonstrated in the sequential synthesis of diverse β-branched α-amino acids.

  17. A palladium-catalyzed three-component-coupling strategy for the differential vicinal diarylation of terminal 1,3-dienes.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Benjamin J; Liao, Longyan; de Andrade, Aline Mendes; Wang, Qiaofeng; Sigman, Matthew S

    2014-09-05

    A palladium-catalyzed intermolecular vicinal diarylation of terminal 1,3-dienes using aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates and arylboronic acids is reported. Using this technology, two different arenes are regioselectively introduced in a vicinal fashion across the terminal alkene of a variety of terminal 1,3-dienes at ambient temperature. Through the action of a chiral bicyclo[2.2.2]octadienyl ligand at -20 °C, good enantioselectivity has also been achieved.

  18. A novel synthesis of 2-aryl-2H-indazoles via a palladium-catalyzed intramolecular amination reaction.

    PubMed

    Song, J J; Yee, N K

    2000-02-24

    [reaction: see text] A variety of 2-aryl-2H-indazoles were synthesized by the palladium-catalyzed intramolecular amination of the corresponding N-aryl-N(o-bromobenzyl)hydrazines. Of several sets of reaction conditions surveyed, the combination of Pd(OAc)2/dppf/tBuONa gave the best results. This method applies to a wide scope of substrates containing electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents.

  19. Sugar-Annulated Oxazoline Ligands: A Novel Pd(II) Complex and Its Application in Allylic Substitution.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Jochen; Mill, Katharina; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-12-10

    Two novel carbohydrate-derived pyridyl (PYOX)- and cyclopropyl (CYBOX)-substituted oxazoline ligands were prepared from d-glucosamine hydrochloride and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose hydrochloride in two steps, respectively. The sugar-annulated PYOX ligand formed a stable metal complex with Pd(II), which was fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. NMR and X-ray analysis revealed a change of the conformation in the sugar moiety upon complexation with the palladium(II) species. Both glycosylated ligands resulted in high asymmetric induction (up to 98% ee) upon application as chiral ligands in the Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation of rac-1,3-diphenylallyl acetate with dimethyl malonate (Tsuji-Trost reaction). Both ligands provided mainly the (R)-enantiomer of the alkylation product.

  20. Proximity effects in the palladium-catalyzed substitution of aryl fluorides.

    PubMed

    Bahmanyar, S; Borer, Bennett C; Kim, Young Mi; Kurtz, David M; Yu, Shu

    2005-03-17

    [reaction: see text] The aryl fluoride bond has long been considered inert toward Pd-catalyzed insertion reactions. This paper reports for the first time that aryl fluorides bearing an o-carboxylate group can undergo Pd-catalyzed couplings. On the basis of this computational study and subsequent experimental verifications of its predictions, we herein report that such reactions are facilitated by stabilization of the transition state by proximal oxyanions.

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed α-Arylation of Zinc Enolates of Esters: Reaction Conditions and Substrate Scope

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Takuo; Ge, Shaozhong; Hartwig, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The intermolecular α-arylation of esters by palladium-catalyzed coupling of aryl bromides with zinc enolates of esters is reported. Reactions of three different types of zinc enolates have been developed. α-Arylation of esters occurs in high yields with isolated Reformatsky reagents, with Reformatsky reagents generated from α-bromo esters and activated zinc, and with zinc enolates generated by quenching lithium enolates of esters with zinc chloride. The use of zinc enolates, instead of alkali metal enolates, greatly expands the scope of the arylation of esters. The reactions occur at room temperature or at 70 °C with bromoarenes containing cyano, nitro, ester, keto, fluoro, enolizable hydrogen, hydroxyl or amino functionality and with bromopyridines. The scope of esters encompasses acyclic acetates, propionates, and isobutyrates, α-alkoxyesters, and lactones. The arylation of zinc enolates of esters was conducted with catalysts bearing the hindered pentaphenylferrocenyl di-tert-butylphosphine (Q-phos) or the highly reactive dimeric Pd(I) complex {[P(t-Bu)3]PdBr}2. PMID:23931445

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Transannular C–H Functionalization of Alicyclic Amines

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Noam I.; Sanford, Melanie S.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of pharmaceutical candidates is a resource-intensive enterprise that frequently requires the parallel synthesis of hundreds or even thousands of molecules. Carbon-hydrogen bonds are present in almost all pharmaceutical agents. As such, the development of selective, rapid, and efficient methods for converting carbon-hydrogen bonds into new chemical entities has the potential to dramatically streamline pharmaceutical development1,2,3,4. Saturated nitrogen-containing heterocycles (alicyclic amines) feature prominently in pharmaceuticals, including treatments for depression (paroxetine, amitifadine), diabetes (gliclazide), leukemia (alvocidib), schizophrenia (risperidone, belaperidone), and nicotine addiction (cytisine and varenicline)5. However, existing methods for the C–H functionalization of saturated nitrogen heterocycles, particularly at sites remote to nitrogen, remain extremely limited 6,7. Here we report a new approach to selectively manipulate the carbon–hydrogen bonds of alicyclic amines at sites remote to nitrogen. Our reaction leverages the boat conformation of the substrates to achieve the palladium-catalyzed amine-directed conversion of C–H bonds to C–C bonds on various alicyclic amine scaffolds. This approach is applied to the synthesis of novel derivatives of several bioactive molecules, including the top-selling smoking cessation drug varenicline (Chantix®). We anticipate that this method should prove broadly useful in medicinal chemistry. PMID:26886789

  3. [Novel access to indazoles based on palladium-catalyzed amination chemistry].

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Kiyofumi

    2008-07-01

    Two efficient methods to construct the indazole nucleus have been developed, both of which utilize palladium-catalyzed intramolecular carbon-nitrogen bond formation. One is based on intramolecular Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction of 2-halobenzophenone tosylhydrazones. The catalyst system we developed for this reaction allows the cyclization to proceed under very mild conditions and thus could be applied to a wide range of substrates with acid- or base-sensitive functional groups. Furthermore, this methodology could be applied for the construction of benzoisoxazole ring system. In addition, catalytic C-H activation with palladium followed by intramolecular amination of benzophenone tosylhydrazones was also accomplished with the aid of the catalyst system such as Pd(OAc)(2)/Cu(OAc)(2)/AgOCOCF(3), which gave another route to indazoles. Using this combination, indazoles with various functional groups could be obtained in good to high yields, especially in the case of substrates having electron donating group such as methoxy group on benzene ring. Interesting chemo- and regioselectivity were also observed in this reaction.

  4. Asymmetric allylation of α-ketoester-derived N-benzoylhydrazones promoted by chiral sulfoxides/N-oxides Lewis bases: highly enantioselective synthesis of quaternary α-substituted α-allyl-α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Rangel, Gloria; Bandala, Yamir; García-Flores, Fred; Juaristi, Eusebio

    2013-09-01

    Chiral sulfoxides/N-oxides (R)-1 and (R,R)-2 are effective chiral promoters in the enantioselective allylation of α-keto ester N-benzoylhydrazone derivatives 3a-g to generate the corresponding N-benzoylhydrazine derivatives 4a-g, with enantiomeric excesses as high as 98%. Representative hydrazine derivatives 4a-b were subsequently treated with SmI2, and the resulting amino esters 5a-b with LiOH to obtain quaternary α-substituted α-allyl α-amino acids 6a-b, whose absolute configuration was assigned as (S), with fundament on chemical correlation and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Pyrrolidine synthesis via palladium-catalyzed trimethylenemethane cycloaddition and related studies

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The palladium catalyzed trimethylenemethane cycloaddition has been extended to the synthesis of pyrrolidines and azepines. In contrast to previous attempts with N-alkyl and N-aryl imine, successful cycloadditions were recorded with several aromatic and aliphatic electron-deficient imines. Sulfonimines were found to be excellent acceptors, yielding pyrrolidine cycloadducts in excellent yields. Aromatic sulfonimines were observed to undergo cycloaddition very rapidly at or below room temperature. Some aliphatic nitrimine and N-phenyl, C-carbalkoxy imines were also found to be useful acceptors. Azepines were obtained from the cycloaddition of cisoid lockeed [alpha],[beta] unsaturated sulfonimines. In order to support the cycloaddition studies, a novel synthetic method was developed for the synthesis of sulfonimines. bis(Toluene-sulfonylimido)tellurium, Te(=N-Ts)[sub 2], generated from tellurium metal and anhydrous chloramine-t, was found to convert both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into the corresponding sulfonimines. Chiral ligands were examined in this cyclization and an enantiomeric excess of 35% was achieved with Hayashi's bidentate ferrocenyl ligand (BPFA). In support of this effort, the total synthesis of [+-] nicotine was accomplished in seven steps starting from pyridine 3-carboxaldehyde using these methodologies in order to verify the enantiomeric excess. Finally, the trimethylenemethane cycloaddition was examined with tropone irontricarbonyl complex. A novel [5+3] cycloaddition was observed to proceed in good yield, which upon decomplexation from the iron tricarbonyl moiety yielded the tricyclo[3.2.0] system. The scope and generality were briefly examined. Extended Huekel calculations were performed in order to help rationalize the unexpected regiochemistry.

  6. Unlocking ylide reactivity in the metal-catalyzed allylic substitution reaction: stereospecific construction of primary allylic amines with aza-ylides.

    PubMed

    Evans, P Andrew; Clizbe, Elizabeth A

    2009-07-01

    The transition metal catalyzed allylic amination represents a powerful and versatile cross-coupling for the asymmetric construction of stereogenic C-N bonds that are present in secondary metabolites and medicinally important agents. We have developed a regio- and enantiospecific rhodium-catalyzed allylic amination reaction using the aza-ylide derived from 1-aminopyridinium iodide. This investigation demonstrates the importance of the ylide-stabilizing group for obtaining the desired nucleophilicity and the ability to utilize the aza-ylide as a commercially available ammonia equivalent, which serves to illustrate the synthetic potential of this nucleophile for the preparation of primary amines. Overall, this work provides an opportunity to investigate the utility of this new class of nucleophiles in related metal-catalyzed reactions.

  7. New insights on the mechanism of palladium-catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride from 11B NMR measurements.

    PubMed

    Guella, G; Zanchetta, C; Patton, B; Miotello, A

    2006-08-31

    To gain insight on the mechanistic aspects of the palladium-catalyzed hydrolysis of NaBH(4) in alkaline media, the kinetics of the reaction has been investigated by (11)B NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) measurements taken at different times during the reaction course. Working with BH(4)(-) concentration in the range 0.05-0.1 M and with a [substrate]/[catalyst] molar ratio of 0.03-0.11, hydrolysis has been found to follow a first-order kinetic dependence from concentration of both the substrate and the catalyst (Pd/C 10 wt %). We followed the reaction of NaBH(4) and its perdeuterated analogue NaBD(4) in H(2)O, in D(2)O and H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures. When the process was carried out in D(2)O, deuterium incorporation in BH(4)(-) afforded BH(4)(-)(n)D(n)(-) (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) species, and a competition between hydrolysis and hydrogen/deuterium exchange processes was observed. By fitting the kinetics NMR data by nonlinear least-squares regression techniques, the rate constants of the elementary steps involved in the palladium-catalyzed borohydride hydrolysis have been evaluated. Such a regression analysis was performed on a reaction scheme wherein the starting reactant BH(4)(-) is allowed both to reversibly exchange hydrogen with deuterium atoms of D(2)O and to irreversibly hydrolyze into borohydroxy species B(OD)(4)(-). In contrast to acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, our results indicate that in the palladium-catalyzed process the rate constants of the exchange processes are higher than those of the corresponding hydrolysis reactions.

  8. Palladium-Catalyzed Ullmann Cross-Coupling/Tandem Reductive Cyclization Route to Key Members of the Uleine Alkaloid Family.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fei; Banwell, Martin G; Willis, Anthony C

    2016-04-01

    The trisubstituted cyclohexenone 12, generated through a palladium-catalyzed Ullmann cross-coupling reaction between o-iodonitrobenzene and a 4,5-trans-disubstituted 2-iodo-2-cyclohexen-1-one, engaged in a tandem reductive cyclization process upon exposure to hydrogen gas in the presence of Raney cobalt. As a result, the 1,5-methanoazocino[4,3-b]indole 13 was obtained and this could be readily elaborated to the racemic modifications of the alkaloids uleine, dasycarpidone, noruleine, and nordasycarpidone (1-4, respectively).

  9. Palladium-catalyzed arylation of 2H-chromene: a new entry to pyrano[2,3-c]carbazoles.

    PubMed

    Ranjith Reddy, K; Siva Reddy, A; Dhaked, Devendra K; Rasheed, S K; Pathania, Anup Singh; Shankar, Ravi; Malik, Fayaz; Das, Parthasarathi

    2015-09-21

    Pyrano[2,3-c]carbazoles which are biologically valuable and synthetically challenging frameworks are synthesized in high yields over five steps from commercially available resorcinol. Palladium-catalyzed arylation remains a key step in this novel strategy. The versatility of this protocol has been demonstrated by the synthesis of naturally occurring alkaloid clauraila C and 7-methoxyglycomaurin. The anti-proliferative activity of these designed compounds (5a, 5f, and 5l) has been evaluated in a cancer cell line (MOLT-4). The molecular docking study revealed that this pyrano[2,3-c]carbazole class of molecules selectively occupies the colchicine binding site of the tubulin-polymer.

  10. Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular coupling of 2-[(2-pyrrolyl)silyl]aryl triflates through 1,2-silicon migration.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Kenji; Shimizu, Masaki; Hiyama, Tamejiro

    2009-06-24

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular direct arylation of 2-[(2-pyrrolyl)silyl]aryl triflates gives 3,2'-silicon-bridged 2-arylindoles and -pyrroles in good to high yields. The reaction proceeds through cleavage of C-OTf, C-Si, and C-H bonds to result in the formation of C-C and C-Si bonds. Various kinds of functional groups such as OMe, CN, Cl, F, and SiMe(3) tolerated the conditions. The new reaction allows synthesis of functionalized Si-bridged 2-arylindoles that emit intense and efficient blue fluorescence in the solid state.

  11. Synthesis of diarylmethylamines via palladium-catalyzed regioselective arylation of 1,1,3-triaryl-2-azaallyl anions†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minyan; Yücel, Baris; Adrio, Javier; Bellomo, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Diarylmethylamines are of great interest due to their prevalence in pharmaceutical chemistry. As a result, new methods for their synthesis are in demand. Herein, we report a versatile protocol for the synthesis of diarylmethylamine derivatives involving palladium-catalyzed arylation of in situ generated 2-azaallyl anion intermediates. The 2-azaallyl anions are generated by reversible deprotonation of readily available aldimine and ketimine precursors. Importantly, the arylated aldimine and ketimine products do not undergo isomerization under the reaction conditions. Scale-up of the arylation and hydrolysis of the resulting products to furnish diarylmethylamines were also successfully performed. PMID:25396041

  12. The Development of a Palladium-Catalyzed Tandem Addition/Cyclization for Direct Construction of Indole Skeletons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuling; Qi, Linjun; Hu, Kun; Gong, Julin; Cheng, Tianxing; Wang, Qingzong; Chen, Jiuxi; Wu, Huayue

    2017-03-13

    A palladium-catalyzed tandem addition/cyclization of 2-(2-aminoaryl)acetonitriles with arylboronic acids has been developed for the first time, achieving a new strategy for direct construction of indole skeletons. This system shows good functional group tolerance and remarkable chemoselectivity. Especially, the halogen (e.g. bromo and iodo) substituents are amenable for further synthetic elaborations thereby broadening the diversity of the products. Preliminary mechanistic experiments indicate that this transformation involves sequential nucleophilic addition followed by an intramolecular cyclization.

  13. Synthesis of α,α-difluoromethylene alkynes by palladium-catalyzed gem-difluoropropargylation of aryl and alkenyl boron reagents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Bo; He, Guo-Zhen; Zhang, Xingang

    2014-09-22

    gem-Difluoropropargyl bromides are versatile intermediates in organic synthesis, but have rarely been employed in transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The first palladium-catalyzed gem-difluoropropargylation of organoboron reagents with gem-difluoropropargyl bromides is now reported. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions with high regioselectivity; it features a broad substrate scope and excellent functional-group compatibility and thus provides an attractive approach for the synthesis of complex fluorinated molecules, in particular for drug discovery and development. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Continuous-Flow Synthesis and Derivatization of Aziridines through Palladium-Catalyzed C(sp(3) )-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Jacek; Smalley, Adam P; Kabeshov, Mikhail A; Gaunt, Matthew J; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2016-07-25

    A continuous-flow synthesis of aziridines by palladium-catalyzed C(sp(3) )-H activation is described. The new flow reaction could be combined with an aziridine-ring-opening reaction to give highly functionalized aliphatic amines through a consecutive process. A predictive mechanistic model was developed and used to design the C-H activation flow process and illustrates an approach towards first-principles design based on novel catalytic reactions. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Palladium-catalyzed cyclization/Heck- and cyclization/conjugate-addition-type sequences in the preparation of polysubstituted furans.

    PubMed

    Aurrecoechea, José M; Durana, Aritz; Pérez, Elena

    2008-05-02

    Palladium-catalyzed heterocyclization-coupling sequences have been developed starting from buta-1,2,3-trienyl carbinols and electron-deficient alkenes. Polysubstituted furans are formed where the heterocyclic ring originates from the elements of the butatrienyl carbinol while the electron-deficient olefin is incorporated as a C-3 substituent. In most cases, the reaction proceeds via a Heck-type pathway leading to the efficient formation of 3-vinylfurans. However, couplings with methyl vinyl ketone display a divergent behavior to afford selectively either Heck- or hydroarylation-type products depending on reaction conditions.

  16. Palladium-catalyzed domino C-H/N-H functionalization: an efficient approach to nitrogen-bridged heteroacenes.

    PubMed

    Kamimoto, Natsuyo; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Mitsudo, Koichi; Suga, Seiji; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2015-05-26

    Palladium-catalyzed domino C-H/N-H functionalization for the synthesis of novel nitrogen-bridged thienoacenes and 10H-benzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-b]indole derivatives from dihaloarene is reported. This domino sequence consists of initial C-H functionalization of the benzo[b]thiophene moiety, followed by Buchwald-Hartwig coupling. This transformation is also useful for the synthesis of highly π-extended compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Catalyst control in sequential asymmetric allylic substitution: stereodivergent access to N,N-diprotected unnatural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Tosatti, Paolo; Campbell, Amanda J; House, David; Nelson, Adam; Marsden, Stephen P

    2011-07-01

    The sequential use of Cu-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation, olefin cross-metathesis, and Ir-catalyzed asymmetric allylic amination allows the concise, stereodivergent synthesis of complex chiral amines with complete regiocontrol and good diastereoselectivity, exemplified by the synthesis of a pair of diastereoisomeric unnatural branched amino acid derivatives.

  18. Highly Torquoselective Electrocyclizations and Competing 1,7-Hydrogen Shifts of 1-Azatrienes with Silyl-Substitution at the Allylic Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhi-Xiong; Patel, Ashay; Houk, K. N.; Hsung, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Highly torquoselective electrocyclizations of chiral 1-azatrienes are described. These 1-azatrienes contain an allylic stereocenter that is substituted with a silyl group and are derived in situ from condensation of γ-silyl-substituted enals with vinylogous amides. The ensuing stereoselective ring-closures are part of a tandem sequence that constitutes an aza-[3 + 3] annulation method for constructing 1,2-dihydropyridines. Several mechanisms for the formal 1,7-hydrogen shift of these 1-azatrienes were evaluated computationally. PMID:25859907

  19. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Organosilanols and their Salts

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Regens, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Conspectus In the panoply of modern synthetic methods for forming carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds, the transition metal-catalyzed cross coupling of organometallic nucleophiles with organic electrophiles enjoys a preeminent status. The preparative utility of these reactions is, in large measure, a consequence of the wide variety of organometallic donors that have been conscripted into service. The most common of these reagents are organic derivatives of tin, boron, and zinc, which each possess unique advantages and shortcomings. Because of their low cost, low toxicity, and high chemical stability, organosilanes have emerged as viable alternatives to the conventional reagents in recent years. However, unlike the tin- and zinc-based reactions that require no activation or the boron-based reactions that require only heating with mild bases, silicon-based cross-coupling reactions often require heating in the presence of a fluoride source; this has significantly hampered the widespread acceptance of organosilanes. To address the “fluoride problem”, we have introduced a new paradigm for palladium-catalyzed, silicon-based cross-coupling reactions that employs organosilanols, a previously underutilized class of silicon reagents. The use of organosilanols either in the presence of Brønsted bases or as their silanolate salts represents a simple and mild alternative to the classic fluoride-based activation method. Organosilanols are easily available by many well-established methods for introducing carbon-silicon bonds onto alkenes, alkynes and arenes, and heteroarenes. Moreover, we have developed four different protocols for the generation of alkali metal salts of, vinyl-, alkenyl-, alkynyl-, aryl-, and heteroarylsilanolates: (1) reversible deprotonation with weak Brønsted bases, (2) irreversible deprotonation with strong Brønsted bases, (3) isolation of the salts from irreversible deprotonation, and (4) silanolate exchange with disiloxanes. We have

  20. Iridium-Catalyzed Kinetic Asymmetric Transformations of Racemic Allylic Benzoates

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Levi M.; Bai, Chen; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Hartwig, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Versatile methods for iridium-catalyzed, kinetic asymmetric substitution of racemic, branched allylic esters are reported. These reactions occur with a variety of aliphatic, aryl, and heteroaryl allylic benzoates to form the corresponding allylic substitution products in high yields (74–96%) with good to excellent enantioselectivity (84–98% ee) with a scope that encompasses a range of anionic carbon and heteroatom nucleophiles. These kinetic asymmetric processes occur with distinct stereochemical courses for racemic aliphatic and aromatic allylic benzoates, and the high reactivity of branched allylic benzoates enables enantioselective allylic substitutions that are slow or poorly selective with linear allylic electrophiles. PMID:20552969

  1. Highly diastereo- and enantioselective allylboration of aldehydes using α-substituted allyl/crotyl pinacol boronic esters via in situ generated borinic esters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jack L-Y; Scott, Helen K; Hesse, Matthew J; Willis, Christine L; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2013-04-10

    Readily available, α-substituted allyl/crotyl pinacol boronic esters often give low E/Z selectivity (with Z favored) in reactions with aldehydes. We found that addition of nBuLi to the pinacol boronic ester followed by trapping of the alkoxide with TFAA leads to an intermediate allyl borinic ester which undergoes allylboration with very high E selectivity. The substrate scope includes primary to tertiary alkyl α-substituents, crotyl substrates, and the previously unreported β-methallyl pinacol boronic esters. The latter give very high Z selectivity under standard conditions which is completely reversed to high E selectivity under the new conditions. Monitoring the reaction by (11)B NMR confirmed that the reaction proceeds through a borinic ester intermediate.

  2. Stereochemistry of C7-allyl yohimbine explored by X-ray crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Natsuko; Masuda, Yoshitake; Morimoto, Tsumoru; Kakiuchi, Kiyomi

    2013-03-01

    X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the palladium-catalyzed β-allylation of yohimbine proceeded in a (7S)-selective manner. The crystal structure had an indolenine unit that was generally unstable in air. A stereoselective outcome was obtained when the palladium π-allyl complex approached yohimbine from the less-hindered pro-S side. However, during reserpine allylation—because the structure of reserpine is that of a transoid-3, 15-ring junction—the palladium π-allyl complex approached from both sides: pro-S and pro-R. A computational method was developed to discuss this selectivity. Experimental details and considerations of the reaction are provided.

  3. Mechanistic Considerations in the Development and Use of Azine, Diazine and Azole N-Oxides in Palladium-Catalyzed Direct Arylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagnou, Keith

    Azines, diazines or thiazole N-oxides are highly reactive substrates in palladium-catalyzed direct arylation reaction. For these reactions, the results are inconsistent with an SEAr reaction pathway and may best fit with a concerted metalation-deprotonation-like (CMD) mechanism.

  4. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of aniline-tethered alkylidenecyclopropanes with O2: a facile protocol to selectively synthesize 2- and 3-vinylindoles.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bo; Simaan, Marwan; Marek, Ilan; Wei, Yin; Shi, Min

    2016-12-20

    A novel palladium-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of aniline-tethered alkylidenecyclopropanes using molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant through β-carbon elimination of aminopalladation intermediates is disclosed. The reaction opens up an effective way to obtain a series of 2- and 3-vinylindoles which are important synthetic intermediates in many natural indole derivatives.

  5. Nucleophilic addition of benzimidazoles to alkynyl bromides/palladium-catalyzed intramolecular C-H vinylation: synthesis of benzo[4,5]imidazo[2,1-a]isoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinsong; Shang, Guoning; Chen, Chunxia; Miao, Zhongshuo; Li, Bin

    2013-02-01

    An efficient "one-pot" route for the synthesis of benzo[4,5]imidazo[2,1-a] isoquinolines has been developed via nucleophilic addition of 2-aryl benzimidazoles to alkynyl bromides and subsequent palladium-catalyzed intramolecular C-H vinylation.

  6. Direct preparation of N-quaternized and N-oxidized polycyclic azines by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling. An unequivocal isomer synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zoltewicz, J.A.; Cruskie, M.P. Jr.; Dill, C.D.

    1995-01-13

    The authors report several examples of unequivocal isomer preparations using palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling to yield N-oxides and N-quaternized polycyclic azines. This approach serves as a model for such syntheses where selective N-quaternization, N-oxidation, or other types of N-functionalization of several rings is now possible in a regioncontrolled manner.

  7. Palladium-catalyzed/norbornene-mediated ortho-amination/N-tosylhydrazone insertion reaction: an approach to the synthesis of ortho-aminated vinylarenes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping-Xin; Ye, Yu-Ying; Ma, Jun-Wei; Zheng, Lan; Tang, Qian; Qiu, Yi-Feng; Song, Bo; Qiu, Zi-Hang; Xu, Peng-Fei; Liang, Yong-Min

    2014-07-18

    ortho-Aminated vinylarene derivatives were obtained via a reaction of aryl iodides, N-benzoyloxyamines, and N-tosylhydrazones. This approach involves a palladium-catalyzed, norbornene-mediated ortho-amination/N-tosylhydrazone insertion reaction. In this transformation, one C-N bond and one C-C bond are formed and an amine group is introduced at the ortho position successfully.

  8. Synthesis of 1H-indole-3-sulfonates via palladium-catalyzed tandem reactions of 2-alkynyl arylazides with sulfonic acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ping; Lyu, Chang; Yong, Wanxiong; Li, Jing; Zhu, Xinbao; Rao, Weidong

    2017-07-26

    An efficient method for the synthesis of 1H-indole-3-sulfonates via palladium-catalyzed tandem reactions of 2-alkynyl arylazides with sulfonic acids has been developed. The desired products were obtained in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. The reactions were shown to proceed very fast, in most cases, within 10 min.

  9. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling between vinyl halides and tert-butyl carbazate: first general synthesis of the unusual N-Boc-N-alkenylhydrazines.

    PubMed

    Barluenga, José; Moriel, Patricia; Aznar, Fernando; Valdés, Carlos

    2007-01-18

    N-Boc-N-alkenylhydrazines, an almost unknown type of compounds, have been prepared with high to moderate yields via palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling between alkenyl halides and tert-butyl carbazate. The present methodology represents the first general way to access this highly functionalized and unusual type of hydrazines. [reaction: see text].

  10. Allyl astatide

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Syuch, Z.

    1988-11-01

    Allyl astatide was prepared by the interhalogen exchange method, by replacement of the bromine in allyl bromide with astatide ion. The most favorable conditions for the synthesis were found by variations of the method that uses hydrazine hydrate and sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate as reductants. A by-product is formed by the reaction of allyl bromide with excited astatine-211 which forms by disintegration of radon-211. Allyl astatide was identified by radio gas-liquid chromatography. Its retention indexes on nonpolar and weakly polar liquid phases were found. The stability of this newly prepared astatine compound was studied. The extrapolated boiling point of allyl astatide is 129 +/- 2/sup 0/C.

  11. Enantioselective Construction of Pyrrolidines by Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric [3+2] Cycloaddition of Trimethylenemethane with Imines

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Silverman, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for the enantioselective [3+2] cycloaddition of trimethylenemethane (TMM) with imines has been developed. Central to this effort were the novel phosphoramidite ligands developed in our laboratories. The conditions developed to effect an asymmetric TMM reaction using 2-trimethylsilylmethyl allyl acetate were shown to be tolerant of a wide variety of imine acceptors to provide the corresponding pyrrolidine cycloadducts with excellent yields and selectivities. Use of a bis-2-naphthyl phosphoramidite allowed the successful cycloaddition of the parent TMM with N-Boc imines, and has further permitted the reaction of substituted donors with N-tosyl aldimines and ketimines in high regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. Use of a diphenylazetidine ligand allows the complimentary synthesis of the exocyclic nitrile product shown, and we demonstrate control of the regioselectivity of the product based on manipulation of the reaction parameters. PMID:22309214

  12. Synthesis of Substituted Benzenes via Bi(OTf)3-Mediated Intramolecular Carbonyl Allylation of α-Prenyl or α-Geranyl β-Arylketosulfones.

    PubMed

    Chang, Meng-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Lu, Yi-Ju

    2015-06-19

    Intramolecular carbonyl allylation of α-prenyl or α-geranyl β-arylketosulfones 5 in the presence of molecule sieves (MS) affords substituted benzenes 6-7 in moderate to good yields. The facile transformation proceeds by a synthetic sequence starting with the α-prenylation or α-geranylation of 1 and the Bi(OTf)3-mediated annulation of 5 followed by a sequential desulfonative aromatization or then an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation. A plausible mechanism has been studied and proposed.

  13. Nucleophilic phosphine-catalyzed intramolecular Michael reactions of N-allylic substituted α-amino nitriles: construction of functionalized pyrrolidine rings via 5-endo-trig cyclizations.

    PubMed

    En, Da; Zou, Gong-Feng; Guo, Yuan; Liao, Wei-Wei

    2014-05-16

    Pyrrolidine rings are common moieties for pharmaceutical candidates and natural compounds, and the construction of these skeletons has received much attention. α-Amino nitriles are versatile intermediates in synthetic chemistry and have been widely used in the generation of multiple polyfunctional structures. Herein, a novel nucleophilic phosphine-catalyzed intramolecular Michael reaction of N-allylic substituted α-amino nitriles has been developed for the efficient construction of functionalized 2,4-disubstituted pyrrolidines (N-heterocyclic α-amino nitriles) via 5-endo-trig cyclization. Furthermore, the one-pot sequence of the synthesis of pyrrolidine and the subsequent transformations of the functionalized products have also been demonstrated.

  14. The enantioselective construction of tetracyclic diterpene skeletons with Friedel-Crafts alkylation and palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sarah J; Malachowski, William P; Mehta, Sharan K; Appenteng, Roselyn

    2015-03-07

    Due to the profound extent to which natural products inspire medicinal chemists in drug discovery, there is demand for innovative syntheses of these often complex materials. This article describes the synthesis of tricarbocyclic natural product architectures through an extension of the enantioselective Birch-Cope sequence with intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions. Additionally, palladium-catalyzed enol silane cycloalkenylation of the tricarbocyclic structures afforded the challenging bicyclo[3.2.1]octane C/D ring system found in the gibberellins and the ent-kauranes, two natural products with diverse medicinal value. In the case of the ent-kaurane derivative, an unprecedented alkene rearrangement converted four alkene isomers to one final product.

  15. Direct palladium-catalyzed C-3 arylation of free (NH)-indoles with aryl bromides under ligandless conditions.

    PubMed

    Bellina, Fabio; Benelli, Francesca; Rossi, Renzo

    2008-07-18

    A new method for the efficient, practical, and highly regioselective direct palladium-catalyzed C-3 arylation of free (NH)-indole and its electron-rich 1-unsubstituted derivatives under ligandless conditions is described. The reactions, which are run outside a glovebox without purification of solvent and reagents, involve treatment of free (NH)-indoles with activated, unactivated, and deactivated aryl bromides in refluxing toluene in the presence of K2CO3 as the base and a catalyst system consisting of a combination of Pd(OAc)2 and benzyl(tributyl)ammonium chloride. The experimental results are consistent with a catalytic cycle based on an electrophilic palladation pathway at the 3-position of 1-indolyl potassium salts.

  16. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative coupling of (2-azaaryl)methyl anion equivalents with (hetero)aryl bromides.

    PubMed

    Jusseau, Xavier; Yin, Hongfei; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2014-11-24

    Conditions for the palladium-catalyzed coupling of (2-pyridyl)acetones with aryl bromides have been developed. Followed by an acid-promoted deacetylation step, the desired 1-(het)aryl-2-(2-pyridyl)ethanones were obtained in good to excellent yields with high functional group tolerance. Test reactions revealed that both the addition of MgCl2 and a specifically positioned heteroatom in the heteroaromatic ring were crucial for product formation indicating the importance of a chelated intermediate in the reaction mechanism. The reaction conditions proved suitable for a number of 5- and 6-membered heteroaromatic starting materials affording all products in good yields. The utility of the obtained 1-(het)aryl-2-(2-pyridyl)ethanones was demonstrated by the straightforward synthesis of several multiaromatic derivatives in only few additional steps. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Functionalized heteroarylpyridazines and pyridazin-3(2H)-one derivatives via palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling methodology.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Kate M; Batsanov, Andrei S; Greenwood, Ryan D R; Bryce, Martin R; Smith, Amy E; Tarbit, Brian

    2008-03-21

    A general method for the synthesis of functionalized pyridazinylboronic acids/esters is described involving a directed ortho metalation (DoM)--boronation protocol (Schemes 1 and 2). A comprehensive study of the reactivity of the C-B bond in palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings with aryl/heteroaryl halides is presented. Aryl-/heteroarylpyridazines are thereby obtained in synthetically viable yields (typically 40-75%) although in some cases competing protodeboronation has been observed. A series of pyridazin-3(2H)-one derivatives, including 4,6-diaryl/heteroaryl derivatives, have been obtained from the corresponding 3-methoxypyridazines in straightforward procedures (Schemes 3 and 4). Several X-ray crystal structures of aryl-/heteroarylpyridazines and derived pyridazin-3(2H)-one derivatives are reported. These multi-ring systems are of considerable interest in contemporary N-heterocyclic chemistry.

  18. The Enantioselective Construction of Tetracyclic Diterpene Skeletons with Friedel-Crafts Alkylation and Palladium-catalyzed Cycloalkenylation Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sarah J.; Mehta, Sharan K.; Appenteng, Roselyn

    2015-01-01

    Due to the profound extent to which natural products inspire medicinal chemists in drug discovery, there is demand for innovative syntheses of these often complex materials. This article describes the synthesis of tricarbocyclic natural product architectures through an extension of the enantioselective Birch-Cope sequence with intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions. Additionally, palladium-catalyzed enol silane cycloalkenylation of the tricarbocyclic structures afforded the challenging bicyclo[3.2.1]octane C/D ring system found in the gibberellins and the ent-kauranes, two natural products with diverse medicinal value. In the case of the ent-kaurane derivative, an unprecedented alkene rearrangement converted four alkene isomers to one final product. PMID:25598198

  19. Auxiliary-assisted palladium-catalyzed arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 carbon-hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs

    2010-03-24

    We have developed a method for auxiliary-directed, palladium-catalyzed beta-arylation and alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds in carboxylic acid derivatives. The method employs a carboxylic acid 2-methylthioaniline- or 8-aminoquinoline amide substrate, aryl or alkyl iodide coupling partner, palladium acetate catalyst, and an inorganic base. By employing 2-methylthioaniline auxiliary, selective monoarylation of primary sp(3) C-H bonds can be achieved. If arylation of secondary sp(3) C-H bonds is desired, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary may be used. For alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary affords the best results. Some functional group tolerance is observed and amino- and hydroxy-acid derivatives can be functionalized. Preliminary mechanistic studies have been performed. A palladacycle intermediate has been isolated, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and its reactions have been studied.

  20. Synthesis of a double helicene by a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction: structure and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Kashihara, Hitoshi; Asada, Toshio; Kamikawa, Ken

    2015-04-20

    For this study, twisted π-extended helicene 1 and double helicene 2 with a helicene framework were synthesized through palladium-catalyzed C-H arylation or Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. X-ray crystallography revealed grossly twisted structures that were soluble in various conventional organic solvents. Optical properties based on UV/Vis and fluorescence spectra were measured. Electrochemical properties were also studied by measurements of cyclic voltammetry in 1 and 2, which revealed their HOMO and the LUMO energies. Theoretical calculation supports their HOMO and LUMO energies and molecular orbitals. Furthermore, a racemization process of 2 predicted that the activation free energy at 300 K would be 31.8 kcal mol(-1) by DFT calculation, which indicated the static helicity at 300 K.

  1. Isovanillin derived N-(un)substituted hydroxylamines possessing an ortho-allylic group: valuable precursors to bioactive N-heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Dulla, Balakrishna; Tangellamudi, Neelima D; Balasubramanian, Sridhar; Yellanki, Swapna; Medishetti, Raghavender; Kumar Banote, Rakesh; Hari Chaudhari, Girish; Kulkarni, Pushkar; Iqbal, Javed; Reiser, Oliver; Pal, Manojit

    2014-04-28

    The intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of isovanillin derived N-aryl hydroxylamines possessing ortho-allylic dipolarophiles affords novel benzo analogues of tricyclic isoxazolidines that can be readily transformed into functionalized lactams, γ-aminoalcohols and oxazepines. The corresponding N-unsubstituted hydroxylamines give rise to tetrahydroisoquinolines. Anxiogenic properties of these compounds are tested in zebra fish.

  2. Relative reactivity of alkenyl alcohols in the palladium-catalyzed redox-relay Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Margaret J; Cheng, Bin; Buckley, Benjamin R; Xu, Liping; Wiest, Olaf; Sigman, Matthew S

    2015-09-16

    The relative rates of alkenyl alcohols in the Pd-catalyzed redox-relay Heck reaction were measured in order to examine the effect of their steric and electronic properties on the rate-determining step. Competition experiments between an allylic alkenyl alcohol and two substrates with differing chain lengths revealed that the allylic alcohol reacts 3-4 times faster in either case. Competition between di- and trisubstituted alkenyl alcohols provided an interesting scenario, in which the disubstituted alkene was consumed first followed by reaction of the trisubstituted alkene. Consistent with this observation, the transition structures for the migratory insertion of the aryl group into the di- and trisubstituted alkenes were calculated with a lower barrier for the former. An internal competition between a substrate containing two alcohols with differing chain lengths demonstrated the catalyst's preference for migrating towards the closest alcohol. Additionally, it was observed that increasing the electron density in the arene boronic acid promotes a faster reaction, which correlates with Hammett σp values to give a ρ of -0.87.

  3. Palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reaction of N-alkoxyimidoyl bromides and its application to one-pot synthesis of N-arylamines.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Masafumi; Sugita, Shoichi; Aoi, Naoki; Sato, Aoi; Ikeda, Yuki; Ito, Yuta; Miyoshi, Tetsuya; Naito, Takeaki; Miyata, Okiko

    2011-01-01

    The synthetic utility of N-alkoxyimidoyl halides is demonstrated using the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. The Sonogashira and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions of N-alkoxyimidoyl bromides produced versatile ketoxime ethers in good to excellent yields. A one-pot reaction of the imidoyl bromides with arylboronic acid and allylmagnesium bromide to produce N-arylamines via Suzuki-Miyaura coupling followed by domino reaction involving sequential addition-eliminative rearrangement-addition reactions was developed.

  4. One-pot synthesis of 2-amino-4(3H)-quinazolinones via ring-opening of isatoic anhydride and palladium-catalyzed oxidative isocyanide-insertion.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fei; Lv, Mei-Fang; Yi, Wen-Bin; Cai, Chun

    2014-08-14

    An efficient and practical two-step process has been developed for the synthesis of 2-amino-4(3H)-quinazolinones via ring-opening of isatoic anhydride and palladium-catalyzed oxidative isocyanide-insertion in one pot. This regioselective procedure could construct a wide range of 2-amino-4(3H)-quinazolinones in moderate to excellent yields. Furthermore, the methodology also had distinct advantages of easily accessible starting materials and operational simplicity.

  5. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of (Hetero)Aryl Alkyl Sulfones from (Hetero)Aryl Boronic Acids, Unactivated Alkyl Halides, and Potassium Metabisulfite.

    PubMed

    Shavnya, Andre; Hesp, Kevin D; Mascitti, Vincent; Smith, Aaron C

    2015-11-09

    A palladium-catalyzed one-step synthesis of (hetero)aryl alkyl sulfones from (hetero)arylboronic acids, potassium metabisulfite, and unactivated or activated alkylhalides is described. This transformation is of broad scope, occurs under mild conditions, and employs readily available reactants. A stoichiometric experiment has led to the isolation of a catalytically active dimeric palladium sulfinate complex, which was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  6. Efficient synthesis of π-conjugated molecules incorporating fluorinated phenylene units through palladium-catalyzed iterative C(sp(2))-H bond arylations.

    PubMed

    Abdelmalek, Fatiha; Derridj, Fazia; Djebbar, Safia; Soulé, Jean-François; Doucet, Henri

    2015-01-01

    We report herein a two or three step synthesis of fluorinated π-conjugated oligomers through iterative C-H bond arylations. Palladium-catalyzed desulfitative arylation of heteroarenes allowed in a first step the synthesis of fluoroaryl-heteroarene units in high yields. Then, the next steps involve direct arylation with aryl bromides catalyzed by PdCl(C3H5)(dppb) to afford triad or tetrad heteroaromatic compounds via regioselective activation of C(sp(2))-H bonds.

  7. Synthesis of 24-phenyl-24-oxo steroids derived from bile acids by palladium-catalyzed cross coupling with phenylboronic acid. NMR characterization and X-ray structures.

    PubMed

    Mayorquín-Torres, Martha C; Romero-Ávila, Margarita; Flores-Álamo, Marcos; Iglesias-Arteaga, Martin A

    2013-11-01

    Palladium-catalyzed cross coupling of phenyboronic acid with acetylated bile acids in which the carboxyl functions have been activated by formation of a mixed anhydride with pivalic anhydride afforded moderate to good yield of 24-phenyl-24-oxo-steroids. Unambiguous assignments of the NMR signals were made with the aid of combined 1D and 2D NMR techniques. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the obtained structures.

  8. Application of palladium-catalyzed carboxyl anhydride-boronic acid cross coupling in the synthesis of novel bile acids analogs with modified side chains.

    PubMed

    Mayorquín-Torres, Martha C; Flores-Álamo, Marcos; Iglesias-Arteaga, Martin A

    2015-09-01

    Palladium-catalyzed cross coupling of 4-methoxycarbonyl phenyboronic acid with acetylated bile acids in which the carboxyl functions was activated by formation of a mixed anhydride with pivalic anhydride afforded the cross coupled compounds, which were converted in novel side chain modified bile acids by one pot carbonyl reduction/removal of the protecting acetyl groups by Wolff-Kishner reduction. Unambiguous assignments of the NMR signals and crystal characterization of the heretofore unknown compounds are provided.

  9. Palladium-catalyzed sequential one-pot reaction of aryl bromides with O-homoallylhydroxylamines: synthesis of N-aryl-beta-amino alcohols.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinsong; Jiang, Dahong; Lin, Wenqing; Chen, Yuanwei

    2007-05-07

    The palladium-catalyzed sequential one-pot N-arylation-carbo-amination-C-arylation of O-homoallylhydroxylamines with two different aryl bromides provides rapid entry to differentially arylated N-aryl-3-arylmethylisoxazolidines in good yields with excellent diastereoselectivity. The obtained isoxazolidines can be reductively cleaved to cis-N-aryl-beta-amino alcohols in short times and in high yields at room temperature.

  10. Catalytic asymmetric allylation reactions using BITIP catalysis and 2-substituted allylstannanes as surrogates for beta-keto ester dianions.

    PubMed

    Keck, G E; Yu, T

    1999-07-29

    [formula: see text] Catalytic asymmetric allylation (CAA) reactions using the indicated allylstannane and the BITIP catalysts previously described by us give high yields and enantioselectivities in additions to aldehydes. The products are convertible to beta-keto esters by oxidative cleavage of the olefin. These reactions thus provide a useful catalytic enantioselective method for chain extension with introduction of a versatile four-carbon unit.

  11. Novel protein kinase C inhibitors: synthesis and PKC inhibition of beta-substituted polythiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, W C; Zhou, Q; Ashendel, C L; Chang, C T; Chang, C J

    1999-08-02

    A series of beta-substituted polythiophene derivatives was synthesized through palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction. Their structure-protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitory activity relationship was studied. The carboxaldehyde and hydroxymethyl derivatives of alpha-terthiophene were potent PKC inhibitors (IC50 = 10(-7) M).

  12. Synthesis and structural characterization of [eta superscript 3]-allyl([alpha]-diimine)nickel(II) complexes bearing trimethylsilyl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Ionkin, Alex S.; Marshall, William J.

    2012-02-10

    A set of isomeric para- and meta-trimethylsilylphenyl ortho-substituted N,N-phenyl {alpha}-diimine ligands [(Ar-N C(Me)-(Me)C N-Ar) Ar=2,6-di(4-trimethylsilylphenyl)phenyl (16); Ar=2,6-di(3-trimethylsilylphenyl)phenyl (17)] have been synthesized through a two-step procedure. The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between 2,6-dibromophenylamine (7) and 4-trimethylsilylphenylboronic acid (8), 3-trimethylsilylphenylboronic acid (9) was used to prepare 4,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)-[1,1;3,1]terphenyl-2-ylamine (10) and 3,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)-[1,1;3,1]terphenyl-2-ylamine (11). The di-1-adamantylphosphine oxide Ad{sub 2}P(O)H (13) and di-tert-butyl-trimethylsilylanylmethylphosphine tert-Bu{sub 2}P-CH{sub 2}-SiMe{sub 3} (14) were used for the first time as ligands for the Suzuki coupling. The condensation of 2,2,3,3-tetramethoxybutane (15) with anilines 10 and 11 afforded {alpha}-diimines 16 and 17. The reaction of {pi}-allylnickel chloride dimer (18), {alpha}-diimines (16), (17) and sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (BAF) (19) or silver hexafluoroantimonate (20) led to two sets of isomeric complexes [{eta}{sup 3}-allyl(Ar-N C(Me)-(Me)C N-Ar)Ni]{sup +} X{sup -}, [Ar=2,6-di(4-trimethylsilylphenyl)phenyl, X=BAF (3), X=SbF6 (4); Ar=2,6-di(3-trimethylsilylphenyl)phenyl, X=BAF (5), X=SbF6 (6)]. The steric repulsion of closely positioned trimethylsilyl groups in 4 caused the distortion of the nickel square planar coordination by 17.6{sup o} according to X-ray analysis.

  13. Role of Lewis acid additives in a palladium catalyzed directed C-H functionalization reaction of benzohydroxamic acid to isoxazolone.

    PubMed

    Athira, C; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2016-12-20

    Metallic salts as well as protic additives are widely employed in transition metal catalyzed C-H bond functionalization reactions to improve the efficiency of catalytic protocols. In one such example, ZnCl2 and pivalic acid are used as additives in a palladium catalyzed synthesis of isoxazolone from a readily available benzohydroxamic acid under one pot conditions. In this article, we present some important mechanistic insights into the role of ZnCl2 and pivalic acid, gained by using density functional theory (M06) computations. Two interesting modes of action of ZnCl2 are identified in various catalytic steps involved in the formation of isoxazolone. The conventional Lewis acid coordination wherein zinc chloride (ZnCl2·(DMA)) binds to the carbonyl group is found to be more favored in the C-H activation step. However, the participation of a hetero-bimetallic Pd-Zn species is preferred in reductive elimination leading to Caryl-N bond formation. Pivalic acid helps in relay proton transfer in C-H bond activation through a cyclometallation deprotonation (CMD) process. The explicit inclusion of ZnCl2 and solvent N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA) stabilizes the transition state and also helps reduce the activation barrier for the C-H bond activation step. The electronic communication between the two metal species is playing a crucial role in stabilizing the Caryl-N bond formation transition state through a Pd-Zn hetero-bimetallic interaction.

  14. NiXantphos: A Deprotonatable Ligand for Room-Temperature Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings of Aryl Chlorides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although the past 15 years have witnessed the development of sterically bulky and electron-rich alkylphosphine ligands for palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings with aryl chlorides, examples of palladium catalysts based on either triarylphosphine or bidentate phosphine ligands for efficient room temperature cross-coupling reactions with unactivated aryl chlorides are rare. Herein we report a palladium catalyst based on NiXantphos, a deprotonatable chelating aryldiphosphine ligand, to oxidatively add unactivated aryl chlorides at room temperature. Surprisingly, comparison of an extensive array of ligands revealed that under the basic reaction conditions the resultant heterobimetallic Pd–NiXantphos catalyst system outperformed all the other mono- and bidentate ligands in a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP) with aryl chlorides. The DCCP with aryl chlorides affords a variety of triarylmethane products, a class of compounds with various applications and interesting biological activity. Additionally, the DCCP exhibits remarkable chemoselectivity in the presence of aryl chloride substrates bearing heteroaryl groups and sensitive functional groups that are known to undergo 1,2-addition, aldol reaction, and O-, N-, enolate-α-, and C(sp2)–H arylations. The advantages and importance of the Pd–NiXantphos catalyst system outlined herein make it a valuable contribution for applications in Pd-catalyzed arylation reactions with aryl chlorides. PMID:24745758

  15. O2-Promoted Allylic Acetoxylation of Alkenes: Assessment of “Push” vs. “Pull” Mechanisms and Comparison between O2 and Benzoquinone

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Tianning

    2014-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed acetoxylation of allylic C–H bonds has been the subject of extensive study. These reactions proceed via allyl-palladium(II) intermediates that react with acetate to afford the allyl acetate product. Benzoquinone and molecular oxygen are two common oxidants for these reactions. Benzoquinone has been shown to promote allyl acetate formation from well-defined π-allyl palladium(II) complexes. Here, we assess the ability of O2 to promote similar reactions with a series of “unligated” π-allyl palladium(II) complexes (i.e., in the absence of ancillary phosphorus, nitrogen or related donor ligands). Stoichiometric and catalytic allyl acetate formation is observed under aerobic conditions with several different alkenes. Mechanistic studies are most consistent with a “pull” mechanism in which O2 traps the Pd0 intermediate following reversible C–O bond-formation from an allyl-palladium(II) species. A “push” mechanism, involving oxidatively induced C–O bond formation, does not appear to participate. These results and conclusions are compared with benzoquinone-promoted allylic acetoxylation, in which a “push” mechanism seems to be operative. PMID:25435646

  16. Construction of Nine-Membered Heterocycles through Palladium-Catalyzed Formal [5+4] Cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Cheng; Rong, Zi-Qiang; Wang, Ya-Nong; Tan, Zher Yin; Wang, Min; Zhao, Yu

    2017-03-06

    The first catalytic formal [5+4] cycloaddition to prepare nine-membered heterocycles is presented. Under palladium catalysis, the reaction of N-tosyl azadienes and substituted vinylethylene carbonates (VECs) proceeds smoothly to produce benzofuran-fused heterocycles in uniformly high efficiency. Highly diastereoselective functionalization of the nine-membered heterocycles through peripheral attack is also demonstrated.

  17. Regiospecific and stereospecific palladium-catalyzed cycloaddition of azetidines and carbodiimides

    SciTech Connect

    Baeg, Jin-Ook; Bensimon, C.; Alper, H.

    1995-01-13

    Acetidines react with carbodiimides in the presence of bis(benzonitrile)palladium dischloride to form tetrahydrophyrimidin-2-imines in 64-97% yields. The reaction is both regio- and stereospecific, the cycloaddition occurring with retention of configuration of the carbon centers bearing the substitutent groups. 2 figs.

  18. Enantioselective synthesis of planar chiral ferrocenes via palladium-catalyzed annulation with diarylethynes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Chao; Yang, Rong-Fei; Gao, De-Wei; You, Shu-Li

    2013-01-01

    When Boc-L-Val-OH was used as a ligand for the enantioselective Pd(II)-catalyzed annulation of N,N-substituted aminomethyl ferrocene derivatives with diarylethynes, ferrocenes with planar chirality could be achieved with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee).

  19. Enantioselective synthesis of planar chiral ferrocenes via palladium-catalyzed annulation with diarylethynes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan-Chao; Yang, Rong-Fei; Gao, De-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Summary When Boc-L-Val-OH was used as a ligand for the enantioselective Pd(II)-catalyzed annulation of N,N-substituted aminomethyl ferrocene derivatives with diarylethynes, ferrocenes with planar chirality could be achieved with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee). PMID:24062858

  20. Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of uridines on polystyrene-based solid supports.

    PubMed

    Aucagne, Vincent; Berteina-Raboin, Sabine; Guenot, Pierre; Agrofoglio, Luigi A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the solid-phase synthesis of various substituted pyrimidine nucleosides is described starting from 2'-deoxyuridine, which has been attached through a base labile linker to polystyrene resins. The utility of the Pd(0) cross-coupling to functionalized pyrimidine nucleosides is expanded herein to include reactions of resin-supported 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine under Sonogashira, Stille, Heck, and Suzuki conditions. Upon cleavage with MeONa, a library of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides was obtained in good (under Sonogashira and Stille conditions) to moderate (under Heck or Suzuki conditions) yields and high purity. Except the Suzuki-type reactions, the presented methods exhibit a significant improvement and facilitate the synthetic procedure with respect to purification and yields (determined after filtration over silica gel).

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross Coupling of Secondary and Tertiary Alkyl Bromides with a Nitrogen Nucleophile

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report a new class of catalytic reaction: the thermal substitution of a secondary and or tertiary alkyl halide with a nitrogen nucleophile. The alkylation of a nitrogen nucleophile with an alkyl halide is a classical method for the construction of C–N bonds, but traditional substitution reactions are challenging to achieve with a secondary and or tertiary alkyl electrophile due to competing elimination reactions. A catalytic process could address this limitation, but thermal, catalytic coupling of alkyl halides with a nitrogen nucleophile and any type of catalytic coupling of an unactivated tertiary alkyl halide with a nitrogen nucleophile are unknown. We report the coupling of unactivated secondary and tertiary alkyl bromides with benzophenone imines to produce protected primary amines in the presence of palladium ligated by the hindered trialkylphosphine Cy2t-BuP. Mechanistic studies indicate that this amination of alkyl halides occurs by a reversible reaction to form a free alkyl radical. PMID:27725963

  2. A Palladium-Catalyzed Method for the Synthesis of 2-(α-Styryl)-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4-ones and 3-(α-Styryl)-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide: Access to 2-(α-Styryl)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones and 3-(α-Styryl)-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxides.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Priyanka; Mondal, Amrita; Chowdhury, Chinmay

    2016-08-05

    An efficient synthesis of 2-(α-styryl)-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4-ones and 3-(α-styryl)-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxides has been achieved in 39-94% yield through palladium-catalyzed cyclocondensation of aryl/vinyl iodides with allenamides 13-15 and 22, respectively. Base treatment of the N-tosylated products provides an easy access to 2-(α-styryl)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones and 3-(α-styryl)-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxides, hitherto unknown heterocycles. The method has been tested with phenyl substituted allenamides, applied for bis-heteroannulation, and used in the preparation of analogues of the natural product Luotonin F.

  3. Enantioselective Palladium-Catalyzed Carbene Insertion into the N-H Bonds of Aromatic Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Vanessa; Hiew, Stanley C; Gutman, Eugene S; Premachandra, Ilandari Dewage Udara Anulal; Van Vranken, David L

    2017-03-15

    C3-substituted indoles and carbazoles react with α-aryl-α-diazoesters under palladium catalysis to form α-(N-indolyl)-α-arylesters and α-(N-carbazolyl)-α-arylesters. The products result from insertion of a palladium-carbene ligand into the N-H bond of the aromatic N-heterocycles. Enantioselection was achieved using a chiral bis(oxazoline) ligand, in many cases with high enantioselectivity (up to 99 % ee). The method was applied to synthesize the core of a bioactive carbazole derivative in a concise manner.

  4. Palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of carbonyls in the de novo synthesis of aromatic heterocycles

    PubMed Central

    Potukuchi, Harish K.; Spork, Anatol P.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic heterocycles are a very well represented motif in natural products and have found various applications in chemistry and material science, as well as being commonly found in pharmaceutical agents. Thus, new and efficient routes towards this class of compound are always desirable, particularly if they expand the scope of chemical methodology or facilitate more effective pathways to complex substitution patterns. This perspective covers recent developments in the de novo synthesis of aromatic heterocycles via palladium-catalysed α-arylation reactions of carbonyls, which is itself a powerful transformation that has undergone significant development in recent years. PMID:25789887

  5. Palladium catalyzed one-pot sequential Suzuki cross-coupling-direct C-H functionalization of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines.

    PubMed

    Gembus, Vincent; Bonfanti, Jean-François; Querolle, Olivier; Jubault, Philippe; Levacher, Vincent; Hoarau, Christophe

    2012-12-07

    An efficient "one-pot" selective functionalization at C3/C6 of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines has been developed via a palladium-catalyzed sequential Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling/direct C-H arylation, vinylation, and benzylation. The procedure remains effective in the presence of a methyl thioether group at C8, which may in turn be successfully engaged in a cross-coupling method to afford 3,6,8-trisubstituted imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines. This work paves the way for the design of biologically relevant compounds in an imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine series.

  6. Highly regioselective palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of oxazole at C-2 or C-5 with aryl bromides, chlorides, and triflates.

    PubMed

    Strotman, Neil A; Chobanian, Harry R; Guo, Yan; He, Jiafang; Wilson, Jonathan E

    2010-08-20

    Complementary palladium-catalyzed methods for direct arylation of oxazole with high regioselectivity (>100:1) at both C-5 and C-2 have been developed for a wide range of aryl and heteroaryl bromides, chlorides, iodides, and triflates. C-5 arylation is preferred in polar solvents with phosphines 5 or 6, whereas C-2 arylation is preferred by nonpolar solvents and phosphine 3. This represents the first general method for C-5 selective arylation of oxazole and should see broad applicability in the synthesis of biologically active molecules. Additionally, potential mechanisms for these two competing arylation processes are proposed on the basis of mechanistic observations.

  7. Palladium-catalyzed difluoroalkylation of aryl boronic acids: a new method for the synthesis of aryldifluoromethylated phosphonates and carboxylic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhang; Min, Qiao-Qiao; Xiao, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xingang

    2014-02-03

    The palladium-catalyzed difluoroalkylation of aryl boronic acids with bromodifluoromethylphosphonate, bromodifluoroacetate, and further derivatives has been developed. This method provides a facile and useful access to a series of functionalized difluoromethylated arenes (ArCF2 PO(OEt)2 , ArCF2 CO2 Et, and ArCF2 CONR(1) R(2) ) that have important applications in drug discovery and development. Preliminary mechanistic studies reveal that a single electron transfer (SET) pathway may be involved in the catalytic cycle.

  8. Cobryketone derived from vitamin B12 via palladium-catalyzed cleavage of the sp3-sp3 carbon-carbon bond.

    PubMed

    Kurcoń, Sylwester; Proinsias, Keith ó; Gryko, Dorota

    2013-04-19

    Heptamethyl cobyrinate was transformed into hexamethyl 8-nor-cobyrinate. The crucial step involved the synthesis of new, vitamin B12 derived cobryketone via palladium-catalyzed cleavage of the sp(3)-sp(3) carbon-carbon bond with the liberation of the ketone. The replacement of sp(3) carbon atom with sp(2) (C═O) at the 8-position produces a bathochromic shift of all absorption bands and makes α and β bands equal as a consequence of the expansion of the existing conjugated system of double bonds.

  9. Palladium-catalyzed addition of potassium aryltrifluoroborates to aliphatic nitriles: synthesis of alkyl aryl ketones, diketone compounds, and 2-arylbenzo[b]furans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingyong; Liu, Miaochang; Xu, Long; Wang, Qingzong; Chen, Jiuxi; Ding, Jinchang; Wu, Huayue

    2013-06-07

    A palladium-catalyzed addition of potassium aryltrifluoroborates to aliphatic nitriles has been developed, leading to a wide range of alkyl aryl ketones with moderate to excellent yields. Moreover, several dinitriles (e.g., malononitrile, glutaronitrile, and adiponitrile) were applicable to this process for the construction of 1,3-, 1,5-, or 1,6-dicarbonyl compounds. The scope of the developed approach is successfully explored toward the one-step synthesis of 2-arylbenzo[b]furans via sequential addition and intramolecular annulation reactions. The methodology accepted a wide range of substrates and is applicable to library synthesis.

  10. One-pot, two-step, microwave-assisted palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl alcohols to aryl fluorides via aryl nonaflates.

    PubMed

    Wannberg, Johan; Wallinder, Charlotta; Ünlüsoy, Meltem; Sköld, Christian; Larhed, Mats

    2013-04-19

    A convenient procedure for converting aryl alcohols to aryl fluorides via aryl nonafluorobutylsulfonates (ArONf) is presented. Moderate to good one-pot, two-step yields were achieved by this nonaflation and microwave-assisted, palladium-catalyzed fluorination sequence. The reductive elimination step was investigated by DFT calculations to compare fluorination with chlorination, proving a larger thermodynamic driving force for the aryl fluoride product. Finally, a key aryl fluoride intermediate for the synthesis of a potent HCV NS3 protease inhibitor was smoothly prepared with the novel protocol.

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed Construction of Heteroatom-Containing π-Conjugated Systems by Intramolecular Oxidative C-H/C-H Coupling Reaction.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kenta; Chikkade, Prasanna Kumara; Kanai, Motomu; Kuninobu, Yoichiro

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis of heteroatom-containing ladder-type π-conjugated molecules was successfully achieved via a palladium-catalyzed intramolecular oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling reaction. This reaction provides a variety of π-conjugated molecules bearing heteroatoms, such as nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur atoms, and a carbonyl group. The π-conjugated molecules were synthesized efficiently, even in gram scale, and larger π-conjugated molecules were also obtained by a double C-H/C-H cross-coupling reaction and successive oxidative cycloaromatization.

  12. Sequential Processes in Palladium-Catalyzed Silicon-Based Cross-Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Liu, Jack H.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Although developed somewhat later, silicon-based cross-coupling has become a viable alternative to the more conventional Suzuki-Miyaura, Stille-Kosugi-Migita, and Negishi cross-coupling reactions because of its broad substrate scope, high stability of silicon-containing reagents, and low toxicity of waste streams. An empowering and yet underappreciated feature unique to silicon-based cross-coupling is the wide range of sequential processes available. In these processes, simple precursors are first converted to complex silicon-containing cross-coupling substrates, and the subsequent silicon-based cross-coupling reaction affords an even more highly functionalized product in a stereoselective fashion. In so doing, structurally simple and inexpensive starting materials are quickly transformed into value-added and densely substituted products. Therefore, sequential processes are often useful in constructing the carbon backbones of natural products. In this review, studies of sequential processes involving silicon-based cross-coupling are discussed. Additionally, the total syntheses that utilize these sequential processes are also presented. PMID:23293392

  13. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  14. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  15. Why platinum catalysts involving ligands with large bite angle are so efficient in the allylation of amines: design of a highly active catalyst and comprehensive experimental and DFT study.

    PubMed

    Mora, Guilhem; Piechaczyk, Olivier; Houdard, Romaric; Mézailles, Nicolas; Le Goff, Xavier-Frederic; le Floch, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    The platinum-catalyzed allylation of amines with allyl alcohols was studied experimentally and theoretically. The complexes [Pt(eta(3)-allyl)(dppe)]OTf (2) and [Pt(eta(3)-allyl)(DPP-Xantphos)]PF(6) (5) were synthesized and structurally characterized, and their reactivity toward amines was explored. The bicyclic aminopropyl complex [Pt(CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)NHBn-kappa-C,N)(dppe)]OTf (3) was obtained from the reaction of complex 2 with an excess of benzylamine, and this complex was shown to be a deactivated form of catalyst 2. On the other hand, reaction of complex 5 with benzylamine and allyl alcohol led to formation of the 16-VE platinum(0) complex [Pt(eta(2)-C(3)H(5)OH)(DPP-Xantphos)] (7), which was structurally characterized and appears to be a catalytic intermediate. A DFT study showed that the mechanism of the platinum-catalyzed allylation of amines with allyl alcohols differs from the palladium-catalyzed process, since it involves an associative ligand-exchange step involving formation of a tetracoordinate 18-VE complex. This DFT study also revealed that ligands with large bite angles disfavor the formation of platinum hydride complexes and therefore the formation of a bicyclic aminopropyl complex, which is a thermodynamic sink. Finally, a combination of 5 and a proton source was shown to efficiently catalyze the allylation of a broad variety of amines with allyl alcohols under mild conditions.

  16. Chiral phosphinoferrocene carboxamides with amino acid substituents as ligands for Pd-catalysed asymmetric allylic substitutions. Synthesis and structural characterisation of catalytically relevant Pd complexes.

    PubMed

    Tauchman, Jiří; Císařová, Ivana; Stěpnička, Petr

    2011-11-28

    An extensive series of chiral amino acid amides prepared from 1'-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-1-carboxylic acid (Hdpf) or its planar-chiral isomer, 2-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-1-carboxylic acid, have been tested as ligands for Pd-catalysed asymmetric allylic substitution reactions. In alkylation of 1,3-diphenylallyl acetate as a model substrate with dimethyl malonate the ligands performed well in terms of both reaction rate and enantioselectivity, achieving up to 98% ee. In contrast, the reactions of the same substrate with other nucleophiles proceeded either slowly and with poor ee's (amination with benzylamine) or not at all (etherification with benzyl alcohol). In order to rationalise the influence of the ligand structure on the reaction course, three model complexes, viz. [(η(3)-methallyl)PdCl(L-κP)], [(η(3)-methallyl)Pd(L-κ(2)O,P)]ClO(4) and [(η(3)-methallyl)Pd(L-κP)(2)]ClO(4) have been prepared from the achiral amide Ph(2)PfcCONHCH(2)CO(2)Me (L; fc = ferrocene-1,1'-diyl) and structurally characterised. The coordination study showed that the amido-phosphines readily form 1 : 1 complexes as O,P-chelates where the amino acid chirality is brought close to the Pd atom. At higher ligand-to-metal ratios, however, simple P-monodentate coordination prevails, minimising the influence of the chiral amino acid pendant.

  17. [Studies on the structure-activity relationship of allyl substituted oxopyrimidines searching for the novel antagonist or agonist of barbiturates to the sleep mechanism based on the uridine receptor theory--barbituric acid to uridine (part I)].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ikuo

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-six allyl substituted oxopyrimidine analogues such as barbituric acid (BA), barbiturates, uracil, thymine, and related derivatives including 13 new compounds were synthesized and their pharmacologic effects ([hypnotic activity, anticonvulsant activity against pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, and LD(50)]) and interactions with the barbiturates were evaluated in mice and rats. The results are briefly and parially summarized as follows. BA prolonged pentobarbital (PB)-induced sleep and had some central depressant effects. N,5,5-triallyl-BA exhibited some hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities, although the other 5,N-allyl-compounds did not show any activity except for allobarbital (AlloB). N-allyl-BA, 5-allyl-BA, N(1),N(3),5-triallyl-BA, N,5,5-triallyl-BA, and N(1),N(3),5,5-tetraallyl-BA also prolonged PB-induced sleep. Interestingly, N,5,5-triallyl-BA was the most potent in the interaction with AlloB, phenobarbital (PheB), amobarbital (AB), PB, and thiopental (TP) but not barbital (B). N(1),N(3),5,5-tetraallyl-BA prolonged AlloB-, PB-, and AB-induced sleep but not B-, PheB-, and TP-induced sleep. N(1),N(3),5-triallyl-B prolonged only PB- and TP-induced sleep. 5,5-diallyl-BA prolonged PheB- and TP-induced sleep. N,5-diallyl-BA prolonged only TP-induced sleep. In contrast, BA and N(1),N(3),5-triallyl-AB tended to antagonize AlloB, AB, and B. N(1),N(3),5,5-tetraallyl-BA also slightly antagonized B, PheB, and TP. 5,5-diallyl-BA antagonized only AB. The prolonging effects of BA, N,5,5-triallyl-BA, and N(1),N(3),5,5-tetraallyl-BA on PB-induced sleep were dose dependent. These results indicate that the position and number of allyl groups substituted on the structure of BA play an important role in their depressant activities. This review deals with the structure-activity relationship of allyl-substituted oxopyrimidines as part of our search for antagonists and agonists of barbiturates as well as their mechanisms of action.

  18. Iridium-Catalyzed Regioselective and Enantioselective Allylation of Trimethylsiloxyfuran

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F.

    2012-01-01

    We report the regioselective and enantioselective allylation of an ester enolate, trimethylsiloxyfuran. This enolate reacts in the 3-position with linear aromatic allylic carbonates or aliphatic allylic benzoates to form the branched substitution products in the presence of a metallacyclic iridium catalyst. This process provides access to synthetically important 3-substituted butenolides in enantioenriched form. Stoichiometric reactions of the allyliridium intermediate imply that the trimethylsiloxyfuran is activated by the carboxylate leaving group. PMID:22954355

  19. Spiro-fused carbohydrate oxazoline ligands: Synthesis and application as enantio-discrimination agents in asymmetric allylic alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Jochen; Golkowski, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary In the present work, we describe a convenient synthesis of spiro-fused D-fructo- and D-psico-configurated oxazoline ligands and their application in asymmetric catalysis. The ligands were synthesized from readily available 3,4,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-β-D-fructopyranose and 3,4,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-β-D-psicopyranose, respectively. The latter compounds were partially deprotected under acidic conditions followed by condensation with thiocyanic acid to give an anomeric mixture of the corresponding 1,3-oxazolidine-2-thiones. The anomeric 1,3-oxazolidine-2-thiones were separated after successive benzylation, fully characterized and subjected to palladium catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura coupling with 2-pyridineboronic acid N-phenyldiethanolamine ester to give the corresponding 2-pyridyl spiro-oxazoline (PyOx) ligands. The spiro-oxazoline ligands showed high asymmetric induction (up to 93% ee) when applied as chiral ligands in palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of 1,3-diphenylallyl acetate with dimethyl malonate. The D-fructo-PyOx ligand provided mainly the (R)-enantiomer while the D-psico-configurated ligand gave the (S)-enantiomer with a lower enantiomeric excess. PMID:26877819

  20. Synthesis of steroid-ferrocene conjugates of steroidal 17-carboxamides via a palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation--copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction sequence.

    PubMed

    Szánti-Pintér, Eszter; Balogh, János; Csók, Zsolt; Kollár, László; Gömöry, Agnes; Skoda-Földes, Rita

    2011-11-01

    Steroids with the 17-iodo-16-ene functionality were converted to ferrocene labeled steroidal 17-carboxamides via a two step reaction sequence. The first step involved the palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of the alkenyl iodides with prop-2-yn-1-amine as the nucleophile in the presence of the Pd(OAc)(2)/PPh(3) catalyst system. In the second step, the product N-(prop-2-ynyl)-carboxamides underwent a facile azide-alkyne cycloaddition with ferrocenyl azides in the presence of CuSO(4)/sodium ascorbate to produce the steroid-ferrocene conjugates. The new compounds were obtained in good yield and were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR, MS and elemental analysis.

  1. Rapid Access to 2,2'-Bithiazole-Based Copolymers via Sequential Palladium-Catalyzed C-H/C-X and C-H/C-H Coupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Jiang, Ruyong; Wu, Di; You, Jingsong

    2016-05-01

    A rapid access to 2,2'-bithiazole-based copolymers has been developed on the basis of the sequential palladium-catalyzed CH/CX and CH/CH coupling reactions. To assemble a "copolymer" through homopolymerization, a type of symmetric A-B-A-type building block is designed as the monomer and prepared via the regioselective C5H arylation of thiazole. A PdCl2 /CuCl-cocatalyzed oxidative CH/CH homopolymerization has been established to afford the 2,2'-bithiazole-based copolymers with high Mn (up to 69400). The current protocol features atom- and step-economy and exhibits a potential in the highly efficient construction of conjugated copolymers.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed, tert-Butyllithium-Mediated Dimerization of Aryl Halides and Its Application in the Atropselective Total Synthesis of Mastigophorene A.

    PubMed

    Buter, Jeffrey; Heijnen, Dorus; Vila, Carlos; Hornillos, Valentín; Otten, Edwin; Giannerini, Massimo; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Feringa, Ben L

    2016-03-07

    A palladium-catalyzed direct synthesis of symmetric biaryl compounds from aryl halides in the presence of tBuLi is described. In situ lithium-halogen exchange generates the corresponding aryl lithium reagent, which undergoes a homocoupling reaction with a second molecule of the aryl halide in the presence of the palladium catalyst (1 mol %). The reaction takes place at room temperature, is fast (1 h), and affords the corresponding biaryl compounds in good to excellent yields. The application of the method is demonstrated in an efficient asymmetric total synthesis of mastigophorene A. The chiral biaryl axis is constructed with an atropselectivity of 9:1 owing to catalyst-induced remote point-to-axial chirality transfer.

  3. Merging C-H activation and alkene difunctionalization at room temperature: a palladium-catalyzed divergent synthesis of indoles and indolines.

    PubMed

    Manna, Manash Kumar; Hossian, Asik; Jana, Ranjan

    2015-02-06

    A palladium-catalyzed 1,2-carboamination through C-H activation at room temperature is reported for the synthesis of 2-arylindoles, and indolines from readily available, inexpensive aryl ureas and vinyl arenes. The reaction initiates with a urea-directed electrophilic ortho palladation, alkene insertion, and β-hydride elimination sequences to provide the Fujiwara-Moritani arylation product. Subsequently, aza-Wacker cyclization, and β-hydride elimination provide the 2-arylindoles in high yields. Intercepting the common σ-alkyl-Pd intermediate, corresponding indolines are also achieved. The indoline formation is attributed to the generation of stabilized, cationic π-benzyl-Pd species to suppress β-hydride elimination.

  4. Double C-H functionalization in sequential order: direct synthesis of polycyclic compounds by a palladium-catalyzed C-H alkenylation-arylation cascade.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroaki; Iuchi, Mutsumi; Kojima, Naoto; Yoshimitsu, Takehiko; Fujii, Nobutaka; Tanaka, Tetsuaki

    2012-04-23

    Palladium-catalyzed cascade C-H alkenylation and arylation provides convenient access to polycyclic aromatic compounds. Treatment of 3-bromoaniline derivatives bearing a bromocinnamyl group on the nitrogen atom with a catalytic amount of [Pd(OAc)(2)] and PCy(3)·HBF(4) in the presence of Cs(2)CO(3) in dioxane affords naphthalene-fused indole derivatives in good yields. This double cyclization reaction is also applicable to heterocyclic substrates, giving fused indoles containing a heteroaromatic ring such as dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene, carbazole, indole, or benzofuran through heterocyclic C-H arylation. When using a 2,6-unsubstituted aniline derivative, the first C-H arylation preferentially proceeds at the more hindered position of the aniline ring.

  5. Palladium-Catalyzed Directed C(sp(3))-H Arylation of Saturated Heterocycles at C-3 Using a Concise Optimization Approach.

    PubMed

    Affron, Dominic P; Bull, James A

    2016-01-01

    Saturated heterocycles, such as THFs, pyrrolidines, piperidines and THPs, are essential components of many biologically active compounds. Examples of C-H functionalization on these important ring systems remain scarce, especially at unactivated positions. Here we report the development of conditions for the palladium-catalyzed stereoselective C(sp(3))-H arylation at unactivated 3-positions of 5- and 6-membered N- and O-heterocycles with aminoquinoline directing groups. Subtle differences in substrate structures altered their reactivity significantly; and different conditions were required to achieve high yields in each case. Successful conditions were developed using a short empirical optimization approach to cover reaction space with a limited set of variables. Excellent cis-selectivity was achieved in all cases, except for the THP substrate where minor trans-products were formed through a different palladacyclic intermediate. Here, differences in reactivity and selectivity with other directing groups were examined.

  6. Synthesis of fused imidazoles, pyrroles, and indoles with a defined stereocenter α to nitrogen utilizing Mitsunobu alkylation followed by palladium-catalyzed cyclization.

    PubMed

    Laha, Joydev K; Cuny, Gregory D

    2011-10-21

    Nitrogen-containing fused heterocycles comprise many compounds that demonstrate interesting biological activities. A new synthetic approach involving Mitsunobu alkylation of imidazoles, pyrroles, and indoles followed by palladium-catalyzed cyclization has been developed providing access to fused heterocycles with a defined stereochemistry α to nitrogen. While ethyl imidazole or indole carboxylates are good substrates for Mitsunobu alkylation with optically pure secondary benzylic alcohols, the corresponding pyrroles are poor substrates presumably due to the increased pK(a) of the NH. The presence of a synthetically versatile trichloroacetyl functional group on the pyrroles significantly reduces the pK(a) and thereby facilitates Mitsunobu alkylation. Subsequent cyclization of the alkylated products mediated by palladium in the presence or absence of a ligand gave fused heterocycles in good to excellent yields.

  7. Cross-conjugated chromophores: synthesis of iso-polydiacetylenes with Donor/Acceptor substitution

    PubMed

    Ciulei; Tykwinski

    2000-11-16

    The iterative construction of cross-conjugated donor (D), acceptor (A), and donor-acceptor (D-A) substituted iso-polydiacetylene (iso-PDA) oligomers has been achieved utilizing palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling techniques. Structure-property relationships for these compounds have been analyzed for cross-conjugated pi-electronic communication as a result of contributions from donor, acceptor, or donor-acceptor functionalization.

  8. Enantioselective construction of C-chiral allylic sulfilimines via the iridium-catalyzed allylic amination with S,S-diphenylsulfilimine: asymmetric synthesis of primary allylic amines.

    PubMed

    Grange, Rebecca L; Clizbe, Elizabeth A; Counsell, Emma J; Evans, P Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We have devised a highly regio- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylic amination reaction with the sulfur-stabilized aza-ylide, S,S-diphenylsulfilimine. This process provides a robust and scalable method for the construction of aryl-, alkyl- and alkenyl-substituted C-chiral allylic sulfilimines, which are important functional groups for organic synthesis. Additionally, the combination of the allylic amination with an in situ deprotection of the sulfilimine constitutes a convenient one-pot protocol for the construction of chiral nonracemic primary allylic amines.

  9. Chiral Ferrocenyl P,N-Ligands for Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Formal [3 + 2] Cycloaddition of Propargylic Esters with β-Ketoesters: Access to Functionalized Chiral 2,3-Dihydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Zhu, Fu-Lin; Liu, Zhen-Ting; Zhou, Xiao-Mao; Hu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-06-03

    A highly enantioselective palladium-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition of propargylic esters with β-ketoesters has been realized by employing a newly developed chiral ferrocene/benzimidazole-based P,N-ligand. This protocol features a good tolerance of functional groups in both propargylic esters and β-ketoesters, thereby delivering a variety of highly functionalized chiral 2,3-dihydrofurans bearing an exocyclic double bond at the 3-position in good yields and with high enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee).

  10. Palladium-catalyzed through-space C(sp(3))-H and C(sp(2))-H bond activation by 1,4-palladium migration: efficient synthesis of [3,4]-fused oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Piou, Tiffany; Bunescu, Ala; Wang, Qian; Neuville, Luc; Zhu, Jieping

    2013-11-18

    Palladium two step: Linear anilides were converted into the title compounds in good to excellent yields through a palladium-catalyzed domino carbopalladation/1,4-palladium shift sequence. The C(sp(3) )-H activation involves a seven-membered palladacycle, and is chemoselective in the presence of competitive C(sp(2) )H bonds. DMA=N,N-dimethylacetamide, OPiv=pivalate.

  11. Facile synthesis of 1,3,4-benzotriazepines and 1-arylamide-1H-indazoles via palladium-catalyzed cyclization of aryl isocyanates and aryl hydrazones under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chune; Xie, Lingli; Mou, Xiaohong; Zhong, Yashan; Su, Wei

    2010-11-07

    A strategy involving palladium-catalyzed cyclization of halo-phenyl hydrazones and aryl isocyanates provides a convenient approach to the synthesis of 1,3,4-benzotriazepines (4) or 1-arylamide-1H-indazoles (5) in good isolated yields. Microwave irradiation was found to afford high reaction efficiency, while the choice of halophenyl hydrazone had an effect on the pathway of the reaction.

  12. Heteroatom-Guided, Palladium-Catalyzed, Site-Selective C-H Arylation of 4H-Chromenes: Diastereoselective Assembly of the Core Structure of Myristinin B through Dual C-H Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Govind Goroba; Tiwari, Virendra Kumar; Jena, Himanshu Sekhar; Kapur, Manmohan

    2015-06-26

    A highly site-selective, heteroatom-guided, palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of 4H-chromenes is reported. The C-H functionalization is driven not only by the substituents and structure of the substrate but also by the coupling partner being used. The diastereoselective assembly of the core structure of Myristinin B has been achieved by using a dual C-H functionalization strategy for regioselective direct arylation.

  13. Synthesis of Cyclic Guanidines via Pd-Catalyzed Alkene Carboamination

    PubMed Central

    Zavesky, Blane P.; Babij, Nicholas R.; Fritz, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to the synthesis of substituted 5-membered cyclic guanidines is described. Palladium-catalyzed alkene carboamination reactions between acyclic N-allyl guanidines and aryl or alkenyl halides provide these products in good yield. This method allows access to a number of different cyclic guanidine derivatives in only two steps from readily available allylic amines. PMID:24147839

  14. Redox-Neutral Rh(III)-Catalyzed Olefination of Carboxamides with Trifluoromethyl Allylic Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihye; Han, Sangil; Jeon, Mijin; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Lee, Seok-Yong; Lee, Jong Suk; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Um, Sung Hee; Kim, In Su

    2016-11-18

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed olefination of various carboxamides with α-CF3-substituted allylic carbonate is described. This reaction provides direct access to linear CF3-allyl frameworks with complete trans-selectivity. In particular, a rhodium catalyst provided Heck-type γ-CF3-allylation products via the β-O-elimination of rhodacycle intermediate and subsequent olefin migration process.

  15. Domino rhodium/palladium-catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of alcohols to acids by hydrogen transfer to inactivated alkenes.

    PubMed

    Trincado, Mónica; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Vizza, Francesco; Bianchini, Claudio

    2010-03-01

    The combination of the d(8) Rh(I) diolefin amide [Rh(trop(2)N)(PPh(3))] (trop(2)N=bis(5-H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-yl)amide) and a palladium heterogeneous catalyst results in the formation of a superior catalyst system for the dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols. The overall process represents a mild and direct method for the synthesis of aromatic and heteroaromatic carboxylic acids for which inactivated olefins can be used as hydrogen acceptors. Allyl alcohols are also applicable to this coupling reaction and provide the corresponding saturated aliphatic carboxylic acids. This transformation has been found to be very efficient in the presence of silica-supported palladium nanoparticles. The dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol by the rhodium amide, [Rh]N, follows the well established mechanism of metal-ligand bifunctional catalysis. The resulting amino hydride complex, [RhH]NH, transfers a H(2) molecule to the Pd nanoparticles, which, in turn, deliver hydrogen to the inactivated alkene. Thus a domino catalytic reaction is developed which promotes the reaction R-CH(2)-OH+NaOH+2 alkene-->R-COONa+2 alkane.

  16. A general and expedient synthesis of 5- and 6-membered cyclic carbonates by palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of 1,2- and 1,3-diols.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Bartolo; Mancuso, Raffaella; Salerno, Giuseppe; Veltri, Lucia; Costa, Mirco; Dibenedetto, Angela

    2011-12-16

    We present a general, practical, and efficient approach to 5- and 6-membered organic carbonates by palladium-catalyzed direct oxidative carbonylation of 1,2- and 1,3-diols, respectively. Reactions were carried out at 100 °C in N,N-dimethylacetamide as the solvent under 20 atm (at 25 °C; 1 atm=101.3 kPa) of a 4:1 v/v CO/air mixture in the presence of 0.5-2 mol % of PdI(2) and KI (KI/PdI(2) molar ratio=10). Excess dehydrating agent, such as trimethyl orthoacetate, was necessary in several cases to obtain appreciable results. The method could also be applied to the synthesis of a high-value-added glycerol carbonate from glycerol, a readily available raw material. When applied to α-D-glucose, a double carbonylation process took place, with direct formation of α-D-glucofuranose 1,2:5,6-dicarbonate. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of arylsiloxanes with aryl halides: application to solid-supported organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Traficante, Carla I; Delpiccolo, Carina M L; Mata, Ernesto G

    2014-05-12

    The solid-phase version of the Pd-catalyzed Hiyama reaction between a variety of aryltriethoxysilanes and immobilized aryl halides was developed. Smooth cross-coupling was achieved to afford the corresponding biaryl products in moderate to excellent yields. The described protocol would be particularly useful for the construction of 4'-substituted 1,1'-biphenyl derivatives.

  18. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of cyclopropylmagnesium bromide with aryl bromides mediated by zinc halide additives.

    PubMed

    Shu, Chutian; Sidhu, Kanwar; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Krishnamurthy, Dhileepkumar; Senanayake, Chris H

    2010-10-01

    The key Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl bromides or triflates and cyclopropylmagnesium bromide in the presence of substoichiometric amounts of zinc bromide produces cyclopropyl arenes in good to excellent yields. The cross-coupling of other alkyl, cycloalkyl, and aryl Grignard reagents with aryl bromides under the same conditions gives the corresponding substituted arenes in good yields.

  19. Pyridine sulfinates as general nucleophilic coupling partners in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with aryl halides.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Tim; Rocke, Benjamin N; Blakemore, David C; Mascitti, Vincent; Willis, Michael C

    2017-06-01

    Pyridine rings are ubiquitous in drug molecules; however, the pre-eminent reaction used to form carbon-carbon bonds in the pharmaceutical industry, the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction, often fails when applied to these structures. This phenomenon is most pronounced in 2-substituted pyridines, and results from the difficulty in preparing, the poor stability of, and low efficiency in reactions of pyridine-2-boronates. We demonstrate that by replacing these boronates with pyridine-2-sulfinates, a cross-coupling process of unrivalled scope and utility is realized. The corresponding 3- and 4-substituted pyridine variants are also efficient coupling partners. In addition, we apply these sulfinates in a library format to the preparation of medicinally relevant derivatives of the drugs varenicline (Chantix) and mepyramine (Anthisan).

  20. Palladium-catalyzed regioselective carbonylation of C-H bonds of N-alkyl anilines for synthesis of isatoic anhydrides.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng-Hui; Chen, Ming; Ren, Zhi-Hui

    2012-10-24

    A Pd-catalyzed regioselective C-H bond carbonylation of N-alkyl anilines for the synthesis of isatoic anhydrides has been developed. The key Pd-catalyst intermediate has been isolated and characterized. This novel Pd-catalyzed carbonylation reaction tolerates a wide range of functional groups and is a reliable method for the rapid elaboration of readily available N-alkyl anilines into a variety of substituted isatoic anhydrides under mild conditions.

  1. Palladium-catalyzed C-H activation/intramolecular amination reaction: a new route to 3-aryl/alkylindazoles.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Kiyofumi; Saito, Tadataka; Katsuno, Mika; Sakamoto, Takao; Hiroya, Kou

    2007-07-19

    A method for the catalytic C-H activation of hydrazone compounds followed by intramolecular amination is described. It requires the use of a catalytic amount of Pd(OAc)2 in the presence of Cu(OAc)2 and AgOCOCF3, which efficiently effects the cyclization to afford variously substituted indazoles. The reactions proceed under relatively mild conditions and thus tolerate a variety of functional groups, including alkoxycarbonyl and cyano groups and halogen atoms.

  2. Palladium-catalyzed stereospecific homocoupling of vinylstannanes as a suitable method for the synthesis of symmetrical 1,3-dienes

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstikov, G.A.; Miftakhov, M.S.; Danilova, N.A.; Vel'der, Ya.L.

    1988-07-20

    The authors have found that functionally substituted vinylstannanes readily enter into a homocoupling reaction in the presence of 5 mole % of PdCl/sub 2/(MeCN)/sub 2/ (in HMPTA at 20/degree/C), giving 85-95% yields of symmetrical 1,3-dienes with retention of the configuration of the substituents at the double bonds. It should be noted that the rate of this reaction is determined by the configuration of the isomers with respect to the double bond and by the structure of the substituent at the double bond.

  3. Benzannulation via the Reaction of Ynamides and Vinylketenes. Application to the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Indoles

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tin Yiu; Wang, Yu-Pu

    2013-01-01

    A two-stage “tandem strategy” for the synthesis of indoles with a high level of substitution on the six-membered ring is described. Benzannulation based on the reaction of cyclobutenones with ynamides proceeds via a cascade of four pericyclic reactions to produce multiply substituted aniline derivatives in which the position ortho to the nitrogen can bear a wide range of functionalized substituents. In the second stage of the tandem strategy, highly substituted indoles are generated via acid-, base-, and palladium-catalyzed cyclization and annulation processes. PMID:23952525

  4. Kinetic separation methodology for the stereoselective synthesis of (E)- and (Z)-alpha-fluoro-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters via the palladium-catalyzed carboalkoxylation of 1-bromo-1-fluoroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianjun; Burton, Donald J

    2002-03-07

    [reaction: see text] Methodology for the stereoselective preparation of both (E)- and (Z)-alpha-fluoro-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters is described. 1-Bromo-1-fluoroalkenes (E/Z approximate 1:1) can be isomerized to high E/Z ratio mixtures, which participate in palladium-catalyzed carboalkoxylation and lead to (Z)-alpha-fluoro-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters in high stereoselectivity. The same starting material can also be kinetically reduced to get an E/Z ratio of 0:100; similar carboalkoxylation reaction at 70 degrees C affords (E)-alpha-fluoro-alpha,beta-unsaturated esters stereospecifically.

  5. Synthesis of annulated 2H-indazoles and 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-triazoles via a one-pot palladium-catalyzed alkylation/direct arylation reaction.

    PubMed

    Laleu, Benoît; Lautens, Mark

    2008-11-21

    A variety of six-membered-ring annulated 2H-indazoles and 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-triazoles were synthesized in good to excellent yields from the corresponding bromoethyl azoles and aryl iodides. The annulation process involves a one-pot norbornene-mediated palladium-catalyzed sequence whereby an alkyl-aryl bond and an aryl-heteroaryl bond are successively formed through two C-H bond activations. Subsequent functionalizations of the resulting polycyclic through cross-coupling reactions are also presented.

  6. Ortho-Functionalized Aryltetrazines by Direct Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Halogenation: Application to Fast Electrophilic Fluorination Reactions.

    PubMed

    Testa, Christelle; Gigot, Élodie; Genc, Semra; Decréau, Richard; Roger, Julien; Hierso, Jean-Cyrille

    2016-04-25

    A general catalyzed direct C-H functionalization of s-tetrazines is reported. Under mild reaction conditions, N-directed ortho-C-H activation of tetrazines allows the introduction of various functional groups, thus forming carbon-heteroatom bonds: C-X (X=I, Br, Cl) and C-O. Based on this methodology, we developed electrophilic mono- and poly-ortho-fluorination of tetrazines. Microwave irradiation was optimized to afford fluorinated s-aryltetrazines, with satisfactory selectivity, within only ten minutes. This work provides an efficient and practical entry for further accessing highly substituted tetrazine derivatives (iodo, bromo, chloro, fluoro, and acetate precursors). It gives access to ortho-functionalized aryltetrazines which are difficult to obtain by classical Pinner-like syntheses.

  7. Rapid Access to Spirocyclic Oxindole Alkaloids: Application of the Asymmetric Palladium-Catalyzed [3+2] Trimethylenemethane Cycloaddition

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Bringley, Dustin A.; Zhang, Ting; Cramer, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    The marcfortines are complex secondary metabolites that show potent anthelmintic activity and are characterized by the presence of a bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane fused to a spirooxindole. Herein, we report the synthesis of two members of this family. The synthesis of marcfortine B utilizes a carboxylative TMM cycloaddition to establish the spirocyclic core, followed by an intramolecular Michael addition and oxidative radical cyclization to access the strained bicyclic ring system. In addition, the first asymmetric synthesis of (–)-marcfortine C is described. The key step involves a cyano-substituted TMM cycloaddition, which proceeds in nearly quantitative yield with high diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The resulting chiral center was used to establish all remaining stereocenters in the natural product. PMID:24083654

  8. Pentacoordinated carboxylate π-allyl nickel complexes as key intermediates for the Ni-catalyzed direct amination of allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kita, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Hironobu; Hoshimoto, Yoichi; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Nakahara, Yasuhito; Carpentier, Jean-François; Ogoshi, Sensuke; Mashima, Kazushi

    2015-10-05

    Direct amination of allylic alcohols with primary and secondary amines catalyzed by a system made of [Ni(1,5-cyclooctadiene)2 ] and 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene was effectively enhanced by adding nBu4 NOAc and molecular sieves, affording the corresponding allyl amines in high yield with high monoallylation selectivity for primary amines and high regioselectivity for monosubstituted allylic alcohols. Such remarkable additive effects of nBu4 NOAc were elucidated by isolating and characterizing some nickel complexes, manifesting the key role of a charge neutral pentacoordinated η(3) -allyl acetate complex in the present system, in contrast to usual cationic tetracoordinated complexes earlier reported in allylic substitution reactions.

  9. A general synthesis of alkenyl-substituted benzofurans, indoles, and isoquinolones by cascade palladium-catalyzed heterocyclization/oxidative Heck coupling.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Rosana; Martínez, Claudio; Madich, Youssef; Denis, J Gabriel; Aurrecoechea, José M; de Lera, Angel R

    2010-11-08

    Structurally diverse C3-alkenylbenzofurans, C3-alkenylindoles, and C4-alkenylisoquinolones are efficiently prepared by using consecutive Sonogashira and cascade Pd-catalyzed heterocyclization/oxidative Heck couplings from readily available ortho-iodosubstituted phenol, aniline, and benzamide substrates, alkynes, and functionalized olefins. The cyclization of O- and N-heteronucleophiles follows regioselective 5-endo-dig- or 6-endo-dig-cyclization modes, whereas the subsequent Heck-type coupling with both mono- and disubstituted olefins takes place stereoselectively with exclusive formation of the E isomers in most cases.

  10. Palladium catalyzed bicyclization of 1,8-diiodonaphthalene and tertiary propargylic alcohols to phenalenones and their applications as fluorescent chemosensor for fluoride ions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaopeng; Wang, Hongbo; Jin, Xiaohan; Feng, Jinwu; Wang, Yanguang; Lu, Ping

    2011-03-07

    Phenalenone derivatives were efficiently constructed from 1,8-diiodonaphthalene and tertiary propynols via a one-pot domino reaction which eventually included Pd-catalyzed Sonogoshira coupling, Pd-catalyzed allylic oxidation and Pd-catalyzed C(sp(2))-H activation. Moreover, the synthesized phenalenone derivative presented a practical application as a fluorescent chemosensor for fluoride anion with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  11. Palladium-catalyzed stereoselective intramolecular oxidative amidation of alkenes in the synthesis of 1,3- and 1,4-amino alcohols and 1,3-diamines.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Andrei V; Lee, Darren S; Barłóg, Maciej; Elsegood, Mark R J; Kočovský, Pavel

    2014-04-22

    An efficient and practical Pd-catalyzed intramolecular oxidative allylic amidation provides facile access to derivatives of 1,3- and 1,4-amino alcohols and 1,3-diamines. The method operates under mild reaction conditions (RT) with molecular oxygen (1 atm) as the sole reoxidant of Pd. Excellent diastereoselectivities were attained with substrates bearing a secondary stereogenic center.

  12. Highly Stereoselective Intermolecular Haloetherification and Haloesterification of Allyl Amides

    PubMed Central

    Soltanzadeh, Bardia; Jaganathan, Arvind; Staples, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    An organocatalytic and highly regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective intermolecular haloetherification and haloesterification reaction of allyl amides is reported. A variety of alkene substituents and substitution patterns are compatible with this chemistry. Notably, electronically unbiased alkene substrates exhibit exquisite regio- and diastereoselectivity for the title transformation. We also demonstrate that the same catalytic system can be used in both chlorination and bromination reactions of allyl amides with a variety of nucleophiles with little or no modification. PMID:26110812

  13. Direct, Intermolecular, Enantioselective, Iridium-Catalyzed Allylation of Carbamates to Form Carbamate-Protected, Branched Allylic Amines

    PubMed Central

    Weix, Daniel J.; Marković, Dean; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Hartwig, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The direct reaction between carbamates and achiral allylic carbonates to form branched, conveniently protected primary allylic amines with high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity is reported. This process occurs without base or with 0.5 equiv K3PO4 in the presence of a metalacyclic iridium catalyst containing a labile ethylene ligand. The reactions of aryl, heteroaryl and alkyl-substituted allylic carbonates with BocNH2, FmocNH2, CbzNH2, TrocNH2, TeocNH2, and 2-oxazolidinone occur in good yields, with high selectivity for the branched isomer, and high enantioselectivities (98% average ee). PMID:19552468

  14. Direct, intermolecular, enantioselective, iridium-catalyzed allylation of carbamates to form carbamate-protected, branched allylic amines.

    PubMed

    Weix, Daniel J; Marković, Dean; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Hartwig, John F

    2009-07-02

    The direct reaction between carbamates and achiral allylic carbonates to form branched, conveniently protected primary allylic amines with high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity is reported. This process occurs without base or with 0.5 equiv K(3)PO(4) in the presence of a metalacyclic iridium catalyst containing a labile ethylene ligand. The reactions of aryl-, heteroaryl-, and alkyl-substituted allylic carbonates with BocNH(2), FmocNH(2), CbzNH(2), TrocNH(2), TeocNH(2), and 2-oxazolidinone occur in good yields, with high selectivity for the branched isomer and high enantioselectivities (98% average ee).

  15. Silicon-directed rhenium-catalyzed allylic carbaminations and oxidative fragmentations of γ-silyl allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Chavhan, Sanjay W; Cook, Matthew J

    2014-04-22

    A highly regioselective allylic substitution of β-silyl allylic alcohols has been achieved that provides the branched isomer as a single product. This high level of regiocontrol is achieved through the use of a vinyl silane group that can perform a Hiyama coupling providing 1,3-disubstituted allylic amines. An unusual oxidative fragmentation product was also observed at elevated temperature that appears to proceed by a Fleming-Tamao-type oxidation-elimination pathway. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A DFT study on PBu3-catalyzed intramolecular cyclizations of N-allylic substituted α-amino nitriles for the formation of functionalized pyrrolidines: mechanisms, selectivities, and the role of catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Linjie; Tang, Mingsheng; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiaokang; Wei, Donghui; Qiao, Yan

    2016-03-21

    The mechanisms and chemo- and stereo-selectivities of PBu3-catalyzed intramolecular cyclizations of N-allylic substituted α-amino nitriles leading to functionalized pyrrolidines (5-endo-trig cyclization, Mechanism A) and their competing reaction leading to another kind of pyrrolidine (5-exo-trig cyclization, Mechanism B) have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Multiple possible reaction pathways associated with four different isomers (RR, SR, RS, and SS) for Mechanism A, and two isomers (R and S) for Mechanism B have been studied. The calculated results indicate that the Gibbs free energy barriers of Mechanism A are remarkably lower than those of Mechanism B, and the reaction pathway leading to the RS-configured product has the lowest Gibbs free energy barrier, which is in agreement with the experiments. A C-H···π interaction has been identified to be responsible for the favorability of RS isomers by non-covalent interaction (NCI) analysis. Moreover, global reaction indexes (GRIs) and NBO analyses confirm that PBu3 acts as a Lewis base to strengthen the nucleophilicity of the reaction active site. The mechanistic insights gained in the present study should be valuable for the rational design of effective organocatalysts for this kind of reaction with high chemo- and stereo-selectivities.

  17. Palladium-catalyzed Reppe carbonylation.

    PubMed

    Kiss, G

    2001-11-01

    PdX2L2/L/HA (A = weakly coordinating anion, L = phosphine) complexes are active catalysts in the hydroesterification of alkenes, alkynes, and conjugated dienes. Shell, the only major corporate player in the field, recently developed two very active catalyst systems tailored to the hydroesterification of either alkenes or alkynes. The hydroesterification of propyne with their Pd(OAc)2/PN/HA (PN = (2-pyridyl)diphenylphosphine, HA = strong acid with weakly coordinating anion, like methanesulfonic acid) catalyst has been declared commercially ready. However, despite the significant progress in the activity of Pd-hydroesterification catalysts, further improvements are warranted. Thus, for example, activity maintenance still seems to be an issue. Homogeneous Pd catalysts are prone to a number of deactivation reactions. Activity and stability promoters are often corrosive and add to the complexity of the system, making it less attractive. Nonetheless, the versatility of the process and its tolerance toward the functional groups of substrates should appeal especially to the makers of specialty products. Although hydroesterification yields esters from alkenes, alkynes, and dienes in fewer steps than hydroformylation does, the latter has some advantages at the current state of the art. (1) Hydroformylation catalysts, particularly some recently published phosphine-modified Rh systems, can achieve very high regioselectivity for the linear product that hydroesterification catalysts cannot match yet. By analogy with hydroformylation, bulkier ligands ought to be tested in hydroesterification to increase normal-ester selectivity. (2) Hydroformylation is proven, commercial. Hydroesterification can only replace it if it can provide significant economic incentives. Similar or just marginally better performance could not justify the cost of development of a new technology. (3) Hydroesterification requires pure CO while hydroformylation uses syngas, a mixture of CO and H2. The latter is typically more available and less expensive (for industrial applications CO is most often separated from syngas). (4) The acid component of the hydroesterification catalyst makes the process corrosive. It would be desirable to develop new hydroesterification catalysts that do not require acid stabilizer/activity booster. Clearly, any new hydroesterification technology will directly compete with the hydroformylation route. This is especially true for olefin feeds, since both processes add one CO to the olefin, yielding oxygenates that can be converted into identical products. For some niche applications, like the production of MMA from propyne, hydroesterification seems to have an advantage as compared to hydroformylation due to the high activity and selectivity of the Pd(OAc)2/(2-pyridyl)diphenylphosphine catalyst. Since hydroesterification is an emerging technology, it is reasonable to assume that the potential for improvement is greater than in the mature hydroformylation. It is therefore possible that hydroesterification will become competitive in the future; thus, continued effort in the field is warranted.

  18. Palladium Catalyzed Reduction of Nitrobenzene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangravite, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Compares two palladium (Pd/C) reducing systems to iron/tin-hydrochloric acid (Fe/HCl and Sn/HCl) reductions and suggests an efficient, clean, and inexpensive procedures for the conversion of nitrobenzene to aniline. Includes laboratory procedures used and discussion of typical results obtained. (JN)

  19. Palladium Catalyzed Reduction of Nitrobenzene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangravite, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Compares two palladium (Pd/C) reducing systems to iron/tin-hydrochloric acid (Fe/HCl and Sn/HCl) reductions and suggests an efficient, clean, and inexpensive procedures for the conversion of nitrobenzene to aniline. Includes laboratory procedures used and discussion of typical results obtained. (JN)

  20. Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of 2,1'-disubstituted tetrahydrofurans from gamma-hydroxy internal alkenes. Evidence for alkene insertion into a Pd-O bond and stereochemical scrambling via beta-hydride elimination.

    PubMed

    Hay, Michael B; Wolfe, John P

    2005-11-30

    Palladium-catalyzed reactions of gamma-hydroxy internal acyclic alkenes with aryl bromides afford 2,1'-disubstituted tetrahydrofurans in good yields with diastereoselectivities of 3-5:1. The analogous transformations of substrates bearing internal cyclic alkenes afford fused bicyclic and spirocyclic tetrahydrofuran derivatives in good yields with excellent diastereoselectivities (>20:1). A series of deuterium labeling experiments indicate that the origin of the modest diastereoselectivity in reactions of acyclic internal alkene substrates likely derives from a series of reversible beta-hydride elimination and sigma-bond rotation processes that occur following a rare intramolecular alkene syn-insertion into an intermediate Pd(Ar)(OR) complex. In addition, these studies shed light on the chemoselectivity of insertion, suggesting that the alkene inserts into the Pd-O bond in preference to the Pd-C bond.

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of 2,1′-Disubstituted Tetrahydrofurans from γ-Hydroxy Internal Alkenes. Evidence for Alkene Insertion into a Pd-O bond and Stereochemical Scrambling via β-Hydride Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Michael B.; Wolfe, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed reactions of γ-hydroxy internal acyclic alkenes with aryl bromides afford 2,1′-disubstituted tetrahydrofurans in good yields with diastereoselectivities of 3-5:1. The analogous transformations of substrates bearing internal cyclic alkenes afford fused bicyclic and spirocyclic tetrahydrofuran derivatives in good yields with excellent diastereoselectivities (>20:1). A series of deuterium labeling experiments indicate that the origin of the modest diastereoselectivity in reactions of acyclic internal alkene substrates likely derives from a series of reversible β-hydride elimination and σ-bond rotation processes that occur following a rare intramolecular syn-alkene insertion into an intermediate Pd(Ar)(OR) complex. In addition, these studies shed light on the chemoselectivity of insertion, suggesting that the alkene inserts into the Pd-O bond in preference to the Pd-C bond. PMID:16305233

  2. The zeolite mediated isomerization of allyl phenyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pebriana, R.; Mujahidin, D.; Syah, Y. M.

    2017-04-01

    Allyl phenyl ether is an important starting material in organic synthesis that has several applications in agrochemical industry. The green transformation of allyl phenyl ether assisted by heterogeneous catalyst is an attractive topic for an industrial process. In this report, we investigated the isomerization of allyl phenyl ether by heating it in zeolite H-ZSM-5 and Na-ZSM-5. The conversion of allyl phenyl ether (neat) in H-ZSM-5 was 67% which produced 40% of 2-allylphenol, 17% of 2-methyldihydrobenzofuran, and other product (4:1.7:1), while in Na-ZSM-5 produced exclusively 2-allylphenol with 52% conversion. These results showed that zeolite properties can be tuned to give a selective transformation by substitution of metal ion into the zeolite interior.

  3. Gold(I)-catalyzed amination of allylic alcohols with cyclic ureas and related nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Paramita; Widenhoefer, Ross A

    2010-03-19

    A 1:1 mixture of [P(t-Bu)(2)-o-biphenyl]AuCl and AgSbF(6) catalyzes the intermolecular amination of allylic alcohols with 1-methylimidazolidin-2-one and related nucleophiles that, in the case of gamma-unsubstituted or gamma-methyl-substituted allylic alcohols, occurs with high gamma-regioselectivity and syn-stereoselectivity.

  4. SUBSTITUENT EFFECTS OF LIGANDS ON ASYMMETRIC INDUCTION IN A PROTOTYPICAL PALLADIUM-CATALYZED ALLYLATION REACTION: MAKING BOTH ENANTIOMERS OF A PRODUCT IN HIGH OPTICAL PURITY USING THE SAME SOURCE OF CHIRALITY. (R826120)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. A Concomitant Allylic Azide Rearrangement/Intramolecular Azide–Alkyne Cycloaddition Sequence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An intramolecular Huisgen cycloaddition of an interconverting set of isomeric allylic azides with alkynes affords substituted triazoles in high yield. The stereoisomeric vinyl-substituted triazoloxazines formed depend on the rate of cycloaddition of the different allylic azide precursors when the reaction is carried out under thermal conditions. In contrast, dimerized macrocyclic products were obtained when the reaction was done using copper(I)-catalyzed conditions, demonstrating the ability to control the reaction products through changing conditions. PMID:24635056

  6. A concomitant allylic azide rearrangement/intramolecular azide-alkyne cycloaddition sequence.

    PubMed

    Vekariya, Rakesh H; Liu, Ruzhang; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2014-04-04

    An intramolecular Huisgen cycloaddition of an interconverting set of isomeric allylic azides with alkynes affords substituted triazoles in high yield. The stereoisomeric vinyl-substituted triazoloxazines formed depend on the rate of cycloaddition of the different allylic azide precursors when the reaction is carried out under thermal conditions. In contrast, dimerized macrocyclic products were obtained when the reaction was done using copper(I)-catalyzed conditions, demonstrating the ability to control the reaction products through changing conditions.

  7. Tandem one-pot palladium-catalyzed coupling of hydrazones, haloindoles, and amines: synthesis of amino-N-vinylindoles and their effect on human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Roche, Maxime; Bignon, Jérôme; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Hamze, Abdallah; Alami, Mouad

    2014-08-15

    The synthesis of amino-substituted N-vinylazoles was achieved by a new palladium-assisted tandem catalytic reaction involving N-tosylhydrazones, halo-substituted azoles, and amines. Accordingly, two Csp(2)-N bonds were formed through two mechanistically distinct reactions using a single Pd(II)/Pd(0) catalyst system in a one-pot fashion. This work paves the way for the design of biological relevant compounds in an amino-substituted N-vinylindole series. Among several polyoxygenated derivatives evaluated, compounds 5e and 5u were found to exhibit good antiproliferative activity.

  8. Palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of luminescent bis-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes incorporating C^N- or O^O-coordinating thiophene-based ligands: an efficient method for color tuning.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, Kassem; Zaarour, Moussa; Williams, J A Gareth; Roisnel, Thierry; Dorcet, Vincent; Planchat, Aurélien; Boucekkine, Abdou; Jacquemin, Denis; Doucet, Henri; Guerchais, Véronique

    2013-11-04

    We report the palladium-catalyzed direct 5-arylation of both metalated and nonmetalated thiophene moieties of iridium complexes 2, 3, and 4 with aryl halides via C-H bond functionalization. This method opens new routes to varieties of Ir complexes in only one step, allowing easy modification of the nature of the ligand. The photophysical properties of the new functionalized complexes have been studied by means of absorption and emission spectroscopy. The extension of the π-conjugated system induces a bathochromic and hyperchromic shift of the absorption spectra, an effect reproduced by first principle calculations. Indeed, the bathochromic shifts are related to a more delocalized nature of the excited-states. All complexes are photoluminescent in the red region of the spectrum. This study establishes that arylation of the thienyl ring affects strongly the electronic properties of the resulting complexes, even when the thienyl ring is remote and not directly metalated to the iridium center, as in the thienyltrifluoroacetonate complex 4.

  9. Preconditioning with subneurotoxic allyl nitrile: protection against allyl nitrile neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tanii, H; Higashi, T; Saijoh, K

    2010-02-01

    High-dose cruciferous allyl nitrile can induce behavioral abnormalities in rodents, while repeated exposure to allyl nitrile at subneurotoxic levels can increase phase 2 detoxification enzymes in many tissues, although the brain has not been investigated yet. In the present study, we examined the effect of 5 days repeated exposure to subneurotoxic allyl nitrile (0-400 micromol/kg/day) on the brain. Elevated glutathione S-transferase activity was recorded in the striatum, hippocampus, medulla oblongata plus pons, and cortex. Enhancement of quinone reductase activity was observed in the medulla oblongata plus pons, hippocampus, and cortex. In the medulla oblongata plus pons, elevated glutathione levels were recorded. Following repeated subneurotoxic allyl nitrile exposure (0-400 micromol/kg/day), mice were administered a high-dose allyl nitrile (1.2 mmol/kg) which alone led to appearance of behavioral abnormalities. Compared with the 0 micromol/kg/day group, animals in the 200 and 400 micromol/kg/day pre-treatment groups exhibited decreased behavioral abnormalities and elevated GABA-positive cell counts in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the interpeduncular nucleus. These data suggest that repeated exposure to subneurotoxic levels of allyl nitrile can induce phase 2 enzymes in the brain, which together with induction in other tissues, may contribute to protection against allyl nitrile neurotoxicity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regio- and stereoselective palladium-pincer complex catalyzed allylation of sulfonylimines with trifluoro(allyl)borates and allylstannanes: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Olov A; Szabó, Kálmán J

    2006-09-06

    Regio- and stereoselective palladium-pincer complex catalyzed allylation of sulfonylimines has been performed by using substituted trifluoro(allyl)borates and trimethylallylstannanes. The reactions provide the corresponding branched allylic products with excellent regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of these processes is very high when trifluoro(cinnamyl)borate and trimethyl cinnamyl stannane are employed as allylic precursors; however, the reaction with trifluoro(crotyl)borate results in poor stereoselectivity. The major diastereomer formed in these reactions was the syn isomer, while the (previously reported) reactions with aldehyde electrophiles afforded the anti products, indicating that the mechanism of the stereoselection is dependent on the applied electrophile. Therefore, we have studied the mechanistic aspects of the allylation reactions by experimental studies and DFT modeling. The experimental mechanistic studies have clearly shown that potassium trifluoro(allyl)borate undergoes transmetallation with palladium-pincer complex 1 a affording an eta(1)-allylpalladium-pincer complex (1 e). The mechanism of the transfer of the allyl moiety from palladium to the sulfonylimine substrate was studied by DFT calculations at the B3PW91/LANL2DZ+P level of theory. These calculations have shown that the electrophilic substitution of sulfonylimines proceeds in a one-step process with a relatively low activation energy. The topology of the potential energy surface in the vicinity of the transition-state structure proved to be rather complicated as nine different geometries with similar energies were located as first order saddle points. Our studies have also shown that the high stereoselectivity with cinnamyl metal reagents stems from steric interactions in the TS structure of the allylation reaction. In addition, these studies have revealed that the mechanism of the stereoselection in the allylation of aldehydes and sulfonylimines is fundamentally different.

  11. Enantioselective construction of C-chiral allylic sulfilimines via the iridium-catalyzed allylic amination with S,S-diphenylsulfilimine: asymmetric synthesis of primary allylic amines† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc01317d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Grange, Rebecca L.; Clizbe, Elizabeth A.; Counsell, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    We have devised a highly regio- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylic amination reaction with the sulfur-stabilized aza-ylide, S,S-diphenylsulfilimine. This process provides a robust and scalable method for the construction of aryl-, alkyl- and alkenyl-substituted C-chiral allylic sulfilimines, which are important functional groups for organic synthesis. Additionally, the combination of the allylic amination with an in situ deprotection of the sulfilimine constitutes a convenient one-pot protocol for the construction of chiral nonracemic primary allylic amines.

  12. Highly selective allylborations of aldehydes using α,α-disubstituted allylic pinacol boronic esters.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Matthew J; Essafi, Stéphanie; Watson, Charlotte G; Harvey, Jeremy N; Hirst, David; Willis, Christine L; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2014-06-10

    α,α-Disubstituted allylic pinacol boronic esters undergo highly selective allylborations of aldehydes to give tetrasubstituted homoallylic alcohols with exceptional levels of anti-Z-selectivity (>20:1). The scope of the reaction includes both acyclic and cyclic allylic boronic esters which lead to acyclic and exocyclic tetrasubstituted homoallylic alcohols. The use of β-borylated allylic boronic esters gave fully substituted alkenes bearing a boronic ester which underwent further cross-coupling enabling a highly modular and stereoselective approach to the synthesis of diaryl tetrasubstituted alkenes. Computational analysis revealed the origin of the remarkable selectivity observed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Enantioselective Carbonyl Allylation, Crotylation and tert-Prenylation of Furan Methanols and Furfurals via Iridium Catalyzed Transfer Hydrogenation

    PubMed Central

    Bechem, Benjamin; Patman, Ryan L.; Hashmi, Stephen; Krische, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    5-Substituted-2-furan methanols 1a–1c are subject to enantioselective carbonyl allylation, crotylation and tert-prenylation upon exposure to allyl acetate, α-methyl allyl acetate or 1,1,-dimethylallene in the presence of an ortho-cyclometallated iridium catalyst modified by (R)-Cl,MeO-BIPHEP, (R)-C3 -TUNEPHOS and (R)-C3-SEGPHOS, respectively. In the presence of isopropanol, but under otherwise identical conditions, the corresponding substituted furfurals 2a–2c are converted to identical products of allylation, crotylation and tert-prenylation. Optically enriched products carbonyl allylation, crotylation and reverse prenylation 3b, 4b and 5b were subjected to Achmatowicz rearrangement to furnish the corresponding γ-hydroxy-β-pyrones 6a–6c, respectively, with negligible erosion of enantiomeric excess. PMID:20131774

  14. Synthesis of nearly enantiopure allylic amines by aza-Claisen rearrangement of Z-configured allylic trifluoroacetimidates catalyzed by highly active ferrocenylbispalladacycles.

    PubMed

    Jautze, Sascha; Seiler, Paul; Peters, René

    2008-01-01

    The development of the first highly active enantioselective catalyst for the aza-Claisen rearrangement of Z-configured allylic trifluoroacetimidates generating valuable almost enantiopure protected allylic amines is described. Usually Z-configured allylic imidates react significantly slower than their E-configured counterparts, but in the present study the opposite effect was observed. Z-Configured olefins have the principal practical advantage that a geometrically pure C=C double bond can be readily obtained, for example, by semihydrogenations of alkynes. Our catalyst, a C(2)-symmetric planar chiral bispalladacycle complex, is rapidly prepared from ferrocene in four simple steps. Key step of this protocol is an unprecedented highly diastereoselective biscyclopalladation providing dimeric macrocyclic complexes of fascinating structure. In the present study as little as 0.1 mol % of catalyst precursor were sufficient for most of the alkyl substituted substrates to give in general almost quantitative yields. NMR investigations revealed a monomeric structure for the active catalyst species. The bispalladacycle can also be used for the formation of almost enantiomerically pure allylic amines (ee > or =96 %) substituted with important functional groups such as ester, ketone, ether, silyl ether, acetal or protected amino moieties providing high-added-value allylic amine building blocks in excellent yield (> or =94 %). The preparative advantages should render this methodology highly appealing as a practical and valuable tool for the formation of allylic amines in target oriented synthesis.

  15. Palladium-catalyzed benzene arylation: incorporation of catalytic pivalic acid as a proton shuttle and a key element in catalyst design.

    PubMed

    Lafrance, Marc; Fagnou, Keith

    2006-12-27

    A palladium-pivalic acid cocatalyst system has been developed that exhibits unprecedented reactivity in direct arylation. This reactivity is illustrated with the first examples of high yielding direct metalation-arylation reactions of a completely unactivated arene, benzene. Experimental and computational evidence indicates that the pivalate anion is a key component in the palladation/C-H bond breaking event, that it lowers the energy of C-H bond cleavage and acts as a catalytic proton shuttle from benzene to the stoichiometric carbonate base. Eight examples of substituted aryl bromides are included which undergo direct arylation with benzene in 55-85% yield.

  16. A Palladium-Catalyzed Method for the Synthesis of Carbazoles via Tandem C-H Functionalization and C-N Bond Formation

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, W. C. Peter; Munday, Rachel H.; Brasche, Gordon; Zheng, Nan; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    The development of a new method for the assembly of unsymmetrical carbazoles is reported. The strategy involves the selective intramolecular functionalization of an arene C-H bond and the formation of a new arene C-N bond. The substitution pattern of the carbazole product can be controlled by the design of the biaryl amide substrate, and the method is compatible with a variety of functional groups. The utility of the new protocol was demonstrated by the concise synthesis of three natural products from commercially available materials. PMID:18761437

  17. Tandem Blaise/Palladium-Catalyzed Ullmann Coupling for the One-Pot Synthesis of Enamino Ester-Functionalized Biaryls from Nitriles.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Zi; Kim, Ju Hyun; Lee, Sang-gi

    2015-08-07

    A novel Pd-catalyzed Ullmann-type homocoupling reaction of the Blaise reaction intermediate generated by the reaction of 2-bromo arylnitriles and a Reformatsky reagent has been developed for one-pot synthesis of enamino ester-functionalized biaryls 2 in good yields. The 2,2'-substituted enamine moieties of the coupling products could be cyclized under acidic conditions through the conjugate addition/deamination cascade to afford the seven-membered N-heterocyclics 3 with biaryl backbone in excellent yields.

  18. Allyl sulfides modify cell growth.

    PubMed

    Knowles, L M; Milner, J A

    2000-01-01

    Extensive evidence points to the ability of allyl sulfides from garlic to suppress tumor proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. This antineoplastic effect is generally greater for lipid-soluble than water-soluble allyl sulfides. Both concentration and duration of exposure can increase the antiproliferative effects of lipid- and water-soluble allyl sulfides. Part of their antiproliferative effects may relate to an increase in membrane fluidity and a suppression of integrin glycoprotein IIb-IIIa mediated adhesion. Alterations in cholesterol, arachidonic acid, phospholipids and/or thiols may account for these changes in membrane function. Allyl sulfides are also recognized for their ability to suppress cellular proliferation by blocking cells in the G2/M phase and by the induction of apoptosis. This increase in the G2/M and apoptotic cell populations correlates with depressed p34cdc2 kinase activity, increased histone acetylation, increased intracellular calcium and elevated cellular peroxide production. While impressive pre-clinical data exist about the antineoplastic effects of allyl sulfur compounds, considerably more attention needs to be given to their effects in humans. The composition of the entire diet and a host of genetic/epigenetic factors will likely determine the true benefits that might arise from allyl sulfur compounds from garlic and other Allium foods.

  19. Atom economy. Palladium-catalyzed formation of coumarins by addition of phenols and alkynoates via a net C-H insertion.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Toste, F Dean; Greenman, Kevin

    2003-04-16

    A strategy to achieve ortho substitution of phenols initiated by an ortho-palladation to create coumarins was examined. Indeed, treatment of alkynoates with electron-rich phenols in the presence of a palladium catalyst and an acid does generate coumarins. The scope of the reaction with respect to the phenol and the alkynoates is defined. With unsymmetrical aromatic substrates, generally good regioselectivity that reflects the HOMO coefficients can be observed. In the course of these studies, numerous important naturally occurring coumarins have been synthesized, including fraxinol methyl ether, ayapin, herniarin, xanthoxyletin, and alloxanthoxyletin. The fact that a Pd(0) is the precatalyst rather than a Pd(+2) species and that an acid that reduces Pd(+2) salts, formic acid, functions better than other carboxylic acids raises doubts about the initial working hypothesis. A novel mechanism involving a palladium phenoxide formed from a hydridopalladium carboxylate and phenol is invoked to rationalize the results.

  20. Synthesis of Fused Dibenzofuran Derivatives via Palladium-Catalyzed Domino C-C Bond Formation and Iron-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization/Aromatization.

    PubMed

    Paul, Kartick; Jalal, Swapnadeep; Kundal, Sandip; Jana, Umasish

    2016-02-05

    A range of tetracyclic dibenzofuran derivatives bearing a variety of functional groups was readily synthesized via a two-stage domino strategy starting from propargyl ethers of 2-halo phenol derivatives. The first stage in the strategy involves Pd(0)-catalyzed domino intramolecular carbopalladation/Suzuki coupling via 5-exo-dig cyclization onto the alkyne, leading to 3-methylene-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran derivatives. In the second stage of the domino strategy, an iron(III)-catalyzed cycloisomerization and aromatization reaction produces tetracyclic benzofuran derivatives. This two-step sequence provides efficient access to diversely substituted polycyclic dibenzofuran derivatives in high yields and in an atom-efficient and environmentally friendly manner. Moreover, this strategy was also successfully used for the synthesis of a naturally occurring tetracyclic dibenzofuran, β-brazan.

  1. Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of trisubstituted allylic and homoallylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jian; Liu, Xiaowu; Zhang, Shaolin; Jiang, Shuang; Huang, Minhao; Wu, Xiaoxing; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-04-27

    An efficient copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of trisubstituted allylic and homoallylic alcohols with Togni's reagent has been developed. This strategy, accompanied by a double-bond migration, leads to various branched CF3-substituted alcohols by using readily available trisubstituted cyclic/acyclic alcohols as substrates. Moreover, for alcohols in which β-H elimination is prohibited, CF3-containing oxetanes are isolated as the sole product.

  2. Iron-Catalyzed Allylic Amination Directly from Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Emayavaramban, Balakumar; Roy, Moumita; Sundararaju, Basker

    2016-03-14

    Allylic amination, directly from alcohols, has been demonstrated without any Lewis acid activators using an efficient and regiospecific molecular iron catalyst. Various amines and alcohols were employed and the reaction proceeded through the oxidation/reduction (redox) pathway. A direct one-step synthesis of common drugs, such as cinnarizine and nafetifine, was exhibited from cinnamyl alcohol that produced water as side product.

  3. Stereoselective construction of 2-vinyl 3-hydroxybenzopyran rings: total syntheses of teadenols A and B.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryunosuke; Ouchi, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Asakawa, Tomohiro; Inai, Makoto; Egi, Masahiro; Hamashima, Yoshitaka; Kan, Toshiyuki

    2016-11-22

    Total syntheses of teadenols A and B, isolated from fermented tea, were accomplished in a highly stereocontrolled manner. Key steps were an organocatalytic asymmetric α-aminoxylation reaction of an aldehyde and a palladium-catalyzed intramolecular allylic substitution with phenol. In the latter reaction, we utilized the different conformational preferences of cyclic and acyclic carbonate precursors to obtain cis- and trans-fused benzopyran rings, respectively, via intramolecular etherification.

  4. Domino cyclization-alkylation protocol for the synthesis of 2,3-functionalized indoles from o-alkynylanilines and allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Murugan, Vinod K; Pullarkat, Sumod A

    2012-05-21

    A practical and efficient protocol for the one-pot synthesis of 2,3-substituted indoles was developed via a palladacycle catalyzed domino cyclization-alkylation reaction involving 2-alkynylanilines and allylic alcohols under mild conditions without any additives.

  5. Allyl nitrile: Toxicity and health effects.

    PubMed

    Tanii, Hideji

    2017-03-28

    Allyl nitrile (3-butenenitrile) occurs naturally in the environment, in particular, in cruciferous vegetables, indicating a possible daily intake of the compound. There is no report on actual health effects of allyl nitrile in humans, although it is possible that individuals in the environment are at a risk of exposure to allyl nitrile. However, little is known about its quantitative assessment for the environment and bioactivity in the body. This study provides a review of previous accumulated studies on allyl nitrile. Published literature on allyl nitrile was examined for findings on toxicity, metabolism, risk of various cancers, generation, intake estimates, and low-dose effects in the body. High doses of allyl nitrile produce toxicity characterized by behavioral abnormalities, which are considered to be produced by an active metabolite, 3,4-epoxybutyronitrile. Cruciferous vegetables have been shown to have a potential role in reducing various cancers. Hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinigrin, rich in cruciferous vegetables, results in the generation of allyl nitrile. An intake of allyl nitrile is estimated at 0.12 μmol/kg body weight in Japan. Repeated exposure to low doses of allyl nitrile upregulates antioxidant/phase II enzymes in various tissues; this may contribute to a reduction in neurotoxicity and skin inflammation. These high and low doses are far more than the intake estimate. Allyl nitrile in the environment is a compound with diverse bioactivities in the body, characterized by inducing behavioral abnormalities at high doses and some antioxidant/phase II enzymes at low doses.

  6. Diastereo- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylation of cyclic ketone enolates: synergetic effect of ligands and barium enolates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenyong; Chen, Ming; Hartwig, John F

    2014-11-12

    We report asymmetric allylic alkylation of barium enolates of cyclic ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex containing a phosphoramidite ligand derived from (R)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethylamine. The reaction products contain adjacent quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. This process demonstrates that unstabilized cyclic ketone enolates can undergo diastereo- and enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions with the proper choice of enolate countercation. The products of these reactions can be conveniently transformed to various useful polycarbocyclic structures.

  7. Diastereo- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylation of cyclic ketone enolates: Synergetic effect of ligands and barium enolates

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Wenyong; Chen, Ming; Hartwig, John F.

    2014-10-22

    Here, we report asymmetric allylic alkylation of barium enolates of cyclic ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex containing a phosphoramidite ligand derived from (R)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethylamine. The reaction products contain adjacent quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. This process demonstrates that unstabilized cyclic ketone enolates can undergo diastereo- and enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions with the proper choice of enolate countercation. The products of these reactions can be conveniently transformed to various useful polycarbocyclic structures.

  8. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric quaternary stereocenter formation.

    PubMed

    Gottumukkala, Aditya L; Matcha, Kiran; Lutz, Martin; de Vries, Johannes G; Minnaard, Adriaan J

    2012-05-29

    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of β,β-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl(2), PhBOX, and AgSbF(6), and provides products in up to 99% enantiomeric excess, with good yields. Based on this strategy, (-)-α-cuparenone has been prepared in only two steps. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Direct Cyclopropylation of Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojin; Lei, Chuanhu; Yue, Guizhou; Zhou, Jianrong Steve

    2015-08-10

    Many 1,3-azoles and thiophenes are directly cyclopropylated in the presence of a simple palladium catalyst. The relative configuration on the three-membered rings is retained in the products. Thus, the cyclopropyl-halide bond undergoes concerted oxidative addition to palladium(0) and cyclopropyl radicals are not involved in the productive pathway.

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed, Enantioselective Heine Reaction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aziridines are important synthetic intermediates for the generation of nitrogen-containing molecules. N-Acylaziridines undergo rearrangement by ring expansion to produce oxazolines, a process known as the Heine reaction. The first catalytic, enantioselective Heine reaction is reported for meso-N-acylaziridines where a palladium(II)–diphosphine complex is employed. The highly enantioenriched oxazoline products are valuable organic synthons and potential ligands for transition-metal catalysis. PMID:27398262

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed, Enantioselective Heine Reaction.

    PubMed

    Punk, Molly; Merkley, Charlotte; Kennedy, Katlyn; Morgan, Jeremy B

    2016-07-01

    Aziridines are important synthetic intermediates for the generation of nitrogen-containing molecules. N-Acylaziridines undergo rearrangement by ring expansion to produce oxazolines, a process known as the Heine reaction. The first catalytic, enantioselective Heine reaction is reported for meso-N-acylaziridines where a palladium(II)-diphosphine complex is employed. The highly enantioenriched oxazoline products are valuable organic synthons and potential ligands for transition-metal catalysis.

  12. Interplay of metal-allyl and metal-metal bonding in dimolybdenum allyl complexes

    SciTech Connect

    John, Kevin D; Martin, Richard L; Obrey, Steven J; Scott, Brian L

    2008-01-01

    Addition of PMe{sub 3} to Mo{sub 2}(allyl){sub 4} afforded Mo{sub 2}(allyl){sub 4}(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}, in which two of the allyl groups adopt an unprecedented {mu}{sub 2{sup -}}{eta}{sup 1}, {eta}{sup 3} bonding mode; theoretical studies elucidate the role sof the {sigma}- and {pi}-donor ligands in the interplay of metal-allyl and metal-metal bonding.

  13. Regioselective hydroformylation of allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Lightburn, Thomas E; De Paolis, Omar A; Cheng, Ka H; Tan, Kian L

    2011-05-20

    A highly regioselective hydroformylation of allylic alcohols is reported toward the synthesis of β-hydroxy-acid and aldehyde products. The selectivity is achieved through the use of a ligand that reversibly binds to alcohols in situ, allowing for a directed hydroformylation to occur. The application to trisubstituted olefins was also demonstrated, which yields a single diastereomer product consistent with a stereospecific addition of CO and hydrogen.

  14. O-Allylation of phenols with allylic acetates in aqueous media using a magnetically separable catalytic system

    EPA Science Inventory

    Allylic ethers were synthesized in water using magnetically recoverable heterogeneous Pd catalyst via O-allylation of phenols with allylic acetates under ambient conditions. Aqueous reaction medium, easy recovery of the catalyst using an external magnet, efficient recycling, and ...

  15. O-Allylation of phenols with allylic acetates in aqueous media using a magnetically separable catalytic system

    EPA Science Inventory

    Allylic ethers were synthesized in water using magnetically recoverable heterogeneous Pd catalyst via O-allylation of phenols with allylic acetates under ambient conditions. Aqueous reaction medium, easy recovery of the catalyst using an external magnet, efficient recycling, and ...

  16. η(3) -Allyl coordination at tin(II)-reactivity towards alkynes and benzonitrile.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Kilian M; Wiederkehr, Jessica; Schneider, Julia; Schubert, Hartmut; Eichele, Klaus; Wesemann, Lars

    2015-04-27

    We herein report the synthesis and characterization of a terphenyl-substituted Sn(II) allyl compound featuring an η(3)  coordination mode in solution and in the solid state. Two examples for the interesting reactivity of the allyl Sn(II) molecule are presented: Reactions with terminal alkynes result in the formation of tricyclic compounds by CC bond formation and the dimerization of two Sn moieties whereas the reaction with benzonitrile leads to a sixteen-membered ring system through CH activation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Zirconium-mediated coupling reactions of amines and enol or allyl ethers: synthesis of allyl- and homoallylamines.

    PubMed

    Barluenga, José; Rodríguez, Félix; Alvarez-Rodrigo, Lucía; Zapico, José M; Fañanás, Francisco J

    2004-01-05

    An easy and efficient zirconium-mediated synthesis of allylamines from simple amines and enol ethers is described. This strategy also allows the synthesis of amino alcohol derivatives containing a Z double bond in their structure when 2,3-dihydrofuran is used. Simple conventional modification of these amino alcohols leads to 2-substituted piperidine derivatives. By applying this approach, a formal total synthesis of the alkaloid coniine is easily achieved from a protected butylamine. Finally, the zirconium-mediated reaction of amines and allyl phenyl ether furnishes homoallylamines or amino ethers depending on the structure of the starting amine.

  18. Enantioselective Conjugate Allylation of Cyclic Enones

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Gerstenhaber, David A.; Berry, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Enantioselective organocatalytic 1,2-allylation of a cyclic enone followed by anionic oxy-Cope rearrangement delivered the ketone as a mixture of diastereomers. This appears to be a general method for the net enantioselective conjugate allylation of cyclic enones. PMID:21830779

  19. Synthesis of 2- and 2,3-substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridines: scope and mechanistic considerations of a domino direct alkynylation and cyclization of N-iminopyridinium ylides using alkenyl bromides, alkenyl iodides, and alkynes.

    PubMed

    Mousseau, James J; Bull, James A; Ladd, Carolyn L; Fortier, Angélique; Sustac Roman, Daniela; Charette, André B

    2011-10-21

    Direct functionalization and tandem processes have both received considerable recent interest due to their cost and time efficiency. Herein we report the synthesis of difficult to obtain 2-substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridines through a tandem palladium-catalyzed/silver-mediated elimination/direct functionalization/cyclization reaction involving N-benzoyliminopyridinium ylides. As such, these biologically important molecules are prepared in an efficient, high-yielding manner, only requiring a two-step sequence from pyridine. Aryl-substituted alkenyl bromides and iodides are effective ylide coupling partners. Mechanistic studies led to the use of terminal alkynes, which extended the scope of the reaction to include alkyl substitution on the unsaturated reactive site. The optimization, scope, and mechanistic considerations of the process are discussed.

  20. Nickel-Catalyzed α-Allylation of Aldehydes and Tandem Aldol Condensation/Allylation Reaction with Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Yann; Thomson, Brodie; Ferey, Vincent; Sauthier, Mathieu

    2017-06-19

    An additive-free nickel-catalyzed α-allylation of aldehydes with allyl alcohol is reported. The reaction is promoted by 1 mol % of in situ formed nickel complex in methanol, and water is the sole by-product of the reaction. The experimental conditions allow the conversion of various α-branched aldehydes and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes as nucleophiles. The same catalyst and reaction conditions enabled a tandem aldol condensation of aldehyde/α-allylation reaction. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Friedel-Crafts-type allylation of nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds with allylic alcohols catalyzed by a [Mo3S4Pd(η3-allyl)] cluster.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yinsong; Wang, Baomin; Zhao, Jinfeng; Song, Yuming; Qu, Lihong; Qu, Jingping

    2012-03-16

    With the direct use of allylic alcohols as allylating agents, the Friedel-Crafts-type allylic alkylation of nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds catalyzed by a [Mo(3)S(4)Pd(η(3)-allyl)] cluster is achieved. With a 3 mol % catalyst loading in acetonitrile at reflux or 60 °C, a variety of N,N-dialkylanilines and indoles reacted smoothly with allylic alcohols to afford the Friedel-Crafts-type allylation products in good to excellent yields with high levels of regioselectivity.

  2. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with allyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Tong, Guanghu; Zhu, Bo; Lee, Richmond; Yang, Wenguo; Tan, Davin; Yang, Caiyun; Han, Zhiqiang; Yan, Lin; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Jiang, Zhiyong

    2013-05-17

    The asymmetric allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates with allyl ketones has been developed. The α-regioselective alkylation adducts, containing a hexa-1,5-diene framework with important synthetic value, were achieved in up to 83% yield, >99% ee, and 50:1 dr by using a commercially available Cinchona alkaloid as the catalyst. From the allylic alkylation adduct, a cyclohexene bearing two adjacent chiral centers was readily prepared.

  3. Palladium/N-heterocyclic carbene catalysed regio and diastereoselective reaction of ketones with allyl reagents via inner-sphere mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Da -Chang; Yu, Fei -Le; Wang, Wan -Ying; Chen, Di; Li, Hao; Liu, Qing -Rong; Ding, Chang -Hua; Chen, Bo; Hou, Xue -Long

    2016-06-10

    The palladium-catalysed allylic substitution reaction is one of the most important reactions in transition-metal catalysis and has been well-studied in the past decades. Most of the reactions proceed through an outer-sphere mechanism, affording linear products when monosubstituted allyl reagents are used. Here, we report an efficient Palladium-catalysed protocol for reactions of beta-substituted ketones with monosubstituted allyl substrates, simply by using N-heterocyclic carbene as ligand, leading to branched products with up to three contiguous stereocentres in a (syn, anti)-mode with excellent regio and diastereoselectivities. The scope of the protocol in organic synthesis has been examined preliminarily. As a result, mechanistic studies by both experiments and density functional theory ( DFT) calculations reveal that the reaction proceeds via an inner-sphere mechanism-nucleophilic attack of enolate oxygen on Palladium followed by C-C bond-forming [3,3']-reductive elimination.

  4. Palladium/N-heterocyclic carbene catalysed regio and diastereoselective reaction of ketones with allyl reagents via inner-sphere mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Da-Chang; Yu, Fei-Le; Wang, Wan-Ying; Chen, Di; Li, Hao; Liu, Qing-Rong; Ding, Chang-Hua; Chen, Bo; Hou, Xue-Long

    2016-01-01

    The palladium-catalysed allylic substitution reaction is one of the most important reactions in transition-metal catalysis and has been well-studied in the past decades. Most of the reactions proceed through an outer-sphere mechanism, affording linear products when monosubstituted allyl reagents are used. Here, we report an efficient Palladium-catalysed protocol for reactions of β-substituted ketones with monosubstituted allyl substrates, simply by using N-heterocyclic carbene as ligand, leading to branched products with up to three contiguous stereocentres in a (syn, anti)-mode with excellent regio and diastereoselectivities. The scope of the protocol in organic synthesis has been examined preliminarily. Mechanistic studies by both experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the reaction proceeds via an inner-sphere mechanism—nucleophilic attack of enolate oxygen on Palladium followed by C–C bond-forming [3,3']-reductive elimination. PMID:27283477

  5. Copper-Catalyzed Enantioselective Allyl-Allyl Coupling between Allylic Boronates and Phosphates with a Phenol/N-Heterocyclic Carbene Chiral Ligand.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Yuto; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Sawamura, Masaya

    2016-08-26

    Copper-catalyzed enantioselective allyl-allyl coupling between allylboronates and either Z-acyclic or cyclic allylic phosphates using a new chiral N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, bearing a phenolic hydroxy, is reported. This reaction occurs with exceptional SN 2'-type regioselectivities and high enantioselectivities to deliver chiral 1,5-diene derivatives with a tertiary stereogenic center at the allylic/homoallylic position.

  6. Oxidation state, aggregation, and heterolytic dissociation of allyl indium reagents.

    PubMed

    Koszinowski, Konrad

    2010-05-05

    Solutions of allyl indium reagents formed in the reactions of indium with allyl bromide and allyl iodide, respectively, in N,N-dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, and water were analyzed by a combination of electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, temperature-dependent (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements. Additional mass spectrometric experiments probed charge-tagged derivatives of the allyl indium reagents. The results obtained indicate the presence of allyl indium(+3) species, which undergo heterolytic dissociation to yield ions such as InR(2)(solv)(+) and InRX(3)(-) with R = allyl and X = Br and I. The extent of dissociation is greatest for N,N-dimethylformamide, whereas aggregation effects are more pronounced for the less polar tetrahydrofuran. The heterolytic dissociation of the allyl indium reagents supposedly enhances their reactivity by simultaneously providing highly Lewis acidic allyl indium cations and nucleophilic allyl indate anions.

  7. Indium-mediated one-pot three-component reaction of aromatic amines, enol ethers, and allylic bromides.

    PubMed

    Jang, Taeg-Su; Ku, Il Whea; Jang, Min Seok; Keum, Gyochang; Kang, Soon Bang; Chung, Bong Young; Kim, Youseung

    2006-01-19

    [reaction: see text] A new and efficient indium-mediated one-pot three-component reaction for the synthesis of N-aryl-substituted homoallylamines from aromatic amines, enol ethers, and allylic bromides in THF at room temperature is described.

  8. Allylic isothiouronium salts: The discovery of a novel class of thiourea analogues with antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Misael; Assunção, Laura Sartori; Silva, Adny Henrique; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabíola Branco; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz; Sá, Marcus Mandolesi

    2017-03-31

    A series of 28 aryl- and alkyl-substituted isothiouronium salts were readily synthesized in high yields through the reaction of allylic bromides with thiourea, N-monosubstituted thioureas or thiosemicarbazide. The S-allylic isothiouronium salts substituted with aliphatic groups were found to be the most effective against leukemia cells. These compounds combine high antitumor activity and low toxicity toward non-tumoral cells, with selectivity index higher than 20 in some cases. Furthermore, the selected isothiouronium salts induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and cell death, possibly by apoptosis. Therefore, these compounds can be considered as a promising class of antitumor agents due to the potent cytostatic activity associated with high selectivity.

  9. N-Allylation of amines with allyl acetates using chitosan-immobilized palladium

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple procedure for N-Allylation of allyl Acetates has been developed using a biodegradable and easily recyclable heterogeneous chitosan-supported palladium catalyst. The general methodology, applicable to wide range of substrates, has sustainable features that include a ligan...

  10. N-Allylation of amines with allyl acetates using chitosan-immobilized palladium

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple procedure for N-Allylation of allyl Acetates has been developed using a biodegradable and easily recyclable heterogeneous chitosan-supported palladium catalyst. The general methodology, applicable to wide range of substrates, has sustainable features that include a ligan...

  11. Asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via regio- and enantioselective allylation of aryl hydrazines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kun; Gilles, Thomas; Breit, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles is important for natural product synthesis and pharmaceutical research. The regio- and enantioselective N-allylation of indoles is a true challenge due to the favourable C3-allylation. We develop here a new strategy to the asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via rhodium-catalysed N-selective coupling of aryl hydrazines with allenes followed by Fischer indolization. The exclusive N-selectivities and good to excellent enantioselectivities are achieved applying a rhodium(I)/DTBM-Segphos or rhodium(I)/DTBM-Binap catalyst. This method permits the practical synthesis of valuable chiral N-allylated indoles, and avoids the N- or C-selectivity issue. PMID:26137886

  12. Do garlic-derived allyl sulfides scavenge peroxyl radicals?

    PubMed

    Amorati, Riccardo; Pedulli, Gian Franco

    2008-03-21

    The chain-breaking antioxidant activities of two garlic-derived allyl sulfides, i.e. diallyl disulfide (1), the main component of steam-distilled garlic oil, and allyl methyl sulfide (3) were evaluated by studying the thermally initiated autoxidation of cumene or styrene in their presence. Although the rate of cumene oxidation was reduced by addition of both 1 and 3, the dependence on the concentration of the two sulfides could not be explained on the basis of the classic antioxidant mechanism as with phenolic antioxidants. The rate of oxidation of styrene, on the other hand, did not show significant changes upon addition of either 1 or 3. This unusual behaviour was explained in terms of the co-oxidant effect, consisting in the decrease of the autoxidation rate of a substrate forming tertiary peroxyl radicals (i.e. cumene) upon addition of little amounts of a second oxidizable substrate giving rise instead to secondary peroxyl radicals. The relevant rate constants for the reaction of ROO(.) with 1 and 3 were measured as 1.6 and 1.0 M(-1) s(-1), respectively, fully consistent with the H-atom abstraction from substituted sulfides. It is therefore concluded that sulfides 1 and 3 do not scavenge peroxyl radicals and therefore cannot be considered chain-breaking antioxidants.

  13. Copper-catalyzed amidation of allylic and benzylic C-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Guillaume; Powell, David A

    2006-12-21

    [Structure: see text] A copper-catalyzed amidation of allylic and benzylic C-H bonds with both primary and secondary sulfonamides is described. The reaction is applicable to the coupling of a diverse set of hydrocarbon species with aryl, heteroaryl, and alkyl sulfonamides and is tolerant of a variety of functional groups. Mechanistic insight has been gained through the isolation of a benzylic acetate intermediate, which was demonstrated to undergo facile conversion to the substituted sulfonamide product under copper catalysis.

  14. Transition-metal-catalyzed asymmetric allylic dearomatization reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Chun-Xiang; Zheng, Chao; You, Shu-Li

    2014-08-19

    Dearomatization reactions serve as powerful methods for the synthesis of highly functionalized, three-dimensional structures starting with simple planar aromatic compounds. Among processes of this type, catalytic asymmetric dearomatization (CADA) reactions are attractive owing to the large number of aromatic compounds that are readily available and the fact that they enable direct access to enantiopure polycycles and spirocycles, which frequently are key structural motifs in biologically active natural products and pharmaceuticals. However, as a consequence of their high stabilities, arenes only difficultly participate in dearomatization reactions that take place with high levels of enantioselectivity. Transition-metal-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution reactions have been demonstrated to be powerful methods for enantioselective formation of C-C and C-X (X = O, N, S, etc.) bonds. However, the scope of these processes has been explored mainly using soft carbon nucleophiles, some hard carbon nucleophiles such as enolates and preformed organometallic reagents, and heteroatom nucleophiles. Readily accessible aromatic compounds have been only rarely used directly as nucleophiles in these reactions. In this Account, we present the results of studies we have conducted aimed at the development of transition-metal-catalyzed asymmetric allylic dearomatization reactions. By utilizing this general process, we have devised methods for direct dearomatization of indoles, pyrroles, phenols, naphthols, pyridines, and pyrazines, which produce various highly functionalized structural motifs bearing all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centers in a straightforward manner. In mechanistic investigations of the dearomatization process, we found that the five-membered spiroindolenines serve as intermediates, which readily undergo stereospecific allylic migration to form corresponding tetrahydro-1H-carbazoles upon treatment with a catalytic amount of TsOH. It is worth noting that no

  15. Synthesis and optical properties of new 5'-aryl-substituted 2,5-bis(3-decyl-2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles.

    PubMed

    Kostyuchenko, Anastasia Sergeevna; Zheleznova, Tatyana Yu; Stasyuk, Anton Jaroslavovich; Kurowska, Aleksandra; Domagala, Wojciech; Pron, Adam; Fisyuk, Alexander S

    2017-01-01

    New photoluminescent donor-acceptor-donor (DAD) molecules, namely 5'-aryl-substituted 2,5-bis(3-decyl-2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles were prepared by palladium-catalyzed coupling from readily available compounds such as ethyl 3-decyl-2,2'-bithiophene-5-carboxylate and aryl halides. The obtained compounds feature increasing bathochromic shifts in their emission spectra with increasing aryl-substituent size yielding blue to bluish-green emissions. At the same time, their absorption spectra are almost independent from the identity of the terminal substituent with λmax values ranging from 395 to 405 nm. The observed trends are perfectly predicted by quantum chemical DFT/TDDFT calculations carried out for these new molecules.

  16. Synthesis and optical properties of new 5'-aryl-substituted 2,5-bis(3-decyl-2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    PubMed Central

    Kostyuchenko, Anastasia Sergeevna; Zheleznova, Tatyana Yu; Stasyuk, Anton Jaroslavovich; Kurowska, Aleksandra; Domagala, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    New photoluminescent donor–acceptor–donor (DAD) molecules, namely 5'-aryl-substituted 2,5-bis(3-decyl-2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles were prepared by palladium-catalyzed coupling from readily available compounds such as ethyl 3-decyl-2,2'-bithiophene-5-carboxylate and aryl halides. The obtained compounds feature increasing bathochromic shifts in their emission spectra with increasing aryl-substituent size yielding blue to bluish-green emissions. At the same time, their absorption spectra are almost independent from the identity of the terminal substituent with λmax values ranging from 395 to 405 nm. The observed trends are perfectly predicted by quantum chemical DFT/TDDFT calculations carried out for these new molecules. PMID:28326140

  17. The stability of allyl radicals following the photodissociation of allyl iodide at 193 nm.

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemistry

    2006-01-01

    The photodissociation of allyl iodide (C{sub 3}H{sub 5}I) at 193 nm was investigated by using a combination of vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization of the allyl radical, resonant multiphoton ionization of the iodine atoms, and velocity map imaging. The data provide insight into the primary C-I bond fission process and into the dissociative ionization of the allyl radical to produce C{sub 3}H{sup 3+}. The experimental results are consistent with the earlier results of Szpunar et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 5078 (2003)], in that some allyl radicals with internal energies higher than the secondary dissociation barrier are found to be stable. This stability results from the partitioning of available energy between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of the radical, the effects of a centrifugal barrier along the reaction coordinate, and the effects of the kinetic shift in the secondary dissociation of the allyl radical. The present results suggest that the primary dissociation of allyl iodide to allyl radicals plus I*({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) is more important than previously suspected.

  18. Palladium-catalyzed one-pot three- or four-component coupling of aryl iodides, alkynes, and amines through C-N bond cleavage: efficient synthesis of indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wei; Geng, Weizhi; Zhang, Wen-Xiong; Xi, Zhenfeng

    2014-02-24

    An efficient synthesis of N-substituted indole derivatives was realized by combining the Pd-catalyzed one-pot multicomponent coupling approach with cleavage of the C(sp(3))-N bonds. Three or four components of aryl iodides, alkynes, and amines were involved in this coupling process. The cyclopentadiene-phosphine ligand showed high efficiency. A variety of aryl iodides, including cyclic and acyclic tertiary amino aryl iodides, and substituted 1-bromo-2-iodobenzene derivatives could be used. Both symmetric and unsymmetric alkynes substituted with alkyl, aryl, or trimethylsilyl groups could be applied. Cyclic secondary amines such as piperidine, morpholine, 4-methylpiperidine, 1-methylpiperazine, 2-methylpiperidine, and acyclic amines including secondary and primary amines all showed good reactivity. Further application of the resulting indole derivatives was demonstrated by the synthesis of benzosilolo[2,3-b]indole.

  19. Rh-Catalyzed Chemo- and Enantioselective Hydrogenation of Allylic Hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiupeng; Hu, Yanhua; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Wanbin

    2017-01-23

    A highly efficient P-stereogenic diphosphine-rhodium complex was applied to the chemo- and enantioselective hydrogenation of allylic hydrazones for the synthesis of chiral allylic hydrazines in 89-96 % yields and with 82-99 % ee values. This methodology was successfully applied to the preparation of versatile chiral allylic amine derivatives.

  20. Chirality Transfer in Gold(I)-Catalysed Direct Allylic Etherifications of Unactivated Alcohols: Experimental and Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Graeme; Johnson, David G; Young, Paul C; Macgregor, Stuart A; Lee, Ai-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Gold(I)-catalysed direct allylic etherifications have been successfully carried out with chirality transfer to yield enantioenriched, γ-substituted secondary allylic ethers. Our investigations include a full substrate-scope screen to ascertain substituent effects on the regioselectivity, stereoselectivity and efficiency of chirality transfer, as well as control experiments to elucidate the mechanistic subtleties of the chirality-transfer process. Crucially, addition of molecular sieves was found to be necessary to ensure efficient and general chirality transfer. Computational studies suggest that the efficiency of chirality transfer is linked to the aggregation of the alcohol nucleophile around the reactive π-bound Au–allylic ether complex. With a single alcohol nucleophile, a high degree of chirality transfer is predicted. However, if three alcohols are present, alternative proton transfer chain mechanisms that erode the efficiency of chirality transfer become competitive. PMID:26248980

  1. Chirality Transfer in Gold(I)-Catalysed Direct Allylic Etherifications of Unactivated Alcohols: Experimental and Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Barker, Graeme; Johnson, David G; Young, Paul C; Macgregor, Stuart A; Lee, Ai-Lan

    2015-09-21

    Gold(I)-catalysed direct allylic etherifications have been successfully carried out with chirality transfer to yield enantioenriched, γ-substituted secondary allylic ethers. Our investigations include a full substrate-scope screen to ascertain substituent effects on the regioselectivity, stereoselectivity and efficiency of chirality transfer, as well as control experiments to elucidate the mechanistic subtleties of the chirality-transfer process. Crucially, addition of molecular sieves was found to be necessary to ensure efficient and general chirality transfer. Computational studies suggest that the efficiency of chirality transfer is linked to the aggregation of the alcohol nucleophile around the reactive π-bound Au-allylic ether complex. With a single alcohol nucleophile, a high degree of chirality transfer is predicted. However, if three alcohols are present, alternative proton transfer chain mechanisms that erode the efficiency of chirality transfer become competitive.

  2. Identification of allyl esters in garlic cheese.

    PubMed

    Herbrand, Klaus; Hammerschmidt, Franz J; Brennecke, Stefan; Liebig, Margit; Lösing, Gerd; Schmidt, Claus Oliver; Gatfield, Ian; Krammer, Gerhard; Bertram, Heinz-Jürgen

    2007-09-19

    This study describes the identification of six allyl esters in a garlic cheese preparation and in a commercial cream cheese. The extracts were prepared by liquid/liquid extraction and concentrated by the SAFE process. The identification of the allyl esters of acetic, butyric, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, and decanoic acids is based on the correlation of their mass spectrometric data and chromatographic retention time data obtained from the extracts with those of authentic standards. In addition to the gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry analysis, the flavor ingredients were characterized by GC sniffing by a trained flavorist. Some of the esters were isolated by preparative GC.

  3. Enantioselective transformation of allyl carbonates into branched allyl carbamates by using amines and recycling CO2 under iridium catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Sheng-Cai; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Xiao-Ming

    2014-06-10

    Enantioselective transformation of allyl carbonates into branched allyl carbamates by using amines and recycling CO2 in the presence of an Ir complex and K3PO4 was accomplished. This provided branched allyl carbamates in fair to excellent yields with up to 98:2 regioselectivity and 93 % ee. The role of CO2 in this transformation is discussed as well.

  4. Asymmetric synthesis of allylic sulfonic acids: enantio- and regioselective iridium-catalyzed allylations of Na2SO3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Hong-bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Ming-zhu

    2014-12-15

    An enantioselective allylation reaction of allylic carbonates with sodium sulfite (Na2 SO3 ) catalyzed by Ir complex was accomplished, providing allylic sulfonic acids in good to excellent yields with a high level of enantio- and regioselectivities. (R)-2-Phenyl-2-sulfoacetic acid, a key intermediate for the synthesis of Cefsulodin and Sulbenicillin, was synthesized as well.

  5. Dehydrative cross-coupling reactions of allylic alcohols with olefins.

    PubMed

    Gumrukcu, Yasemin; de Bruin, Bas; Reek, Joost N H

    2014-08-25

    The direct dehydrative activation of allylic alcohols and subsequent cross-coupling with alkenes by using palladium catalyst containing a phosphoramidite ligand is described. The activation of the allyl alcohol does not require stoichiometric additives, thus allowing clean, waste-free reactions. The scope is demonstrated by application of the protocol to a series allylic alcohols and vinyl arenes, leading to variety of 1,4-diene products. Based on kinetic studies, a mechanism is proposed that involves a palladium hydride species that activates the allyl alcohol to form the allyl intermediate.

  6. Rhodium-catalysed asymmetric allylic arylation of racemic halides with arylboronic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidera, Mireia; Fletcher, Stephen P.

    2015-11-01

    Csp2-Csp2 cross-coupling reactions between arylboronic acid and aryl halides are widely used in both academia and industry and are strategically important in the development of new agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. Csp2-Csp3 cross-coupling reactions have been developed, but enantioselective variations are rare and simply retaining the stereochemistry is a problem. Here we report a highly enantioselective Csp2-Csp3 bond-forming method that couples arylboronic acids to racemic allyl chlorides. Both enantiomers of a cyclic chloride are converted into a single enantiomer of product via a dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation. This Rh-catalysed method uses readily available and inexpensive building blocks and is mild and broadly applicable. For electron-deficient, electron-rich or ortho-substituted boronic acids better results are obtained with racemic allyl bromides. Oxygen substitution in the allyl halide is tolerated and the products can be functionalized to provide diverse building blocks. The approach fills a significant gap in the methods for catalytic asymmetric synthesis.

  7. Synthetic Studies on Tricyclic Diterpenoids: Direct Allylic Amination Reaction of Isopimaric Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Timoshenko, Mariya A; Kharitonov, Yurii V; Shakirov, Makhmut M; Bagryanskaya, Irina Yu; Shults, Elvira E

    2016-02-01

    A selective synthesis of 7- or 14-nitrogen containing tricyclic diterpenoids was completed according to a strategy in which the key step was the catalyzed direct allylic amination of methyl 14α-hydroxy-15,16-dihydroisopimarate with a wide variety of nitrogenated nucleophiles. It was revealed that the selectivity of the reaction depends on the nature of nucleophile. The catalyzed reaction of the mentioned diterpenoid allylic alcohol with 3-nitroaniline, 3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline yield the subsequent 7α-, 7β- and 14αnitrogen-containing diterpenoids. The reaction with 2-nitroaniline, 4-nitro-2-chloroaniline, 4-methoxy-2-nitroaniline, phenylsulfamide, or tert-butyl carbamate proceeds with the formation of 7α-nitrogen-substituted diterpenoids as the main products.

  8. Synthetic Studies on Tricyclic Diterpenoids: Direct Allylic Amination Reaction of Isopimaric Acid Derivatives†

    PubMed Central

    Timoshenko, Mariya A.; Kharitonov, Yurii V.; Shakirov, Makhmut M.; Bagryanskaya, Irina Yu.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A selective synthesis of 7‐ or 14‐nitrogen containing tricyclic diterpenoids was completed according to a strategy in which the key step was the catalyzed direct allylic amination of methyl 14α‐hydroxy‐15,16‐dihydroisopimarate with a wide variety of nitrogenated nucleophiles. It was revealed that the selectivity of the reaction depends on the nature of nucleophile. The catalyzed reaction of the mentioned diterpenoid allylic alcohol with 3‐nitroaniline, 3‐(trifluoromethyl)aniline, and 4‐(trifluoromethyl)aniline yield the subsequent 7α‐, 7β‐ and 14αnitrogen‐containing diterpenoids. The reaction with 2‐nitroaniline, 4‐nitro‐2‐chloroaniline, 4‐methoxy‐2‐nitroaniline, phenylsulfamide, or tert‐butyl carbamate proceeds with the formation of 7α‐nitrogen‐substituted diterpenoids as the main products. PMID:27308214

  9. Enantioselective Iridium-Catalyzed Carbonyl Allylation from the Alcohol or Aldehyde Oxidation Level Using Allyl Acetate as an Allyl Metal Surrogate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In Su; Ngai, Ming-Yu; Krische, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    A method for carbonyl allylation and crotylation from the alcohol oxidation state via allyl acetate-alcohol transfer hydrogenative C-C coupling is described. Exposure of allyl acetate to benzylic and allylic alcohols 1a-9a in the presence of an iridium catalyst derived from [IrCl(cod)]2 and BIPHEP delivers products of C-allylation 1b-9b. Similarly, 3-acetoxy-1-butene couples to allylic alcohols 1a-9a to furnish crotylation products 1c-9c. The ability of this allylation protocol to transcend the boundaries imposed by oxidation level are demonstrated by the coupling of allyl acetate to aldehydes 1d-3d under standard conditions, but employing isopropanol as terminal reductant. The products of C-allylation 1b-3b are obtained in isolated yields comparable to those obtained in the corresponding alcohol coupling reactions. These studies contribute to a paradigm shift in carbonyl addition chemistry that defines a departure from preformed organometallic reagents. PMID:18444616

  10. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed allylic C-H bond amination. Synthesis of cyclic amines from ω-unsaturated N-sulfonylamines.

    PubMed

    Cochet, Thomas; Bellosta, Véronique; Roche, Didier; Ortholand, Jean-Yves; Greiner, Alfred; Cossy, Janine

    2012-11-11

    For the first time, intramolecular allylic amination was conducted using rhodium(III) according to an "inner-sphere" type mechanism with amines activated by only one electron-withdrawing group. The activation of C(sp(3))-H bonds was chemoselective and allows the access to a variety of substituted cyclic amines such as pyrrolidines and piperidines.

  11. The microwave spectrum of allyl acetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulimat, Layla; Mouhib, Halima; Kleiner, Isabelle; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Allyl acetone was investigated using a combination of quantum chemical calculations and molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The microwave spectrum was recorded in the frequency range from 10.0 to 14.0 GHz. The most abundant conformer in the supersonic jet possesses a C1 symmetry and appears as a pair of enantiomers. The observed conformer does not correspond to the most abundant conformer observed for allyl acetate, which is structurally related to allyl acetone. Here, we report on its structure and dynamics, for which a set of highly accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants, as well as the barrier to internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group could be determined with high accuracy. Splittings due to the internal rotation of the methyl group of up to 360 MHz were observed in the spectrum. Using the programs XIAM and BELGI-C1, a barrier height (V3) of about 225 cm-1 as well as the other molecular parameters were determined. The results obtained from the different codes were subsequently compared to each other. Additionally, the experimental rotational constants were used to validate quantum chemical calculations at different levels of theory.

  12. Mild and General Access to Diverse 1H-Benzotriazoles via Diboron-Mediated N–OH Deoxygenation and Palladium-Catalyzed C–C and C–N Bond Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Akula, Hari K.; Garlapati, Ramesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Benzotriazoles are a highly important class of compounds with broad-ranging applications in such diverse areas as medicinal chemistry, as auxiliaries in organic synthesis, in metallurgical applications, in aircraft deicing and brake fluids, and as antifog agents in photography. Although there are numerous approaches to N-substituted benzotriazoles, the essentially one general method to N-unsubstituted benzotriazoles is via diazotization of o-phenylenediamines, which can be limited by the availability of suitable precursors. Other methods to N-unsubstitued benzotriazoles are quite specialized. Although reduction of 1-hydroxy-1H-benzotriazoles is known the reactions are not particularly convenient or broadly applicable. This presents a limitation for easy access to and availability of diverse benzotriazoles. Herein, we demonstrate a new, broadly applicable method to diverse 1H-benzotriazoles via a mild diboron-reagent mediated deoxygenation of 1-hydroxy-1H-benzotriazoles. We have also evaluated sequential deoxygenation and Pd-mediated C–C and C–N bond formation as a one-pot process for further diversification of the benzotriazole moiety. However, results indicated that purification of the deoxygenation product prior to the Pd-mediated reaction is critical to the success of such reactions. The overall chemistry allows for facile access to a variety of new benzotriazoles. Along with the several examples presented, a discussion of the advantages of the approaches is described, as also a possible mechanism for the deoxygenation process. PMID:25729343

  13. Structure-activity relationships of truncated C2- or C8-substituted adenosine derivatives as dual acting A₂A and A₃ adenosine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiyan; Majik, Mahesh S; Kim, Kyunglim; Pyee, Yuna; Lee, Yoonji; Alexander, Varughese; Chung, Hwa-Jin; Lee, Hyuk Woo; Chandra, Girish; Lee, Jin Hee; Park, Seul-Gi; Choi, Won Jun; Kim, Hea Ok; Phan, Khai; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Choi, Sun; Lee, Sang Kook; Jeong, Lak Shin

    2012-01-12

    Truncated N(6)-substituted-4'-oxo- and 4'-thioadenosine derivatives with C2 or C8 substitution were studied as dual acting A(2A) and A(3) adenosine receptor (AR) ligands. The lithiation-mediated stannyl transfer and palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions were utilized for functionalization of the C2 position of 6-chloropurine nucleosides. An unsubstituted 6-amino group and a hydrophobic C2 substituent were required for high affinity at the hA(2A)AR, but hydrophobic C8 substitution abolished binding at the hA(2A)AR. However, most of synthesized compounds displayed medium to high binding affinity at the hA(3)AR, regardless of C2 or C8 substitution, and low efficacy in a functional cAMP assay. Several compounds tended to be full hA(2A)AR agonists. C2 substitution probed geometrically through hA(2A)AR docking was important for binding in order of hexynyl > hexenyl > hexanyl. Compound 4g was the most potent ligand acting dually as hA(2A)AR agonist and hA(3)AR antagonist, which might be useful for treatment of asthma or other inflammatory diseases.

  14. Efficient epoxidation of a terminal alkene containing allylic hydrogen atoms: trans-methylstyrene on Cu{111}.

    PubMed

    Cropley, Rachael L; Williams, Federico J; Urquhart, Andrew J; Vaughan, Owain P H; Tikhov, Mintcho S; Lambert, Richard M

    2005-04-27

    The selective oxidation of trans-methylstyrene, a phenyl-substituted propene that contains labile allylic hydrogen atoms, has been studied on Cu{111}. Mass spectrometry and synchrotron fast XPS were used to detect, respectively, desorbing gaseous products and the evolution of surface species as a function of temperature and time. Efficient partial oxidation occurs yielding principally the epoxide, and the behavior of the system is sensitive to the order in which reactants are adsorbed. The latter is understandable in terms of differences in the spatial distribution of oxygen adatoms; isolated adatoms lead to epoxidation, while islands of "oxidic" oxygen do not. NEXAFS data taken over a range of coverages and in the presence and absence of coadsorbed oxygen indicate that the adsorbed alkene lies essentially flat with the allylic hydrogen atoms close to the surface. The photoemission results and comparison with the corresponding behavior of styrene on Cu{111} strongly suggest that allylic hydrogen abstraction is indeed a critical factor that limits epoxidation selectivity. An overall mechanism consistent with the structural and reactive properties is proposed.

  15. Terminal Olefins to Chromans, Isochromans, and Pyrans via Allylic C–H Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of chroman, isochroman, and pyran motifs has been accomplished via a combination of Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide C–H activation and Lewis acid co-catalysis. A wide range of alcohols are found to be competent nucleophiles for the transformation under uniform conditions (catalyst, solvent, temperature). Mechanistic studies suggest that the reaction proceeds via initial C–H activation followed by a novel inner-sphere functionalization pathway. Consistent with this, the reaction shows reactivity trends orthogonal to those of traditional Pd(0)-catalyzed allylic substitutions. PMID:24983326

  16. Terminal olefins to chromans, isochromans, and pyrans via allylic C-H oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Stephen E; Rice, Grant T; White, M Christina

    2014-08-06

    The synthesis of chroman, isochroman, and pyran motifs has been accomplished via a combination of Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide C-H activation and Lewis acid co-catalysis. A wide range of alcohols are found to be competent nucleophiles for the transformation under uniform conditions (catalyst, solvent, temperature). Mechanistic studies suggest that the reaction proceeds via initial C-H activation followed by a novel inner-sphere functionalization pathway. Consistent with this, the reaction shows reactivity trends orthogonal to those of traditional Pd(0)-catalyzed allylic substitutions.

  17. Gold(I)-catalyzed intramolecular amination of allylic alcohols with alkylamines.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Paramita; Widenhoefer, Ross A

    2011-03-18

    A 1:1 mixture of (1)AuCl [1 = P(t-Bu)(2)o-biphenyl] and AgSbF(6) catalyzes the intramolecular amination of allylic alcohols with alkylamines to form substituted pyrrolidine and piperidine derivatives. Gold(I)-catalyzed cyclization of (R,Z)-8-(N-benzylamino)-3-octen-2-ol (96% ee, 95% de) led to isolation of (R,E)-1-benzyl-2-(1-propenyl)piperidine in 99% yield with 96% ee, consistent with the net syn addition of the amine relative to the departing hydroxyl group.

  18. Congested ferrocenyl polyphosphanes bearing electron-donating or electron-withdrawing phosphanyl groups: assessment of metallocene conformation from NMR spin couplings and use in palladium-catalyzed chloroarenes activation.

    PubMed

    Mom, Sophal; Beaupérin, Matthieu; Roy, David; Royer, Sylviane; Amardeil, Régine; Cattey, Hélène; Doucet, Henri; Hierso, J-C

    2011-11-21

    The synthesis of novel substituted cyclopentadienyl salts that incorporate both a congested branched alkyl group (tert-butyl, (triphenyl)methyl, or tri(4-tert-butyl)phenylmethyl) and a phosphanyl group is reported. The introduction of either electron-withdrawing or electron-donating substituents (furyl, i-propyl, cyclohexyl, tert-butyl) on P atoms was generally achieved in high yield. The modular synthesis of ferrocenyl polyphosphanes from an assembly of these cyclopentadienyl salts was investigated, leading to the formation of new triphosphanes (denoted as 9-12) and diphosphanes (denoted as 14-16). The resulting phosphanes are not sensitive to air or moisture, even when electron-rich substituents are present. This set of polyphosphanes displays varied conformational features, which are discussed in the light of their multinuclear NMR characterization in solution and of the X-ray solid state structure of the representative triphosphane 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphanyl)-1'-(diisopropylphosphanyl)-3'-(triphenyl)methyl-4-tert-butyl ferrocene, 11. In particular, the existence of a range of significantly different nonbonded ("through-space", TS) spin-spin coupling constants between heteroannular P atoms, for the triphosphanes of this class, allowed their preferred conformation in solution to be appraised. The study evidences an unanticipated flexibility of the ferrocene platform, despite the presence of very congested tert-butyl and trityl groups. Herein, we show that, contrary to our first belief, the preferred conformation for the backbone of ferrocenyl polyphosphanes can not only depend on the hindrance of the groups decorating the cyclopentadienyl rings but is also a function of the substituents of the phosphanyl groups. The interest of these robust phosphanes as ligands was illustrated in palladium catalysis for the arylation of n-butyl furan with chloroarenes, using direct C-H activation of the heteroaromatic in the presence of low metal/ligand loadings (0.5-1.0 mol

  19. Amination of allylic alcohols in water at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Nishikata, Takashi; Lipshutz, Bruce H

    2009-06-04

    The "trick" to carrying out regiocontrolled aminations of allylic alcohols in water as the only medium is use of a nanomicelle's interior as the organic reaction solvent. When HCO(2)Me is present, along with the proper base and source of catalytic Pd, allylic amines are cleanly formed at room temperature.

  20. Bradykinetic alcohol dehydrogenases make yeast fitter for growth in the presence of allyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Plapp, Bryce V; Lee, Ann Ting-I; Khanna, Aditi; Pryor, John M

    2013-02-25

    Previous studies showed that fitter yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that can grow by fermenting glucose in the presence of allyl alcohol, which is oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenase I (ADH1) to toxic acrolein, had mutations in the ADH1 gene that led to decreased ADH activity. These yeast may grow more slowly due to slower reduction of acetaldehyde and a higher NADH/NAD(+) ratio, which should decrease the oxidation of allyl alcohol. We determined steady-state kinetic constants for three yeast ADHs with new site-directed substitutions and examined the correlation between catalytic efficiency and growth on selective media of yeast expressing six different ADHs. The H15R substitution (a test for electrostatic effects) is on the surface of ADH and has small effects on the kinetics. The H44R substitution (affecting interactions with the coenzyme pyrophosphate) was previously shown to decrease affinity for coenzymes 2-4-fold and turnover numbers (V/Et) by 4-6-fold. The W82R substitution is distant from the active site, but decreases turnover numbers by 5-6-fold, perhaps by effects on protein dynamics. The E67Q substitution near the catalytic zinc was shown previously to increase the Michaelis constant for acetaldehyde and to decrease turnover for ethanol oxidation. The W54R substitution, in the substrate binding site, increases kinetic constants (Ks, by >10-fold) while decreasing turnover numbers by 2-7-fold. Growth of yeast expressing the different ADHs on YPD plates (yeast extract, peptone and dextrose) plus antimycin to require fermentation, was positively correlated with the log of catalytic efficiency for the sequential bi reaction (V1/KiaKb=KeqV2/KpKiq, varying over 4 orders of magnitude, adjusted for different levels of ADH expression) in the order: WT≈H15R>H44R>W82R>E67Q>W54R. Growth on YPD plus 10mM allyl alcohol was inversely correlated with catalytic efficiency. The fitter yeast are "bradytrophs" (slow growing) because the ADHs have decreased catalytic

  1. Bradykinetic alcohol dehydrogenases make yeast fitter for growth in the presence of allyl alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Plapp, Bryce V.; Lee, Ann Ting-I.; Khanna, Aditi; Pryor, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that fitter yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that can grow by fermenting glucose in the presence of allyl alcohol, which is oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenase I (ADH1) to toxic acrolein, had mutations in the ADH1 gene that led to decreased ADH activity. These yeast may grow more slowly due to slower reduction of acetaldehyde and a higher NADH/NAD+ ratio, which should decrease the oxidation of allyl alcohol. We determined steady-state kinetic constants for three yeast ADHs with new site-directed substitutions and examined the correlation between catalytic efficiency and growth on selective media of yeast expressing six different ADHs. The H15R substitution (a test for electrostatic effects) is on the surface of ADH and has small effects on the kinetics. The H44R substitution (affecting interactions with the coenzyme pyrophosphate) was previously shown to decrease affinity for coenzymes 2-4-fold and turnover numbers (V/Et) by 4-6-fold. The W82R substitution is distant from the active site, but decreases turnover numbers by 5-6-fold, perhaps by effects on protein dynamics. The E67Q substitution near the catalytic zinc was shown previously to increase the Michaelis constant for acetaldehyde and to decrease turnover for ethanol oxidation. The W54R substitution, in the substrate binding site, increases kinetic constants (K’s, by > 10-fold) while decreasing turnover numbers by 2-7-fold. Growth of yeast expressing the different ADHs on YPD plates (yeast extract, peptone and dextrose) plus antimycin to require fermentation, was positively correlated with the log of catalytic efficiency for the sequential bi reaction (V1/KiaKb = KeqV2/KpKiq, varying over 4 orders of magnitude, adjusted for different levels of ADH expression) in the order: WT H15R > H44R > W82R > E67Q > W54R. Growth on YPD plus 10 mM allyl alcohol was inversely correlated with catalytic efficiency. The fitter yeast are “bradytrophs” (slow growing) because the ADHs have decreased

  2. Highly Concentrated Catalytic Asymmetric Allylation of Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Alfred J.; Kim, Jeung Gon; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    We report the catalytic asymmetric allylation of ketones under highly concentrated reaction conditions with a catalyst generated from titanium tetraisopropoxide and BINOL (1:2 ratio) in the presence of isopropanol. This catalyst promotes the addition of tetraallylstannane to a variety of ketones to produce tertiary homoallylic alcohols in excellent yield (80–99%) with high enantioselectivities (79–95%). The resulting homoallylic alcohols can also be epoxidized in situ using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) to afford cyclic epoxy alcohols in high yield (84–87%). PMID:17249767

  3. Highly concentrated catalytic asymmetric allylation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Alfred J; Kim, Jeung Gon; Walsh, Patrick J

    2007-02-01

    [reaction: see text] We report the catalytic asymmetric allylation of ketones under highly concentrated reaction conditions with a catalyst generated from titanium tetraisopropoxide and BINOL (1:2 ratio) in the presence of isopropanol. This catalyst promotes the addition of tetraallylstannane to a variety of ketones to produce tertiary homoallylic alcohols in excellent yield (80-99%) with high enantioselectivities (79-95%). The resulting homoallylic alcohols can also be epoxidized in situ using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) to afford cyclic epoxy alcohols in high yield (84-87%).

  4. Catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and allyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanke; Li, Xiben; Torker, Sebastian; Shi, Ying; Shen, Xiao; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2016-09-01

    Conjugate (or 1,4-) additions of carbanionic species to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are vital to research in organic and medicinal chemistry, and there are several chiral catalysts that facilitate the catalytic enantioselective additions of nucleophiles to enoates. Nonetheless, catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions are uncommon, and ones that incorporate readily functionalizable moieties, such as propargyl or allyl groups, into acyclic α,β,γ,δ-doubly unsaturated acceptors are unknown. Chemical transformations that could generate a new bond at the C6 position of a dienoate are particularly desirable because the resulting products could then be subjected to further modifications. However, such reactions, especially when dienoates contain two equally substituted olefins, are scarce and are confined to reactions promoted by a phosphine-copper catalyst (with an alkyl Grignard reagent, dialkylzinc or trialkylaluminium compounds), a diene-iridium catalyst (with arylboroxines), or a bisphosphine-cobalt catalyst (with monosilyl-acetylenes). 1,6-Conjugate additions are otherwise limited to substrates where there is full substitution at the C4 position. It is unclear why certain catalysts favour bond formation at C6, and—although there are a small number of catalytic enantioselective conjugate allyl additions—related 1,6-additions and processes involving a propargyl unit are non-existent. Here we show that an easily accessible organocopper catalyst can promote 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and 2-boryl-substituted allyl groups to acyclic dienoates with high selectivity. A commercially available allenyl-boron compound or a monosubstituted allene may be used. Products can be obtained in up to 83 per cent yield, >98:2 diastereomeric ratio (for allyl additions) and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio. We elucidate the mechanistic details, including the origins of high site selectivity (1,6- versus 1,4-) and enantioselectivity as a function of the catalyst

  5. Catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and allyl groups.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanke; Li, Xiben; Torker, Sebastian; Shi, Ying; Shen, Xiao; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2016-09-15

    Conjugate (or 1,4-) additions of carbanionic species to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are vital to research in organic and medicinal chemistry, and there are several chiral catalysts that facilitate the catalytic enantioselective additions of nucleophiles to enoates. Nonetheless, catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions are uncommon, and ones that incorporate readily functionalizable moieties, such as propargyl or allyl groups, into acyclic α,β,γ,δ-doubly unsaturated acceptors are unknown. Chemical transformations that could generate a new bond at the C6 position of a dienoate are particularly desirable because the resulting products could then be subjected to further modifications. However, such reactions, especially when dienoates contain two equally substituted olefins, are scarce and are confined to reactions promoted by a phosphine-copper catalyst (with an alkyl Grignard reagent, dialkylzinc or trialkylaluminium compounds), a diene-iridium catalyst (with arylboroxines), or a bisphosphine-cobalt catalyst (with monosilyl-acetylenes). 1,6-Conjugate additions are otherwise limited to substrates where there is full substitution at the C4 position. It is unclear why certain catalysts favour bond formation at C6, and-although there are a small number of catalytic enantioselective conjugate allyl additions-related 1,6-additions and processes involving a propargyl unit are non-existent. Here we show that an easily accessible organocopper catalyst can promote 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and 2-boryl-substituted allyl groups to acyclic dienoates with high selectivity. A commercially available allenyl-boron compound or a monosubstituted allene may be used. Products can be obtained in up to 83 per cent yield, >98:2 diastereomeric ratio (for allyl additions) and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio. We elucidate the mechanistic details, including the origins of high site selectivity (1,6- versus 1,4-) and enantioselectivity as a function of the catalyst

  6. Catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and allyl groups

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanke; Li, Xiben; Torker, Sebastian; Shi, Ying; Shen, Xiao; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2016-01-01

    Conjugate (or 1,4-) additions of carbanionic species to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are vital to research in organic and medicinal chemistry, and there are several known chiral catalysts that facilitate the catalytic enantioselective additions of nucleophiles to enoates1. However, catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions are uncommon, and ones that are able to incorporate readily functionalizable moieties, such as propargyl or allyl groups, into acyclic α,β,γ,δ-doubly unsaturated acceptors are unknown2. Chemical transformations that could generate a new bond at the C6 position of a dienoate are particularly desirable, as the resulting products would be subjected to further modifications; such reactions, especially when dienoates contain two equally substituted olefins, are scarce3 and are confined to reactions promoted by a phosphine–copper (with alkyl Grignard4,5, dialkylzinc or trialkylaluminum compounds6,7), a diene–iridium (with arylboroxines)8,9, and a bisphosphine–cobalt catalyst (with monosilyl-acetylenes)10. 1,6-conjugate additions are otherwise limited to substrates where there is full substitution at C411. It is not clear why certain catalysts favor bond formation at C6, and – while there are a small number of catalytic enantioselective conjugate allyl additions12,13,14,15 – related 1,6-additions and processes involving a propargyl unit are non-existent. In this manuscript, we show that an easily accessible organocopper catalyst can promote 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and 2-boryl-substituted allyl groups to acyclic dienoates with high selectivity. A commercially available allenylboron compound or a monosubstituted allene may be used. Products can be obtained in up to 83 percent yield, >98 percent diastereo- (for allyl additions) and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio. Mechanistic details, including the origins of high site- (1,6- versus 1,4-) and enantioselectivity as a function of the catalyst structure and reaction type

  7. Kinetic resolution of allyl fluorides by enantioselective allylic trifluoromethylation based on silicon-assisted C-F bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Nishimine, Takayuki; Fukushi, Kazunobu; Shibata, Naoyuki; Taira, Hiromi; Tokunaga, Etsuko; Yamano, Akihito; Shiro, Motoo; Shibata, Norio

    2014-01-07

    Two birds, one stone! The first kinetic resolution of allyl fluorides was achieved by the development of an organocatalyzed enantioselective allylic trifluoromethylation. Two kinds of chiral fluorinated compounds, which incorporate C*F and C*CF3 units, respectively, can thus be accessed by a single transformation.

  8. Allyl 4-hydroxy­phenyl carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Flores Ahuactzin, Víctor Hugo; López, Delia; Bernès, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    The title mol­ecule, C10H10O4, is a functionalized carbonate used in the synthetic route to organic glasses. The central CH fragment of the allyl group is disordered over two positions, with occupancies in a 0.758 (10):0.242 (10)ratio. This disorder reflects the torsional flexibility of the oxygen–allyl group, although both disordered parts present the expected anti­clinal conformation, with O—CH2—CH=CH2 torsion angles of −111 (2) and 119.1 (4)°. The crystal structure is based on chains parallel to [010], formed by O⋯H—O hydrogen bonds involving hydroxyl and carbonyl groups as donors and acceptors, respectively. The mol­ecular packing is further stabilized by two weak C—H⋯π contacts from the benzene ring of the asymmetric unit with two benzene rings of neighboring mol­ecules. PMID:21582877

  9. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Allylic and Allenyl Sulfides through a Myoglobin-Catalyzed Doyle-Kirmse Reaction.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Vikas; Sreenilayam, Gopeekrishnan; Bajaj, Priyanka; Tinoco, Antonio; Fasan, Rudi

    2016-10-17

    The first example of a biocatalytic [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement reaction involving allylic sulfides and diazo reagents (Doyle-Kirmse reaction) is reported. Engineered variants of sperm whale myoglobin catalyze this synthetically valuable C-C bond-forming transformation with high efficiency and product conversions across a variety of sulfide substrates (e.g., aryl-, benzyl-, and alkyl-substituted allylic sulfides) and α-diazo esters. Moreover, the scope of this myoglobin-mediated transformation could be extended to the conversion of propargylic sulfides to give substituted allenes. Active-site mutations proved effective in enhancing the catalytic efficiency of the hemoprotein in these reactions as well as modulating the enantioselectivity, resulting in the identification of the myoglobin variant Mb(L29S,H64V,V68F), which is capable of mediating asymmetric Doyle-Kirmse reactions with an enantiomeric excess up to 71 %. This work extends the toolbox of currently available biocatalytic strategies for the asymmetric formation of carbon-carbon bonds.

  10. Palladium/N-heterocyclic carbene catalysed regio and diastereoselective reaction of ketones with allyl reagents via inner-sphere mechanism

    DOE PAGES

    Bai, Da -Chang; Yu, Fei -Le; Wang, Wan -Ying; ...

    2016-06-10

    The palladium-catalysed allylic substitution reaction is one of the most important reactions in transition-metal catalysis and has been well-studied in the past decades. Most of the reactions proceed through an outer-sphere mechanism, affording linear products when monosubstituted allyl reagents are used. Here, we report an efficient Palladium-catalysed protocol for reactions of beta-substituted ketones with monosubstituted allyl substrates, simply by using N-heterocyclic carbene as ligand, leading to branched products with up to three contiguous stereocentres in a (syn, anti)-mode with excellent regio and diastereoselectivities. The scope of the protocol in organic synthesis has been examined preliminarily. As a result, mechanistic studiesmore » by both experiments and density functional theory ( DFT) calculations reveal that the reaction proceeds via an inner-sphere mechanism-nucleophilic attack of enolate oxygen on Palladium followed by C-C bond-forming [3,3']-reductive elimination.« less

  11. Interaction between anions and molybdenum allyl dicarbonyl complexes of 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane.

    PubMed

    Morales, Dolores; Puerto, Marcos; del Río, Ignacio; Pérez, Julio; López, Ramón

    2012-12-07

    The labile complex [MoCl(η(3)-methallyl)(CO)(2)(NCMe)(2)] reacts with the ligand 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane ([9]aneS(3)) and the salt NaBAr'(4) to afford [Mo(η(3)-methallyl)(CO)(2)([9]aneS(3))][BAr'(4)] (1⋅BAr'(4)). An analogous reaction of [MoBr(η(3)-allyl)(CO)(2)(NCMe)(2)] yields [Mo(η(3)-allyl)(CO)(2)([9]aneS(3))][BAr'(4)] (2⋅BAr'(4)). The new compounds 1⋅BAr'(4) and 2⋅BAr'(4) were characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction studies. Both compounds feature the cyclic thioether [9]aneS(3) coordinated as a tridentate ligand to the molybdenum center. The allyl ligand in 2⋅BAr'(4) is aligned with the middle of the OC-Mo-CO angle, which is acute. Both of these features are typical of most pseudo-octahedral allyl dicarbonyl molybdenum complexes. In contrast, the allyl group is rotated in 1⋅BAr'(4), which is attributed to steric hindrance between the methyl substituent and the ligated thioether, and the OC-Mo-CO angle is obtuse. Compound 1⋅BAr'(4) undergoes rapid substitution of [9]aneS(3) by either chloride and fluoride ions in dichloromethane, and the products include the known species [{Mo(η(3)-methallyl)(CO)(2)}(2)(μ-Cl)(3)](-) and a structurally similar new anionic complex with two fluoro and one hydroxo bridging ligands, respectively. Stable supramolecular adducts were formed in the reactions of 1⋅BAr'(4) and 2⋅BAr(4) with bromide, iodide, hydrogensulfate, and methanesulfonate compounds. The binding constants of these adducts in dichloromethane were calculated from (1)H NMR spectroscopic titration data, and the solid-state structures of the 1⋅Br, 1⋅HSO(4), 1⋅I, and 2⋅I adducts were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The surprising slightly higher stability of the iodide adduct relative to that of bromide was investigated theoretically, with the results pointing to an effect of the differential solvation of the halide ions.

  12. An efficient and general enantioselective synthesis of sphingosine, phythosphingosine, and 4-substituted derivatives.

    PubMed

    Llaveria, Josep; Díaz, Yolanda; Matheu, M Isabel; Castillón, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    A general and efficient protocol for the enantioselective synthesis of sphingosine, phythosphingosine, and 4-substituted derivatives was established. These compounds were obtained from a common intermediate prepared from butadiene monoepoxide by a synthetic sequence involving enantioselective allylic substitution, cross-metathesis, and dihydroxylation.

  13. Palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of indoles with arylsulfonyl hydrazides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Congrong; Ding, Lianghui; Guo, Guang; Liu, Weiwei; Yang, Fu-Lai

    2016-03-14

    A novel method to synthesise 2-arylindoles is demonstrated via direct arylation of indoles with arylsulfonyl hydrazides. Under the optimized reaction conditions, the reaction well tolerates a wide variety of functional groups to afford structurally diverse 2-arylindoles in good to excellent yields at 70 °C.

  14. Palladium-catalyzed stereocontrolled vinylation of azoles and phenothiazine.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Artyom Y; Izmer, Vyatcheslav V; Kazyul'kin, Denis N; Beletskaya, Irina P; Voskoboynikov, Alexander Z

    2002-02-21

    [reaction: see text] Vinylation of various azoles (pyrrole, indole, carbazole, and their derivatives) and phenothiazine with vinyl bromides catalyzed by palladium-phosphine complexes results in the respective N-vinylazoles in 30-99% yields. This reaction with cis- and trans-beta-bromostyrenes is stereospecific giving the respective products with full retention of configuration.

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed 1,1- Aryloxygenation of Terminal Olefins

    PubMed Central

    Satterfield, Andrew D.; Kubota, Asako; Sanford, Melanie S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the 1,1-arylacetoxylation of diverse α-olefins using organostannanes and hypervalent iodine oxidants. The reaction provides a convergent approach for generating a C–C and a C-O bond as well as a new stereocenter in a single catalytic transformation. PMID:21291210

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Fluoroarylation of gem-Difluoroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hai-Jun; Lin, Ling-Zhi; Feng, Chao; Loh, Teck-Peng

    2017-08-07

    A Pd-catalyzed fluoroarylation of gem-difluoroalkenes with aryl halides is reported. By taking advantage of the in situ generated α-CF3 -benzylsilver intermediates derived from the nucleophilic addition of silver fluoride to gem-difluoroalkenes, this strategy bypasses the use of a strong base, thus enabling a mild and general synthetic method for ready access to non-symmetric α,α-disubstituted trifluoroethane derivatives. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Conjugated Allenynes via Decarboxylative Coupling.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mary K; Tunge, Jon A

    2017-09-29

    A new strategy to access conjugated allenynes via a decarboxylative coupling of propargyl esters of propiolates has been developed. In this process, allenyl-palladium intermediates are coupled with acetylides that are generated in situ to form the conjugated allenynes. Finally, the coupling is demonstrated to be highly stereospecific, providing a route to enantioenriched allenes.

  18. Palladium-Catalyzed α-Arylation of Benzylic Phosphine Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Montel, Sonia; Jia, Tiezheng

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach to prepare diarylmethyl phosphine oxides from benzyl phosphine oxides via deprotonative cross-coupling processes (DCCP) is reported. The optimization of the reaction was guided by High-Throughput Experimentation (HTE) techniques. The Pd(OAc)2/Xantphos-based catalyst enabled the reaction between benzyl diphenyl or dicyclohexyl phosphine oxide derivatives and aryl bromides in good to excellent yields (51–91%). PMID:24295336

  19. Iridium(I)-Catalyzed Regio- and Enantioselective Allylic Amidation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Om V.; Han, Hyunsoo

    2009-01-01

    Ir(I)-catalyzed intermolecular allylic amidation of ethyl allylic carbonates with soft nitrogen nucleophiles under completely “salt-free” conditions is described. A combination of [Ir(COD)Cl]2, a chiral phosphoramidite ligand L*, and DBU as a base in THF effects the reaction. The reaction appears to be quite general, accommodating a wide variety of R-groups and soft nitrogen nucleophiles, and proceeds with excellent regio- and enantioselectivities to afford the branched N-protected allylic amines. The developed reaction was conveniently utilized in the asymmetric synthesis of Boc protected α- and β-amino acids as well as (−)-cytoxazone. PMID:19554202

  20. Platinum-catalyzed direct amination of allylic alcohols under mild conditions: ligand and microwave effects, substrate scope, and mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshiki; Ipposhi, Junji; Nakahara, Yasuhito; Utsunomiya, Masaru; Mashima, Kazushi

    2009-10-14

    Transition metal-catalyzed amination of allylic compounds via a pi-allylmetal intermediate is a powerful and useful method for synthesizing allylamines. Direct catalytic substitution of allylic alcohols, which forms water as the sole coproduct, has recently attracted attention for its environmental and economical advantages. Here, we describe the development of a versatile direct catalytic amination of both aryl- and alkyl-substituted allylic alcohols with various amines using Pt-Xantphos and Pt-DPEphos catalyst systems, which allows for the selective synthesis of various monoallylamines, such as the biologically active compounds Naftifine and Flunarizine, in good to high yield without need for an activator. The choice of the ligand was crucial toward achieving high catalytic activity, and we demonstrated that not only the large bite-angle but also the linker oxygen atom of the Xantphos and DPEphos ligands was highly important. In addition, microwave heating dramatically affected the catalyst activity and considerably decreased the reaction time compared with conventional heating. Furthermore, several mechanistic investigations, including (1)H and (31)P{(1)H} NMR studies; isolation and characterization of several catalytic intermediates, Pt(xantphos)Cl(2), Pt(eta(2)-C(3)H(5)OH)(xantphos), etc; confirmation of the structure of [Pt(eta(3)-allyl)(xantphos)]OTf by X-ray crystallographic analysis; and crossover experiments, suggested that formation of the pi-allylplatinum complex through the elimination of water is an irreversible rate-determining step and that the other processes in the catalytic cycle are reversible, even at room temperature.

  1. Time- and frequency-resolved photoionisation of the allyl radical

    PubMed

    Schultz; Clarke; Gilbert; Deyerl; Fischer

    2000-01-01

    We report picosecond time-resolved pump-probe photoelectron spectra of the allyl radical, C3H5, and the fully deuterated allyl, C3D5, carried out in order to elucidate the primary photophysical processes upon UV excitation. It is shown that the UV bands of allyl decay in a two-step process: the first step is an internal conversion to the lower-lying A-state within 20 ps or less, while the second step is a very fast decay from the A-state to the electronic ground state through a conical intersection. In addition we report the first zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) photoelectron spectrum of allyl, yielding an ionisation energy of 65762 cm-1.

  2. Synthetic mucin fragments: synthesis of O-sulfo and O-methyl derivatives of allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D- galactopyranoside as potential compounds for sulfotransferases.

    PubMed

    Jain, R K; Piskorz, C F; Matta, K L

    1995-10-02

    Allyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galact opy ranoside (1) was condensed with either 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (2) or 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-6-O-bromoacetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (14) in the presence of mercuric cyanide. Selective substitution with methyl, sulfo or both at desired positions, followed by the removal of protecting groups, afforded allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-methyl-alpha -D- galactopyranoside (5), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6- O-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (10), allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-sulfo-alpha- D- galactopyranoside sodium salt (13), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (17) and allyl O-(3-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (22). The structures of compounds 5, 10, 13, 17 and 22 were established by 13C NMR and FAB mass spectroscopy.

  3. General allylic C-H alkylation with tertiary nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Howell, Jennifer M; Liu, Wei; Young, Andrew J; White, M Christina

    2014-04-16

    A general method for intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation of terminal olefins with tertiary nucleophiles has been accomplished employing palladium(II)/bis(sulfoxide) catalysis. Allylic C-H alkylation furnishes products in good yields (avg. 64%) with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity (>20:1 linear:branched, >20:1 E:Z). For the first time, the olefin scope encompasses unactivated aliphatic olefins as well as activated aromatic/heteroaromatic olefins and 1,4-dienes. The ease of appending allyl moieties onto complex scaffolds is leveraged to enable this mild and selective allylic C-H alkylation to rapidly diversify phenolic natural products. The tertiary nucleophile scope is broad and includes latent functionality for further elaboration (e.g., aliphatic alcohols, α,β-unsaturated esters). The opportunities to effect synthetic streamlining with such general C-H reactivity are illustrated in an allylic C-H alkylation/Diels-Alder reaction cascade: a reactive diene is generated via intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation and approximated to a dienophile contained within the tertiary nucleophile to furnish a common tricyclic core found in the class I galbulimima alkaloids.

  4. Influence of extracellular calcium on allyl alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O; Younes, M; Pentz, R

    1986-07-01

    The role of calcium in allyl alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in the isolated haemoglobin-free perfused rat liver. At a Ca++ concentration of 2.5 mmol/l in the perfusate, allyl alcohol (initial concentration 1.17 mmol/l) produced an enhanced release of GPT and SDH from the liver, an increase in the lactate/pyruvate ratio of the perfusate, a decrease in hepatic oxygen consumption and an increase of both hepatic calcium and malondialdehyde content. In the absence of Ca++ in the perfusate, no hepatic calcium accumulation occurred with allyl alcohol, but all other signs of hepatic damage were as severe as with 2.5 mmol/l Ca++. On the other hand, high extracellular Ca++ (5 mmol/l) alone led to a threefold increase of liver calcium but produced only marginal hepatotoxicity and only slightly enhanced the hepatotoxic effects of allyl alcohol. The concentrations of allyl alcohol in the perfusate were not altered at different Ca++ concentrations. In conclusion, the primary allyl alcohol-induced hepatotoxic injury does not appear to depend upon an influx of extracellular calcium.

  5. Allylic alcohol transposition by ortho ester-initiated carbonate extension. synthesis of the vasodilator 11(R),12(S),15(S)-trihydroxyeicosa- 5(Z),8(Z),13(E)-trienoic acid.

    PubMed

    Conrow, Raymond E

    2006-05-25

    [reaction: see text] The title compound 1 was obtained via methyl ester 2, which was synthesized in four steps from an isomeric 11,14,15-triol ester 5. In the key step, Boc orthoformate 9 was treated with TMS triflate to initiate intramolecular nucleophilic substitution with allylic transposition, forming cyclic carbonates 10 and 11.

  6. Allyl-silica Hybrid Monoliths For Chromatographic Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenjuan

    Column technology continues to be the most investigated topics in the separation world, since the column is the place where the chromatographic separation happens, making it the heart of the separation system. Allyl-silica hybrid monolithic material has been exploited as support material and potential stationary phases for liquid chromatography; the stationary phase anchored to the silica surface by Si-C bond, which is more pH stable than traditional stationary phase. First, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the sol in the synthesis of allyl-silica hybrid monoliths. Allyl-trimethoxysilane (allyl-TrMOS), dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMOS) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) have been served as co-precursors in the sol-gel synthesis of organo-silica hybrid monolithic columns for liquid chromatography (LC). 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 1H NMR spectroscopy were employed to monitor reaction profiles for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and initial condensation reactions of the individual precursor and the hybrid system. 29Si-NMR has also been used to identify different silane species formed during the reactions. The overall hydrolysis rate has been found to follow the trend DMDMOS > allyl-TrMOS > TMOS, if each precursor is reacted individually (homo-polymerization). Precursors show different hydrolysis rate when reacted together in the hybrid system than they are reacted individually. Cross-condensation products of TMOS and DMDMOS (QD) arise about 10 minutes of initiation of the reaction. The allyl-silica monolithic columns for capillary liquid chromatography can only be prepared in capillaries with 50 im internal diameter with acceptable performance. One of the most prominent problems related to the synthesis of silica monolithic structures is the volume shrinkage. The synthesis of allylfunctionalized silica hybrid monolithic structures has been studied in an attempt to reduce the volume shrinkage during aging, drying and heat treatment

  7. Structurally defined allyl compounds of main group metals: coordination and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Crispin; Okuda, Jun

    2013-05-10

    Organometallic allyl compounds are important as allylation reagents in organic synthesis, as polymerization catalysts, and as volatile metal precursors in material science. Whereas the allyl chemistry of synthetically relevant transition metals such as palladium and of the lanthanoids is well-established, that of main group metals has been lagging behind. Recent progress on allyl complexes of Groups 1, 2, and 12-16 now provides a more complete picture. This is based on a fundamental understanding of metal-allyl bonding interactions in solution and in the solid state. Furthermore, reactivity trends have been rationalized and new types of allyl-specific reactivity patterns have been uncovered. Key features include 1) the exploitation of the different types of metal-allyl bonding (highly ionic to predominantly covalent), 2) the use of synergistic effects in heterobimetallic compounds, and 3) the adjustment of Lewis acidity by variation of the charge of allyl compounds.

  8. Effect of Allylic Groups on SN2 Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The activating effects of the benzyl and allyl groups on SN2 reactivity are well-known. 6-Chloromethyl-6-methylfulvene, also a primary, allylic halide, reacts 30 times faster with KI/acetone than does benzyl chloride at room temperature. The latter result, as well as new experimental observations, suggests that the fulvenyl group is a particularly activating allylic group in SN2 reactions. Computational work on identity SN2 reactions, e.g., chloride– displacing chloride– and ammonia displacing ammonia, shows that negatively charged SN2 transition states (tss) are activated by allylic groups according to the Galabov–Allen–Wu electrostatic model but with the fulvenyl group especially effective at helping to delocalize negative charge due to some cyclopentadienide character in the transition state (ts). In contrast, the triafulvenyl group is deactivating. However, the positively charged SN2 transition states of the ammonia reactions are dramatically stabilized by the triafulvenyl group, which directly conjugates with a reaction center having SN1 character in the ts. Experiments and calculations on the acidities of a variety of allylic alcohols and carboxylic acids support the special nature of the fulvenyl group in stabilizing nearby negative charge and highlight the ability of fulvene species to dramatically alter the energetics of processes even in the absence of direct conjugation. PMID:24977317

  9. Catalytic asymmetric generation of (Z)-disubstituted allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Luca; Jeon, Sang-Jin; Fisher, Ethan L; Carroll, Patrick J; Walsh, Patrick J

    2007-12-26

    A one-pot method for the direct preparation of enantioenriched (Z)-disubstituted allylic alcohols is introduced. Hydroboration of 1-halo-1-alkynes with dicyclohexylborane, reaction with t-BuLi, and transmetalation with dialkylzinc reagents generate (Z)-disubstituted vinylzinc intermediates. In situ reaction of these reagents with aldehydes in the presence of a catalyst derived from (-)-MIB generates (Z)-disubstituted allylic alcohols. It was found that the resulting allylic alcohols were racemic, most likely due to a rapid addition reaction promoted by LiX (X = Br and Cl). To suppress the LiX-promoted reaction, a series of inhibitors were screened. It was found that 20-30 mol % tetraethylethylenediamine inhibited LiCl without inhibiting the chiral zinc-based Lewis acid. In this fashion, (Z)-disubstituted allylic alcohols were obtained with up to 98% ee. The asymmetric (Z)-vinylation could be coupled with tandem diastereoselective epoxidation reactions to provide epoxy alcohols and allylic epoxy alcohols with up to three contiguous stereogenic centers, enabling the rapid construction of complex building blocks with high levels of enantio- and diastereoselectivity.

  10. Scalable and Sustainable Electrochemical Allylic C–H Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Tang, Jiaze; Chen, Ke; Eastgate, Martin D.; Baran, Phil S.

    2016-01-01

    New methods and strategies for the direct functionalization of C–H bonds are beginning to reshape the fabric of retrosynthetic analysis, impacting the synthesis of natural products, medicines, and even materials1. The oxidation of allylic systems has played a prominent role in this context as possibly the most widely applied C–H functionalization due to the utility of enones and allylic alcohols as versatile intermediates, along with their prevalence in natural and unnatural materials2. Allylic oxidations have been featured in hundreds of syntheses, including some natural product syntheses regarded as “classics”3. Despite many attempts to improve the efficiency and practicality of this powerful transformation, the vast majority of conditions still employ highly toxic reagents (based around toxic elements such as chromium, selenium, etc.) or expensive catalysts (palladium, rhodium, etc.)2. These requirements are highly problematic in industrial settings; currently, no scalable and sustainable solution to allylic oxidation exists. As such, this oxidation strategy is rarely embraced for large-scale synthetic applications, limiting the adoption of this important retrosynthetic strategy by industrial scientists. In this manuscript, we describe an electrochemical solution to this problem that exhibits broad substrate scope, operational simplicity, and high chemoselectivity. This method employs inexpensive and readily available materials, representing the first example of a scalable allylic C–H oxidation (demonstrated on 100 grams), finally opening the door for the adoption of this C–H oxidation strategy in large-scale industrial settings without significant environmental impact. PMID:27096371

  11. Cu-catalyzed enantioselective allylic alkylation with organolithium reagents.

    PubMed

    Hornillos, Valentín; Guduguntla, Sureshbabu; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Pérez, Manuel; Bos, Pieter H; Rudolph, Alena; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R; Feringa, Ben L

    2017-03-01

    This protocol describes a method for the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of tertiary and quaternary carbon stereogenic centers, which are widely present in pharmaceutical and natural products. The method is based on the direct reaction between organolithium compounds, which are cheap, readily available and broadly used in chemical synthesis, and allylic electrophiles, using chiral copper catalysts. The methodology involves the asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) of allyl bromides, chlorides and ethers with organolithium compounds using catalyst systems based on Cu-Taniaphos and Cu-phosphoramidites. The protocol contains a complete description of the reaction setup, a method based on (1)H-NMR, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chiral HPLC for assaying the regioselectivity and enantioselectivity of the product, and isolation, purification and characterization procedures. Six Cu-catalyzed AAA reactions between different organolithium reagents and allylic systems are detailed in the text as representative examples of these procedures. These reactions proceed within 1-10 h, depending on the nature of the allylic substrate (bromide, chloride, or ether and disubstituted or trisubstituted) or the chiral ligand used (Taniaphos or phosphoramidite). However, the entire protocol, including workup and purification, generally requires an additional 4-7 h to complete.

  12. Scalable and sustainable electrochemical allylic C-H oxidation.

    PubMed

    Horn, Evan J; Rosen, Brandon R; Chen, Yong; Tang, Jiaze; Chen, Ke; Eastgate, Martin D; Baran, Phil S

    2016-05-05

    New methods and strategies for the direct functionalization of C-H bonds are beginning to reshape the field of retrosynthetic analysis, affecting the synthesis of natural products, medicines and materials. The oxidation of allylic systems has played a prominent role in this context as possibly the most widely applied C-H functionalization, owing to the utility of enones and allylic alcohols as versatile intermediates, and their prevalence in natural and unnatural materials. Allylic oxidations have featured in hundreds of syntheses, including some natural product syntheses regarded as "classics". Despite many attempts to improve the efficiency and practicality of this transformation, the majority of conditions still use highly toxic reagents (based around toxic elements such as chromium or selenium) or expensive catalysts (such as palladium or rhodium). These requirements are problematic in industrial settings; currently, no scalable and sustainable solution to allylic oxidation exists. This oxidation strategy is therefore rarely used for large-scale synthetic applications, limiting the adoption of this retrosynthetic strategy by industrial scientists. Here we describe an electrochemical C-H oxidation strategy that exhibits broad substrate scope, operational simplicity and high chemoselectivity. It uses inexpensive and readily available materials, and represents a scalable allylic C-H oxidation (demonstrated on 100 grams), enabling the adoption of this C-H oxidation strategy in large-scale industrial settings without substantial environmental impact.

  13. Catalytic Asymmetric Generation of (Z)-Disubstituted Allylic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Luca; Jeon, Sang-Jin; Fisher, Ethan L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    A one-pot method for the direct preparation of enantioenriched (Z)-disubstituted allylic alcohols is introduced. Hydroboration of 1-halo-1-alkynes with dicyclohexylborane, reaction with t-BuLi, and transmetallation with dialkylzinc reagents generates (Z)-disubstituted vinylzinc intermediates. In situ reaction of these reagents with aldehydes in the presence of a catalyst derived from (−)-MIB generates (Z)-disubstituted allylic alcohols. It was found that the resulting allylic alcohols were racemic, most likely due to a rapid addition reaction promoted by LiX (X = Br and Cl). To suppress the LiX promoted reaction, a series of inhibitors was screened. It was found that 20–30 mol % tetraethylethylene diamine (TEEDA) inhibited LiCl without inhibiting the chiral zinc-based Lewis acid. In this fashion, (Z)-disubstituted allylic alcohols were obtained with up to 98% ee. The asymmetric (Z)-vinylation could be coupled with tandem diastereoselective epoxidation reactions to provide epoxy alcohols and allylic epoxy alcohols with up to three contiguous stereogenic centers, enabling the rapid construction of complex building blocks with high levels of enantio- and diastereoselectivity. PMID:18052173

  14. Reactions of allylic radicals that impact molecular weight growth kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Villano, Stephanie M; Dean, Anthony M

    2015-03-07

    The reactions of allylic radicals have the potential to play a critical role in molecular weight growth (MWG) kinetics during hydrocarbon oxidation and/or pyrolysis. Due to their stability (when compared to alkyl radicals), they can accumulate to relatively high concentrations. Thus, even though the rate coefficients for their various reactions are small, the rates of these reactions may be significant. In this work, we use electronic structure calculations to examine the recombination, addition, and abstraction reactions of allylic radicals. For the recombination reaction of allyl radicals, we assign a high pressure rate rule that is based on experimental data. Once formed, the recombination product can potentially undergo an H-atom abstraction reaction followed by unimolecular cyclization and β-scission reactions. Depending upon the conditions (e.g., higher pressures) these pathways can lead to the formation of stable MWG species. The addition of allylic radicals to olefins can also lead to MWG species formation. Once again, cyclization of the adduct followed by β-scission is an important energy accessible route. Since the recombination and addition reactions produce chemically-activated adducts, we have explored the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the overall rate constants as well as that for the multiple product channels. We describe a strategy for estimating these pressure-dependencies for systems where detailed electronic structure information is not available. We also derive generic rate rules for hydrogen abstraction reactions from olefins and diolefins by methyl and allyl radicals.

  15. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  16. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  17. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  20. Oxy-Allyl Cation Catalysis: An Enantioselective Electrophilic Activation Mode

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun; Oblak, E. Zachary; Vander Wal, Mark N.; Dilger, Andrew K.; Almstead, Danielle K.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-01-01

    A generic activation mode for asymmetric LUMO-lowering catalysis has been developed using the long-established principles of oxy-allyl cation chemistry. Here, the enantioselective conversion of racemic α-tosyloxy ketones to optically enriched α-indolic carbonyls has been accomplished using a new amino alcohol catalyst in the presence of electron-rich indole nucleophiles. Kinetic studies reveal that the rate-determining step in this SN1 pathway is the catalyst-mediated α-tosyloxy ketone deprotonation step to form an enantiodiscriminant oxy-allyl cation prior to the stereodefining nucleophilic addition event. PMID:26797012

  1. Synthesis of Neoglycoconjugates by the Desulfurative Rearrangement of Allylic Disulfides

    PubMed Central

    Crich, David; Yang, Fan

    2009-01-01

    Two series of neoglucosyl donors are prepared based on connection of the allylic disulfide motif to the anomeric center via either a simple O-glycosyl linkage or N-glycosyl amide unit. Conjugation of both sets of donors to cysteine in peptides is demonstrated through classical disulfide exchange followed by the phosphine-mediated desulfurative allylic rearrangement resulting in neoglycopeptides characterized by a simple thioether spacer. The conjugation reaction functions in the absence of protecting groups on both the neoglycosyl donor and peptide in aqueous media at room temperature. PMID:18729514

  2. Iridium-Catalyzed Selective Isomerization of Primary Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Li, Houhua; Mazet, Clément

    2016-06-21

    This Account presents the development of the iridium-catalyzed isomerization of primary allylic alcohols in our laboratory over the past 8 years. Our initial interest was driven by the long-standing challenge associated with the development of a general catalyst even for the nonasymmetric version of this seemingly simple chemical transformation. The added value of the aldehyde products and the possibility to rapidly generate molecular complexity from readily accessible allylic alcohols upon a redox-economical isomerization reaction were additional sources of motivation. Certainly influenced by the success story of the related isomerization of allylic amines, most catalysts developed for the selective isomerization of allylic alcohols were focused on rhodium as a transition metal of choice. Our approach has been based on the commonly accepted precept that hydrogenation and isomerization are often competing processes, with the latter being usually suppressed in favor of the former. The cationic iridium complexes [(Cy3P)(pyridine)Ir(cod)]X developed by Crabtree (X = PF6) and Pfaltz (X = BArF) are usually considered as the most versatile catalysts for the hydrogenation of allylic alcohols. Using molecular hydrogen to generate controlled amounts of the active form of these complexes but performing the reaction in the absence of molecular hydrogen enabled deviation from the typical hydrogenation manifold and favored exclusively the isomerization of allylic alcohols into aldehydes. Isotopic labeling and crossover experiments revealed the intermolecular nature of the process. Systematic variation of the ligand on the iridium center allowed us to identify the structural features beneficial for catalytic activity. Subsequently, three generations of chiral catalysts have been investigated and enabled us to reach excellent levels of enantioselectivity for a wide range of 3,3-disubstituted aryl/alkyl and alkyl/alkyl primary allylic alcohols leading to β-chiral aldehydes. The

  3. Mechanism of copper(I)-catalyzed allylic alkylation of phosphorothioate esters: influence of the leaving group on α regioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Wenhao; Wang, Mian; Lein, Matthias; Jiang, Linbin; Wei, Wanxing; Wang, Jianyi

    2013-10-11

    The mechanism of Cu(I) -catalyzed allylic alkylation and the influence of the leaving groups (OPiv, SPiv, Cl, SPO(OiPr)2 ; Piv: pivavloyl) on the regioselectivity of the reaction have been explored by using density functional theory (DFT). A comprehensive comparison of many possible reaction pathways shows that [(iPr)2 Cu](-) prefers to bind first oxidatively to the double bond of the allylic substrate at the anti position with respect to the leaving group, and this is followed by dissociation of the leaving group. If the leaving group is not taken into account, the reaction then undergoes an isomerization and a reductive elimination process to give the α- or γ-selective product. If OPiv, SPiv, Cl, or SPO(OiPr)2 groups are present, the optimal route for the formation of both α- and γ-substituted products changes from the stepwise elimination to the direct process, in which the leaving group plays a stabilizing role for the reactant and destabilizes the transition state. The differences to the energy barrier for the α- and γ-substituted products are 2.75 kcal mol(-1) with SPO(OiPr)2 , 2.44 kcal mol(-1) with SPiv, 2.33 kcal mol(-1) with OPiv, and 1.98 kcal mol(-1) with Cl, respectively; these values show that α regioselectivity in the allylic alkylation follows a SPO(OiPr)2 >SPiv>OPiv>Cl trend, which is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental findings. This trend mainly originates in the differences between the attractive electrostatic forces and the repelling steric interactions of the SPO(OiPr)2 , SPiv, OPiv, and Cl groups on the Cu group.

  4. Metal-free metathesis reaction of C-chiral allylic sulfilimines with aryl isocyanates: construction of chiral nonracemic allylic isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Grange, Rebecca L; Evans, P Andrew

    2014-08-27

    We report the facile and efficient metal-free metathesis reaction of C-chiral allylic sulfilimines with aryl isocyanates. This process facilitates the room temperature construction of an array of chiral nonracemic allylic isocyanates, which are versatile intermediates for the construction of unsymmetrical ureas, carbamates, thiocarbamates and amides. Furthermore, the sulfilimine/isocyanate metathesis reaction with 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (4,4'-MDI) circumvents harsh reaction conditions and/or hazardous reagents employed with more classical methods for the preparation of this important functional group.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of a novel symmetrical sulfone-substituted polyphenylene vinylene (SO2EH-PPV) for applications in light emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Hubijar, Emir; Papadimitratos, Alexios; Lee, Doyun; Zakhidov, Anvar; Ferraris, John P

    2013-04-25

    A novel symmetrical alkylsulfonyl-substituted poly(phenylenevinylene) derivative, poly [2,5-bis-(2'-ethylhexylsulfonyl)-1,4-phenylene)vinylene] (SO2EH-PPV), was synthesized via palladium-catalyzed Stille coupling, and its electronic and optical properties were investigated. The novel PPV derivative was characterized by NMR, UV-visible absorption, photoluminescence, gel permeation chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The polymer with Mw of 27,800 and a polydispersity index of 2.6 is readily soluble in common organic solvents, such as THF, chloroform, and toluene. The fluorescence quantum yield of the polymer, determined against rhodamine 6G in dilute aqueous solutions, was 0.95. The HOMO and LUMO levels of SO2EH-PPV were calculated to be -6.0 and -3.61 eV, respectively. The results obtained by CV suggest that SO2EH-PPV is a strong electron acceptor polymer. Single layer stable polymer light-emitting diode devices with the configuration of (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SO2EH-PPV polymer/Al) were fabricated exhibiting a green light emission.

  6. Single pulse shock tube study of allyl radical recombination.

    PubMed

    Fridlyand, Aleksandr; Lynch, Patrick T; Tranter, Robert S; Brezinsky, Kenneth

    2013-06-13

    The recombination and disproportionation of allyl radicals has been studied in a single pulse shock tube with gas chromatographic measurements at 1-10 bar, 650-1300 K, and 1.4-2 ms reaction times. 1,5-Hexadiene and allyl iodide were used as precursors. Simulation of the results using derived rate expressions from a complementary diaphragmless shock tube/laser schlieren densitometry study provided excellent agreement with precursor consumption and formation of all major stable intermediates. No significant pressure dependence was observed at the present conditions. It was found that under the conditions of these experiments, reactions of allyl radicals in the cooling wave had to be accounted for to accurately simulate the experimental results, and this unusual situation is discussed. In the allyl iodide experiments, higher amounts of allene, propene, and benzene were found at lower temperatures than expected. Possible mechanisms are discussed and suggest that iodine containing species are responsible for the low temperature formation of allene, propene, and benzene.

  7. Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative Dehydrogenative Carboxylation of Unactivated Alkanes to Allylic Esters via Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative carboxylation (ODC) of unactivated alkanes with various substituted benzoic acids to produce the corresponding allylic esters. Spectroscopic studies (EPR, UV–vis) revealed that the resting state of the catalyst is [(BPI)Cu(O2CPh)] (1-O2CPh), formed from [(BPI)Cu(PPh3)2], oxidant, and benzoic acid. Catalytic and stoichiometric reactions of 1-O2CPh with alkyl radicals and radical probes imply that C–H bond cleavage occurs by a tert-butoxy radical. In addition, the deuterium kinetic isotope effect from reactions of cyclohexane and d12-cyclohexane in separate vessels showed that the turnover-limiting step for the ODC of cyclohexane is C–H bond cleavage. To understand the origin of the difference in products formed from copper-catalyzed amidation and copper-catalyzed ODC, reactions of an alkyl radical with a series of copper–carboxylate, copper–amidate, and copper–imidate complexes were performed. The results of competition experiments revealed that the relative rate of reaction of alkyl radicals with the copper complexes follows the trend Cu(II)–amidate > Cu(II)–imidate > Cu(II)–benzoate. Consistent with this trend, Cu(II)–amidates and Cu(II)–benzoates containing more electron-rich aryl groups on the benzamidate and benzoate react faster with the alkyl radical than do those with more electron-poor aryl groups on these ligands to produce the corresponding products. These data on the ODC of cyclohexane led to preliminary investigation of copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative amination of cyclohexane to generate a mixture of N-alkyl and N-allylic products. PMID:25389772

  8. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  9. Highly selective indium mediated allylation of unprotected pentosylamines.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jean-Bernard; Hottin, Audrey; Ndoye, Alpha

    2012-03-16

    A straightforward functionalization of D-pentoses is reported, which affords homoallylaminopolyols in two steps and uses ion exchange chromatography as the only purification operation. The key indium-mediated allylation is effected on unprotected glycosylamines and occurs with good to excellent syn stereoselection. Validation of the synthetic utility of the method was exemplified by a 3-step synthesis of an optically active 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine from D-xylose.

  10. Rh2(esp)2-catalyzed allylic and benzylic oxidations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Kuang, Yi; Wang, Yuanhua

    2015-04-07

    The dirhodium(II) catalyst Rh2(esp)2 allows direct solvent-free allylic and benzylic oxidations by T-HYDRO with a remarkably low catalyst loading. This method is operationally simple and scalable at ambient temperature without the use of any additives. The high catalyst stability in these reactions may be attributed to a dirhodium(II,II) catalyst resting state, which is less prone to decomposition.

  11. Asymmetric Allylic C-H Oxidation for the Synthesis of Chromans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu-Sheng; Liu, Peng; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Lin, Hua-Chen; Han, Zhi-Yong; Gong, Liu-Zhu

    2015-10-14

    An enantioselective intramolecular allylic C-H oxidation to generate optically active chromans has been accomplished under the cooperative catalysis of a palladium complex of chiral phosphoramidite ligand and 2-fluorobenzoic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest that this reaction commences with a Pd-catalyzed allylic C-H activation event and then undergoes asymmetric allylic alkoxylation. The synthetic significance of the method has been embodied by concisely building up a key chiral intermediate to access (+)-diversonol.

  12. Direct and enantioselective α-allylation of ketones via singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Mastracchio, Anthony; Warkentin, Alexander A.; Walji, Abbas M.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2010-01-01

    The first enantioselective organocatalytic α-allylation of cyclic ketones has been accomplished via singly occupied molecular orbital catalysis. Geometrically constrained radical cations, forged from the one-electron oxidation of transiently generated enamines, readily undergo allylic alkylation with a variety of commercially available allyl silanes. A reasonable latitude in both the ketone and allyl silane components is readily accommodated in this new transformation. Moreover, three new oxidatively stable imidazolidinone catalysts have been developed that allow cyclic ketones to successfully participate in this transformation. The new catalyst platform has also been exploited in the first catalytic enantioselective α-enolation and α-carbooxidation of ketones. PMID:20921367

  13. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-06-30

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration.

  14. THE CM-, MM-, AND SUB-MM-WAVE SPECTRUM OF ALLYL ISOCYANIDE AND RADIOASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS IN ORION KL AND THE SgrB2 LINE SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Haykal, I.; Margulès, L.; Huet, T. R.; Motyienko, R. A.; Écija, P.; Cocinero, E. J.; Basterretxea, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Castaño, F.; Guillemin, J. C.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.

    2013-11-10

    Organic isocyanides have an interesting astrochemistry and some of these molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, rotational spectral data for this class of compounds are still scarce. We provide laboratory spectra of the four-carbon allyl isocyanide covering the full microwave region, thus allowing a potential astrophysical identification in the ISM. We assigned the rotational spectrum of the two cis (synperiplanar) and gauche (anticlinal) conformations of allyl isocyanide in the centimeter-wave region (4-18 GHz), resolved its {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) hyperfine structure, and extended the measurements into the millimeter and submillimeter-wave (150-900 GHz) ranges for the title compound. Rotational constants for all the monosubstituted {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotopologues are additionally provided. Laboratory observations are supplemented with initial radioastronomical observations. Following analysis of an extensive dataset (>11000 rotational transitions), accurate ground-state molecular parameters are reported for the cis and gauche conformations of the molecule, including rotational constants, NQC parameters, and centrifugal distortion terms up to octic contributions. Molecular parameters have also been obtained for the two first excited states of the cis conformation, with a dataset of more than 3300 lines. The isotopic data allowed determining substitution and effective structures for the title compound. We did not detect allyl isocyanide either in the IRAM 30 m line survey of Orion KL or in the PRIMOS survey toward SgrB2. Nevertheless, we provided an upper limit to its column density in Orion KL.

  15. Substitute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin R.; Hawkins, Amber

    2000-01-01

    In summer 1999, a group of Park City, Utah, school administrators, personnel directors, human-resource specialists, and substitute teacher coordinators brainstormed on improving the recruitment, training, and retention of substitute teachers. Providing effective preservice and on-the-job training and professional recognition are key suggestions.…

  16. Carbene-Mediated Quaternarization of the Anomeric Position of Carbohydrates: Synthesis of Allylic Ketopyranosides, Access to the Missing α-Gluco and β-Manno Stereoisomers, and Preparation of Quaternary 2-Deoxy 2-Acetamido Sugars.

    PubMed

    Mébarki, Kévin; Gavel, Marine; Heis, Floriane; Joosten, Antoine Yvan Philippe; Lecourt, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Following our work on the C-H functionalization of carbohydrates by the 1,5 insertion of metal-carbenes, we report herein the robust and scalable conversion of sugar γ-lactones into highly valuable glycosides having a quaternary anomeric position substituted by an allyl chain ready for further functionalization. A divergent synthetic approach furthermore provided a straightforward access to ketopyranosides with a large chemo- and stereodiversity at position 2.

  17. [Bone substitutes].

    PubMed

    Jordana, Fabienne; Le Visage, Catherine; Weiss, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Bone substitutes, used to fill a defect after a surgery or a trauma, provide a mechanical support and might induce bone healing. They constitute an alternative to autogenous bone grafts, the 'gold standard' which remains the reference despite its risk of postoperative complications. The clinician choice of a bone substitute is based on the required bone volume, the handling (injectability, malleability) and mechanical properties (setting time, viscosity, resorbability among others) of the material. Bone substitutes are commonly used in orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, stomatology and dental applications. Their use increases steadily, with the recent clinical development of injectable forms. In addition, novel technologies by subtractive or additive techniques allow today the production of controlled architecture materials. Here, we present a bone substitutes classification according to their origin (natural or synthetic) and chemical composition, and the most common use of these substitutes. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  18. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  19. Synthesis of novel 7-substituted pyrido[2',3':4,5]furo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-amines and their N-aryl analogues and evaluation of their inhibitory activity against Ser/Thr kinases.

    PubMed

    Deau, Emmanuel; Loidreau, Yvonnick; Marchand, Pascal; Nourrisson, Marie-Renée; Loaëc, Nadège; Meijer, Laurent; Levacher, Vincent; Besson, Thierry

    2013-12-15

    The efficient synthesis of 7-substituted pyrido[2',3':4,5]furo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-amines and their N-aryl analogues is described. 3,5-Dibromopyridine was converted into 3-amino-6-bromofuro[3,2-b]pyridine-2-carbonitrile intermediate which was formylated with DMFDMA. Functionalization at position 7 of the tricyclic scaffold was accomplished, before or after cyclisation step, by palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling while the pyrimidin-4-amines and N-aryl counterparts were synthesized by microwave-assisted formamide degradation and Dimroth rearrangement, respectively. The final products were evaluated for their potent inhibition of a series of five Ser/Thr kinases (CDK5/p25, CK1δ/ε, CLK1, DYRK1A, GSK3α/β). Compound 35 showed the best inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 49 nM and proved to be specific to CLK1 among the panel of tested kinases.

  20. A configurational switch based on iridium-catalyzed allylic cyclization: application in asymmetric total syntheses of prosopis, dendrobate, and spruce alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Gnamm, Christian; Brödner, Kerstin; Krauter, Caroline M; Helmchen, Günter

    2009-10-12

    A method for the stereoselective synthesis of 2,6-disubstituted piperidines has been developed that is based on the use of an intramolecular iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution as a configurational switch. The procedure allows the preparation of 2-vinylpiperidines with enantiomeric excesses (ee) of greater than 99%. As applications, total syntheses of piperidine alkaloids have been elaborated, most often by using Ru-catalyzed cross-metatheses as a key step for introduction of a side chain. Asymmetric total syntheses of the prosopis alkaloids (+)-prosopinine, (+)-prosophylline, (+)-prosopine, and of the dendrobate alkaloid (+)-241D and its C6 epimer are described.