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Sample records for palm chamaedorea ernesti-augusti

  1. Population genetics of the understory fishtail palm Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti in Belize: high genetic connectivity with local differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cibrián-Jaramillo, Angélica; Bacon, Christine D; Garwood, Nancy C; Bateman, Richard M; Thomas, Meredith M; Russell, Steve; Bailey, C Donovan; Hahn, William J; Bridgewater, Samuel GM; DeSalle, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Background Developing a greater understanding of population genetic structure in lowland tropical plant species is highly relevant to our knowledge of increasingly fragmented forests and to the conservation of threatened species. Specific studies are particularly needed for taxa whose population dynamics are further impacted by human harvesting practices. One such case is the fishtail or xaté palm (Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti) of Central America, whose wild-collected leaves are becoming progressively more important to the global ornamental industry. We use microsatellite markers to describe the population genetics of this species in Belize and test the effects of climate change and deforestation on its recent and historical effective population size. Results We found high levels of inbreeding coupled with moderate or high allelic diversity within populations. Overall high gene flow was observed, with a north and south gradient and ongoing differentiation at smaller spatial scales. Immigration rates among populations were more difficult to discern, with minimal evidence for isolation by distance. We infer a tenfold reduction in effective population size ca. 10,000 years ago, but fail to detect changes attributable to Mayan or contemporary deforestation. Conclusion Populations of C. ernesti-augusti are genetically heterogeneous demes at a local spatial scale, but are widely connected at a regional level in Belize. We suggest that the inferred patterns in population genetic structure are the result of the colonization of this species into Belize following expansion of humid forests in combination with demographic and mating patterns. Within populations, we hypothesize that low aggregated population density over large areas, short distance pollen dispersal via thrips, low adult survival, and low fruiting combined with early flowering may contribute towards local inbreeding via genetic drift. Relatively high levels of regional connectivity are likely the result of

  2. Neither insects nor wind: ambophily in dioecious Chamaedorea palms (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Rios, L D; Fuchs, E J; Hodel, D R; Cascante-Marín, A

    2014-07-01

    Pollination of Neotropical dioecious trees is commonly related to generalist insects. Similar data for non-tree species with separated genders are inconclusive. Recent studies on pollination of dioecious Chamaedorea palms (Arecaceae) suggest that species are either insect- or wind-pollinated. However, the wide variety of inflorescence and floral attributes within the genus suggests mixed pollination mode involving entomophily and anemophily. To evaluate this hypothesis, we studied the pollination of Chamaedorea costaricana, C. macrospadix, C. pinnatifrons and C. tepejilote in two montane forests in Costa Rica. A complementary morphological analysis of floral traits was carried out to distinguish species groups within the genus according to their most probable pollination mechanism. We conducted pollinator exclusion experiments, field observations on visitors to pistillate and staminate inflorescences, and trapped airborne pollen. A cluster analysis using 18 floral traits selected for their association with wind and insect pollination syndromes was carried out using 52 Chamaedorea species. Exclusion experiments showed that both wind and insects, mostly thrips (Thysanoptera), pollinated the studied species. Thrips used staminate inflorescences as brood sites and pollinated pistillate flowers by deception. Insects caught on pistillate inflorescences transported pollen, while traps proved that pollen is wind-borne. Our empirical findings clearly suggest that pollination of dioecious Chamaedorea palms is likely to involve both insects and wind. A cluster analysis showed that the majority of studied species have a combination of floral traits that allow for both pollination modes. Our pollination experiments and morphological analysis both suggest that while some species may be completely entomophilous or anemophilous, ambophily might be a common condition within Chamaedorea. Our results propose a higher diversity of pollination mechanisms of Neotropical dioecious

  3. Growth profile of Chamaedorea cataractarum (Cascade Palm)seedlings with different colored plastic mulch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of colored plastic mulch on the growth of Chamaedorea cataractarum Mart. (Cascade Palm). The seedlings placed in soil were compared with those placed in red and blue mulch. The plant growth was monitored for plant height, thickness at the base ...

  4. [Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Córdova-Ballona, Leonides; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl

    2008-01-01

    Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants.

  5. Training Programmes Can Change Behaviour and Encourage the Cultivation of Over-Harvested Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sophie J.; Jones, Julia P. G.; Clubbe, Colin; Gibbons, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Cultivation of wild-harvested plant species has been proposed as a way of reducing over-exploitation of wild populations but lack of technical knowledge is thought to be a barrier preventing people from cultivating a new species. Training programmes are therefore used to increase technical knowledge to encourage people to adopt cultivation. We assessed the impact of a training programme aiming to encourage cultivation of xaté (Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti), an over-harvested palm from Central America. Five years after the training programme ended, we surveyed untrained and trained individuals focusing on four potential predictors of behaviour: technical knowledge, attitudes (what individuals think about a behaviour), subjective norms (what individuals perceive others to think of a behaviour) and perceived behavioural control (self assessment of whether individuals can enact the behaviour successfully). Whilst accounting for socioeconomic variables, we investigate the influence of training upon these behavioural predictors and examine the factors that determine whether people adopt cultivation of a novel species. Those who had been trained had higher levels of technical knowledge about xaté cultivation and higher belief in their ability to cultivate it while training was not associated with differences in attitudes or subjective norms. Technical knowledge and perceived behavioural control (along with socio-economic variables such as forest ownership and age) were predictors of whether individuals cultivate xaté. We suggest that training programmes can have a long lasting effect on individuals and can change behaviour. However, in many situations other barriers to cultivation, such as access to seeds or appropriate markets, will need to be addressed. PMID:22431993

  6. Palm Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... treating malaria, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss ... to decrease symptoms of malaria. High blood pressure. Cyanide poisoning. Weight loss agent. Cancer. Anti-aging. Brain ...

  7. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1983-12-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Because palms are an important crop in many areas of Asia, Africa, and South America, considerable attention has been given to palm genetic improvement, with the result that tree palms are one of the most efficient energy crops, providing much better solar energy capture than, for example, sugar cane and cassava. Tree palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization or cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production, including harvest, tree management, and oil pressing are generally suited to village or plantation use, and, for the most part, have been directed toward supplying process energy through the combustion of process waste products, such as palm fruit residue and palm bunch fibers.

  8. Palm tree peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Sakharov, I Yu

    2004-08-01

    Over the years novel plant peroxidases have been isolated from palm trees leaves. Some molecular and catalytic properties of palm peroxidases have been studied. The substrate specificity of palm peroxidases is distinct from the specificity of other plant peroxidases. Palm peroxidases show extremely high stability under acidic and alkaline conditions and high thermal stability. Moreover, these enzymes are more stable with respect to hydrogen peroxide treatment than other peroxidases. Due to their extremely high stability, palm peroxidases have been used successfully in the development of new bioanalytical tests, the construction of improved biosensors, and in polymer synthesis.

  9. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

  10. Palm oil and palm olein frying applications.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Razali

    2005-01-01

    Several million tones of palm oil and palm olein are used annually in the world for frying. This paper will discuss their frying performances in three major applications - industrial production of potato chips/crisps, industrial production of pre-fried frozen French fries and in fast food outlets. In the first study, about four tones of potato chips were continuously fried 8 hours a day and five days a week. The palm olein used (with proper management) performed well and was still in excellent condition and usable at the end of the trial. This was reflected in its low free fatty acid (FFA) content of around 0.23%, peroxide value of 4 meq/kg, anisidine value of 16, low polar and polymer contents of 10% and 2%, respectively, induction period (OSI) of 21 hours and high content of tocopehrols and tocotrienols of 530 ppm even after >1900 hours. In the second study in which an average 12 tones pre-fried frozen French fries were continuously fried a day for 5 days a week, palm oil performed excellently as reflected by its low FFA of 0.34%, food oil sensor reading of 1.1, low polar and polymer contents of 17% and 2.8%, respectively, over the 12 days of trial. In the third study in which palm shortening, palm oil and palm olein were simultaneously used to intermittently fry chicken parts in the laboratory simulating the conditions in fast food outlets, the three frying oils also performed very satisfactorily as reflected by their reasonably low FFA of <1%, smoke points of >180 degrees C, and polar and polymer contents of <25% and <6%, respectively, after 5 days of consecutive frying. All the quality indicators did not exceed the maximum discard points for frying oils/fats in the three applications, while the fried food product was well accepted by the in-house train sensory panel using a-nine point hedonic score.

  11. 1. View along centerline of Palm Avenue, showing 212 Palm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View along centerline of Palm Avenue, showing 212 Palm (right center) in setting; building at extreme right center is 208 Palm (HABS-CA-2211); view to northeast. - Albert Hayman Cottage, 212 Palm Avenue, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. Date Palm Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews date palm genetic resources and their conservation. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an important food crop in the Middle East and North Africa. Its center of origin and diversity most probably is the area near Iraq/Iran. From there, it spread throughout its present range...

  13. Biodiversity of date palm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is the dominant component upon which the sustainable biophysical and socio-economic structures of the oasis ecosystem are based; a fruit tree with unique nutritional, biochemical and biophysical characteristics, a rich source of aesthetic and cultural values, and ...

  14. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  15. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röll, A.; Niu, F.; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-10-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25-year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12-year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of 2 years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day-1 in a 2-year old to 2.5 mm day-1 in a 12-year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Comparing sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2-year old stand and 53 % in the 12-year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g., from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk

  16. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röll, A.; Niu, F.; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25 year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12 year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of two years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day-1 in a 2 year old to 2.5 mm day-1 in a 12 year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Confronting sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2 year old stand and 53 % in the 12 year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g. from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk

  17. [PALME--Arrival in Reality].

    PubMed

    Franz, M; Weihrauch, L; Schäfer, R

    2015-09-01

    PALME is an emotion-centred parental training for single mothers and their children based on attachment theory. It was designed for the prevention of maternal depression and its long-term effects on the mother-child relation and the infant's development. Using the example of the PALME programme, inherent and external factors are demonstrated which can contribute to the successful transfer of prevention programmes into psychosocial care and other practice areas.

  18. PALM: a Parallel Dynamic Coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevenin, A.; Morel, T.

    2008-12-01

    In order to efficiently represent complex systems, numerical modeling has to rely on many physical models at a time: an ocean model coupled with an atmospheric model is at the basis of climate modeling. The continuity of the solution is granted only if these models can constantly exchange information. PALM is a coupler allowing the concurrent execution and the intercommunication of programs not having been especially designed for that. With PALM, the dynamic coupling approach is introduced: a coupled component can be launched and can release computers' resources upon termination at any moment during the simulation. In order to exploit as much as possible computers' possibilities, the PALM coupler handles two levels of parallelism. The first level concerns the components themselves. While managing the resources, PALM allocates the number of processes which are necessary to any coupled component. These models can be parallel programs based on domain decomposition with MPI or applications multithreaded with OpenMP. The second level of parallelism is a task parallelism: one can define a coupling algorithm allowing two or more programs to be executed in parallel. PALM applications are implemented via a Graphical User Interface called PrePALM. In this GUI, the programmer initially defines the coupling algorithm then he describes the actual communications between the models. PALM offers a very high flexibility for testing different coupling techniques and for reaching the best load balance in a high performance computer. The transformation of computational independent code is almost straightforward. The other qualities of PALM are its easy set-up, its flexibility, its performances, the simple updates and evolutions of the coupled application and the many side services and functions that it offers.

  19. Palm Beach Polo: A Socially Sporting Affair.

    PubMed

    Butwin, D

    1981-10-01

    The Palm Beach Polo and Country Club in West Palm Beach, Florida, has recently become the winter capital of international Polo, and its reputation for luxurious golf, croquet, tennis, and racquetball facilities is growing as well.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Palm Fiber Mattress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Qian; Wu, Jia-Yu; Gu, Hao-Wei; Chen, Zong-Yong; Shi, Xiao-Bing; Liao, Ting-Mao; An, Cheng; Yuan, Hong; Liu, Ren-Huai

    2016-05-01

    Palm fiber mattress is increasingly accepted by many families. This study aims at evaluating the mechanical properties of palm fiber mattress. Two experiments were conduct to investigate the Young's modulus of palm fiber mattress in three directions. In addition, finite element models were established to characterize palm fiber mattress under uniform distributed pressure. Finally, results from finite element analysis are presented to illustrate that the thick mattress will stick with human body curve perfectly, which can support vertebral column effectively.

  1. Date palm production and pest management challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, is a monocotyledonous species belong- ing to the palm family (Arecaceae or Palmae) which is perennial and dioecious and cultivated mostly in the arid regions of the world. Date palm is important to the agrarian economy of several countries, with the ability ...

  2. Palm print image processing with PCNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Zhao, Xianhong

    2010-08-01

    Pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN) is based on Eckhorn's model of cat visual cortex, and imitate mammals visual processing, and palm print has been found as a personal biological feature for a long history. This inspired us with the combination of them: a novel method for palm print processing is proposed, which includes pre-processing and feature extraction of palm print image using PCNN; then the feature of palm print image is used for identifying. Our experiment shows that a verification rate of 87.5% can be achieved at ideal condition. We also find that the verification rate decreases duo to rotate or shift of palm.

  3. National Date Palm Germplasm Repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus & Dates (NCGRCD), located in Riverside, California USA, is a project of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NCGRCD maintains a collection of germplasm of date palm (Phoneix dactylifera ...

  4. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition.

    PubMed

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-10-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil.

  5. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    PubMed Central

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  6. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    PubMed

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  7. Palm oil and the heart: A review

    PubMed Central

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  8. Commercially available alternatives to palm oil.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, Nils

    2016-04-01

    Since several years there has been a demand for food products free of palm oil, noticeable in the Western European market. Alternatives based on liquid oils, fully hydrogenated fats, and exotic fats like shea and sal etc., have been developed by the research groups of several specialty oils and fats suppliers. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of those products and compares them to similar products based on palm oil. It is also discussed how reasonable the replacement of palm products would be, since sustainable and 3-MCPD/glycidolester-reduced palm based specialty oils are also available on the market.

  9. Acoustic Detection of Insects in Palm Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial-crop and ornamental palm trees serve important functions in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and considerable precautions are taken each year to identify and control infestations of a variety of different insect pests. Large weevils, including the red palm weevil and the co...

  10. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    PubMed

    Fitzherbert, Emily B; Struebig, Matthew J; Morel, Alexandra; Danielsen, Finn; Brühl, Carsten A; Donald, Paul F; Phalan, Ben

    2008-10-01

    Oil palm is one of the world's most rapidly increasing crops. We assess its contribution to tropical deforestation and review its biodiversity value. Oil palm has replaced large areas of forest in Southeast Asia, but land-cover change statistics alone do not allow an assessment of where it has driven forest clearance and where it has simply followed it. Oil palm plantations support much fewer species than do forests and often also fewer than other tree crops. Further negative impacts include habitat fragmentation and pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions. With rising demand for vegetable oils and biofuels, and strong overlap between areas suitable for oil palm and those of most importance for biodiversity, substantial biodiversity losses will only be averted if future oil palm expansion is managed to avoid deforestation.

  11. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts.

    PubMed

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-12-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber.

  12. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber. PMID:26868709

  13. American palm ethnomedicine: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Many recent papers have documented the phytochemical and pharmacological bases for the use of palms (Arecaceae) in ethnomedicine. Early publications were based almost entirely on interviews that solicited local knowledge. More recently, ethnobotanically guided searches for new medicinal plants have proven more successful than random sampling for identifying plants that contain biodynamic ingredients. However, limited laboratory time and the high cost of clinical trials make it difficult to test all potential medicinal plants in the search for new drug candidates. The purpose of this study was to summarize and analyze previous studies on the medicinal uses of American palms in order to narrow down the search for new palm-derived medicines. Methods Relevant literature was surveyed and data was extracted and organized into medicinal use categories. We focused on more recent literature than that considered in a review published 25 years ago. We included phytochemical and pharmacological research that explored the importance of American palms in ethnomedicine. Results Of 730 species of American palms, we found evidence that 106 species had known medicinal uses, ranging from treatments for diabetes and leishmaniasis to prostatic hyperplasia. Thus, the number of American palm species with known uses had increased from 48 to 106 over the last quarter of a century. Furthermore, the pharmacological bases for many of the effects are now understood. Conclusions Palms are important in American ethnomedicine. Some, like Serenoa repens and Roystonea regia, are the sources of drugs that have been approved for medicinal uses. In contrast, recent ethnopharmacological studies suggested that many of the reported uses of several other palms do not appear to have a strong physiological basis. This study has provided a useful assessment of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data available on palms. PMID:20034398

  14. Inhalant allergens in Palm Springs, California.

    PubMed

    STEPHENS, H

    1954-06-01

    Although Palm Springs, California, offers a pleasant desert climate that is often advantageous in treatment of respiratory allergies, physicians should be made aware in referring their patients that definite pollen factors must be taken into consideration in recommending a visit to Palm Springs, and should try to determine the compatibility of their patient's allergic sensitivity pattern and the particular seasonal incidence of pollen concentration in Palm Springs. It is believed that the most important pollens there are those of Bermuda grass, olive tree, mesquite, dicoria, false ragweed, scales, and hymenoclea salsola. A favorable climate alone does not permit a patient to disregard good allergic management.

  15. Modulation of human lipids and lipoproteins by dietary palm oil and palm olein: a review.

    PubMed

    Sundram, K

    1997-03-01

    Several human clinical trials have now evaluated palm oil's effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins. These studies suggest that palm oil and palm olein diets do not raise plasma TC and LDL-cholesterol levels to the extent expected from its fatty acid composition. With maximum substitution of palm oil in a Western type diet some coronary heart disease risk factors were beneficially modulated: HDL2-cholesterol was significantly increased while the apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio was beneficially lowered by palm oil. Comparison of palm olein with a variety of monounsaturated edible oils including rapeseed, canola, and olive oils has shown that plasma and LDL-cholesterol were not elevated by palm olein. To focus these findings, specific fatty acid effects have been evaluated. Myristic acid may be the most potent cholesterol raising saturated fatty acid. Palmitic acid effects were largely comparable to the monounsaturated oleic acid in normolipidaemic subjects while trans fatty acids detrimentally increased plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein Lp(a) and lowered the beneficial HDL-cholesterol. Apart from these fatty acids there is evidence that the tocotrienols in palm oil products may have a hypocholesterolaemic effect. This is mediated by the ability of the tocotrienols to suppress HMG-CoA reductase. These new findings on palm oil merit a scientific reexamination of the classical saturated fat-lipid hypothesis and its role in lipoprotein regulation.

  16. Microbial degradation of palm (Elaeis guineensis) biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Giselle; Chavarría, Max; Arias, María Laura; Mata-Segreda, Julio F

    2006-03-01

    The kinetics of biodegradation of palm-derived fatty methyl and ethyl esters (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel) by a wild-type aerobic bacterial population was measured at 20 degrees C, as the rate of oxygen uptake by a manometric technique. The methyl and ethyl biodiesels were obtained by potassium-hydroxide catalysed trans-esterification of palm oil, respectively. The bacterial flora included the genera Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. The rate of oxygen uptake for palm biodiesel is similar to the quantity observed in the biodegradation of 1.0 mM solutions of simple substrates such as carbohydrates or amino acids. Palm methyl or ethyl biodiesel is subjected to facile aerobic biodegradation by wild-type bacteria commonly present in natural open environments. This result should lessen any environmental concern for its use as alternative fuel, solvent or lubricant.

  17. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  18. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  19. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  1. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata): Its fibres, polymers and composites.

    PubMed

    Ishak, M R; Sapuan, S M; Leman, Z; Rahman, M Z A; Anwar, U M K; Siregar, J P

    2013-01-16

    Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) is a multipurpose palm species from which a variety of foods and beverages, timber commodities, biofibres, biopolymers and biocomposites can be produced. Recently, it is being used as a source of renewable energy in the form of bio-ethanol via fermentation process of the sugar palm sap. Although numerous products can be produced from sugar palm, three products that are most prominent are palm sugar, fruits and fibres. This paper focuses mainly on the significance of fibres as they are highly durable, resistant to sea water and because they are available naturally in the form of woven fibre they are easy to process. Besides the recent advances in the research of sugar palm fibres and their composites, this paper also addresses the development of new biodegradable polymer derived from sugar palm starch, and presents reviews on fibre surface treatment, product development, and challenges and efforts on properties enhancement of sugar palm fibre composites.

  2. Basal cell nevus syndrome - close-up of palm (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skeletal abnormalities. Skin manifestations include pits in the palms and soles, and numerous basal cell carcinomas. This ... close-up of the pits found in the palm of an individual with basal cell nevus syndrome.

  3. Red Palm Mite Situation in the Caribbean and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica Hirst Tenuipalpidae), a pest of coconuts and ornamental palms in Asia and Africa, was reported in the Caribbean in 2004. By 2008, it had spread to at least twelve islands, two counties in Florida and to Venezuela. Red palm mite causes yellowing and leaf necrosis wi...

  4. The effect of red palm olein and refined palm olein on lipids and haemostatic factors in hyperfibrinogenaemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, Susanna C; Pieters, Marlien; Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C; Bosman, Magdalena J C; Vorster, Hester H

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological effects of red palm olein (RPO). The effects of red palm olein and palm olein (POL) compared to sunflower oil (SFO), on lipids, haemostatic factors and fibrin network characteristics in hyperfibrinogenaemic volunteers were investigated. Fifty-nine free-living, hyperfibrinogenaemic volunteers participated in this randomized, controlled, single blind parallel study. After a 4-week run-in, during which subjects received sunflower oil products, they were paired and randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups receiving products containing 25 g/day ( approximately 12% of total energy intake) of either red palm olein, palm olein or sunflower oil for another 4 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, blood samples and dietary intakes were measured before run-in, and before and after intervention. The differences in changes in total serum cholesterol response between palm olein and red palm olein (+0.59 vs. +0.18 mmol/l; p=0.053), and between palm olein and sunflower oil (+0.59 vs. -0.003 mmol/l; p < or =0.01) were significant. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) response in the palm olein-and sunflower oil-groups also differed significantly (+0.42 vs. -0.11 mmol/l; p < or =0.01). Tissue plasminogen activator antigen (tPA(ag)) decreased significantly in the red palm olein group compared to the palm olein-and sunflower oil-groups. No effects were found in other haemostatic variables. Palm olein and red palm olein had no independent effect on fibrin network characteristics. In conclusion, compared to palm olein, red palm olein had less detrimental effects on the lipid profile and decreased tissue plasminogen activator antigen. Studies in larger groups are advised for confirmation of results, elucidation of mechanisms and effects of nonglyceride constituents of red palm oil (PO).

  5. On palms, bugs, and Chagas disease in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Lima, Marli M; Sarquis, Otília; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Martín, María; Calzada, José; Saldaña, Azael; Monteiro, Fernando A; Palomeque, Francisco S; Santos, Walter S; Angulo, Victor M; Esteban, Lyda; Dias, Fernando B S; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Bar, María Esther; Gottdenker, Nicole L

    2015-11-01

    Palms are ubiquitous across Neotropical landscapes, from pristine forests or savannahs to large cities. Although palms provide useful ecosystem services, they also offer suitable habitat for triatomines and for Trypanosoma cruzi mammalian hosts. Wild triatomines often invade houses by flying from nearby palms, potentially leading to new cases of human Chagas disease. Understanding and predicting triatomine-palm associations and palm infestation probabilities is important for enhancing Chagas disease prevention in areas where palm-associated vectors transmit T. cruzi. We present a comprehensive overview of palm infestation by triatomines in the Americas, combining a thorough reanalysis of our published and unpublished records with an in-depth review of the literature. We use site-occupancy modeling (SOM) to examine infestation in 3590 palms sampled with non-destructive methods, and standard statistics to describe and compare infestation in 2940 palms sampled by felling-and-dissection. Thirty-eight palm species (18 genera) have been reported to be infested by ∼39 triatomine species (10 genera) from the USA to Argentina. Overall infestation varied from 49.1-55.3% (SOM) to 62.6-66.1% (dissection), with important heterogeneities among sub-regions and particularly among palm species. Large palms with complex crowns (e.g., Attalea butyracea, Acrocomia aculeata) and some medium-crowned palms (e.g., Copernicia, Butia) are often infested; in slender, small-crowned palms (e.g., Euterpe) triatomines associate with vertebrate nests. Palm infestation tends to be higher in rural settings, but urban palms can also be infested. Most Rhodnius species are probably true palm specialists, whereas Psammolestes, Eratyrus, Cavernicola, Panstrongylus, Triatoma, Alberprosenia, and some Bolboderini seem to use palms opportunistically. Palms provide extensive habitat for enzootic T. cruzi cycles and a critical link between wild cycles and transmission to humans. Unless effective means to

  6. Transformation of oil palm using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantlets are regenerated after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of embryogenic calli derived from young leaves of oil palm. The calli are transformed with an Agrobacterium strain, LBA4404, harboring the plasmid pUBA, which carries a selectable marker gene (bar) for resistance to the herbicide Basta and is driven by a maize ubiquitin promoter. Modifications of the transformation method, treatment of the target tissues using acetosyringone, exposure to a plasmolysis medium, and physical injury via biolistics are applied. The main reasons for such modifications are to activate the bacterial virulence system and, subsequently, to increase the transformation efficiency. Transgenic oil palm cells are selected and regenerated on a medium containing herbicide Basta. Molecular analyses revealed the presence and integration of the introduced bar gene into the genome of the transformants.

  7. Quality assessment of palm products upon prolonged heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai

    2008-01-01

    Extending the frying-life of oils is of commercial and economic importance. Due to this fact, assessment on the thermal stability of frying oils could provide considerable savings to the food processors. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of five palm products mainly palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein, double-fractionated palm olein, red palm olein and palm-based shortening during 80 hours of heating at 180 degrees C were investigated. Heating properties of these products were then compared with that of high oleic sunflower oil, which was used as reference oil. The indices applied in evaluating the quality changes of oils were free fatty acid, smoke point, p-anisidine value, tocols, polar and polymer compounds. Three palm products i.e. palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein and double-fractionated palm olein were identified to be the most stable in terms of lower formation of free fatty acid, polar and polymer compounds as well as preserving higher smoke point and tocols content compared to the other three oils. The low intensity of hydrolytic and oxidative changes due to prolonged heating, suggests that these palm products are inherently suitable for frying purposes.

  8. Draft genome sequence of an elite Dura palm and whole-genome patterns of DNA variation in oil palm

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingjing; Lee, May; Bai, Bin; Sun, Yanwei; Qu, Jing; Rahmadsyah; Alfiko, Yuzer; Lim, Chin Huat; Suwanto, Antonius; Sugiharti, Maria; Wong, Limsoon; Ye, Jian; Chua, Nam-Hai; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm is the world’s leading source of vegetable oil and fat. Dura, Pisifera and Tenera are three forms of oil palm. The genome sequence of Pisifera is available whereas the Dura form has not been sequenced yet. We sequenced the genome of one elite Dura palm, and re-sequenced 17 palm genomes. The assemble genome sequence of the elite Dura tree contained 10,971 scaffolds and was 1.701 Gb in length, covering 94.49% of the oil palm genome. 36,105 genes were predicted. Re-sequencing of 17 additional palm trees identified 18.1 million SNPs. We found high genetic variation among palms from different geographical regions, but lower variation among Southeast Asian Dura and Pisifera palms. We mapped 10,000 SNPs on the linkage map of oil palm. In addition, high linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected in the oil palms used in breeding populations of Southeast Asia, suggesting that LD mapping is likely to be practical in this important oil crop. Our data provide a valuable resource for accelerating genetic improvement and studying the mechanism underlying phenotypic variations of important oil palm traits. PMID:27426468

  9. Trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations: A review.

    PubMed

    Olafisoye, O B; Oguntibeju, O O; Osibote, O A

    2017-05-03

    Oil palm (Elaeisguineensis) is one of the most productive oil producing plant in the world. Crude palm oil is composed of triglycerides supplying the world's need of edible oils and fats. Palm oil also provides essential elements and antioxidants that are potential mediators of cellular functions. Experimental studies have demonstrated the toxicity of the accumulation of significant amounts of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil that affects the health of consumers. It has been reported that uptake of trace elements and radionuclides from the oil palm tree may be from water and soil on the palm plantations. In the present review, an attempt was made to revise and access knowledge on the presence of some selected trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations based on the available facts and data. Existing reports show that the presence of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil may be from natural or anthropogenic sources in the environment. However, the available literature is limited and further research need to be channeled to the investigation of trace elements and radionuclides in soil, water, leaves, and palm oil from oil palm plantations around the globe.

  10. Draft genome sequence of an elite Dura palm and whole-genome patterns of DNA variation in oil palm.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jingjing; Lee, May; Bai, Bin; Sun, Yanwei; Qu, Jing; Rahmadsyah; Alfiko, Yuzer; Lim, Chin Huat; Suwanto, Antonius; Sugiharti, Maria; Wong, Limsoon; Ye, Jian; Chua, Nam-Hai; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm is the world's leading source of vegetable oil and fat. Dura, Pisifera and Tenera are three forms of oil palm. The genome sequence of Pisifera is available whereas the Dura form has not been sequenced yet. We sequenced the genome of one elite Dura palm, and re-sequenced 17 palm genomes. The assemble genome sequence of the elite Dura tree contained 10,971 scaffolds and was 1.701 Gb in length, covering 94.49% of the oil palm genome. 36,105 genes were predicted. Re-sequencing of 17 additional palm trees identified 18.1 million SNPs. We found high genetic variation among palms from different geographical regions, but lower variation among Southeast Asian Dura and Pisifera palms. We mapped 10,000 SNPs on the linkage map of oil palm. In addition, high linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected in the oil palms used in breeding populations of Southeast Asia, suggesting that LD mapping is likely to be practical in this important oil crop. Our data provide a valuable resource for accelerating genetic improvement and studying the mechanism underlying phenotypic variations of important oil palm traits.

  11. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    PubMed

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit.

  12. Physico-chemical properties of various palm-based diacylglycerol oils in comparison with their corresponding palm-based oils.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Amir Hossein; Kee, Beh Boon; Oi-Ming, Lai; Miskandar, Mat Sahri

    2011-08-01

    Palm-based diacylglycerol (P-DAG) oils were produced through enzymatic glycerolysis of palm kernel oil (PKO), palm oil (PO), palm olein (POL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and palm stearin (PS). High purity DAG (83-90%, w/w) was obtained and compared to palm-based oils (P-oil) had significantly (P<0.05) different fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV) and slip melting point (SMP). Solid fat content (SFC) profiles of P-DAG oils as compared to P-oils had less steep curves with lower SFC at low temperature range (5-10°C) and the higher complete melting temperatures. Also, P-DAG oils in contrast with P-oils showed endothermic as well as exothermic peaks with higher transition temperatures and significantly (P<0.05) higher crystallisation onsets, heats of fusion, and heats of crystallisation. Crystal forms for P-DAG oils were mostly in the β form.

  13. Analyses of hypomethylated oil palm gene space.

    PubMed

    Low, Eng-Ti L; Rosli, Rozana; Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm.

  14. Analyses of Hypomethylated Oil Palm Gene Space

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J.; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm. PMID:24497974

  15. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    PubMed

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions.

  16. Estimating babassu palm density using automatic palm tree detection with very high spatial resolution satellite images.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alessio Moreira; Mitja, Danielle; Delaître, Eric; Demagistri, Laurent; de Souza Miranda, Izildinha; Libourel, Thérèse; Petit, Michel

    2017-05-15

    High spatial resolution images as well as image processing and object detection algorithms are recent technologies that aid the study of biodiversity and commercial plantations of forest species. This paper seeks to contribute knowledge regarding the use of these technologies by studying randomly dispersed native palm tree. Here, we analyze the automatic detection of large circular crown (LCC) palm tree using a high spatial resolution panchromatic GeoEye image (0.50 m) taken on the area of a community of small agricultural farms in the Brazilian Amazon. We also propose auxiliary methods to estimate the density of the LCC palm tree Attalea speciosa (babassu) based on the detection results. We used the "Compt-palm" algorithm based on the detection of palm tree shadows in open areas via mathematical morphology techniques and the spatial information was validated using field methods (i.e. structural census and georeferencing). The algorithm recognized individuals in life stages 5 and 6, and the extraction percentage, branching factor and quality percentage factors were used to evaluate its performance. A principal components analysis showed that the structure of the studied species differs from other species. Approximately 96% of the babassu individuals in stage 6 were detected. These individuals had significantly smaller stipes than the undetected ones. In turn, 60% of the stage 5 babassu individuals were detected, showing significantly a different total height and a different number of leaves from the undetected ones. Our calculations regarding resource availability indicate that 6870 ha contained 25,015 adult babassu palm tree, with an annual potential productivity of 27.4 t of almond oil. The detection of LCC palm tree and the implementation of auxiliary field methods to estimate babassu density is an important first step to monitor this industry resource that is extremely important to the Brazilian economy and thousands of families over a large scale.

  17. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B.; Arondel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript levels for all fatty acid synthesis enzymes, specific plastid transporters, and key enzymes of plastidial carbon metabolism, including phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transcripts representing an ortholog of the WRI1 transcription factor were 57-fold higher in oil palm relative to date palm and displayed a temporal pattern similar to its target genes. Unexpectedly, despite more than a 100-fold difference in flux to lipids, most enzymes of triacylglycerol assembly were expressed at similar levels in oil palm and date palm. Similarly, transcript levels for all but one cytosolic enzyme of glycolysis were comparable in both species. Together, these data point to synthesis of fatty acids and supply of pyruvate in the plastid, rather than acyl assembly into triacylglycerol, as a major control over the storage of oil in the mesocarp of oil palm. In addition to greatly increasing molecular resources devoted to oil palm and date palm, the combination of temporal and comparative studies illustrates how deep sequencing can provide insights into gene expression patterns of two species that lack genome sequence information. PMID:21709233

  18. Endemic insular and coastal Tunisian date palm genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Zehdi-Azouzi, Salwa; Cherif, Emira; Guenni, Karim; Abdelkrim, Ahmed Ben; Bermil, Aymen; Rhouma, Soumaya; Salah, Mohamed Ben; Santoni, Sylvain; Pintaud, Jean Christophe; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique; Hannachi, Amel Salhi

    2016-04-01

    The breeding of crop species relies on the valorisation of ancestral or wild varieties to enrich the cultivated germplasm. The Tunisian date palm genetic patrimony is being threatened by diversity loss and global climate change. We have conducted a genetic study to evaluate the potential of spontaneous coastal resources to improve the currently exploited Tunisian date palm genetic pool. Eighteen microsatellite loci of Phoenix dactylifera L. were used to compare the genetic diversity of coastal accessions from Kerkennah, Djerba, Gabès and continental date palm accessions from Tozeur. A collection of 105 date palms from the four regions was analysed. This study has provided us with an extensive understanding of the local genetic diversity and its distribution. The coastal date palm genotypes exhibit a high and specific genetic diversity. These genotypes are certainly an untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes to improve cultivated germplasm in continental date palm.

  19. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

    2017-01-01

    The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil. PMID:28361964

  20. Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM) of Adhesion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, Hari; White, Helen; Betzig, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Key to understanding a protein’s biological function is the accurate determination of its spatial distribution inside a cell. Although fluorescent protein markers allow the targeting of specific proteins with molecular precision, much of this information is lost when the resultant fusion proteins are imaged with conventional, diffraction-limited optics. In response, several imaging modalities that are capable of resolution below the diffraction limit (~200 nm) have emerged. Here, both single- and dual-color superresolution imaging of biological structures using photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) are described. The examples discussed focus on adhesion complexes: dense, protein-filled assemblies that form at the interface between cells and their substrata. A particular emphasis is placed on the instrumentation and photoactivatable fluorescent protein (PA-FP) tags necessary to achieve PALM images at ~20 nm resolution in 5 to 30 min in fixed cells. PMID:23456603

  1. Microwave induced pyrolysis of oil palm biomass.

    PubMed

    Salema, Arshad Adam; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this paper was to carry out microwave induced pyrolysis of oil palm biomass (shell and fibers) with the help of char as microwave absorber (MA). Rapid heating and yield of microwave pyrolysis products such as bio-oil, char, and gas was found to depend on the ratio of biomass to microwave absorber. Temperature profiles revealed the heating characteristics of the biomass materials which can rapidly heat-up to high temperature within seconds in presence of MA. Some characterization of pyrolysis products was also presented. The advantage of this technique includes substantial reduction in consumption of energy, time and cost in order to produce bio-oil from biomass materials. Large biomass particle size can be used directly in microwave heating, thus saving grinding as well as moisture removal cost. A synergistic effect was found in using MA with oil palm biomass.

  2. Poor Prospects for Avian Biodiversity in Amazonian Oil Palm

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Alexander C.; Vieira, Ima C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome’s biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity. PMID:25955243

  3. Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

    2013-03-01

    Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

  4. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    PubMed

    Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; de Almeida, Arlete Silva; Vieira, Ima C G

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  5. Pyrolysis and combustion of oil palm stone and palm kernel cake in fixed-bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Razuan, R; Chen, Q; Zhang, X; Sharifi, V; Swithenbank, J

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the main characteristics of the thermo-chemical conversion of oil palm stone (OPS) and palm kernel cake (PKC). A series of combustion and pyrolysis tests were carried out in two fixed-bed reactors. The effects of heating rate at the temperature of 700 degrees C on the yields and properties of the pyrolysis products were investigated. The results from the combustion experiments showed that the burning rates increased with an increase in the air flow rate. In addition, the FLIC code was used to simulate the combustion of the oil palm stone to investigate the effect of primary air flow on the combustion process. The FLIC modelling results were in good agreement with the experimental data in terms of predicting the temperature profiles along the bed height and the composition of the flue gases.

  6. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P.

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  7. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained.

  8. Biomass-based palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve as gas separation adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Sethupathi, Sumathi; Bashir, Mohammed Jk; Akbar, Zinatizadeh Ali; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been widely recognised as a potential low-cost source for the production of high added value materials and proved to be a good precursor for the production of activated carbons. One of such valuable biomasses used for the production of activated carbons is palm shell. Palm shell (endocarp) is an abundant by-product produced from the palm oil industries throughout tropical countries. Palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve has been widely applied in various environmental pollution control technologies, mainly owing to its high adsorption performance, well-developed porosity and low cost, leading to potential applications in gas-phase separation using adsorption processes. This mini-review represents a comprehensive overview of the palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve preparation method, physicochemical properties and feasibility of palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve in gas separation processes. Some of the limitations are outlined and suggestions for future improvements are pointed out.

  9. Minimizing the biodiversity impact of Neotropical oil palm development.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Prescott, Graham W; Cardenas, Johann S; Castañeda, Pamela González del Pliego; Sánchez, Andrés; Rojas-Murcia, Luis E; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm agriculture is rapidly expanding in the Neotropics, at the expense of a range of natural and seminatural habitats. A key question is how this expansion should be managed to reduce negative impacts on biodiversity. Focusing on the Llanos of Colombia, a mixed grassland-forest system identified as a priority zone for future oil palm development, we survey communities of ants, dung beetles, birds and herpetofauna occurring in oil palm plantations and the other principal form of agriculture in the region--improved cattle pasture--together with those of surrounding natural forests. We show that oil palm plantations have similar or higher species richness across all four taxonomic groups than improved pasture. For dung beetles, species richness in oil palm was equal to that of forest, whereas the other three taxa had highest species richness in forests. Hierarchical modelling of species occupancy probabilities indicated that oil palm plantations supported a higher proportion of species characteristic of forests than did cattle pastures. Across the bird community, occupancy probabilities within oil palm were positively influenced by increasing forest cover in a surrounding 250 m radius, whereas surrounding forest cover did not strongly influence the occurrence of other taxonomic groups in oil palm. Overall, our results suggest that the conversion of existing improved pastures to oil palm has limited negative impacts on biodiversity. As such, existing cattle pastures of the Colombian Llanos could offer a key opportunity to meet governmental targets for oil palm development without incurring significant biodiversity costs. Our results also highlight the value of preserving remnant forests within these agricultural landscapes, protecting high biodiversity and exporting avian 'spill-over' effects into oil palm plantations.

  10. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  11. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  12. Contact sensing palm for the Salisbury robot hand

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, D.L. )

    1990-07-18

    This report summarizes work performed on Tasks 5 and 6 under Sandia Contract Number 75-2608. Task 5 involves the design and development of a palm for the Salisbury robot hand and Task 6 is an investigation and incorporation of contact sensors into the palm design. 19 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SEED DEVELOPMENT IN A HAWAIIAN PALM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of palms (Arecaceae) is threatened and ex situ conservation efforts are hampered by a poor understanding of their seed biology and storage behavior. Pritchardia remota is fan palm endemic to Hawaii (subtribe Corypheae). Flowering of P. remota occurs mostly during the dry seas...

  14. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    PubMed

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  15. Palm: Easing the Burden of Analytical Performance Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, Nathan R.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2014-06-01

    Analytical (predictive) application performance models are critical for diagnosing performance-limiting resources, optimizing systems, and designing machines. Creating models, however, is difficult because they must be both accurate and concise. To ease the burden of performance modeling, we developed Palm, a modeling tool that combines top-down (human-provided) semantic insight with bottom-up static and dynamic analysis. To express insight, Palm defines a source code modeling annotation language. By coordinating models and source code, Palm's models are `first-class' and reproducible. Unlike prior work, Palm formally links models, functions, and measurements. As a result, Palm (a) uses functions to either abstract or express complexity (b) generates hierarchical models (representing an application's static and dynamic structure); and (c) automatically incorporates measurements to focus attention, represent constant behavior, and validate models. We discuss generating models for three different applications.

  16. Population density of oil palm pollinator weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus based on seasonal effect and age of oil palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Syarifah Nadiah Syed Mat; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2016-11-01

    The pollinating weevil, Elaedobius kamerunicus (EK) has been known to be the most efficient insect pollinator of oil palm, and has successfully improved the oil palm pollination and increased the yield. Its introduction has greatly reduced the need for assisted pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify the population density of oil palm pollinator weevil EK using the concept of pollinator force and to relate the population density with the seasonal effect and the age of oil palm at Lekir Oil Palm Plantation Batu 14, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. The pollinator force of the weevil was sustained at a range between 3095.2 to 19126.1 weevils per ha. The overall mean of weevil per spikelet shows that the range of weevil was between 13.51 and 54.06 per spikelet. There was no correlation between rainfall and population density of EK. However, positive correlation was obtained between weevil density and the number of anthesising female inflorescence of oil palm (r= 0.938, p< 0.05). Results of t-test show that the 6-year old oil palm stands had significantly different population density than that of a 8-year old oil palm stand. The information of this study should be useful as a baseline data to investigate why there is such a wide range of weevils per ha or spikelet. Further study should also be done to relate the number pollinator force per spikelete and the Fresh fruit Bunch (FFB), fruit set or fruit to bunch ratio.

  17. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, P.

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  18. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship,...

  19. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final Rule... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1,...

  20. Growth strain in coconut palm trees.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan S; Chen, Shin S; Lin, Tsan P; Chen, Yuh S

    2002-03-01

    Until recently, growth stress studies have been made only on coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. Growth stress of trees is thought to be initiated in newly formed secondary xylem cells. This stress can accumulate for years and is distributed inside the trunk. Major characteristics of the trunk of monocotyledonous trees include numerous vascular bundles scattered inside the ground tissue and the lack of secondary growth for enlarging the diameter of the trunk. We used the strain gauge method to measure the released growth strain of the monocotyledonous woody palm, coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), and to investigate the surface growth strain of the trunk and central cylinder at different trunk heights. The internal strains of both vertical and leaning trunks were measured and compared with those of coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. We found that tensile stress existed longitudinally on the surface of vertically growing trunks, whereas compression stress was found at the bending position of leaning trunks. Compression stress was found in the outer part of the central cylinder, whereas tensile stress is generally found in the outer part of the trunk in coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. The distribution of strain in the palm trunk is similar to that of compression wood of the leaning trunk of a conifer. Specific gravity was greater in the outer part of the trunk than in the inner part of the trunk. This difference may be related to the distribution of growth stress.

  1. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products.

  2. Molecular defense response of oil palm to Ganoderma infection.

    PubMed

    Ho, C-L; Tan, Y-C

    2015-06-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed.

  3. PALM : A dynamic parallel coupler for Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buis, S.; Declat, D.; Gondet, E.; Massart, S.; Morel, T.; Thual, O.

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the PALM software is to make a complex application (for example a data assimilation suite) being easily evolutive and parallelisable by de-coupling the application in modular independent parts (units) and re-couple it in the PALM framework. The owner develops his own method coupling different units within the PALM framework. PALM is in charge of managing the sequence(s) of units the user has defined in the PALM graphical interface, and the data exchanges between the units. The use of Fortran, C and the MPI (Messsage Passing Interface) library in the implementation allows a huge portability on machins such as Fujitsu VPP, NEC Sx, IBM SP, COMPAQ, SGI, and the clusters of stations or PCs. PALM is particularly adapted for users that begin to develop a data assimilation application, because it really simplifies the modifications to implement to go from a given data assimilation method to a more complex one. The PALM software is today used in an operational way in the French Operational oceanography project MERCATOR, and will soonly be used in different other data assimilation applications (european project ASSET : assimilation of ENVISAT data in a Meteo-France chemical atmospheric model, OPAVAR : an assimilation project in the french ocean model OPA, ...).

  4. Recycled palm oil spoilage: Correlation between physicochemical properties and oleophilicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Ili Afiqa Ab; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Jurid, Lailatul Syema

    2016-11-01

    Palm oil is widely used for domestic and commercial frying due to its techno-economic advantages as compared to other vegetable oils. However, if the oil is used beyond its recommended usage cycle, it might lead to oil spoilage. Therefore this study focuses on the comprehensive analysis of chemical and physical properties of recycled palm oil. Recycled palm oil was prepared by frying potato strips up to 4 batches; 5 cycles for each batch) was carried out with potato (g)-to-oil (ml) ratio of 3/20 prior to physico-chemical analysis (moisture content, color measurement, viscosity, density and iodine value. From 5 tests used to indicate physico-chemical properties of recycled palm oil, only color measurement, viscosity and IV shows results accordingly to theories. Whereas moisture content and density were not comply to theories. With increasing frying times, recycled palm oil color has been darker due to chemical reaction that occurs during frying. The trend line illustrates that with increasing frying times, recycled palm oil lightness decreases. It also means that its color has been darker. Meanwhile, b* rate increase indicating that recycled palm oil show tendency towards green color. Whereas, a* rate decreased, showing low tendency towards red color. Viscosity and moisture content increase with frying cycle. This situation occurred might be due to formation of hydrolysis products which are volatile while frying process. But the remaining non-volatile compounds among the hydrolysis products might also accumulate in palm oil and thus affect the total oil/fat chemical changes. Meanwhile the density of palm oil was quite constant at 0.15 g/cm3 except for cycle 2 with 0.17 g/cm3. The result obtained from this experiment were comply with previous study that stated frying batch number is a significant variable (a = 0.05) affecting the density of oil only after 20 frying batch. The contact angle of recycled palm oil on PHBV thin film was more than 90 °. Hence it shows

  5. VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING ROYAL PALMS ALONG THE STREET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING ROYAL PALMS ALONG THE STREET. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Palm trees and Chagas' disease in Panama.

    PubMed

    Whitlaw, J T; Chaniotis, B N

    1978-09-01

    An ecological survey of triatomines in the sylvan ecosystem of the Canal Zone and selected sites in Panama disclosed for the first time a close association of Rhodnius pullescens and Triatoma dimidiata, the two most important vector species of Chagas' disease in Panama, with a single species of a widely distributed palm tree, Scheelea zonensis. This association may explain why Chagas' disease is prevalent in certain rural communities in Central Panama and rare in others. An immense focus of zoonotic Trypanosoma cruzi infection exists in the forests of the Canal Zone with presence of large populations of triatomines, associated with scheelea zonensis and other yet undescribed microhabitats, and high (50--60%) trypanosome infections in all of the major triatomine species. Common opossums, anteaters, and spiny rats seem to be the principal animal reservoirs of T. cruzi in this complex and relatively undisturbed ecosystem.

  7. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution.

    PubMed

    Salm, Rodolfo

    2005-11-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti). The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests.

  8. Electrocoagulation of palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Agustin, Melissa B; Sengpracha, Waya P; Phutdhawong, Weerachai

    2008-09-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME.

  9. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and

  10. Development of an aerial counting system in oil palm plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulyma Miserque Castillo, Jhany; Laverde Diaz, Rubbermaid; Rueda Guzmán, Claudia Leonor

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes the development of a counting aerial system capable of capturing, process and analyzing images of an oil palm plantation to register the number of cultivated palms. It begins with a study of the available UAV technologies to define the most appropriate model according to the project needs. As result, a DJI Phantom 2 Vision+ is used to capture pictures that are processed by a photogrammetry software to create orthomosaics from the areas of interest, which are handled by the developed software to calculate the number of palms contained in them. The implemented algorithm uses a sliding window technique in image pyramids to generate candidate windows, an LBP descriptor to model the texture of the picture, a logistic regression model to classify the windows and a non-maximum suppression algorithm to refine the decision. The system was tested in different images than the ones used for training and for establishing the set point. As result, the system showed a 95.34% detection rate with a 97.83% precision in mature palms and a 79.26% detection rate with a 97.53% precision in young palms giving an FI score of 0.97 for mature palms and 0.87 for the small ones. The results are satisfactory getting the census and high-quality images from which is possible to get more information from the area of interest. All this, achieved through a low-cost system capable of work even in cloudy conditions.

  11. Oil palm for biodiesel in Brazil—risks and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englund, Oskar; Berndes, Göran; Persson, U. Martin; Sparovek, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    Although mainly used for other purposes, and historically mainly established at the expense of tropical forests, oil palm can be the most land efficient feedstock for biodiesel. Large parts of Brazil are suitable for oil palm cultivation and a series of policy initiatives have recently been launched to promote oil palm production. These initiatives are however highly debated both in the parliament and in academia. Here we present results of a high resolution modelling study of opportunities and risks associated with oil palm production for biodiesel in Brazil, under different energy, policy, and infrastructure scenarios. Oil palm was found to be profitable on extensive areas, including areas under native vegetation where establishment would cause large land use change (LUC) emissions. However, some 40-60 Mha could support profitable biodiesel production corresponding to approximately 10% of the global diesel demand, without causing direct LUC emissions or impinging on protected areas. Pricing of LUC emissions could make oil palm production unprofitable on most lands where conversion would impact on native ecosystems and carbon stocks, if the carbon price is at the level 125/tC, or higher.

  12. Is the secondary thickening in palms always diffuse?

    PubMed

    Botânico, Marli P; Angyalossy, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other arboreal monocotyledons, the secondary growth of palms has for the past 100 years been described as diffuse. Solely cell enlargement and random parenchyma divisions, without the activity of a meristem, characterize such growth. Some previous works of the early 20th century have, however, mentioned the presence of a secondary meristem in the stems of palms, but this information was forgotten since then. Addressing to this question, we analysed palm stems of four species, with the aim to understand the possible presence of such secondary growth. We found that a meristematic band occurs between the cortex and the central cylinder and gives rise to new vascular bundles and parenchyma internally, producing parenchyma and fibres externally. It appears secondarily, i.e., it undergoes meristematic activity in the median and basal stem regions, far away from the apical region. In fact, a meristematic band is present and may be more common than currently believed, but uneasy to detect in certain palms for being restricted to specific regions of their stems. In conclusion, the diffuse secondary thickening is here shown not to be the only mechanism of secondary growth in palms. The presence of a meristem band in the stems of palms merits careful reconsideration.

  13. The palm wine trade: occupational and health hazards.

    PubMed

    Mbuagbaw, L; Noorduyn, S G

    2012-10-01

    The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a variety of components are added to the palm tree sap, introducing the possibility of deadly contaminants. This paper highlights the public health implications of uncontrolled palm wine production and the relative neglect of the wine tapper. We draw from the limited published literature and use Cameroon as a case study. The palm wine trade can be more productive and safe if tappers work in cooperatives to improve their market power. Public health authorities need to monitor the quality of this cheap and common source of alcohol and enact regulations to protect wine tappers from the current level of occupational hazards. There are varying levels of progress to control quality and ensure safety in different parts of the world. Legislation and collaboration with traditional structures may offer a framework for change.

  14. Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-11-01

    In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid as well as gaseous biofuels. There are number of challenges to find suitable catalytic technology to be used in a typical biorefinery. These challenges include (1) economic barriers, (2) catalysts that facilitate highly selective conversion of substrate to desired products and (3) the issues related to design, operation and control of catalytic reactor. Therefore, the catalytic technology is one of the critical factors that control the successful operation of biorefinery. There are number of catalytic processes in a biorefinery which convert the renewable feedstocks into the desired biofuels. These include biodiesel production from palm oil, catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels, the production of hydrogen as well as syngas from biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of syngas into liquid fuels and upgrading of liquid/gas fuels obtained from liquefaction/pyrolysis of biomass. The selection of catalysts for these processes is essential in determining the product distribution (olefins, paraffins and oxygenated products). The integration of catalytic technology with compatible separation processes is a key challenge for biorefinery operation from the economic point of view. This paper focuses on different types of catalysts and their role in the catalytic processes for the production of biofuels in a typical palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

  15. Improvement in sensitivity of an inductive oil palm fruit sensor.

    PubMed

    Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-02-03

    Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced.

  16. Frying performance of palm-based solid frying shortening.

    PubMed

    Omar, M N; Nor-Nazuha, M N; Nor-Dalilah, M N; Sahri, M M

    2010-03-15

    In order to evaluate the frying performance of palm-based solid frying shortening against standard olein, the fresh potato chips were fried in both frying media using an open fryer. After frying the chips for 40 h in an open batch fryer, it was found that the frying quality of palm-based solid frying shortening was better than standard palm olein in terms of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) values, Total Polar Content (TPC) and Total Polymeric Material (TPM). Solid shortening gave FFA, TPC and TPM values of 0.7, 15.3 and 2.67%, respectively, whilst standard palm olein gave values for FFA, TPC and TPM of 1.2, 19.6 and 3.10%, respectively. In terms of sensory mean scores, sensory panelists preferred the color of potato chips fried in solid shortening on the first day of frying, while on the third and fifth day of frying there were no significant differences (p < 0.05) in the sensory scores of fried products in both frying mediums. However, on the fifth day of frying, panelists gave higher scores in terms of taste, flavor and crispness for potato chips fried in solid shortening. These findings show that the palm-based solid shortening is better than palm olein when used for deep fat frying in terms of FFA values, total polar content and total polymeric material, especially for starch-based products such as potato chips. The result also shows that, in terms of sensory mean scores, after frying for 40 h, the sensory panelists gave higher scores in terms of taste, flavor and crispiness for potato chips fried in palm-based solid shortening.

  17. Improvement in Sensitivity of an Inductive Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-01-01

    Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced. PMID:24496313

  18. Fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell (OPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is an important renewable source of energy. Residues that are obtained from harvesting and agricultural products can be utilised as fuel for energy generation by conducting any thermal energy conversion technology. The conversion of biomass to bio oil is one of the prospective alternative energy resources. Therefore, in this study fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell was conducted. The main objective of this study was to find the optimum condition for high yield bio-oil production. The experiment was conducted using fixed-bed fluidizing pyrolysis system. The biomass sample was pyrolysed at variation temperature of 450°C - 650°C and at variation residence time of 0.9s - 1.35s. The results obtained were further discussed in this paper. The basic characteristic of the biomass sample was also presented here. The experiment shows that the optimum bio-oil yield was obtained at temperature of 500°C at residence time 1.15s.

  19. Ensilage of cardboard and date palm leaves.

    PubMed

    Baroon, Z; El-Nawawy, A S; Al-Othman, A

    2004-01-01

    Eight treatments of cardboard (CB) and date palm leaves (DPL) with or without alkali treatments plus molasses, dates, and ammonium sulfate were ensiled in laboratory silos. Latobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculants were added at an application rate of 10(5) cfu/g of silage to study their possible influence on the fermentation process. Silos were sealed and incubated at 30 degrees C. The anaerobic ensiling was evaluated for chemical and microbiological variables by opening the silos after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, significantly low pH values (5.2-3.5) were obtained. The percentages of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash were determined. Concentrations of reducing sugars, ether extract, and crude protein tended to be acceptable among treatments. Silages showed a significantly high lactic acid concentration (up to 4.3%) and only traces of butyric acid (below 1%). Also changes in acetic and propionic acids concentrations were determined. Lactobacillus populations remained almost static while yeast and molds populations tended to be lower after 90 days of ensilage. Neither alkali treatment nor microbial inoculants showed a relationship with the ensiling process. Thus, overall, it was concluded that CB and DPL can be effectively ensiled and the resultant silages are acceptable to merit their use as ruminant feed in arid regions.

  20. Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H) and doubled haploid (DH) palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest. PMID:20929530

  1. Personal Authentication Using Multifeatures Multispectral Palm Print Traits.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Gayathri; Manoharan, Senthil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics authentication is an effective method for automatically recognizing a person's identity with high confidence. Multispectral palm print biometric system is relatively new biometric technology and is in the progression of being endlessly refined and developed. Multispectral palm print biometric system is a promising biometric technology for use in various applications including banking solutions, access control, hospital, construction, and forensic applications. This paper proposes a multispectral palm print recognition method with extraction of multiple features using kernel principal component analysis and modified finite radon transform. Finally, the images are classified using Local Mean K-Nearest Centroid Neighbor algorithm. The proposed method efficiently accommodates the rotational, potential deformations and translational changes by encoding the orientation conserving features. The proposed system analyses the hand vascular authentication using two databases acquired with touch-based and contactless imaging setup collected from multispectral Poly U palm print database and CASIA database. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the proposed multispectral palm print authentication obtained better result compared to other methods discussed in the literature.

  2. Palm vein verification using multiple features and locality preserving projections.

    PubMed

    Al-Juboori, Ali Mohsin; Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person's skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP), and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP) have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%.

  3. Powered exoskeleton with palm degrees of freedom for hand rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Richards, Daniel S; Georgilas, Ioannis; Dagnino, Giulio; Dogramadzi, Sanja

    2015-08-01

    Robotic rehabilitation is a currently underutilised field with the potential to allow huge cost savings within healthcare. Existing rehabilitation exoskeletons oversimplify the importance of movement of the hand while undertaking everyday tasks. Within this study, an investigation was undertaken to establish the extent to which the degrees of freedom within the palm affect ability to undertake everyday tasks. Using a 5DT data glove, bend sensing resistors and restrictors of palm movement, 20 participants were recruited to complete tasks that required various hand shapes. Collected data was processed and palm arching trends were identified for each grasping task. It was found that the extent of utilizing arches in the palm varied with each exercise, but was extensively employed throughout. An exoskeleton was subsequently designed with consideration of the identified palm shapes. This design included a number of key features that accommodated for a variety of hand sizes, a novel thumb joint and a series of dorsally mounted servos. Initial exoskeleton testing was undertaken by having a participant complete the same exercises while wearing the exoskeleton. The angles formed by the user during this process were then compared to those recorded by 2 other participants who had completed the same tasks without exoskeleton. It was found that the exoskeleton was capable of forming the required arches for completing the tasks, with differences between participants attributed to individual ergonomic differences.

  4. Purification and characterization of windmill palm tree (Trachycarpus fortunei) peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Caramyshev, Alexei V; Firsova, Yuliya N; Slastya, Evgen A; Tagaev, Andrei A; Potapenko, Nataly V; Lobakova, Elena S; Pletjushkina, Olga Yu; Sakharov, Ivan Yu

    2006-12-27

    High peroxidase activity was demonstrated to be present in the leaf of several species of cold-resistant palms. Histochemical studies of the leaf of windmill palm tree (Trachycarpus fortunei) showed the peroxidase activity to be localized in hypoderma, epidermis, cell walls, and conducting bundles. However, chlorophyll-containing mesophyll cells had no peroxidase at all. The leaf windmill palm tree peroxidase (WPTP) was purified to homogeneity and had a specific activity of 6230 units/mg, RZ = 3.0, a molecular mass of 50 kDa, and an isoelectric point of pI 3.5. The electronic spectrum of WPTP with a Soret band at 403 nm was typical of plant peroxidases. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of WPTP was determined. The substrate specificity of WPTP was distinct from that of other palm peroxidases, and the best substrate for WPTP was 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). The palm peroxidase showed an unusually high stability at elevated temperatures and high concentrations of guanidine.

  5. Nuclear phylogenomics of the palm subfamily Arecoideae (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Comer, Jason R; Zomlefer, Wendy B; Barrett, Craig F; Stevenson, Dennis Wm; Heyduk, Karolina; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2016-04-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) include economically important species such as coconut, date palm, and oil palm. Resolution of the palm phylogeny has been problematic due to rapid diversification and slow rates of molecular evolution. The focus of this study is on relationships of the 14 tribes of subfamily Arecoideae and their inferred ancestral areas. A targeted sequencing approach was used to generate a data set of 168 single/low copy nuclear genes for 34 species representing the Arecoideae tribes and the other palm subfamilies. Species trees from the concatenated and coalescent based analyses recovered largely congruent topologies. Three major tribal clades were recovered: the POS clade (Podococceae, Oranieae, Sclerospermeae), the RRC clade (Roystoneeae, Reinhardtieae, Cocoseae), and the core arecoid clade (Areceae, Euterpeae, Geonomateae, Leopoldinieae, Manicarieae, Pelagodoxeae). Leopoldinieae was sister to the rest of the core arecoids (Geonomateae, Manicarieae+Pelagodoxeae, and Areceae+Euterpeae). The nuclear phylogeny supported a North American origin for subfamily Arecoideae, with most tribal progenitors diversifying within the Americas. The POS clade may have dispersed from the Americas into Africa, with tribe Oranieae subsequently spreading into the Indo-Pacific. Two independent dispersals into the Indo-Pacific were inferred for two tribes within the core arecoids (tribes Areceae and Pelagodoxeae).

  6. Regioisomerism of triacylglycerols in lard, tallow, yolk, chicken skin, palm oil, palm olein, palm stearin, and a transesterified blend of palm stearin and coconut oil analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kallio, H; Yli-Jokipii, K; Kurvinen, J P; Sjövall, O; Tahvonen, R

    2001-07-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAG) of lard, tallow, egg yolk, chicken skin, palm oil, palm olein, palm stearin, and a transesterified blend of palm stearin and coconut oil (82:18) were investigated by chemical ionization and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. Accurate molecular level information of the regioisomeric structures of individual TAGs was achieved. When existing in a TAG molecule of lard, palmitic acid occupied 90-100% of the sn-2 position. Within the major fatty acid combinations in tallow TAGs, the secondary position sn-2 was preferentially occupied in the decreasing order by oleoyl > palmitoyl > stearoyl residues, the order in saturated TAGs being myristoyl > stearoyl = palmitoyl. TAGs in egg yolk were more asymmetric than in chicken skin, with linoleic acid highly specifically attached in the yolk sn-2 carbon. Nearly 50% of yolk TAGs contained 52 carbon atoms with two or three double bonds. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids were in the sn-2 location in decreasing quantities in palm oil and its fractions. Triacylglycerols of equal molecular weight behaved similarly in the fractionation process. Randomization of the parent oil TAGs was seen in the transesterified oil. The tandem mass spectrometric analysis applied provided detailed information of the distribution of fatty acids in individual combinations in TAGs.

  7. Resident procedure and resuscitation tracking using a palm computer

    PubMed

    Rosenthal; Wolford

    2000-10-01

    Resident procedure and resuscitation tracking is an onerous task required for residency accreditation and for future hospital privilege applications by the resident. To date, most tracking systems have been somewhat cumbersome and prone to data loss (forms not being filled out, recorded, etc.). Our residency program uses a palm computer database tracking system utilizing Palm III (3Com) hardware and a custom written data collection form utilizing an inexpensive, commercially available software package (Pendragon Forms (version 2), Pendragon Software Corporation, Libertyville, IL). Every resident receives a Palm III on entry into the residency. Residents enter basic demographic data and record procedures and resuscitations into the Palm III after each encounter. Generally, each patient logged requires approximately one minute for data entry. On a frequent basis, the resident's Palm is 'HotSync-ed' and the recorded data transferred to the program's central computer. Resident data are easily manipulated and reports are generated using a common, relational database program (Access97, Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA). We have found this system to be relatively inexpensive, to improve data capture, to reduce demands on secretarial time, and to allow improved tracking of resident procedure and resuscitation experiences.

  8. Personal Authentication Using Multifeatures Multispectral Palm Print Traits

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Gayathri; Manoharan, Senthil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics authentication is an effective method for automatically recognizing a person's identity with high confidence. Multispectral palm print biometric system is relatively new biometric technology and is in the progression of being endlessly refined and developed. Multispectral palm print biometric system is a promising biometric technology for use in various applications including banking solutions, access control, hospital, construction, and forensic applications. This paper proposes a multispectral palm print recognition method with extraction of multiple features using kernel principal component analysis and modified finite radon transform. Finally, the images are classified using Local Mean K-Nearest Centroid Neighbor algorithm. The proposed method efficiently accommodates the rotational, potential deformations and translational changes by encoding the orientation conserving features. The proposed system analyses the hand vascular authentication using two databases acquired with touch-based and contactless imaging setup collected from multispectral Poly U palm print database and CASIA database. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the proposed multispectral palm print authentication obtained better result compared to other methods discussed in the literature. PMID:26221628

  9. Palms (Arecaceae) from a Paleocene rainforest of northern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Navarro, Carolina; Jaramillo, Carlos; Herrera, Fabiany; Wing, Scott L; Callejas, Ricardo

    2009-07-01

    Palms are a monophyletic group with a dominantly tropical distribution; however, their fossil record in low latitudes is strikingly scarce. In this paper, we describe fossil leaves, inflorescences, and fruits of palms from the middle to late Paleocene Cerrejón Formation, outcropping in the Ranchería River Valley, northern Colombia. The fossils demonstrate the presence of at least five palm morphospecies in the basin ca. 60 Ma. We compare the morphology of the fossils with extant palms and conclude that they belong to at least three palm lineages: the pantropical Cocoseae of the subfamily Arecoideae, the monotypic genus Nypa, and either Calamoideae or Coryphoideae. The fossil fruits and inflorescences are among the oldest megafossil records of these groups and demonstrate that the divergence of the Cocoseae was more than 60 Ma, earlier than has previously been thought. These fossils are useful in tracing the range expansion or contraction of historical or current neotropical elements and also have profound implications for the understanding of the evolution of neotropical rainforests.

  10. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm φ, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

  11. Effect of high pressure microfluidization on the crystallization behavior of palm stearin - palm olein blends.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijuan; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi; Wang, Xuede

    2014-04-24

    Moderate and high microfluidization pressures (60 and 120 MPa) and different treatment times (once and twice) were used to investigate the effect of high-pressure microfluidization (HPM) treatment on the crystallization behavior and physical properties of binary mixtures of palm stearin (PS) and palm olein (PO). The polarized light microscopy (PLM), texture analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were applied to analyze the changes in crystal network structure, hardness, polymorphism and thermal property of the control and treated blends. PLM results showed that HPM caused significant reductions in maximum crystal diameter in all treated blends, and thus led to changes in the crystal network structure, and finally caused higher hardness in than the control blends. The XRD study demonstrated that HPM altered crystalline polymorphism. The HPM-treated blends showed a predominance of the more stable β' form, which is of more interest for food applications, while the control blend had more α- and β-form. This result was further confirmed by DSC observations. These changes in crystallization behavior indicated that HPM treatment was more likely to modify the crystallization processes and nucleation mechanisms.

  12. 77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship... Indiantown Road and Donald Ross Road, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World Championship, a high speed power boat race. The Palm Beach World Championship is scheduled to take place...

  13. 78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to provide..., February 20, 2013, dredging operations will be conducted on Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm Beach, Florida... the southwestern corner of Singer Island and then due south across the inlet to Palm Beach...

  14. 76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... south by a 10-mile radius of the Palm Beach International Airport, and on the west by the Florida... Florida Turnpike (highway 91) and Lantana Road to the intersection of a 5-mile radius of the Palm Beach... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach...

  15. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been developed at Palm Beach County Park Airport. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary for the continued...

  16. 78 FR 6258 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL...: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace in the West ] Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been developed at Palm Beach County Park Airport....

  17. "I've Got a Palm in My Pocket": Using Handheld Computers in an Inclusive Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Anne M.; Ulrich, Mary E.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes what happened when Palm Pilots were given to 28 sixth-graders, 6 with special needs. Students preferred using the Palm Pilot to a traditional notebook for recording assignments and used the Palm Pilots to access spelling lists and to check math and spelling. (Contains references.) (CR)

  18. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  19. A manufacturer's perspective on selected palm-based products.

    PubMed

    Carr, Neil O; Hogg, W Fraser

    2005-01-01

    An overview from the perspective of one manufacturer is provided on products that utilise either palm oil or palm kernel oil. The manufacturer is Macphie of Glenbervie while the products are of a wide-ranging nature for use in bakery, food service and food-manufacturing. Much of the discussion concerns cream alternatives on the grounds that this product-category places great demand on the type of fat needed and, to Macphie of Glenbervie, is responsible for most of the oil from oil palm used. However, other products are also touched on. The overview considers key product attributes the function that fat has within these products, together with research requirements and future opportunity.

  20. Image Segmentation of Historical Handwriting from Palm Leaf Manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surinta, Olarik; Chamchong, Rapeeporn

    Palm leaf manuscripts were one of the earliest forms of written media and were used in Southeast Asia to store early written knowledge about subjects such as medicine, Buddhist doctrine and astrology. Therefore, historical handwritten palm leaf manuscripts are important for people who like to learn about historical documents, because we can learn more experience from them. This paper presents an image segmentation of historical handwriting from palm leaf manuscripts. The process is composed of three steps: 1) background elimination to separate text and background by Otsu's algorithm 2) line segmentation and 3) character segmentation by histogram of image. The end result is the character's image. The results from this research may be applied to optical character recognition (OCR) in the future.

  1. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of

  2. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050.

    PubMed

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-07-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenarios for palm oil production in Indonesia until 2050, focusing on Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. Our scenarios describe possible trends in crude palm oil production in Indonesia, while considering the demand for cooking oil and biodiesel, the available land for plantations, production capacity (for crude palm oil and fresh fruit bunches) and environmentally restricting conditions. We first assessed past developments in palm oil production. Next, we analysed scenarios for the future. In the past 20years, 95% of the Indonesian oil palm production area was in Sumatra and Kalimantan and was increasingly cultivated in peatlands. Our scenarios for the future indicate that Indonesia can meet a considerable part of the global and Asian demand for palm oil, while avoiding further cultivation of peatlands and forest. By 2050, 264-447Mt crude palm oil may be needed for cooking oil and biodiesel worldwide. In Indonesia, the area that is potentially suitable for oil palm is 17 to 26Mha with a potential production rate of 27-38t fresh fruit bunches/ha, yielding 130-176Mt crude palm oil. Thus Indonesia can meet 39-60% of the international demand. In our scenarios this would be produced in Sumatra (21-26%), Kalimantan (12-16%), and Papua (2%). The potential areas include the current oil palm plantation in mineral lands, but exclude the current oil palm plantations in peatlands.

  3. 77 FR 12107 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., RailTex, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Surface Transportation Board RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp... request for comments. SUMMARY: RailAmerica, Inc. (RailAmerica), Palm Beach Holding, Inc. (Palm Beach..., which directly controls the noncarrier Palm Beach, which directly controls the noncarrier RTC....

  4. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA... of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel under the Renewable...

  5. Kinetic Study on Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Frond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, V. S. Y.; Chin, B. L. F.; Lim, A. C. R.

    2016-03-01

    The pyrolysis of oil palm frond is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. The present study investigates the thermal degradation behaviour and determination of the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (EA ) and pre-exponential factor (A) values of oil palm frond under pyrolysis condition. The kinetic data is produced based on first order rate of reaction. In this study, the experiments are conducted at different heating rates of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 K/min in the temperature range of 323-1173 K under non-isothermal condition. Argon gas is used as an inert gas to remove any entrapment of gases in the TGA equipment.

  6. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachtiar, D.; Sapuan, S. M.; Zainudin, E. S.; Khalina, A.; Dahlan, K. Z. M.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  7. Identification of palm print using dermatoglyphics analysis and detection system.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yiaohua; Li, Zhen; Wang, Qing; Zeng, Yanjun; Liang, Ke

    2005-04-01

    This paper investigated the biological characteristics of palm print. The preprocessing plays an important role in identifying the ridge characteristics of palm due to the complexity and poor quality of the images. As a functional plug-in of the dermatoglyphics analysis and detection system, the template-based image preprocessing was proposed in this study, including histogram redistribution, ridge orientation, and skeletonization. Using this system, the automatic identification of ridges and triradiuses was accomplished with an effective result. The study demonstrated the feasibility of the method and the potential of the system for being applied as an auxiliary diagnostic tool for heredity diseases (e.g. mammary cancer and neurofibromatosis).

  8. Process integration possibilities for biodiesel production from palm oil using ethanol obtained from lignocellulosic residues of oil palm industry.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Luis F; Sánchez, Oscar J; Cardona, Carlos A

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, integration possibilities for production of biodiesel and bioethanol using a single source of biomass as a feedstock (oil palm) were explored through process simulation. The oil extracted from Fresh Fruit Bunches was considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production. An extractive reaction process is proposed for transesterification reaction using in situ produced ethanol, which is obtained from two types of lignocellulosic residues of palm industry (Empty Fruit Bunches and Palm Press Fiber). Several ways of integration were analyzed. The integration of material flows between ethanol and biodiesel production lines allowed a reduction in unit energy costs down to 3.4%, whereas the material and energy integration leaded to 39.8% decrease of those costs. The proposed integrated configuration is an important option when the technology for ethanol production from biomass reaches such a degree of maturity that its production costs be comparable with those of grain or cane ethanol.

  9. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

  10. Development of young oil palm tree recognition using Haar- based rectangular windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daliman, S.; Abu-Bakar, S. A. R.; Nor Azam, S. H. Md

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents development of Haar-based rectangular windows for recognition of young oil palm tree based on WorldView-2 imagery data. Haar-based rectangular windows or also known as Haar-like rectangular features have been popular in face recognition as used in Viola-Jones object detection framework. Similar to face recognition, the oil palm tree recognition would also need a suitable Haar-based rectangular windows that best suit to the characteristics of oil palm tree. A set of seven Haar-based rectangular windows have been designed to better match specifically the young oil palm tree as the crown size is much smaller compared to the matured ones. Determination of features for oil palm tree is an essential task to ensure a high successful rate of correct oil palm tree detection. Furthermore, features that reflects the identification of oil palm tree indicate distinctiveness between an oil palm tree and other objects in the image such as buildings, roads and drainage. These features will be trained using support vector machine (SVM) to model the oil palm tree for classifying the testing set and subimages of WorldView-2 imagery data. The resulting classification of young oil palm tree with sensitivity of 98.58% and accuracy of 92.73% shows a promising result that it can be used for intention of developing automatic young oil palm tree counting.

  11. Palm-based standard reference materials for iodine value and slip melting point.

    PubMed

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

    2008-09-22

    This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 +/- 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 +/- 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 +/- 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C in palm oil, 22.7 +/- 0.4 degrees C in palm olein and 53.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of -20 degrees C, 0 degrees C, 6 degrees C and 24 degrees C upon storage for one year.

  12. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde R; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-07-23

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines.

  13. Suitability of online 3D visualization technique in oil palm plantation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat, Ruzinoor Che; Nordin, Norani; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm industry has been the backbone for the growth of Malaysia economy. The exports of this commodity increasing almost every year. Therefore, there are many studies focusing on how to help this industry increased its productivity. In order to increase the productivity, the management of oil palm plantation need to be improved and strengthen. One of the solution in helping the oil palm manager is by implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation using game engine technology. The potential of this application is that it can helps in fertilizer and irrigation management. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to investigate the issues in managing oil palm plantation from the view of oil palm manager by interview. The results from this interview will helps in identifying the suitable issues could be highlight in implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation management.

  14. CO2 and CH4 fluxes from oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of palm age and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, A.; Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; June, T.; Sabajo, C.; Veldkamp, E.; Knohl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global increasing demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia, which in Sumatran lowlands has resulted in a 21% forest area loss. Large photosynthesis rates are expected for oil palms, due to their high growth and yield production. However, there is very limited information on their effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale. For methane (CH4) fluxes, research has mainly focused in oil palm plantations located on peatlands, but no information is available at ecosystem level from plantations on mineral soils. With the aim of studying CO2 fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation, where it was measuring for 8 months, and was subsequently moved to a 12 year old plantation, both in the province of Jambi, Sumatra. The EC system consisted of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek anemometer, operating at 10 Hz, installed on a 7m and 22m tower respectively. In the 12 year old plantation, the tower was also equipped with a Los Gatos FGGA-24EP, to assess CH4 fluxes. Chamber measurements were also carried out to obtain information on respiration and CH4 fluxes from the soil. Radiation was the major driver controlling net carbon uptake, while soil moisture did not play a significant role. Average net ecosystem exchange in the hours of the day with higher radiation for the whole measurement period was 10 μmol m-2 s-1 for the 2 year old plantation and -22 μmol m-2 s-1 in the 12 year old. The analysis of the cumulative fluxes show that the non-productive plantation was a carbon source of around 636 g CO2 m-2 during the 8 months of measurements, while in the productive period, it acted as a strong carbon sink (-794 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Methane uptake was observed in the soil in both plantations and also for the whole ecosystem in the 12 year old one, but its

  15. Study on life parameters of the invasive species Octodonta nipae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on different palm species, under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Youming; Miao, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-08-01

    In southeastern China, the invasion of the nipa palm hispid Octodonta nipae (Maulik) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) results in devastating damage to palms. Host plants play an important role in the population increases and outbreaks of O. nipae. O. nipae could not complete its development on the Majestic palm (Ravenea rivularis Jumelle & Perrier), and females did not lay eggs on Chinese fan palm (Livistona chinensis R. Brown). However, this insect species both completed development and laid eggs on Chinese windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei (Hooker) H. Wendland), Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis Chabaud), and pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii O' Brien). The demographic characteristics of O. nipae reared on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm were compared with an age-stage, two-sex life table. In this study, the developmental periods from egg to adult varied from 42.1 d on Chinese windmill palm to 49.8 d on pygmy date palm. The survivorship from egg to adult on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm was 77.5, 79.4, and 66.7%, respectively. Although the adult longevity and the mean fecundity for individuals reared on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm were not significantly different, there were significant differences in the intrinsic rate of increase, the finite rate, and the mean generation time among palm species, and the values of intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate were higher for populations reared on Chinese windmill palm and Canary Island date palm (0.0313 and 1.0318 d(-1) and 0.0278 and 1.0282 d(-1), respectively) and lower for populations reared on pygmy date palm (0.0192 and 1.0194 d(-1)). However, mean generation time was shorter on Chinese windmill palm (124.11 d) and Canary Island date palm (129.62 d) and longer on pygmy date palm (166.03 d). Our study indicated that different hosts affected life parameters of O. nipae, with the most

  16. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    EPA Science Inventory

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole in ambient air above oil palm canopies flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the Afric...

  17. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments.

  18. Palm Tree Detection Using Circular Autocorrelation of Polar Shape Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manandhar, A.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Palm trees play an important role as they are widely used in a variety of products including oil and bio-fuel. Increasing demand and growing cultivation have created a necessity in planned farming and the monitoring different aspects like inventory keeping, health, size etc. The large cultivation regions of palm trees motivate the use of remote sensing to produce such data. This study proposes an object detection methodology on the aerial images, using shape feature for detecting and counting palm trees, which can support an inventory. The study uses circular autocorrelation of the polar shape matrix representation of an image, as the shape feature, and the linear support vector machine to standardize and reduce dimensions of the feature. Finally, the study uses local maximum detection algorithm on the spatial distribution of standardized feature to detect palm trees. The method was applied to 8 images chosen from different tough scenarios and it performed on average with an accuracy of 84% and 76.1%, despite being subjected to different challenging conditions in the chosen test images.

  19. Palm Beach Community College Strategic Plan, 1999-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Seymour

    This report addresses strategies and action plans for Palm Beach Community College (PBCC) (Florida) between 1999-2004. As part of a commitment to achieve specific, measurable end results, the college has set various objectives, including: (1) develop, implement and institutionalize a mission driven strategic budget for the 1999-2000 fiscal year;…

  20. A Development Plan for the Palm Beach County Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The Palm Beach County Library System is evaluated for its program to date and for its existing public library resources in the County. Population trends are examined and a realistic program for the development of library services over a six-year period is recommended. The estimated costs for implementation of these recommendations are outlined in…

  1. Date palm status and perspective in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date industry in the United States is small in comparison with that of many other date-producing countries. The US does not have any indigenous date palm (Phoneix dactylifera L) germplasm, so the industry developed using imported varieties in the early years of the 20th century. Due to its speci...

  2. VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING DATE PALMS. NOTE TRELLIS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING DATE PALMS. NOTE TRELLIS ON TYPE 11 FACILITY, FACILITY 808. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species.

  4. Quantifying nitrogen losses in oil palm plantations: models and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardon, Lénaïc; Bessou, Cécile; Saint-Geours, Nathalie; Gabrielle, Benoît; Khasanah, Ni'matul; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Nelson, Paul N.

    2016-09-01

    Oil palm is the most rapidly expanding tropical perennial crop. Its cultivation raises environmental concerns, notably related to the use of nitrogen (N) fertilisers and the associated pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. While numerous and diverse models exist to estimate N losses from agriculture, very few are currently available for tropical perennial crops. Moreover, there is a lack of critical analysis of their performance in the specific context of tropical perennial cropping systems. We assessed the capacity of 11 models and 29 sub-models to estimate N losses in a typical oil palm plantation over a 25-year growth cycle, through leaching and runoff, and emissions of NH3, N2, N2O, and NOx. Estimates of total N losses were very variable, ranging from 21 to 139 kg N ha-1 yr-1. On average, 31 % of the losses occurred during the first 3 years of the cycle. Nitrate leaching accounted for about 80 % of the losses. A comprehensive Morris sensitivity analysis showed the most influential variables to be soil clay content, rooting depth, and oil palm N uptake. We also compared model estimates with published field measurements. Many challenges remain in modelling processes related to the peculiarities of perennial tropical crop systems such as oil palm more accurately.

  5. Modification of palm oil for anti-inflammatory nutraceutical properties.

    PubMed

    Zainal, Zaida; Longman, Andrea J; Hurst, Samantha; Duggan, Katrina; Hughes, Clare E; Caterson, Bruce; Harwood, John L

    2009-07-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important edible oils in the world. Its composition (rich in palmitate and oleate) make it suitable for general food uses but its utility could be increased if its fatty acid quality could be varied. In this study, we have modified a palm olein fraction by transesterification with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-linolenate or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Evaluation of the potential nutritional efficacy of the oils was made using chondrocyte culture systems which can be used to mimic many of the degenerative and inflammatory pathways involved in arthritis. On stimulation of such cultures with interleukin-1alpha, they showed increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1alpha and IL-1beta and the proteinase ADAMTS-4. This increased expression was not affected by challenge of the cultures with palm olein alone but showed concentration-dependent reduction by the modified oil in a manner similar to EPA. These results show clearly that it is possible to modify palm oil conveniently to produce a nutraceutical with effective anti-inflammatory properties.

  6. FACILITY 1042. FRONT OBLIQUE SHOWING ROYAL PALMS LINING FRONT WALK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 1042. FRONT OBLIQUE SHOWING ROYAL PALMS LINING FRONT WALK. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Hale Alii, Junior Officers' Quarters Type, 9-10 Hale Alii Avenue, 1-2 Eighth Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. The Palm Beach County Family Study Second Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Lyons, Sandra; Gouvea, Marcia; Haywood, Thomas; Winje, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    The Children's Services Council (CSC) of Palm Beach County commissioned Chapin Hall Center for Children to conduct a longitudinal study to examine the effects of this service system on children and families. The goal of the longitudinal study is to describe the characteristics and needs of families the service system is intended to serve, how they…

  8. PALM: Pacific Area Language Materials. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    This CD-ROM provides a resource for anyone interested in the diverse languages of the Pacific. It contains a digital archive of approximately 700 booklets in 11 Pacific languages. The original booklets were produced several years ago by the PALM project in order to record Pacific regional languages and to serve as teaching tools. This digital PALM…

  9. Phytoplasmas and their insect vectors: Implications for date palm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Date palm is affected by a variety of plant diseases and those associated with phytoplasma presence are increasingly recognised as an emerging threat to the crop. Phytoplasmas are bacteria characterised by a small genome size and the lack of a cell wall. Unlike other bacteria, they are transmitted c...

  10. REAR ELEVATION WITH BASE OF PALM TREE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION WITH BASE OF PALM TREE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING NORTH/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. VIEW OF REAR YARD WITH PLUMERIA TREES AND SMALL PALMS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF REAR YARD WITH PLUMERIA TREES AND SMALL PALMS. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Types 8 and 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Esperanza Fire near Palm Springs, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Esperanza fire started on October 26 in the dry brush near Palm Springs, CA. By the time it was contained 6 days later, the fire had consumed 40,200 acres, and destroyed 34 homes and 20 outbuildings. Racing through grass, brush, and timber, the blaze had forced hundreds to evacuate, and it killed five firefighters who were working to protect homes. Fire officials are reporting the cause of the blaze as arson. In this ASTER image composite of visible and infrared bands, burned areas are shown in shades of red, vegetation is green, brown vegetation is brown and asphalt and concrete are blue-gray.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 21.4 by 26.9 kilometers (13.2 by 16.6 miles) Location: 33.6 degrees North latitude, 116.8 degrees West

  13. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

    2010-05-01

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been

  14. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

    2010-01-01

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios, respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a combination of a modified G06 algorithm for emission and a canopy resistance approach for deposition. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on

  15. Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The

  16. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of Red Palm Weevil in agricultural environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  17. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of red palm weevil (Coleopter: Curculionidae) in agricultural environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  18. Equilibrium studies of copper ion adsorption onto palm kernel fibre.

    PubMed

    Ofomaja, Augustine E

    2010-07-01

    The equilibrium sorption of copper ions from aqueous solution using a new adsorbent, palm kernel fibre, has been studied. Palm kernel fibre is obtained in large amounts as a waste product of palm oil production. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out and system variables such as solution pH, sorbent dose, and sorption temperature were varied. The equilibrium sorption data was then analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Temkin isotherms. The fit of these isotherm models to the equilibrium sorption data was determined, using the linear coefficient of determination, r(2), and the non-linear Chi-square, chi(2) error analysis. The results revealed that sorption was pH dependent and increased with increasing solution pH above the pH(PZC) of the palm kernel fibre with an optimum dose of 10g/dm(3). The equilibrium data were found to fit the Langmuir isotherm model best, with a monolayer capacity of 3.17 x 10(-4)mol/g at 339K. The sorption equilibrium constant, K(a), increased with increasing temperature, indicating that bond strength between sorbate and sorbent increased with temperature and sorption was endothermic. This was confirmed by the increase in the values of the Temkin isotherm constant, B(1), with increasing temperature. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm parameter, free energy, E, was in the range of 15.7-16.7kJ/mol suggesting that the sorption mechanism was ion exchange. Desorption studies showed that a high percentage of the copper was desorbed from the adsorbent using acid solutions (HCl, HNO(3) and CH(3)COOH) and the desorption percentage increased with acid concentration. The thermodynamics of the copper ions/palm kernel fibre system indicate that the process is spontaneous and endothermic.

  19. Modification of oil palm wood using acetylation and impregnation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subagiyo, Lambang; Rosamah, Enih; Hesim

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is chemical modification by process of acetylation and impregnation of oil palm wood to improve the dimensional stability. Acetylation process aimed at substituting the hydroxyl groups in a timber with an acetyl group. By increasing the acetyl groups in wood is expected to reduce the ability of wood to absorb water vapor which lead to the dimensions of the wood becomes more stable. Studies conducted on oil palm wood (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) by acetylation and impregnation method. The results showed that acetylated and impregnated wood oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq) were changed in their physical properties. Impregnation with coal ashfly provide the greatest response to changes in weight (in wet conditions) and after conditioning (dry) with the average percentage of weight gain of 198.16% and 66.41% respectively. Changes in volume indicates an increase of volume in the wet condition (imbibition) with the coal ashfly treatment gave highest value of 23.04 %, whereas after conditioning (dry) the highest value obtained in the treatment of gum rosin:ethanol with a volume increase of 13:44%. The highest changes of the density with the coal ashfly impregnation in wet condition (imbibition) in value of 142.32% and after conditioning (dry) of 57.87%. The result of reduction in water absorption (RWA) test showed that in the palm oil wood samples most stable by using of gum rosin : ethanol of 0.97%, whereas the increase in oil palm wood dimensional stability (ASE) is the best of 59.42% after acetylation with Acetic Anhydride: Xylene.

  20. Cell longevity and sustained primary growth in palm stems.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, P Barry; Huggett, Brett A

    2012-12-01

    Longevity, or organismal life span, is determined largely by the period over which constituent cells can function metabolically. Plants, with modular organization (the ability continually to develop new organs and tissues) differ from animals, with unitary organization (a fixed body plan), and this difference is reflected in their respective life spans, potentially much longer in plants than animals. We draw attention to the observation that palm trees, as a group of monocotyledons without secondary growth comparable to that of lignophytes (plants with secondary growth from a bifacial cambium), retain by means of sustained primary growth living cells in their trunks throughout their organismal life span. Does this make palms the longest-lived trees because they can grow as individuals for several centuries? No conventional lignophyte retains living metabolically active differentiated cell types in its trunk for this length of time, even though the tree as a whole can exist for millennia. Does this contrast also imply that the long-lived cells in a palm trunk have exceptional properties, which allows this seeming immortality? We document the long-life of many tall palm species and their inherent long-lived stem cell properties, comparing such plants to conventional trees. We provide a summary of aspects of cell age and life span in animals and plants. Cell replacement is a feature of animal function, whereas conventional trees rely on active growth centers (meristems) to sustain organismal development. However, the long persistence of living cells in palm trunks is seen not as evidence for unique metabolic processes that sustain longevity, but is a consequence of unique constructional features. This conclusion suggests that the life span of plant cells is not necessarily genetically determined.

  1. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm.

    PubMed

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-03-22

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ≈880,000 ha) of tropical peatlands in the region had been converted to oil-palm plantations by the early 2000s. Conversion of peatswamp forests to oil palm led to biodiversity declines of 1% in Borneo (equivalent to four species of forest-dwelling birds), 3.4% in Sumatra (16 species), and 12.1% in Peninsular Malaysia (46 species). This land-use change also contributed to the loss of ≈140 million Mg of aboveground biomass carbon, and annual emissions of ≈4.6 million Mg of belowground carbon from peat oxidation. Additionally, the loss of peatswamp forests implies the loss of carbon sequestration service through peat accumulation, which amounts to ≈660,000 Mg of carbon annually. By 2010, 2.3 million ha of peatswamp forests were clear-felled, and currently occur as degraded lands. Reforestation of these clearings could enhance biodiversity by up to ≈20%, whereas oil-palm establishment would exacerbate species losses by up to ≈12%. To safeguard the region's biodiversity and carbon stocks, conservation and reforestation efforts should target Central Kalimantan, Riau, and West Kalimantan, which retain three-quarters (3.9 million ha) of the remaining peatswamp forests in Southeast Asia.

  2. Palm tocotrienols protect ApoE +/- mice from diet-induced atheroma formation.

    PubMed

    Black, T M; Wang, P; Maeda, N; Coleman, R A

    2000-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of vitamin E and beta-carotene on apolipoprotein (apo)E +/- female mice, which develop atherosclerosis only when fed diets high in triglyceride and cholesterol. Mice were fed a nonpurified control diet (5.3 g/100 g triglyceride, 0.2 g/100 g cholesterol), an atherogenic diet alone (15.8 g/100 g triglyceride, 1.25 g/100 g cholesterol, 0.5 g/100 g Na cholate) or the atherogenic diet supplemented with either 0.5 g/100 g (+)-alpha-tocopherol (mixed isomers); 0.5 g/100 g palm tocopherols (palm-E; 33% alpha-tocopherol, 16.1% alpha-tocotrienol, 2.3% beta-tocotrienol, 32.2% gamma-tocotrienol, 16.1% delta-tocotrienol); 1.5 g/100 g palm-E; or 0.01 g/100 g palm-carotenoids (58% beta-carotene, 33% alpha-carotene, 9% other carotenoids). Compared with mice fed the control diet, plasma cholesterol was fourfold greater in mice fed the atherogenic diet. Mice fed the 1.5 g/100 g palm-E supplement had 60% lower plasma cholesterol than groups fed the other atherogenic diets. Mice fed the atherogenic diet had markedly higher VLDL, intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) and LDL cholesterol and markedly lower HDL cholesterol than the controls. Lipoprotein patterns in mice supplemented with alpha-tocopherol or palm carotenoids were similar to those of the mice fed the atherogenic diet alone, but the pattern in mice supplemented with 1. 5 g/100 g palm-E was similar to that of mice fed the control diet. In mice fed the atherogenic diet, the hepatic cholesterol plus cholesterol ester concentration was 4.4-fold greater than in mice fed the control diet. Supplementing with 1.5 g/100 g palm-E lowered hepatic cholesterol plus cholesterol ester concentration 66% compared with the atherogenic diet alone. Mice fed the atherogenic diet had large atherosclerotic lesions at the level of the aortic valve. With supplements of 0.5 g/100 g palm-E or 1.5 g/100 g palm-E, the size of the lesions was 92 or 98% smaller, respectively. The 0.5 g/100 g alpha-tocopherol and palm carotenoid

  3. Influence of palm olein on protein utilisation in the growing rat.

    PubMed

    Henry, C J; Ghusain-Choueiri, A; Gurr, M I

    1999-03-01

    In view of our preliminary findings that refined palm oil (RPOL) enhanced protein utilisation, and because of the growing importance of palm oil in human diets, two separate studies were conducted. The first study aimed to investigate the effect of the palm oil source and fraction on protein utilisation, as determined by net protein utilization (NPU) in growing rats. The second study aimed to investigate the influence of the dietary concentration of one particular palm oil fraction, refined palm olein (RPO) on net protein utilisation. The fat source of each of the semi-purified diets was as follows: crude palm oil (CPO), refined palm kernel oil (RKO), refined palm olein (RPO), refined palm stearin (RPS), and refined palm oil (RPOL). A sixth control group was offered an identical diet but with olive oil (OO, control) as the fat source. Both the oil source (P < 0.01) and the oil level (P < 0.05) influenced NPU in rats. NPU values were generally higher for rats given the RPO-containing diets, particularly at the 20% dietary level (P < 0.01) compared to the diets containing ground nut oil (GNO). The results of these two experiments indicate that RPO influences protein metabolism specifically at a concentration of at least 20% in the diet. This may suggest that RPO is superior to GNO as a source of fat for the rehabilitation of malnourished children. Human trials notably during the rehabilitation of malnourished children may therefore be the next step in this line of research.

  4. An interesterified palm olein test meal decreases early-phase postprandial lipemia compared to palm olein: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wendy L; Brito, Marcela Fiuza; Huang, Junlan; Wood, Lucy V; Filippou, Androulla; Sanders, Thomas A B; Berry, Sarah E E

    2014-09-01

    Palm oil that has been interesterified to produce a higher proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) in the sn-2 position reduces postprandial lipemia in young, normolipidemic men and women, but effects in older subjects with higher fasting triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat meals rich in interesterified palm olein (IPO) decrease lipemia and alter plasma lipoprotein fraction composition compared to native palm olein (NPO) in men aged 40-70 years with fasting TAG concentrations ≥1.2 mmol/L. Postprandial changes in plasma lipids following meals containing 75 g fat (NPO and IPO) were compared using a randomized, double-blind crossover design (n = 11). Although there were no significant differences in plasma TAG concentrations between meals over the total 6-h postprandial measurement period, IPO resulted in a decreased plasma TAG response during the first 4 h of the postprandial period (iAUC 1.65 mmol/L h, 95% CI 1.01-2.29) compared to NPO (iAUC 2.33 mmol/L h, 95% CI 1.58-3.07); meal effect P = 0.024. Chylomicron fraction TAG concentrations at 4-6 h were slightly reduced following IPO compared to NPO [NPO-IPO mean difference 0.29 mmol/L (95% CI -0.01-0.59), P = 0.055]. There were no differences in IDL fraction TAG, cholesterol or apolipoprotein B48 concentrations following IPO compared with NPO. In conclusion, consuming a meal containing palm olein with a higher proportion of 16:0 in the sn-2 position decreases postprandial lipemia compared to native palm olein during the early phase of the postprandial period in men with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations.

  5. Efficacy of aggregation pheromone in trapping red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) and rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Linn.) from infested coconut palms.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, A K; Chandrashekharaiah, M; Kandakoor, Subhash B; Nagaraj, D N

    2014-05-01

    Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle are the major pests inflicting severe damage to coconut palms. Due to ineffectiveness of the current management practices to control the two important pests on coconut, a study was conducted to know the attractiveness of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle to aggregation pheromone. Olfactometer studies indicated that the aggregation pheromone of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle attracted significantly more number of weevils (13.4 females and 7.6 male weevils) and beetles (6.5 male and 12.3 female beetles), respectively than control. Similarly, field studies found that both 750 and 1000 mg pheromone dosage lures of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle trapped significantly higher numbers of weevils (695.80 and 789 weevils, respectively) and beetles (98 and 108 beetles, respectively) in traps (P < 0.05), respectively. On an average (n = 6 field trials) 80-85% red palm weevil and 72-78% rhinoceros beetle population got trapped. Observations indicated activity of red palm weevil throughout the year and of rhinoceros beetle from September to March around Bangalore, South India. Pheromone traps for red palm weevil can be placed in fields from June to August and October to December and September to February for rhinoceros beetle. Population reductions of the two coleopteran pests by pheromone traps are compatible with mechanical and cultural management tools with cumulative effects.

  6. Ecology and detection of the red palm weevil, Rrhynchophorus Fferrugineus (Ccoleoptera: curculionidae), and related weevils for the protection of palm tree species in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, native to Asia, the neotropical R. palmarum, and the subneotropical R. cruentatus are international threats to palm industries. We evaluated the status of these species on Aruba over concerns that the former two species may cause significant dama...

  7. Field ecology of sylvatic Rhodnius populations (Heteroptera, Triatominae): risk factors for palm tree infestation in western Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Abad-Franch, F; Palomeque, F S; Aguilar, H M; Miles, M A

    2005-12-01

    Most Rhodnius species (Triatominae) are primarily associated with palm trees. They maintain enzootic Trypanosoma cruzi transmission and are responsible for human infection (causing Chagas disease) through the Neotropics. Assessing whether individual palm traits (ecological and/or botanical) may increase the risk of palm infestation by triatomines is relevant in areas where bugs invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. We developed a novel fieldwork approach with that objective, and applied it to study infestation by sylvatic Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in 110 tagua palms (Phytelephas aequatorialis). Palm infestation (23% overall) was non-randomly distributed in our sample. Palms located in anthropic landscapes were frequently infested (>27%, n=92), whereas no bugs were collected from palms surveyed within forest remnants (n=18; P=0.01). The presence of abundant decaying vegetable matter (P=0.001) and (to a lesser extent) epiphytic plants (P=0.049) on palm crowns and stems increased the probability of infestation and was positively correlated with the apparent density of bug colonies (R2=0.68). A trend towards higher infestation rates in male palms (34% vs. 18%) could relate to female palm management (removal of infrutescences and vegetable debris) in areas where palm seeds are harvested. An outline of 'risk palm ecotopes' and environmental management-based strategies for the control of peridomestic, palm tree-living vector populations are proposed.

  8. Conservation Value and Permeability of Neotropical Oil Palm Landscapes for Orchid Bees

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, George; Jha, Shalene; Vega, Andres; Gilbert, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The proliferation of oil palm plantations has led to dramatic changes in tropical landscapes across the globe. However, relatively little is known about the effects of oil palm expansion on biodiversity, especially in key ecosystem-service providing organisms like pollinators. Rapid land use change is exacerbated by limited knowledge of the mechanisms causing biodiversity decline in the tropics, particularly those involving landscape features. We examined these mechanisms by undertaking a survey of orchid bees, a well-known group of Neotropical pollinators, across forest and oil palm plantations in Costa Rica. We used chemical baits to survey the community in four regions: continuous forest sites, oil palm sites immediately adjacent to forest, oil palm sites 2km from forest, and oil palm sites greater than 5km from forest. We found that although orchid bees are present in all environments, orchid bee communities diverged across the gradient, and community richness, abundance, and similarity to forest declined as distance from forest increased. In addition, mean phylogenetic distance of the orchid bee community declined and was more clustered in oil palm. Community traits also differed with individuals in oil palm having shorter average tongue length and larger average geographic range size than those in the forest. Our results indicate two key features about Neotropical landscapes that contain oil palm: 1) oil palm is selectively permeable to orchid bees and 2) orchid bee communities in oil palm have distinct phylogenetic and trait structure compared to communities in forest. These results suggest that conservation and management efforts in oil palm-cultivating regions should focus on landscape features. PMID:24147137

  9. Dual resonant frequencies effects on an induction-based oil palm fruit sensor.

    PubMed

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Mohd Sidek, Roslina; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-11-19

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  10. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pimm, Stuart L.; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Smith, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems. PMID:27462984

  11. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Varsha; Pimm, Stuart L; Jenkins, Clinton N; Smith, Sharon J

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems.

  12. Conservation value and permeability of neotropical oil palm landscapes for orchid bees.

    PubMed

    Livingston, George; Jha, Shalene; Vega, Andres; Gilbert, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The proliferation of oil palm plantations has led to dramatic changes in tropical landscapes across the globe. However, relatively little is known about the effects of oil palm expansion on biodiversity, especially in key ecosystem-service providing organisms like pollinators. Rapid land use change is exacerbated by limited knowledge of the mechanisms causing biodiversity decline in the tropics, particularly those involving landscape features. We examined these mechanisms by undertaking a survey of orchid bees, a well-known group of Neotropical pollinators, across forest and oil palm plantations in Costa Rica. We used chemical baits to survey the community in four regions: continuous forest sites, oil palm sites immediately adjacent to forest, oil palm sites 2 km from forest, and oil palm sites greater than 5 km from forest. We found that although orchid bees are present in all environments, orchid bee communities diverged across the gradient, and community richness, abundance, and similarity to forest declined as distance from forest increased. In addition, mean phylogenetic distance of the orchid bee community declined and was more clustered in oil palm. Community traits also differed with individuals in oil palm having shorter average tongue length and larger average geographic range size than those in the forest. Our results indicate two key features about Neotropical landscapes that contain oil palm: 1) oil palm is selectively permeable to orchid bees and 2) orchid bee communities in oil palm have distinct phylogenetic and trait structure compared to communities in forest. These results suggest that conservation and management efforts in oil palm-cultivating regions should focus on landscape features.

  13. Influence of Wave Refraction on Coastal Geomorphology-Bull Island to Isle of Palms, South Carolina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    coast from Bull Island to the Isle of Palms . REFRAC, a computerized wave-refracti program developed for this study, generates refraction diagrams...Geomorphology Bull Island to Isle of Palms , South Carolina Cary Fico Coastal Research Division Department of Geology Uo 0O University of South Carolina Columnbia...South Carolina 29208 80 :i1 13 U23 INFLUENCE OF WAVE REFRACTION ON COASTAL GEOMORPHOLOGY -- BULL ISLAND TO ISLE OF PALMS , SOUTH CAROLINA by Cary Fico

  14. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-01-01

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept. PMID:25414970

  15. Nonlinear analysis of concrete beams strengthened by date palm fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzouaid, Samia; Kriker, Abdelouahed

    2017-02-01

    The behaviour of concrete beams strengthened with date palm fibers was studied by Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis using ANSYS software. Five beams that were experimentally tested in a previous research were considered. The results obtained from the ANSYS finite element analysis are compared with the experimental data for the five beams with different amounts of fibres, ranging from 0.2% to 0.5% by a step equal to 0.1% and with a fibre length of 0.04 m. The results obtained by FEA showed good agreement with those obtained by the experimental program. This research demonstrates the ability of FEA in predicting the behaviour of beams strengthened with Date Palm fibers. It will help researchers in studying beams with different configurations without the need to go through the lengthy experimental testing programs.

  16. Biolistic-mediated production of transgenic oil palm.

    PubMed

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Bahariah, Bohari

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of mannose (using phosphomannose isomerase [pmi] gene) as a positive selection agent to preferably allow the growth of transformed oil palm embryogenic calli was successfully evaluated. Using the above selection agent in combination with the previously optimized physical and biological parameters and the best constitutive promoter, oil palm embryogenic calli were transformed with pmi gene for producing transgenic plants. Bombarded embryogenic calli were exposed to embryogenic calli medium containing 30:0 g/L mannose to sucrose 3 weeks postbombardment. Selectively, proliferating embryogenic calli started to emerge around 6 months on the above selection medium. The proliferated embryogenic calli were individually isolated once they reached a specific size and regenerated to produce complete plantlets. The complete regenerated plantlets were evaluated for the presence of transgenes by PCR and Southern analyses.

  17. Inter-esterified palm products as alternatives to hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Idris, Nor Aini; Dian, Noor Lida Habi Mat

    2005-01-01

    Inter-esterification is one of the processes used to modify the physico-chemical characteristics of oils and fats. Inter-esterification is an acyl-rearrangement reaction on the glycerol molecule. On the other hand, hydrogenation involves addition of hydrogen to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids. Due to health implications of trans fatty acids, which are formed during hydrogenation, the industry needs to find alternatives to hydrogenated fats. This paper discusses some applications of inter-esterified fats, with particular reference to inter-esterified palm products, as alternatives to hydrogenation. Some physico-chemical properties of inter-esterified fats used in shortenings are discussed. With inter-esterification, more palm stearin can be incorporated in vanaspati. For confectionary fats and infant formulations, enzymatic inter-esterification has been employed.

  18. The maturity of Nypa palm worm Namalycastis rhodochorde (Nereididae: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junardi, Anggraeni, Tjandra; Ridwan, Ahmad; Yuwono, Edy

    2014-03-01

    The Nypa Palm Worm Namalycastis rhodochorde has been used as bait for fishing and commercial species in Pontianak. Maturity is one important characteristic to learn the population dynamic and management. The Nypa Palm worm samples were collected from mangrove area in Kapuas Estuary, West Kalimantan. Fresh samples of gametes collected from the coelomic fluid were observed carefully under compound microscope for the initial determination of maturity. The presences of oocyte ≥120μm in diameter and lipid droplet are the indication of female maturity, while free swimming spermatozoon in the body fluid is the indication of male maturity. Morphologically, the maturity of N. rhodochorde was indicated by the change of body color, softer and fragile body, yet no modified chaetae and heteronereid form.

  19. Enzymatic synthesis of palm olein-based fatty thiohydroxamic acids.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulla, Emad A Jaffar; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa Bt; Rahman, Mohd Zaki Ab

    2010-01-01

    Fatty thiohydroxamic acids (FTAs) have been successfully synthesized from palm olein and thiohydroxamic acid by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The use of immobilized lipase (Lipozyme RMIM) as the catalyst for the preparation reaction provides an easy isolation of the enzyme from the products and other components in the reaction mixture. The FTAs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The highest conversion percentage (95 %) was obtained when the process was carried out for 30 hours using urea to palm oil ratio of 6.0: 1.0 at 40 °C. The method employed offers several advantages such as renewable and abundant of the raw material, simple reaction procedure, environmentally friendly process and high yield of the product.

  20. Enzymatic synthesis of fatty amides from palm olein.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulla, Emad A Jaffar; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa Bt; Rahman, Mohd Zaki A

    2010-01-01

    Fatty amides have been successfully synthesized from palm olein and urea by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The use of immobilized lipase as the catalyst for the preparation reaction provides an easy isolation of the enzyme from the products and other components in the reaction mixture. The fatty amides were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The highest conversion percentage (96%) was obtained when the process was carried out for 36 hours using urea to palm oil ratio of 5.2: 1.0 at 40 degrees C. The method employed offers several advantages such as renewable and abundant of the raw material, simple reaction procedure, environmentally friendly process and high yield of the product.

  1. Effect of Palm Pollen on Sperm Parameters of Infertile Man.

    PubMed

    Rasekh, Athar; Jashni, Hojjatollah Karimi; Rahmanian, Karamatollah; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh

    2015-04-01

    There is a rapidly growing trend in the consumption of herbal remedies in the developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of orally administered Date Palm Pollen (DPP) on the results of semen analysis in adult infertile men. Forty infertile men participated in our study. They were treated by Pollen powder 120 mg kg(-1) in gelatinous capsules every other day, for two months. Before and at the end of therapy, the semen was collected after masturbation and sperm numbers, motility and morphology were determined. Our findings revealed that consumption of DPP improved the sperm count. The treatment was significantly increased sperm motility, morphology and forward progressive motility. Date palm pollen seems to cure male infertility by improving the quality of sperm parameters.

  2. Quantitative characterization of finger and palm dermatoglyphics in Bulgarians.

    PubMed

    Tornjova-Randelova, Savina; Borissova, Pavlina; Paskova-Topalova, Doriana

    2008-09-01

    In the present paper data on finger and palm ridge counts of both hands are reported from representative samples of healthy Bulgarian males and females. Dermatoglyphic prints from both hands of 2431 Bulgarians (1161 males and 1270 females) have been taken in 116 settlements all over the country. The investigated males and females were healthy, not related persons of Bulgarian origin. The results of finger and palm ridge counts include basic statistics and correlations between ridge counts on separate fingers and the correlations between ridge counts in separate interdigital areas. The results, presented together with data on other dermatoglyphic features elaborated and published till now by the same authors for representative samples of Bulgarian males and females, can serve for the set up of a detailed data basis of the dermatoglyphic status of the Bulgarian population. At the same time they could serve as a norm for clinical and medico-biological investigations with theoretical and scientific applied purposes.

  3. Physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adawiyah Norzali, Nor Rabbi'atul; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Ahmad, Ishak

    2013-12-01

    The physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil have been studied. The phosphate ester was synthesized via ring-opening of epoxidized palm kernel oil with phosphoric acid. The amount of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was varied at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt%. Acid values of PKO and EPKO were 1.85 and 1.87 mg KOH/g respectively. However, the acid values increased with increasing amount of H3PO4 with values of 10.62 mg KOH/g, 31.34 mg KOH/g and 110.95 mg KOH/g respectively. The hydrolysis of the EPKO has successfully converted it to PEPKO with hydroxyl value of 16.16 mg KOH/g, 26.90 and 35.33 mg KOH/g at H3PO4 of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5wt%.

  4. Retained subretinal date palm tree thorn in a child.

    PubMed

    Modi, Yasha; John, Vishak; Warman, Roberto; Hess, Ditte; Murray, Timothy G; Berrocal, Audina M

    2013-10-01

    A 3-year-old boy presented with severe eye pain and nausea after colliding with a date palm tree branch. Examination under anesthesia revealed a self-sealed corneal laceration and traumatic cataract in his left eye. Cultures were taken and the patient received prophylactic subconjunctival, intravitreal, and systemic antibiotics because of the high risk of endophthalmitis. A thorn from the same tree grew Bacillus cereus. Examination after 2 weeks of the injury revealed a subretinal foreign body (a palm tree thorn), although there were no signs of endophthalmitis or retinal detachment. The patient underwent cataract extraction and laser demarcation of the subretinal foreign body, which was not removed. He was fitted for an aphakic contact lens. With alternate patching, his best-corrected visual acuity improved to 20/30.

  5. A sub-canopy structure for simulating oil palm in the Community Land Model (CLM-Palm): phenology, allocation and yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Bernoux, M.; Le Maire, G.; Panferov, O.; Kotowska, M. M.; Knohl, A.

    2015-11-01

    In order to quantify the effects of forests to oil palm conversion occurring in the tropics on land-atmosphere carbon, water and energy fluxes, we develop a new perennial crop sub-model CLM-Palm for simulating a palm plant functional type (PFT) within the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). CLM-Palm is tested here on oil palm only but is meant of generic interest for other palm crops (e.g., coconut). The oil palm has monopodial morphology and sequential phenology of around 40 stacked phytomers, each carrying a large leaf and a fruit bunch, forming a multilayer canopy. A sub-canopy phenological and physiological parameterization is thus introduced so that each phytomer has its own prognostic leaf growth and fruit yield capacity but with shared stem and root components. Phenology and carbon and nitrogen allocation operate on the different phytomers in parallel but at unsynchronized steps, separated by a thermal period. An important phenological phase is identified for the oil palm - the storage growth period of bud and "spear" leaves which are photosynthetically inactive before expansion. Agricultural practices such as transplanting, fertilization and leaf pruning are represented. Parameters introduced for the oil palm were calibrated and validated with field measurements of leaf area index (LAI), yield and net primary production (NPP) from Sumatra, Indonesia. In calibration with a mature oil palm plantation, the cumulative yields from 2005 to 2014 matched notably well between simulation and observation (mean percentage error = 3 %). Simulated inter-annual dynamics of PFT-level and phytomer-level LAI were both within the range of field measurements. Validation from eight independent oil palm sites shows the ability of the model to adequately predict the average leaf growth and fruit yield across sites and sufficiently represent the significant nitrogen- and age-related site-to-site variability in NPP and yield. Results also indicate that seasonal dynamics

  6. Age of oil palm plantations causes a strong change in surface biophysical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabajo, Clifton; le Maire, Guerric; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, Indonesia has experienced dramatic land transformations with an expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests. As vegetation is a modifier of the climate near the ground these large-scale land transformations are expected to have major impacts on the surface biophysical variables i.e. surface temperature, albedo, and vegetation indices, e.g. the NDVI. Remote sensing data are needed to assess such changes at regional scale. We used 2 Landsat images from Jambi Province in Sumatra/Indonesia covering a chronosequence of oil palm plantations to study the 20 - 25 years life cycle of oil palm plantations and its relation with biophysical variables. Our results show large differences between the surface temperature of young oil palm plantations and forest (up to 9.5 ± 1.5 °C) indicating that the surface temperature is raised substantially after the establishment of oil palm plantations following the removal of forests. During the oil palm plantation lifecycle the surface temperature differences gradually decreases and approaches zero around an oil palm plantation age of 10 years. Similarly, NDVI increases and the albedo decreases approaching typical values of forests. Our results show that in order to assess the full climate effects of oil palm expansion biophysical processes play an important role and the full life cycle of oil palm plantations need to be considered.

  7. Convergent Evolution towards High Net Carbon Gain Efficiency Contributes to the Shade Tolerance of Palms (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Cavaleri, Molly A; Sterck, Frank; Strijk, Joeri S; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Most palm species occur in the shaded lower strata of tropical rain forests, but how their traits relate to shade adaptation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that palms are adapted to the shade of their native habitats by convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency (CGEn), which is given by the maximum photosynthetic rate to dark respiration rate ratio. Leaf mass per area, maximum photosynthetic rate, dark respiration and N and P concentrations were measured in 80 palm species grown in a common garden, and combined with data of 30 palm species growing in their native habitats. Compared to other species from the global leaf economics data, dicotyledonous broad-leaved trees in tropical rainforest or other monocots in the global leaf economics data, palms possessed consistently higher CGEn, achieved by lowered dark respiration and fairly high foliar P concentration. Combined phylogenetic analyses of evolutionary signal and trait evolution revealed convergent evolution towards high CGEn in palms. We conclude that high CGEn is an evolutionary strategy that enables palms to better adapt to shady environments than coexisting dicot tree species, and may convey advantages in competing with them in the tropical forest understory. These findings provide important insights for understanding the evolution and ecology of palms, and for understanding plant shade adaptations of lower rainforest strata. Moreover, given the dominant role of palms in tropical forests, these findings are important for modelling carbon and nutrient cycling in tropical forest ecosystems.

  8. Asháninka Palm Management and Domestication in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Sosnowska, Joanna; Walanus, Adam; Balslev, Henrik

    Palms are a natural resource that has been abundantly used by Amerindians for centuries. Only a few palm domestications have been reported in the American tropics, where there is great diversity of the Arecaceae family. We report the results of a survey combining ethnobotanical and ecological methods to study the past and present management and distribution of palms by the Asháninka indigenous people from the Tambo river region in the Peruvian Amazon. Our objectives were to document palm-related traditional ecological knowledge, to examine correlation between palm abundance and Asháninka management practices and social exchange of palm resources, and to address the question of how the Asháninka have modified palm diversity and distribution in their territory. We found that most palm species have multiple uses; the most intensively managed were palms that provide thatch, notably Attalea phalerata, Oenocarpus mapora and Phytelephas macrocarpa. Of these, Attalea phalerata was the most commonly cultivated and was found only in cultivated stands. Our results have implications for understanding the domestication of Attalea weberbaueri, which is a landrace within the Attalea phalerata complex. A closer understanding of this process would require morphometric and genetic methods to compare wild and managed populations.

  9. Isolation of palm oil-utilising, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing bacteria by an enrichment technique.

    PubMed

    Alias, Zazali; Tan, Irene K P

    2005-07-01

    In early attempts to isolate palm oil-utilising bacteria from palm oil mill effluent (POME), diluted liquid samples of POME were spread on agar containing POME as primary nutrient. 45 purified colonies were screened for intracellular lipids by staining with Sudan Black B. Of these, 10 isolates were positively stained. The latter were grown in a nitrogen-limiting medium with palm olein (a triglyceride) or saponified palm olein (salts of fatty acids) as carbon source. None of the isolates grew in the palm olein medium but all grew well in the saponified palm olein medium. Of the latter however, only one isolate was positively stained with Nile Blue A, indicating the presence of PHA. This method did not successfully generate bacterial isolates which could metabolise palm olein to produce PHA. An enrichment technique was therefore developed whereby a selective medium was designed. The latter comprised minerals and palm olein (1% w/v) as sole carbon source to which POME (2.5% v/v) was added as the source of bacteria. The culture was incubated with shaking at 30 degrees C for 4 weeks. Out of seven isolates obtained from the selective medium, two isolates, FLP1 and FLP2, could utilise palm olein for growth and production of the homopolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). FLP1 is gram-negative and is identified (BIOLOG) to have 80% similarity to Burkholderia cepacia. When grown with propionate or valerate, FLP1 produced a copolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate).

  10. Super-resolution mapping of glutamate receptors in C. elegans by confocal correlated PALM

    PubMed Central

    Vangindertael, Jeroen; Beets, Isabel; Rocha, Susana; Dedecker, Peter; Schoofs, Liliane; Vanhoorelbeeke, Karen; Hofkens, Johan; Mizuno, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) is a super-resolution imaging technique based on the detection and subsequent localization of single fluorescent molecules. PALM is therefore a powerful tool in resolving structures and putative interactions of biomolecules at the ultimate analytical detection limit. However, its limited imaging depth restricts PALM mostly to in vitro applications. Considering the additional need for anatomical context when imaging a multicellular organism, these limitations render the use of PALM in whole animals difficult. Here we integrated PALM with confocal microscopy for correlated imaging of the C. elegans nervous system, a technique we termed confocal correlated PALM (ccPALM). The neurons, lying below several tissue layers, could be visualized up to 10 μm deep inside the animal. By ccPALM, we visualized ionotropic glutamate receptor distributions in C. elegans with an accuracy of 20 nm, revealing super-resolution structure of receptor clusters that we mapped onto annotated neurons in the animal. Pivotal to our results was the TIRF-independent detection of single molecules, achieved by genetic regulation of labeled receptor expression and localization to effectively reduce the background fluorescence. By correlating PALM with confocal microscopy, this platform enables dissecting biological structures with single molecule resolution in the physiologically relevant context of whole animals. PMID:26323790

  11. Secondary stem lengthening in palms: response to commentary by Tomlinson and Quinn.

    PubMed

    Renninger, Heidi J; Phillips, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    In this response, we address the criticisms put forth by Tomlinson and Quinn (American Journal of Botany 100: 461-464) about our original publication on secondary stem lengthening in Iriartea deltoidea palms (American Journal of Botany 99: 607-613) and find areas on which we may agree. We address our figure of a typical palm vascular bundle; the location, timing, and species where secondary lengthening would likely occur; and our measurement of internodes in various palms as well as our choice of individuals. Our original observations were a novel finding in the field of palm biology, and we invite more research and investigation on this subject.

  12. Convergent Evolution towards High Net Carbon Gain Efficiency Contributes to the Shade Tolerance of Palms (Arecaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Cavaleri, Molly A.; Sterck, Frank; Strijk, Joeri S.; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Most palm species occur in the shaded lower strata of tropical rain forests, but how their traits relate to shade adaptation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that palms are adapted to the shade of their native habitats by convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency (CGEn), which is given by the maximum photosynthetic rate to dark respiration rate ratio. Leaf mass per area, maximum photosynthetic rate, dark respiration and N and P concentrations were measured in 80 palm species grown in a common garden, and combined with data of 30 palm species growing in their native habitats. Compared to other species from the global leaf economics data, dicotyledonous broad-leaved trees in tropical rainforest or other monocots in the global leaf economics data, palms possessed consistently higher CGEn, achieved by lowered dark respiration and fairly high foliar P concentration. Combined phylogenetic analyses of evolutionary signal and trait evolution revealed convergent evolution towards high CGEn in palms. We conclude that high CGEn is an evolutionary strategy that enables palms to better adapt to shady environments than coexisting dicot tree species, and may convey advantages in competing with them in the tropical forest understory. These findings provide important insights for understanding the evolution and ecology of palms, and for understanding plant shade adaptations of lower rainforest strata. Moreover, given the dominant role of palms in tropical forests, these findings are important for modelling carbon and nutrient cycling in tropical forest ecosystems. PMID:26461108

  13. Use of palm trees as a sleeping site for hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Amy; Swedell, Larissa

    2008-02-01

    Hamadryas baboons sleep on cliffs throughout their range, and this can be attributed to the safety cliffs provide against predators in the absence of tall trees. In this paper, we report the first documented occurrence of hamadryas baboons sleeping in doum palm trees rather than on cliffs. Data derive from a study of hamadryas baboons at the Filoha site in lowland Ethiopia. During all-day follows, data were collected on travel patterns, band activity, and location. Variation in the baboons' home range was characterized using vegetation transects. We discovered that one band in this population, Band 3, occasionally slept in doum palm trees (Hyphaene thebaica). The palm tree sleeping site differed from other palm fragments in the baboons' home range in that it contained a higher density of palm trees. Possible factors influencing this unique use of palm trees as a sleeping site include access to palm fruit, avoiding contact with Afar nomads, avoiding sharing sleeping cliffs with other bands, protection from predators, and the lack of cliffs in a section of the baboons' home range. Evidence from this study suggests that the palm tree sleeping site is used because it affords better protection from predators than other palm fragments in an area of the band's home range that does not contain cliffs.

  14. Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

  15. Auto Guided Oil Palm Planter by using multi-GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Aini, I.; W, Aimrun; Amin, M. S. M.; Ezrin, M. H.; Shafri, H. Z.

    2014-06-01

    Planting is one of the most important operations in plantation because it could affect the total area of productivity since it is the starting point in cultivation. In oil palm plantation, lining and spacing of oil palm shall be laid out and coincided with the topographic area and a system of drains. Conventionally, planting of oil palm will require the polarization process in order to prevent and overcome the lack of influence of the sun rise and get a regular crop row. Polarization is done after the completion of the opening area by using the spike wood with 1 m length painted at the top and 100 m length of wire. This process will generally require at least five persons at a time to pull the wire and carry the spikes while the other two persons will act as observer and spikes craftsmen respectively with the ability of the team is 3ha/day. Therefore, the aim of this project is to develop the oil palm planting technique by using multi- GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). Generally, this project will involve five main steps mainly; design of planting pattern by using SOLIDWORKS software, determine the boundary coordinate of planting area, georeference process with ArcGIS, stakeout process with Tracy software and finally marking up the location with the wooden spikes. The results proved that the multi- GNSS is capable to provide the high accuracy with less than 1 m in precise positioning system without augmentation data. With the ability of one person, time taken to complete 70 m × 50 m planting area is 290 min, which is 25 min faster than using GPS (Global Positioning System) only.

  16. Folk Epidemiology Recorded in Palm Leaf Manuscripts of Laos

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Bethany G.; Sydara, Kongmany; Hartmann, John F.; Southavong, Bounhong; Soejarto, D. Doel

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to preserve traditional medicine knowledge and to uncover information about disease patterns and treatment in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), linguistic experts have scanned centuries-old medical palm leaf manuscripts for disease entries. A list of more than 7000 diseases has resulted, shedding valuable light onto the medical history and traditional medicine heritage of the people of Laos, as well as providing an index for faster research into specific diseases and their traditional treatments. PMID:23847746

  17. The Walter Reed palm-held psychomotor vigilance test.

    PubMed

    Thorne, David R; Johnson, Dagny E; Redmond, Daniel P; Sing, Helen C; Belenky, Gregory; Shapiro, Jordan M

    2005-02-01

    This field-portable reaction time test and analysis software run on devices using the Palm operating system. It is designed to emulate a test and commercial device widely used in sleep deprivation, shift work, fatigue, and stimulant drug research but provides additional capabilities. Experimental comparisons with the standard commercial device in a 40-hour total sleep deprivation study show it to be comparably sensitive to selected experimental variables. A Pocket PC-compatible version is under developement.

  18. A full body mathematical model of an oil palm harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumit, NP; Rambely, A. S.; BMT, Shamsul; Shahriman A., B.; Ng Y., G.; Deros, B. M.; Zailina, H.; Goh Y., M.; Arumugam, Manohar; Ismail I., A.; Abdul Hafiz A., R.

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of this article is to develop a mathematical model of human body during harvesting via Kane's method. This paper is an extension model of previous biomechanical model representing a harvester movement during harvesting a Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) from a palm oil tree. The ten segment model consists of foot, leg, trunk, the head and the arms segment. Finally, the inverse dynamic equations are represented in a matrix form.

  19. Amazonian Native Palm Fruits as Sources of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Mary de Fátima Guedes; Mamede, Rosa Virginia Soares; Rufino, Maria do Socorro Moura; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Alves, Ricardo Elesbão

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region has many sources of fruits, especially native ones not yet explored, but which have some potential for use, as is the case with certain palms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacities of fruits from native palms from the Brazilian Amazon. The fruits of five palm species (bacaba, buriti, inajá, pupunha, and tucumã) were evaluated for levels of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, total carotenoids, and total extractable polyphenols, as well as the total antioxidant capacities. The fruits had high contents of extractable total polyphenols, especially bacaba and tucumã (941.56 and 158.98 mg of galic acid·100g−1), total carotenoids in the case of tucumã and buriti (7.24 and 4.67 mg·100g−1), and anthocyanins in bacaba (80.76 mg·100g−1). As for the antioxidant capacity, bacaba had the highest total antioxidant activity by the Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC) (194.67 µM·Trolox·g−1), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (47.46 g·pulp·g−1 DPPH), and β-carotene/linoleic acid (92.17% Oxidation Inhibition (O.I) methods. Bacaba phenolic profile revealed the presence of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and other flavonoids. The palm fruits studied can be considered good sources of bioactive compounds, some containing higher amounts than that of commonly consumed fruits. Total extractable polyphenols and anthocyanins were directly correlated to antioxidant activity in these fruits. PMID:26783846

  20. Amazonian Native Palm Fruits as Sources of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Mary de Fátima Guedes; Mamede, Rosa Virginia Soares; Rufino, Maria do Socorro Moura; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Alves, Ricardo Elesbão

    2015-09-07

    The Amazon region has many sources of fruits, especially native ones not yet explored, but which have some potential for use, as is the case with certain palms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacities of fruits from native palms from the Brazilian Amazon. The fruits of five palm species (bacaba, buriti, inajá, pupunha, and tucumã) were evaluated for levels of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, total carotenoids, and total extractable polyphenols, as well as the total antioxidant capacities. The fruits had high contents of extractable total polyphenols, especially bacaba and tucumã (941.56 and 158.98 mg of galic acid·100g(-1)), total carotenoids in the case of tucumã and buriti (7.24 and 4.67 mg·100g(-1)), and anthocyanins in bacaba (80.76 mg·100g(-1)). As for the antioxidant capacity, bacaba had the highest total antioxidant activity by the Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC) (194.67 µM·Trolox·g(-1)), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (47.46 g·pulp·g(-1) DPPH), and β-carotene/linoleic acid (92.17% Oxidation Inhibition (O.I) methods. Bacaba phenolic profile revealed the presence of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and other flavonoids. The palm fruits studied can be considered good sources of bioactive compounds, some containing higher amounts than that of commonly consumed fruits. Total extractable polyphenols and anthocyanins were directly correlated to antioxidant activity in these fruits.

  1. Dermatoglyphics of fingers and palm in Klinefelter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, B R; Ghosh, S K; Pal, A K

    2010-09-01

    Dermatoglyphics is important in anthropology and medical genetics, chiefly because of their diagnostic usefulness. We studied the ridges of finger tips and palm in six Klinefelter's syndrome patients (47,XXY) in the present work. Then the results were compared with equal number of controls. Statistical analysis was done using EPI- info, version- 6.04 d software. We found statistically significant increased in whorls and decreased in loops in klinefelter's syndrome patients as compared to the controls.

  2. Hydrogeology of Palm Valley, central Australia; a Pleistocene flora refuge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischusen, John D. H.; Fifield, L. Keith; Cresswell, Richard G.

    2004-06-01

    The Palm Valley Oasis (Finke Gorge National Park) in arid central Australia is characterised by large stands of red cabbage palm trees ( Livistona mariae). How these unique plants, over 1000 km away from nearest relatives in the tropical parts of northern Australia persist, has long fascinated visitors. The hydrogeology of this area helps explain this phenomenon. Stable isotope (δ 2H, δ 8O) analyses shows groundwater to have a uniform composition that plots on or near a local meteoric water line. Carbon-14 results are observed to vary throughout this aquifer from effectively dead (<4%) to 87% modern carbon. Ratios of chlorine-36 to chloride range from 130 to 290×10 -1536Cl/Cl. In this region atmospheric 36Cl/Cl ratio is around 300×10 -15. Thus an age range of around 300 ka is indicated if, as is apparent radioactive decay is the only significant cause of 36Cl/Cl variation within the aquifer. The classic homogenous aquifer with varying surface topography flow model is the simplest conceptual model that need be invoked to explain these data. Complexities, associated with local topography flow cells superimposed on the regional gradient, may mean groundwater with markedly different flow path lengths has been sampled. This potential flow path complexity, which is also evidenced by slight variation in groundwater cation ratios, can account for the distribution of isotope age data throughout the aquifer. Given the likely very slow travel times indicated by this aquifer's hydraulic properties, age differences of the magnitude indicated from chlorine-36 data are feasible. The likely slow travel times (>100 ka) along some flow paths indicate groundwater discharge would endure through arid phases associated with Quaternary climate oscillations. Such a flow system can explain the persistence of this population of Palms and also highlight the possibility that Palm Valley has acted as a flora refuge since at least the mid Pleistocene.

  3. [Allergic responses to date palm and pecan pollen in Israel].

    PubMed

    Waisel, Y; Keynan, N; Gil, T; Tayar, D; Bezerano, A; Goldberg, A; Geller-Bernstein, C; Dolev, Z; Tamir, R; Levy, I

    1994-03-15

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and pecan (Carya illinoensis) trees are commonly planted in Israel for fruit, for shade, or as ornamental plants. Pollen grains of both species are allergenic; however, the extent of exposure to such pollen and the incidence of allergic response have not been studied here. We therefore investigated skin-test responses to pollen extracts of 12 varieties of palm and 9 of pecan in 705 allergic patients living in 3 cities and 19 rural settlements. Sensitivity to the pollen extracts of both species was much higher among residents of rural than of urban communities. Moreover, there was a definite relationship between the abundance of these trees in a region and the incidence of skin responders to their pollen. Sensitivity was frequent in settlements rich in these 2 species, such as those with nearby commercial date or pecan plantations. In general, sensitivity to date pollen extracts was lower than to pecan. However, differences in skin responses to pollen extracts of various clones were substantiated. Air sampling revealed that pollen pollution decreased considerably with distance from the trees. At approximately 100 m from a source concentrations of airborne pollen were low. Since planting of male palm and pecan trees in population centers would increase pollen pollution, it should be avoided.

  4. The structure-mechanical relationship of palm vascular tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningling; Liu, Wangyu; Huang, Jiale; Ma, Ke

    2014-08-01

    The structure-mechanical relationship of palm sheath is studied with numerical and experimental methods. The cellular structure of the vascular tissue is rebuilt with an image-based reconstruction method and used to create finite element models. The validity of the models is firstly verified with the results from the tensile tests. Then, the cell walls inside each of the specific regions (fiber cap, vessel, xylem, etc.) are randomly removed to obtain virtually imperfect structures. By comparing the magnitudes of performance degradation in the different imperfect structures, the influences of each region on the overall mechanical performances of the vascular tissue are discussed. The longitudinal stiffness and yield strength are sensitive to the defects in the vessel regions. While in the transverse directions (including the radial and tangential directions), the parenchymatous tissue determines the mechanical properties of the vascular tissue. Moreover, the hydraulic, dynamic response and energy absorption behavior of the vascular tissue are numerically explored. The flexibility of natural palm tissue enhances its impact resistance. Under the quasi-static compression, the cell walls connecting the fiber cap and the vessel dissipate more energy. The dominant role of the fiber cap in the plastic energy dissipation under high-speed impact is observed. And the radially-arranged fiber cap also allows the palm tissue to improve its tangential mechanical performances under hydraulic pressure.

  5. Transcriptomic study of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yin, An; Pan, Linlin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Lei; Yin, Yuxin; Jia, Shangang; Liu, Wanfei; Xin, Chengqi; Liu, Kan; Yu, Xiaoguang; Sun, Gaoyuan; Al-hudaib, Khalid; Hu, Songnian; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S; Yu, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an invasive, concealed and destructive tissue borer, and it becomes a lethal pest of the palm family of plants and has been reported to attack 20 palm species around the globe. Here we report a systematic transcriptomic study on embryogenesis of RPW, where we analyze the transcriptomes across five developmental stages of RPW embryogenesis, involving four embryonic stages (E1, E2, E3 and E4) and one larval stage (L1). Using the RNA-seq and next-generation platforms, we generated 80 to 91 million reads for each library and assemble 22 532 genes that are expressed at different embryonic stages. Among the total transcripts from the five embryonic development stages, we found that 30.45 % are differentially expressed, 10.10 % show stage-specificity and even a larger fraction, 62.88 %, exhibit constitutive expression in all the stages. We also analyzes the expression dynamics of several conserved signaling pathways (such as Hedgehog, JAK-STAT, Notch, TGF-β, Ras/MAPK and Wnt), as well as key developmental genes, including those related to apoptosis, axis formation, Hox complex, neurogenesis and segmentation. The datasets provide an essential resource for gene annotation and RPW functional genomics, including studies by using tools and concepts from multiple disciplines, such as development, physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics.

  6. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  7. Computer-Vision-Assisted Palm Rehabilitation With Supervised Learning.

    PubMed

    Vamsikrishna, K M; Dogra, Debi Prosad; Desarkar, Maunendra Sankar

    2016-05-01

    Physical rehabilitation supported by the computer-assisted-interface is gaining popularity among health-care fraternity. In this paper, we have proposed a computer-vision-assisted contactless methodology to facilitate palm and finger rehabilitation. Leap motion controller has been interfaced with a computing device to record parameters describing 3-D movements of the palm of a user undergoing rehabilitation. We have proposed an interface using Unity3D development platform. Our interface is capable of analyzing intermediate steps of rehabilitation without the help of an expert, and it can provide online feedback to the user. Isolated gestures are classified using linear discriminant analysis (DA) and support vector machines (SVM). Finally, a set of discrete hidden Markov models (HMM) have been used to classify gesture sequence performed during rehabilitation. Experimental validation using a large number of samples collected from healthy volunteers reveals that DA and SVM perform similarly while applied on isolated gesture recognition. We have compared the results of HMM-based sequence classification with CRF-based techniques. Our results confirm that both HMM and CRF perform quite similarly when tested on gesture sequences. The proposed system can be used for home-based palm or finger rehabilitation in the absence of experts.

  8. Development and characterization of liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride with palm oil.

    PubMed

    Sabeti, Bahareh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohd, Shaharuddin; Hashim, Rosnani; Dahlan, Afendi; Javar, Hamid Akbari

    2014-01-01

    The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox). The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV) were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453 nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 ± 0.8 and 0.22 ± 1.3 and zeta potentials of about -31 and -32 mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37°C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with Caelyx(R) on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes.

  9. Development and Characterization of Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride with Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Sabeti, Bahareh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohd, Shaharuddin; Hashim, Rosnani; Akbari Javar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox). The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV) were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453 nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 ± 0.8 and 0.22 ± 1.3 and zeta potentials of about −31 and −32 mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37°C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with CaelyxR on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes. PMID:24795894

  10. Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, D.; Abd Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

  11. Re-esterified palm oils, compared to native palm oil, do not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia or growth performance in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Tres, A; Bayés-García, L; Parella, T; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2014-08-01

    Re-esterified palm oils are obtained from the chemical esterification of palm acid oils (rich in free fatty acids) with glycerol, both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively. Thus, re-esterified palm oils could be an economically interesting alternative to native palm oil in broiler chick diets. However, because they may have different physicochemical properties than have their corresponding native oil, we assessed the effect of fatty acid (FA) positional distribution within acylglycerol molecules and the effect of acylglycerol composition on FA apparent absorption, and their possible consequences on the evolution of postprandial lipemia and growth performance in broiler chicks. Seventy-two 1-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 18 cages. The three treatments used were the result of a basal diet supplemented with 6 wt% of native palm oil (N-TAG), re-esterified palm oil (E-TAG), or re-esterified palm oil high in mono- and diacylglycerols (E-MDAG). Chemical esterification raised the fraction of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position from 9.63 mol% in N-TAG oil to 17.9 mol% in E-TAG oil. Furthermore, E-MDAG oil presented a high proportion of mono- (23.1 wt%) and diacylglycerols (51.2 wt%), with FA mainly located at the sn-1,3 positions, which resulted in a lower gross-energy content and an increased solid-fat index at the chicken's body temperature. However, re-esterified palm oils did not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia, or growth performance, compared to native palm oil, so they can be used as alternative fat sources in broiler chick diets.

  12. Thermal profiles, crystallization behaviors and microstructure of diacylglycerol-enriched palm oil blends with diacylglycerol-enriched palm olein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yayuan; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Wang, Qiang; Peng, Zhen; Dong, Cao

    2016-07-01

    To elucidate the possible interaction mechanisms between DAG-enriched oils, this study investigated how mixtures of DAG-enriched palm-based oils influenced the phase behavior, thermal properties, crystallization behaviors and the microstructure in binary fat blends. DAG-enriched palm oil (PO-DAGE) was blended with DAG-enriched palm olein (POL-DAGE) in various percentages (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, 90%, 100%). Based on the observation of iso-solid diagram and phase diagram, the binary mixture of PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE showed a better compatibility in comparison with their corresponding original blends. DSC thermal profiles exhibited that the melting and crystallization properties of PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE were distinctively different from corresponding original blends. Crystallization kinetics revealed that PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE blends displayed a rather high crystallization rate and exhibited no spherulitic crystal growth. From the results of polarized light micrographs, PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE blends showed more dense structure with very small needle-like crystals than PO/POL. X-ray diffraction evaluation revealed when POL-DAGE was added in high contents to PO-DAGE, above 30%, β-polymorph dominated, and the mount of β' forms crystals was decreasing.

  13. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (<10 years old), as young oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  14. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  15. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  16. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  17. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  18. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.861 Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil,...

  19. 76 FR 22747 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holdings, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., RailTex, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holdings, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp...America, Inc. (RailAmerica),\\1\\ Palm Beach Holdings, Inc. (Palm Beach), RailAmerica Transportation Corp...., South Carolina Central Railroad Company, LLC, Toledo, Peoria & Western Railway Corporation, and...

  20. 75 FR 23253 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Central Palm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    .... ADDRESSES: The public scoping workshop will be held at the Town of South Palm Beach Town Hall, 3577 South Ocean Boulevard, South Palm Beach, Florida. The workshop will give agencies and the public an... Beach, South Palm Beach, Lantana, and Manalapan. The Corps will be evaluating a Department of the...

  1. De novo genome sequencing and comparative genomics of the date palm Phoenix dactylifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Date Palm has been vital to the Middle East and other arid regions of the world for more than 5000 years. The date palm's ability to withstand extremely harsh conditions, while producing highly nutritious fruit with relatively minimal care, makes it a good candidate for improving arid land agricultu...

  2. A case study of pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2013-05-01

    Biomass seems to have a great potential as a source of renewable energy compared with other sources. The use of biomass as a source of energy could help to reduce the wastes and also to minimize the dependency on non-renewable energy, hence minimize environmental degradation. Among other types of biomass, oil palm wastes are the major contribution for energy production in Malaysia since Malaysia is one of the primary palm oil producers in the world. Currently, Malaysia's plantation area covers around 5 million hectares. In the oil palm mill, only 10% palm oil is produced and the other 90% is in the form of wastes such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm shells (OPS), oil palm fibre (OPFb) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). If these wastes are being used as a source of renewable energy, it is believed that it will help to increase the country's economy. Recently, the most potential and efficient thermal energy conversion technology is pyrolysis process. The objective of this paper is to review the current research on pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia. The scope of this paper is to discuss on the types of pyrolysis process and its production. At present, most of the research conducted in this country is on EFB and OPS by fast, slow and microwave-assisted pyrolysis processes for fuel applications.

  3. 76 FR 36014 - Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... floor of Class C airspace to 1,600 feet MSL within an area overlying, and to the south of, the Palm... Airport and US 1, on the south by a 10-mile radius of the Palm Beach International Airport, and on the... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace;...

  4. Factors impacting the formation of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) fatty acid diesters during palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil production.

    PubMed

    Craft, Brian D; Nagy, Kornél; Sandoz, Laurence; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Recently, organic and inorganic chlorinated compounds were detected in crude and commercially refined palm oils. Further, the predominant formation mechanism of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) diesters at high temperatures (>170-180°C) was revealed. The present study involved the development and comparison of solutions to mitigate MCPD diester levels in oils from various stages of palm oil production. Partially refined palm oil samples and oil extracted from fresh palm fruits were submitted to bench-top deodorisation experiments. Application of glycerol and ethanol as refining aids during the deodorisation of refined-bleached palm oil proved to be moderately effective; about 25%-35% reduction of MCPD diester levels was achieved. Washing crude palm oil with ethanol-water (1:1) prior to deodorisation was also an effective strategy yielding an ∼30% reduction of MCPD diester contents. Washing palm fruit pulp before oil extraction, however, was most impactful, resulting in a 95% reduction of MCPD diesters when compared to the deodorised control oil. This suggests that intervention upstream in the process chain is most efficient in reducing levels of these contaminants in refined oils. Following the study, a root-cause analysis was performed in order to map the parameters potentially responsible for the occurrence of MCPD diesters in refined palm oil and related fractions.

  5. A Gathering Storm: How Palm Beach County Schools Fail Poor and Minority Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmona, Lisa A.; Wheelock, Anne; First, Joan

    This report takes a hard look at the day-to-day workings of Palm Beach County (Florida) schools to explain why the systemic change model of Florida's current reform legislation is likely to fail the students in greatest need of improved schooling. The Palm Beach County School District is the 4th largest district in Florida, and the 15th largest in…

  6. Implementation Study of the Comprehensive Services Program of Palm Beach County, Florida. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Sandra; Karlstrom, Mikael; Haywood, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The Comprehensive Services Program of Palm Beach County, Florida, was an ambitious and innovative effort to improve the school readiness of low-income children in Palm Beach County by identifying needs early and providing early intervention services to support physical, cognitive, and emotional health and development. Services were delivered to…

  7. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, T.; Lim, F. K. S.; Lee, J. S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land. PMID:27853605

  8. Physico-mechanical properties of chemically treated palm and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene composites.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Mominul; Hasan, Mahbub; Islam, Md Saiful; Ali, Md Ershad

    2009-10-01

    In this work, palm and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene bio-composites were manufactured using a single extruder and injection molding machine. Raw palm and coir were chemically treated with benzene diazonium salt to increase their compatibility with the polypropylene matrix. Both raw and treated palm and coir fiber at five level of fiber loading (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 wt.%) was utilized during composite manufacturing. Microstructural analysis and mechanical tests were conducted. Comparison has been made between the properties of the palm and coir fiber composites. Treated fiber reinforced specimens yielded better mechanical properties compared to the raw composites, while coir fiber composites had better mechanical properties than palm fiber ones. Based on fiber loading, 30% fiber reinforced composites had the optimum set of mechanical properties.

  9. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.

  10. Catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels: optimization studies.

    PubMed

    Tamunaidu, Pramila; Bhatia, Subhash

    2007-12-01

    Oil palm is widely grown in Malaysia. Palm oil has attracted the attention of researchers to develop an 'environmentally friendly' and high quality fuel, free of nitrogen and sulfur. In the present study, the catalytic cracking of palm oil to biofuel was studied over REY catalyst in a transport riser reactor at atmospheric pressure. The effect of reaction temperature (400-500 degrees C), catalyst/palm oil ratio (5-10) and residence time (10-30s) was studied over the yield of bio-gasoline and gas as fuel. Design of experiments was used to study the effect of operating variables over conversion of palm oil and yield of hydrocarbon fuel. The response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum value of the operating variables for maximum yield of bio-gasoline fraction in the liquid product obtained.

  11. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds.

    PubMed

    Soliman, T; Lim, F K S; Lee, J S H; Carrasco, L R

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land.

  12. Palm oil industry: A review of the literature on the modelling approaches and potential solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabid, M. Faeid M.; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-01

    Palm oil industry plays an important role as a backbone to the economy of a country, especially in many developing countries. Various issues related to the palm oil context have been studied rigorously by previous researchers using appropriate modeling approaches. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of existing modeling approaches used by researchers in studying several issues in the palm oil industry. However, there are still limited numbers of researches that focus to determine the impact of strategy policies on palm oil studies. Furthermore, this paper introduces an improved system dynamics and genetic algorithm technique to facilitate the policy design process in palm oil industry. The proposed method is expected to become a framework for structured policy design process to assist the policy maker in evaluating and designing appropriate policies.

  13. Two new records of palm species for Gabon: Sclerosperma profizianum Valk. & Sunder. and Eremospatha quiquecostulata Becc.

    PubMed Central

    Bourobou Bourobou, Paul Henri; Niangadouma, Raoul; Issembe, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Gabon is an important center of biodiversity in Central Africa. The country contains to date 27 species of palms. However, palms are generally poorly collected as these massive plants are hard to press and curate. Thus, our understanding remains incomplete, especially in Central Africa. New information We report three new records of two palm species for Gabon: Sclerosperma profizianum Valk. & Sunder. and Eremospatha quiquecostulata Becc.. The former species was collected in southeast Gabon, near Ndindi, while the later was collected in the Massif du Chaillu and Monts de Cristal National Park (Crystal Mountains National Park). The total number of palm species for Gabon is now 29, making it an important centre of palm diversity in Central Africa. PMID:27956852

  14. Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschout, Hendrik; Lukes, Tomas; Sharipov, Azat; Szlag, Daniel; Feletti, Lely; Vandenberg, Wim; Dedecker, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Leutenegger, Marcel; Lasser, Theo; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Live-cell imaging of focal adhesions requires a sufficiently high temporal resolution, which remains a challenge for super-resolution microscopy. Here we address this important issue by combining photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) with super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). Using simulations and fixed-cell focal adhesion images, we investigate the complementarity between PALM and SOFI in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. This PALM-SOFI framework is used to image focal adhesions in living cells, while obtaining a temporal resolution below 10 s. We visualize the dynamics of focal adhesions, and reveal local mean velocities around 190 nm min-1. The complementarity of PALM and SOFI is assessed in detail with a methodology that integrates a resolution and signal-to-noise metric. This PALM and SOFI concept provides an enlarged quantitative imaging framework, allowing unprecedented functional exploration of focal adhesions through the estimation of molecular parameters such as fluorophore densities and photoactivation or photoswitching kinetics.

  15. Palm vein for efficient person recognition based on 2D Gabor filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jixing; He, Yuqing; Zhu, Jiadan; Gao, Xinru; Cui, Yongsheng

    2013-05-01

    Palm vein recognition is a relatively new method in biometrics. This paper presents an effective palm vein feature extraction approach for improving the efficiency of palm vein identification. In this paper, relevant preprocessing steps as rotation and extraction of the Region of Interest are presented. In feature extraction, multiple 2D Gabor filters with 4 orientations are employed to extract the phase information on a palm vein image, which is then merged into unique feature according to an encoding rule. Hamming distance is used for vein recognition. Experiments are carried on a selfmade palm vein database. Experimental results show that the method in this paper achieved a higher correct recognition rate and a faster speed.

  16. SARS-CoV infection in a restaurant from palm civet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Yan, Meiying; Xu, Huifang; Liang, Weili; Kan, Biao; Zheng, Bojian; Chen, Honglin; Zheng, Han; Xu, Yanmei; Zhang, Enmin; Wang, Hongxia; Ye, Jingrong; Li, Guichang; Li, Machao; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Yu-Fei; Guo, Rong-Tong; Liu, Xiao-Ning; Zhan, Liu-Hua; Zhou, Duan-Hua; Zhao, Ailan; Hai, Rong; Yu, Dongzhen; Guan, Yi; Xu, Jianguo

    2005-12-01

    Epidemiologic investigations showed that 2 of 4 patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) identified in the winter of 2003-2004 were a waitresss at a restaurant in Guangzhou, China, that served palm civets as food and a customer who ate in the restaurant ashort distance from animal cages. All 6 palm civets at the restaurant were positive for SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Partial spike (S) gene sequences of SARS-CoV from the 2 patients were identical to 4 of 5 Sgene viral sequences from palm civets. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SARS-CoV from palm civets in the restaurant was most closely related to animal isolates. SARS cases at the restaurant were the result of recent interspecies transfer from the putative palm civet reservoir, and not the result of continued circulation of SARS-CoV in the human population.

  17. Twenty-five years of progress in understanding pollination mechanisms in palms (Arecaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Background With more than 90 published studies of pollination mechanisms, the palm family is one of the better studied tropical families of angiosperms. Understanding palm–pollinator interactions has implications for tropical silviculture, agroforestry and horticulture, as well as for our understanding of palm evolution and diversification. We review the rich literature on pollination mechanisms in palms that has appeared since the last review of palm pollination studies was published 25 years ago. Scope and Conclusions Visitors to palm inflorescences are attracted by rewards such as food, shelter and oviposition sites. The interaction between the palm and its visiting fauna represents a trade-off between the services provided by the potential pollinators and the antagonistic activities of other insect visitors. Evidence suggests that beetles constitute the most important group of pollinators in palms, followed by bees and flies. Occasional pollinators include mammals (e.g. bats and marsupials) and even crabs. Comparative studies of palm–pollinator interactions in closely related palm species document transitions in floral morphology, phenology and anatomy correlated with shifts in pollination vectors. Synecological studies show that asynchronous flowering and partitioning of pollinator guilds may be important regulators of gene flow between closely related sympatric taxa and potential drivers of speciation processes. Studies of larger plant–pollinator networks point out the importance of competition for pollinators between palms and other flowering plants and document how the insect communities in tropical forest canopies probably influence the reproductive success of palms. However, published studies have a strong geographical bias towards the South American region and a taxonomic bias towards the tribe Cocoseae. Future studies should try to correct this imbalance to provide a more representative picture of pollination mechanisms and their evolutionary

  18. Characterizing commercial oil palm expansion in Latin America: land use change and trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furumo, Paul Richard; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2017-02-01

    Commodity crop expansion has increased with the globalization of production systems and consumer demand, linking distant socio-ecological systems. Oil palm plantations are expanding in the tropics to satisfy growing oilseed and biofuel markets, and much of this expansion has caused extensive deforestation, especially in Asia. In Latin America, palm oil output has doubled since 2001, and the majority of expansion seems to be occurring on non-forested lands. We used MODIS satellite imagery (250 m resolution) to map current oil palm plantations in Latin America and determined prior land use and land cover (LULC) using high-resolution images in Google Earth. In addition, we compiled trade data to determine where Latin American palm oil flows, in order to better understand the underlying drivers of expansion in the region. Based on a sample of 342 032 ha of oil palm plantations across Latin America, we found that 79% replaced previously intervened lands (e.g. pastures, croplands, bananas), primarily cattle pastures (56%). The remaining 21% came from areas that were classified as woody vegetation (e.g. forests), most notably in the Amazon and the Petén region in northern Guatemala. Latin America is a net exporter of palm oil but the majority of palm oil exports (70%) stayed within the region, with Mexico importing about half. Growth of the oil palm sector may be driven by global factors, but environmental and economic outcomes vary between regions (i.e. Asia and Latin America), within regions (i.e. Colombia and Peru), and within single countries (i.e. Guatemala), suggesting that local conditions are influential. The present trend of oil palm expanding onto previously cleared lands, guided by roundtable certifications programs, provides an opportunity for more sustainable development of the oil palm sector in Latin America.

  19. Impacts of current and projected oil palm plantation expansion on air quality over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Sam J.; Heald, Colette L.; Geddes, Jeffrey A.; Austin, Kemen G.; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Marlier, Miriam E.

    2016-08-01

    Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA). According to the United Nations, oil palm production in SEA increased by a factor of 3 from 1995 to 2010. We investigate the impacts of current (2010) and near-term future (2020) projected oil palm expansion in SEA on surface-atmosphere exchange and the resulting air quality in the region. For this purpose, we use satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Relative to a no oil palm plantation scenario (˜ 1990), overall simulated isoprene emissions in the region increased by 13 % due to oil palm plantations in 2010 and a further 11 % in the near-term future. In addition, the expansion of palm plantations leads to local increases in ozone deposition velocities of up to 20 %. The net result of these changes is that oil palm expansion in SEA increases surface O3 by up to 3.5 ppbv over dense urban regions, and in the near-term future could rise more than 4.5 ppbv above baseline levels. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol loadings also increase by up to 1 µg m-3 due to oil palm expansion, and could increase by a further 2.5 µg m-3 in the near-term future. Our analysis indicates that while the impact of recent oil palm expansion on air quality in the region has been significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the current constellation of satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space. Oil palm expansion is likely to continue to degrade air quality in the region in the coming decade and hinder efforts to achieve air quality regulations in major urban areas such as Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.

  20. Testing the Effects of an Introduced Palm on a Riparian Invertebrate Community in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Theresa Sinicrope; Nguyen, Kim-Chi; Nguyen, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Despite the iconic association of palms with semi-arid regions, most are introduced and can invade natural areas. Along the San Diego River (San Diego, California, USA), the introduced Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) forms dense patches among native riparian shrubs like arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis). The structural differences between the palm and native shrubs are visually obvious, but little is known about palm’s effects on the ecosystem. We tested for the effects of the palm on a riparian invertebrate community in June 2011 by comparing the faunal and environmental variables associated with palm and willow canopies, trunks and ground beneath each species. The palm invertebrate community had lower abundance and diversity, fewer taxa feeding on the host (e.g., specialized hemipterans), and more taxa likely using only the plant’s physical structure (e.g., web-builders, oak moths, willow hemipterans). There were no observed effects on the ground-dwelling fauna. Faunal differences were due to the physical and trophic changes associated with palm presence, namely increased canopy density, unpalatable leaves, trunk rugosity, and litter accumulations. Palm presence and resulting community shifts may have further ecosystem-level effects through alteration of physical properties, food, and structural resources. These results were consistent with a recent study of invasive palm effects on desert spring arthropods, illustrating that effects may be relatively generalizable. Since spread of the palm is largely localized, but effects are dramatic where it does occur, we recommend combining our results with several further investigations in order to prioritize management decisions. PMID:22879991

  1. Synthesis of Transesterified Palm Olein-Based Polyol and Rigid Polyurethanes from this Polyol.

    PubMed

    Arniza, Mohd Zan; Hoong, Seng Soi; Idris, Zainab; Yeong, Shoot Kian; Hassan, Hazimah Abu; Din, Ahmad Kushairi; Choo, Yuen May

    Transesterification of palm olein with glycerol can increase the functionality by introducing additional hydroxyl groups to the triglyceride structure, an advantage compared to using palm olein directly as feedstock for producing palm-based polyol. The objective of this study was to synthesize transesterified palm olein-based polyol via a three-step reaction: (1) transesterification of palm olein, (2) epoxidation and (3) epoxide ring opening. Transesterification of palm olein yielded approximately 78 % monoglyceride and has an hydroxyl value of approximately 164 mg KOH g(-1). The effect of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide concentrations on the epoxidation reaction was studied. The relationships between epoxide ring-opening reaction time and residual oxirane oxygen content and hydroxyl value were monitored. The synthesized transesterified palm olein-based polyol has hydroxyl value between 300 and 330 mg KOH g(-1) and average molecular weight between 1,000 and 1,100 Da. On the basis of the hydroxyl value and average molecular weight of the polyol, the transesterified palm olein-based polyol is suitable for producing rigid polyurethane foam, which can be designed to exhibit desirable properties. Rigid polyurethane foams were synthesized by substituting a portion of petroleum-based polyol with the transesterified palm olein-based polyol. It was observed that by increasing the amount of transesterified palm olein-based polyol, the core density and compressive strength were reduced but at the same time the insulation properties of the rigid polyurethane foam were improved.

  2. Global diversification of a tropical plant growth form: environmental correlates and historical contingencies in climbing palms

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Condamine, Fabien L.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Rowe, Nick P.; Baker, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical rain forests (TRF) are the most diverse terrestrial biome on Earth, but the diversification dynamics of their constituent growth forms remain largely unexplored. Climbing plants contribute significantly to species diversity and ecosystem processes in TRF. We investigate the broad-scale patterns and drivers of species richness as well as the diversification history of climbing and non-climbing palms (Arecaceae). We quantify to what extent macroecological diversity patterns are related to contemporary climate, forest canopy height, and paleoclimatic changes. We test whether diversification rates are higher for climbing than non-climbing palms and estimate the origin of the climbing habit. Climbers account for 22% of global palm species diversity, mostly concentrated in Southeast Asia. Global variation in climbing palm species richness can be partly explained by past and present-day climate and rain forest canopy height, but regional differences in residual species richness after accounting for current and past differences in environment suggest a strong role of historical contingencies in climbing palm diversification. Climbing palms show a higher net diversification rate than non-climbers. Diversification analyses of palms detected a diversification rate increase along the branches leading to the most species-rich clade of climbers. Ancestral character reconstructions revealed that the climbing habit originated between early Eocene and Miocene. These results imply that changes from non-climbing to climbing habits may have played an important role in palm diversification, resulting in the origin of one fifth of all palm species. We suggest that, in addition to current climate and paleoclimatic changes after the late Neogene, present-day diversity of climbing palms can be explained by morpho-anatomical innovations, the biogeographic history of Southeast Asia, and/or ecological opportunities due to the diversification of high-stature dipterocarps in Asian TRFs

  3. Effects of palm and sunflower oils on serum cholesterol and fatty liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hee; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ∼49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver.

  4. Geomorphology of Upper Palm Wash, Anza Borrego Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, A.O.; Hansen, C.L.

    1988-05-01

    The Anza Borrego Desert has many geomorphic features to attract the attention of earth scientists. Deep, narrow stream channels, cut into Tertiary sedimentary rocks exposed west of the Salton Sea, have reaches that are almost devoid of alluvium and therefore are unprotected from the erosive work of running water. The usually dry, relatively small channels provide a microcosm in which to study desert landforms and processes associated with stream erosion and canyon formation. The processes and characteristics associated with these channels in Palm Wash are described in this article. 7 references.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  6. HMO encroachment. The Palm Beach County Medical Society's response.

    PubMed

    Fischer, L A

    1987-03-01

    In 1984, the Palm Beach County (Florida) Medical Society faced the invasion of an HMO which, via an expensive advertising plan, urged Medicare recipients to enroll in a program that promised free health care. As physicians watched more and more of their older patients transfer to the HMO, they turned to their local medical society, which formulated a response. It launched a public information campaign designed to give patients the necessary facts about HMOs so they could make an informed decision about joining. The article describe the specific steps the physicians took to battle the new competition.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Pyramids and Palm Trees Test.

    PubMed

    Klein, Liesa A; Buchanan, Jeffrey A

    2009-10-01

    The Pyramids and Palm Trees Test (PPT) is a nonverbal measure of semantic memory that has been frequently used in previous aphasia, agnosia, and dementia research. Very little psychometric information regarding the PPT is available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the PPT in a population of healthy college students. Results indicated that the PPT achieved poor test-retest reliability, failed to obtain adequate internal consistency, and demonstrated poor convergent validity, but showed acceptable discriminant validity. The results of this study suggest that the PPT lacks acceptable reliability and validity for use with a college student population.

  8. Effect of Repeatedly Heated Palm Olein on Blood Pressure—Regulating Enzymes Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xin-Fang, Leong; Jumat, Salimon; Mohd Rais, Mustafa; Kamsiah, Jaarin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The process of deep-fat frying in dietary cooking oil plays a role in the generation of free radicals. In this study, palm olein heated to 180 °C was tested for its effect on the activity of blood pressure–regulating enzymes and lipid peroxidation. Methods: Forty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned into 6 groups.The first group was fed with normal rat chow as the control group, and the subsequent groups were fed with rat chow fortified with 15% weight/weight of the following: fresh palm olein, palm olein heated once, palm olein heated twice, palm olein heated 5 times, or palm olein heated 10 times. The duration of feeding was 6 months. Fatty acid analyses of oil were performed using gas chromatography. Peroxide values were determined using standard titration. Plasma was collected for biochemical analyses. Results: Repeatedly heated palm olein increased the levels of peroxide, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and lipid peroxidation as well as reduced the level of heme oxygenase. Fresh palm olein and palm olein heated once had lesser effects on lipid peroxidation and a better effect on the activity of blood pressure–regulating enzymes than repeatedly heated palm olein. Conclusion: Repeatedly heated palm olein may negatively affect the activity of blood pressure–regulating enzymes and increase lipid peroxidation. PMID:22977371

  9. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  10. Combustion performance evaluation of air staging of palm oil blends.

    PubMed

    Mohd Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri; Eldrainy, Yehia A; Mat Ali, Muhammad Faiser; Wan Omar, W Z; Mohd Hizam, Mohd Faizi Arif

    2012-02-21

    The problems of global warming and the unstable price of petroleum oils have led to a race to develop environmentally friendly biofuels, such as palm oil or ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane. Biofuels are a potential replacement for fossil fuel, since they are renewable and environmentally friendly. This paper evaluates the combustion performance and emission characteristics of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO)/diesel blends B5, B10, B15, B20, and B25 by volume, using an industrial oil burner with and without secondary air. Wall temperature profiles along the combustion chamber axis were measured using a series of thermocouples fitted axially on the combustion chamber wall, and emissions released were measured using a gas analyzer. The results show that RBDPO blend B25 produced the maximum emission reduction of 56.9% of CO, 74.7% of NOx, 68.5% of SO(2), and 77.5% of UHC compared to petroleum diesel, while air staging (secondary air) in most cases reduces the emissions further. However, increasing concentrations of RBDPO in the blends also reduced the energy released from the combustion. The maximum wall temperature reduction was 62.7% for B25 at the exit of the combustion chamber.

  11. Defaunation leads to microevolutionary changes in a tropical palm.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Carolina S; Galetti, Mauro; Colevatti, Rosane G; Jordano, Pedro

    2016-08-18

    Many large species have declined worldwide due to habitat fragmentation and poaching. The defaunation of large frugivores and the consequent reductions of seed dispersal services may have immediate effects on plant demography. Yet, the lasting effects of frugivore defaunation on microevolutionary processes of the plants they disperse remain understudied. We tested if the loss of large seed dispersers can lead to microevolutionary changes of a tropical palm. We show that frugivore defaunation is the main driver of changes in allelic frequency among populations. Turnover of alleles accounted for 100% of dissimilarity in allelic frequencies of individuals between defaunated and non-defaunated forests; and individuals from defaunated sites are 1.5 times more similar genetically than those found in pristine sites. Given that sizeable fractions of the palm fruit crops remain undispersed in defaunated sites due to lack of large-bodied frugivores, this distinct pattern of gene pool composition of early recruits may reveal strong dispersal limitation for specific genotypes, or collapses of gene flow between fragmented areas, or both. Because most of tropical tree species rely on seed dispersal by vertebrates, our results show that defaunation has a lasting effect on microevolutionary processes, with potential consequences for persistence under scenarios of environmental change.

  12. Defaunation leads to microevolutionary changes in a tropical palm

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Carolina S.; Galetti, Mauro; Colevatti, Rosane G.; Jordano, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Many large species have declined worldwide due to habitat fragmentation and poaching. The defaunation of large frugivores and the consequent reductions of seed dispersal services may have immediate effects on plant demography. Yet, the lasting effects of frugivore defaunation on microevolutionary processes of the plants they disperse remain understudied. We tested if the loss of large seed dispersers can lead to microevolutionary changes of a tropical palm. We show that frugivore defaunation is the main driver of changes in allelic frequency among populations. Turnover of alleles accounted for 100% of dissimilarity in allelic frequencies of individuals between defaunated and non-defaunated forests; and individuals from defaunated sites are 1.5 times more similar genetically than those found in pristine sites. Given that sizeable fractions of the palm fruit crops remain undispersed in defaunated sites due to lack of large-bodied frugivores, this distinct pattern of gene pool composition of early recruits may reveal strong dispersal limitation for specific genotypes, or collapses of gene flow between fragmented areas, or both. Because most of tropical tree species rely on seed dispersal by vertebrates, our results show that defaunation has a lasting effect on microevolutionary processes, with potential consequences for persistence under scenarios of environmental change. PMID:27535709

  13. QbD implementation and Post Approval Lifecycle Management (PALM).

    PubMed

    Ohage, Ettore; Iverson, Raquel; Krummen, Lynne; Taticek, Ron; Vega, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Quality by design (QbD) is a global regulatory initiative with the goal of enhancing pharmaceutical development through the proactive design of pharmaceutical manufacturing process and controls to consistently deliver the intended performance of the product. The principles of pharmaceutical development relevant to QbD are described in the ICH guidance documents (ICHQ8-11) [1-3]. An integrated set of risk assessments and their related elements developed at Roche/Genentech were designed to provide an overview of product and process knowledge for the production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody. This chapter describes concepts for implementing the control strategy for a monoclonal antibody including a Design Space for routine commercial manufacturing, and the Post Approval Lifecycle Management (PALM) plan that is used to manage any remaining risks during the commercial lifecycle. The PALM plan is part of the submitted dossier in the regional section and serves as a regulatory agreement between the manufacturer and the health authority specifying how process and product attributes are monitored to ensure both remain within a controlled state post-approval, process parameter changes are managed within the design space, and the control system is updated as necessary based on further process and product knowledge.

  14. Tactile feedback to the palm using arbitrarily shaped DEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mößinger, Holger; Haus, Henry; Kauer, Michaela; Schlaak, Helmut F.

    2014-03-01

    Tactile stimulation enhances user experience and efficiency in human machine interaction by providing information via another sensory channel to the human brain. DEA as tactile interfaces have been in the focus of research in recent years. Examples are (vibro-) tactile keyboards or Braille displays. These applications of DEA focus mainly on interfacing with the user's fingers or fingertips only - demonstrating the high spatial resolution achievable with DEA. Besides providing a high resolution, the flexibility of DEA also allows designing free form surfaces equipped with single actuators or actuator matrices which can be fitted to the surface of the human skin. The actuators can then be used to provide tactile stimuli to different areas of the body, not to the fingertips only. Utilizing and demonstrating this flexibility we designed a free form DEA pad shaped to fit into the inside of the human palm. This pad consists of four single actuators which can provide e.g. directional information such as left, right, up and down. To demonstrate the value of such free form actuators we manufactured a PC-mouse using 3d printing processes. The actuator pad is mounted on the back of the mouse, resting against the palm while operating it. Software on the PC allows control of the vibration patterns displayed by the actuators. This allows helping the user by raising attention to certain directions or by discriminating between different modes like "pick" or "manipulate". Results of first tests of the device show an improved user experience while operating the PC mouse.

  15. Optimization of squalene produced from crude palm oil waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandira, Irda; Legowo, Evita H.; Widiputri, Diah I.

    2017-01-01

    Squalene is a hydrocarbon originally and still mostly extracted from shark liver oil. Due to environmental issues over shark hunting, there have been efforts to extract squalene from alternative sources, such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD), one of crude palm oil (CPO) wastes. Previous researches have shown that squalene can be extracted from PFAD using saponification process followed with liquid-liquid extraction process although the method had yet to be optimized in order to optimize the amount of squalene extracted from PFAD. The optimization was done by optimizing both processes of squalene extraction method: saponification and liquid-liquid extraction. The factors utilized in the saponification process optimization were KOH concentration and saponification duration while during the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) process optimization, the factors used were the volumes of distilled water and dichloromethane. The optimum percentage of squalene content in the extract (24.08%) was achieved by saponifying the PFAD with 50%w/v KOH for 60 minutes and subjecting the saponified PFAD to LLE, utilizing 100 ml of distilled water along with 3 times addition of fresh dichloromethane, 75 ml each; those factors would be utilized in the optimum squalene extraction method.

  16. Bio-char from treated and untreated oil palm fronds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati; Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul

    2013-05-01

    The palm oil industry generates almost 94% of biomass in Malaysia, while other agricultural and forestry by-products contribute the remaining of 6%. Oil palm fronds (OPF) are estimated to be the highest available biomass amounting to 44.84 million tonnes in Malaysia. However, studies on OPF for thermochemical conversion technology which has good potential for energy conversion are still lacking. In this work, pyrolysis of OPF is conducted by using a fixed bed reactor. Samples were carbonized at slow pyrolysis temperature of around 300 to 500°C with heating rate of 10°C min-1. In addition, samples were treated for 20 min with distilled water at ambient temperature to reduce the ash content. Effectiveness of pre-treatment can be determined by observing the percentage of ash content reduction of each sample after undergoing washing pre-treatment. At 300°C, the char yields of the untreated OPF were slightly higher at 50.95% compared to the treated sample at 49.77%. Approximately all bio-char from the treated samples have better high heating value (HHV) of around 18-20 MJ kg-1 compared to the untreated samples. Besides that, all treated OPF char is more carbon rich and considered to be environmental friendly due to its low nitrogen content compared to the untreated OPF char. In this work, microscopic analysis of OPF bio-char were also studied by observing and evaluating their structure surface and morphology.

  17. Biotechnology of oil palm: strategies towards manipulation of lipid content and composition.

    PubMed

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm is a major economic crop for Malaysia. The major challenges faced by the industry are labor shortage, availability of arable land and unstable commodity price. This has caused the industry to diversify its applications into higher value products besides increasing its yield. While conventional breeding has its limitations, biotechnology was identified as one of the tools for overcoming the above challenges. Research on biotechnology of oil palm began more than two decades ago leveraging a multidisciplinary approach involving biochemical studies, gene and promoter isolation, transformation vector construction and finally genetic transformation to produce the targeted products. The main target of oil palm biotechnology research is to increase oleic acid in the mesocarp. Other targets are stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, ricinoleic acid, lycopene (carotenoid) and biodegradable plastics. Significant achievements were reported for the biochemical studies, isolation of useful oil palm genes and characterization of important promoters. A large number of transformation constructs for various targeted products were successfully produced using the isolated oil palm genes and promoters. Finally transformation of these constructs into oil palm embryogenic calli was carried out while the regeneration of transgenic oil palm harboring the useful genes is in progress.

  18. Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

    This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

  19. In-situ data collection for oil palm tree height determination using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, C.; Loong, C. K.

    2016-04-01

    The oil palm is recognized as the “golden crop,” producing the highest oil yield among oil seed crops. Malaysia, the world's second largest producer of palm oil, has 16 per cent of its territory planted with oil palms. To cope with the increasing global demand on edible oil, additional areas of oil palm are forecast to increase globally by 12 to 19 million hectares by 2050. Due to the limited land bank in Malaysia, new strategies have to be developed to avoid unauthorized clearing of primary forest for the use of oil palm cultivation. Microwave remote sensing could play a part by providing relevant, timely and accurate information for a plantation monitoring system. The use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has the advantage of daylight- and weather-independence, a criterion that is very relevant in constantly cloud-covered tropical regions, such as Malaysia. Using interferometric SAR, (InSAR) topographical and tree height profiles of oil palm plantations can be created; such information is useful for mapping oil palm age profiles of the plantations in the country. This paper reports on the use of SAR and InSAR in a multisensory context to provide up-to-date information at plantation level. Remote sensing and in-situ data collection for tree height determination are described. Further research to be carried out over the next two years is outlined.

  20. Proteomic profiling of mature leaves from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Tan, Hooi Sin; Jacoby, Richard P; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Taylor, Nicolas L; Liddell, Susan; Chee, Wong Wei; Chin, Chiew Foan

    2017-02-15

    Oil palm is one of the most productive oil bearing crops grown in Southeast Asia. Due to the dwindling availability of agricultural land and increasing demand for high yielding oil palm seedlings, clonal propagation is vital to the oil palm industry. Most commonly, leaf explants are used for in vitro micropropagation of oil palm and to optimize this process it is important to unravel the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying somatic embryo production from leaves. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to determine protein abundance of mature oil palm leaves. To do this, leaf proteins were extracted using TCA/acetone precipitation protocol and separated by 2DE. A total of 191 protein spots were observed on the 2D gels and 67 of the most abundant protein spots that were consistently observed were selected for further analysis with 35 successfully identified using MALDI TOF/TOF MS. The majority of proteins were classified as being involved in photosynthesis, metabolism, cellular biogenesis, stress response, and transport. This study provides the first proteomic assessment of oil palm leaves in this important oil crop and demonstrates the successful identification of selected proteins spots using the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) Elaeis guineensis EST and NCBI-protein databases. The MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium database with the data set identifier PXD001307.

  1. Genetic analysis identifies the region of origin of smuggled peach palm seeds.

    PubMed

    Cristo-Araújo, Michelly; Molles, David Bronze; Rodrigues, Doriane Picanço; Clement, Charles R

    2017-04-01

    Seeds of a plant, supposedly a palm tree known popularly as peach palm (Bactris gasipaes), were seized by the Federal Police in the state of Pará, Brazil, without documentation of legal origin to authorize transportation and marketing in Brazil. They were alleged to be from the western part of Amazonas, Brazil, near the frontier with Peru and Colombia, justifying the lack of documentation. The species was confirmed to be peach palm. To determine the likely place of origin, a genetic analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the seized seeds and representative populations of peach palm from all of Amazonia, maintained in the Peach palm Core Collection, at the National Research Institute for Amazonia, using nine microsatellite loci. Reynolds' coancestry analysis showed a strong relationship between the seeds and the Pampa Hermosa landrace, around Yurimaguas, Peru. The Structure program, used to infer the probability of an individual belonging to a given population, showed that most seeds grouped with populations close to Yurimaguas, Peru, corroborating the coancestry analysis. The Pampa Hermosa landrace is the main source of spineless peach palm seeds used in the Brazilian heart-of-palm agribusiness, which motivated the smugglers to attempt this biopiracy.

  2. A Genome-Wide Survey of Date Palm Cultivars Supports Two Major Subpopulations in Phoenix dactylifera.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Lisa S; Seidel, Michael A; George, Binu; Mathew, Sweety; Spannagl, Manuel; Haberer, Georg; Torres, Maria F; Al-Dous, Eman K; Al-Azwani, Eman K; Diboun, Ilhem; Krueger, Robert R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Suhre, Karsten; Malek, Joel A

    2015-05-08

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is intimately tied to the history of human civilization. There are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors, and sizes growing mainly in arid lands from the west of North Africa to India. The origin of date palm domestication is still uncertain, and few studies have attempted to document genetic diversity across multiple regions. We conducted genotyping-by-sequencing on 70 female cultivar samples from across the date palm-growing regions, including four Phoenix species as the outgroup. Here, for the first time, we generate genome-wide genotyping data for 13,000-65,000 SNPs in a diverse set of date palm fruit and leaf samples. Our analysis provides the first genome-wide evidence confirming recent findings that the date palm cultivars segregate into two main regions of shared genetic background from North Africa and the Arabian Gulf. We identify genomic regions with high densities of geographically segregating SNPs and also observe higher levels of allele fixation on the recently described X-chromosome than on the autosomes. Our results fit a model with two centers of earliest cultivation including date palms autochthonous to North Africa. These results adjust our understanding of human agriculture history and will provide the foundation for more directed functional studies and a better understanding of genetic diversity in date palm.

  3. Preparation of palm olein enriched with medium chain fatty acids by lipase acidolysis.

    PubMed

    Chnadhapuram, Mounika; Sunkireddy, Yella Reddy

    2012-05-01

    Medium chain (MC) fatty acids, caprylic (C8:0) and capric (C10:0) were incorporated into palm olein by 1,3-specific lipase acidolysis, up to 36% and 43%, respectively, when added as mixtures or individually after 24h. It was found that these acids were incorporated into palm olein at the expense of palmitic and oleic acids, the former being larger in quantity and reduction of 18:2 was negligible. The modified palm olein products showed reduction in higher molecular weight triacylglycerols (TGs) and increase in concentration of lower molecular weight TGs compared to those of palm olein. Fatty acids at sn-2 position in modified products were: C10:0, 4%; C16:0, 13%; C18:1, 66%; and C18:2, 15.4%. DSC results showed that the onset of melting and solids fat content were considerably reduced in modified palm olein products and no solids were found even at and below 10°C and also the onset of crystallisation was considerably lowered. The cloud point was reduced and iodine value dropped from 55.4 to 38 in modified palm olein. Thus, nutritionally superior palm olein was prepared by introducing MC fatty acids with reduced palmitic acid through lipase acidolysis.

  4. Interactions Between the Bud Rot Disease of Oil Palm and Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; de Sousa Ramalho, Francisco; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) causes great losses to the oil palm plantations, and therefore, the spatial and temporal distribution of this insect should be studied, to manage its populations. Insect sampling was done for 2 yr in an oil palm plantation from Colombia. In total, 60 pheromone traps were used in healthy palm trees and infected ones with the Bud Rot disease. On the other hand, developmental stages of this insect were quantified on healthy and diseased palms for two consecutive years. Number of adult R. palmarum per sampling was higher in the plantation with diseased palm trees, 3.85 and 74.7 insects per trap, than in those with healthy ones, 1.91 and 9.48 insects per trap, in the first and second years, respectively. After the integration of pheromone traps, there was a significant increase in the infestation level at all stages of development of the insect. For the first time, the presence of R. palmarum attracted to diseased palms is reported. The association between R. palmarum and the Bud Rot disease is a cause of death and great loss to the oil palm plantations.

  5. The impact of tropical forest logging and oil palm agriculture on the soil microbiome.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Binu M; Edwards, David P; Mendes, Lucas William; Kim, Mincheol; Dong, Ke; Kim, Hyoki; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Selective logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture are rapidly altering tropical forests. However, functional responses of the soil microbiome to these land-use changes are poorly understood. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared composition and functional attributes of soil biota between unlogged, once-logged and twice-logged rainforest, and areas converted to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo. Although there was no significant effect of logging history, we found a significant difference between the taxonomic and functional composition of both primary and logged forests and oil palm. Oil palm had greater abundances of genes associated with DNA, RNA, protein metabolism and other core metabolic functions, but conversely, lower abundance of genes associated with secondary metabolism and cell-cell interactions, indicating less importance of antagonism or mutualism in the more oligotrophic oil palm environment. Overall, these results show a striking difference in taxonomic composition and functional gene diversity of soil microorganisms between oil palm and forest, but no significant difference between primary forest and forest areas with differing logging history. This reinforces the view that logged forest retains most features and functions of the original soil community. However, networks based on strong correlations between taxonomy and functions showed that network complexity is unexpectedly increased due to both logging and oil palm agriculture, which suggests a pervasive effect of both land-use changes on the interaction of soil microbes.

  6. Detection of palm fruit lipids in archaeological pottery from Qasr Ibrim, Egyptian Nubia.

    PubMed

    Copley, M S; Rose, P J; Clapham, A; Edwards, D N; Horton, M C; Evershed, R P

    2001-03-22

    In modern times, the trees of the palm family have been of great economic and social importance to the people in Egypt, as in other parts of the world. There are various species of palm and although different parts of the tree can be used, the fruit are of great value. In antiquity, it is expected that the palm fruit would also have been of great importance to people in the region. The chemical analysis of absorbed residues in archaeological pottery is well established, and through the investigation of ceramic vessels (via gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry) saturated carboxylic acids in the range C12 to C18 have been detected (with an unusually high abundance of C12) from vessels from the Nubian site of Qasr Ibrim. This is mirrored in the saturated fatty acid distributions detected from the kernels of modern and ancient date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and dom palm (Hyphaena thebaica (L.) Mart.). Mixing in some of the vessels of the palm fruit with another lipid source is indicated through the delta13C values. These results provide the first direct evidence for the exploitation of palm fruit in antiquity and the use of pottery vessels in its processing.

  7. Proximity to encroaching coconut palm limits native forest water use and persistence on a Pacific atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ken W.; Duberstein, Jamie A.; Cormier, Nicole; Young, Hillary S.; Hathaway, Stacie A.

    2015-01-01

    Competition for fresh water between native and introduced plants is one important challenge facing native forests as rainfall variability increases. Competition can be especially acute for vegetation on Pacific atolls, which depend upon consistent rainfall to replenish shallow groundwater stores. Patterns of sap flow, water use, and diameter growth of Pisonia grandis trees were investigated on Sand Islet, Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, during a period of low rainfall. Sap flow in the outer sapwood was reduced by 53% for P. grandis trees growing within coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) stands (n = 9) versus away from coconut palm (n = 9). This suggested that water uptake was being limited by coconut palm. Radial patterns of sap flow into the sapwood of P. grandis also differed between stands with and without coconut palm, such that individual tree water use for P. grandis ranged from 14 to 67 L day−1, averaging 47·8 L day−1 without coconut palm and 23·6 L day−1 with coconut palm. Diameter growth of P. grandis was measured from nine islets. In contrast to sap flow, competition with coconut palm increased diameter growth by 89%, equating to an individual tree basal area increment of 5·4 versus 10·3 mm2 day−1. Greater diameter growth countered by lower rates of water use by P. grandis trees growing in competition with coconut palm suggests that stem swell may be associated with water storage when positioned in the understory of coconut palm, and may facilitate survival when water becomes limiting until too much shading overwhelms P. grandis. 

  8. Sustainable Management in Crop Monocultures: The Impact of Retaining Forest on Oil Palm Yield

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Felicity A.; Edwards, David P.; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ≈23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture. PMID:24638038

  9. Sustainable management in crop monocultures: the impact of retaining forest on oil palm yield.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Felicity A; Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ≈23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture.

  10. Mitigating the impact of oil-palm monoculture on freshwater fishes in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Giam, Xingli; Hadiaty, Renny K; Tan, Heok Hui; Parenti, Lynne R; Wowor, Daisy; Sauri, Sopian; Chong, Kwek Yan; Yeo, Darren C J; Wilcove, David S

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic land-cover change is driving biodiversity loss worldwide. At the epicenter of this crisis lies Southeast Asia, where biodiversity-rich forests are being converted to oil-palm monocultures. As demand for palm oil increases, there is an urgent need to find strategies that maintain biodiversity in plantations. Previous studies found that retaining forest patches within plantations benefited some terrestrial taxa but not others. However, no study has focused on aquatic taxa such as fishes, despite their importance to human well-being. We assessed the efficacy of forested riparian reserves in conserving freshwater fish biodiversity in oil-palm monoculture by sampling stream fish communities in an oil-palm plantation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forested riparian reserves maintained preconversion local fish species richness and functional diversity. In contrast, local and total species richness, biomass, and functional diversity declined markedly in streams without riparian reserves. Mechanistically, riparian reserves appeared to increase local species richness by increasing leaf litter cover and maintaining coarse substrate. The loss of fishes specializing in leaf litter and coarse substrate decreased functional diversity and altered community composition in oil-palm plantation streams that lacked riparian reserves. Thus, a land-sharing strategy that incorporates the retention of forested riparian reserves may maintain the ecological integrity of fish communities in oil-palm plantations. We urge policy makers and growers to make retention of riparian reserves in oil-palm plantations standard practice, and we encourage palm-oil purchasers to source only palm oil from plantations that employ this practice.

  11. Reconciling oil palm expansion and climate change mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Austin, Kemen G; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Urban, Dean L; Stolle, Fred; Vincent, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation while doubling production of several major agricultural commodities, exemplifies this challenge. Here we focus on palm oil, the world's most abundant vegetable oil and a commodity that has contributed significantly to Indonesia's economy. Most oil palm expansion in the country has occurred at the expense of forests, resulting in significant GHG emissions. We examine the extent to which land management policies can resolve the apparently conflicting goals of oil palm expansion and GHG mitigation in Kalimantan, a major oil palm growing region of Indonesia. Using a logistic regression model to predict the locations of new oil palm between 2010 and 2020 we evaluate the impacts of six alternative policy scenarios on future emissions. We estimate net emissions of 128.4-211.4 MtCO2 yr(-1) under business as usual expansion of oil palm plantations. The impact of diverting new plantations to low carbon stock land depends on the design of the policy. We estimate that emissions can be reduced by 9-10% by extending the current moratorium on new concessions in primary forests and peat lands, 35% by limiting expansion on all peat and forestlands, 46% by limiting expansion to areas with moderate carbon stocks, and 55-60% by limiting expansion to areas with low carbon stocks. Our results suggest that these policies would reduce oil palm profits only moderately but would vary greatly in terms of cost-effectiveness of emissions reductions. We conclude that a carefully designed and implemented oil palm expansion plan can contribute significantly towards Indonesia's national emissions mitigation goal, while allowing oil palm area to double.

  12. Reconciling Oil Palm Expansion and Climate Change Mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Kemen G.; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Urban, Dean L.; Stolle, Fred; Vincent, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation while doubling production of several major agricultural commodities, exemplifies this challenge. Here we focus on palm oil, the world’s most abundant vegetable oil and a commodity that has contributed significantly to Indonesia’s economy. Most oil palm expansion in the country has occurred at the expense of forests, resulting in significant GHG emissions. We examine the extent to which land management policies can resolve the apparently conflicting goals of oil palm expansion and GHG mitigation in Kalimantan, a major oil palm growing region of Indonesia. Using a logistic regression model to predict the locations of new oil palm between 2010 and 2020 we evaluate the impacts of six alternative policy scenarios on future emissions. We estimate net emissions of 128.4–211.4 MtCO2 yr-1 under business as usual expansion of oil palm plantations. The impact of diverting new plantations to low carbon stock land depends on the design of the policy. We estimate that emissions can be reduced by 9-10% by extending the current moratorium on new concessions in primary forests and peat lands, 35% by limiting expansion on all peat and forestlands, 46% by limiting expansion to areas with moderate carbon stocks, and 55–60% by limiting expansion to areas with low carbon stocks. Our results suggest that these policies would reduce oil palm profits only moderately but would vary greatly in terms of cost-effectiveness of emissions reductions. We conclude that a carefully designed and implemented oil palm expansion plan can contribute significantly towards Indonesia’s national emissions mitigation goal, while allowing oil palm area to double. PMID:26011182

  13. Calcium and fat metabolic balance, and gastrointestinal tolerance in term infants fed milk-based formulas with and without palm olein and palm kernel oils: a randomized blinded crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effects of palm olein (POL) on calcium and fat metabolic balance and gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance have been clinically evaluated but its use in combination with palm kernel oil (PKO), and canola oil has not been similarly assessed in infants. Methods Calcium and fat balance and GI tolerance were evaluated in 33 healthy term infants (age = 68-159d) in a randomized, double-blinded, 14d crossover trial at a day care center in Salvador, Brazil; followed by a 4d hospital ward metabolic balance study in 17 of the male subjects. The study compared two commercially available milk-based powdered formulas in Brazil; one containing POL (44% of total fat), PKO (21.7%) and canola oil (18.5%) as predominant fats (PALM), and the other containing none (NoPALM). Occasional human milk (HM) supplementation was allowed at home. Results Formula and HM intakes, and growth were not different (p > 0.05). Calcium absorption (%) for infants fed NoPALM (58.8 ± 16.7%; means ± SD) was higher (p = 0.023) than those fed PALM (42.1 ± 19.2%), but was not significant (p = 0.104) when calcium intake was used as a covariate. Calcium intake was higher (p < 0.001) in NoPALM versus PALM fed infants. However, calcium retention (%) was higher in infants fed NoPALM compared to PALM with (p = 0.024) or without (p = 0.015) calcium intake as a covariate. Fat absorption (%) for NoPALM was greater than PALM fed infants (NoPALM = 96.9 ± 1.2 > PALM = 95.1 ± 1.5; p = 0.020 in Study Period I). Mean rank stool consistency was softer in infants fed NoPALM versus PALM (p < 0.001; metabolic period). Adverse events, spit-up/vomit, fussiness and gassiness were not different (p > 0.05). Formula acceptability was high and comparable for both formula feedings, regardless of HM supplementation. Conclusions Term infants fed PALM based formula (containing palm olein, palm kernel and canola oils) demonstrated lower calcium retention and

  14. Palm olein oil produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil.

    PubMed

    Zaiton, Z; Merican, Z; Khalid, B A; Mohamed, J B; Baharom, S

    1997-06-01

    The soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats were used to investigate the effect of palm olein oil and soya bean oil on the production of lipid peroxidation products. It was found that palm olein oil but not soya bean oil significantly decreased malonaldehyde and conjugated diene levels of the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats. These findings suggest that palm olein per se produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil. Such an assay method gives a composite net picture of the propensity of an oil to produce lipid peroxidation products.

  15. A physicochemical study of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Pranoto, Yudi; Hayati, Septi Nur; Hernawan, Rosyida, Vita T.; Prasetyo, Dwi J.; Jatmiko, Tri H.; Apriyana, Wuri; Suwanto, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol in various concentrations (30% up to 50% w/w starch). Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

  16. PAH emissions and energy efficiency of palm-biodiesel blends fueled on diesel generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Hou, Hsiao-Chung

    This study investigated the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carcinogenic potencies (BaP eq) and particulate matter (PM), fuel consumption and energy efficiency from the generator under steady state for seven test fuels: P0 (Premium Diesel Fuel), P10 (10% palm biodiesel+90% P0), P20, P30, P50, P75 and P100. Experimental results indicated that PAH emission decreased with increasing palm-biodiesel blends due to small PAH content in biodiesel. The mean reduction fraction of total PAHs emission factor (P0=1110 μg L -1) from the exhaust of diesel generator were 13.2%, 28.0%, 40.6%, 54.4%, 61.89% and 98.8% for P10, P20, P30, P50, P75 and P100, respectively, compared with P0. The mean reduction fraction of total BaP eq (P0=1.65 μg L -1) from the exhaust of diesel generator were 15.2%, 29.1%, 43.3%, 56.4%, 58.2% and 97.6% for P10, P20, P30, P50, P75 and P100, respectively, compared with P0. PM emission decreased as the palm-biodiesel blends increased from 0% to 10%, and increased as the palm-biodiesel blends increased from 10% to 100% because the soluble organic fraction of PM emission was high in blends with high palm-biodiesel content. The brake specific fuel consumption rose with rising palm-biodiesel blends due to the low gross heat value of palm-biodiesel. The increasing fraction of BSFC of palm-biodiesel was lower than those of soy-, soapstock-, brassica-carinate and rapeseed-biodiesel. Palm-biodiesel seems to be the most feasible biodiesel. The best energy efficiency occurred between P10 and P20, close to P15. The curve dropped as the palm-biodiesel content rose above P20. Above results revealed that palm-biodiesel was an oxygenated fuel appropriate for use in diesel engines to promote combustion efficiency and decrease PAH emission. However, adding an excess of palm-biodiesel to P0 leaded to incomplete combustion in the diesel-engine generator and inhibited the release of energy in the fuel.

  17. Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazrul; Dungani, Rudi; Abdul Khalil, Hps; Alwani, M Siti; Nadirah, Wo Wan; Fizree, H Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and impregnated into the OPTL by vacuum-pressure method. The treated OPTL samples were exposed to natural weathering for the period of 6 and 12 months in West Java, Indonesia according to ASTM D1435-99 standard. Physical and mechanical tests were done for analyzing the changes in phenol formaldehyde-nanoparticles impregnated (PF-NPI) OPTL. FT-IR and SEM studies were done to analyze the morphological changes. The results showed that both exposure time of weathering and concentration of PF-NPI had significant impact on physical and mechanical properties of OPTL. The longer exposure of samples to weathering condition reduced the wave numbers during FT-IR test. However, all these physical, mechanical and morphological changes were significant when compared with the untreated samples or only PF impregnated samples. Thus, it can be concluded that PF-NP impregnation into OPTL improved the resistance against natural weathering and would pave the ground for improved products from OPTL for outdoor conditions.

  18. Thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of seaweed/sugar palm fibre reinforced thermoplastic sugar palm Starch/Agar hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Jumaidin, Ridhwan; Sapuan, Salit M; Jawaid, Mohammad; Ishak, Mohamad R; Sahari, Japar

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of sugar palm fibre (SPF) on the mechanical, thermal and physical properties of seaweed/thermoplastic sugar palm starch agar (TPSA) composites. Hybridized seaweed/SPF filler at weight ratio of 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 were prepared using TPSA as a matrix. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties of hybrid composites were carried out. Obtained results indicated that hybrid composites display improved tensile and flexural properties accompanied with lower impact resistance. The highest tensile (17.74MPa) and flexural strength (31.24MPa) was obtained from hybrid composite with 50:50 ratio of seaweed/SPF. Good fibre-matrix bonding was evident in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of the hybrid composites' tensile fracture. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis showed increase in intermolecular hydrogen bonding following the addition of SPF. Thermal stability of hybrid composites was enhanced, indicated by a higher onset degradation temperature (259°C) for 25:75 seaweed/SPF composites than the individual seaweed composites (253°C). Water absorption, thickness swelling, water solubility, and soil burial tests showed higher water and biodegradation resistance of the hybrid composites. Overall, the hybridization of SPF with seaweed/TPSA composites enhances the properties of the biocomposites for short-life application; that is, disposable tray, plate, etc.

  19. Breaking the link between environmental degradation and oil palm expansion: a method for enabling sustainable oil palm expansion.

    PubMed

    Harmen Smit, Hans; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance.

  20. Simultaneous treatment of raw palm oil mill effluent and biodegradation of palm fiber in a high-rate CSTR.

    PubMed

    Khemkhao, Maneerat; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

    2015-02-01

    A high-rate continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was used to produce biogas from raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) at 55°C at a highest organic loading rate (OLR) of 19 g COD/ld. Physical and chemical pretreatments were not performed on the raw POME. In order to promote retention of suspended solids, the CSTR was installed with a deflector at its upper section. The average methane yield was 0.27 l/g COD, and the biogas production rate per reactor volume was 6.23 l/l d, and the tCOD removal efficiency was 82%. The hydrolysis rate of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 6.7, 3.0 and 1.9 g/d, respectively. The results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) suggested that the dominant hydrolytic bacteria responsible for the biodegradation of the palm fiber and residual oil were Clostridium sp., while the dominant methanogens were Methanothermobacter sp.

  1. trans-Free margarines prepared with canola oil/palm stearin/palm kernel oil-based structured lipids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hee; Lumor, Stephen E; Akoh, Casimir C

    2008-09-10

    Structured lipids (SLs) for formulating trans-free margarines were synthesized by lipase-catalyzed interesterification of the blends of canola oil (CO), palm stearin (PS), and palm kernel oil (PKO) in weight ratios (CO/PS/PKO) of 40:60:0, 40:50:10, 40:40:20, 40:30:30, 50:30:20, and 60:25:15. The atherogenicity was determined using fatty acid profiles. We also determined the physical properties (melting/crystallization profiles, solid fat content, polymorphism, and microstructure) of SLs and the textural properties of margarines made with the SLs. The SLs from the 50:30:20 and 60:25:15 blends had atherogenic indices similar to or lower than those of the commercial trans (CTMF) and similar to the trans-free margarine fats (CTFMF). SLs from the blends with PKO contained a wide range of fatty acids (C6-C20) and had more beta' than beta polymorphs. Margarines made with SLs from 50:30:20 and 60:25:15 blends possessed similar hardness, adhesiveness, or cohesiveness to margarines made with CTMF and CTFMF, respectively. Therefore, CO/PS/PKO-based SLs were suitable for formulating trans-free margarines with low atherogenicity and desirable textural properties.

  2. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  3. Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Hans Harmen; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance. PMID:24039700

  4. Recovery of Palm Oil and Valuable Material from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Sub-critical Water.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Kurnin, Nor Azrin; Shah Ismail, Mohd Halim; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izhar, Shamsul

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is one of the solid wastes produced in huge volume by palm oil mill. Whilst it still contains valuable oil, approximately 22.6 million tons is generated annually and treated as solid waste. In this work, sub-critical water (sub-cw) was used to extract oil, sugar and tar from spikelet of EFB. The spikelet was treated with sub-cw between 180-280°C and a reaction time of 2 and 5 minutes. The highest yield of oil was 0.075 g-oil/g-dry EFB, obtained at 240°C and reaction time of 5 minutes. Astonishingly, oil that was extracted through this method was 84.5% of that obtained through Soxhlet method using hexane. Yield of oil extracted was strongly affected by the reaction temperature and time. Higher reaction temperature induces the dielectric constant of water towards the non-polar properties of solvent; thus increases the oil extraction capability. Meanwhile, the highest yield of sugar was 0.20 g-sugar/g-dry EFB obtained at 220°C. At this temperature, the ion product of water is high enough to enable maximum sub-critical water hydrolysis reaction. This study showed that oil and other valuable material can be recovered using water at sub-critical condition, and most attractive without the use of harmful organic solvent.

  5. Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Khawaja Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Aldawood, Abdulrahman Saad; Tufail, Muhammad; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Takeda, Makio

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm. PMID:26287180

  6. Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Khawaja Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Aldawood, Abdulrahman Saad; Tufail, Muhammad; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Takeda, Makio

    2015-08-17

    A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm.

  7. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Leslie C-L; Low, Eng-Ti L; Abdullah, Meilina O; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A A; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M; Favello, Anthony; Budiman, Muhammad A; Van Brunt, Andrew; Beil, Melissa; Leininger, Michael T; Jiang, Nan; Smith, Steven W; Brown, Clyde R; Kuek, Alex C S; Bahrain, Shabani; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Nguyen, Amelia Y; Chaudhari, Hemangi G; Shah, Shivam A; Choo, Yuen-May; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura palms, while pisifera palms are female-sterile and have little to no palm oil yield. It is clear that tenera hybrids produce more oil than either parent due to single gene heterosis. The unintentional planting of dura or pisifera palms reduces overall yield and impacts land utilization that would otherwise be devoted to more productive tenera palms. Here, we identify three additional novel mutant alleles of the SHELL gene, which encode a type II MADS-box transcription factor, and determine oil yield via control of shell fruit form phenotype in a manner similar to two previously identified mutant SHELL alleles. Assays encompassing all five mutations account for all dura and pisifera palms analyzed. By assaying for these variants in 10,224 mature palms or seedlings, we report the first large scale accurate genotype-based determination of the fruit forms in independent oil palm planting sites and in the nurseries that supply them throughout Malaysia. The measured non-tenera contamination rate (10.9% overall on a weighted average basis) underscores the importance of SHELL genetic testing of seedlings prior to planting in production fields. By eliminating non-tenera contamination, comprehensive SHELL genetic testing can improve sustainability by increasing yield on existing planted lands. In addition, economic modeling demonstrates that SHELL gene testing will confer substantial annual economic gains to the oil palm industry, to Malaysian gross national income and to Malaysian

  8. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Leslie C.-L.; Low, Eng-Ti L.; Abdullah, Meilina O.; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C.; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A. A.; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A.; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J.; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M.; Favello, Anthony; Budiman, Muhammad A.; Van Brunt, Andrew; Beil, Melissa; Leininger, Michael T.; Jiang, Nan; Smith, Steven W.; Brown, Clyde R.; Kuek, Alex C. S.; Bahrain, Shabani; Hoynes-O’Connor, Allison; Nguyen, Amelia Y.; Chaudhari, Hemangi G.; Shah, Shivam A.; Choo, Yuen-May; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura palms, while pisifera palms are female-sterile and have little to no palm oil yield. It is clear that tenera hybrids produce more oil than either parent due to single gene heterosis. The unintentional planting of dura or pisifera palms reduces overall yield and impacts land utilization that would otherwise be devoted to more productive tenera palms. Here, we identify three additional novel mutant alleles of the SHELL gene, which encode a type II MADS-box transcription factor, and determine oil yield via control of shell fruit form phenotype in a manner similar to two previously identified mutant SHELL alleles. Assays encompassing all five mutations account for all dura and pisifera palms analyzed. By assaying for these variants in 10,224 mature palms or seedlings, we report the first large scale accurate genotype-based determination of the fruit forms in independent oil palm planting sites and in the nurseries that supply them throughout Malaysia. The measured non-tenera contamination rate (10.9% overall on a weighted average basis) underscores the importance of SHELL genetic testing of seedlings prior to planting in production fields. By eliminating non-tenera contamination, comprehensive SHELL genetic testing can improve sustainability by increasing yield on existing planted lands. In addition, economic modeling demonstrates that SHELL gene testing will confer substantial annual economic gains to the oil palm industry, to Malaysian gross national income and to Malaysian

  9. Adsorption of direct dye on palm ash: kinetic and equilibrium modeling.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A A; Hameed, B H; Aziz, N

    2007-03-06

    Palm ash, an agriculture waste residue from palm-oil industry in Malaysia, was investigated as a replacement for the current expensive methods of removing direct blue 71 dye from an aqueous solution. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with Freundlich model in the range of 50-600mg/L. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the palm ash was determined with the Langmuir equation and found to be 400.01mg dye per gram adsorbent at 30 degrees C. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to the pseudo-second-order kinetics with good correlation. The results indicate that the palm ash could be employed as a low-cost alternative to commercial activated carbon.

  10. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Annamaria; Imperlini, Esther; Nigro, Ersilia; Montagnese, Concetta; Daniele, Aurora; Orrù, Stefania; Buono, Pasqualina

    2015-09-18

    A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.

  11. Oil palm research in context: identifying the need for biodiversity assessment.

    PubMed

    Turner, Edgar C; Snaddon, Jake L; Fayle, Tom M; Foster, William A

    2008-02-13

    Oil palm cultivation is frequently cited as a major threat to tropical biodiversity as it is centered on some of the world's most biodiverse regions. In this report, Web of Science was used to find papers on oil palm published since 1970, which were assigned to different subject categories to visualize their research focus. Recent years have seen a broadening in the scope of research, with a slight growth in publications on the environment and a dramatic increase in those on biofuel. Despite this, less than 1% of publications are related to biodiversity and species conservation. In the context of global vegetable oil markets, palm oil and soyabean account for over 60% of production but are the subject of less than 10% of research. Much more work must be done to establish the impacts of habitat conversion to oil palm plantation on biodiversity. Results from such studies are crucial for informing conservation strategies and ensuring sustainable management of plantations.

  12. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  13. Oil Palm Research in Context: Identifying the Need for Biodiversity Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Foster, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Oil palm cultivation is frequently cited as a major threat to tropical biodiversity as it is centered on some of the world's most biodiverse regions. In this report, Web of Science was used to find papers on oil palm published since 1970, which were assigned to different subject categories to visualize their research focus. Recent years have seen a broadening in the scope of research, with a slight growth in publications on the environment and a dramatic increase in those on biofuel. Despite this, less than 1% of publications are related to biodiversity and species conservation. In the context of global vegetable oil markets, palm oil and soyabean account for over 60% of production but are the subject of less than 10% of research. Much more work must be done to establish the impacts of habitat conversion to oil palm plantation on biodiversity. Results from such studies are crucial for informing conservation strategies and ensuring sustainable management of plantations. PMID:18270566

  14. Palm oil and human health. Meeting report of NFI: Nutrition Foundation of Italy symposium.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Franca; Galli, Claudio; Ghiselli, Andrea; Lercker, Giovanni; La Vecchia, Carlo; Maffeis, Claudio; Agostoni, Carlo; Ballardini, Donatella; Brignoli, Ovidio; Faggiano, Pompilio; Giacco, Rosalba; Macca, Claudio; Magni, Paolo; Marelli, Giuseppe; Marrocco, Walter; Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Mureddu, Gian Francesco; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Stella, Roberto; Troiano, Ersilia; Verduci, Elvira; Volpe, Roberto; Poli, Andrea

    2017-01-31

    The use of palm oil by the food industry is increasingly criticized, especially in Italy, for its purported negative effects on human health and environment. This paper summarizes the conclusions of a Symposium on this topic, gathered by the Nutrition Foundation of Italy, among experts representing a number of Italian Medical and Nutritional Scientific Societies. Toxicological and environmental issues were not considered. Participants agreed that: no evidence does exist on the specific health effects of palm oil consumption as compared to other saturated fatty acids-rich fats; the stereospecific distribution of saturated fatty acids in the triacylglycerol molecule of palm oil limits their absorption rate and metabolic effects; in agreement with International guidelines, saturated fatty acids intake should be kept <10% of total energy, within a balanced diet; within these limits, no effect of palm oil consumption on human health (and specifically on CVD or cancer risk) can be foreseen.

  15. [Preliminary plant inventory of the palm-swamps in the Caribbean of Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Ricardo; Jarquín, Orlando; Munguía, Blanca; Reyes, Aquiles; Coronado, Indiana

    2013-09-01

    In the Caribbean slope of Isthmian Central America, plant associations dominated by the palms Raphia taedigera and Manicaria saccifera develop in poorly drained or waterlogged soils. These associations are known locally as yolillales or palm-swamps, although there are differences in the forest structure and plant diversity associated with both palm species. In this paper, we report the results of a preliminary inventory of tree species found in eight palm-swamps at five locations in southeastern Nicaragua and northeastern Costa Rica. Our data reveal low tree diversity in these swamps with only 60 species accounted in them. This figure is equivalent to close to 8% of the plant species known for this region. In general, R. taedigera dominates flooded areas with extensive hydroperiods and lower floristic diversity, while M. saccifera is often found in flooded forests with more structure and diversity.

  16. Pathological and phylogenetic features of prevalent canine distemper viruses in wild masked palm civets in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Ikuyo; Kubo, Masahito; Takenaka, Akiko; Fujita, Kentaro; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Arai, Tetsuro; Yoneda, Misako; Sato, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Kai, Chieko

    2009-11-01

    Ten wild masked palm civets infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), captured in Japan from 2005 to 2007, were histopathologically and phylogenetically analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequences of the H protein of two CDV isolates from masked palm civets revealed that the two isolates were classified into the clade of recent isolates in Japan. Histopathologically marked lesions of virus encephalitis were present in the brain, whereas gastrointestinal lesions were absent or at a mild degree. The distribution of the lesions resembles that of recent CDV cases in dogs. Therefore, recent CDV infections in masked palm civets could be caused by recently prevalent CDV in dogs. The possibility of the masked palm civet as a spreader of CDV among wildlife is also discussed.

  17. Amino acid sequence of anionic peroxidase from the windmill palm tree Trachycarpus fortunei.

    PubMed

    Baker, Margaret R; Zhao, Hongwei; Sakharov, Ivan Yu; Li, Qing X

    2014-12-10

    Palm peroxidases are extremely stable and have uncommon substrate specificity. This study was designed to fill in the knowledge gap about the structures of a peroxidase from the windmill palm tree Trachycarpus fortunei. The complete amino acid sequence and partial glycosylation were determined by MALDI-top-down sequencing of native windmill palm tree peroxidase (WPTP), MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS of WPTP tryptic peptides, and cDNA sequencing. The propeptide of WPTP contained N- and C-terminal signal sequences which contained 21 and 17 amino acid residues, respectively. Mature WPTP was 306 amino acids in length, and its carbohydrate content ranged from 21% to 29%. Comparison to closely related royal palm tree peroxidase revealed structural features that may explain differences in their substrate specificity. The results can be used to guide engineering of WPTP and its novel applications.

  18. Palm Beach County to Receive $300,000 to Clean up and Redevelop Contaminated Brownfields Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced that Palm Beach County will receive $300,000 to clean up and redevelop contaminated brownfields sites in Florida. Nationally, approximately $13.2 million in supplemental

  19. Two-component mixture model: Application to palm oil and exchange rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Palm oil is a seed crop which is widely adopt for food and non-food products such as cookie, vegetable oil, cosmetics, household products and others. Palm oil is majority growth in Malaysia and Indonesia. However, the demand for palm oil is getting growth and rapidly running out over the years. This phenomenal cause illegal logging of trees and destroy the natural habitat. Hence, the present paper investigates the relationship between exchange rate and palm oil price in Malaysia by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation via Newton-Raphson algorithm to fit a two components mixture model. Besides, this paper proposes a mixture of normal distribution to accommodate with asymmetry characteristics and platykurtic time series data.

  20. Extreme pressure properties investigation of palm olein using four ball tribotester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairuldean, A. K.; Ing, T. Chiong; Che Kob, Mohd Salman; Budianto, Aries; Bambang, S.; Baharin, T. Kamarul; Ariyono, S.; Syahrullail, S.

    2012-06-01

    This experiment conducted using Four Ball Tribotester as a tool to obtained data for extreme pressure properties of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized (RBD) Palm Olein. In this paper, test method ASTM D2783 - 03 (Reapproved 2009) been adapted to monitor the pressure effect in wear and frictional torque of RBD Palm Olein. This test method provides reliable information because it resemble to the eventual mechanisms for lubricating stress of the fluids under pressure similar in gear transmission operation. Wherein, pressure applied between surface to surface contacts and sliding between surface in gear and wet clutch mechanism. From this research, the results provide an understanding of RBD Palm Olein performance against extreme pressure condition. It was found that RBD Palm Olein oil has good mild extreme pressure properties, but film breakdown occurs at higher pressure load. The frictional torque results also indicated with pressure increment, the friction force occurs between moving bodies also increase.

  1. A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Loi, Chia Chun; Boo, Huey Chern; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ariffin, Abdul Azis

    2011-09-01

    A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural.

  2. Isolation and characterization of oil palm constitutive promoter derived from ubiquitin extension protein (uep1) gene.

    PubMed

    Masura, Subhi Siti; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2010-09-30

    The ubiquitin extension protein (uep1) gene was identified as a constitutively expressed gene in oil palm. We have isolated and characterized the 5' region of the oil palm uep1 gene, which contains an 828 bp sequence upstream of the uep1 translational start site. Construction of a pUEP1 transformation vector, which contains gusA reporter gene under the control of uep1 promoter, was carried out for functional analysis of the promoter through transient expression studies. It was found that the 5' region of uep1 functions as a constitutive promoter in oil palm and could drive GUS expression in all tissues tested, including embryogenic calli, embryoid, immature embryo, young leaflet from mature palm, green leaf, mesocarp and meristematic tissues (shoot tip). This promoter could also be used in dicot systems as it was demonstrated to be capable of driving gusA gene expression in tobacco.

  3. Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, A. H. E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com; Dasan, Y. K. E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com

    2014-10-24

    Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred.

  4. DNA Profiles of MTG (Moderat Tahan Gano) Oil Palm Variety Based on SSR Marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, L. A. P.; Setiado, H.; Hardianti, R.

    2017-03-01

    The oil palm, an economically important tree in Indonesia, has been one of the world’s major sources of edible oil and a significant precursor of biodiesel fuel. The objectives of this study were to know DNA profile of commercial MTG (Moderat Tahan Gano) oil palm variety collections. A total of 10 trees MTG oil palm variety were used for analysis. In this experiment, the DNA profile diversity was assessed using mEgCIR0174 and SSR-1 loci of oil palm’s specific SSR markers. The results of the experiment indicated out of 3 alleles of pcr product of mEgCIR0174 (198, 203 and 208 bp) and SSR-1 (201, 217 and 232 bp). These preliminary results demonstrated SSR marker can be used to evaluate genetic relatedness among trees of MTG (Moderat Tahan Gano) oil palm variety derived from different crossing or difference to desease resistance trait or misslabeled.

  5. Solvent Debinding of MIM Parts in a Polystyrene-Palm Oil Based Binder System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmawi, R.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Mustafa, N.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of the leaching temperatures on the solvent debinding process of SS316L stainless steel alloy compact has been investigated. Solvent debinding process of injection moulded SS316L feedstock was conducted to eliminate palm kernel oil by using n- heptane solution at various temperatures of 40, 50 and 60°C and at different time duration up to 9 hours. The samples were prepared by injection molding a mixture of stainless steel SS316L alloy with waste polystyrene polymer and palm kernel oil at powder loading 60% vol. The weight loss percentages of palm kernel were calculated and the pore structure evolution was analyzed by scanning electron micrograph to observe the pores created after solvent extraction process. Results show that a complete diffusion of the palm kernel molecules out of the compact part best at 60°C within 6 hours of extraction time

  6. Effect of plasticizer on moisture sorption isotherm of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatmiko, Tri Hadi; Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Prasetyo, Dwi Joko; Rosyida, Vita Taufika

    2016-02-01

    The effect of plasticizer type (glycerol, sorbitol) and plasticizer concentrations (30, 35, 40, 45% w/w polymer) on the moisture sorption isotherm characteristics of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were investigated. Moisture affinity of sugar palm starch films was influenced by the plasticizer type and plasticizer concentration. The affinity of the glycerol plasticized film is stronger than that of sorbitol plasticized film. Sugar palm starch film with a higher concentration of glycerol absorbs more moisture with higher initial absorption rate than that of with sorbitol. Films with higher plasticizer concentration of glycerol and sorbitol show higher equilibrium moisture contents at the given relative humidity. The moisture sorption isotherm characteristic of sugar palm starch films can be described very well with the semi empirical 4 parameter Peleg's model.

  7. Differential Metabolite Profiles during Fruit Development in High-Yielding Oil Palm Mesocarp

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Huey Fang; Neoh, Bee Keat; Hong, May Ping Li; Low, Jaime Yoke Sum; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Ithnin, Nalisha; Thang, Yin Mee; Mohamed, Mohaimi; Chew, Fook Tim; Yusof, Hirzun Mohd.; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David R.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes. PMID:23593468

  8. Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, A. H.; Dasan, Y. K.

    2014-10-01

    Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred.

  9. Non-stationary time series modeling on caterpillars pest of palm oil for early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiyowati, Susi; Nugraha, Rida F.; Mukhaiyar, Utriweni

    2015-12-01

    The oil palm production has an important role for the plantation and economic sector in Indonesia. One of the important problems in the cultivation of oil palm plantation is pests which causes damage to the quality of fruits. The caterpillar pest which feed palm tree's leaves will cause decline in quality of palm oil production. Early warning system is needed to minimize losses due to this pest. Here, we applied non-stationary time series modeling, especially the family of autoregressive models to predict the number of pests based on its historical data. We realized that there is some uniqueness of these pests data, i.e. the spike value that occur almost periodically. Through some simulations and case study, we obtain that the selection of constant factor has a significance influence to the model so that it can shoot the spikes value precisely.

  10. Physicochemical characterization of oil palm mesocarp fibre treated with glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor Hamizah M., A.; Roila, A.; Rahimi M., Y.

    2015-09-01

    Lignocellulose has been identified as another source for conversion into value added products. In the present work, physicochemical features from the oil palm mesocarp fibre treated by using pure glycerol with 2% (w/w) NaOH catalyst and crude glycerol have been studied. Treatment was conducted at temperatures 150 °C for 60 min. Fibre treated by crude glycerol resulted in high percentages of holocellulose and lower content of insoluble lignin. These results suggest that crude glycerol can be used as an alternative solvent for pretreatment process. The characterization treated fibre by means of FTIR and TGA has shown significant differences compared to untreated fibre. It was revealed that treated fibre successful eliminated hemicellulose and reduce of lignin content.

  11. The palm oil supply chain, deforestation and peat clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    The palm oil industry has expanded rapidly in the last two decades, particularly in Indonesia. A considerable amount of this expansion has been at the expense of forests and peatlands, resulting in considerable greenhouse gas emissions. Now the industry is faced with two new challenges. There is a possible oversupply on the global market due to recent expansion and the time lag between clearing and new production coming on line, which may depress prices considerably. Furthermore, there is increasing pressure to reduce the industry's impact on climate and biodiversity, exemplified by the commitment by the businesses of the Consumer Goods Forum to eliminate deforestation from their supply chains by 2020. This presentation will examine the interaction between these two challenges and its implications for the industry, in both southeast Asia and new regions of expansion, and how this interaction could transform the industry's mode of expansion in the coming decade.

  12. Hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Mansur, Dieni; Nurhakim, Boby; Agustin, Astrid; Rinaldi, Nino; Muryanto, Fitriady, Muhammad Ariffudin

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment methods in 2nd generation bioethanol production more profitable to be developed, since the conventional pretreatment, by using acids or alkalis, is associated with the serious economic and environmental constraints. The current studies investigate hydrothermal pretreatment of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a batch tube reactor system with temperature and time range from 160 to 240 C and 15 to 30 min, respectively. The EFB were grinded and separated into 3 different particles sizes i.e. 10 mesh, 18 mesh and 40 mesh, prior to hydrothermal pretreatment. Solid yield and pH of the treated EFB slurries changed over treatment severities. The chemical composition of EFB was greatly affected by the hydrothermal pretreatment especially hemicellulose which decreased at higher severity factor as determined by HPLC. Both partial removal of hemicellulose and migration of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment caused negatively affect for enzymatic hydrolysis. This studies provided important factors for maximizing hydrothermal pretreatment of EFB.

  13. PALM and STORM: unlocking live-cell super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Ricardo; Griffiths, Caron; Hesper Rego, E; Mhlanga, Musa M

    2011-05-01

    Live-cell fluorescence light microscopy has emerged as an important tool in the study of cellular biology. The development of fluorescent markers in parallel with super-resolution imaging systems has pushed light microscopy into the realm of molecular visualization at the nanometer scale. Resolutions previously only attained with electron microscopes are now within the grasp of light microscopes. However, until recently, live-cell imaging approaches have eluded super-resolution microscopy, hampering it from reaching its full potential for revealing the dynamic interactions in biology occurring at the single molecule level. Here we examine recent advances in the super-resolution imaging of living cells by reviewing recent breakthroughs in single molecule localization microscopy methods such as PALM and STORM to achieve this important goal.

  14. Maneuverability and mobility in palm-sized legged robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohut, Nicholas J.; Birkmeyer, Paul M.; Peterson, Kevin C.; Fearing, Ronald S.

    2012-06-01

    Palm sized legged robots show promise for military and civilian applications, including exploration of hazardous or difficult to reach places, search and rescue, espionage, and battlefield reconnaissance. However, they also face many technical obstacles, including- but not limited to- actuator performance, weight constraints, processing power, and power density. This paper presents an overview of several robots from the Biomimetic Millisystems Laboratory at UC Berkeley, including the OctoRoACH, a steerable, running legged robot capable of basic navigation and equipped with a camera and active tail; CLASH, a dynamic climbing robot; and BOLT, a hybrid crawling and flying robot. The paper also discusses, and presents some preliminary solutions to, the technical obstacles listed above plus issues such as robustness to unstructured environments, limited sensing and communication bandwidths, and system integration.

  15. Palm wine drinking in a Balinese village: environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Suryani, L K; Adnyana, T A; Jensen, G D

    1990-08-01

    The present study reports observations of drinking patterns and life-style of Bali-Hindu men in a Balinese village, Pemuteran, who have a relatively high prevalence (about 40%) of excessive consumption of locally produced palm wine. Patterns of drinking were defined. They are rooted in the customs of the inhabitants prior to mass displacement to a "new" land area following a volcanic catastrophe in their old village location in 1963. Excessive drinking appeared to be causally related to identified sociocultural factors and to a physically impoverished environment that greatly reduced work opportunities during much of this year. A similar village in the area which underwent important social and drinking pattern changes consequent to government provision of irrigation water and greater work opportunities suggests that alcohol drinking in Pemuteran may decline under similar social-environmental changes.

  16. High-pressure paint gun injection injury to the palm.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Sonia; Gould, Stephen; Gupta, Salil

    2013-08-01

    High-pressure injection injuries often have a misleadingly benign presentation. However, it is important to recognize the potential surgical urgency and long-term sequelae associated with these injuries. We present a case of paint gun injection to the palm and review the literature on high-pressure paint injection injuries. The 3 factors most important for the fate of the limb are material type, injection pressure, and injury site. The immediate use of antibiotics and tetanus prophylaxis, with or without steroids, is indicated. Urgent debridement in the operating room is imperative and can decompress the neurovascular structures and flexor tendon sheath by removing the irritating agents. Reported overall amputation rates have been as high as 30%.

  17. [Leaf micrografic anatomy of the Neotropical palm Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae)].

    PubMed

    Chaimsohn, Francisco Paulo; Montiel, Mayra; Villalobos, Enrique; Mora Urpi, Jorge

    2008-06-01

    The economic importance of the palm Bactris gasipaes is growing in the Neotropoical region. We collected leaflets from plants under a chemical fertilization regime and a population of 5000 plants per hectare, in Costa Rica. The variety, Diamantes 10, has an ascendency fom the upper Amazon basin. We used Harries hematoxiline, eocine and standard light microscopy techniques. The presence of raphids and buliform cells was confirmed for the abaxial surface of the leaflets and for the hypodermic tissue on both sides. The absence of the Krantz anatomy was confirmed in consistence with former observations about the C3 photosynthesis in other species of Palmaceae. The average stomatal density on the abaxial surface was 96.87 +/- 16.31 stomata.mm(-2) and 14.20 +/- 4.05 in the adaxial surface.

  18. Dynamic legged locomotion for palm-size robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrouk, David; Haldane, Duncan W.; Fearing, Ronald S.

    2015-05-01

    Minimally-actuated palm-size robots are capable of running at speeds greater than 2 meters per second (20 body lengths per second), with leg stride rates of greater than 20 Hz. In this dynamic regime, passive stabilization is needed for roll-and-pitch instability. However, we have found that certain roll-oscillation modes can be used for continuous high speed turning. Other continuous turning modes have also been identified, such as modulating foot contact location through foot compliance, and controlling differential leg velocity. For the small minimally actuated robots examined, the dynamically enhanced roll-steer mode showed the best turning rate, of over 8 degrees per step, but only appears at certain running frequencies. Interstride phase and velocity control appears promising as a mode for in-plane maneuverability for under-actuated robots.

  19. Effect of enzymatic interesterification on melting point of palm olein.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Atif A A; Mohamed, Ibrahim O; Ibrahim, Mohd N; Yusoff, Mohd S A

    2003-07-01

    Immobilized PS-C 'Amano' II lipase was used to catalyze the interesterification of palm olein (POo) with 30, 50, and 70% stearic acid in n-hexane at 60 degrees C. The catalytic performance of the immobilized lipase was evaluated by determining the composition change of fatty acyl groups and triacylglycerol (TAG) by gas liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The interesterification process resulted in the formation of new TAGs, mainly tripalmitin and dipalmitostearin, both of which were absent in the original oil. These changes in TAG composition resulted in an increase in slip melting point, from the original 25.5 degrees C to 36.3, 37.0, and 40.0 degrees C in the modified POo with 30, 50, and 70% stearic acid, respectively. All the reactions attained steady state in about 6 h. This type of work will find great applications in food industries, such as confectionery.

  20. High oleic enhancement of palm olein via enzymatic interesterification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Siew Wai; Huey, Saw Mei

    2009-01-01

    Acidolysis to incorporate oleic acid into refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein (IV 56) using various lipases (enzymes) as catalysts to increase the oleic content of the oil was investigated. Immobilised lipases (lipase PLG, Lipozyme TL IM, Lipozyme RM IM and Novozym 435) and non-immobilised lipase (lipase PL) were used in this study to compare the effectiveness of the selected lipases in catalyzing the reaction to produce a high oleic oil. The results showed that the TAG of OLO/OOL content was increased at least 4 fold and OOO content was increased at least 3 fold when a 5% enzyme load was used. Lipase PL showed the greatest increase in tri-unsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) content. A pilot scale experiment conducted using TL IM enzyme, followed by recovery of the oil and fractionation allows the production of oils with varying oleic contents. A high oleic content of 56% was achievable.

  1. Flexural analysis of palm fiber reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Raghav, Dasarath; Santhosh Kiran, R.; Mahesh, Bhargav; Kumar, Krishna

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainty in availability of fossil fuels in the future and global warming increased the need for more environment friendly materials. In this work, an attempt is made to fabricate a hybrid polymer matrix composite. The blend is a mixture of General Purpose Resin and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, a natural resin extracted from cashew plant. Palm fiber, which has high strength, is used as reinforcement material. The fiber is treated with alkali (NaOH) solution to increase its strength and adhesiveness. Parametric study of flexure strength is carried out by varying alkali concentration, duration of alkali treatment and fiber volume. Taguchi L9 Orthogonal array is followed in the design of experiments procedure for simplification. With the help of ANOVA technique, regression equations are obtained which gives the level of influence of each parameter on the flexure strength of the composite.

  2. Biomechanics of climbing palms and how they climb.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Nick; Isnard, Sandrine

    2009-09-01

    Climbing plants have fascinated botanists since the pioneering works of Darwin and his contemporaries in the 19(th) century. Diverse plants have evolved different ways of climbing and a wide range of attachment devices and stem biomechanics to cope with the particular physical demands of life as a climber. We investigated the biomechanics of attachment in a range of climbing palms, including true rattans from Southeast Asia and the genus Desmoncus from South America. We found that hook strength and orientation is coordinated with rachis geometry and rigidity. These findings support the notion of a ratchet-type attachment mechanism and partly explain why these spiny plants are so catchy and efficient at attaching to supports.

  3. Integrated solid waste management of Palm Beach County, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the Palm Beach County, Florida integrated municipal solid waste management system (IMSWMS), the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWMS.

  4. Characterization of cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisak, Muhammad Asri Abdul; Daik, Rusli; Ramli, Suria

    2015-09-01

    Recently, cellulose has been studied by many researchers due to its promising properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and robustness. Due to that it is applied in many fields such as paper, film, drug delivery, membranes, etc. Cellulose can be extracted from various plants while oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is the one of its sources. In this study, cellulose was extracted by chemical treatments which involved the use of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove hemicellulose and lignin components. Maximum yield was 43.22%. Based on the FT-IR spectra, the peak of wax (1735 cm-1), hemicellulose (1375 cm-1) and lignin (1248 cm-1 and 1037 cm-1) were not observed in extracted cellulose. TGA analysis showed that the extracted cellulose starts to thermally degrade at 340 °C. The SEM analysis suggested that the cellulose extracted from OPEFB was not much different from commercial cellulose.

  5. Life cycle inventory for palm based plywood: A gate-to-gate case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shamim; Sahid, Ismail; Subramaniam, Vijaya; Muhamad, Halimah; Mokhtar, Anis

    2013-11-01

    The oil palm industry heavily relies on the world market. It is essential to ensure that the oil palm industry is ready to meet the demands and expectation of these overseas customers on the environmental performance of the oil palm industry. Malaysia produces 13.9 million tons of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunk (OPT), frond and empty fruits bunches (EFB) annually. OPT felled in some oil palm plantations during replanting is transported to various industries and one such industry is the plywood factories. In order to gauge the environmental performance of the use of OPT as plywood a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study was conducted for palm based plywood. LCA is an important tool to assess the environmental performance of a product or process. Life cycle inventory (LCI) is the heart of a LCA study. This LCI study has a gate-to-gate system boundary and the functional unit is 1 m3 palm plywood produced and covers three types of plywood; Moisture Resistance Plywood (MR), Weather Boiling Proof Plywood Grade 1 (WBP Grade 1) at Factory D and Weather Boiling Proof Plywood Grade 2 (WBP Grade 2) at Factory E. Both factories use two different types of drying processes; conventional drying at Factory D and kiln drying at Factory E. This inventory data was collected from two factories (D and E) representing 40% of Malaysia palm plywood industry. The inputs are mainly the raw materials which are the oil palm trunks and tropical wood veneers and the energy from diesel and electricity from grid which is mainly used for the drying process. The other inputs include water, urea formaldehyde, phenol formaldehyde, flour and melamine powder. The outputs are the biomass waste which consists of oil palm trunk off-cut and emission from boiler. Generally, all types of plywood production use almost same materials and processing methods in different quantities. Due to the different process efficiency, Factory D uses less input of raw materials and energy compared to Factory E.

  6. A comparison of the hydraulic efficiency of a palm species (Iriartea deltoidea) with other wood types.

    PubMed

    Renninger, Heidi J; McCulloh, Katherine A; Phillips, Nathan

    2013-02-01

    Palms are an important component of tropical ecosystems, living alongside dicotyledonous trees, even though they have a very different growth pattern and vascular system. As monocots, vessels in palms are located within vascular bundles and, without a vascular cambium that many dicotyledonous trees possess, palms cannot add additional vessels to their vascular system as they get older and taller. This means that hydraulic architecture in palms is more predetermined, which may require a highly efficient hydraulic system. This preset nature, along with the decoupling of hydraulic and mechanical functioning to different cell types, may allow palms to have a more efficient hydraulic system than dicotyledonous trees. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the efficiency of the hydraulic system in the palm Iriartea deltoidea (Ruiz & Pav.) and compare this efficiency with other tree forms. We measured cross-sectional areas of roots, stems and fronds as well as leaf areas of I. deltoidea saplings. Likewise, cross-sections were made and vessel diameters and frequencies measured. This allowed for the calculation of theoretical specific conductivity (K(S,calc)), theoretical leaf-specific conductivity (K(L,calc)), and vessel diameter and vessel number ratios between distal and proximal locations in the palms. Iriartea deltoidea palms were found to have the largest, least frequent vessels that diverged most from the square packing limit (maximum number of vessels that fit into a given area) compared with other major tree forms, and they therefore invested the least space and carbon into water transport structures. Likewise, conduits tapered by ∼1/3 between ranks (root, bole and petiole), which represents an efficient ratio with regard to the trade-offs between safety and efficiency of the conducting system. Conduits also exhibited a high conservation of the sum of the conduit radii cubed (Σr(3)) across ranks, thereby approximating Murray's law patterning. Therefore, our

  7. Molecular mechanism of antioxidant synergism of tocotrienols and carotenoids in palm oil.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Maria T; Becker, Eleonora Miquel; Skibsted, Leif H

    2006-05-03

    During repeated deep-fat frying of potato slices at 163 degrees C in yellow or red palm olein of comparable fatty acid profiles, the oxidative stability (peroxide value and anisidine value) of the palm oleins was similar, and in yellow palm olein, the rate of antioxidant depletion decreased in the order gamma-T3 > alpha-T3 > delta-T3 (T3, tocotrienol). In red palm olein, which had a total tocopherol/tocotrienol content of 1260 vs 940 ppm in yellow palm olein and a corresponding longer induction period in the Rancimat stability test at 120 degrees C, only depletion of gamma-T3 was significant among the phenols during frying and slower as compared to that in yellow palm olein. The carotenes in the red palm olein were depleted linearly with the number of fryings, apparently yielding an overall protection of the phenols. In antioxidant-depleted palm olein and in phospholipid liposomes with added increasing concentrations of phenols, gamma-T3 was found to be a better antioxidant than alpha-T3. alpha-T3 and alpha-T (T, tocopherol) had a similar antioxidant effect in antioxidant-depleted palm olein in the Rancimat stability test, while in the liposomes the ordering as determined by induction period for the formation of conjugated dienes was gamma-T3 > alpha-T3 > alpha-T. The addition of 100-1000 ppm beta-carotene to antioxidant-depleted palm olein or liposomes (lycopene also tested) did not provide any protection against oxidation. In the liposomes, synergistic interactions were observed between beta-carotene or lycopene and alpha-T, alpha-T3, or gamma-T3 for carotene/phenol ratios of 1:10 and 1:2 but not for 1:1. In chloroform, carotenes were regenerated by tocopherols/tocotrienols from carotene radicals generated by laser flash photolysis as shown by transient absorption spectroscopy, suggesting that carotenes rather than phenols are the primary substrate for lipid-derived radicals in red palm olein, in effect depleting carotenes prior to phenols during frying

  8. Use of waste ash from palm oil industry in concrete.

    PubMed

    Tangchirapat, Weerachart; Saeting, Tirasit; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Kiattikomol, Kraiwood; Siripanichgorn, Anek

    2007-01-01

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA), a by-product from the palm oil industry, is disposed of as waste in landfills. In this study, POFA was utilized as a pozzolan in concrete. The original size POFA (termed OP) was ground until the median particle sizes were 15.9 microm (termed MP) and 7.4 microm (termed SP). Portland cement Type I was replaced by OP, MP, and SP of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight of binder. The properties of concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength, and expansion due to magnesium sulfate attack were investigated. The results revealed that the use of POFA in concretes caused delay in both initial and final setting times, depending on the fineness and degree of replacement of POFA. The compressive strength of concrete containing OP was much lower than that of Portland cement Type I concrete. Thus, OP is not suitable to be used as a pozzolanic material in concrete. However, the replacement of Portland cement Type I by 10% of MP and 20% of SP gave the compressive strengths of concrete at 90 days higher than that of concrete made from Portland cement Type I. After being immersed in 5% of magnesium sulfate solution for 364 days, the concrete bar mixed with 30% of SP had the same expansion level as that of the concrete bar made from Portland cement Type V. The above results suggest that ground POFA is an excellent pozzolanic material and can be used as a cement replacement in concrete. It is recommended that the optimum replacement levels of Portland cement Type I by MP and SP are 20% and 30%, respectively.

  9. Physicochemical characterizations of nano-palm oil fuel ash

    SciTech Connect

    Rajak, Mohd Azrul Abdul; Majid, Zaiton Abdul; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-07-22

    Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) is known as a good supplementary cementing material due to its siliceous-rich content. The application of nanotechnology in the pozzolanic materials could invent new functions in the efficiency of physical and chemical properties of materials. Thus, the present study aims to generate nano-sized POFA and characterize the physicochemical properties of nano-palm oil fuel ash (nPOFA). The nPOFA was prepared by mechanically grinding micro POFA using a high intensity ball milling for 6 hours. The physicochemical properties of nPOFA were characterized via X-Ray Fluoresence (XRF), Scanning Emission microscopy- Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The particle size of nPOFA acquired from TEM analysis was in the range of 20 nm to 90 nm, while the average crystallite size calculated from XRD diffractogram was 61.5 nm. The resulting nPOFA has a BET surface area of 145.35 m{sup 2}/g, which is more than 85% increment in surface area compared to micro-sized POFA. The morphology and elemental studies showed the presence of spherical as well as irregularly shaped and fine nPOFA particles contains with high silicon content. The presence of α-quartz as the major phase of the nPOFA was identified through XRD analysis. The study concludes that nPOFA has the potential as a supplementary cementing material due to the high silica content, high surface area and the unique behaviors of nano-structured particles.

  10. Direct-current resistivity data from 94 sites in northeastern Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Cathleen J.

    1988-01-01

    Direct-current resistivity data were collected from 94 vertical electric sounding profiles in northeastern Palm Beach County, Florida. Direct-current resistivity data, which may be used to determine the location and thicknesses of shallow, semipermeable marls or locate zones of high chloride concentration, are presented in this report. The resistivity data consist of field data, smoothed data, layer resistivity from smoothed data, and Cartesian graphs of resistivity in relation to depth for 94 sites located in northeastern Palm Beach County. (USGS)

  11. Characterizing peat palm forest degradation in the Peruvian Amazon from space and on the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor Hugo; van Lent, Jeffrey; Verchot, Louis Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Peru has the second largest area of peatlands in the Tropics however little is known on how the biogeochemical cycle of its peat forests can be affected through anthropogenic intervention. The most representative land cover on peat is a Mauritia flexuosa-dominated palm swamp forest which has been under human pressure over decades due the high demand for the M. flexuosa fruit often collected by cutting down the entire palm. Degradation of these carbon-dense forests can severely affect emissions of greenhouse gases and contribute to climate change. The objectives of this research were to assess the impacts on soil trace gas fluxes and biomass carbon stocks of peat palm swamp forest degradation and to explore the potential of remote sensing methods combined with field measurements to map the distribution of peat palm swamp forest according degradation levels. Results suggest a shift in forest composition from palm- to woody-tree dominated forest following degradation. We also found that human intervention in peat palm swamp forest can translate into substantial reductions in tree carbon stocks with a decrease in initial biomass (above and below-ground) stocks (118.3 ± 1.1 Mg C ha-1) by 26 and 44% following medium and high degradation. Preliminary results suggest high and low soil CH4 and CO2 emission rates on average, as compared to Southeast Asian peat swamp forests whereas N2O emissions are of the same magnitude. Degradation seems to disrupt soil respiration mainly through micro-climatic changes induced by reduced canopy cover. The analysis indicates a good potential to discriminate areas of peat palm swamp forest with different levels of degradation from other land covers, suggesting the feasibility of monitoring peat palm swamp forest degradation using remote sensing analyses.

  12. Data supporting the nuclear phylogenomics of the palm subfamily Arecoideae (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Comer, Jason R; Zomlefer, Wendy B; Barrett, Craig F; Stevenson, Dennis Wm; Heyduk, Karolina; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2016-06-01

    This data article provides data and supplemental materials referenced in "Nuclear phylogenomics of the palm subfamily Arecoideae (Arecaceae)" (Comer et al., 2016) [1]. Raw sequence reads generated for this study are available through the Sequence Read Archive (SRA Study Accession: SRP061467). An aligned supermatrix of 168 nuclear genes for 35 taxa (34 palms and one outgroup taxon) is provided. Also provided are individual maximum likelihood gene trees used for the coalescent based analyses, output from the maximum parsimony analyses, and two figures.

  13. Responses of tropical fruit bats to monoculture and polyculture farming in oil palm smallholdings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafiq, Muhamad; Nur Atiqah, Abd Rahman; Ghazali, Amal; Asmah, Siti; Yahya, Muhammad S.; Aziz, Najjib; Puan, Chong Leong; Azhar, Badrul

    2016-07-01

    The oil palm industry is one of the main economic drivers in Southeast Asia. The industry has caused tropical deforestation on a massive scale in producing countries, and this forest conversion to oil palm agriculture has decimated the habitat of numerous native species. Monoculture and polyculture practices are two distinctive oil palm production systems. We hypothesize that polyculture farming hosts a greater diversity of species than monoculture farming. Habitat complexity in smallholdings is influenced by multiple farming practices (i.e. polyculture and monoculture). However, little is known about the effects of such farming practices in smallholdings on mammalian biodiversity, and particularly frugivorous bats. Our study aimed to find the best farming practice to reconcile oil palm production with biodiversity conservation. Mist-nets were used to trap frugivorous bats at 120 smallholdings in Peninsular Malaysia. We compared species richness and the abundance of frugivorous bats between monoculture and polyculture smallholdings. We investigated their relationships with vegetation structure characteristics. Our results revealed that species richness and abundance of frugivorous bats were significantly greater in polyculture smallholdings than monoculture smallholdings. We also found that 28.21% of the variation in species richness was explained by in situ habitat characteristics, including the number of dead standing oil palms and immature oil palms, non-grass cover, height of non-grass cover, and farming practices. The in situ habitat quality was closely associated with oil palm farming management. Commercial growers should implement polyculture rather than monoculture farming because polyculture farming has positive effects on the abundance and species richness of bats in oil palm production landscapes.

  14. Thermal Diffusivity of Palm Olein and Compounds Containing β-carotene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas Cabral, A. J.; de Oliveira, P. C.; Moreira, S. G. C.; Alcantara, P.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of dissolving β-carotene into palm olein was experimentally investigated using time-resolved thermal lens spectroscopy. The thermal diffusivity of palm olein was measured, and the dependence on the concentration of the compounds was studied. The results show an enhancement in the thermal diffusivity by increasing the quantity of β-carotene in the compounds. This behavior was interpreted on the basis of the electronic structure of the β-carotene molecule.

  15. Extensive nevus comedonicus involving the palm: questionable role of the pilosebaceous unit in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ganjoo, Shikhar; Mohanan, Saritha; Kumari, Rashmi; Thappa, Devinder M; Rajesh, Nachiappa G

    2014-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy had multiple grouped pits with black plugs arranged along the lines of Blaschko on his left chest, arm, and palm. Involvement of the palms is rarely reported in the literature. Recent reports have described mosaic acneiform conditions that could share pathogenetic mechanisms with nevus comedonicus. We briefly review the literature on mosaic conditions with acneiform lesions including nevus comedonicus.

  16. Bud Rot Caused by Phytophthora palmivora: A Destructive Emerging Disease of Oil Palm.

    PubMed

    Torres, G A; Sarria, G A; Martinez, G; Varon, F; Drenth, A; Guest, D I

    2016-04-01

    Oomycetes from the genus Phytophthora are among the most important plant pathogens in agriculture. Epidemics caused by P. infestans precipitated the great Irish famine and had a major impact on society and human history. In the tropics, P. palmivora is a pathogen of many plant species including cacao (Theobroma cacao), citrus (Citrus sp.), durian (Durio zibethines), jackfruit (Artrocarpus heterophyllus), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and several palm species including coconut (Cocos nucifera), and the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as determined recently. The first localized epidemics of bud rot in oil palm in Colombia were reported in 1964. However, recent epidemics of bud rot have destroyed more than 70,000 ha of oil palm in the Western and Central oil palm growing regions of Colombia. The agricultural, social, and economic implications of these outbreaks have been significant in Colombia. Identification of the pathogen after 100 years of investigating the disease in the world enabled further understanding of infection, expression of a range of symptoms, and epidemiology of the disease. This review examines the identification of P. palmivora as the cause of bud rot in Colombia, its epidemiology, and discusses the importance of P. palmivora as a major threat to oil palm plantings globally.

  17. The oil palm SHELL gene controls oil yield and encodes a homologue of SEEDSTICK.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; Rosli, Rozana; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; Budiman, Muhammad A; Hogan, Michael; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Ordway, Jared M; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Martienssen, Robert A

    2013-08-15

    A key event in the domestication and breeding of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis was loss of the thick coconut-like shell surrounding the kernel. Modern E. guineensis has three fruit forms, dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), a hybrid between dura and pisifera. The pisifera palm is usually female-sterile. The tenera palm yields far more oil than dura, and is the basis for commercial palm oil production in all of southeast Asia. Here we describe the mapping and identification of the SHELL gene responsible for the different fruit forms. Using homozygosity mapping by sequencing, we found two independent mutations in the DNA-binding domain of a homologue of the MADS-box gene SEEDSTICK (STK, also known as AGAMOUS-LIKE 11), which controls ovule identity and seed development in Arabidopsis. The SHELL gene is responsible for the tenera phenotype in both cultivated and wild palms from sub-Saharan Africa, and our findings provide a genetic explanation for the single gene hybrid vigour (or heterosis) attributed to SHELL, via heterodimerization. This gene mutation explains the single most important economic trait in oil palm, and has implications for the competing interests of global edible oil production, biofuels and rainforest conservation.

  18. Production and physico-chemical characterization of biochar from palm kernel shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, S. H.; Loh, S. K.; Bachmann, Robert T.; Choo, Y. M.; Salimon, J.; Rahim, S. Abdul

    2013-11-01

    As the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil, Malaysia's palm oil industry leaves behind huge amounts of biomass waste from its plantation and milling activities such as empty fruit bunch, palm kernel shell (PKS), palm frond and palm trunk. Generally, most of the waste generated is disposed of via open dumping, used as solid fuel in boilers, or used as fertilizers. To enhance the use of the abundant biomass generated by the oil palm industry in Malaysia, conversion of biomass to biochar could be a promising alternative. Biochar has the strength in improving long term soil productivity and capable of sequestering carbon in soils to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide to atmosphere. This research project aims to investigate and optimize the use of PKS for biochar production through slow pyrolysis by using the Biochar Experimenter's Kit (BEK) from All Power Labs, California. PKS was pyrolyzed at 400 °C for an hour. Biochar and the pyrolysis by-products were then collected. The biochar was then selectively characterized for its physicochemical properties such as proximate and ultimate analysis, pH, water holding capacity and BET surface area.

  19. Global-change vulnerability of a key plant resource, the African palms

    PubMed Central

    Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik; Dransfield, John; Normand, Signe; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Palms are keystone species in tropical ecosystems and provide essential ecosystem services to rural people worldwide. However, many palm species are threatened by habitat loss and over-exploitation. Furthermore, palms are sensitive to climate and thus vulnerable to future climate changes. Here, we provide a first quantitative assessment of the future risks to the African palm flora, finding that African palm species on average may experience a decline in climatic suitability in >70% of their current ranges by 2080. This suitability loss may, however, be almost halved if migration to nearby climatically suitable sites succeeds. Worryingly, 42% of the areas with 80–100% of species losing climate suitability are also characterized by high human population density (HPD). By 2080, >90% of all African palm species’ ranges will likely occur at HPDs leading to increased risks of habitat loss and overexploitation. Additionally, up to 87% of all species are predicted to lose climatic suitability within current protected areas (PAs) by 2080. In summary, a major plant component of tropical ecosystems and provider of ecosystem services to rural populations will face strongly increased pressures from climate change and human populations in the near future. PMID:26211732

  20. ADAM33 polymorphisms are associated with asthma and a distinctive palm dermatoglyphic pattern

    PubMed Central

    XUE, WEILIN; HAN, WEI; ZHOU, ZHAO-SHAN

    2013-01-01

    A close correlation between asthma and palm dermatoglyphic patterns has been observed in previous studies, but the underlying genetic mechanisms have not been investigated. A disintegrin and metalloprotein-33 (ADAM33) polymorphisms are important in the development of asthma and other atopic diseases. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the association between asthma and distinctive palm dermatoglyphic patterns, thirteen ADAM33 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed for the association between asthma and palm dermatoglyphic patterns in a population of 400 asthmatic patients and 200 healthy controls. Based on the results, five SNPs, rs44707 (codominant model, P=0.031; log-additive model, P=0.0084), rs2787094 (overdominant model, P=0.049), rs678881 (codominant model, P=0.028; overdominant model, P=0.0083), rs677044 (codominant model, P=0.013; log-additive model, P=0.0033) and rs512625 (dominant model, P=0.033), were associated with asthma in this population. Two SNPs, rs44707 (dominant model, P=0.042) and rs2787094 (codominant model, P=0.014; recessive model, P=0.0038), were observed in the asthma patients with the distinctive palm pattern. As rs44707 and rs2787094 are associated with asthma and a distinctive palm pattern, the data suggest that ADAM33 polymorphisms are correlated with asthma and may be the underlying genetic basis of the association between asthma and palm dermatoglyphic patterns. PMID:24141861

  1. Oil Palm expansion over Southeast Asia: land use change and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, S. J.; Heald, C. L.; Geddes, J.; Marlier, M. E.; Austin, K.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA). Much of this expansion has come at the expense of natural forests and grasslands. Aircraft measurements from a 2008 campaign, OP3, found that oil palm plantations emit as much as 7 times more isoprene than nearby natural forests. Furthermore, SEA is a rapidly developing region, with increasing urban population, and growing air quality concerns. Thus, SEA represents an ideal case study to examine the impacts of land use change on air quality in the region, and whether those changes can be detected from satellite observations of atmospheric composition. We investigate the impacts of historical and future oil palm expansion in SEA using satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We examine the impact of palm plantations on surface-atmosphere processes (dry deposition, biogenic emissions). We show the sensitivity of air quality to current and future oil palm expansion scenarios, and discuss the limitations of current satellite measurements in capturing these changes. Our results indicate that while the impact of oil palm expansion on air quality can be significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space.

  2. Hormones, polyamines, and cell wall metabolism during oil palm fruit mesocarp development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Teh, Huey Fang; Neoh, Bee Keat; Wong, Yick Ching; Kwong, Qi Bin; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Tiong, Soon Huat; Low, Jaime Yoke Sum; Danial, Asma Dazni; Ersad, Mohd Amiron; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David R

    2014-08-13

    Oil palm is one of the most productive oil-producing crops and can store up to 90% oil in its fruit mesocarp. Oil palm fruit is a sessile drupe consisting of a fleshy mesocarp from which palm oil is extracted. Biochemical changes in the mesocarp cell walls, polyamines, and hormones at different ripening stages of oil palm fruits were studied, and the relationship between the structural and the biochemical metabolism of oil palm fruits during ripening is discussed. Time-course analysis of the changes in expression of polyamines, hormones, and cell-wall-related genes and metabolites provided insights into the complex processes and interactions involved in fruit development. Overall, a strong reduction in auxin-responsive gene expression was observed from 18 to 22 weeks after pollination. High polyamine concentrations coincided with fruit enlargement during lipid accumulation and latter stages of maturation. The trend of abscisic acid (ABA) concentration was concordant with GA₄ but opposite to the GA₃ profile such that as ABA levels increase the resulting elevated ABA/GA₃ ratio clearly coincides with maturation. Polygalacturonase, expansin, and actin gene expressions were also observed to increase during fruit maturation. The identification of the master regulators of these coordinated processes may allow screening for oil palm variants with altered ripening profiles.

  3. Intelligent color vision system for ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Fadilah, Norasyikin; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Abdul Halim, Zaini; Ibrahim, Haidi; Syed Ali, Syed Salim

    2012-10-22

    Ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) during harvesting is important to ensure that they are harvested during optimum stage for maximum oil production. This paper presents the application of color vision for automated ripeness classification of oil palm FFB. Images of oil palm FFBs of type DxP Yangambi were collected and analyzed using digital image processing techniques. Then the color features were extracted from those images and used as the inputs for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) learning. The performance of the ANN for ripeness classification of oil palm FFB was investigated using two methods: training ANN with full features and training ANN with reduced features based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) data reduction technique. Results showed that compared with using full features in ANN, using the ANN trained with reduced features can improve the classification accuracy by 1.66% and is more effective in developing an automated ripeness classifier for oil palm FFB. The developed ripeness classifier can act as a sensor in determining the correct oil palm FFB ripeness category.

  4. Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in Old and New worlds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Rosli, Rozana; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Bacher, Blaire; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; He, Dong; Hogan, Michael; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lee, Ernest K; DeSalle, Rob; Kudrna, David; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wing, Rod A; Wilson, Richard K; Fulton, Robert S; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2013-08-15

    Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Although it is planted on only 5% of the total world vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8-gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. A total of 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the South American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n = 32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis but seems to have diverged in the New World. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations that restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings, and should therefore help to achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop.

  5. Molecular characterization of Syrian date palm cultivars using plasmid-like DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Haider, N; Nabulsi, I

    2012-02-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important domesticated fruit trees in the Near East and North African countries. This tree has been, for several decades, in serious threat of being completely destroyed by the "Bayoud" disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. In this study, 18 Syrian date palm cultivars and four male trees were analyzed according to the identity of mitochondrial plasmid-like DNAs. A PCR strategy that employs plasmid-like DNAs-specific primer pair was used. These primers amplify a product of either 373-bp or 265-bp that corresponds to the S-(Bayoud-susceptible) or the R-plasmid (Bayoud-resistant), respectively. Generated data revealed that only six cultivars ('Medjool', 'Ashrasi', 'Gish Rabi', 'Khineze', and yellow- and red-'Kabkab') have the S-plasmid, suggesting their susceptibility to the fusariosis, while the remaining 12 cultivars and the four male trees contain the R-plasmid, suggesting their resistance to the fusariosis. The PCR process applied here has been proved efficient for the rapid screening for the presence of the S and R DNAs in Syrian date palm. PCR markers developed in this study could be useful for the screening of date palm lines growing in the field. The availability of such diagnostic tool for plasmid characterization in date palm would also be of great importance in establishing propagation and breeding programs of date palm in Syria.

  6. Characterization of the chloroplast genome sequence of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Uthaipaisanwong, P; Chanprasert, J; Shearman, J R; Sangsrakru, D; Yoocha, T; Jomchai, N; Jantasuriyarat, C; Tragoonrung, S; Tangphatsornruang, S

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an economically important crop, which is grown for oil production. To better understand the molecular basis of oil palm chloroplasts, we characterized the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence obtained from 454 pyrosequencing. The oil palm cp genome is 156,973 bp in length consisting of a large single-copy region of 85,192 bp flanked on each side by inverted repeats of 27,071 bp with a small single-copy region of 17,639 bp joining the repeats. The genome contains 112 unique genes: 79 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. By aligning the cp genome sequence with oil palm cDNA sequences, we observed 18 non-silent and 10 silent RNA editing events among 19 cp protein-coding genes. Creation of an initiation codon by RNA editing in rpl2 has been reported in several monocots and was also found in the oil palm cp genome. Fifty common chloroplast protein-coding genes from 33 plant taxa were used to construct ML and MP phylogenetic trees. Their topologies are similar and strongly support for the position of E. guineensis as the sister of closely related species Phoenix dactylifera in Arecaceae (palm families) of monocot subtrees.

  7. Effects of the diet on the microbiota of the red palm weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).

    PubMed

    Montagna, Matteo; Chouaia, Bessem; Mazza, Giuseppe; Prosdocimi, Erica Maria; Crotti, Elena; Mereghetti, Valeria; Vacchini, Violetta; Giorgi, Annamaria; De Biase, Alessio; Longo, Santi; Cervo, Rita; Lozzia, Giuseppe Carlo; Alma, Alberto; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition.

  8. Effects of the Diet on the Microbiota of the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Matteo; Chouaia, Bessem; Mazza, Giuseppe; Prosdocimi, Erica Maria; Crotti, Elena; Mereghetti, Valeria; Vacchini, Violetta; Giorgi, Annamaria; De Biase, Alessio; Longo, Santi; Cervo, Rita; Lozzia, Giuseppe Carlo; Alma, Alberto; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition. PMID:25635833

  9. CSS-Palm 2.0: an updated software for palmitoylation sites prediction

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jian; Wen, Longping; Gao, Xinjiao; Jin, Changjiang; Xue, Yu; Yao, Xuebiao

    2008-01-01

    Protein palmitoylation is an essential post-translational lipid modification of proteins, and reversibly orchestrates a variety of cellular processes. Identification of palmitoylated proteins with their sites is the foundation for understanding molecular mechanisms and regulatory roles of palmitoylation. Contrasting to the labor-intensive and time-consuming experimental approaches, in silico prediction of palmitoylation sites has attracted much attention as a popular strategy. In this work, we updated our previous CSS-Palm into version 2.0. An updated clustering and scoring strategy (CSS) algorithm was employed with great improvement. The leave-one-out validation and 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-fold cross-validations were adopted to evaluate the prediction performance of CSS-Palm 2.0. Also, an additional new data set not included in training was used to test the robustness of CSS-Palm 2.0. By comparison, the performance of CSS-Palm was much better than previous tools. As an application, we performed a small-scale annotation of palmitoylated proteins in budding yeast. The online service and local packages of CSS-Palm 2.0 were freely available at: http://bioinformatics.lcd-ustc.org/css_palm. PMID:18753194

  10. Natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858 on Phoenix palms in India (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Coelaenomenoderini)

    PubMed Central

    Shameem, Koormath Mohammed; Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Nasser, Mannankadiyan; Chaboo, Caroline Simmrita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Members of the Old World hispine tribe, Coelaenomenoderini, are documented on host plants of Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, and Zingiberales. A few species are renowned pests of oil palm, especially in Africa. The host plants and natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858, the only Indian species of the tribe, is reported for the first time. These beetles can densely infest indigenous wild date palms, Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. (Arecaceae), and also use the introduced date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L., which is an expanding crop in India. Javeta females lay single eggs and cover each with an ootheca. All larval stages mine the leaves and pupation occurs within the larval mine. Adults are exophagous, leaving linear feeding trenches. Natural and induced infestations of Javeta pallida on these two palms were observed and the potential of Javeta pallida as a pest of date palm in India is discussed. Javeta pallida completed development on Phoenix palms in 52–88 days (mean 66.38 days) with egg period 11–15 days (mean 12.8 days), larval period 21–54 days (mean 33.02 days) and pupal period 17–23 days (mean 20.52 days). Elasmus longiventris Verma and Hayat and Pediobius imbreus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitize the larva and pupa of Javeta pallida. PMID:27408585

  11. Touch displays: the effects of palm rejection technology on productivity, comfort, biomechanics and positioning.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Matt J; Malige, Ajith; Fujimoto, Jeffrey; Rempel, David M

    2013-01-01

    Direct touch displays can improve the human-computer experience and productivity; however, the higher hand locations may increase shoulder fatigue. Palm rejection (PR) technology may reduce shoulder loads by allowing the palms to rest on the display and increase productivity by registering the touched content and fingertips through the palms rather than shoulders. The effects of PR were evaluated by having participants perform touch tasks while posture and reaction force on the display were measured. Enabling PR, during which the subjects could place the palms on the display (but were not required to), resulted in increased wrist extension, force applied to the display and productivity, and less discomfort, but had no effect on the self-selected positioning of the display. Participants did not deliberately place their palms on the display; therefore, there was no reduction in shoulder load and the increased productivity was not due to improved hand registration. The increased productivity may have been due to reduced interruptions from palm contacts or reduced motor control demands.

  12. Mapping palm oil expansion using SAR to study the impact on the CO2 cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Christine

    2014-06-01

    With Malaysia being the second largest palm oil producer in the world and the fact that palm oil ranks first in vegetable oil production on the world market the palm oil industry became an important factor in the country. Along with the expansion of palm oil across the nation causing deforestation of natural rain forest and conversion of peat land into plantation land there are several factors causing a tremendous increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Main causes of CO2 emission apart from deforestation and peat-land conversion are the fires to create plantation land plus the fires burning waste products of the plantations itself. This paper describes a project that aims at the development of a remote sensing monitoring system to allow a continuous observation of oil palm plantation activities and expansion in order to be able to quantify CO2 emissions. The research concentrates on developing a spaceborne synthetic aperture radar information extraction system for palm oil plantations in the Tropics. This will lead to objective figures that can be used internationally to create a policy implementation plan to sustainably reduce CO2 emission in the future.

  13. Wear characteristic of RBD palm olein using four-ball tribotester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahrullail, S.; Wira, J. Y.; Kameil, A. H. M.; Fawwaz, W. N.

    2012-06-01

    Palm oil shows a great potential to be used as a lubricant. It is a vegetable oil which is environmentally friendly and has a high biodegradability in comparison to mineral oil. However, the research of the properties of palm oil based lubricant from the industrial point of view has never been widely conducted. In this research, the tribological properties of RBD palm olein; which is one of the palm oil refine product, was tested with four-ball tribotester to investigate its wear resistance. The testing method followed the ASTM D4172. The investigation was continued with 40kg, 80kg and 120 kg normal loads. For comparison, similar experimental and analytical works were done with additive-free paraffinic mineral oil and their results were compared with RBD palm olein. The analysis focused on the temperature properties, friction coefficient and wear observation. Results show that RBD palm olein has a good wear resistance performance in high and low temperature compared to additive free paraffinic mineral oil, especially at high normal load.

  14. CSS-Palm 2.0: an updated software for palmitoylation sites prediction.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian; Wen, Longping; Gao, Xinjiao; Jin, Changjiang; Xue, Yu; Yao, Xuebiao

    2008-11-01

    Protein palmitoylation is an essential post-translational lipid modification of proteins, and reversibly orchestrates a variety of cellular processes. Identification of palmitoylated proteins with their sites is the foundation for understanding molecular mechanisms and regulatory roles of palmitoylation. Contrasting to the labor-intensive and time-consuming experimental approaches, in silico prediction of palmitoylation sites has attracted much attention as a popular strategy. In this work, we updated our previous CSS-Palm into version 2.0. An updated clustering and scoring strategy (CSS) algorithm was employed with great improvement. The leave-one-out validation and 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-fold cross-validations were adopted to evaluate the prediction performance of CSS-Palm 2.0. Also, an additional new data set not included in training was used to test the robustness of CSS-Palm 2.0. By comparison, the performance of CSS-Palm was much better than previous tools. As an application, we performed a small-scale annotation of palmitoylated proteins in budding yeast. The online service and local packages of CSS-Palm 2.0 were freely available at: http://bioinformatics.lcd-ustc.org/css_palm.

  15. Multimillion-year climatic effects on palm species diversity in Africa.

    PubMed

    Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Kissling, W Daniel; Dransfield, John; Balslev, Henrik; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2013-11-01

    Past climatic changes have caused extinction, speciation, and range dynamics, but assessing the influence of past multimillion-year climatic imprints on present-day biodiversity patterns remains challenging. We analyzed a new continental-scale data set to examine the importance of paleoclimatic effects on current gradients in African palm richness patterns. Using climate reconstructions from the late Miocene (-10 mya), the Pliocene (-3 mya), and the Last Glacial Maximum (0.021 mya), we found that African palm diversity patterns exhibit pronounced historical legacies related to long-term climate change. Notably, pre-Pleistocene paleoprecipitation variables differentially affected current diversity patterns of palms grouped by contrasting habitat requirements. Accounting for present-day environment, rain forest palms exhibit greater species richness in localities where Pliocene precipitation was relatively high, whereas open-habitat palms show higher species richness in areas of relatively low precipitation during the Miocene Epoch. Our results demonstrate that diversity-climate relationships among African palm species include multimillion-year lagged dynamics, i.e., with historical legacies persisting across much longer time periods than commonly recognized.

  16. Direct in vivo evidence of immense stem water exploitation in irrigated date palms

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Or; Shapira, Or; Schwartz, Amnon; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    During the summer, evaporative demand at midday often exceeds the transport capacity of most desert plants. However, date palms maintain their ecological dominance with sustained and uniquely high rates of transpiration. This high rate of flow cannot be attributed to soil water supply alone. In order to quantify intra-plant water allocation in irrigated date palms, three water-sensing techniques have been incorporated: heat dissipation, gravimetric sampling, and time domain reflectrometry. Each of these methods has known limitations but their integration resulted in a quantitative in vivo accounting of the date palm diurnal and seasonal water mass balance. By incorporating these methods it was possible to determine that date palms substantially rely on the exploitation and recharge of the stem reservoir in their water budget. The stem of mature date palms can hold up to 1 m3 of water and supply 25% of daily transpiration (i.e. 5000 l of water in 100 d of summer). The internal stem water reservoir is consistently recharged by over 50 l per night which allows for successive daytime reuse throughout the entire growing season. More broadly, these findings suggest that internal water allocation and night-time soil-water availability could provide useful information for improving date palm irrigation practices. PMID:25336690

  17. Global-change vulnerability of a key plant resource, the African palms.

    PubMed

    Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik; Dransfield, John; Normand, Signe; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-07-27

    Palms are keystone species in tropical ecosystems and provide essential ecosystem services to rural people worldwide. However, many palm species are threatened by habitat loss and over-exploitation. Furthermore, palms are sensitive to climate and thus vulnerable to future climate changes. Here, we provide a first quantitative assessment of the future risks to the African palm flora, finding that African palm species on average may experience a decline in climatic suitability in >70% of their current ranges by 2080. This suitability loss may, however, be almost halved if migration to nearby climatically suitable sites succeeds. Worryingly, 42% of the areas with 80-100% of species losing climate suitability are also characterized by high human population density (HPD). By 2080, >90% of all African palm species' ranges will likely occur at HPDs leading to increased risks of habitat loss and overexploitation. Additionally, up to 87% of all species are predicted to lose climatic suitability within current protected areas (PAs) by 2080. In summary, a major plant component of tropical ecosystems and provider of ecosystem services to rural populations will face strongly increased pressures from climate change and human populations in the near future.

  18. Natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858 on Phoenix palms in India (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Coelaenomenoderini).

    PubMed

    Shameem, Koormath Mohammed; Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Nasser, Mannankadiyan; Chaboo, Caroline Simmrita

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Old World hispine tribe, Coelaenomenoderini, are documented on host plants of Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, and Zingiberales. A few species are renowned pests of oil palm, especially in Africa. The host plants and natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858, the only Indian species of the tribe, is reported for the first time. These beetles can densely infest indigenous wild date palms, Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. (Arecaceae), and also use the introduced date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L., which is an expanding crop in India. Javeta females lay single eggs and cover each with an ootheca. All larval stages mine the leaves and pupation occurs within the larval mine. Adults are exophagous, leaving linear feeding trenches. Natural and induced infestations of Javeta pallida on these two palms were observed and the potential of Javeta pallida as a pest of date palm in India is discussed. Javeta pallida completed development on Phoenix palms in 52-88 days (mean 66.38 days) with egg period 11-15 days (mean 12.8 days), larval period 21-54 days (mean 33.02 days) and pupal period 17-23 days (mean 20.52 days). Elasmus longiventris Verma and Hayat and Pediobius imbreus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitize the larva and pupa of Javeta pallida.

  19. On the Design of a Bioacoustic Sensor for the Early Detection of the Red Palm Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Rach, Miguel Martínez; Gomis, Héctor Migallón; Granado, Otoniel López; Malumbres, Manuel Perez; Campoy, Antonio Martí; Martín, Juan José Serrano

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

  20. Prevalence of Skin Sensitization to Pollen of Date Palm in Marrakesh, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Amro, Lamyae; Sajiai, Hafsa; Alaoui Yazidi, Abdelhaq

    2017-01-01

    Background. Date palm's pollen has been identified as a source of allergy; the rate of sensitization of this pollen is between 6 and 29%. Objective. To determine the prevalence of sensitization to date palm in Marrakesh and to identify the clinical profile. Patients and Methods. This study is based on a questionnaire and the prick test on 7 allergens, in population aged 5 years and above with clinical symptoms suggesting allergic diseases, from November 2012 to February 2013 in Marrakech. Results. We included 468 patients (women: 79.5%). The prick tests were considered interpretable in 467 cases. The prevalence of skin sensitization to pollen of date palm was 6.6%. The 31 cases of sensitization to date palm involved 7 men and 24 women with an average age of 37.5 years. Cutaneous monosensitization to date palm's pollen was observed in 2 cases. Asthma, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis were recorded, respectively, in 48.4%, 93.5%, and 67.7%. Conclusion. Skin sensitization to pollen of date palm does not seem unusual among allergic patients in Marrakech and is comparable to that found in Casablanca (7%), Barcelona (6.6%), and Cartagena (6.1%). PMID:28270850

  1. Geographical provenance of palm oil by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting techniques.

    PubMed

    Tres, A; Ruiz-Samblas, C; van der Veer, G; van Ruth, S M

    2013-04-15

    Analytical methods are required in addition to administrative controls to verify the geographical origin of vegetable oils such as palm oil in an objective manner. In this study the application of fatty acid and volatile organic compound fingerprinting in combination with chemometrics have been applied to verify the geographical origin of crude palm oil (continental scale). For this purpose 94 crude palm oil samples were collected from South East Asia (55), South America (11) and Africa (28). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to develop a hierarchical classification model by combining two consecutive binary PLS-DA models. First, a PLS-DA model was built to distinguish South East Asian from non-South East Asian palm oil samples. Then a second model was developed, only for the non-Asian samples, to discriminate African from South American crude palm oil. Models were externally validated by using them to predict the identity of new authentic samples. The fatty acid fingerprinting model revealed three misclassified samples. The volatile compound fingerprinting models showed an 88%, 100% and 100% accuracy for the South East Asian, African and American class, respectively. The verification of the geographical origin of crude palm oil is feasible by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting. Further research is required to further validate the approach and to increase its spatial specificity to country/province scale.

  2. Natural (13) C distribution in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and consequences for allocation pattern.

    PubMed

    Lamade, Emmanuelle; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Darlan, Nuzul Hijri; Rodrigues, Rosario Lobato; Fresneau, Chantal; Mauve, Caroline; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Sketriené, Diana; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm has now become one of the most important crops, palm oil representing nearly 25% of global plant oil consumption. Many studies have thus addressed oil palm ecophysiology and photosynthesis-based models of carbon allocation have been used. However, there is a lack of experimental data on carbon fixation and redistribution within palm trees, and important C-sinks have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we carried out extensive measurement of natural (13) C-abundance (δ(13) C) in oil palm tissues, including fruits at different maturation stages. We find a (13) C-enrichment in heterotrophic organs compared to mature leaves, with roots being the most (13) C-enriched. The δ(13) C in fruits decreased during maturation, reflecting the accumulation in (13) C-depleted lipids. We further used observed δ(13) C values to compute plausible carbon fluxes using a steady-state model of (13) C-distribution including metabolic isotope effects ((12) v/(13) v). The results suggest that fruits represent a major respiratory loss (≈39% of total tree respiration) and that sink organs such as fruits are fed by sucrose from leaves. That is, glucose appears to be a quantitatively important compound in palm tissues, but computations indicate that it is involved in dynamic starch metabolism rather that C-exchange between organs.

  3. On the design of a bioacoustic sensor for the early detection of the red palm weevil.

    PubMed

    Martínez Rach, Miguel; Migallón Gomis, Héctor; López Granado, Otoniel; Perez Malumbres, Manuel; Martí Campoy, Antonio; Serrano Martín, Juan José

    2013-01-30

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%.

  4. Characterization of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid variants from oil palm affected by orange spotting disease in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y H; Cheong, L C; Meon, S; Lau, W H; Kong, L L; Joseph, H; Vadamalai, G

    2013-06-01

    A 246-nt variant of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) has been identified and described from oil palms with orange spotting symptoms in Malaysia. Compared with the 246-nt form of CCCVd from coconut, the oil palm variant substituted C(31)→U in the pathogenicity domain and G(70)→C in the central conserved domain. This is the first sequence reported for a 246-nt variant of CCCVd in oil palms expressing orange spotting symptoms.

  5. Comparative susceptibilities of different life stages of the red palm weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) treated by entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Atwa, Atwa A; Hegazi, Esmat M

    2014-08-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynocophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has become the most important pest of the date palm trees in the world. It has been reported in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia since 1987 and in Egypt since 1992. Studies were conducted to compare preferences among red palm weevil life stages for infection by 12 entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), under no choice and five stage choice experiments, and curative trials by some of EPNs isolates. All EPN isolates proved to be pathogenic for the first instars of red palm weevil larvae. Some of the test EPNs exhibited a preference for larvae over pupae, and a lesser degree of preference for adults. In contrast some strains showed no preference for any stage. The local Egyptian isolates of EPNs were most efficient nematodes against red palm weevil than foreign strains. Field assessments using trunk injection resulted in a substantial decline in the population of red palm weevil after two successive applications within 3 wk. Efficacies ranging 48-88% were achieved in the curative assay resulting in a significant increase in palm survival compared with the untreated control. In conclusion, there is a great potential for the use of EPNs, in particular the Steinernema sp. (EGG4), against the red palm weevil when injected in the date palm.

  6. [Spatial distribution of Triatominae populations (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Mauritia flexuosa palm trees in Federal District of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Duarte, Marco Antônio; Ramalho, Eduardo Dias; Palma, Alexandre Ramlo Torre; Romaña, Christine Agueda; Cuba-Cuba, César Augusto

    2004-01-01

    To determine and analyze the distribution of Triatominae sylvatic populations in the Federal District of Brazil, 150 Mauritia flexuosa palm trees were sampled in six veredas of different landscapes (sylvatic, rural and peri-urban) in the rainy season. Triatomines were morphologically identified and grouped by sex and nymphal stage and were examined to verify infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli. Twenty eight (18.6%) palm trees were infested by Rhodnius neglectus and fourteen (9.5%) by Psammolestes tertius. The frequency of Triatominae in palm trees with and without nests was significantly different being higher in palm trees with bird and mammal nests in the crown. The higher average number of insects/palm tree was observed in rural areas with estimates of up to 838 insects/hectare. The species age makeup presented a different pattern, with nymphs predominant for Rhodnius neglectus and adults predominant for Psammolestes tertius. Also, many Rhodnius neglectus eggs were collected, which indicates a reproductive event in February 2003. Among the nests found in palm trees, that of the Phacellodomus ruber (Furnariidae) bird had the greatest abundance of Triatominae, occurring on 42% of palm trees. The relative abundance of Rhodnius neglectus and Psammolestes tertius was greater in rural areas which contained higher number of nests in palm trees and lesser density of palms per hectare. None of the 96 triatomines examined were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or Trypanosoma rangeli, despite our finding of Rhodnius neglectus infection by those parasites in former studies.

  7. Ecosystem-based greenhouse budgets in oil palm plantations differ with plantation age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Hassler, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; June, Tania; Veldkamp, Edzo; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Global increase in demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia. Oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia, together with those in Kalimantan, are responsible for half of the world's palm oil production. Available studies point to plantations being large carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks due to the high photosynthetic rates of oil palm as a result of high fertilizer inputs, especially in large-scale plantations. However, methane (CH4) uptake in the soil of oil palm plantations is reduced and soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions increased right after nitrogen (N) fertilization. Greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets at the ecosystem level are still missing, and the few available information was derived from mature plantations, pointing to a lack of knowledge on the changes of these GHG budgets with plantation age. With the aim of quantifying CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2-year old (non-productive) oil palm plantation and was subsequently moved to a 12-year old (productive) plantation. Both sites were on Acrisol soils and were located in Jambi province, Sumatra. Chamber-based measurements of soil GHG fluxes were also carried out along the EC footprint. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE), based on EC measurement, showed that the non-productive plantation was a strong CO2 source (990 g C m-2 yr-1) whereas the productive plantation was a CO2 sink (-790 g C m-2 yr-1). For CH4 fluxes, both plantations showed similar soil CH4 uptake that led to a small carbon sink of (~1.3 g C m-2 yr-1). Soil N2O fluxes were high in the productive plantation (3.26 ± 1.73 kg N ha-1 yr-1), as measurements were carried out in a plantation with high fertilization rates. In the non-productive plantation, soil N2O fluxes were lower and were associated with fertilization events. Our results show that the global warming potential of a non-productive oil

  8. Use of palm-mat geotextiles for rainsplash erosion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Fullen, M. A.; Davies, K.; Booth, C. A.

    2010-07-01

    Soil detachment by raindrop action (rainsplash erosion) is a very important subprocess of erosion by water. It is a particular problem in the UK as most soils are sandy or loamy sand in texture and lands have gentle to medium slope. However, few studies report potential rainsplash erosion control options under field conditions. Hence, the utilization of palm-mat geotextiles as a rainsplash erosion control technique was investigated at Hilton, east Shropshire, U.K. (52°33'5.7″ N, 2°19'18.3″ W). Geotextile-mats constructed from Borassus aethiopum (Borassus palm of West Africa) and Mauritia flexuosa (Buriti palm of South America) leaves are termed Borassus mats and Buriti mats, respectively. Two-year field experiments were conducted at Hilton to study the effects of emplacing Borassus and Buriti mats on rainsplash erosion of a loamy sand soil. Two sets (12 plots each) of experiments were established to study the effects of these mats on splash height and splash erosion. Splash height needs to be known to assess the transport mechanism of major soil fraction and its constituents on sloping land by rainsplash. In both sets, six randomly-selected plots were covered with mats, and the rest were bare. Results (during 22/01/2007‒23/01/2009; total precipitation = 1731.5 mm) show that Borassus mat-covered plots had ˜ 89% ( P < 0.001) less total splash erosion (2.97 kg m - 2 ) than bare plots (27.02 kg m - 2 ). Comparatively, mean splash height from Borassus mat-covered plots (0.12 m) was significantly ( P < 0.001) less than the bare plots, by ˜ 54%. However, Buriti mat-cover on bare plots had no significant ( P > 0.05) effect in rainsplash erosion control during that period, although plots with Buriti mats significantly ( P < 0.05) decreased splash height (by ˜ 18%) compared with bare plots (0.26 m). Buriti mats, probably due to their ˜ 43, 62 and 50% lower cover percentage (44%), mass per unit area (413 g - 2 ) and thickness (10 mm), respectively, compared with

  9. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rozilda da Conceição Dos; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Sacramento, Samara Bianca Moraes; Lima, Elizanne de Moura; Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos de

    2016-11-17

    The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16 ± 0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (P<0.05) as a function of palm kernel inclusion in the diet. There was not difference (P>0.05) for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (P<0.05), except for the neck weight. The weights of the heart, liver, kidney fat, small and large intestine, and gastrointestinal tract decreased. Nevertheless, the gastrointestinal content was greater for animals that were fed increasing levels of cake. For the other organs and viscera, differences were not verified (P>0.05). The sarcomere length decreased linearly (P<0.05), although an effect of the inclusion of palm kernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (P=0.050). The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  10. Identification and characterization of gene-based SSR markers in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is an important tree in the Middle East and North Africa due to the nutritional value of its fruit. Molecular Breeding would accelerate genetic improvement of fruit tree through marker assisted selection. However, the lack of molecular markers in date palm restricts the application of molecular breeding. Results In this study, we analyzed 28,889 EST sequences from the date palm genome database to identify simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) and to develop gene-based markers, i.e. expressed sequence tag-SSRs (EST-SSRs). We identified 4,609 ESTs as containing SSRs, among which, trinucleotide motifs (69.7%) were the most common, followed by tetranucleotide (10.4%) and dinucleotide motifs (9.6%). The motif AG (85.7%) was most abundant in dinucleotides, while motifs AGG (26.8%), AAG (19.3%), and AGC (16.1%) were most common among trinucleotides. A total of 4,967 primer pairs were designed for EST-SSR markers from the computational data. In a follow up laboratory study, we tested a sample of 20 random selected primer pairs for amplification and polymorphism detection using genomic DNA from date palm cultivars. Nearly one-third of these primer pairs detected DNA polymorphism to differentiate the twelve date palm cultivars used. Functional categorization of EST sequences containing SSRs revealed that 3,108 (67.4%) of such ESTs had homology with known proteins. Conclusion Date palm EST sequences exhibits a good resource for developing gene-based markers. These genic markers identified in our study may provide a valuable genetic and genomic tool for further genetic research and varietal development in date palm, such as diversity study, QTL mapping, and molecular breeding. PMID:23241238

  11. Responses of soil fungi to logging and oil palm agriculture in Southeast Asian tropical forests.

    PubMed

    McGuire, K L; D'Angelo, H; Brearley, F Q; Gedallovich, S M; Babar, N; Yang, N; Gillikin, C M; Gradoville, R; Bateman, C; Turner, B L; Mansor, P; Leff, J W; Fierer, N

    2015-05-01

    Human land use alters soil microbial composition and function in a variety of systems, although few comparable studies have been done in tropical forests and tropical agricultural production areas. Logging and the expansion of oil palm agriculture are two of the most significant drivers of tropical deforestation, and the latter is most prevalent in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to compare soil fungal communities from three sites in Malaysia that represent three of the most dominant land-use types in the Southeast Asia tropics: a primary forest, a regenerating forest that had been selectively logged 50 years previously, and a 25-year-old oil palm plantation. Soil cores were collected from three replicate plots at each site, and fungal communities were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Extracellular enzyme assays were assessed as a proxy for soil microbial function. We found that fungal communities were distinct across all sites, although fungal composition in the regenerating forest was more similar to the primary forest than either forest community was to the oil palm site. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are important associates of the dominant Dipterocarpaceae tree family in this region, were compositionally distinct across forests, but were nearly absent from oil palm soils. Extracellular enzyme assays indicated that the soil ecosystem in oil palm plantations experienced altered nutrient cycling dynamics, but there were few differences between regenerating and primary forest soils. Together, these results show that logging and the replacement of primary forest with oil palm plantations alter fungal community and function, although forests regenerating from logging had more similarities with primary forests in terms of fungal composition and nutrient cycling potential. Since oil palm agriculture is currently the mostly rapidly expanding equatorial crop and logging is pervasive across tropical ecosystems, these findings may have broad applicability.

  12. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Guiming; Yin, Yuxin; Chen, Kaifu; Yun, Quanzheng; Zhao, Duojun; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S.; Yu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Background Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), a member of Arecaceae family, is one of the three major economically important woody palms—the two other palms being oil palm and coconut tree—and its fruit is a staple food among Middle East and North African nations, as well as many other tropical and subtropical regions. Here we report a complete sequence of the data palm chloroplast (cp) genome based on pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings After extracting 369,022 cp sequencing reads from our whole-genome-shotgun data, we put together an assembly and validated it with intensive PCR-based verification, coupled with PCR product sequencing. The date palm cp genome is 158,462 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure of the large (LSC, 86,198 bp) and small single-copy (SSC, 17,712 bp) regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 27,276 bp). Similar to what has been found among most angiosperms, the date palm cp genome harbors 112 unique genes and 19 duplicated fragments in the IR regions. The junctions between LSC/IRs and SSC/IRs show different features of sequence expansion in evolution. We identified 78 SNPs as major intravarietal polymorphisms within the population of a specific cp genome, most of which were located in genes with vital functions. Based on RNA-sequencing data, we also found 18 polycistronic transcription units and three highly expression-biased genes—atpF, trnA-UGC, and rrn23. Conclusions Unlike most monocots, date palm has a typical cp genome similar to that of tobacco—with little rearrangement and gene loss or gain. High-throughput sequencing technology facilitates the identification of intravarietal variations in cp genomes among different cultivars. Moreover, transcriptomic analysis of cp genes provides clues for uncovering regulatory mechanisms of transcription and translation in chloroplasts. PMID:20856810

  13. Involvement of metabolites in early defense mechanism of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) against Ganoderma disease.

    PubMed

    Nusaibah, S A; Siti Nor Akmar, A; Idris, A S; Sariah, M; Mohamad Pauzi, Z

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of interaction between the oil palm and its key pathogen, Ganoderma spp. is crucial as the disease caused by this fungal pathogen leads to a major loss of revenue in leading palm oil producing countries in Southeast Asia. Here in this study, we assess the morphological and biochemical changes in Ganoderma disease infected oil palm seedling roots in both resistant and susceptible progenies. Rubber woodblocks fully colonized by G. boninense were applied as a source of inoculum to artificially infect the roots of resistant and susceptible oil palm progenies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure an array of plant metabolites in 100 resistant and susceptible oil palm seedling roots treated with pathogenic Ganoderma boninense fungus. Statistical effects, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify key-Ganoderma disease associated metabolic agitations in both resistant and susceptible oil palm root tissues. Ganoderma disease related defense shifts were characterized based on (i) increased antifungal activity in crude extracts, (ii) increased lipid levels, beta- and gamma-sitosterol particularly in the resistant progeny, (iii) detection of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds, benzo [h] quinoline, pyridine, pyrimidine (iv) elevation in antioxidants, alpha- and beta-tocopherol (iv) degraded cortical cell wall layers, possibly resulting from fungal hydrolytic enzyme activity needed for initial penetration. The present study suggested that plant metabolites mainly lipids and heterocyclic aromatic organic metabolites could be potentially involved in early oil palm defense mechanism against G. boninense infection, which may also highlight biomarkers for disease detection, treatment, development of resistant variety and monitoring.

  14. Persistent Effects of Oil Palm Plantation Agriculture on Freshwater Stream Function in Indonesian Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L.; Ratnasari, D.

    2012-12-01

    Conversion of forests to agricultural land uses alters freshwater stream ecosystems by changing flows of physical, chemical, and biological stream inputs. In contrast with annual agricultural crops, oil palm agribusiness may have distinctive effects on stream function because these plantations replace existing land cover with 1,000-20,000 ha tree-like monocultures that have 20-30 year rotation cycles. From 2008 to 2012 in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), we measured water temperature, metabolism, and sediment and nutrient loads in four streams draining watersheds dominated (> ~70%) by intact and logged forests, agroforests and agricultural fallows, and young (< 3 y) and mature (> 10 y) oil palm plantations. We find that mean daily stream temperature was elevated 12% at the mature and 8% at the young oil palm site compared to the forest stream (25.5 ± 0.3°C). No clear relationship emerged between land cover type and ecosystem respiration (ER, g O2 m-2 d-1) or gross primary production (GPP, g O2 m-2 d-1). Yet GPP:ER ratios were 600% and 650% greater at young and mature oil palm watersheds, respectively, than the forested watershed (0.020 ± 0.005). Sediment loads (t d-1) across measured water yields (m d-1) were higher in the young oil palm stream compared to all other streams. Total phosphorous, total dissolved phosphorous, and total nitrogen loads for measured water yields were elevated in the agroforest and young oil palm sites compared to the forest site. Our results indicate that oil palm plantation land use alters tropical stream temperature, metabolism, nutrient loads, and sediment loads; moreover, these conditions appear to persist for ≥ 15 years. We discuss the implications of these findings for local human communities and ecosystems.

  15. Impact of Logging and Forest Conversion to Oil Palm Plantations on Soil Bacterial Communities in Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Edwards, David P.; Tripathi, Binu M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil bacteria, which constitute a large proportion of total biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, is a major conservation frontier. Here we studied the effects of logging history and forest conversion to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo, on the soil bacterial community. We used paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, V3 region, to compare the bacterial communities in primary, once-logged, and twice-logged forest and land converted to oil palm plantations. Bacteria were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% similarity level, and OTU richness and local-scale α-diversity showed no difference between the various forest types and oil palm plantations. Focusing on the turnover of bacteria across space, true β-diversity was higher in oil palm plantation soil than in forest soil, whereas community dissimilarity-based metrics of β-diversity were only marginally different between habitats, suggesting that at large scales, oil palm plantation soil could have higher overall γ-diversity than forest soil, driven by a slightly more heterogeneous community across space. Clearance of primary and logged forest for oil palm plantations did, however, significantly impact the composition of soil bacterial communities, reflecting in part the loss of some forest bacteria, whereas primary and logged forests did not differ in composition. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacteria of tropical forest are to some extent resilient or resistant to logging but that the impacts of forest conversion to oil palm plantations are more severe. PMID:24056463

  16. Impact of logging and forest conversion to oil palm plantations on soil bacterial communities in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Edwards, David P; Tripathi, Binu M; Adams, Jonathan M

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil bacteria, which constitute a large proportion of total biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, is a major conservation frontier. Here we studied the effects of logging history and forest conversion to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo, on the soil bacterial community. We used paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, V3 region, to compare the bacterial communities in primary, once-logged, and twice-logged forest and land converted to oil palm plantations. Bacteria were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% similarity level, and OTU richness and local-scale α-diversity showed no difference between the various forest types and oil palm plantations. Focusing on the turnover of bacteria across space, true β-diversity was higher in oil palm plantation soil than in forest soil, whereas community dissimilarity-based metrics of β-diversity were only marginally different between habitats, suggesting that at large scales, oil palm plantation soil could have higher overall γ-diversity than forest soil, driven by a slightly more heterogeneous community across space. Clearance of primary and logged forest for oil palm plantations did, however, significantly impact the composition of soil bacterial communities, reflecting in part the loss of some forest bacteria, whereas primary and logged forests did not differ in composition. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacteria of tropical forest are to some extent resilient or resistant to logging but that the impacts of forest conversion to oil palm plantations are more severe.

  17. [Replacing of residue from production of palm Palm Royal Australian (Archontophoenix alexan- drae) in silage of sugar cane in diets of sheep].

    PubMed

    Bayão, Geraldo Fábio Viana; Queiroz, Augusto César de; Freitas, Samuel Galvão de; Batalha, Camila Delveaux Araujo; Sousa, Katiene Régia Silva; Pimentel, Róberson Machado; Cardoso, Lucas Ladeira; Cardoso, Alex Junio da Silva

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of the diets containing residue from palm heart of Australian Royal Palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae) to replace sugar cane on sheep. Twelve sheep were used with average live weight of 23.3 ± 2.8 Kg and they placed in metabolism cages and distributed in six latin square 2 x 2 in a factorial design 3 x 2 (three types of residue--sheet, bark and composed--and two levels of residue's replacement, 5% and 15%). It was observed higher intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) by substitution of composed residue. The average values of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre correct for ash and protein (NDFap) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were higher for sheet residue. There was interaction between type of residue and level of residue's replacement on the urinary excretion of total nitrogen (NUE), apparent nitrogen balance (BNA) and microbial nitrogen compost (NMIC). Residues from palm heart of Australian Royal Palm can be used as roughage in the ruminants'diet, and of these residues, the sheet and composed residue showed better response in the evaluated characteristics.

  18. De Novo Assembly of Coding Sequences of the Mangrove Palm (Nypa fruticans) Using RNA-Seq and Discovery of Whole-Genome Duplications in the Ancestor of Palms.

    PubMed

    He, Ziwen; Zhang, Zhang; Guo, Wuxia; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Renchao; Shi, Suhua

    2015-01-01

    Nypa fruticans (Arecaceae) is the only monocot species of true mangroves. This species represents the earliest mangrove fossil recorded. How N. fruticans adapts to the harsh and unstable intertidal zone is an interesting question. However, the 60 gene segments deposited in NCBI are insufficient for solving this question. In this study, we sequenced, assembled and annotated the transcriptome of N. fruticans using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 19,918,800 clean paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 45,368 unigenes with a N50 length of 1,096 bp. A total of 41.35% unigenes were functionally annotated using Blast2GO. Many genes annotated to "response to stress" and 15 putative positively selected genes were identified. Simple sequence repeats were identified and compared with other palms. The divergence time between N. fruticans and other palms was estimated at 75 million years ago using the genomic data, which is consistent with the fossil record. After calculating the synonymous substitution rate between paralogs, we found that two whole-genome duplication events were shared by N. fruticans and other palms. These duplication events provided a large amount of raw material for the more than 2,000 later speciation events in Arecaceae. This study provides a high quality resource for further functional and evolutionary studies of N. fruticans and palms in general.

  19. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens’ feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma. 204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  20. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

    2013-05-09

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  1. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajau, Rida; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

    2014-02-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  2. Modeling Disease Vector Occurrence when Detection Is Imperfect: Infestation of Amazonian Palm Trees by Triatomine Bugs at Three Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Campos, Ciro; Palomeque, Francisco S.; Grijalva, Mario J.; Aguilar, H. Marcelo; Miles, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Failure to detect a disease agent or vector where it actually occurs constitutes a serious drawback in epidemiology. In the pervasive situation where no sampling technique is perfect, the explicit analytical treatment of detection failure becomes a key step in the estimation of epidemiological parameters. We illustrate this approach with a study of Attalea palm tree infestation by Rhodnius spp. (Triatominae), the most important vectors of Chagas disease (CD) in northern South America. Methodology/Principal Findings The probability of detecting triatomines in infested palms is estimated by repeatedly sampling each palm. This knowledge is used to derive an unbiased estimate of the biologically relevant probability of palm infestation. We combine maximum-likelihood analysis and information-theoretic model selection to test the relationships between environmental covariates and infestation of 298 Amazonian palm trees over three spatial scales: region within Amazonia, landscape, and individual palm. Palm infestation estimates are high (40–60%) across regions, and well above the observed infestation rate (24%). Detection probability is higher (∼0.55 on average) in the richest-soil region than elsewhere (∼0.08). Infestation estimates are similar in forest and rural areas, but lower in urban landscapes. Finally, individual palm covariates (accumulated organic matter and stem height) explain most of infestation rate variation. Conclusions/Significance Individual palm attributes appear as key drivers of infestation, suggesting that CD surveillance must incorporate local-scale knowledge and that peridomestic palm tree management might help lower transmission risk. Vector populations are probably denser in rich-soil sub-regions, where CD prevalence tends to be higher; this suggests a target for research on broad-scale risk mapping. Landscape-scale effects indicate that palm triatomine populations can endure deforestation in rural areas, but become rarer in

  3. Synergies for Improving Oil Palm Production and Forest Conservation in Floodplain Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Nicola K.; Xofis, Panteleimon; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; MacMillan, Douglas C.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Chung, Robin; Peter, Lucy; Ong, Robert; Lackman, Isabelle; Goossens, Benoit; Ambu, Laurentius; Knight, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Lowland tropical forests are increasingly threatened with conversion to oil palm as global demand and high profit drives crop expansion throughout the world’s tropical regions. Yet, landscapes are not homogeneous and regional constraints dictate land suitability for this crop. We conducted a regional study to investigate spatial and economic components of forest conversion to oil palm within a tropical floodplain in the Lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The Kinabatangan ecosystem harbours significant biodiversity with globally threatened species but has suffered forest loss and fragmentation. We mapped the oil palm and forested landscapes (using object-based-image analysis, classification and regression tree analysis and on-screen digitising of high-resolution imagery) and undertook economic modelling. Within the study region (520,269 ha), 250,617 ha is cultivated with oil palm with 77% having high Net-Present-Value (NPV) estimates ($413/ha−yr–$637/ha−yr); but 20.5% is under-producing. In fact 6.3% (15,810 ha) of oil palm is commercially redundant (with negative NPV of $-299/ha−yr-$-65/ha−yr) due to palm mortality from flood inundation. These areas would have been important riparian or flooded forest types. Moreover, 30,173 ha of unprotected forest remain and despite its value for connectivity and biodiversity 64% is allocated for future oil palm. However, we estimate that at minimum 54% of these forests are unsuitable for this crop due to inundation events. If conversion to oil palm occurs, we predict a further 16,207 ha will become commercially redundant. This means that over 32,000 ha of forest within the floodplain would have been converted for little or no financial gain yet with significant cost to the ecosystem. Our findings have globally relevant implications for similar floodplain landscapes undergoing forest transformation to agriculture such as oil palm. Understanding landscape level constraints to this crop, and transferring these

  4. Palms, peccaries and perturbations: widespread effects of small-scale disturbance in tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Disturbance is an important process structuring ecosystems worldwide and has long been thought to be a significant driver of diversity and dynamics. In forests, most studies of disturbance have focused on large-scale disturbance such as hurricanes or tree-falls. However, smaller sub-canopy disturbances could also have significant impacts on community structure. One such sub-canopy disturbance in tropical forests is abscising leaves of large arborescent palm (Arececeae) trees. These leaves can weigh up to 15 kg and cause physical damage and mortality to juvenile plants. Previous studies examining this question suffered from the use of static data at small spatial scales. Here we use data from a large permanent forest plot combined with dynamic data on the survival and growth of > 66,000 individuals over a seven-year period to address whether falling palm fronds do impact neighboring seedling and sapling communities, or whether there is an interaction between the palms and peccaries rooting for fallen palm fruit in the same area as falling leaves. We tested the wider generalisation of these hypotheses by comparing seedling and sapling survival under fruiting and non-fruiting trees in another family, the Myristicaceae. Results We found a spatially-restricted but significant effect of large arborescent fruiting palms on the spatial structure, population dynamics and species diversity of neighbouring sapling and seedling communities. However, these effects were not found around slightly smaller non-fruiting palm trees, suggesting it is seed predators such as peccaries rather than falling leaves that impact on the communities around palm trees. Conversely, this hypothesis was not supported in data from other edible species, such as those in the family Myristicaceae. Conclusions Given the abundance of arborescent palm trees in Amazonian forests, it is reasonable to conclude that their presence does have a significant, if spatially-restricted, impact on juvenile

  5. CO2 and energy fluxes from an oil palm plantation in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Herbst, Mathias; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Oil palm plantations are expanding in Indonesia due to global increased demand of palm oil. Such plantations are usually set in previously forested land and in Sumatra, massive transformation of lowland forest into oil palm plantations is taking place. These land transformations have been identified as a potential driver of climate change, as they might result in changes of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. However, very limited information is available on GHG fluxes from oil palm plantations and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale is yet unknown. An eddy covariance tower was therefore installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation in the province of Jambi, Sumatra (1° 50' 7'S, 103° 17' 44'E), with the aim of studying carbon dioxide, water and energy fluxes during the non-productive phase of oil palm cultivation. The canopy was not yet closed and trees were around 2m high. The eddy covariance system consists of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek Anemometer, operating at 10 Hz and installed on a 7m tower. In addition to the eddy covariance measurements, the site is equipped with a weather station, measuring short and long wave radiation, PAR, rainfall, profiles of air temperature, air humidity and wind speed, soil temperature and moisture and soil heat fluxes. Measurements started in July 2013 until January 2014, in order to capture possible differences which may happen during the dry (July-October) and wet (November-February) seasons. A large CO2 uptake would have been expected at this young oil palm plantation, as palm trees during this period of their cultivation are growing fast. However, our preliminary results show that during the first 5 months of measurements, the ecosystem was a small carbon source (below 10 g CO2 m-2). Latent heat flux was higher than sensible heat flux during the period of study, indicative of the high evaporation taking place. Our results show that both for CO2 and energy fluxes, large differences were observed between the

  6. A review of the ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, using forests as a reference system.

    PubMed

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M; Auliya, Mark; Barnes, Andrew D; Corre, Marife D; Darras, Kevin; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Klasen, Stephan; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tarigan, Suria; Tölle, Merja H; Tscharntke, Teja; Wiegand, Kerstin

    2016-08-11

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in recent decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great ecological, economic, and social impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. However, research on the impacts of oil palm cultivation is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview exists. We address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, including several (genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources, information functions) not included in previous systematic reviews. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those in forests, as the conversion of forest to oil palm is prevalent in the tropics. We find that oil palm plantations generally have reduced ecosystem functioning compared to forests: 11 out of 14 ecosystem functions show a net decrease in level of function. Some functions show decreases with potentially irreversible global impacts (e.g. reductions in gas and climate regulation, habitat and nursery functions, genetic resources, medicinal resources, and information functions). The most serious impacts occur when forest is cleared to establish new plantations, and immediately afterwards, especially on peat soils. To variable degrees, specific plantation management measures can prevent or reduce losses of some ecosystem functions (e.g. avoid illegal land clearing via fire, avoid draining of peat, use of integrated pest management, use of cover crops, mulch, and compost) and we highlight synergistic mitigation measures that can improve multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously. The only ecosystem function which increases in oil palm plantations is, unsurprisingly, the production of marketable goods. Our review highlights numerous research gaps. In particular, there are significant gaps with respect to socio-cultural information functions. Further, there is a need for more empirical data on the importance of spatial and temporal

  7. Synergies for improving oil palm production and forest conservation in floodplain landscapes.

    PubMed

    Abram, Nicola K; Xofis, Panteleimon; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; MacMillan, Douglas C; Ancrenaz, Marc; Chung, Robin; Peter, Lucy; Ong, Robert; Lackman, Isabelle; Goossens, Benoit; Ambu, Laurentius; Knight, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    Lowland tropical forests are increasingly threatened with conversion to oil palm as global demand and high profit drives crop expansion throughout the world's tropical regions. Yet, landscapes are not homogeneous and regional constraints dictate land suitability for this crop. We conducted a regional study to investigate spatial and economic components of forest conversion to oil palm within a tropical floodplain in the Lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The Kinabatangan ecosystem harbours significant biodiversity with globally threatened species but has suffered forest loss and fragmentation. We mapped the oil palm and forested landscapes (using object-based-image analysis, classification and regression tree analysis and on-screen digitising of high-resolution imagery) and undertook economic modelling. Within the study region (520,269 ha), 250,617 ha is cultivated with oil palm with 77% having high Net-Present-Value (NPV) estimates ($413/ha-yr-$637/ha-yr); but 20.5% is under-producing. In fact 6.3% (15,810 ha) of oil palm is commercially redundant (with negative NPV of $-299/ha-yr-$-65/ha-yr) due to palm mortality from flood inundation. These areas would have been important riparian or flooded forest types. Moreover, 30,173 ha of unprotected forest remain and despite its value for connectivity and biodiversity 64% is allocated for future oil palm. However, we estimate that at minimum 54% of these forests are unsuitable for this crop due to inundation events. If conversion to oil palm occurs, we predict a further 16,207 ha will become commercially redundant. This means that over 32,000 ha of forest within the floodplain would have been converted for little or no financial gain yet with significant cost to the ecosystem. Our findings have globally relevant implications for similar floodplain landscapes undergoing forest transformation to agriculture such as oil palm. Understanding landscape level constraints to this crop, and transferring these into policy

  8. Sweating on paws and palms: what is its function?

    PubMed

    Adelman, S; Taylor, C R; Heglund, N C

    1975-11-01

    Man sweats on his palms and the soles of his feet in response to stress and exercise, but not in response to heat. Several functions have been proposed for this type of sweating: increasing friction between skin and substrate; increasing the toughness of the skin; and increasing tactile sensitivity. This study uses a comparative approach to evaluate the role of footpad sweating on increasing friction, utilizing a variety of mammals which possess sweat glands on their footpads (rat, tenrec, hyrax, and dog). We found that all of these animals sweat on their paws while running. Blocking this sweating with atropine sulfate dramatically decreased the coefficient of static friction between the paw and the tread of an inclined treadmill. A similar dose of atropine sulfate had no effect on the coefficient of static friction in a rabbit, and animal that possesses no sweat glands on its paws. We conclude that an important function of this type of sweating is to help prevent slipping between the paw and sthe substrate during running or climbing, and we postulate that the sweating observed in response to stress may play an important role in preparing an animal for fleeing from stressful situations.

  9. Co-composting of palm oil mill sludge-sawdust.

    PubMed

    Yaser, Abu Zahrim; Abd Rahman, Rakmi; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid

    2007-12-15

    Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge (POMS) with sawdust was conducted in natural aerated reactor. Composting using natural aerated reactor is cheap and simple. The goal of this study is to observe the potential of composting process and utilizing compost as media for growing Cymbopogun citratus, one of Malaysia herbal plant. The highest maximum temperature achieved is about 40 degrees C and to increase temperature bed, more biodegradable substrate needs to be added. The pH value decrease along the process with final pH compost is acidic (pH 5.7). The highest maximum organic losses are about 50% with final C/N ratio of the compost is about 19. Final compost also showed some fertilizing value but need to be adjusted to obtain an ideal substrate. Addition of about 70% sandy soil causes highest yield and excellent root development for C. citratus in potted media. Beside that, compost from POMS-sawdust also found to have fertilizer value and easy to handle. Composting of POMS with sawdust shows potential as an alternative treatment to dispose and recycle waste components.

  10. Alprazolam-related deaths in Palm Beach County.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barbara C; Lavezzi, Wendy A; Sullivan, Linda M; Middleberg, Robert A; Flannagan, Lisa M

    2005-03-01

    Alprazolam is a commonly prescribed benzodiazepine. The abuse of benzodiazepines is most frequently seen in conjunction with the abuse of other drugs. Only rare fatalities have been attributed to alprazolam alone. We undertook a retrospective review of cases investigated by the Palm Beach County Medical Examiner's Office in which postmortem toxicologic studies indicated the presence of alprazolam, to further study the pattern of alprazolam abuse. Our review consisted of 178 cases, including 87 in which death was attributed to combined drug toxicity, 2 to alprazolam toxicity alone, 44 to trauma, 12 to natural causes, and 33 to another drug or drugs. Cocaine and methadone were the most common cointoxicants in the cases of combined drug toxicity, while heroin was less frequently detected. There was considerable overlap in the postmortem blood alprazolam concentrations among the groups. The overlapping ranges of concentrations of alprazolam detected indicate that it may be difficult to define a lethal alprazolam range, and that it may not be possible to determine the actual role of alprazolam as a causal factor in cases of combined drug toxicity. This study confirms that alprazolam alone is rarely a cause of death, and that alprazolam abuse usually occurs within a polydrug use pattern. The high incidence of cocaine as a cointoxicant has not been previously reported.

  11. Oil palm plantations fail to support mammal diversity.

    PubMed

    Yue, Sam; Brodie, Jedediah F; Zipkin, Elise F; Bernard, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural expansion is the largest threat to global biodiversity. In particular, the rapid spread of tree plantations is a primary driver of deforestation in hyperdiverse tropical regions. Plantations tend to support considerably lower biodiversity than native forest, but it remains unclear whether plantation traits affect their ability to sustain native wildlife populations, particularly for threatened taxa. If animal diversity varies across plantations with different characteristics, these traits could be manipulated to make plantations more "wildlife friendly." The degree to which plantations create edge effects that degrade habitat quality in adjacent forest also remains unclear, limiting our ability to predict wildlife persistence in mixed-use landscapes. We used systematic camera trapping to investigate mammal occurrence and diversity in oil palm plantations and adjacent forest in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Mammals within plantations were largely constrained to locations near native forest; the occurrence of most species and overall species richness declined abruptly with decreasing forest proximity from an estimated 14 species at the forest ecotone to -1 species 2 km into the plantation. Neither tree height nor canopy cover within plantations strongly affected mammal diversity or occurrence, suggesting that manipulating tree spacing or planting cycles might not make plantations more wildlife friendly. Plantations did not appear to generate strong edge effects; mammal richness within forest remained high and consistent up to the plantation ecotone. Our results suggest that land-sparing strategies, as opposed to efforts to make plantations more wildlife-friendly, are required for regional wildlife conservation in biodiverse tropical ecosystems.

  12. Thermoliquefaction of palm oil fiber (Elaeis sp.) using supercritical ethanol.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Aline L P C; Almeida, Priscila S; Campos, Maria C V; Franceschi, Elton; Dariva, Cláudio; Borges, Gustavo R

    2017-04-01

    Thermoliquefaction of palm oil fiber was investigated using supercritical ethanol as solvent. A semi-continuous laboratory scale unit was developed to investigate the effects of temperature (300-500°C), heating rate (10-30°C.min(-1)) and cracking time (10-30min) on the conversion of biomass in bio-oil. The main advantage of the proposed process is that a pure solvent is pumping through the reactor that contains the biomass, dispensing the use of biomass slurries. The yield of bio-oil ranged from 56% to 84%, depending on the experimental conditions. It was observed that an increase in working temperature led to an increase in the bio-oil production. Cracking time and heating rate variation had not shown a considerable effect on the conversion of biomass. The chemical profiles of bio-oil determined by GC/MS, indicate that at low temperature mainly sugar derivatives are produced, while at higher temperatures alcohols and phenolic are the majority compounds of the bio-oil.

  13. Livistona palms in Australia: ancient relics or opportunistic immigrants?

    PubMed

    Crisp, Michael D; Isagi, Yuji; Kato, Yohei; Cook, Lyn G; Bowman, David M J S

    2010-02-01

    Eighteen of the 34 species of the fan palm genus Livistona (Arecaceae) are restricted to Australia and southern New Guinea, east of Wallace's Line, an ancient biogeographic boundary between the former supercontinents Laurasia and Gondwana. The remaining species extend from SE Asia to Africa, west of Wallace's Line. Competing hypotheses contend that Livistona is (a) ancient, its current distribution a relict of the supercontinents, or (b) a Miocene immigrant from the north into Australia as it drifted towards Asia. We have tested these hypotheses using Bayesian and penalized likelihood molecular dating based on 4Kb of nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences with multiple fossil calibration points. Ancestral areas and biomes were reconstructed using parsimony and maximum likelihood. We found strong support for the second hypothesis, that a single Livistona ancestor colonized Australia from the north about 10-17Ma. Spread and diversification of the genus within Australia was likely favoured by a transition from the aseasonal wet to monsoonal biome, to which it could have been preadapted by fire-tolerance.

  14. [Reassessment of the Luria's fist-edge-palm test].

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Y; Fujii, T; Yamadori, A; Suzuki, K; Tsukiura, T

    1999-02-01

    In clinical practice, we often use the Luria's fist edge-palm test (FEP) to detect frontal lobe dysfunction. However, we have sometimes encountered patients with failure in this test following posterior lesions. The aim of our study is to evaluate the sensitivity of this test to frontal lobe damage and to clarify the relationship between the FEP performance and other neuropsychological findings. Forty brain-damaged patients (mean age: 61.7 years) were studied. Thirty-four patients were right-handed and 6 non right-handed. Their lesions were confirmed by CT or MRI scan. Following six tests were performed; 1) imitation of single hand posture, 2) imitation of a sequence of two hand postures (fist-edge), 3) imitation of a sequence of three and postures (FEP), 4) copying a cube, 5) serial drawing, and 6) verbal and non-verbal short-term memory span. Imitation of hand postures were performed with non-paralytic hand. Twenty-four patients, i.e., 60% of the patients tested, failed to perform the FEP sequence. The failure was significantly correlated with the presence of constructional disability, perseveration and short-term memory impairment. There was significant relationship between the failure the FEP and frontal lobe damage. However, we found five patients without frontal lesion who failed in performing the FEP. We conclude that we should be careful in associating the failure in the FEP with frontal lobe damage, although this test is sensitive to brain dysfunction.

  15. Climate impacts on palm oil yields in the Nigerian Niger Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoro, Stanley U.; Schickhoff, Udo; Boehner, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe A.; Huth, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil production has increased in recent decades and is estimated to increase further. The optimal role of palm oil production, however, is controversial because of resource conflicts with alternative land uses. Local conditions and climate change affect resource competition and the desirability of palm oil production. Based on this, crop yield simulations using different climate model output under different climate scenarios could be important tool in addressing the problem of uncertainty quantification among different climate model outputs. Previous studies on this region have focused mostly on single experimental fields, not considering variations in Agro-Ecological Zones, climatic conditions, varieties and management practices and, in most cases not extending to various IPCC climate scenarios and were mostly based on single climate model output. Furthermore, the uncertainty quantification of the climate- impact model has rarely been investigated on this region. To this end we use the biophysical simulation model APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator) to simulate the regional climate impact on oil palm yield over the Nigerian Niger Delta. We also examine whether the use of crop yield model output ensemble reduces the uncertainty rather than the use of climate model output ensemble. The results could serve as a baseline for policy makers in this region in understanding the interaction between potentials of energy crop production of the region as well as its food security and other negative feedbacks that could be associated with bioenergy from oil palm. Keywords: Climate Change, Climate impacts, Land use and Crop yields.

  16. Fatty acid composition and sensory traits of beef fed palm oil supplements.

    PubMed

    Partida, J A; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Campo, M M

    2007-07-01

    This study measured the effect of replacing dietary fat from an animal source with palm oil supplements on the intramuscular fatty acid profile and sensory quality traits of the meat from young bulls. Thirty-six entire male Friesian calves (mean age=6.8±1.1 months, mean live weight=162.5±28.6kg) were assigned to one of four isoenergetic (1.03 MFU/kg DM) and isoproteinic (15.5% CP) diets, that differed in their fat additives: (D1) lard-tallow mix (control); (D2) hydrogenated palm oil fatty acids (PFA); (D3) calcium salt of partially hydrogenated PFA, and (D4) calcium salt of the fatty acid distillate from palm oil. Bulls (mean live weight=391.3±30.3kg) were slaughtered under commercial conditions and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of the four diets and ageing time (1, 10, and 21d). Only the proportions of C16:0 and C18:0 were significantly affected by the palm oil dietary supplement. Ageing time affected grass odour, tenderness, juiciness, fibrosity, liver flavour, and acid flavour. Nevertheless, palm oil supplements did not negatively alter the organoleptic characteristics of the meat.

  17. Effects of oil-palm plantations on diversity of tropical anurans.

    PubMed

    Faruk, Aisyah; Belabut, Daicus; Ahmad, Norhayati; Knell, Robert J; Garner, Trenton W J

    2013-06-01

    Agriculturally altered vegetation, especially oil-palm plantations, is rapidly increasing in Southeast Asia. Low species diversity is associated with this commodity, but data on anuran diversity in oil-palm plantations are lacking. We investigated how anuran biological diversity differs between forest and oil-palm plantation, and whether observed differences in biological diversity of these areas is linked to specific environmental factors. We hypothesized that biological diversity is lower in plantations and that plantations support a larger proportion of disturbance-tolerant species than forest. We compared species richness, abundance, and community composition between plantation and forest areas and between site types within plantation and forest (forest stream vs. plantation stream, forest riparian vs. plantation riparian, forest terrestrial vs. plantation terrestrial). Not all measures of biological diversity differed between oil-palm plantations and secondary forest sites. Anuran community composition, however, differed greatly between forest and plantation, and communities of anurans in plantations contained species that prosper in disturbed areas. Although plantations supported large numbers of breeding anurans, we concluded the community consisted of common species that were of little conservation concern (commonly found species include Fejervarya limnocharis, Microhyla heymonsi, and Hylarana erythrea). We believe that with a number of management interventions, oil-palm plantations can provide habitat for species that dwell in secondary forests.

  18. Ball milling pretreatment of oil palm biomass for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2014-08-01

    Oil palm biomass, namely empty fruit bunch and frond fiber, were pretreated using a planetary ball mill. Particle sizes and crystallinity index values of the oil palm biomass were significantly reduced with extended ball mill processing time. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by the generation of glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields from the pretreatment process compared to the amount of sugars from raw materials. Glucose and xylose contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. An increasing trend in glucose and xylose yield as well as total sugar conversion yield was observed with decreasing particle size and crystallinity index. Oil palm frond fiber exhibited the best material yields using ball milling pretreatment with generated glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields of 87.0, 81.6, and 85.4%, respectively. In contrast, oil palm empty fruit bunch afforded glucose and xylose of 70.0 and 82.3%, respectively. The results obtained in this study showed that ball mill-treated oil palm biomass is a suitable pretreatment method for high conversion of glucose and xylose.

  19. Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Deschout, Hendrik; Lukes, Tomas; Sharipov, Azat; Szlag, Daniel; Feletti, Lely; Vandenberg, Wim; Dedecker, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Leutenegger, Marcel; Lasser, Theo; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Live-cell imaging of focal adhesions requires a sufficiently high temporal resolution, which remains a challenge for super-resolution microscopy. Here we address this important issue by combining photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) with super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). Using simulations and fixed-cell focal adhesion images, we investigate the complementarity between PALM and SOFI in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. This PALM-SOFI framework is used to image focal adhesions in living cells, while obtaining a temporal resolution below 10 s. We visualize the dynamics of focal adhesions, and reveal local mean velocities around 190 nm min−1. The complementarity of PALM and SOFI is assessed in detail with a methodology that integrates a resolution and signal-to-noise metric. This PALM and SOFI concept provides an enlarged quantitative imaging framework, allowing unprecedented functional exploration of focal adhesions through the estimation of molecular parameters such as fluorophore densities and photoactivation or photoswitching kinetics. PMID:27991512

  20. Influence of palm oil and glycerol on properties of fish skin gelatin-based films.

    PubMed

    Nilsuwan, Krisana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2016-06-01

    Properties of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with palm oil at 50 and 75 % (w/w) as affected by glycerol at 0-30 % (w/w) were investigated. Increases in water vapour permeability and elongation at break along with decrease in tensile strength were noticed when levels of glycerol were increased (p < 0.05). Decrease in L*- and a*-values with coincidental increase in b*- and ΔE*-values were observed in emulsified films when amount of palm oil incorporated increased (p < 0.05). Light transmittance of all films increased as glycerol levels were increased (p < 0.05). FTIR results suggested that the protein-protein interaction in film matrix decreased when palm oil was incorporated. Films added with palm oil had lower glass transition and degradation temperatures than control films. The addition of 75 % palm oil and 10 % glycerol improved water vapour barrier property of fish skin gelatin films without drastic alteration of mechanical properties.

  1. Conceptual design of semi-automatic wheelbarrow to overcome ergonomics problems among palm oil plantation workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawik, N. S. M.; Deros, B. M.; Rahman, M. N. A.; Sukadarin, E. H.; Nordin, N.; Tamrin, S. B. M.; Bakar, S. A.; Norzan, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    An ergonomics problem is one of the main issues faced by palm oil plantation workers especially during harvesting and collecting of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). Intensive manual handling and labor activities involved have been associated with high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among palm oil plantation workers. New and safe technology on machines and equipment in palm oil plantation are very important in order to help workers reduce risks and injuries while working. The aim of this research is to improve the design of a wheelbarrow, which is suitable for workers and a small size oil palm plantation. The wheelbarrow design was drawn using CATIA ergonomic features. The characteristic of ergonomics assessment is performed by comparing the existing design of wheelbarrow. Conceptual design was developed based on the problems that have been reported by workers. From the analysis of the problem, finally have resulting concept design the ergonomic quality of semi-automatic wheelbarrow with safe and suitable used for palm oil plantation workers.

  2. Oil palm fruit grading using a hyperspectral device and machine learning algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensaeed, O. M.; Shariff, A. M.; Mahmud, A. B.; Shafri, H.; Alfatni, M.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a hyperspectral-based system was introduced to detect the ripeness of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The FFBs were scanned using a hyperspectral device, and reflectance was recorded at different wavelengths. A total of 469 fruits from oil palm FFBs (nigrescens, virescens, oleifera) were categorized as overripe, ripe, and underripe. Fruit attributes in the visible and nearinfrared (400 nm to1000 nm) wavelength range regions were measured. Artificial neural network (ANN), classified the different wavelength regions on oil palm fruit through pixel-wise processing. The developed ANN model successfully classified oil palm fruits into the three ripeness categories (ripe, underripe, and overripe). The accuracy achieved by our approach was compared against that of the conventional system employing manual classification based on the observations of a human grader. Our classification approach had an accuracy of more than 95% for all three types of oil palm fruits. The research findings will help increase the quality harvesting and grading efficiency of FFBs.

  3. Contact-free palm-vein recognition based on local invariant features.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wenxiong; Liu, Yang; Wu, Qiuxia; Yue, Xishun

    2014-01-01

    Contact-free palm-vein recognition is one of the most challenging and promising areas in hand biometrics. In view of the existing problems in contact-free palm-vein imaging, including projection transformation, uneven illumination and difficulty in extracting exact ROIs, this paper presents a novel recognition approach for contact-free palm-vein recognition that performs feature extraction and matching on all vein textures distributed over the palm surface, including finger veins and palm veins, to minimize the loss of feature information. First, a hierarchical enhancement algorithm, which combines a DOG filter and histogram equalization, is adopted to alleviate uneven illumination and to highlight vein textures. Second, RootSIFT, a more stable local invariant feature extraction method in comparison to SIFT, is adopted to overcome the projection transformation in contact-free mode. Subsequently, a novel hierarchical mismatching removal algorithm based on neighborhood searching and LBP histograms is adopted to improve the accuracy of feature matching. Finally, we rigorously evaluated the proposed approach using two different databases and obtained 0.996% and 3.112% Equal Error Rates (EERs), respectively, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Salt tolerance research in date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.), past, present, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yaish, Mahmoud W; Kumar, Prakash P

    2015-01-01

    The date palm can adapt to extreme drought, to heat, and to relatively high levels of soil salinity. However, excessive amounts of salt due to irrigation with brackish water lead to a significant reduction in the productivity of the fruits as well as marked decrease in the viable numbers of the date palm trees. It is imperative that the nature of the existing salt-adaptation mechanism be understood in order to develop future date palm varieties that can tolerate excessive soil salinity. In this perspective article, several research strategies, obstacles, and precautions are discussed in light of recent advancements accomplished in this field and the properties of this species. In addition to a physiological characterization, we propose the use of a full range of OMICS technologies, coupled with reverse genetics approaches, aimed toward understanding the salt-adaption mechanism in the date palm. Information generated by these analyses should highlight transcriptional and posttranscriptional modifications controlling the salt-adaptation mechanisms. As an extremophile with a natural tolerance for a wide range of abiotic stresses, the date palm may represent a treasure trove of novel genetic resources for salinity tolerance.

  5. Identification of authorship using lateral palm print--a new concept.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Ramesh; Pant, Sharat Kumar

    2004-04-20

    Identification of individual by signature examination could be improved by the lateral palm print examination. By the use of new technique discussed by the author in this paper, the forensic expert can find out very useful information about the writer of writings even without going into the depth of questioned document/signature examination and without the formal or informal handwriting exemplars. The document expert with little more knowledge of the palm print can identify whether the signature is done by hand/leg/anything else, whether the author is right handed or left handed, the approximate age of the author, whether the signature is genuine or forged. Such information of author would be very much useful in elimination of the list of suspects of anonymous letters. In order to fix the authorship, standard and disputed lateral palm prints can be examined either with photographic superimposition technique or with the statistical study of the outline of the lateral palm print or with the standard method as implied in fingerprint examination. The evidential value of such lateral palm print can be placed at par with the finger prints in the court of law and could be placed right on the top of all other scientific evidences.

  6. Forecasting of palm oil price in Malaysia using linear and nonlinear methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, Abu Hassan Shaari Md; Sarmidi, Tamat; Hosseinidoust, Ehsan

    2014-09-01

    The first question that comes to the mind is: "How can we predict the palm oil price accurately?" This question is the authorities, policy makers and economist's question for a long period of time. The first reason is that in the recent years Malaysia showed a comparative advantage in palm oil production and has become top producer and exporter in the world. Secondly, palm oil price plays significant role in government budget and represents important source of income for Malaysia, which potentially can influence the magnitude of monetary policies and eventually have an impact on inflation. Thirdly, knowledge on the future trends would be helpful in the planning and decision making procedures and will generate precise fiscal and monetary policy. Daily data on palm oil prices along with the ARIMA models, neural networks and fuzzy logic systems are employed in this paper. Empirical findings indicate that the dynamic neural network of NARX and the hybrid system of ANFIS provide higher accuracy than the ARIMA and static neural network for forecasting the palm oil price in Malaysia.

  7. Adsorbent capability testing using desorption efficiency method on palm oil fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manap, Nor Rahafza Abdul; Shamsudin, Roslinda

    2015-09-01

    The palm oil fiber had been used as filler in making thermoplastics, biocomposites and also used as adsorbent in treating waste water. In this study, palm oil fiber was used as adsorbent to treat indoor air pollutants that caused by toluene, ethylbenzene, ortho-, meta-, and para- xylene (o-, m-, p-xylene). Known amount of pollutants, ranges between 1.3 to 28 ppm was spiked into palm oil fiber and left in refrigerator for 24 hours. Then, elution of the pollutants was carried out by carbon disulphide as mobile phase or eluent. The ability of palm oil fiber as adsorbent was determine using desorption efficiency technique by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The desorption efficiency percentage given by toluene was in the range of 88.9% to 100%, 91% to 100% for ethylbenzene, 65% to 100% for pm-xylene and 92.9% to 100% for o-xylene. This percentage indicates that palm oil fiber can be used as adsorbent to treat indoor air pollutants.

  8. Shrinkage modeling of concrete reinforced by palm fibres in hot dry environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchiche, Hamida; Kriker, Abdelouahed

    2017-02-01

    The cement materials, such as concrete and conventional mortar present very little resistance to traction and cracking, these hydraulic materials which induces large withdrawals on materials and cracks in structures. The hot dry environments such as: the Saharan regions of Algeria, Indeed, concrete structures in these regions are very fragile, and present high shrinkage. Strengthening of these materials by fibers can provide technical solutions for improving the mechanical performance. The aim of this study is firstly, to reduce the shrinkage of conventional concrete with its reinforcement with date palm fibers. In fact, Algeria has an extraordinary resources in natural fibers (from Palm, Abaca, Hemp) but without valorization in practical areas, especially in building materials. Secondly, to model the shrinkage behavior of concrete was reinforced by date palm fibers. In the literature, several models for still fiber concrete were founded but few are offers for natural fiber concretes. To do so, a still fiber concretes model of YOUNG - CHERN was used. According to the results, a reduction of shrinkage with reinforcement by date palm fibers was showed. A good ability of molding of shrinkage of date palm reinforced concrete with YOUNG - CHERN Modified model was obtained. In fact, a good correlation between experimental data and the model data was recorded.

  9. Diel Patterns of Activity for Insect Pollinators of Two Oil Palm Species (Arecales : Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Auffray, Thomas; Frérot, Brigitte; Poveda, Roberto; Louise, Claude; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The pollination of two oil palm species, Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and Elaeis oleifera Cortés (Arecales: Arecaceae), depends on a mutualistic relation with insects, which use male inflorescences as a brood site, and visits female inflorescences lured by the emitted odor, which is similar to that of males. Although the activity of visiting the inflorescences by these insects is critical for the adequate natural pollination of the host plant, their activity is poorly documented. In the present study, we determine the diel activity of two specialized pollinator weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on inflorescences of their respective host-palm: Elaeidobius kamerunicus Faust specialized on E. guineensis, and Grasidius hybridus O'Brien and Beserra specialized on E. oleifera. The average timing of activity was studied by using passive interception traps. Then the pattern and the duration were refined by using aspiration trapping within the active period for each insect species at the male and female inflorescences. All the experiments were conducted in an Ecuadorian oil palm plantation, located close to Amazonian forest. El. kamerunicus and G. hybridus were found to be the pollinators of E. guineensis and E. oleifera, respectively. The two species differed in their diel pattern of activity: E. kamerunicus was active in the morning and G. hybridus during a short period at dusk. For both palm species, insect visits were synchronous on both male and female inflorescences. The synchronicity is discussed as a strategy to maintain the relation mutualistic between partners. These findings increase our understanding of the oil palm pollination system.

  10. The late Quaternary decline and extinction of palms on oceanic Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prebble, M.; Dowe, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Late Quaternary palaeoecological records of palm decline, extirpation and extinction are explored from the oceanic islands of the Pacific Ocean. Despite the severe reduction of faunal diversity coincidental with human colonisation of these previously uninhabited oceanic islands, relatively few plant extinctions have been recorded. At low taxonomic levels, recent faunal extinctions on oceanic islands are concentrated in larger bodied representatives of certain genera and families. Fossil and historic records of plant extinction show a similar trend with high representation of the palm family, Arecaceae. Late Holocene decline of palm pollen types is demonstrated from most islands where there are palaeoecological records including the Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, the Juan Fernandez Islands and Rapanui. A strong correspondence between human impact and palm decline is measured from palynological proxies including increased concentrations of charcoal particles and pollen from cultivated plants and invasive weeds. Late Holocene extinctions or extirpations are recorded across all five of the Arecaceae subfamilies of the oceanic Pacific islands. These are most common for the genus Pritchardia but also many sedis fossil palm types were recorded representing groups lacking diagnostic morphological characters.

  11. Soil burial biodegradation studies of palm oil-based UV-curable films

    SciTech Connect

    Tajau, Rida Salleh, Mek Zah Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik Abdurahman, Mohamad Norahiman; Salih, Ashraf Mohammed; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Azman, Anis Asmi Hamidi, Nur Amira

    2016-01-22

    The palm oil-based ultraviolet (uv)-curable films were subjected to an outdoor soil burial test to investigate the biodegradation under natural environment. The films were burial in the soil experiment plot at the Nuclear Malaysia’s Dengkil complex. The uv-curable films were synthesized from the epoxidized palm oil acrylated (EPOLA) resin and the polyurethane palm oil (POBUA) resin, respectively. Biodegradation tests are more specific to burial film in soil experiments for 12 months under natural conditions. The biodegradability of palm oil resin based uv-curable films were investigated and compared with the petrochemical resin based film. The films properties were compared with respect to properties of the thermal characteristic, the crystallinity, the morphology and the weight loss which are analyzed using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), an optical microscope and the weight loss of film calculation. These findings suggested that the palm oil-based uv-curable films show quite satisfactory biodegradation levels.

  12. PALM-3000: EXOPLANET ADAPTIVE OPTICS FOR THE 5 m HALE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Dekany, Richard; Bouchez, Antonin; Baranec, Christoph; Hale, David; Zolkower, Jeffry; Henning, John; Croner, Ernest; McKenna, Dan; Hildebrandt, Sergi; Milburn, Jennifer; Roberts, Jennifer; Burruss, Rick; Truong, Tuan; Guiwits, Stephen; Angione, John; Trinh, Thang; Shelton, J. Christopher; Palmer, Dean; Troy, Mitchell; Tesch, Jonathan

    2013-10-20

    We describe and report first results from PALM-3000, the second-generation astronomical adaptive optics (AO) facility for the 5.1 m Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. PALM-3000 has been engineered for high-contrast imaging and emission spectroscopy of brown dwarfs and large planetary mass bodies at near-infrared wavelengths around bright stars, but also supports general natural guide star use to V ≈ 17. Using its unique 66 × 66 actuator deformable mirror, PALM-3000 has thus far demonstrated residual wavefront errors of 141 nm rms under ∼1'' seeing conditions. PALM-3000 can provide phase conjugation correction over a 6.''4 × 6.''4 working region at λ = 2.2 μm, or full electric field (amplitude and phase) correction over approximately one-half of this field. With optimized back-end instrumentation, PALM-3000 is designed to enable 10{sup –7} contrast at 1'' angular separation, including post-observation speckle suppression processing. While continued optimization of the AO system is ongoing, we have already successfully commissioned five back-end instruments and begun a major exoplanet characterization survey, Project 1640.

  13. Sensible heat flux of oil palm plantation: Comparing Aerodynamic and Penman-Monteith Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amri Komarudin, Nurul; June, Tania; Meijide, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Oil Palm (Elaeis guinensis Jacq) has a unique morphological characteristics, in particular it has a uniform canopy. As the plant become older, its canopy coverage will completely cover the surface and influence characteristics of its microclimate. Sensible heat flux estimation of oil palm plantation could be used to identify the contribution of oil palm in reducing or increasing heat to its surrounding environment. Determination of heat flux from oil palm plantation was conducted using two methods, Aerodynamic and Penman-Monteith. The result shows that the two methods have similar diurnal pattern. The sensible heat flux peaks in the afternoon, both for two and twelve years oil palm plantations. Sensible heat flux of young plantation is affected by atmospheric stability (stable, unstable and neutral), and is higher than that of older plantation, with mean values of 0.52 W/m2 (stable), 43.53 W/m2 (unstable), 0.63 W/m2 (neutral), with standard deviation of 0.50, 28.75 and 0.46 respectively. Sensible heat flux estimated by Penman-Monteith method in both young and older plantation was higher than the value determined by Aerodynamic method with respective value of 0.77 W/m2 (stable), 45.13 W/m2 (unstable) and 0.63 W/m2 (neutral) and 0.34 W/m2 (stable), 35.82 W/m2 (unstable) and 0.71 W/m2 (neutral).

  14. Distribution of mechanical impedance at the fingers and the palm of the human hand.

    PubMed

    Dong, R G; Wu, J Z; McDowell, T W; Welcome, D E; Schopper, A W

    2005-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the complex biodynamic response of the human fingers-hand-arm system may help researchers determine the causation of injuries arising from hand-transmitted vibration. This study theoretically demonstrates that the mechanical impedance (MI) in a hand power grip, as a measure of the biodynamic response of the system, can be divided into finger MI and palm MI. A methodology is developed to measure them separately and to investigate their distribution characteristics. This study involves 6 adult male subjects, constant-velocity sinusoidal excitations at 10 different discrete frequencies (16, 25, 40, 63, 100, 160, 250, 400, 630, 1000 Hz), and three different hand-handle coupling conditions. Our results suggest that at low frequencies (40 Hz), the palm MI is substantially higher than the finger MI; the majority of the hand MI remains distributed at the palm up to 100 Hz; and at frequencies higher than 160 Hz, the finger MI is comparable to or higher than the palm MI. Furthermore, at frequencies equal to or above 100 Hz, the finger MI is practically independent of the palm-handle coupling conditions. Knowledge of the MI distribution pattern may increase the understanding of vibration transmission to the hand and aid in the development of effective isolation devices.

  15. Optimization of microporous palm shell activated carbon production for flue gas desulphurization: experimental and statistical studies.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, S; Bhatia, S; Lee, K T; Mohamed, A R

    2009-02-01

    Optimizing the production of microporous activated carbon from waste palm shell was done by applying experimental design methodology. The product, palm shell activated carbon was tested for removal of SO2 gas from flue gas. The activated carbon production was mathematically described as a function of parameters such as flow rate, activation time and activation temperature of carbonization. These parameters were modeled using response surface methodology. The experiments were carried out as a central composite design consisting of 32 experiments. Quadratic models were developed for surface area, total pore volume, and microporosity in term of micropore fraction. The models were used to obtain the optimum process condition for the production of microporous palm shell activated carbon useful for SO2 removal. The optimized palm shell activated carbon with surface area of 973 m(2)/g, total pore volume of 0.78 cc/g and micropore fraction of 70.5% showed an excellent agreement with the amount predicted by the statistical analysis. Palm shell activated carbon with higher surface area and microporosity fraction showed good adsorption affinity for SO2 removal.

  16. Sampling Rhodnius neglectus in Mauritia flexuosa palm trees: a field study in the Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Gurgel-Gonçalves, R; Palma, A R T; Menezes, M N A; Leite, R N; Cuba, C A C

    2003-09-01

    Two sampling methods (manual capture and live-baited adhesive traps) were compared for collecting the bug Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) from palm trees, Mauritia flexuosa L. (Arecaceae), in the savanna of Brasília DF. R. neglectus was found in 19/50 (38%) of palm trees sampled. The detection rate was much higher by visual inspection and manual capture (18/50=36%) than by our trapping method (5/50=10%), although one tree was found to be positive by trapping but not by manual capture. Bugs collected manually were mostly (146/154=95%) found among the dead organic material in palm crowns. In combination, these sampling techniques are useful for quick detection of triatomine bug infestation in palm trees, especially in areas of high ecological value where the palms should not be cut and dissected, but arboreal Rhodnius are suspected to transmit enzootic Trypanosoma cruzi that might represent a risk of causing human cases of Chagas disease.

  17. 77 FR 17121 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Rail Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., RailTex, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Rail Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation... Exemption--Wellsboro & Corning Railroad, LLC RailAmerica, Inc. (RailAmerica), Palm Beach Rail Holding, Inc. (Palm Beach), RailAmerica Transportation Corp. (RTC), RailTex, Inc. (RailTex), Fortress Investment...

  18. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of the cocosoid palms (Arecaceae, Arecoideae, Cocoseae) inferred from sequences of six WRKY gene family loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae is the most economically important tribe of palms, including both coconut and African oil palm. It is mostly represented in the Neotropics, with one and two genera endemic to South Africa and Madagascar, respectively. Using primers for six single copy WRKY gene family loci...

  19. Oasis desert farming selects environment-specific date palm root endophytic communities and cultivable bacteria that promote resistance to drought.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Hanene; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Ferjani, Raoudha; Fusi, Marco; Soussi, Asma; Mapelli, Francesca; Blilou, Ikram; Borin, Sara; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ouzari, Hadda

    2015-08-01

    Oases are desert-farming agro-ecosystems, where date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) plays a keystone role in offsetting the effects of drought and maintaining a suitable microclimate for agriculture. At present, abundance, diversity and plant growth promotion (PGP) of date palm root-associated bacteria remain unknown. Considering the environmental pressure determined by the water scarcity in the desert environments, we hypothesized that bacteria associated with date palm roots improve plant resistance to drought. Here, the ecology of date palm root endophytes from oases in the Tunisian Sahara was studied with emphasis on their capacity to promote growth under drought. Endophytic communities segregated along a north-south gradient in correlation with geo-climatic parameters. Screening of 120 endophytes indicated that date palm roots select for bacteria with multiple PGP traits. Bacteria rapidly cross-colonized the root tissues of different species of plants, including the original Tunisian date palm cultivar, Saudi Arabian cultivars and Arabidopsis. Selected endophytes significantly increased the biomass of date palms exposed to repeated drought stress periods during a 9-month greenhouse experiment. Overall, results indicate that date palm roots shape endophytic communities that are capable to promote plant growth under drought conditions, thereby contributing an essential ecological service to the entire oasis ecosystem.

  20. Ancient population structure in Phoenix dactylifera revealed by genome-wide genotyping of geographically diverse date palm cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm was one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees and is intimately tied to the history of human migration. With no true known wild ancestor little is known about the genetic origins and the effect of human cultivation on the date palm. Recent genome projects have just begun to provide th...

  1. Acoustical detection of early instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Canary Island date palm Phoenix canariensis (Arecales: Arecaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), is of international concern due to destructive larval feeding within palm trees. Originating from tropical Asia, RPW has spread throughout the eastern hemisphere where it has become a significant economic pest to the ornamental and date...

  2. An analysis of embryo development in palm: interactions between dry matter accumulation and water relations in Pritchardia remota (Arecaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their global importance, the genetic diversity of many palm taxa is threatened. Ex situ conservation of palm germplasm requires survival of seeds in genebanks. Seeds from Arecaceae exhibit a broad range of responses to the low temperature and moisture conditions used by genebanks, and asse...

  3. 77 FR 4300 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ...This Notice provides an opportunity to comment on EPA's analyses of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program. EPA's analysis of the two types of biofuel shows that biodiesel and renewable diesel produced from palm oil have estimated lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions of 17% and 11% respectively for......

  4. The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, a new pest threat in the Caribbean: Biology and options for management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is a serious pest of palms. RPW is native to Asia, but over the last few decades it has spread to the Middle East, Africa and Europe where it has caused major economic damage. This pest was accidentally introduced to the Caribbean (Curacao and Aru...

  5. Professional Development for Afterschool Practitioners: The First Year of the Palm Beach County Afterschool Educator Certificate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Stephen; Lockaby, Tracey; Guterman, Kai; Klumpner, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the first year implementation of a new professional development program, Palm Beach County Afterschool Educator Certificate (PBC-AEC). Set within a larger systemic quality improvement effort in Palm Beach County, this training seeks to provide a concentrated course of learning, practice, and reflection. The training seeks to…

  6. An Integrated Hands-On Inquiry Based Cooperative Learning Approach: The Impact of the PALMS Approach on Student Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, June L.

    This study examined teachers' perceptions of changes in student learning and changes in their teaching strategies after implementing the Partners Advancing the Learning of Math and Science (PALMS) approach in an urban Massachusetts school district. PALMS was a cooperative statewide systemic initiative funded by the Massachusetts Department of…

  7. The impact of selective-logging and forest clearance for oil palm on fungal communities in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tripathi, Binu M; Lee, Junghoon; Edwards, David P; Adams, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging, and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil fungi, which play vital roles in the soil ecosystem functioning and services, is a major conservation frontier. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region of extracted soil DNA, we compared communities of soil fungi between unlogged, once-logged, and twice-logged rainforest, and areas cleared for oil palm, in Sabah, Malaysia. Overall fungal community composition differed significantly between forest and oil palm plantation. The OTU richness and Chao 1 were higher in forest, compared to oil palm plantation. As a proportion of total reads, Basidiomycota were more abundant in forest soil, compared to oil palm plantation soil. The turnover of fungal OTUs across space, true β-diversity, was also higher in forest than oil palm plantation. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal abundance was significantly different between land uses, with highest relative abundance (out of total fungal reads) observed in unlogged forest soil, lower abundance in logged forest, and lowest in oil palm. In their entirety, these results indicate a pervasive effect of conversion to oil palm on fungal community structure. Such wholesale changes in fungal communities might impact the long-term sustainability of oil palm agriculture. Logging also has more subtle long term effects, on relative abundance of EcM fungi, which might affect tree recruitment and nutrient cycling. However, in general the logged forest retains most of the diversity and community composition of unlogged forest.

  8. The Impact of Selective-Logging and Forest Clearance for Oil Palm on Fungal Communities in Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tripathi, Binu M.; Lee, Junghoon; Edwards, David P.; Adams, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging, and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil fungi, which play vital roles in the soil ecosystem functioning and services, is a major conservation frontier. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region of extracted soil DNA, we compared communities of soil fungi between unlogged, once-logged, and twice-logged rainforest, and areas cleared for oil palm, in Sabah, Malaysia. Overall fungal community composition differed significantly between forest and oil palm plantation. The OTU richness and Chao 1 were higher in forest, compared to oil palm plantation. As a proportion of total reads, Basidiomycota were more abundant in forest soil, compared to oil palm plantation soil. The turnover of fungal OTUs across space, true β-diversity, was also higher in forest than oil palm plantation. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal abundance was significantly different between land uses, with highest relative abundance (out of total fungal reads) observed in unlogged forest soil, lower abundance in logged forest, and lowest in oil palm. In their entirety, these results indicate a pervasive effect of conversion to oil palm on fungal community structure. Such wholesale changes in fungal communities might impact the long-term sustainability of oil palm agriculture. Logging also has more subtle long term effects, on relative abundance of EcM fungi, which might affect tree recruitment and nutrient cycling. However, in general the logged forest retains most of the diversity and community composition of unlogged forest. PMID:25405609

  9. GammaScorpion: mobile gamma-ray tomography system for early detection of basal stem rot in oil palm plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Jaafar; Hassan, Hearie; Shari, Mohamad Rabaie; Mohd, Salzali; Mustapha, Mahadi; Mahmood, Airwan Affendi; Jamaludin, Shahrizan; Ngah, Mohd Rosdi; Hamid, Noor Hisham

    2013-03-01

    Detection of the oil palm stem rot disease Ganoderma is a major issue in estate management and production in Malaysia. Conventional diagnostic techniques are difficult and time consuming when using visual inspection, and destructive and expensive when based on the chemical analysis of root or stem tissue. As an alternative, a transportable gamma-ray computed tomography system for the early detection of basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palms due to Ganoderma was developed locally at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Kajang, Malaysia. This system produces high quality tomographic images that clearly differentiate between healthy and Ganoderma infected oil palm stems. It has been successfully tested and used to detect the extent of BSR damage in oil palm plantations in Malaysia without the need to cut down the trees. This method offers promise for in situ inspection of oil palm stem diseases compared to the more conventional methods.

  10. Comparison on pore development of activated carbon produced from palm shell and coconut shell.

    PubMed

    Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan; Ali, Wan Shabuddin Wan

    2004-05-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to compare the pore development in palm-shell and coconut-shell-based activated carbons produced under identical experimental conditions. Carbonization and activation processes were carried out at 850 degrees C using a fluidized bed reactor. Within the range of burn-off studied, at any burn-off, the micropore and mesopore volumes created in palm-shell-based activated carbon were always higher than those of coconut-shell-based activated carbon. On macropore volume, for palm-shell-based activated carbon, the volume increased with increase in burn-off up to 30% and then decreased. However, for coconut-shell-based activated carbon, the change in macropore volume with burn-off was almost negligible but the absolute macropore volume decreased with burn-off.

  11. Palm oil versus hydrogenated soybean oil: effects on serum lipids and plasma haemostatic variables.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jan I; Muller, Hanne; Seljeflot, Ingebjorg; Kirkhus, Bente

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test if replacement of trans fatty acids by palmitic acid in an experimental margarine results in unfavourable effects on serum lipids and haemostatic factors. We have compared the effects of three different margarines, one based on palm oil (PALM-margarine), one based on partially hydrogenated soybean oil (TRANS- margarine) and one with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-margarine), on serum lipids in 27 young women. In nine of the participants fasting levels and diurnal postprandial levels of haemostatic variables on the 3 diets were compared. The sum of 12:0, 14:0, 16:0 provided 11% of energy (E%) in the PALM diet, the same as the sum of 12:0, 14:0, 16:0 and trans fatty acids in the TRANS-diet. Oleic acid provided 10-11E% in all three diets, while PUFA provided 5.7, 5.5 and 10.2 E%, respectively. Total fat provided 30-31% and the test margarines 26% of total energy in all three diets. Each of the diets was consumed for 17 days in a crossover design. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apoB between the TRANS- and the PALM-diet. HDL-cholesterol and apoA-I were significantly higher on the PALM-diet compared to the TRANS-diet while the ratio of LDL- to HDL-cholesterol was lower, although not significantly (P = 0.077) on the PALM-diet. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apoB were significantly lower on the PUFA-diet compared to the two other diets. HDL-cholesterol was not different on the PALM- and the PUFA-diet while it was significantly lower on the TRANS-diet compared to the PUFA-diet. Triglycerides and Lp(a) were not different among the three diets. The diurnal postprandial state level of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity was significantly decreased on the TRANS-diet compared to the PALM-diet. t-PA activity was also decreased on the PUFA-diet compared to PALM-diet although not significantly (P=0.07). There were no significant differences in neither fasting

  12. Somatic Embryogenesis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Through Cell Suspension Culture.

    PubMed

    Naik, Poornananda M; Al-Khayri, Jameel M

    2016-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is the oldest and most economically important plant species distributed in the hot arid regions of the world. Propagation of date palm by seeds produces heterogeneous offspring with inferior field performance and poor fruit quality. Traditionally, date palm is propagated by offshoots, but this method is inefficient for mass propagation because of limited availability of offshoots. Plant regeneration through tissue culture is able to provide technologies for the large-scale propagation of healthy true-to-type plants. The most commonly used technology approach is somatic embryogenesis which presents a great potential for the rapid propagation and genetic resource preservation of this species. Significant progress has been made in the development and optimization of this regeneration pathway through the establishment of embryogenic suspension cultures. This chapter focuses on the methods employed for the induction of callus from shoot tip explants, establishment of cell suspension culture, and subsequent somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration.

  13. Hydrothermal pretreatment enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose production from oil palm biomass.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present works investigate hydrothermal pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber in a batch tube reactor system with temperature and time range from 170 to 250°C and 10 to 20min, respectively. The behavior of soluble sugars, acids, furans, and phenols dramatically changed over treatment severities as determined by HPLC. The cellulose-rich treated solids were analyzed by SEM, WAXD, and BET surface area. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed from both pretreated slurries and washed solid, and data obtained suggested that tannic acid derived from lignin degradation was a potential cellulase inhibitor. Both partial removal of hemicellulose and migration of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment caused structural changes on the cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin matrix, resulting in the opening and expansion of specific surface area and pore volume. The current results provided important factors that maximize conversion of cellulose to glucose from oil palm biomass by hydrothermal process.

  14. Ethanol production from oil palm trunks treated with aqueous ammonia and cellulase.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Jae Jin; Oh, Kyeong Keun; Han, Jong-In; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2011-08-01

    Oil palm trunks are a possible lignocellulosic source for ethanol production. Low enzymatic digestibility of this type of material (11.9% of the theoretical glucose yield) makes pretreatment necessary. An enzymatic digestibility of 95.4% with insoluble solids recovery of 49.8% was achieved after soaking shredded oil palm trunks in ammonia under optimum conditions (80°C, 1:12 solid-to-liquid ratio, 8h and 7% (w/w) ammonia solution). Treatment with 60 FPU of commercial cellulase (Accellerase 1000) per gram of glucan and fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D(5)A resulted in an ethanol concentration of 13.3g/L and an ethanol yield of 78.3% (based on the theoretical maximum) after 96 h. These results indicate that oil palm trunks are a biomass feedstock that can be used for bioethanol production.

  15. Comparison of Exponential Smoothing Methods in Forecasting Palm Oil Real Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, B.; Butar-Butar, I. A.; Rahmat, RF; Andayani, U.; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil has important role for the plantation subsector. Forecasting of the real palm oil production in certain period is needed by plantation companies to maintain their strategic management. This study compared several methods based on exponential smoothing (ES) technique such as single ES, double exponential smoothing holt, triple exponential smoothing, triple exponential smoothing additive and multiplicative to predict the palm oil production. We examined the accuracy of forecasting models of production data and analyzed the characteristics of the models. Programming language R was used with selected constants for double ES (α and β) and triple ES (α, β, and γ) evaluated by the technique of minimizing the root mean squared prediction error (RMSE). Our result showed that triple ES additives had lowest error rate compared to the other models with RMSE of 0.10 with a combination of parameters α = 0.6, β = 0.02, and γ = 0.02.

  16. Bio-oil production from palm fronds by fast pyrolysis process in fluidized bed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Nino; Simanungkalit, Sabar P.; Kiky Corneliasari, S.

    2017-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis process of palm fronds has been conducted in the fluidized bed reactor to yield bio-oil product (pyrolysis oil). The process employed sea sand as the heat transfer medium. The objective of this study is to design of the fluidized bed rector, to conduct fast pyrolysis process to product bio-oil from palm fronds, and to characterize the feed and bio-oil product. The fast pyrolysis process was conducted continuously with the feeding rate around 500 g/hr. It was found that the biomass conversion is about 35.5% to yield bio-oil, however this conversion is still minor. It is suggested due to the heating system inside the reactor was not enough to decompose the palm fronds as a feedstock. Moreover, the acids compounds ware mostly observed on the bio-oil product.

  17. A disease resembling inclusion body disease of boid snakes in captive palm vipers (Bothriechis marchi).

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M; Nordhausen, R W; Jacobson, E R

    2001-01-01

    Between April 1998 and June 1999, 8 palm vipers (Bothriechis marchi) were diagnosed with a disease similar to inclusion body disease (IBD) of boids. Six palm vipers were captive bred, and 2 were wild caught. All of the vipers were adults at the time of death. Three palm vipers were found dead with no premonitory clinical signs, and 5 had anorexia plus possibly 1 of the following clinical signs: regurgitation, paresis, and dehydration. Histologically, all snakes had intracytoplasmic, round to oval, single to multiple eosinophilic inclusion bodies in hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells. Inclusion bodies were distributed among other organs with varying frequency. Common concurrent histologic lesions were urate nephrosis, septic thrombi, and hepatocellular degeneration. Ultrastructurally, inclusions had features similar to inclusions in boid snakes with IBD.

  18. Palm oil and palmitic acid: a review on cardiovascular effects and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Elena; Fanelli, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    We reviewed the scientific literature on the evidence of the relationship between palm oil and adverse effects on human health. Few studies have investigated the effects of palm oil per se, and the main reason why it has been associated with negative health effects is the relatively high content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), particularly palmitic acid, which in turn have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and some tumours. However, more recent investigations on the topic seem to have reconsidered the negative role of the dietary SFAs as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and show that not only the type of fat, but also that the triglyceride structure plays a role in cholesterolaemia. As regards to a role in cancer, specific studies on dietary palmitic acid or palm oil and the risk of cancer development are scanty, and the evidence is not convincing.

  19. Low-cost RFID-based palm oil monitoring system (PMS): First prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiama, J. W.; Raman, V.; Patrick, T. H. H.

    2014-02-01

    Under collaboration with our local oil palm plantation enterprise, our research focuses on producing proof-of-concept by using RFID technology to monitor palm oil productivity. Passive RFID tags are used in the plantation field to uniquely identify each palm oil tree and their Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) production is collected and monitored by scanning the passive RFID tags using high frequency RFID scanners. This technology aims to convert the harvest data into digital information which can be processed and analyzed by PMS system and presented as informative outputs such as dynamic charts. This analyzed information is further used as input to a proprietary GIS system where it is mapped as color-coded spatial data which enables an accurate evaluation and monitoring of the overall plantation productivity.

  20. [The age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects].

    PubMed

    Teplov, K V; Bozhchenko, A P; Tolmachev, I A; Moiseenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article was designed to consider the congenital age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects (including the type of the papillary patterns, axial tri-radii, the termini of palmar main lines, the rudiments of palmar lines, the dermatoglyphic ridge count between the stable anatomical structures). The objective of the study was to look for the new diagnostic markers of the biological age. It included the identification of the palm prints obtained from 180 Caucasoid men and 120 women at the age varying from 16 to 80 years. The results of the mathematical and statistical analysis provided the basis for drawing up the list of 18 attributes of palm dermatoglyphics significantly (p<0.05) differing in the frequency of occurrence between the representatives of individual age groups. The methods are proposed allowing to use these findings for the expert evaluation of the age of unknown subjects.

  1. Care system assessment demonstration project, Palm Beach County, Florida: methodology, findings, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Karen; Potocky-Tripodi, Miriam

    2007-08-01

    Palm Beach County, Florida was one of three sites selected nationally for the Care System Assessment Demonstration Project. The special focus of the Palm Beach project was Black women (both U.S.-born and foreign-born). The CSAD consists of two complementary components: (1) Rapid Assessment, Response, and Evaluation (RARE), which examines the research topic from the perspectives of the affected population (i.e., HIV-positive Black women who are not in care); and (2) Care System Assessment, which examines the research topic from the perspectives of people within the HIV/AIDS care system (e.g., health care providers, planners, HIV-positive Black women in care). This article presents the methods, findings, and recommendations from the Palm Beach County site.

  2. Local transmission of Plasmodium vivax malaria--Palm Beach County, Florida, 2003.

    PubMed

    2003-09-26

    The majority of malaria cases diagnosed in the United States are imported, usually by persons who travel to countries where malaria is endemic. However, small outbreaks of locally acquired mosquito-transmitted malaria continue to occur. Despite certification of malaria eradication in the United States in 1970, 11 outbreaks involving 20 cases of probable locally acquired mosquito-transmitted malaria have been reported to CDC since 1992, including two reported in July 1996 from Palm Beach County, Florida (Palm Beach County Health Department, unpublished data, 1998). This report describes the investigation of seven cases of locally acquired Plasmodium vivax malaria that occurred in Palm Beach County during July-August 2003. In addition to considering malaria in the differential diagnosis for febrile patients with a history of travel to malarious areas, health-care providers also should consider malaria as a possible cause of fever among patients who have not traveled but are experiencing alternating fevers, rigors, and sweats with no obvious cause.

  3. Value-added utilization of oil palm ash: a superior recycling of the industrial agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2009-12-30

    Concern about environmental protection has increased over the years from a global viewpoint. To date, the infiltration of oil palm ash into the groundwater tables and aquifer systems which poses a potential risk and significant hazards towards the public health and ecosystems, remain an intricate challenge for the 21st century. With the revolution of biomass reutilization strategy, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of oil palm ash industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of oil palm ash in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy.

  4. [Wetlands dominated by palms (Arecaceae), emphasis in those in the New World].

    PubMed

    Myers, Ronald L

    2013-09-01

    It is well known that most forests in humid tropical lowlands are species rich, and the popular view is that most species are represented by only a few individuals. Despite this common understanding of high richness and low species dominance, within humid tropical regions there are extensive forested ecosystems composed by only few species. These nearly monospecific forests usually occupy poorly drained soils and, except for the mangroves, are quite understudied. In this paper, I review the literature and my own field notes on more than three years studying the structure of palm swamps in Caribbean Costa Rica and Florida to describe some of the major vegetation associations in wetlands dominated by palm species in the Neotropical Region, although I also include some information about similar systems in the Old World Tropics. I mention the most abundant species that compose those palm dominated swamps and -whenever possible- describe forest structure, known distribution, and uses.

  5. A review on palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater treatment using coagulation-ozonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexter, Z. D.; Joseph, C. G.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) generated from the palm oil industry is highly polluted and requires urgent attention for treatment due to its high organic content. Biogas plant containing anaerobic digester is capable to treat the high organic content of the POME while generating valuable biogas at the same time. This green energy from POME is environmental-friendly but the wastewater produced is still highly polluted and blackish in colour. Therefore a novel concept of combining coagulation with ozonation treatment is proposed to treat pollution of this nature. Several parameters should be taken under consideration in order to ensure the effectiveness of the hybrid treatment including ozone dosage, ozone contact time, pH of the water or wastewater, coagulant dosage, and mixing and settling time. This review paper will elucidate the importance of hybrid coagulation-ozonation treatment in producing a clear treated wastewater which is known as the main challenge in palm oil industry

  6. Modelling of moisture adsorption for sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatmiko, Tri Hadi; Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Prasetyo, Dwi Joko; Hernawan

    2017-03-01

    Sorption characteristic of food products is important for design, optimization, storage and modelling. Sugar palm starch film with two different plasticizers (sorbitol and glycerol) with varied concentration studied for its adsorption isotherm characteristic. The data of adsorption isotherm fitted with GAB, Oswin, Smith and Peleg models. All models describe the experiment data well, but Peleg model is better than the other models on both sugar palm starch film plasticized with sorbitol and glycerol. Moisture sorption of sugar palm starch increased linearly with plasticizer concentration. A new model by taking account of plasticizer concentration describes the experiment data well with an average of coefficients of determination (R2) 0.9913 and 0.9939 for film plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol respectively.

  7. Hexavalent chromium adsorption on impregnated palm shell activated carbon with polyethyleneimine.

    PubMed

    Owlad, Mojdeh; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2010-07-01

    Removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution was investigated using modified palm shell activated carbon. Low Molecular Weight Polyethyleneimine (LMW PEI) was used for impregnation purpose. The maximum amount of LMW PEI adsorbed on activated carbon was determined to be approximately 228.2mg/g carbon. The adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system using potassium dichromate K(2)Cr(2)O(7) as the source of Cr(VI) in the synthetic waste water and modified palm shell activated carbon as the adsorbent. The effects of pH, concentration of Cr(VI) and PEI loaded on activated carbon were studied. The adsorption data were found to fit well with the Freundlich isotherm model. This modified Palm shell activated carbon showed high adsorption capacity for chromium ions.

  8. Toxicity of Plant Secondary Metabolites Modulating Detoxification Genes Expression for Natural Red Palm Weevil Pesticide Development.

    PubMed

    AlJabr, Ahmed Mohammed; Hussain, Abid; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Al-Ayedh, Hassan

    2017-01-20

    This study aimed to explore the larvicidal and growth-inhibiting activities, and underlying detoxification mechanism of red palm weevil against phenylpropanoids, an important class of plant secondary metabolites. Toxicity of α-asarone, eugenol, isoeugenol, methyl eugenol, methyl isoeugenol, coumarin, coumarin 6, coniferyl aldehyde, diniconazole, ethyl cinnamate, and rosmarinic acid was evaluated by incorporation into the artificial diet. All of the phenylpropanoids exhibited dose- and time-dependent insecticidal activity. Among all the tested phenylpropanoids, coumarin exhibited the highest toxicity by revealing the least LD50 value (0.672 g/L). In addition, the most toxic compound (coumarin) observed in the current study, deteriorated the growth resulting tremendous reduction (78.39%) in efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD), and (ECI) efficacy of conversion of ingested food (70.04%) of tenth-instar red palm weevil larvae. The energy-deficient red palm weevil larvae through their intrinsic abilities showed enhanced response to their digestibility resulting 27.78% increase in approximate digestibility (AD) compared to control larvae. The detoxification response of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae determined by the quantitative expression of cytochrome P450, esterases, and glutathione S-transferase revealed enhanced expression among moderately toxic and ineffective compounds. These genes especially cytochrome P450 and GST detoxify the target compounds by enhancing their solubility that leads rapid excretion and degradation resulting low toxicity towards red palm weevil larvae. On the other hand, the most toxic (coumarin) silenced the genes involved in the red palm weevil detoxification mechanism. Based on the toxicity, growth retarding, and masking detoxification activities, coumarin could be a useful future natural red palm weevil-controlling agent.

  9. Elemental and thermo-chemical analysis of oil palm fronds for biomass energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm frond is the most abundant yet untapped biomass waste in Malaysia. This paper investigates the characteristics of raw oil palm fronds and its ash to evaluate its potential utilization as a biomass fuel for gasification process using single throat downdraft gasifier. The morphological nature, elemental content, proximate and ultimate analysis and calorific value were studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence were used to investigate the surface morphology, elemental and mineralogical nature of oil palm frond and its ash. The results were compared with other agricultural and forestry biomass wastes. From proximate analysis volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash were found to be 83.5%, 15.2% and 1.3%, respectively on dry basis. From ultimate analysis result values of 44.58%, 4.53%, 0.71% and 0.07% for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur were found respectively on dry basis. Oxygen was determined by difference and found to be 48.81%. The proximate and ultimate analysis results indicate that oil palm frond is better than agricultural wastes and less than most forestry wastes to use as a feedstock in the gasification process in order to get a better quality of syngas. The amount of ash content in OPF was found to be much less than in agricultural wastes and higher than most forestry wastes. From x-ray fluorescence analysis CaO and K2O were found as the major oxides in oil palm fronds and rice husk ash with the amount of 28.46% and 15.71% respectively. The overall results of oil palm fronds were found to be satisfactory to use as a feedstock for the process of gasification.

  10. Observations on the biology of Afrotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera). Part 6. Hesperiinae incertae sedis: palm feeders.

    PubMed

    Cock, Matthew J W; Congdon, T Colin E; Collins, Steve C

    2014-07-08

    Partial life histories for 12 Hesperiinae incertae sedis that feed on palms (Arecaceae) are described and illustrated. The genera dealt with are: Perrotia (part), Ploetzia, Zophopetes, Gretna (part), Pteroteinon, Leona, and Caenides (part) (all from Evans' Ploetzia genera group). Although Gamia spp. have been reported to feed on palms, these records are considered to be in error, as caterpillars of this genus feed on Dracaena spp. (Asparagaceae). The life histories of the species documented are fairly uniform, in that caterpillars of most species have rounded brown heads, wider basally, with or without limited black markings, smooth bodies and make simple shelters by rolling leaves. Variation in caterpillar markings and male genitalia of Zophopetes dysmephila (Trimen) and caterpillar and adult markings of Gretna carmen Evans merit further study. In G. carmen, G. waga (Plötz) and G. balenge (Holland), the caterpillars' head and body are covered with hair-like setae, and develop an extensive covering of white waxy powder, which in G. balenge also covers the long setae. Furthermore, the pupa of G. balenge is unusual in having a pair of large, elaborate processes frontally on the head; when disturbed, the pupa vibrates violently and rattles noisily against the sides of the shelter. Ploetzia amygdalis (Mabille) and Pteroteinon laufella (Hewitson) have gregarious caterpillars, whereas the remaining species are solitary. After eclosion, the first instar caterpillars of Gretna spp. moult to the second instar without feeding. The implications of a palm-feeding life-style are discussed, and economic damage and plant quarantine risks to coconut, oil palm and ornamental palms pointed out. The known life histories suggest that all Afrotropical palm-feeding Hesperiidae will belong in the same tribe when the incertae sedis section is further elucidated, although the affinities of Gretna deserve further consideration. 

  11. [Litter production and breakdown in swamps dominated by palms (Arecaceae) in northeastern Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Myers, Ronald L

    2013-09-01

    In Raffia (Raphia taedigera) palm-swamps, it is frequent to observe high mounds at the base of the palm clumps. These mounds are formed by the accumulation of litter and organic matter, or might result from upturned roots of wind-thrown trees. The mounds serve as anchorage site for the palms, and could be important for the establishment of woody tree species in the swamp. The formation of these mounds might be explained by the unequal accumulation of organic matter in the wetland, or by differences in decomposition rates between Raffia litter versus the litter produced in adjacent mixed forests. To distinguish between these hypotheses, I compared the spatial distribution of litter in a R. taedigera swamp with the litter distribution on an adjacent slope forest, where litter distribution is expected to be homogeneous. In addition, I compared decomposition rates of major components of fine litter in three different environments: two wetlands dominated by palms (R. taedigera and Manicaria saccifera) and a slope forest that experiences lower inundation effects. On the palm swamp, noticeable concentration of litter was observed near the bases of clumps of palm as opposed to the swamp floor. In the adjacent slope forest, the magnitude of the differences in the distribution of litter is small and there is no accumulation at the base of emergent trees. It was also found that litter production increases during heavy rains and storms that follow dry periods. The swamp environment, independent of the litter, showed significantly lower decomposition rates than the surrounding forest slope. Furthermore, R. taedigera litter decomposes as fast as the slope forest litter. Overall, these results suggest that resistance to decomposition is not a major factor in the formation of mounds at the bases of R. taedigera clumps. Instead, litter accumulation contributes to the formation of the mounds that rise above the surface of the swamp.

  12. [Predation, removal and seed dispersal in a wetland dominated by palms (Arecaceae)].

    PubMed

    Myers, Ronald L

    2013-09-01

    In the Tortuguero floodplains, Costa Rica, a significant number of trees such as Carapa guianensis, Pentaclethra mnacroloba and the palm Manicaria saccifera have floating seeds adapted to hydrocory, while others, such as the almendro Dipteryx oleifera and the raffia palm Raphia taedigera have heavy seeds that do not float. These species have differential distributions, and while C. guianensis, P macroloba and D. oleifera also grow on slopes away from the flood, the palms M saccifera and R. taedigera hardly occur outside the swamps, where they stand as the dominant species. To understand the differences in the micro-distribution of these tree species in waterlogged environments and differences in their seed adaptations, I did a series of experiments to compare the loss and germination of their seeds in the slope forest and in palm swamps in the region. Overall, seeds in the forest slope have higher removal rates than those in the M. saccifera and R. taedigera swamps. This last one exhibits the lowest seed loss of all three habitats. Also, differences in seed predation/removal were noticed between the two species of palms studied. Thus, seeds of M saccifera disappeared rapidly, regardless of density aggregation and location in the swamp. Removal rates in R. taedigera seeds were low in the raffia dominated swamp, where apparently, seed losses are slightly higher in the mounds of palm clumps than in the swamp floor. These observations suggest that both: flooding and microtopography determine, directly or indirectly, the fate of tree species within these wetlands. Restrictions on seed dispersal and the slow germination confine R. taedigera marshes and flooded places, whereas flooding and predators mediate in the distribution of the other tree species.

  13. Patterns of pollen dispersal in a small population of the Canarian endemic palm (Phoenix canariensis).

    PubMed

    Saro, I; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; González-Pérez, M A; Sosa, P A

    2014-09-01

    The genetic diversity of small populations is greatly influenced by local dispersal patterns and genetic connectivity among populations, with pollen dispersal being the major component of gene flow in many plants species. Patterns of pollen dispersal, mating system parameters and spatial genetic structure were investigated in a small isolated population of the emblematic palm Phoenix canariensis in Gran Canaria island (Canary Islands). All adult palms present in the study population (n=182), as well as 616 seeds collected from 22 female palms, were mapped and genotyped at 8 microsatellite loci. Mating system analysis revealed an average of 5.8 effective pollen donors (Nep) per female. There was strong variation in correlated paternity rates across maternal progenies (ranging from null to 0.9) that could not be explained by the location and density of local males around focal females. Paternity analysis revealed a mean effective pollen dispersal distance of ∼71 m, with ∼70% of effective pollen originating from a distance of <75 m, and 90% from <200 m. A spatially explicit mating model indicated a leptokurtic pollen dispersal kernel, significant pollen immigration (12%) from external palm groves and a directional pollen dispersal pattern that seems consistent with local altitudinal air movement. No evidence of inbreeding or genetic diversity erosion was found, but spatial genetic structure was detected in the small palm population. Overall, the results suggest substantial pollen dispersal over the studied population, genetic connectivity among different palm groves and some resilience to neutral genetic erosion and subsequently to fragmentation.

  14. Rapid detection of Ganoderma-infected oil palms by microwave ergosterol extraction with HPLC and TLC.

    PubMed

    Muniroh, M S; Sariah, M; Zainal Abidin, M A; Lima, N; Paterson, R R M

    2014-05-01

    Detection of basal stem rot (BSR) by Ganoderma of oil palms was based on foliar symptoms and production of basidiomata. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays-Polyclonal Antibody (ELISA-PAB) and PCR have been proposed as early detection methods for the disease. These techniques are complex, time consuming and have accuracy limitations. An ergosterol method was developed which correlated well with the degree of infection in oil palms, including samples growing in plantations. However, the method was capable of being optimised. This current study was designed to develop a simpler, more rapid and efficient ergosterol method with utility in the field that involved the use of microwave extraction. The optimised procedure involved extracting a small amount of Ganoderma, or Ganoderma-infected oil palm suspended in low volumes of solvent followed by irradiation in a conventional microwave oven at 70°C and medium high power for 30s, resulting in simultaneous extraction and saponification. Ergosterol was detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The TLC method was novel and provided a simple, inexpensive method with utility in the field. The new method was particularly effective at extracting high yields of ergosterol from infected oil palm and enables rapid analysis of field samples on site, allowing infected oil palms to be treated or culled very rapidly. Some limitations of the method are discussed herein. The procedures lend themselves to controlling the disease more effectively and allowing more effective use of land currently employed to grow oil palms, thereby reducing pressure to develop new plantations.

  15. Use of re-esterified palm oils, differing in their acylglycerol structure, in fattening pig diets.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Barroeta, A C; Tres, A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2015-10-01

    Re-esterified oils are new fat sources obtained from the chemical esterification of acid oils with glycerol (both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively). The different fatty acid (FA) positional distribution and acylglycerol composition of re-esterified oils may enhance the apparent absorption of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and, therefore, their overall nutritive value, which might lead to an increased deposition of SFA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified palm oils, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils in fattening pig diets, studying their effects on fatty acid apparent absorption, acylglycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) composition of feces, growth performance, carcass-fat depots and fatty acid composition of backfat. Seventy-two crossbred boars and gilts (average weight of 24.7 ± 2.55 kg) were blocked by initial BW (nine blocks of BW for each gender), housed in adjacent individual boxes, and fed one of the four dietary treatments, which were the result of a basal diet supplemented with 4% (as-fed basis) of native palm oil (PN), acid palm oil (PA), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- and diacylglycerols (PEL), or re-esterified palm oil high in mono- and diacylglycerols (PEH). Regarding results from the digestibility balance, PA and PN showed similar apparent absorption coefficients (P>0.05), despite the high, FFA content of the former. However, re-esterified palm oils (both PEL and PEH) showed a higher apparent absorption of total FA than did their corresponding native and acid oils (P0.05). We conclude that re-esterified oils are interesting fat sources to be considered in fattening pigs.

  16. Effectiveness of Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) for reducing fires on oil palm concessions in Indonesia from 2012 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattau, Megan E.; Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    Fire is a common tool for land conversion and management associated with oil palm production. Fires can cause biodiversity and carbon losses, emit pollutants that deteriorate air quality and harm human health, and damage property. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) prohibits the use of fire on certified concessions. However, efforts to suppress fires are more difficult during El Niño conditions and on peatlands. In this paper, we address the following questions for oil palm concessions developed prior to 2012 in Sumatra and Kalimantan, the leading producers of oil palm both within Indonesia and globally: (1) for the period 2012-2015, did RSPO-certified concessions have a lower density of fire detections, fire ignitions, or ‘escaped’ fires compared with those concessions that are not certified? and (2) did this pattern change with increasing likelihood of fires in concessions located on peatland and in dry years? These questions are particularly critical in fuel-rich peatlands, of which approximately 46% of the area was designated as oil palm concession as of 2010. We conducted propensity scoring to balance covariate distributions between certified and non-certified concessions, and we compare the density of fires in certified and non-certified concessions using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests based on moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer Active Fire Detections from 2012-2015 clustered into unique fire events. We find that fire activity is significantly lower on RSPO certified concessions than non-RSPO certified concessions when the likelihood of fire is low (i.e., on non-peatlands in wetter years), but not when the likelihood of fire is high (i.e., on non-peatlands in dry years or on peatlands). Our results provide evidence that RSPO has the potential to reduce fires, though it is currently only effective when fire likelihood is relatively low. These results imply that, in order for this mechanism to reduce fire, additional strategies will be

  17. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles dispersed in palm oil using laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, Reza; Zakaria, Azmi; Ahangar, Hossein Abbastabar; Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

    2010-11-22

    In this study we used a laser ablation technique for preparation of silver nanoparticles. The fabrication process was carried out by ablation of a silver plate immersed in palm oil. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The palm coconut oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with very small and uniform particle size, which are dispersed very homogeneously within the solution. The obtained particle sizes for 15 and 30 minute ablation times were 2.5 and 2 nm, respectively. Stability study shows that all of the samples remained stable for a reasonable period of time.

  18. Assessment of mold contamination and physicochemical properties of crude palm oil sold in Jos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odoh, Chuks K; Amapu, Tarfen Y; Orjiakor, Ikechukwu P; Martins, Paul E; Seibai, Benedict T; Akpi, Uche K; Ugwu, Chinyere S; Lerum, Nathaniel I; Nwankwegu, Amechi S

    2017-03-01

    Due to increasing reports on poor-quality palm oil in the market, there has been a continual decrease in demand and revenue cum product rejection of palm oil sold in Jos, Nigeria. Hence, the significance of this work aims to moderate the microbial and physical qualities of crude palm oil sold in different major markets in order to increase revenue through quality control and quality assurance protocols. The intent is to create awareness among government monitoring agencies, buyers (exporters and importers), and to promote standard processing procedures among manufacturers. The study was carried out to ascertain the levels of mold contamination and physicochemical properties of crude palm oil sold in Jos and its environ. A total of 90 samples were collected in sterile containers. Molds were isolated and identified using standard identification procedures. The physicochemical properties: free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), moisture content (MC), and impurity level were determined. The assessment of mold isolated from the study sites recognized some life-threatening genera capable of producing carcinogenic toxins. Candida sp. (51%) had the highest percentage of occurrence followed by Aspergillus sp. (45%) while Fusarium sp. (3%) was the least occurring mold. The mean mold count for all the palm oil samples ranges from 3.18 × 10(4) (cfu/mL)-4.56 × 10(4) (cfu/mL). Physicochemical findings showed that the average FFA (3.43-6.88%), PV (6.96-13.63 mEq/kg), IV (39.7-67.5 wijs), and MC (0.44-0.72%) values were within the SON acceptable limit, except the impurity level (0.28-0.44%) which was higher than the acceptable SON range in all the sites. There was a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in the mold and physicochemical properties of crude palm oil in almost all the samples analyzed when compared to both local and international permissible limits of the tested parameters recommended for edible palm oil. There was compliance between the

  19. Index of hydrologic data for selected sites in Palm Beach County, Florida, 1928-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonenshein, R.S.; Causaras, C.R.; Fish, John E.

    1986-01-01

    A regional assessment of the surficial aquifers in Dade, Broward , and Palm Beach Counties, Florida, including the Biscayne aquifer, was begun in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District. The purpose of the first phase of the project was to determine the geologic, hydrologic, and water quality data available in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and other public agencies. This report summarizes, through tables and maps, the types of data available for Palm Beach County. (USGS)

  20. Development of palm-based reference materials for the quantification of fatty acids composition.

    PubMed

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

    2008-01-01

    Characterisation of fatty acids composition of three palm-based reference materials was carried out through inter-laboratory proficiency tests. Twelve laboratories collaborated in these tests and the fatty acids compositions of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined by applying the MPOB Test Methods p3.4:2004 and p3.5:2004. Determination of consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptable statistical agreement of results obtained from the collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties (%) for each palm oil reference material produced are listed as follows : 0.20% (C12:0), 1.66+/-0.05% (C14:0), 43.39+/-0.39% (C16:0), 0.14+/-0.06% (C16:1), 3.90+/-0.11% (C18:0), 40.95+/-0.23% (C18:1), 9.68+/-0.21% (C18:2), 0.16+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.31+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm oil; 0.23+/-0.04% (C12:0), 1.02+/-0.04% (C14:0), 39.66+/-0.19% (C16:0), 0.18+/-0.07% (C16:1), 3.81+/-0.04% (C18:0), 44.01+/-0.08% (C18:1), 10.73+/-0.08% (C18:2), 0.20+/-0.06% (C18:3) and 0.34+/-0.04% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm olein; and 0.20% (C12:0), 1.14+/-0.05% (C14:0), 49.42+/-0.25% (C16:0), 0.16+/-0.08% (C16:1), 4.15+/-0.10% (C18:0), 36.14+/-0.77% (C18:1), 7.95+/-0.29% (C18:2), 0.11+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.30+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm stearin.

  1. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) tissue culture ESTs: Identifying genes associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Low, Eng-Ti L; Alias, Halimah; Boon, Soo-Heong; Shariff, Elyana M; Tan, Chi-Yee A; Ooi, Leslie CL; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Raha, Abdul-Rahim; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Singh, Rajinder

    2008-01-01

    Background Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes. Results A total of 12 standard cDNA libraries, representing three main developmental stages in oil palm tissue culture, were generated in this study. Random sequencing of clones from these cDNA libraries generated 17,599 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The ESTs were analysed, annotated and assembled to generate 9,584 putative unigenes distributed in 3,268 consensi and 6,316 singletons. These unigenes were assigned putative functions based on similarity and gene ontology annotations. Cluster analysis, which surveyed the relatedness of each library based on the abundance of ESTs in each consensus, revealed that lipid transfer proteins were highly expressed in embryogenic tissues. A glutathione S-transferase was found to be highly expressed in non-embryogenic callus. Further analysis of the unigenes identified 648 non-redundant simple sequence repeats and 211 putative full-length open reading frames. Conclusion This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during oil palm tissue culture. Candidate genes with expression that are modulated during tissue culture were identified. However, in order to confirm

  2. Extraction of oil palm plantations on the undulating terrains in the Borneo using PALSAR Global Mosaic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, Y.; Ishii, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Nagai, S.; Suzuki, R.

    2013-12-01

    Conversions of forests and peat swamps into oil palm plantations might cause decrease of net ecosystem production, change of water stream and loss of biodiversity. Most of the oil plantations in the South East Asia have been expanded in the past decade. For monitoring the distribution and condition of these plantations, the PALSAR Global Mosaic data set (PGM) have been utilized. This PGM is one of the L-Band Synthetic Aparture Radar (SAR) data sets orthorectified and mosaicked (unified). Unlike optical satellite imagery, the L-band SAR is useful especially for cloudy tropic regions. In addition, PGM have high resolution (about 10 m) and contains cross polarization (HV) SAR data which is useful for observation of forest because cross polarization SAR data contain data of the volume scattering which reflect the volume of plant bodies. On the other hand, topographic effect in PGM is not reduced sufficiently because of low resolution of DEM utilized to make PGM. As a result, pixel value of PGM is affected by the highlight effect especially in undulating terrains. These undulating terrains consist of rises which have about 10m height, exist in about 100m horizontal interval and cause striped patterns on SAR images. These patterns result in difficulty in extracting oil palm plantation using SAR imagery in the undulating terrains. However, many papers extracting oil palm plantations didn't show the accuracy of distributions extracted as oil palm plantation in the undulating terrains and thus it isn't clear how well oil palm plantations on the undulating terrains can be extracted. In this study, we carried out a supervised classification and extracted oil palm plantations in the north-west of Borneo Island. The Island is a part of the South East Asia and contains undulating terrains. In this extraction, we used the PGM data, a learning model and the training data made from PGM data, aerial photograph, high resolution optical satellite data and field survey data. After

  3. Inhibitive effects of palm kernel oil on carbon steel corrosion by alkaline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkafli, M. Y.; Othman, N. K.; Lazim, A. M.; Jalar, A.

    2013-11-01

    The behavior of carbon steel SAE 1045 in 1 M NaOH solution containing different concentrations of palm kernel oil (PKO) has been studied by weight loss and polarization measurement. Results showed that the corrosion of carbon steel in NaOH solution was considerably reduced in presence of such inhibitors. The inhibition efficiency increases when concentration of inhibitor increase. Maximum inhibition efficiency (≈ 96.67%) is obtained at PKO concentration 8 v/v %. This result revealed that palm kernel oil can act as a corrosion inhibitor in an alkaline medium. Corrosion rates of carbon steel decrease as the concentration of inhibitor is increased.

  4. Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Hugh C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale This review comes at a time when in vitro embryo culture techniques are being adopted for the safe exchange and cryo-conservation of coconut germplasm. In due course, laboratory procedures may replace the options that exist among standard commercial nursery germination techniques. These, in their turn, have supplanted traditional methods that are now forgotten or misunderstood. Knowledge of all germination options should help to ensure the safe regeneration of conserved material. Scope This review outlines the many options for commercial propagation, recognizes the full significance of one particular traditional method and suggests that the diversity of modern cultivated coconut varieties has arisen because natural selection and domestic selection were associated with different rates of germination and other morphologically recognizable phenotypic characteristics. The review takes into account both the recalcitrant and the viviparous nature of the coconut. The ripe fruits that fall but do not germinate immediately and lose viability if dried for storage are contrasted with the bunches of fruit retained in the crown of the palm that may, in certain circumstances, germinate to produce seedlings high above ground level. Significance Slow-germinating and quick-germinating coconuts have different patterns of distribution. The former predominate on tropical islands and coastlines that could be reached by floating when natural dispersal originally spread coconuts widely—but only where tides and currents were favourable—and then only to sea-level locations. Human settlers disseminated the domestic types even more widely—to otherwise inaccessible coastal sites not reached by floating—and particularly to inland and upland locations on large islands and continental land masses. This review suggests four regions where diversity has been determined by germination rates. Although recent DNA studies support these distinctions, further analyses of genetic markers

  5. Methadone-related deaths in Palm Beach County.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barbara C; Lavezzi, Wendy A; Sullivan, Linda M; Flannagan, Lisa M

    2004-03-01

    The authors reviewed cases investigated by the Palm Beach Medical Examiner's Office in which postmortem toxicologic studies indicated the presence of methadone over the period from 1998 to 2002, to examine the role of the drug in these deaths. There were 139 methadone-positive cases, including 75 in which the death was attributed to combined drug toxicity and 23 to methadone toxicity alone. Methadone was most frequently used in conjunction with other prescription or illicit drugs, most commonly benzodiazepines and/or cocaine. There was considerable overlap in the postmortem blood methadone concentrations among the groups. Concentrations ranged from 0.114 mg/L-1.939 mg/L (mean .0559 mg/L) in cases where death was attributed to methadone toxicity; 0.050 mg/L-1.903 mg/L (mean 0.411 mg/L) in cases of combined drug toxicity; 0.069 mg/L-0.644 mg/L (mean 0.224 mg/L) in deaths attributed to other drugs; 0.062 mg/L-1.090 mg/L (mean 0.344 mg/L) among deaths attributed to natural causes and 0.072 mg/L-2.7 mg/L (mean 0.605 mg/L) among deaths due to trauma. The concentrations of methadone detected indicate that it may not be possible to establish a lethal methadone range because some deaths occurred at methadone concentrations below previously reported lethal ranges, and because of the presence of other drugs. Determining the cause of death in methadone-positive cases necessitates correlation with autopsy results and investigative findings.

  6. Evapotranspiration components determined by eddy covariance and sap flux measurements in oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; June, Tania; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The expansion of oil palm cultivation fueled by the increasing global demand for palm oil is leading to massive land transformations in tropical areas, particularly in South-East Asia. Conversions of forest land to oil palm plantations likely affect ecosystem water fluxes. However, there is a lack of information on water fluxes from oil palm plantations as well as on the partitioning of these fluxes into its different components such as transpiration and evaporation. It is expected that water fluxes from oil palm plantations vary temporally, both long-term, i.e. between different age-classes of plantations, and short-term, i.e. from day to day within a certain plantation (e.g. during or after periods of rainfall). A proper evaluation of water fluxes from oil palm plantations thus requires an experimental design encompassing these types of variability. To assess evapotranspiration (ET) rates, an eddy covariance tower was installed in a 2-year-old oil palm plantation in the lowlands of Jambi, Sumatra; it was subsequently moved to a 12-year-old oil palm plantation located in the same region. In parallel to the ET, sap flux density was measured on 16 leaf petioles on four oil palms; stand transpiration rates were derived from these measurements with stand inventory data. The parallel measurements ran for several weeks in both plantations. Preliminary results for our period of study show that the average ET rate of the 2-year-old oil palm plantation was 5.2 mm day-1; values up to 7.0 mm day-1 were observed on dry, sunny days with non-limiting soil moisture. Stand transpiration (T) by the young oil palms was very low, 0.3 mm day-1on average, and only showed a small variation between days. Under optimal environmental conditions, the ratio of T to total ET was up to 0.08 in the young plantation, while in the mature, 12-year-old plantation, it was significantly higher and reached 0.5. Transpiration rates in the mature oil palm plantation were about six- to seven-fold higher

  7. Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tokura, Mitsunori; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2013-11-01

    The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90 days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40 days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified.

  8. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-02-14

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  9. Lipase production from a novel thermo-tolerant and extreme acidophile Bacillus pumilus using palm oil as the substrate and treatment of palm oil-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Saranya, P; Sukanya Kumari, H; Prasad Rao, B; Sekaran, G

    2014-03-01

    The thermo-tolerant and extreme acidophilic microorganism Bacillus pumilus was isolated from the soil collected from a commercial edible-oil extraction industry. Optimisation of conditions for the lipase production was conducted using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of extremely acidic thermostable lipase were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; and concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the thermo-tolerant acidophilic lipase (TAL) was 55 kDa. The predominant amino acid in the TAL was glycine. The functional groups of lipase were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TAL exhibited enhanced activity (114 %) with dimethyl sulphoxide (20 %, v/v), and it showed a moderate activity with methanol, hexane and benzene. The optimum conditions for the treatment of palm oil in wastewater using the TAL were found to be time, 3 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C with pseudo second-order kinetic constant of 1.88 × 10(-3) L mol(-1) min(-1). The Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetic model and the nonlinear kinetic model were evaluated for the TAL. TAL established hydrolysis efficiency of 96 % for palm oil in wastewater at 50 °C.

  10. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Clement, Charles R; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2012-04-01

    Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H(T) = 0.82). The low levels of divergence [F(ST) (0.023), G(ST)' (0.005)] and the high number of migrants (Nm - 3.8 to 52.2) indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.

  11. In vitro conservation of oil palm somatic embryos for 20 years on a hormone-free culture medium: characteristics of the embryogenic cultures, derived plantlets and adult palms.

    PubMed

    Konan, K Eugene; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Kouadio, Y Justin; Flori, Albert; Rival, Alain; Duval, Yves; Pannetier, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted over a period of 20 years, to assess the problems involved in developing subcultures over a very long period, of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) somatic embryos which were maintained in vitro on a Murashige and Skoog mineral-based culture medium, without growth regulators. Analysis of the proliferation rate of the embryogenic cultures, along with the survivability of the regenerated plantlets after their transfer into soil and of the flowering of the derived adult palms has been conducted for cultures maintained in vitro during 1 to 20 years. From the ninth year of maintenance, the tissue quality of the somatic embryos gradually began to decline. However, after more than 20 years, 30% of the 20 clones tested still continued to proliferate satisfactorily on the same maintenance medium, keeping their multiplication potential intact. Even though a depressive effect of the age of the lines has been observed on the survival capacity of plants under natural conditions, it is noteworthy that among the clones originating from 20-year-old cultures only eight of them (40%) have exhibited the "mantled" floral abnormality. Different hypotheses concerning the origin of the disruptions observed on the in vitro cultures, plantlets and adult palms that occur over a very long period of in vitro conservation are discussed.

  12. Coryphoid Palm Leaf Fossils from the Maastrichtian–Danian of Central India with Remarks on Phytogeography of the Coryphoideae (Arecaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rashmi; Srivastava, Gaurav; Dilcher, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Premise of research A large number of fossil coryphoid palm wood and fruits have been reported from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of India. We document the oldest well-preserved and very rare costapalmate palm leaves and inflorescence like structures from the same horizon. Methodology A number of specimens were collected from Maastrichtian–Danian sediments of the Deccan Intertrappean beds, Ghughua, near Umaria, Dindori District, Madhya Pradesh, India. The specimens are compared with modern and fossil taxa of the family Arecaceae. Pivotal results Sabalites dindoriensis sp. nov. is described based on fossil leaf specimens including basal to apical parts. These are the oldest coryphoid fossil palm leaves from India as well as, at the time of deposition, from the Gondwana- derived continents. Conclusions The fossil record of coryphoid palm leaves presented here and reported from the Eurasian localities suggests that this is the oldest record of coryphoid palm leaves from India and also from the Gondwana- derived continents suggesting that the coryphoid palms were well established and wide spread on both northern and southern hemispheres by the Maastrichtian–Danian. The coryphoid palms probably dispersed into India from Europe via Africa during the latest Cretaceous long before the Indian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate. PMID:25394208

  13. Investigations on a novel inductive concept frequency technique for the grading of oil palm fresh fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Ahmad, Desa; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2013-02-07

    From the Malaysian harvester's perspective, the determination of the ripeness of the oil palm (FFB) is a critical factor to maximize palm oil production. A preliminary study of a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is presented. To optimize the functionality of the sensor, the frequency characteristics of air coils of various diameters are investigated to determine their inductance and resonant characteristics. Sixteen samples from two categories, namely ripe oil palm fruitlets and unripe oil palm fruitlets, are tested from 100 Hz up to 100 MHz frequency. The results showed the inductance and resonant characteristics of the air coil sensors display significant changes among the samples of each category. The investigations on the frequency characteristics of the sensor air coils are studied to observe the effect of variations in the coil diameter. The effect of coil diameter yields a significant 0.02643 MHz difference between unripe samples to air and 0.01084 MHz for ripe samples to air. The designed sensor exhibits significant potential in determining the maturity of oil palm fruits.

  14. An investigation of age and yield of fresh fruit bunches of oil palm based on ALOS PALSAR 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Haryati, A.; M, R. Najib A.; Na'aim, M.

    2016-06-01

    The objective on this study is to investigate age and yield of FFB of oil palms based on ALOS PALSAR 2. Study areas in oil palm plantations areas of Jerantut, Pahang Malaysia. Methodology consists collecting of ALOS PALSAR 2 and tabular data on the study area, processing of ALOS PALSAR 2 including of converting digital numbers to normalize radar cross sections (NRCS), topography correction and filtering, making of regions of interest according to areas of age and yield of FFB of oil palms and making of relationship analysis between backscatter value of HH, HV and age and yield of FFB of oil palm. The results have showed relationship between HH, HV and age of oil palm which R2 of 0.63 for HH and 0.42 for HV that indicated increasing of age of oil palm as increasing of HH and HV value. Also relationship between HH, HV and yield of FFB of oil palm which R2 of 0.26 for HH and 0.15 for HV, that indicated increasing of yield of FFB as decreasing of HH and HV value.

  15. Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase catalyzed synthesis of palm stearin and cetyl alcohol wax esters: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols. Their principal natural sources are animals (sperm whale oil) and vegetables (jojoba) which are expensive and not easily available. Wax esters synthesized by enzymatic transesterification, using palm stearin as raw material, can be considered as an alternative to natural ones. Results Palm stearin is a solid fraction obtained by fractionation of palm oil. Palm stearin was esterified with cetyl alcohol to produce a mixture of wax esters. A non-commercial immobilized lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was used as biocatalyst. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the effects of the temperature (30-50°C), the enzyme concentration (33.34-300 IU/mL), the alcohol/palm stearin molar ratio (3-7 mol/mol) and the substrate concentration (0.06-0.34 g/mL) on the conversion yield of palm stearin. Under optimal conditions (temperature, 30°C; enzyme concentration, 300 IU/mL; molar ratio 3 and substrate concentration 0.21 g/mL) a high conversion yield of 98.52% was reached within a reaction time of 2 h. Conclusions Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum operational conditions for synthesis of palm stearin based wax esters. This study may provide useful tools to develop economical and efficient processes for the synthesis of wax esters. PMID:21682865

  16. Use of infrared camera to understand bats' access to date palm sap: implications for preventing Nipah virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Salah Uddin; Hossain, Jahangir; Gurley, Emily S; Nahar, Nazmun; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-12-01

    Pteropus bats are commonly infected with Nipah virus, but show no signs of illness. Human Nipah outbreaks in Bangladesh coincide with the date palm sap harvesting season. In epidemiologic studies, drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah infection. We conducted a study to evaluate bats' access to date palm sap. We mounted infrared cameras that silently captured images upon detection of motion on date palm trees from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am. Additionally, we placed two locally used preventative techniques, bamboo skirts and lime (CaCO₃) smeared on date palm trees to assess their effectiveness in preventing bats access to sap. Out of 20 camera-nights of observations, 14 identified 132 visits of bats around the tree, 91 to the shaved surface of the tree where the sap flow originates, 4 at the stream of sap moving toward the collection pot, and no bats at the tap or on the collection pots; the remaining 6 camera-nights recorded no visits. Of the preventative techniques, the bamboo skirt placed for four camera-nights prevented bats access to sap. This study confirmed that bats commonly visited date palm trees and physically contacted the sap collected for human consumption. This is further evidence that date palm sap is an important link between Nipah virus in bats and Nipah virus in humans. Efforts that prevent bat access to the shaved surface and the sap stream of the tree could reduce Nipah spillovers to the human population.

  17. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Borassus akeassii palm wines from Burkina Faso in comparison to other African beverages.

    PubMed

    Tapsoba, François; Legras, Jean-Luc; Savadogo, Aly; Dequin, Sylvie; Traore, Alfred Sababenedyo

    2015-10-15

    In South-West of Burkina Faso, palm wine is produced by spontaneous fermentation of the sap from a specific palm tree Borassus akeassii and plays an important role in people's lives. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main agent of this alcoholic fermentation but little is known about the diversity of the isolates from palm. In this work, 39 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated from palm wine samples collected from 14 sites in Burkina Faso, as well as 7 isolates obtained from sorghum beer (Dolo) from 3 distant sites. Their diversity was analyzed at 12 microsatellite loci, and compared to the genotypes obtained for other African yeast populations isolated from Cocoa hulks from Ghana, sorghum beer from Ivory Coast, palm wine from Djibouti Republic, and to our database of strains from miscellaneous origins (bread, beer, wine, sake, oaks…). The ploidy of these strains has been assessed as well by flow cytometry. Our results show that B. akeassii palm wine contains a specific yeast population of diploid strains, different from Dolo produced in the same area and from other palm wine strains from Ivory Coast, Nigeria, or Djibouti Republic. In contrast, Dolo strains appeared as a group of related and mainly tetraploid strains despite being isolated from different countries.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production addressing different land conversion scenarios in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Akhir, Nurul Izzati Mat; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Awang, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    The environmental impacts with regard to agro-based biofuel production have been associated with the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, field GHG emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production associated with land use changes for oil palm plantation development have been evaluated. Three different sites of different land use changes prior to oil palm plantation were chosen; converted land-use (large and small-scales) and logged-over forest. Field sampling for determination of soil N-mineralisation and soil organic carbon (SOC) was undertaken at the sites according to the age of palm, i.e. <5 years (immature), 5-20 and >21 years (mature oil palms). The field data were incorporated into the estimation of nitrous oxide (N2O) and the resulting CO2-eq emissions as well as for estimation of carbon stock changes. Irrespective of the land conversion scenarios, the nitrous oxide emissions were found in the range of 6.47-7.78 kg N2O-N/ha resulting in 498-590 kg CO2-eq/ha. On the other hand, the conversion of tropical forest into oil palm plantation has resulted in relatively higher GHG emissions (i.e. four times higher and carbon stock reduction by >50%) compared to converted land use (converted rubber plantation) for oil palm development. The conversion from previously rubber plantation into oil palm plantation would increase the carbon savings (20% in increase) thus sustaining the environmental benefits from the palm oil-based biofuel production.

  19. The relative DNA-shedding propensity of the palm and finger surfaces.

    PubMed

    Oleiwi, A A; Morris, M R; Schmerer, W M; Sutton, R

    2015-09-01

    The relative DNA shedding propensity of palmar and finger surfaces has not previously been examined. In the study presented here, palm and fingermarks of six volunteers were analysed for DNA recovery, after deposition at a pressure of approximately 4900 Pa onto glass plates or slides, respectively. The marks were swabbed; DNA extracted using a modified Chelex® method, and then quantified using qPCR, followed by genotype analysis. To assess the availability of DNA-containing material on the skin surface, DNA was analysed by directly swabbing the palm and fingerprint areas of the skin. A further set of palm and fingermarks was subjected to microscopic examination. The results demonstrated that the quantity of DNA shed from the palmar surface is significantly less than from two fingers. Single donor DNA profiles were obtained from deposited fingermarks by applying a low copy number protocol (32 cycles). DNA retrieved from palm and fingers may be degraded, as suggested by reduced peak intensity and allelic dropout amongst the larger STR loci. These findings suggest that, owing to the low levels of DNA deposition, when palmar marks are found at crime scenes, every effort should be made to recover friction ridge detail to use as an identification metric, with collection for DNA analysis performed afterwards.

  20. An overview of palm, jatropha and algae as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, S.; Abdullah, N. R.; Mamat, R.; Rashid, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The high demand to replace petroleum fuel makes renewable and sustainable sources such as Palm oil, Jatropha oil and Algae a main focus feedstock for biodiesel production in Malaysia. There are many studies conducted on Palm oil and Jatropha oil, however, the use of Algae as an alternative fuel is still in its infancy. Malaysia already implemented B5 based Palm oil as a feedstock and this biodiesel has been proven safe and can be used without any engine modification. The use of biodiesel produced from these feedstock will also developed domestic economic and provide job opportunities especially in the rural area. In addition, biodiesel has many advantages especially when dealing with the emissions produce as compared to petroleum fuel such as; it can reduce unwanted gases and particulate matter harmful to the atmosphere and mankind. Thus, this paper gathered and examines the most prominent engine emission produced from Palm oil and Jatropha feedstock and also to observe the potential of Algae to be one of the sources of alternative fuel in Malaysia.

  1. Hot compressed water extraction curve for palm oil and beta carotene concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharizan, M. S. M.; Azian, M. N.; Yoshiyuki, Y.; Kamal, A. A. M.; Che Yunus, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Hot compressed water extraction (HCWE) is a promising green alternative for palm oil milling. The kinetic characteristic of HCWE for palm oil and it β-carotene concentration was experimentally investigated in this study at the different temperature and pressure. Semi-batch HCW extractor from 120 to 180 oC and 30 to 50 bar was used to evaluated the process for 60 mins of extraction in 10 mins interval. The results obtain using the HCWE process was compared with other extraction method. The oil extraction achieved the maximum extraction rate within 20 mins of extraction in most of the condition and starting to decrease until 60 mins of extraction time. The extraction rate for β-carotene was achieved the maximum rate in 10 mins and starting to decrease until 30 mins. None of β-carotene concentration had been extracted out from the palm oil mesocarp after 30 mins of extraction in all condition. The oil recovery of using HCWE was relatively low compare with the mechanical screw press, subcritical R134b, supercritical carbon dioxide and hexane extraction due to the oil loses in the oil-water emulsion. However, the β-carotene concentration in extracted oil using HCWE was improved compare with commercial crude palm oil (CPO) and subcritical R134a extraction.

  2. Palm Beach School Board Acquisition of Relocatable Classrooms Examined. OPPAGA Special Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Legislature, Tallahassee. Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability.

    This report, responding to a Florida legislative request, examines the Palm Beach County School Board's planned purchase of concrete relocatable classrooms. The report presents a number of findings and recommendations. Concrete units are more expensive than models with metal stud walls; both types meet state building code standards. The district…

  3. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euterpe oleraceae is a large palm tree indigenous to the Amazon River and its tributaries and estuaries in South America. Its fruit, known as acai, is of great economic value to native people. In this study, a standardized freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder was used for all analyses and tests....

  4. Enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (Ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations.

    PubMed

    Susanto, A; Sudharto, P S; Purba, R Y

    2005-01-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative control measures to overcome the Ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and planting resistant material. Present studies conducted at Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) are focused on enhancing the use of biological control agents for Ganoderma. These activities include screening biological agents from the oil palm rhizosphere in order to evaluate their effectiveness as biological agents in glasshouse and field trials, testing their antagonistic activities in large scale experiments and eradicating potential disease inoculum with biological agents. Several promising biological agents have been isolated, mainly Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus sp. A glasshouse and field trial for Ganoderma control indicated that treatment with T. harzianum and G. viride was superior to Bacillus sp. A large scale trial showed that the disease incidence was lower in a field treated with biological agents than in untreated fields. In a short term programme, research activities at IOPRI are currently focusing on selecting fungi that can completely degrade plant material in order to eradicate inoculum. Digging holes around the palm bole and adding empty fruit bunches have been investigated as ways to stimulate biological agents.

  5. HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the Household Hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to: 1) Quantity the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County Florida’s (the County) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal s...

  6. PALM-IST: Pathway Assembly from Literature Mining - an Information Search Tool

    PubMed Central

    Mandloi, Sapan; Chakrabarti, Saikat

    2015-01-01

    Manual curation of biomedical literature has become extremely tedious process due to its exponential growth in recent years. To extract meaningful information from such large and unstructured text, newer and more efficient mining tool is required. Here, we introduce PALM-IST, a computational platform that not only allows users to explore biomedical abstracts using keyword based text mining but also extracts biological entity (e.g., gene/protein, drug, disease, biological processes, cellular component, etc.) information from the extracted text and subsequently mines various databases to provide their comprehensive inter-relation (e.g., interaction, expression, etc.). PALM-IST constructs protein interaction network and pathway information data relevant to the text search using multiple data mining tools and assembles them to create a meta-interaction network. It also analyzes scientific collaboration by extraction and creation of “co-authorship network,” for a given search context. Hence, this useful combination of literature and data mining provided in PALM-IST can be used to extract novel protein-protein interaction (PPI), to generate meta-pathways and further to identify key crosstalk and bottleneck proteins. PALM-IST is available at www.hpppi.iicb.res.in/ctm. PMID:25989388

  7. Expression Comparison of Oil Biosynthesis Genes in Oil Palm Mesocarp Tissue Using Custom Array.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yick Ching; Kwong, Qi Bin; Lee, Heng Leng; Ong, Chuang Kee; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook Tim; Appleton, David R; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2014-11-13

    Gene expression changes that occur during mesocarp development are a major research focus in oil palm research due to the economic importance of this tissue and the relatively rapid increase in lipid content to very high levels at fruit ripeness. Here, we report the development of a transcriptome-based 105,000-probe oil palm mesocarp microarray. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) assembly, along with the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and glycolysis pathway at 16 Weeks After Anthesis (WAA) exhibited significantly higher signals compared to those obtained from a cross-species hybridization to the Arabidopsis (p-value < 0.01), and rice (p-value < 0.01) arrays. The oil palm microarray data also showed comparable correlation of expression (r² = 0.569, p < 0.01) throughout mesocarp development to transcriptome (RNA sequencing) data, and improved correlation over quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) (r² = 0.721, p < 0.01) of the same RNA samples. The results confirm the advantage of the custom microarray over commercially available arrays derived from model species. We demonstrate the utility of this custom microarray to gain a better understanding of gene expression patterns in the oil palm mesocarp that may lead to increasing future oil yield.

  8. Black Immigrant Mothers in Palm Beach County, Florida, and Their Children's Readiness for School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Lauren; Spielberger, Julie; D'Angelo, Angela Valdovinos

    2012-01-01

    This report compares the circumstances and characteristics of Black immigrant mothers in Palm Beach County, Florida, to those of Latina immigrant and Black native-born mothers, focusing on those living in distressed areas. The study also compares the early developmental outcomes of their children. When controlling for parental and child…

  9. Supporting Low-Income Parents of Young Children: The Palm Beach County Family Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Rich, Lauren; Gouvea, Marcia; Winje, Carolyn; Scannell, Molly; Harden, Allen; Berg, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade, Florida's Palm Beach County has been building an infrastructure of prevention and early intervention services to promote and support the healthy development and school readiness of children from birth to age 8. The county began this effort with a set of programs focused on serving families in four targeted geographic areas…

  10. Processes of inclusion and adverse incorporation: oil palm and agrarian change in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, John

    2010-01-01

    Changes in globalised agriculture raise critical questions as rapid agricultural development leads to widespread social and environmental transformation. With increased global demand for vegetable oils and biofuel, in Indonesia the area under oil palm has doubled over the last decade. This paper presents a case study of how micro-processes that are linked to wider dynamics shape oil palm related agrarian change in villages in Sumatra, Indonesia. It pursues related questions regarding the impact of agribusiness-driven agriculture, the fate of smallholders experiencing contemporary agrarian transition, and the impact of increased demand for vegetable oils and biofuels on agrarian structures in Sumatra. It argues that the paths of agrarian change are highly uneven and depend on how changing livelihood strategies are enabled or constrained by economic, social and political relations that vary over time and space. In contrast to simplifying narratives of inclusion/exclusion, it argues that outcomes depend on the terms under which smallholders engage with oil palm. Distinguishing between exogenous processes of agribusiness expansion and endogenous commodity market expansion, it finds each is associated with characteristic processes of change. It concludes that the way successive policy interventions have worked with the specific characteristics of oil palm have cumulatively shaped the space where agrarian change occurs in Sumatra.

  11. Red palm oil as an intervention food to prevent vitamin A deficiency.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is an important cause of blindness. Red palm oil (RPO) is the richest food source of VA-forming carotenoids. We evaluated RPO carotenoid concentration and bioavailability, and used this data to estimate the amount of RPO needed to meet VA requirements. Amounts ranged fr...

  12. Development, characterisation, and across-taxa utility of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Billotte, N; Risterucci, A M; Barcelos, E; Noyer, J L; Amblard, P; Baurens, F C

    2001-06-01

    The results of the development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) microsatellite markers are given step by step, from the screening of libraries enriched in (GA)n, (GT)n, and (CCG)n simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) to the final characterisation of 21 SSR loci. Also published are primer sequences, estimates of allele size range, and expected heterozygosity in E. guineensis and in the closely related species E. oleifera, in which an optimal utility of the SSR markers was observed. Multivariate data analyses showed the ability of SSR markers to efficiently reveal the genetic-diversity structure of the genus Elaeis in accordance with known geographical origins and with measured genetic relationships based on previous molecular studies. High levels of allelic variability indicated that E. guineensis SSRs will be a powerful tool for genetic studies of the genus Elaeis, including variety identification and intra- or inter-specific genetic mapping. PCR amplification tests on a subset of 16 other palm species and allele-sequence data showed that E. guineensis SSRs are putative transferable markers across palm taxa. In addition, phenetic information based on SSR flanking region sequences makes E. guineensis SSR markers a potentially useful molecular resource for any researcher studying the phylogeny of palm taxa.

  13. Expression Comparison of Oil Biosynthesis Genes in Oil Palm Mesocarp Tissue Using Custom Array

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yick Ching; Kwong, Qi Bin; Lee, Heng Leng; Ong, Chuang Kee; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook Tim; Appleton, David R.; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression changes that occur during mesocarp development are a major research focus in oil palm research due to the economic importance of this tissue and the relatively rapid increase in lipid content to very high levels at fruit ripeness. Here, we report the development of a transcriptome-based 105,000-probe oil palm mesocarp microarray. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) assembly, along with the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and glycolysis pathway at 16 Weeks After Anthesis (WAA) exhibited significantly higher signals compared to those obtained from a cross-species hybridization to the Arabidopsis (p-value < 0.01), and rice (p-value < 0.01) arrays. The oil palm microarray data also showed comparable correlation of expression (r2 = 0.569, p < 0.01) throughout mesocarp development to transcriptome (RNA sequencing) data, and improved correlation over quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) (r2 = 0.721, p < 0.01) of the same RNA samples. The results confirm the advantage of the custom microarray over commercially available arrays derived from model species. We demonstrate the utility of this custom microarray to gain a better understanding of gene expression patterns in the oil palm mesocarp that may lead to increasing future oil yield. PMID:27600348

  14. Proteome Analysis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) under Severe Drought and Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Abulnaja, Khalid O.

    2016-01-01

    Date palm cultivars differently tolerate salinity and drought stress. This study was carried out to study the response of date palm to severe salinity and drought based on leaf proteome analysis. Eighteen-month-old date palm plants were subjected to severe salt (48 g/L NaCl) and drought (82.5 g/L PEG or no irrigation) conditions for one month. Using a protein 2D electrophoresis method, 55 protein spots were analyzed using mass spectrometry. ATP synthase CF1 alpha chains were significantly upregulated under all three stress conditions. Changes in the abundance of RubisCO activase and one of the RubisCO fragments were significant in the same spots only for salt stress and drought stress with no irrigation, and oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 was changed in different spots. Transketolase was significantly changed only in drought stress with PEG. The expression of salt and drought stress genes of the chosen protein spots was either overexpressed or downexpressed as revealed by the high or low protein abundance, respectively. In addition, all drought tolerance genes due to no irrigation were downregulated. In conclusion, the proteome analysis of date palm under salinity and drought conditions indicated that both salinity and drought tolerance genes were differentially expressed resulting in high or low protein abundance of the chosen protein spots as a result of exposure to drought and salinity stress condition. PMID:27840818

  15. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping.

  16. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia.

  17. Comparison of microcrystalline characterization results from oil palm midrib alpha cellulose using different delignization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliasmi, S.; Pardede, T. R.; Nerdy; Syahputra, H.

    2017-03-01

    Oil palm midrib is one of the waste generated by palm plants containing 34.89% cellulose. Cellulose has the potential to produce microcrystalline cellulose can be used as an excipient in tablet formulations by direct compression. Microcrystalline cellulose is the result of a controlled hydrolysis of alpha cellulose, so the alpha cellulose extraction process of oil palm midrib greatly affect the quality of the resulting microcrystalline cellulose. The purpose of this study was to compare the microcrystalline cellulose produced from alpha cellulose extracted from oil palm midrib by two different methods. Fisrt delignization method uses sodium hydroxide. Second method uses a mixture of nitric acid and sodium nitrite, and continued with sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite. Microcrystalline cellulose obtained by both method was characterized separately, including organoleptic test, color reagents test, dissolution test, pH test and determination of functional groups by FTIR. The results was compared with microcrystalline cellulose which has been available on the market. The characterization results showed that microcrystalline cellulose obtained by first method has the most similar characteristics to the microcrystalline cellulose available in the market.